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?aoa?ao

I?ioeann aeieacuaaiey

1. Iauea caeiiiia?iinoe i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey

Aeieacaiiia i?eia?aie ieeiaaea iaeuecy n/eoaoue iieiinoueth aeieacaiiui
(Aioo?eae Aeeueaaeuei Eaeaieoe).

Ii?aaeaeyy nouiinoue e oeaeue aeieacuaaiey, iu ioia/aee, /oi iie
caeeth/athony a onoaiiaeaiee enoeiu ii aeaeo, a iiciaiee ianoiyoaeuenoa,
ninoaaeythueo i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey. A yoii au?aaeaaony aiinaieiae/aneay
noi?iia aeieacuaaiey. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay aea, aeayoaeueiinoiay noi?iia
yoiai i?ioeanna caeeth/aaony a ?aaioa n aeieacaoaeuenoaaie: eo
niae?aiee, enneaaeiaaiee, ioeaiea e eniieueciaaiee. Yoe aeaenoaey
noauaeoa aeieacuaaiey ia?acotho yeaiaiou i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey.

I?aaeiaoii noaeaaiiai enneaaeiaaiey aunooiaao i?anooieaiea eae aeo
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eae niaoeeoe/aneia yaeaiea, onoaiiaeaiea
niaea?aeaiey eioi?iai ninoaaeyao iaeio ec caaea/ aeieacuaaiey.
Iineaaeiyy iiaeao auoue ?aoaia oieueei n iiiiuueth oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo i
i?anooieaiee, o.a. oie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii
ii?yaeea i?eciaia aeieacaoaeuenoaaie ii aeaeo.

Eioi?iaoeey i iaoaiecia i?anooieaiey e niioonoaothueo aio
ianoiyoaeuenoaao aicieeaao n iiiaioa oi?ie?iaaiey yoiai iaoaiecia e
iiiieiyaony a oa/aiea anaai a?aiaie aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Iia aicieeaao
iaecaaaeii, e nai i?ioeann aa aicieeiiaaiey iineo caeiiiia?iue oa?aeoa?.

Caeiiiia?iinoe aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee au?aaeathony e
aace?othony ia i?aaenoaaeaiee i anaiauiinoe naienoaa io?aaeaiey, oi?iu
i?iyaeaiey eioi?iai oai auoa e neiaeiaa, /ai auoa e neiaeiaa oi?ia
aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee.

Iau/ii io?aaeaiea ii?aaeaeyaony eae acaeiiaeaenoaea iaoa?eaeueiuo oae
eee eae ?acoeueoao yoiai acaeiiaeaenoaey. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iieiaa
ae?oaeo i?ioeann io?aaeaiey ii?aaeaeee I. Ei?ioi?o: “I?ioeann io?aaeaiey
aeeth/aao a naay oaeoth acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo aeaoiy iniauie
iaoa?eaeueiuie i?ioeannaie, i?e eioi?ie iniaaiiinoe ia?aiai i?ioeanna
aini?iecaiaeyony a niioaaonoaothueo iniaaiiinoyo aoi?iai”.

Iineieueeo io?aaeaiea anaiaua i?enoua anae iaoa?ee, anyeee iaoa?eaeueiue
i?ioeann io?aaeaaony a ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo i?ioeannao, naycaiiuo n
iei. Ec caeiia aeeaeaeoeee i acaeiinayce e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoe yaeaiee
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi acaeiinaycue i?e
io?aaeaiee anoue iaeia ec iaiaoiaeeiuo e oieaa?naeueiuo naycae
iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe: anee anyeee iaoa?eaeueiue i?ioeann
naycai iaiaoiaeeii n ae?oaeie i?ioeannaie – ia nouanoaoao eciee?iaaiiuo
yaeaiee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia nouanoaoao e i?eioeeieaeueii ia
io?aaeaaiuo yaeaiee.

Niauoea i?anooieaiey – iaeei ec iaoa?eaeueiuo i?ioeannia
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e eae oaeiaie ii iaoiaeeony a nayce e
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoe n ae?oaeie i?ioeannaie, niauoeyie e yaeaieyie,
io?aaeaaony a ieo e naii aunooiaao io?aaeaieai eaeeo-oi i?ioeannia.
“Anyeia niauoea, – ioia/aao A.E. Ei?theei, – naycaii n eciaiaieyie a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Eciaiaiey a n?aaea i?aaeoanoaotho ianooieaieth
niauoey, ianooieaiea niauoey, a naith i/a?aaeue, aucuaaao eciaiaiey a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea… Aeey oiai /oiau ociaoue i niauoee, iu aeieaeiu
auaeaeeoue naycaiiua n iei eciaiaiey. Naycue eciaiaiee n niauoeai
nouanoaoao iauaeoeaii”. Eciaiaiey a n?aaea, naycaiiua n niauoeai, anoue
?acoeueoao acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ieie, ?acoeueoao io?aaeaiey niauoey a
n?aaea. Oieueei ii iei iiaeii noaeeoue i niaea?aeaiee niauoey.
I?eiaieoaeueii e i?ioeanno aeieacuaaiey eciaiaiey a n?aaea eae
?acoeueoao io?aaeaiey a yoie n?aaea niauoey anoue eioi?iaoeey ia yoii
niauoee, oa naiua oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo oieueei e
iiaeii noaeeoue i niauoee i?anooieaiey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, nai i?ioeann
aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee anoue i?ioeann io?aaeaiey, a aa aicieeiiaaiea
– ?acoeueoao yoiai i?ioeanna. Iineieueeo aea ethaia niauoea i?anooieaiey
iaiaoiaeeii (eae e ethaie i?ioeann) io?aaeaaony a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea,
yeaiaioaie eioi?ie yaeythony ia oieueei aaue, i?aaeiaou, ii e ethaee, a
/ueai niciaiee io?aaeaaony niauoea i?anooieaiey, iinoieueeo e i?ioeann
aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee iineo iaiaoiaeeiue,
iiaoi?ythueeny, onoie/eaue e iauee oa?aeoa?, o.a. yaeyaony
caeiiiia?iinoueth. Caeiiiia?iinoue i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i
i?anooieaiee anoue iaeia ec iauaeoeaii nouanoaothueo i?aaeiinueie
onoaiiaeaiey enoeiu i?e aeieacuaaiee – eae i?iyaeaiey i?eioeeia
iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a.

Io?aaeaaiuie iauaeoaie a i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i
i?anooieaiee noaiiayony yeaiaiou i?anooieaiey. Iaeiaei ia ana iie
ea?atho iaeeiaeiaoth ?ieue a aeoa io?aaeaiey. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii
io?aaeaaiuie iauaeoaie neoaeao noauaeo e iauaeoeaiay noi?iia
i?anooieaiey. Noauaeo i?anooieaiey eae ee/iinoue io?aaeaaony /a?ac naie
naienoaa (eae i?iyaeaiea ee/iinoe) e /a?ac n?aaenoaa e niiniau
aeaenoaee; aeaenoaey (eee aacaeaenoaea) io?aaeathony /a?ac n?aaenoaa e
niiniau eo inouanoaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, naienoaa ee/iinoe, n?aaenoaa e
niiniau aeaenoaee aunooiatho eae n?aaenoaa io?aaeaiey, o.a. eae oi?iu
nayce iaaeaeo io?aaeaaiui e io?aaeathuei iauaeoaie.

A oaieiaii-i?aaiaii aniaeoa noauaeo i?anooieaiey i?iyaeyaony
(i?aaenoaaeyaony, ?ai?acaioe?oaony) oieueei /a?ac aeaenoaey, o.a. nai
io?aaeaaiui iauaeoii ia noaiiaeony. A e?eieiaeenoe/aneii aea aniaeoa,
eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia onoaiiaeaiee eiie?aoiiai /aeiaaea, niaa?oeaoaai
i?anooieaiea, iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue ana oi?iu au?aaeaiey ee/iinoe
aiaia, o.a. ia oieueei aai iiaaaeaiea, ii e aai naienoaa, ii io?aaeaieth
eioi?uo, iai?eia?, ia ie?oaeathuae ianoaiiaea iiaeii eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue
noauaeoa. Iiyoiio iu aeaeaa e ?anniao?eaaai noauaeoa eae
naiinoiyoaeueiue io?aaeaaiue iauaeo.

A neiaeiuo naycyo a aeoa aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i niauoee aunooiatho
e iauaeo i?anooieaiey, e iioea, e aai oeaeue, e aeia i?anooiieea.

Iauaeo i?anooieaiey (iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey), ia eioi?ue iinyaaao
i?anooiiee, ?ai?acaioe?oaony a aeoa io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeyie, ianoaiiaeie
aeaenoaee e i?aaeiaoii iinyaaoaeuenoaa, noauaeoeaiua aea iiiaiou –
aeaenoaeyie. Oaeei ia?acii, iie o/anoaotho a i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey
eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee iiin?aaeiaaiii: e /a?ac io?aaeaaiua e
io?aaeathuea iauaeou, e /a?ac n?aaenoaa io?aaeaiey.

Noaeeoue ii io?aaeaieth ia io?aaeaaiii, ii eioi?iaoeee – i i?anooieaiee
iiaeii oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee io?aaeaiea iaeaaeaao niaea?aeaoaeueiie
noi?iiie, anee naycue eciaiaiee n niauoeai iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue,
auyaeoue, iiiyoue ii niaea?aeaieth yoeo eciaiaiee. Niaea?aeaiea
eciaiaiee, eo oa?aeoa? anoue eioi?iaoeey ia yoeo eciaiaieyo. Iineaaeiea
ianoo a naaa naaaeaiey i oii, eaeiau iie, o.a. eioi?iaoeeth i anai
i?ioeanna io?aaeaiey, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai eciaiaiey noaiiayony, a
noaiiayony iie iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai, “o?aieeeuai” eioi?iaoeee i
niauoee.

Eioi?iaoeey eae ia?a nayce niauoey e aucaaiiuo yoei niauoeai eciaiaiee a
n?aaea ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac iaoa?eaeueiie iniiau, aia
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai neaiaea, iiae eioi?ui neaaeoao iiieiaoue aaeeinoai
iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey e n?aaenoaa ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eciaiaiey – yoi eioi?iaoeeiiiue neaiae, eiathuee naia
niaea?aeaiea (eioi?iaoeeth) e oi?io au?aaeaiey (eioi?iaoeeiiiue eiae).
Eioi?iaoeeiiiui eiaeii neoaeeo e /aeiaa/aneay ?a/ue (neiaaniue eiae).

A i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey eciaiaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiue neaiae iiaeao
aunooiaoue a i?aaeiaoiie (aauanoaaiiie) e iuneaiiie (ia?aciie) oi?iao.
Iaa oi?iu anoue ?aciiaeaeiinoe “ioia/aoeia” niauoey a n?aaea.

Iuneaiiay (ia?aciay) oi?ia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai neaiaea – noauaeoeaiay oi?ia
ineoe/aneiai io?aaeaiey.

Anee eciaiaiea n?aaeu yaeyaony iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai eioi?iaoeee, oi
naia yoa eioi?iaoeey iinea iaaeeaaeauae i?ioeannoaeueiie i?ioeaaeo?u
noaiiaeony aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie e ninoaaeyao niaea?aeaiea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Eioi?iaoeey, caeeth/aiiay a aeaiiii aeieacaoaeuenoaa,
aeaao ioaao ia aii?in i oii, /oi onoaiaaeeaaaony aeaiiui
aeieacaoaeuenoaii, /oi iii aeieacuaaao.

Iineieueeo n?aaea, a eioi?ie i?anooieaiea aucuaaao eciaiaiey, – yoi ia
ia/oi iiiieeoiia, ia iaeei iauaeo, a eiiieaen iauaeoia, i?ioeannia,
yaeaiee, oi io?aaeaiea i?anooieaiey, aai ioia/aoie niaea?aeeony ia ia
iaeiii io?aaeathuai iauaeoa, a ia eo eiiieaena. Eioi?iaoeey i niauoee
?ani?aaeaeaia, oaeei ia?acii, ii anai iauaeoai io?aaeathuaai eiiieaena,
o.a. ii anai aoaeouei aeieacaoaeuenoaai. Eaaeaeia ec ieo iiaeao
niaea?aeaoue oieueei ii?oeeth eioi?iaoeee, i?e/ai iauai
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, niaea?aeauaeny a eiie?aoiii
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei cia/eoaeueiu oa eciaiaiey
n?aaeu, eioi?ua iia au?aaeaao: yoe eciaiaiey oai aieueoa, /ai oaniaa
acaeiinaycue n aeaiiui eiie?aoiui io?aaeathuei iauaeoii io?aaeaaiiai
iauaeoa – noauaeoa eee aeaenoaee. Iiyoiio, iai?eia?, i?aaeiao
iinyaaoaeuenoaa niaea?aeeo cia/eoaeueiue iauai eioi?iaoeee i niauoee,
i?oaeea i?anooieaiey – oiaea, a, neaaeai, eioi?iaoeey i niauoee,
niaea?aeauayny a iieacaieyo naeaeaoaey, ia yaeythuaainy i/aaeaeoeai, –
aieaa neoaeia, eai nai yoio naeaeaoaeue iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia aini?eieiae
niauoey, o.a. a aeoa io?aaeaiey ia o/anoaiaae.

Niaieoiiinoue anae aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, a i?eioeeia,
aaeaeaaoia iieiiio io?aaeaieth i?anooieaiey. “A i?eioeeia”, iioiio /oi a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iieiiai io?aaeaiey auoue ia iiaeao. Aeaaea /enoi
oai?aoe/anee io?aaeaiea ia iiaeao auoue ?aaiui iiaeaee: eioi?iaoeey “ia
aoiaea” ia iiaeao eiee/anoaaiii niaiaaeaoue n eioi?iaoeeae “ia auoiaea”.
Aua iaiaa iieia ii n?aaiaieth n iiaeaeueth aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiay
eioi?iaoeey, noaaoay ecaanoiie neaaeiaaoaeth e noaeo, eai iauai yoie
eioi?iaoeee iaoneiaeai ia oieueei iieiioie io?aaeaiey, ii e oaie
aiciiaeiinoyie, eioi?uie iie iaeaaeatho, e ia?aie/aiiinoueth enoi/ieeia,
aeiioneaaiuo caeiiii.

I?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i niauoee, eae anyeee i?ioeann
io?aaeaiey, iineo neooaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?, o.a. caaeneo io oneiaee, a
eioi?uo ii i?ioaeaao, io neooaoeee. Neooaoeeiiiinoue i?ioeanna
aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i niauoee e aai o/anoieeao e iaoneiaeeaaao oi,
/oi oi?aaeythuea yoei i?ioeannii caeiiiia?iinoe i?iyaeythony eae
oaiaeaioeee (/oi aiiaua i?enoua i?iyaeaieth iauaeoeaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe). Noaiaiue inouanoaeaiey yoie oaiaeaioeee caaeneo io
eiie?aoiie ianoaiiaee. Eae ecaanoii, ioia?aaeaiea ia iiaeao
nouanoaiaaoue aac ioia?aaeaaiiai, ii ioia?aaeaaiia nouanoaoao iacaaeneii
io ioia?aaeathuaai, i?e/ai ioia?aaeaiea ieeiaaea ia iiaeao anaoeaei
n?aaiyoueny n ioia?aaeaaiui aeaaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ioia?aaeathuei
aunooiaao niciaiea /aeiaaea. Eiaiii iiyoiio iiaeii naaa i?aaenoaaeoue,
/oi a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo io?aaeaiea aoaeao ianoieueei iaiieiui,
eneaaeaiiui e o.i., /oi aicieeoay eioi?iaoeey i i?anooieaiee a naiae
niaieoiiinoe ia aeano iieiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?anooieaiee, aoaeao
iaaeinoaoi/iie aeey onoaiiaeaiey enoeiu ii aeaeo. Aiiaua aea iieiioa
io?aaeaiey a ?anniao?eaaaiii aniaeoa i?iyaeyaony eae aa aeinoaoi/iinoue
aeey ?aoaiey i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/ aeieacuaaiey: niaieoiiinoue aicieeoae e
iaia?oaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee iicaieyao n aeinoaoi/iie noaiaiueth oi/iinoe
onoaiiaeoue iauaeoeaioth enoeio ii aeaeo.

Io?aaeaiea eae ?acoeueoao acaeiinayce iauaeoia, o/anoaothueo a aeoa
io?aaeaiey, anoue eiia/iay oaca yoiai i?ioeanna. Eaeea aea eiie?aoii
caeiiiia?iinoe oi?aaeytho i?ioeannii aicieeiiaaiey io?aaeaiee, neaaeia
i?anooieaiee?

Ai-ia?auo, yoi caeiiiia?iay iiaoi?yaiinoue i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey
neaaeia niauoey. Iia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?e iaee/ee ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaee i?ioeann io?aaeaiey, a eoiaa eioi?iai aicieeatho neaaeu
i?anooieaiey e i?anooiieea, iaiaoiaeeii iiaoi?yaony. Iai?eia?, i?e
i?eeiniiaaiee ?oee e iiee?iaaiiie iiaa?oiinoe aicieeatho neaaeu
iaeueoeaa, i?e oiaeueaa ii iueueiiio iieo – neaaeu iia, i?e aini?eyoee
aiaoiinoe i?anooiieea – aai iuneaiiue ia?ac a niciaiee iaaethaeaoaey e
o.i. E neieueei ?ac aoaeoo iiaoi?youeny yoe aeaenoaey, noieueei aea ?ac
i?e niioaaonoaothueo oneiaeyo n iaiaoiaeeiie caeiiiia?iinoueth aoaeao
iiaoi?youeny oaeo aicieeiiaaiey niioaaonoaothueo neaaeia-io?aaeaiee.

Ai-aoi?uo, yoi eiaeea nayce iaaeaeo aeaenoaeyie i?anooiieea e
ianooieaieai i?anooiiiai ?acoeueoaoa, eioi?ue aoaeao yaeyoueny
aeieacaoaeuenoaii ii aeaeo. Yoi icia/aao, /oi i?anooiiue ?acoeueoao
aeieacuaaao iaee/ea i?anooiiiai aeayiey e aai oa?aeoa?, /oi
caeiiiia?iinoue ianooieaiey aeaiiiai i?anooiiiai ?acoeueoaoa iicaieyao
ioi?aaeyoueny io iaai e aeieacuaaaiiio niauoeth.

A-o?aoueeo, yoi caeiiiia?iinoue nayce iaaeaeo niiniaii niaa?oaiey
i?anooieaiey e neaaeaie i?eiaiaiey yoiai niiniaa, o.a. aiciiaeiinoue,
enoiaey ec ciaiey niiniaa niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, noaeeoue i oao
neaaeao i?anooieaiey, eioi?ua iaecaaaeii aicieeatho i?e niaa?oaiee
i?anooieaiey aeaiiui niiniaii; caeiiiia?iinoue aicieeiiaaiey eiaiii
oaeeo neaaeia, a ia eiuo, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, oa?aeoa?iu aeey
ae?oaiai niiniaa niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey.

A-/aoaa?ouo, yoi caeiiiia?iay caaeneiinoue auai?a niiniaa niaa?oaiey
i?anooieaiey io eiie?aoiuo, ecaanoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa noauaeoeaiiai e
iauaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a, caaeneiinoue, iicaieythuay, ioi?aaeyynue io
niiniaa, onoaiaaeeaaoue yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa, e iaiai?io, ii
ianoiyoaeuenoaai, ii?aaeaeythuei auai? niiniaa e aunooiathuei a ea/anoaa
aeieacaoaeuenoa ii aeaeo, noaeeoue i niiniaa i?anooieaiey.

Niinia i?anooieaiey ia neo/aeii ea?aao oaeoth aaaeioth ?ieue a i?ioeanna
aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee e i?anooiieea. Niinia
i?anooieaiey, iiieiaaiue eae nenoaia aeaenoaee ii iiaeaioiaea,
niaa?oaieth e nie?uoeth i?anooieaiey, aoaeo/e a oeaeii io?aaeaaiui
iauaeoii, yeaiaioii iauaeoeaiie noi?iiu i?anooieaiey, a oi aea a?aiy
naieie ninoaaeythueie (aeaenoaey, n?aaenoaa aeaenoaee) neoaeeo
n?aaenoaii io?aaeaiey a n?aaea niauoey i?anooieaiey e ea/anoa
niaa?oeaoae aai ee/iinoe.

Iaeiaaeaeu aicieeioa, eioi?iaoeey i i?anooieaiee e i?anooiieea
noaiiaeony iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuei yaeaieai iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, e aai
nouanoaiaaiea, eae e nouanoaiaaiea ethaiai yaeaiey, iaoneiaeaii
iauaeoeaiuie caeiiiia?iinoyie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Eciaiaiey n?aaeu, aoaeo/e io?aaeaieai niauoey i?anooieaiey, ?acoeueoaoii
acaeiinayce iauaeoia, o/anoaothueo a aeoa io?aaeaiey, anoue eiia/iay
oaca yoiai i?ioeanna. Ii aeeaeaeoe/anee oaea a oio iiiaio, eiaaea
i?ioeann io?aaeaiey caaa?oai e aiciee “ioia/aoie” io?aaeaaiiai iauaeoa,
ia/eiaaony i?ioeaiiieiaeiue i?ioeann – oie/oiaeaiea, “niyoea”,
“io?eoeaiea” io?aaeaiey. Yoi i?ioeann en/aciiaaiey eioi?iaoeee iiae
aeeyieai iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia, i?ioeann oaeie aea
anoanoaaiiue, eae e aa aicieeiiaaiea. Aaeeinoai i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
i?ioeannia aicieeiiaaiey e oie/oiaeaiey eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee e
i?anooiieea eae yaeaiee iaeiie e oie aea n?aaeu io?aaeaao iaee/ea
i?ioeai?a/eauo nee e oaiaeaioeee ai anyeii yaeaiee, aaeeinoai e ai?ueao
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae.

Oioy i?ioeann oie/oiaeaiey, ?annaeaaiey eioi?iaoeee ia/eiaaony
iaeiia?aiaiii n caaa?oaieai i?ioeanna aa aicieeiiaaiey, a oa/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie eciaiaiey n?aaeu iauaeoeaii
nouanoaotho, o.a. nio?aiytho a iaiaoiaeeiii iauaia naie naienoaa
iineoaeae aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Ii iiaieth A.A. Eieiiaoeeiai
(1973), yoio io?acie a?aiaie (n iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey io?aaeaiey e aei
iiiaioa oaeie oo?aou ei aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay
aeaeaao iaaiciiaeiui aai eniieueciaaiea a aeieacuaaiee) iiaeao auoue
ii?aaeaeai eae ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i niauoee.
Nouanoaiaaiea eioi?iaoeee, eiathuae aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea,
iaoneiaeaii aeaenoaeai ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae, iaeaieaa iaueie ec
eioi?uo, ii aai iiaieth, yaeythony neaaeothuea.

1. Aeieacaoaeuenoaa, aicieeathuea eae ?acoeueoao io?aaeaiey (eiathony a
aeaeo, ?acoiaaony, aoaeouea aeieacaoaeuenoaa), nouanoaotho a ?acaeoee,
oa?aeoa? eioi?iai iaoneiaeai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, eo eiiaiaioiuie
naienoaaie, a n ae?oaie – acaeiiaeaenoaeai ni n?aaeie.

2. Aeieacaoaeuenoai eae ?acoeueoao ia?ae/iiai io?aaeaiey nouanoaoao
noieueei, neieueei nouanoaoao io?aaeathuee iauaeo.

3. Eaaeaeia aeieacaoaeuenoai nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie
a?aiaie (io aicieeiiaaiey aei oie/oiaeaiey), aaniethoiay aaee/eia
eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyaony naienoaaie naiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa e
aicaeaenoaeai n?aaeu:

– i?e iaeeiaeiaii oa?aeoa?a aicaeaenoaey n?aaeu a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa ?aciuo aeaeia ii?aaeaeyaony eiiaiaioiuie naienoaaie
eaaeaeiai aeaea io?aaeathuaai iauaeoa;

– i?eiaieoaeueii e naienoaai aeaiiiai aeaea aeieacaoaeuenoa oa?aeoa?
aicaeaenoaey n?aaeu iiaeao auoue iieiaeeoaeueiui, iaeo?aeueiui eee
io?eoeaoaeueiui;

– aeey aeieacaoaeuenoa aeaiiiai ?iaea, aeaea, eeanna eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?a
aicaeaenoaey n?aaeu aucuaaao aaeaeaaoiua eciaiaiey a?aiaie
nouanoaiaaiey.

4. A?aiy nouanoaiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaeao auoue i?iaeeaii ca n/ao
iineaaeothueo io?aaeaiee (aoi?e/iiai, o?aoe/iiai e o.ae.), ii i?e
eaaeaeii iineaaeothuai io?aaeaiee iaecaaaeia iioa?y ii?aaeaeaiiiai
eiee/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, i?e/ai iioa?y eioi?iaoeee
aoaeao oai aieueoae, /ai aieueoa aoaeao ioee/ea a oa?aeoa?a ia?ae/iiai e
iineaaeothueo io?aaeaiee.

A yoe iieiaeaiey neaaeoao aianoe iaeioi?ua ei??aeoeau.

Ia anyeia io?aaeaiea nouanoaoao noieueei, neieueei nouanoaoao
io?aaeathuee iauaeo. Oae, niciaiea /aeiaaea, aoaeo/e io?aaeathuei
iauaeoii, i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue e iinea en/aciiaaiey ec iaiyoe
/aeiaaea iuneaiiiai ia?aca io?aaeaiey iauaeoa, ia aaca eioi?iai
oi?ie?othony iieacaiey. Ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo neo/ayo io?aaeathuee iauaeo
i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue, a oi a?aiy eae aai
“naienoaa-aeieacaoaeuenoaa” en/acee.

I?e iaeeiaeiaii oa?aeoa?a aicaeaenoaey n?aaeu a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey
io?aaeaiee ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei eiiaiaioiuie naienoaaie eaaeaeiai
aeaea io?aaeathuaai iauaeoa, ii e naiei oa?aeoa?ii io?aaeaiey. ?acee/iua
io?aaeaiey i?e iaeiii e oii aea aicaeaenoaee n?aaeu ia iauaeou-iineoaee
iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue ?aciia a?aiy, aeaaea anee yoe iauaeou-iineoaee
i?eiaaeeaaeao ia e ?aciui, a e iaeiiio aeaeo. Oi/ii oae aea e ?acee/iue
oa?aeoa? aicaeaenoaey n?aaeu aua ia iaoneiaeeaaao aaniethoii ?acee/iiai
a?aiaie nouanoaiaaiey ?acee/iuo io?aaeaiee.

Oaca nouanoaiaaiey io?aaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony iai?a?uaiui oauaaieai,
en/aciiaaieai niaea?aeauaeny a iai eioi?iaoeee. En/aciiaaiea io?aaeaiey
iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ii-?aciiio.

Ioia?aaeaaiue iauaeo aicaeaenoaoao ia io?aaeathuee a oa/aiea eaeiai-oi
i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie. N ia/aea aicaeaenoaey e aei aai ieii/aiey eaeao
i?ioeann eciaiaiey io?aaeathuaai iauaeoa. Eiia/iay oaca io?aaeaiey
oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?ae?auaieai oaeiai aicaeaenoaey. Iinea yoiai
io?aaeathuee iauaeo iiaeao aa?iooueny a naia i?aaeiaa ninoiyiea,
eciaiaiey, aicieeoea a iai, en/acioo, i?iecieaeao “niyoea” io?aaeaiey.
Oae, io?aaeaiea a iaiyoe aini?eiyoiai iauaeoa iinoaiaiii noe?aaony,
eaeao i?ioeann caauaaiey caia/aoeaiiiai, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi
ia?ac aai en/acaao, io?aaeaiea “nieiaaony”.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, io?aaeaiey iiaoo en/aciooue, ai-ia?auo, iiae aeeyieai
oao naienoa, eioi?ua aioo?aiia i?enoue eo iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaa;
ai-aoi?uo, iiae aeeyieai aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee iauaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a.
Oaeiauie iiaoo auoue iiaua eciaiaiey, iaeeaaeuaathueany ia i?aaeiea a
?acoeueoaoa ae?oaiai aeoa io?aaeaiey, iai?eia? neaae oeiu iaoeiu,
i?iaoaaoae ii inoaaoaiony ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey neaaeo iiae i?anooiieea.
Io?aaeaiea iiaeao auoue oie/oiaeaii aicaeaenoaeai i?e?iaeiuo nee e o.i.

Iaeiiaoe, a-o?aoueeo, io?aaeaiey iiaoo auoue oiuoeaiii oie/oiaeaiu
caeioa?aniaaiiuie eeoeaie, iai?eia? i?anooiieeii. Oaeia aicaeaenoaea,
noauaeoeaiia ii i?e?iaea, iiaeao caeeth/aoueny oaeaea a iaeiaeaiee ia
io?aaeaiea iiauo eciaiaiee, iai?eia? iaoaie/aneii oie/oiaeaiee
iaeueoeaauo ioia/aoeia eee neaaeia iaoae, eciaiaiee ianoaiiaee ia ianoa
i?ienoanoaey, ia?aaeaeea iioeuaiiuo aauae e o.i. A nouiinoe, anyeia
nie?uoea i?anooieaiey naycaii n iiaeiaiuie eciaiaieyie.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiii aniaeoa i?ioeann oie/oiaeaiey io?aaeaiee i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie i?ioeann ?annaeaaiey eioi?iaoeee eee oaeie aa ia?aeiaee?iaee,
eioi?ay i?e aeaiiii o?iaia ?acaeoey n?aaenoa iiciaiey eioi?iaoeee aua
iaaeinooiia aeey niuneiaie eioa?i?aoaoeee. N aiinaieiae/aneie oi/ee
c?aiey, oie/oiaeaiea io?aaeaiee anoue “io?eoeaiea io?eoeaiey”: anee naii
io?aaeaiea eae eciaiaiea n?aaeu aunooiaao a ea/anoaa io?eoeaiey aa
enoiaeiiai ninoiyiey, oi oie/oiaeaiea eciaiaiey, io?aaeaiey “io?eoeaao”
yoi io?eoeaiea, /oi aiana ia icia/aao iaycaoaeueiiai aica?auaiey n?aaeu
a enoiaeiia ninoiyiea. Ii ioiioaieth e naiaio ia?aiia/aeueiiio
ninoiyieth n?aaea iiae aeeyieai nia/aea i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey, a iioii
oie/oiaeaiey io?aaeaiee iiaeao ea/anoaaiii i?aia?aceoueny. Oae, anee ia
a?oioa ia?aiia/aeueii auee inoaaeaiu aaeaaeaiiua neaaeu iaoae, a caoai
iie auee oie/oiaeaiu ia?aeaiuaaieai a?oioa eiiaoie, oi a eiia/iii n/aoa
ninoiyiea a?oioa iinea yoeo i?ioeannia noaei eiui, iaaeaee aei iiyaeaiey
yoeo neaaeia.

Eaaeaeue aeo aicieeiiaaiey eee en/aciiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee e
i?anooiieea, eae iaiaoiaeeiue, ianao a naaa yeaiaiou, iauea aeey anao
iiaeiaiuo i?ioeannia, i?ioaeathueo a aeaiiie neooaoeee, e yoi iauaa
icia/aao aiciiaeiinoue auyaeaiey oeie/iiai aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeee
?acaeoey yoeo i?ioeannia, eo iaoaieciia. Noaiiaeony i?eioeeieaeueii
aiciiaeiui ii?aaeaeaiea e?oaa neooaoeeiiii oeie/iuo io?aaeaaiuo e
io?aaeathueo iauaeoia, n?aaenoa io?aaeaiey e, /oi iniaaiii aaaeii,
?acoeueoaoia io?aaeaiey, o.a. aiciiaeiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa.

Ii?aaeaeaiea e?oaa e niaea?aeaiey neooaoeeiiii oeie/iuo i?ioeannia
aicieeiiaaiey e en/aciiaaiey io?aaeaiee niauoey e naieo yoeo io?aaeaiee
noaiiaeony iniiaie aeey ?ac?aaioee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oeie/iui aeey oaeeo
neooaoeee aeaenoaeyi noauaeoa aeieacuaaiey. Oae aicieeatho iaiaoiaeeiua
i?aaeiinueee aeey iao/iie ?ac?aaioee e?eieiaeenoe/aneiai aniaeoa
i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey.

Caeiiiia?iinoe aicieeiiaaiey, nouanoaiaaiey e en/aciiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i
i?anooieaiee e i?anooiieea aunooiatho aaciauie ii ioiioaieth ei aoi?ie
a?oiia iauaeoeaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae – caeiiiia?iinoyi aeieacuaaiey,
?aaiou noauaeoa aeieacuaaiey n aeieacaoaeuenoaaie.

Eae anyeia iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuaa yaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a,
aeieacaoaeuenoai a i?eioeeia anaaaea iiaeao auoue iaia?oaeaii noauaeoii
aeieacuaaiey. Aiciiaeiinoue iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa, eo niae?aiey –
iaeia ec caeiiiia?iinoae iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iaeia ec
caeiiiia?iinoae i?eioeeieaeueiie iiciaaaaiinoe yoie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
io?aaeaiey aa noauaeoii aeieacuaaiey.

Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue ionooieaiea, /oiau iiynieoue neaaeothuaa.

Oi/ii oae aea, eae i?e niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiey, aicieeatho, no?iai
aiai?y, ia aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ii eioi?iaoeey i i?anooieaiee e
i?anooiieea, eioi?ay iiaeao i?eia?anoe, a iiaeao e ia i?eia?anoe a neeo
oao eee eiuo i?e/ei cia/aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa, oae e i?e niae?aiee
aeieacaoaeuenoa ?a/ue eaeao oaeoe/anee i niae?aiee eioi?iaoeee i
i?anooieaiee e i?anooiieea, eioi?ay, aoaeo/e enneaaeiaaia e ioeaiaia
noauaeoii aeieacuaaiey, iiaeao iieo/eoue noaoon aeieacaoaeuenoaa.
Iaeiaei caeii a aeaiiii neo/aa aiai?eo oaea i niae?aiee aeieacaoaeuenoa,
oioy ec oaenoa no. 86 OIE ?O i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i
“aoaeoueo” aeieacaoaeuenoaao (o.a. ia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay iiaeao eiaoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea). A yoii oaaaeaeaao e niiinoaaeaiea,
iai?eia?, no. 177 e 81 OIE ?O: a ia?aie eaeao ?a/ue i i?aaeiaoao,
iaia?oaeaiiuo i?e iniio?a, eioi?ua aua ia eiaiothony aauanoaaiiuie
aeieacaoaeuenoaaie, oioy iniio? aoiaeeo a /enei neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee,
oeao?e?othueo a /. 1 no. 86 eae niiniau niae?aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa; ai
aoi?ie – i i?ioeannoaeueiie i?ioeaaeo?a i?eaeaiey yoei i?aaeiaoai
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiiai cia/aiey eae aauanoaaiiui aeieacaoaeuenoaai.
?oeiaiaenoaoynue aeaiiuie niia?aaeaieyie, i?e aeaeueiaeoai eceiaeaiee iu
oaeaea aoaeai oiio?aaeyoue oa?iei “aeieacaoaeuenoai”, i?eaeaaay aio a
eiioaenoa cia/aiea e “aoaeouaai” aeieacaoaeuenoaa, e aeieacaoaeuenoaa a
i?ioeannoaeueiii niunea neiaa.

Iaia?oaeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – yoi eo iiene, auyaeaiea, ia?auaiea
aieiaiey ia oa eee eiua oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea. Eae anyeay aeayoaeueiinoue, aace?othuayny
ia ciaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae (a aeaiiii neo/aa ia ciaiee
caeiiiia?iinoae i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey eneiiiai), iiene aeieacaoaeuenoa
yaeyaony aeayoaeueiinoueth niciaoaeueiie e oeaeaono?aieaiiie;
yooaeoeaiinoue aa iaoneiaeaia naiie aiciiaeiinoueth iaia?oaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa.

Ii?aaeaeaiea e?oaa neooaoeeiiii oeie/iuo aeieacaoaeuenoa ia aaca
caeiiiia?iinoae eo aicieeiiaaiey nicaeaao iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee e eo
?aniiciaieth a oie n?aaea, aaea iie iaoiaeyony. “Ioia/aoie”, io?aaeaiea
i?anooieaiey au/eaiyaony ec n?aaeu, ioaeaeyaony io io?aaeathuaai iauaeoa
eae iineoaey yoiai io?aaeaiey. Noaiiaeony, a i?eioeeia, aiciiaeiui ec
iiiaiia?acey yaeaiee, i?ioeannia iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia
iniiaa iiciaiey caeiiiia?iinoae io?aaeaiey auaeaeeoue oieueei oa
yaeaiey, oaeou, eioi?ua iiaoo noaoue aeieacaoaeuenoaaie, ?acoeueoaoii
aeoa io?aaeaiey, o.a. iaoiaeyony a iaiaoiaeeiie nayce n i?anooieaieai.
Aiciiaeiinoue iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa noaiiaeony
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth, caeiiiia?iui yaeaieai, eai i?eia?aoaao
iaiaoiaeeiue, iiaoi?ythuaeny, onoie/eaue e anaiauee oa?aeoa?. Ii e yoa
caeiiiia?iinoue, eae e anyeay iauaeoeaiay caeiiiia?iinoue, i?iyaeyaony
eae oaiaeaioeey, o.a. i?ieeaaeuaaao naaa iooue /a?ac neo/aeiua
ionooieaiey io iaa, eiaaea a neeo oao eee eiuo iauaeoeaiuo eee
noauaeoeaiuo iiiaioia aeieacaoaeuenoaa inoathony iaiaia?oaeaiiuie,
ianiio?y ia iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuoth aiciiaeiinoue eo iaia?oaeaiey ai
anao neo/ayo.

A eaeeo aea neo/ayo caeiiiia?iinoue iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaeao
ia ?aaeeciaaoueny, inoaoueny oieueei aiciiaeiinoueth? ?anniio?ei eo ii
ii?yaeeo.

1. I?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa iiae aeeyieai oao eee eiuo
oneiaee nai iinee neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?. Neo/aeiinoue anoue i?iyaeaiea
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, ii eaeie iaiaoiaeeiinoe? Ii ioiioaieth e ?anniao?eaaaiie
caeiiiia?iinoe, o.a. iaiaoiaeeiinoe, neo/aeiinoue iiaeao auoue
“niaa?oaiii iinoi?iiiae, /oaeie neeie, inoaaaynue a oi aea a?aiy oi?iie
au?aaeaiey ae?oaie iaiaoiaeeiinoe”.

Iu oaea ioia/aee, /oi anyeay caeiiiia?iinoue, a oii /enea e
caeiiiia?iinoue iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa, i?iyaeyao naay eae
oaiaeaioeey. Ni?aaaaeeeai caia/aao I.A. Ieeeiaiei, /oi neo/aeiinoue –
“yoi eaoaai?ey aeey io?aaeaiey, a iniiaiii, aaeeie/iiai,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai”. Oae aio, eiaiii a neeo oiai, /oi i?ioeann
aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee e i?anooiieea aaeeie/ai, eae
aaeeie/ii niauoea i?anooieaiey, e eae iii – eiaeeaeaeoaeai, ii iiaeao
i?ioaeaoue ni neo/aeiuie ionooieaieyie io iau/iiai oa/aiey yoiai
i?ioeanna – ni neo/aeiuie aeey aeaiiiai i?ioeanna, o.a. ii ae?oaei
caeiiiia?iinoyi, caeiiiia?iinoue iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaeao ia
i?iyaeoueny, inoaoueny oieueei iioaioeeaeueiie aiciiaeiinoueth. Eiuie
neiaaie, i?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i niauoee aeaeieciaiyaony
eee iaeo?aeecoaony aeaenoaeai eiie caeiiiia?iinoe, ioiinyuaeny e
ae?oaiio yaeaieth eee i?ioeanno. Oaeia ia?ana/aiea aeaoo i?ioeannia e eo
caeiiiia?iinoae e aoaeao neo/aeiinoueth, i eioi?ie eaeao ?a/ue.

2. “Ioia/aoee” niauoey auee oie/oiaeaiu: eciaiaiey a n?aaea en/acee e
iiyoiio aeo eo au/eaiaiey ec n?aaeu noae iaaiciiaeiui. Caiaoei i?e yoii,
/oi oaea naii ciaiea oneiaee, i?e eioi?uo caeiiiia?iinoue iaia?oaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa “ia aeaenoaoao”, ciaiea eneeth/aiee ec i?aaeea
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa? aeaiiie caeiiiia?iinoe,
anaiauiinoue e iiaoi?yaiinoue aa i?iyaeaiee.

Iaia?oaeaiu iiaoo auoue oieueei oa aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua niaea?aeao
iiaeaeathuothny niuneiaie eioa?i?aoaoeee eioi?iaoeeth, o.a. oa, niune
eioi?uo iiaeao auoue iiiyo, ?anoeo?iaai n iiiiuueth nouanoaothueo ia
aeaiiii o?iaia ciaiey n?aaenoa aeaeiaee?iaaiey. *ai oe?a e?oa oaeeo
n?aaenoa, aeinooiiuo, ecaanoiuo noauaeoo aeieacuaaiey, oai oe?a e?oa
iaia?oaeeaaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. Niaea?aeauaeny a ieo e iiiyoiie aeey
noauaeoa eioi?iaoeeae aeieacaoaeuenoaa eae au “cayaeytho” i naiai
nouanoaiaaiee e ianoiiaoiaeaeaiee. Aac oaeiai eioi?iaoeaiiai naienoaa,
i?enouaai iaoa?eaeueiui e eaeaaeueiui neaaeai niauoey, eo iaia?oaeaiea e
eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoa auei au iaaiciiaeiui.

Noauaeoeaiuie oaeoi?aie, eioi?ua niinianoaotho i?aa?auaieth iauaeoeaii
nouanoaothuae aiciiaeiinoe iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue eo iaia?oaeaiey, yaeythony:

– ciaiea noauaeoii aeieacuaaiey iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae aicieeiiaaiey
eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee e i?anooiieea;

– ciaiea ei neooaoeeiiiuo iniaaiiinoae iaoaiecia aicieeiiaaiey yoie
eioi?iaoeee;

– ciaiea oiai, /oi iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie a aeaiiie neooaoeee
aeieacaoaeuenoai, ii e?aeiae ia?a, eae oeie/iia, iauaa (iaeei e oio aea
iauaeo a caaeneiinoe io neooaoeee iiaeao eiaoue e ia eiaoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiiai cia/aiey, iiyoiio aai “naienoai
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiinoe” naii eiaao neooaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? e noaiiaeony
i?iyaeaieai ii?aaeaeaiiie oaiaeaioeee);

– ciaiea i?eaiia e n?aaenoa iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa e oiaiea
i?eiaiyoue yoe i?eaiu e n?aaenoaa;

– iaeaaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuie noauaeoeaiuie ea/anoaaie
(iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue, aieiaiea, oa?iaeeainoue, niiniaiinoue eiae/anee
iuneeoue e o.i.).

?ieue niaoeeaeenoa, o/anoaothuaai a i?ioeanna iaia?oaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa, eae ?ac e caeeth/aaony a ainiieiaiee naieie
noauaeoeaiuie ea/anoaaie – ciaieai e oiaieai – noauaeoeaiuo ea/anoa
eeoea, inouanoaeythuaai niae?aiea aeieacaoaeuenoa.

Iineieueeo caeiiiia?iinoe iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa ia?ac?uaii
naycaiu n caeiiiia?iinoyie aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee e
i?anooiieea, a iineaaeiea, eae auei neacaii, i?iyaeythony neooaoeeiiii,
a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee, caeiiiia?iinoe iaia?oaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa oiaea i?iyaeythony eae neooaoeeiiiua. Neooaoeey
ii?aaeaeyao iniaaiiinoe i?ioeanna iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa.
Noiaenoai aea ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeee iaaeaeo niaie, iiaoi?yaiinoue eo
iaueo /a?o, caeiiiia?iinoue, o.a. iiaoi?yaiinoue i?ioeannia iaia?oaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa, nicaeatho oneiaey aeey a?oiie?iaaiey e iaiauaiey yoeo
i?ioeannia, aeey eo oeiecaoeee. Oeiecaoeey i?ioeannia iaia?oaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa icia/aao iiciaiea oi?aaeythueo eie caeiiiia?iinoae.

2. Oacu i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey

Eoi iai?aaeeueii canoaaioe ia?aoth ioaiaeoeo, oaea ia canoaaiaony eae
neaaeoao (Eiaaii Aieueoaaia Aaoa).

Aeieacuaaiea eae niaoeeoe/aneay iiciaaaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue anoue a
eiia/iii n/aoa iia?e?iaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoaaie. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii,
/oi iaia?oaeaiea, niae?aiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – oieueei iaeei ec yeaiaioia
yoie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeey oiai /oiau nia?aiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa iiaeii
auei i?eiaieoue eae n?aaenoaa onoaiiaeaiey enoeiu, eo iaiaoiaeeii
enneaaeiaaoue, ioeaieoue e oieueei iinea yoiai eniieueciaaoue aeey
oeaeae noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

Naiiio i?ioeanno aeieacuaaiey iinayuaia eeoue aanueia e?aoeay, aeaaea
noaiaoe/iay no. 85 OIE ?O: Aeieacuaaiea ninoieo a niae?aiee, i?iaa?ea e
ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa a oeaeyo onoaiiaeaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo noaoueae 73 ianoiyuaai Eiaeaena (o.a. aoiaeyueo a
i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey). Iiiyoii, /oi aeey i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeae yoiai
niaa?oaiii iaaeinoaoi/ii, e ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou – ninoaaiua /anoe
i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey – ioaeaeathony a aieaa iiae?iaiii iienaiee e
enneaaeiaaiee.

Caaeaaeeiny aia/aea aii?inii, a eaeii ioiioaiee iaoiaeyony yoe ninoaaiua
/anoe i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey ae?oa e ae?oao e e naiiio i?ioeanno
aeieacuaaiey.

Ia iao acaeyae, oei?aieaoaany a eeoa?aoo?a (a oii /enea e o/aaiie)
au?aaeaiea “yoaiu i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey” iaoiaeieiae/anee iaaa?ii. Eae
i?aaeeueii ioia/aao A.A. Oiu?ia, “niae?aiea, i?iaa?eo e ioeaieo
aeieacaoaeuenoa iaeuecy i?aaenoaaeyoue ie eae naiinoiyoaeueiua io?acee
i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey, ie eae iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiythuea ae?oa ae?oaa
i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie: iie ia ioaeaeaiu ae?oa io ae?oaa ai a?aiaie, a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ia?aieaoaaony eo niaea?aeaiea. Oae, oaea i?e
iaia?oaeaiee oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo neaaeiaaoaeue e noae ii?aaeaeytho
ioiineiinoue eo e aeaeo e aiciiaeiia eo cia/aiea, o.a. i?iecaiaeyo eo
ioeaieo; niiinoaaeyy a oiaea i?iaa?ee iieo/aiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa n oaea
eiathueieny, i?iecaiaey eo aiaeec, noauaeou aeieacuaaiey ?aoatho aii?in
i aeinoiaa?iinoe yoeo aeaiiuo, o.a. iiyoue-oaee ioeaieaatho eo. Oaeei
ia?acii, niae?aiea, i?iaa?ea e ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa yaeythony eiaiii
ninoaaiuie yeaiaioaie i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey, ii ia naiinoiyoaeueiuie
aai yoaiaie”.

A iauai, iaiiiaei eo/oa e oa?iei “noaaeee i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey”. A oi
aea a?aiy oa?iei “yeaiaiou i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey” iaaeinoaoi/ii
eiie?aoai.

Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iaeaieaa oaea/ii io?aaeaao naiaia?acea yoeo
ninoaaiuo /anoae oa?iei “oacu i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey”, iiae/a?eeaathuee
eo oaniia ia?aieaoaiea e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue, aiciiaeioth
iaeiia?aiaiiinoue e ninouanoaiaaiea, a oaeaea eiiieaeniinoue,
iiiaianiaeoiinoue naiiai i?ioeanna.

I?ioeann aeieacuaaiey – yoi i?iecaiaeeiua a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii
ii?yaeea niae?aiea, i?iaa?ea e ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa e eniieueciaaiea
eo n oeaeueth aeinoiaa?iiai onoaiiaeaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa oaieiaiiai
aeaea. I?ioeann aeieacuaaiey iauaaeeiyao i?aeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue
ii i?iecaiaenoao neaaenoaaiiuo e noaeaaiuo aeaenoaee ii niae?aieth e
enneaaeiaaieth aeieacaoaeuenoa, e oinoaaiioth, eiae/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiioth ia iienee aeieacaoaeuenoa, eo
e?eoe/aneoth i?iaa?eo e ioeaieo. Iaa yoe noi?iiu i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey
iaiaoiaeeiu, aaeeiu e iiaoo ?acaeaeyoueny eeoue eneonnoaaiii. I?ioeann
aeieacuaaiey eiaao oeaeueth iieo/aiea aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey, o.a. ii
aeieaeai i?eaanoe e oaeei ?acoeueoaoai, eiaaea auaiaeu ii aeaeo aoaeoo
ia oieueei enoeiiuie, ii e iainiiaaiiuie, aeieacaiiuie.

A ea/anoaa /aou?ao iniiaiuo oac i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey iu aoaeai aeaeaa
?anniao?eaaoue niae?aiea, enneaaeiaaiea (i?iaa?eo), ioeaieo e
eniieueciaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa. Aeaeaa iu ieaie?oai iinayoeoue oeacaiiui
oacai i?ioeanna ianeieueei niaoeeaeueiuo aeaa, caeanue aea iiea
ia?aie/einy ianeieueeeie aaiaeiuie caia/aieyie.

Iaia?oaeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – yoi eo iiene, auyaeaiea, auaeaeaiea oao
eee eiuo oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia
cia/aiea. Eae anyeay aeayoaeueiinoue, aace?othuayny ia ciaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae, iiene aeieacaoaeuenoa noaiiaeony
aeayoaeueiinoueth niciaoaeueiie e oeaeaono?aieaiiie; yooaeoeaiinoue aa
iaoneiaeaia naiie aiciiaeiinoueth iaia?oaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa.

I?iaa?ea aeieacaoaeuenoa i?iecaiaeeony aeiciaaaoaeai, neaaeiaaoaeai,
i?ieo?i?ii, noaeii iooai niiinoaaeaiey eo n ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie,
eiathueieny a oaieiaiii aeaea, a oaeaea onoaiiaeaiey eo enoi/ieeia,
iieo/aiey eiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo eee ii?iaa?aathueo
i?iaa?yaiia aeieacaoaeuenoai. Yoa oi?ioee?iaea no. 87 OIE ?O
iaaeinoaoi/ii oi/ia ii neaaeothuei niia?aaeaieyi.

Ai-ia?auo, aeaiiay noaouey aiaiyao oiiiyiooui noauaeoai aeieacuaaiey a
iaycaiiinoue i?iecaiaeeoue i?iaa?eo nia?aiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. A oi aea
a?aiy e ae?oaea noauaeou aeieacuaaiey (caueoiee, iaaeiyaiue, iioa?iaaoee
e ae?.), i/aaeaeii, eiatho iieiia i?aai i?iaiaeeoue naieie neeaie
i?iaa?eo aeieacaoaeuenoa (eae nia?aiiuo eee i?aaenoaaeaiiuo eie naieie,
oae e oao, eioi?ua noaee ei ecaanoiu io neaaeiaaoaey, i?ieo?i?a, noaea).
Caeii iaeiaei ia yoii i?aaa aeaaea ia oiiieiaao.

Ai-aoi?uo, nai oa?iei “i?iaa?ea” i?aaenoaaeyaony ia nianai oaea/iui e
neeoeii oceei. A naaoa yoiai, neaaeoy iunee ?.N. Aaeeeia, iu aoaeai
caeanue e aeaeaa aiai?eoue ia enneaaeiaaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa.

Nouiinoue enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
iiciaaony eo niaea?aeaiea, i?iaa?yaony aai aeinoiaa?iinoue e
onoaiaaeeaaaony niaeanoaiinoue aeieacaoaeuenoa ii iaeiiio aeaeo iaaeaeo
niaie.

Niaea?aeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – yoi caeeth/athuayny a ieo
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiay eioi?iaoeey. Iineaaeiyy aeaao ioaao ia oieueei ia
aii?in, /oi eiaiii onoaiaaeeaaaony aeaiiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii, ii e
iicaieyao auynieoue, niaeanoaony ee iii n ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie ii
aeaeo.

Ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – i?ioeann, naycaiiue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, n
ia?a?aaioeie e iaeiieaieai eioi?iaoeee, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, n
au?aaioeie noaeaeaiey i oeaiiinoe aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee.
*oiau ioeaieoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eo ioaeii enneaaeiaaoue, iiciaoue e
eeoue iinea yoiai ii?aaeaeeoue, /aai noieo iiciaiiay nouiinoue.

Eae enneaaeiaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa, oae e eo ioeaiea e eniieueciaaiea –
yoi i?ioeannu, i?ioaeathuea ii aioo?aiia i?enouei ei caeiiai,
iiae/eiythueany ii?aaeaeaiiui caeiiiia?iinoyi. Iai?aaeaiiinoue e
i?iyaeaiea yoeo caeiiiia?iinoae oa?aeoa?ecothony neaaeothueie
iieiaeaieyie.

Enneaaeiaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa anoue /anoiue neo/ae i?ioeanna iiciaiey
iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ethaay ?aciiaeaeiinoue i?ioeanna
iiciaiey, aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, /oi neoaeeo i?aaeiaoii iiciaiey,
iiae/eiaia iauei caeiiiia?iinoyi yoiai i?ioeanna. Ii iineieueeo i?aaeiao
e oneiaey yoiai i?ioeanna i?eaeatho aio niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou,
ioee/athuea io ae?oaeo ?aciiaeaeiinoae i?ioeanna iiciaiey, iauea
caeiiiia?iinoe iiciaiey i?iyaeythony a iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie oi?ia.
Caeiiiia?iinoe enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa e anoue iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiay
oi?ia iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae i?ioeanna iiciaiey.

Ia ioee/aynue ii naiae aiinaieiae/aneie i?e?iaea io iaueo
caeiiiia?iinoae i?ioeanna iiciaiey, caeiiiia?iinoe enneaaeiaaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa iaeaaeatho neaaeothueie niaoeeoe/aneeie ii n?aaiaieth n
ieie /a?oaie. Iie:

1) ii?aaeaeytho niaea?aeaiea i?ioeanna iiciaiey oaeeo niaoeeoe/aneeo
iauaeoia, eae noaeaaiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa, – iauaeoia, au?aaeathueo ia
ethaua eciaiaiey n?aaeu, a eeoue naycaiiua n i?anooieaieai;

2) i?iyaeythony a niaoeeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey,
ia?aie/aiiiai n?ieaie, n?aaenoaaie e e?oaii o/anoieeia;

3) io?aaeatho niaoeeoeeo iaoiaeia noaeaaiiai enneaaeiaaiey, a oii /enea
oaeeo, eioi?ua i?eiaiythony oieueei i?e enneaaeiaaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa
(e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo, noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineeo e i?.);

4) io?aaeatho e naiaia?acea oeaee enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa,
niaiaaeathuae n oeaeueth aeieacuaaiey a oeaeii: onoaiiaeaiea enoeiu ii
eiie?aoiiio aeaeo, o.a. oeaee noaoai i?aeoe/aneie.

Nouiinoue enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
iiciaaony eo niaea?aeaiea, i?iaa?yaony aai aeinoiaa?iinoue e
onoaiaaeeaaaony niaeanoaiinoue aeieacaoaeuenoa ii iaeiiio aeaeo iaaeaeo
niaie.

Niaea?aeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – yoi caeeth/athuayny a ieo
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiay eioi?iaoeey. Iineaaeiyy aeaao ioaao ia oieueei ia
aii?in, /oi onoaiaaeeaaaony aeaiiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii, ii e iicaieyao
auynieoue, niaeanoaony ee iii n ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie ii aeaeo.

I?ioeann io?aaeaiey, eaaeauee a iniiaa aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i
i?anooieaiee e i?anooiieea, a neeo naiae neooaoeeiiiinoe iiaeao i?eaanoe
e ia?aciaaieth eneaaeaiiuo e iaiieiuo io?aaeaiee. A i?ioeanna
enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa oaeea eneaaeaiey e iaiieiioa eo
niaea?aeaiey aeieaeiu auoue auyaeaiu e iauyniaiu.

Eneaaeaiea e iaiieiioa io?aaeaiee iiaoo auoue neaaenoaeai ioeeiiaiee a
i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa (iai?eia?, a neeo
niaoeeoe/aneeo, iaoeie/iuo oneiaee neaaeiia?aciaaiey), ia?a?uaa eee
inoaiiaee yoiai i?ioeanna eee aai ianee?iaee. Eneaaeaiiua io?aaeaiey
iiaeaeathony ei??aeoeee iin?aaenoaii:

– niiinoaaeaiey n ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie, aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?uo
ia aucuaaao niiiaiey;

– onoaiiaeaiey i?e/ei eneaaeaiey e iieo/aiey aeaiiuo i oii, /oi
io?aaeaaiue iauaeo iia e oaeei ia?acii io?aceoueny ia io?aaeathuai
iauaeoa, eeai i oii, /oi aia/aea ii io?aceeny eia/a, ii iioii io?aaeaiea
auei eneaaeaii;

– aianaiey iii?aaie i?e iiiiue yenia?oiiai enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa
eee ia iniiaa aiaeiaee, eee ni?aai/iuo aeaiiuo i oeie/iuo io?aaeaieyo
iiaeiaiiai ?iaea.

Iaiieiioa io?aaeaiey, aoaeo/e nouanoaaiiie eee ianouanoaaiiie, ia
iaycaoaeueii i?aiyonoaoao eniieueciaaieth oaeiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa a
aeieacuaaiee. Anee io?aaeaiea ianoieueei iaiieii, /oi ia ia?aaeaao oao
eciaiaiee n?aaeu, ii eioi?ui iiaeii noaeeoue ia io?aaeaaiii iauaeoa, oi
iaiieiioa aai nouanoaaiia. Eioi?iaoeey, niaea?aeauayny a oaeii
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, aaniieacia. N oi/ee c?aiey oeaeae aeieacuaaiey, iiaeii
aiai?eoue ia eioi?iaoeeiiiie “ionoioa” oaeiai io?aaeaiey. Anee
io?aaeaiea iaaeinoaoi/ii oi/ii ia?aaeaao eciaiaiey n?aaeu (ia?aaeaao,
iai?eia?, ia ana aiciiaeiua eciaiaiey), oi oaeay iaiieiioa ia oae
nouanoaaiia, eai iiaeao auoue eiiiaine?iaaia aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeeae, ii/a?iiooie ec ae?oaeo io?aaeaiee-aeieacaoaeuenoa. I?e
yoii iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi oa?aeoa?enoeea io?aaeaiey eae
iaiieiiai caaeneo e io n?aaenoa enneaaeiaaiey yoiai io?aaeaiey. *ai
yooaeoeaiaa n?aaenoaa, oai aeaeueoa ioiaeaeaathony a?aieoeu
ia?acee/eiiai i?e enneaaeiaaiee io?aaeaiee, oai oaea noaiiaeony iiiyoea
eo iaiieiiou. Noaiiayony aeinooiiuie oa “iee?iio?aaeaiey”, eioi?ua
?aiueoa auee iaaeinooiiu enneaaeiaaoaeth.

Eiaeiia io?aaeaiea (a ioee/ea io eneaaeaiiiai e iaiieiiai) anoue iieiia
io?aaeaiea, ii ia niauoey i?anooieaiey, a ae?oaiai niauoey, auaeaaaaiia
ca io?aaeaiea i?anooieaiey. Oaeea io?aaeaiey aicieeatho i?e ?acee/iuo
einoeaie?iaeao. I?e/eiaie eiaeiuo eciaiaiee n?aaeu auaatho naie
einoeaie?iaee, iiyoiio oaeea eciaiaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaaie iieiiai
niauoey ia aunooiatho, a aeieacuaatho oieueei einoeaie?iaeo. Oaeiai,
iai?eia?, cia/aiea oae iacuaaaiuo iaaaoeaiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, eioi?ua
ianoo a naaa ia eioi?iaoeeth i i?anooieaiee, /ueei io?aaeaieai iie yeiau
yaeythony, a i ae?oaii niauoee – ia einoeaie?iaea i?anooieaiey. Ii a oii
neo/aa, eiaaea einoeaie?iaea i?aneaaeoao oeaeue ne?uoue neaaeu
niaa?oaiiiai i?anooieaiey, iaaaoeaiua aeey naiie einoeaie?iaaiiie
ianoaiiaee ianoiyoaeuenoaa noaiiayony i?yiuie eee iiin?aaenoaiaaiiuie
io?aaeaieyie i?anooieaiey. Ai anao neo/ayo iaaaoeaiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa
aunooiatho io?aaeaieai eeai iiaeeeiiiai, eeai einoeaie?iaaiiiai
aeaenoaey, ia oeeaaeuaathueiny a oeie/ioth aeey aeaiiie neooaoeee
ea?oeio io?aaeaiey, i?ioeai?a/auei ae.

Niaea?aeaieai aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee iiaoo auoue ia oieueei oa
eciaiaiey, eioi?ua i?aoa?iaaaao a ?acoeueoaoa io?aaeaiey n?aaea, ii e
eciaiaiey ia io?aaeaaiii iauaeoa eae iineaaenoaey aeoa io?aaeaiey.
Aicieeaao ia?aoiay naycue iaaeaeo io?aaeathuei e io?aaeaaiui iauaeoaie
(I.ss. Naaae, 1966). Neaaenoaeai yoie nayce noaiiaeony iiyaeaiea
io?aaeaiey ia iauaeoa, eioi?ue ia?aiia/aeueii aunooiae eae io?aaeaaiue;
io?aaeaaiue e io?aaeathuee iauaeou eae au iaiythony ianoaie, ?anoe?yaony
e?oa aeieacaoaeuenoa, a?aieoeu eo enneaaeiaaiey ?acaeaeaathony, naycue
iaaeaeo i?anooieaieai e n?aaeie oneiaeiyaony. Caaea/a enneaaeiaaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa – auyaeaiea e yoie nayce. Nianoaaiii, eiaiii a aeaiiii
neo/aa iaeeoei iieiue i?ioeann io?aaeaiey: naycue iaaeaeo iauaeoaie
i?ioeanna a aoeaaeueiii niunea acaeiia. Ioe?uaathony aiciiaeiinoe ii
eciaiaieyi ia naiii io?aaeaaiii iauaeoa noaeeoue i aai naycyo ni
n?aaeie, iai?eia?, ii i?eciaeai, aicieeoei ia noauaeoa, noaeeoue i aai
nayce n i?aaeiaoii i?anooiiiai iinyaaoaeuenoaa e o.i.

Enneaaeiaaieth aeieacaoaeuenoa i?enoue ana iauea /a?ou i?ioeanna
iiciaiey, iacaaeneii io ?aciiaeaeiinoae eae naieo aeieacaoaeuenoa, oae e
n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia eo enneaaeiaaiey. Yoei aea ii?aaeaeyaony e
onoie/eainoue i?ioeanna: eae a ioiioaiee i?eioeeiia e oi?i, oae e a
ioiioaiee oeaeae.

Enneaaeiaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – iaycaoaeueiue yeaiaio i?ioeanna
aeieacuaaiey. Ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa e eo eniieueciaaieth a
aeieacuaaiee anaaaea i?aaeoanoaoao iiciaiea aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee, eai oieueei oaeei iooai iiaeao oi?ie?iaaoueny noaeaeaiea i
oeaiiinoe yoie eioi?iaoeee aeey aeaea e iooyo aa eniieueciaaiey aeey
aeinoeaeaiey enoeiu. Iiyoiio enneaaeiaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa aeey
eaaeaeiai aeoa aeieacuaaiey anoue i?ioeann iaiaoiaeeiue.

Iaeiiaoe, enneaaeiaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – iiaoi?ythueeny i?ioeann,
inouanoaeyaiue eaaeaeue ?ac, eiaaea i?iecaiaeeony aeieacuaaiea, oneiaey,
oi?iu, n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu eioi?iai, ianiio?y ia eo ?aciiia?acea,
ia?aie/aiu e iiaeaeathony eeanneoeeaoeee, ?acoeueoaou aai iiaeii
i?aaeaeaeaoue, i?iaiice?iaaoue.

Eoae, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi enneaaeiaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa, eae e eo
aicieeiiaaiea e niae?aiea, iineo caeiiiia?iue oa?aeoa?, a io?aaeaiea
caeiiiia?iinoae aeaiiiai i?ioeanna a iaoea, eo iiciaiea i?eia?aoatho
cia/aiea iao/iuo caeiiiia?iinoae.

Caeiiiia?iinoue enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa ia i?ioeai?a/eo
neooaoeeiiiinoe yoiai i?ioeanna. Neooaoeeiiiinoue i?iyaeyaony a auai?a
n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa, a /anoiuo oeaeyo
enneaaeiaaiey, o.a. a oa?aeoa?a ?aoaaiuo aii?inia, caaenyueo io
eiie?aoiie ianoaiiaee aeieacuaaiey.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa a ?anii?yaeaiee noauaeoa
aeieacuaaiey ieacuaaaony niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii eioa?i?aoe?iaaiiay e
aeinooiiay ii naiaio niuneiaiio au?aaeaieth aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiay
eioi?iaoeey. Iia iiaeeaaeeo ioeaiea, eioi?ay i?aaei?eieiaaony aeey oiai,
/oiau auynieoue aa aeiionoeiinoue e ioiineiinoue e aeaeo, nayce
aeieacaoaeuenoa iaaeaeo niaie, aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey a i?ioeanna
aeaeueiaeoaai noaeaaiiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – yoi eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiae/aneee i?ioeann:
eioi?iaoeeiiiue iioiio, /oi naycai n ia?a?aaioeie e iaeiieaieai
eioi?iaoeee; eiae/aneee iioiio, /oi ii naiae i?e?iaea ioeaiea
aeieacaoaeuenoa anoue iuneeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue, naycaiiay n
noaeaeaieai i oeaiiinoe aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Iiyoiio e
caeiiiia?iinoe iineaaeiae iinyo eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiae/aneee oa?aeoa? eae
caeiiiia?iinoe iieo/aiey auaiaeiiai ciaiey ia aaca enneaaeiaaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Eiuie neiaaie, aeey oiai, /oiau
ioeaieoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eo ioaeii enneaaeiaaoue, iiciaoue e oieueei
iinea yoiai ii?aaeaeeoue, “/aai noieo” iiciaiiay nouiinoue.

Enneaaeiaaiea e ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa iicaieytho eniieueciaaoue eo a
oaieiaiii noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Oa?iei “eniieueciaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa”
aue i?aaeeiaeai ?.N. Aaeeeiui aua a 1967 a.. Iiae eniieueciaaieai
aeieacaoaeuenoa neaaeoao iiieiaoue iia?e?iaaiea eie a oeaeyo
aeieacuaaiey. A nouiinoe, iia?e?iaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoaaie e anoue naii
aeieacuaaiea.

I?e oaeii iiieiaiee eniieueciaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa iaeuecy niaeaneoueny
n iiaieai I.A. Naeeaaiiaa i oii, /oi eniieueciaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa
aeeth/aao a naay e eo enneaaeiaaiea, e ioeaieo. N iaoae oi/ee c?aiey,
eniieueciaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa ia niaiaaeaao n eo enneaaeiaaieai e
ioeaieie e ia ioaaouaaao yoiai. Eniieueciaaoueny iiaoo eeoue
enneaaeiaaiiua e ioeaiaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

A naiae iniiaa i?ioeann iia?e?iaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaaie anoue oaeaea
eiae/aneee i?ioeann, iiae/eiythueeny anai caeiiiia?iinoyi
?aoeeiiaeueiiai iuoeaiey. Iia?e?iaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoaaie iiaeao
caeeth/aoueny a eo aeaiiino?aoeee (i?aaeuyaeaiee) a oeaeyo
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey aeieacaiiinoe oiai eee eiiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa; iii
iaiaoiaeeii a oeaeyo i?iaa?ee ae?oaeo aeieacaoaeuenoa, eo enneaaeiaaiey;
iaeiiaoe, eniieueciaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaeao ieacaoueny iaiaoiaeeiui
aeey iieo/aiey eiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa e onoaiiaeaiey eo enoi/ieeia,
iai?eia? i?aaaeeauo naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee.

A oaieiaiii i?ioeanna eniieueciaaieth aeieacaoaeuenoa i?enoue
ii?aaeaeaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe. Ec /enea caeiiiia?iinoae, oi?aaeythueo
i?ioeannaie ioeaiee e eniieueciaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa, aeey
e?eieiaeenoeee i?aaenoaaeytho iniaue eioa?an oaeea, eae:

1) caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey noaeaeaiee i aeinoiaa?iinoe
niaea?aeauaeny a aeieacaoaeuenoaao eioi?iaoeee e aa oeaiiinoe aeey
onoaiiaeaiey enoeiu ii aeaeo;

2) caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiuo ?yaeia, naycae
iaaeaeo aeieacaoaeuenoaaie;

3) iaoneiaeaiiinoue ?acoeueoaoaie ioeaiee noaiaie aa?iyoiinoe
e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo aa?nee, oi?iu yenia?oiuo auaiaeia, oaeoe/aneeo
?aoaiee;

4) caeiiiia?iinoe oiaiueoaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e
aeaenoaee neaaeiaaoaey a oneiaeyo oaeoe/aneiai ?enea;

5) naycue e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue niaea?aeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa, oi?i,
n?aaenoa e niiniaia eo eniieueciaaiey a aeieacuaaiee;

6) ?anoe?aiea noa?u e aa?eaioia eniieueciaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee ii ia?a ?aoaiey caaea/e iauaeoeaecaoeee aa ioeaiee.

Niaoeeoeea aeaenoaey e i?iyaeaiey iacaaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae ioeaiee e
eniieueciaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee caeeth/aaony, eae iai
i?aaenoaaeyaony:

– ai-ia?auo, a niaoeeoeea naiie aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee;

– ai-aoi?uo, a aaeeie/iii, eae i?aaeei, iaiiaoi?eiii “?enoiea” naycae
iaaeaeo aeieacaoaeuenoaaie, ia?acothueie nenoaio aeieacaoaeuenoa ii
eiie?aoiiio aeaeo;

– a-o?aoueeo, a oneiaeyo i?ioaeaiey yoeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia,
ii?aaeaeyaiuo i?ioeannoaeueiuie i?aaeeaie aeieacuaaiey.

Aeaenoaea eiaiii oaeeo caeiiiia?iinoae iaania/eaaao a aeieacuaaiee
iinooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea e enoeia, eiaaea eaaeaeia iiaia
aeieacaoaeuenoai, “aienaaoaany” a nenoaio oaea ecaanoiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa, icia/aao oaa aia?aae, eiaaea iaeiieaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa
i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii eo ioai?a i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth i?aaenoaaeaiey i
aeieacaiiinoe eneiiiai, e oaaaeaeaiiinoe a yoii. Oeacaiiua
caeiiiia?iinoe, eae e ?anniio?aiiua ?aiaa, i?iyaeythony a aeaenoaee eae
oaiaeaioeey, inouanoaeaiea eioi?ie caaeneo io neooaoeee, e yoa
neooaoeeiiiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony a eiia/iii n/aoa iieiioie e oi?iie
i?iyaeaiey “oi?aaeythueo” eie caeiiiia?iinoae.

Oaeiaa a iaueo /a?oao oa?aeoa?enoeea caeiiiia?iinoae niae?aiey,
enneaaeiaaiey, ioeaiee e eniieueciaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa, eaaeaueo a
iniiaa e ii?aaeaeythueo niaea?aeaiea i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey.

3. I?ioeannoaeueiua e e?eieiaeenoe/aneea n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey

Aeaaay oeaeue iiaeao niiaueoue oeaiiinoue eeoue oaeei n?aaenoaai,
eioi?ua aeinoaoi/iu e aeaenoaeoaeueii aaaeoo e oeaee (Aeyaeae THi).

Enoiaey ec niaea?aeaiey aeieacuaaiey eae aeayoaeueiinoe ii niae?aieth,
enneaaeiaaieth, ioeaiea e eniieueciaaieth aeieacaoaeuenoa, iu ?acee/aai
i?ioeannoaeueiua (i?ioeaaeo?iua) e iiciaaaoaeueiua niiniau (iaoiaeu) e
n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey. E /eneo i?ioeannoaeueiuo, ii iauaio iiaieth, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ioiinyony neaaenoaaiiua aeaenoaey, o.a.
i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey, eioi?ua i?aneaaeotho oeaeue niae?aiey e
enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa. En/a?iuaathuee eo ia?a/aiue niaea?aeeony
a oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiii caeiia. Yoi iniio?, inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea,
neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio, yenaoiaoeey, iaune, auaiea, aeii?in, i/iay
noaaea, i?aaeuyaeaiea aeey iiiciaiey, i?iaa?ea iieacaiee ia ianoa,
iacia/aiea noaeaaiie yenia?oecu. Nthaea aea (aiciiaeii, n iaeioi?uie
iaiai?eaie) iiaeii aeiaaaeoue e eiio?ieue ca ei??aniiiaeaioeeae e
ia?aaiai?aie. E?iia neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, e i?ioeannoaeueiui niiniaai
niae?aiey e enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaeii ioianoe:

1) i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey a noaaeee aicaoaeaeaiey oaieiaiiai aeaea –
iieo/aiea e i?iaa?ea cayaeaiee e niiauaiee, eno?aaiaaiea iauyniaiee,
iacia/aiea aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie, ?aaecee (/. 1-2 no. 144 OIE ?O);

2) eno?aaiaaiea aeieoiaioia e i?aaeiaoia ii eieoeeaoeaa noauaeoa
aeieacuaaiey;

3) i?eiyoea niiauaiee e i?aaeiaoia, aeieoiaioia io o/anoieeia i?ioeanna,
o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaei?eyoee, iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e eiuo eeoe;

4) iieo/aiea ia?acoeia aeey n?aaieoaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey (no. 202 OIE
?O).

Ana yoe niiniau “iaeaaeatho i?ioeannoaeueiie oi?iie a aaeeinoaa n
niaea?aeaieai. Iiyoiio auei au iaaa?ii n/eoaoue eiua, e?iia
neaaenoaaiiuo (noaeaaiuo) aeaenoaee, niiniau niae?aiey e i?iaa?ee
aeieacaoaeuenoa “iai?ioeannoaeueiuie”. Eo i?ioeannoaeueiay oi?ia eiay,
iaaeaee o neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, iaiaa aeaoaeece?iaaia, ii iia
nouanoaoao”.

Iineieueeo aeieacuaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, eae oeacuaaeinue, aaeeinoai
iiciaaaoaeueiie e oaeinoiaa?eoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ana iacaaiiua
i?ioeannoaeueiua niiniau niae?aiey e enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa
i?aaeiieaaatho aeoeaioth oaeinoiaa?eoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue
neaaeiaaoaey ii oi?ie?iaaieth enoi/ieeia aeieacaoaeuenoa: i?ioieieia
niioaaonoaothueo aeaenoaee e eiuo aeieoiaioia. A yoie nayce N.A. Oaeoa?
ioia/aao, /oi “aeii?in, iniio?, neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio, i?aaeuyaeaiea
aeey iiiciaiey e o.ae. – yoi aeoeaiua aeaenoaey neaaeiaaoaey ii
oi?ie?iaaieth aeieacaoaeuenoa. Neacaiiia, ?acoiaaony, ia icia/aao, /oi
aeieacaoaeuenoai io ia/aea aei eiioea “nicaeaaony” neaaeiaaoaeai a oiaea
neaaenoaaiiiai aeaenoaey. Neaaeu eco/aaiiai niauoey aicieeatho
iacaaeneii io niciaiey neaaeiaaoaey e yaeythony iauaeoeaiie iniiaie
aeieacaoaeuenoa. Iaeiaei iieiioa auyaeaiey e nio?aiaiey oaeoe/aneeo
aeaiiuo a iaiaeie noaiaie caaeneo io oiai, i?aaeeueii ee aua?aii e
i?iaaaeaii neaaenoaaiiia aeaenoaea, i?eaiaeii ee iii ii naiae aioo?aiiae
eiino?oeoeee e ioia?aaeaieth eiathueony neaaeia, niioaaonoaotho ee
i?eiaiaiiua neaaeiaaoaeai n?aaenoaa oeenaoeee iniaaiiinoyi iiaeeaaeaueo
caia/aoeaieth neaaeia”.

Enoiaey ec i?eiyoiai iaie ?acee/aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa e eo enoi/ieeia,
iiaeii iieaaaoue, /oi ?a/ue aeieaeia eaeoe i oi?ie?iaaiee neaaeiaaoaeai
ia aeieacaoaeuenoa, a eiaiii eo enoi/ieeia, niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo –
oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua – ia nicaeaaony, a eeoue ioia?aaeaaony.

Ii ioiioaieth e iiciaaaoaeueiie noi?iia aeieacuaaiey iacaaiiua
i?ioeannoaeueiua niiniau niae?aiey e enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa
ea?atho ?ieue niaoeeaeueiuo i?ioeannoaeueiuo i?ioeaaeo?, a ?aieao
eioi?uo i?eiaiythony iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa iiciaiey, n?aaee eioi?uo
aaaeouoth ?ieue ea?atho caeiiu e eaoaai?ee eiaeee, e?eieiaeenoe/aneea
n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu.

Aii?in i iaoiaeao e n?aaenoaao iiciaiey i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeiei ec
ea?aeeiaeueiuo a oai?ee aeieacuaaiey.

Ecaanoii, /oi iaoiae – a oe?ieii niunea – yoi niinia iiaeoiaea e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue a eeoa?aoo?a iieo/eei
ii?aaeaeaiea iaoiaea, i?aaeeiaeaiiia aieaa?neei aeaaeaieeii O. Iaaeiaui:
“Iaoiaeii yaeyaony aioo?aiia i?enouay (eiiaiaioiay) caeiiiia?iinoue
aeaeaeaiey iao/iiai iuoeaiey, acyoay a ea/anoaa niciaoaeueii
eniieuecoaiie iaie aeey aieaa aa?iiai, aieaa auno?iai e aieaa iieiiai
aeinoeaeaiey enoeiu”. E oioy a yoii ii?aaeaeaiee eaeao ?a/ue i iao/iii
iuoeaiee, iii iieiinoueth i?eiaieii e iaoiaeo aeieacuaaiey, iineieueeo
iineaaeiaa eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue iiciaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a iniiaa
iuneeoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue.

A ea?a?oee iaoiaeia iiciaiey aaciaui yaeyaony aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae. A
naaoa ainiiaenoaiaaaoae a iaoae no?aia eaeaieiaee yoio iaoiae ?aiaa
eiaiiaaeny ia?enenoneei, oioy aeeaeaeoeea – eae iaoiae oai?/anee
iiciathuaai iuoeaiey – auea ecaanoia aua aioe/iui oeeinioai, a caoai
aeaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaia Aaaaeai. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy oaea/aiea iaoeueiui
io?eoeaieai anaai “ia?enenonei-eaieineiai” iiaoaeeei iaeioi?uo aaoi?ia
aeaiiino?aoeaii eaii?e?iaaoue anyeia oiiieiaiea i aeeaeaeoe/aneii
iaoiaea, /oi iaeuecy ia ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?iyaeaiea iaaaaeanoaa e
ae?aio/aai eiioi?iecia. Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae ia oieueei iaaiciiaeii
“ioiaieoue”, ii ii ii-i?aaeiaio aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
aaeeinoaaiiue anaiauee iaoiae iiciaiey yaeaiee i?e?iaeu, iauanoaa e
iuoeaiey.

Aoaeo/e anaiauei iaoiaeii iiciaiey, iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay aeeaeaeoeea
ea?aao ?ieue e anaiauaai iaoiaea aeieacuaaiey. Io?aaeay caeiiiia?iinoe
yoiai i?ioeanna, aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae iaania/eaaao aeinoeaeaiea enoeiu
a noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Ie/ooue ia oo?aoeee naiae aeooaeueiinoe neiaa E.
Ia?ena i oii, /oi enoeiiuie aeieaeiu auoue ia oieueei ?acoeueoaou
enneaaeiaaiey, ii e iooe enneaaeiaaiey; naii enneaaeiaaiea enoeiu
aeieaeii auoue enoeiiui: enoeiiia enneaaeiaaiea anoue ?acaeaathuayny
enoeia, ioaeaeueiua /eaiu eioi?ie niaaeeiythony a ?acoeueoaoao
enneaaeiaaiey.

Anaiauiinoue aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoiaea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iieiia
?ani?ino?aiaiea aai eaoaai?ee ia i?ioeann aeieacuaaiey (eae
aeayoaeueiinoue iuneeoaeueioth) iie?athony ia aeneiiaoe/aneia iieiaeaiea
i aaeeinoaa iuoeaiey.

A eeoa?aoo?a aei neo ii? iiyaeythony auneacuaaiey i nouanoaiaaiee
naiaia?aciiai “neaaenoaaiiiai” eee “noaeaaiiai” iuoeaiey, i eioi?ii a
naia a?aiy ienae A.ss. Auoeineee, n/eoaaoee, /oi o yoiai iuoeaiey anoue
“naiy” eiaeea, “ia anaaaea e ia ai anai niaiaaeathuay n eieaeiie
eiaeeie”.

Aanue i?ioeann aeieacuaaiey – eiae/aneee i?ioeann, i?e iiiiue eioi?iai
neaaeiaaoaeue e noae i?eoiaeyo e auaiaeo i nouanoaiaaiee eee
ianouanoaiaaiee oao eee eiuo oaeoia, yaeaiee, aeaenoaee, ioiioaiee,
naycae e o.i. Eae eiae/aneee i?ioeann, yoi – i?ioeann iuoeaiey, aaeeiue
a naiae nouiinoe, iacaaeneii io i?aaeiaoa iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iao e ia iiaeao auoue niaoeeoe/aneiai “noaeaaiiai”, “neaaenoaaiiiai” eee
“e?eieiaeenoe/aneiai” iuoeaiey, ioee/athuaainy io iuoeaiey a ae?oaeo
iaeanoyo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?ioaeathuaai ii niaoeeoe/aneei
caeiiai, iiae/eiythuaainy iniaie eiaeea. Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe
iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe neaaeiaaoaey, iaoneiaeaiiua i?aaeiaoii,
oneiaeyie, iaoiaeaie aeieacuaaiey, ioithaeue e ie a eaeie ia?a ia
eciaiytho nouanoaa i?ioeanna aai iuoeaiey e ia aeaeatho yoio i?ioeann
“neaaenoaaiiui iuoeaieai”.

A aeeaeaeoe/aneii iaoiaea i?eiyoi ?acee/aoue “aa?oiee” ioaeae –
aeeaeaeoe/aneoth eiaeeo – e “ieaeiee” ioaeae – eiaeeo oi?iaeueioth.
Aeeaeaeoe/aneay eiaeea – caeiiu e eaoaai?ee aeeaeaeoeee – ea?atho ?ieue
i?eioeeiia e oeaeae aeieacuaaiey, aai i?eaioe?ia ia iooe e onoaiiaeaieth
enoeiu. Eaoaai?ee e caeiiu oi?iaeueiie eiaeee ii?aaeaeytho niaea?aeaiea
?aoeeiiaeueiiai iuoeaiey noauaeoa aeieacuaaiey. Aai noaeaeaiey e
oiicaeeth/aiey a ioiioaiee ioaeaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa ?anneaaeoaiiai
aeaea e anaai aeaea a oeaeii i?aaenoaaeytho oaeia aea auaiaeiia ciaiea,
eae e ethaua ae?oaea noaeaeaiey e oiicaeeth/aiey, e ioee/athony oieueei
naiei i?aaeiaoii – i?aaeiaoii aeieacuaaiey.

I?eciaiea anaiauaai cia/aiey iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeee aiana ia
eneeth/aao nouanoaiaaiey ae?oaeo iaoiaeia iiciaiey. Aeeaeaeoe/aneee
iaoiae, ia iiaeiaiyy niaie niaoeeaeueiuo eino?oiaioia iiciaiey,
iicaieyao neiino?oe?iaaoue iauoth nenoaio iaoiaeia aeieacuaaiey eae
niaoeeoe/aneie ?aciiaeaeiinoe /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iauaeou
eioi?ie ii?aaeaeytho niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe i?eiaiaiey yoeo
iaoiaeia.

Ia naycue iaoiaea enneaaeiaaiey e iauaeoa aeieacuaaiey iaiaeiie?aoii
ia?auaeinue aieiaiea e a oeeinioneie, e a e?eieiaeenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a.
Niaa?oaiii i?aau A.O. Cioia e A.A. Eaoia?, eiaaea oeacuaatho, /oi iaoiae
enneaaeiaaiey iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae iaeioi?oth niaieoiiinoue
iuneeoaeueiuo eee oece/aneeo iia?aoeee, eioi?ay caaeneo io oa?aeoa?enoee
iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey e eniieuecoaony aeey ?aoaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeanna
caaea/. “Iaoiae caaeneo io iauaeoa aeaiyeei ia?acii: iauaeoii
iaoneiaeeaaaony eae eiie?aoiue oa?aeoa? eaaeaeie iia?aoeee, aeeth/aiiie
a iaoiae, oae e no?oeoo?a iaoiaea – ii?yaeie, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue,
naycue ioaeaeueiuo iia?aoeee”.

Aaeeinoaa iaoiaea e iauaeoa iiciaiey ethaiio enneaaeiaaoaeth, e a oii
/enea noauaeoo aeieacuaaiey, oaeaaony aeinoe/ue n iiiiuueth iniiaaiiuo
ia iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeea niaoeeaeueiuo iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?eaiia
e n?aaenoa, eioi?ua iiaeii iacaaoue iauaiao/iuie e niaoeeaeueiuie
iaoiaeaie iiciaiey eae a noa?a iaoee (a aeaiiii neo/aa e?eieiaeenoeee),
oae e a noa?a aeieacuaaiey.

Iiae iauaiao/iui iaoiaeii enneaaeiaaiey neaaeoao iiieiaoue nenoaio
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee, i?eaiia, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e eniieuecoaiuo
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa ii eco/aieth eiie?aoiuo iauaeoia, yaeaiee,
i?ioeannia. I?e yoii iiae eco/aieai iiieiaaony eae /oanoaaiiia, oae e
?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea. Iauaiao/iuie yoe iaoiaeu eiaiothony iioiio, /oi
iie a ?acee/iuo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo i?eiaiythony ai anao iaeanoyo iaoee e
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia ?acaeoey a eo /enei
aoiaeyo iaaethaeaiea, iienaiea, n?aaiaiea, yenia?eiaio, iaoaiaoe/aneea
iaoiaeu (a oii /enea ecia?aiea), iiaeaee?iaaiea. Ia iniaaiiinoyo eo
i?eiaiaiey a aeieacuaaiee ienaeinue iaiaeiie?aoii.

Iiae niaoeeaeueiui iaoiaeii enneaaeiaaiey ioaeii iiieiaoue oaeie iaoiae,
eioi?ue i?eiaiyaony oieueei a iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo ?aciiaeaeiinoyo
i?ioeanna iiciaiey, ii ia ai anao, noa?a i?eiaiaiey eioi?iai, oaeei
ia?acii, ia eiaao oaeiai anaiauaai oa?aeoa?a, eae noa?a i?eiaiaiey
iauaiao/iuo iaoiaeia. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
iauaiao/iuie e niaoeeaeueiuie iaoiaeaie, a i?eioeeia, anoue eeoue
?acee/ea a noa?a i?eiaiaiey.

A i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey i?eiaiythony niaoeeaeueiua iaoiaeu aeaoo
aeaeia.

Iaeie ec ieo oa?aeoa?iu oieueei aeey aeaiiie noa?u i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe (iai?eia?, iaeioi?ua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa), ae?oaea i?eiaiythony ia oieueei a aeieacuaaiee, ii e a
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo noa?ao /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (iai?eia?, oaeie
iaoiae oeenaoeee iieacaiee, eae caoeicaienue).

Iaoiaeu aeieacuaaiey i?eiaiythony eeoue a i?aaeaeao e neo/ayo,
niaoeeaeueii ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiuo caeiiii. Iiaeii ee ec yoiai naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi e naie iaoiaeu iiciaiey ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu caeiiii? Oaeia
iiieiaiea aii?ina i?aaenoaaeyaony ioeai/iui. Caeii ?aaeaiaioe?oao ia
iaoiaeu iiciaiey enoeiu, a i?ioeannoaeueiua oi?iu i?eiaiaiey yoeo
iaoiaeia. Oae, caeii ?aaeaiaioe?oao ia iaaethaeaiea, a iniio? – iaeio ec
i?ioeannoaeueiuo oi?i i?eiaiaiey yoiai iaoiaea, ia n?aaiaiea, a
i?aaeuyaeaiea aeey iiiciaiey – iiyoue-oaee iaeio ec i?ioeannoaeueiuo
oi?i i?eiaiaiey n?aaieoaeueiiai iaoiaea enneaaeiaaiey.

Oa?aeoa?iie aeey i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna
niaoeeoeeie iaeaaeaao i?eiaiaiea iauaiao/iuo e niaoeeaeueiuo iaoiaeia
iiciaiey i?e e?eieiaeenoe/aneie eaeaioeoeeaoeee.

Eaeaioeoeeaoeey – yoi aeayoaeueiinoue, oeaeueth eioi?ie neoaeeo
onoaiiaeaiea iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey oiaeaeanoaa. Yoi i?ioeann
enneaaeiaaiey oao eee eiuo iauaeoia, i?eiaieoaeueii e eioi?ui ?aoaiea
aii?ina i oiaeaeanoaa ea?aao nouanoaaiioth ?ieue aeey onoaiiaeaiey
enoeiu ii aeaeo. I?e eaeaioeoeeaoeee eniieuecothony ?acee/iua iaoiaeu,
ni/aoaiea eioi?uo caaeneo io iniaaiiinoae eiie?aoiiai aeoa
eaeaioeoeeaoeee. Eiuie neiaaie, iauaeou ia enneaaeothony iin?aaenoaii
eaeaioeoeeaoeee, a enneaaeothony a i?ioeanna eo eaeaioeoeeaoeee
iin?aaenoaii iauaiao/iuo e niaoeeaeueiuo iaoiaeia iiciaiey.

Oai?ey e?eieiaeenoe/aneie eaeaioeoeeaoeee ie a eaeie noaiaie ia iiaeao
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia ?ieue oieaa?naeueiiai iaoiaea iiciaiey enoeiu a
oaieiaiii i?ioeanna eee ia ?ieue oaeiai iaoiaea a e?eieiaeenoeea, eae
n/eoae N.I. Iioaiia. Iiiuoee oaeiai aa enoieeiaaiey ei?aiyony a
iaaeiioeaiea niaoeeoeee i?aaeiaoa e a /?acia?ii oe?ieie o?aeoiaea
iiiyoey iaoiaea. N/eoay yoo oai?eth /enoi eiae/aneie, i?e yoii ia
o/eouaatho, /oi iia, eae ethaay /anoiay oai?ey, iieuecoaony iiiyoeyie
eiaeee, ii e eiaeea ia naiaeeony. Ia ioaaouaaao iia e aanue e?oa
aeieacaoaeuenoa e ana ?aciiaeaeiinoe i?ioeanna eo enneaaeiaaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue onoaiiaeoue oiaeaeanoai iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia aicieeaao
i?e aeieacuaaiee oiaaea, eiaaea ec ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ia ynii, yaeyaony ee ii?aaeaeaiiue iauaeo oai naiui, eioi?ue inoaaee
neaae (a oii /enea e a iaiyoe iaaethaeaoaey), eeai ?a/ue eaeao i ?aciuo
iauaeoao. Oae, iai?eia?, yaeyaony ee /aeiaae, inoaaeaoee neaae iaeueoea
ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey, e /aeiaae, caaea?aeaiiue eae iiaeic?aaaaiue,
iaeiei e oai aea eeoeii eee yoi ?aciua ethaee.

Eiia/iay oeaeue ioiaeaeanoaeaiey – eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeey, onoaiiaeaiea
oiaeaeanoaa eiie?aoiiai iauaeoa. Onoaiiaeaiea oiaeaeanoaa icia/aao
ioa?aie/aiea aeaiiiai iauaeoa io ethauo ae?oaeo iaeii?iaeiuo eee
noiaeiuo n iei. Iiyoiio eaeaioeoeeaoeey a e?eieiaeenoe/aneii iiieiaiee
yoiai oa?ieia icia/aao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ioiaeaeanoaeaiea. Iaeiaei
eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeey ia anaaaea iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooa
iaiin?aaenoaaiii, a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai iiciaaaoaeueiiai aeoa, iai?eia?
enneaaeiaaiey aauanoaaiiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iiiciaiey aaue e o.i. A
neeo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee neaaeiia?aciaaiey eee eiuo iiaeiaiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa eiiaaea oaeaaony onoaiiaeoue eeoue iaeii?iaeiinoue
iauaeoia, a ia eo oiaeaeanoai. Aeinoeaiooue a oaeeo neo/ayo ?acoeueoao
i?aaenoaaeyao ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ioiaeaeanoaeaiea iauaeoa, a
onoaiiaeaiea iaeii?iaeiinoe, eia/a aiai?y, onoaiiaeaiea oiaeaeanoaa
?iaea (aeaea, a?oiiu e o.i.).

I?ioeann eaeaioeoeeaoeee i?ioaeaao eae i?ioeann iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai
noaeaiey ?anniao?eaaaiie a?oiiu iauaeoia aieioue aei eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
ioiaeaeanoaeaiey. I?e yoii eniieuecothony ?acee/iua eeanneoeeaoeeiiiua
a?oiiu, oaeea eae oei, iiaeaeue, ia?ea e o.i., iiea a i?ioeanna ana
aieueoaai noaeaiey a?oiiu ia aoaeao auyaeaia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay
niaieoiiinoue i?eciaeia – eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue eiiieaen, eioi?ue i?enou
oieueei aeaiiiio iauaeoo, ioee/ay aai io anao iiaeiaiuo. Yoi aoaeao
caaa?oaieai i?ioeanna e?eieiaeenoe/aneie eaeaioeoeeaoeee, aeinoeaeaieai
aai oeaee – onoaiiaeaieai oiaeaeanoaa iauaeoa.

I?eciaiea iinoaiaiiinoe ia?aoiaea io onoaiiaeaiey a?oiiiaie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e eaeaioeoeeaoeee iaeuecy, ?acoiaaony, oieeiaaoue eae
ionoonoaea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo yoeie noaaeeyie. I?aeoeea ecaanoiu ioeaee,
eiaaea, iai?eia?, caeeth/aiea ia iaeii?iaeiinoe ae?iae ii iaeiiio eee
aeaoi i?eciaeai (ii ea/anoaaiiiio ninoaao, oaa?aeinoe) i?eieiaeinue ca
aeieacaoaeuenoai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai oiaeaeanoaa.

Aianoa n oai, ?aca?aie/eaay auaiaeu i oiaeaeanoaa e auaiaeu i a?oiiiaie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, iaeuecy iaaeiioeaieaaoue cia/aiey onoaiiaeaiey
a?oiiiaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aeey i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey. Auaiaeu i
a?oiiiaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ia yaeythony aeieacaoaeuenoaaie “ooaeoaai
aeaea”, eae neeiiiu eiiaaea aeoiaoue iaeioi?ua neaaeiaaoaee e noaeuee.
Anee oaeea auaiaeu i?aaeeueii eniieueciaaoue, iie iiaoo eiaoue aaaeiia
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea.

N aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie oi/ee c?aiey, onoaiiaeaiea a?oiiiaie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe iiaeao auoue naiinoiyoaeueiui e eiia/iui ii
?acoeueoaoai aeaeii enneaaeiaaiey eae a yenia?oeca, oae e i?e
i?iaaaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee (iniio?a, iaunea e i?.).

Ana neacaiiia i ?iee a aeieacuaaiee oai?ee e?eieiaeenoe/aneie
eaeaioeoeeaoeee iiaeii ioianoe e e oai?ee e?eieiaeenoe/aneie
aeeaaiinoeee, aeoeaii ?ac?aaaouaaaiie a iineaaeiaa a?aiy. Iiaeiaii
eaeaioeoeeaoeee aeeaaiinoeea – yoi i?ioeann, inouanoaeyaiue ?acee/iuie
iaoiaeaie iiciaiey.

E?eieiaeenoe/aneea n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu iiciaiey, eniieuecoaiua i?e
aeieacuaaiee, ?acee/athony ii enoi/ieeo i?ienoiaeaeaiey, niaea?aeaieth,
oeaeyi e noauaeoo i?eiaiaiey.

Ii enoi/ieeo i?ienoiaeaeaiey yoe n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu iiaoo auoue,
i?aaeaea anaai, ?acoeueoaoii ?acaeoey e niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?aeoeee
ai?ueau n i?anooiiinoueth – iia?aoeaii-?icuneiie, neaaenoaaiiie,
yenia?oiie, noaeaaiie. E?eieiaeenoe/aneay iaoea, eco/ay yoo i?aeoeeo,
ia?aaeiaie iiuo ?ane?uoey, ?anneaaeiaaiey e i?aaeioa?auaiey
i?anooieaiee, aiaeece?oao, iniuneeaaao, a caoai niaa?oainoaoao
i?eiaiyaiua a i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu
aeieacuaaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue e oaeie aaaeiue enoi/iee i?ienoiaeaeaiey
e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia, eae aeinoeaeaiey eiuo iaoe,
i?aeiouanoaaiii oaoie/aneeo e anoanoaaiiuo, ia aaca eioi?uo a
e?eieiaeenoeea ?ac?aaaouaathony iiaua e niaa?oainoaothony nouanoaothuea
n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu ?anneaaeiaaiey e i?aaeioa?auaiey i?anooieaiee.
Iaeiiaoe, enoi/ieeii i?ienoiaeaeaiey e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa e
iaoiaeia neoaeao ?acoeueoaou nianoaaiii e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo iao/iuo
ecuneaiee.

Ii niaea?aeaieth e?eieiaeenoe/aneea n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu, eniieuecoaiua a
aeieacuaaiee, iiae?acaeaeythony ia oaoie/aneea, oaeoe/aneea e
iaoiaee/aneea.

Ii oeaeyi i?eiaiaiey ?acee/atho e?eieiaeenoe/aneea n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu
noaeaaiiai enneaaeiaaiey, a oii /enea aeieacuaaiey, e e?eieiaeenoe/aneea
n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu i?aaeioa?auaiey i?anooieaiee. Yoi aeaeaiea a
ecaanoiie noaiaie oneiaii, iineieueeo ia?aua iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny e a
oeaeyo i?aaeioa?auaiey i?anooieaiee, a aoi?ua – a noaeaaiii
enneaaeiaaiee.

Eniieuecoaiua a aeieacuaaiee e?eieiaeenoe/aneea n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu
aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe ?yaeo e?eoa?eaa, noi?ioee?iaaiiuo iaoeie e
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie i?aeoeeie.

E?eoa?eyie ioeaiee e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia aunooiatho
yooaeoeaiinoue, iaaeaaeiinoue, aaciianiinoue e aeiionoeiinoue eo
i?eiaiaiey a aeieacuaaiee. Aeiionoeiinoue n?aaenoaa eee iaoiaea caeanue
iiieiaaony eae aai iao/iinoue, yoe/iinoue eniieueciaaiey a eiie?aoiuo
oneiaeyo, aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey n?aaenoaa eee iaoiaea a i?aaeaeao e
neo/ayo, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiuo caeiiii. ?a/ue aeieaeia eaeoe ia i
caeiiiinoe n?aaenoaa eee iaoiaea aiiaua, eae ii?ie ioia/aaony a
eeoa?aoo?a, iineieueeo, eae oeacuaaeinue, n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu iiciaiey,
aia caaeneiinoe io noa?u eo i?eiaiaiey, – eaoaai?ey ia th?eaee/aneay, ii
aiinaieiae/aneay. ?a/ue eaeao eiaiii i oii, aiciiaeii ee, aeiionoeii ee
i?e aeaiiii i?ioeannoaeueiii ii?yaeea aeieacuaaiey, a oneiaeyo aeaiiie
i?ioeannoaeueiie i?ioeaaeo?u i?eiaiaiea oiai eee eiiai n?aaenoaa eee
iaoiaea eee aea oneiaey iiciaiey, iauaeou e n?aaenoaa iiciaiey
eneeth/atho oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue. Eiuie neiaaie, n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu
naie ii naaa ia iiaoo auoue caeiiiuie eee iacaeiiiuie, anee yoi
aeaenoaeoaeueii iao/iua ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth eee iainiiaaieth n?aaenoaa e
iaoiaeu iiciaiey. Caeiiiuie eee iacaeiiiuie iiaoo auoue iooe, oi?iu e
oeaee i?eiaiaiey n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia a aeieacuaaiee, eiiaaea aiiaua, a
eiiaaea a eiie?aoiuo neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeeyo.

4. Eiae/aneea iniiau aeieacuaaiey

– Eae oi?ioi, /oi y ia ethaeth nia?aeo, – neacaea iaeaiueeay aeaai/ea
naiaio caaioeeaiio Ae?oao. – Aaaeue anee au y ethaeea nia?aeo, iia
i?eoeinue au aa anoue, a y aa oa?iaoue ia iiao (Euethen Ey??iee. Enoi?ey
n ocaeeaie).

Aeieacuaaiea eae ?aoeeiiaeueiay iuneeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue iiae/eiaia
caeiiai eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey, iaania/eaathuei i?aaeeueiinoue auaaaeaiey
oiicaeeth/aiee e oi?ioee?iaaiey aeiioac. Caeiiu eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey
yooaeoeaii eniieuecothony i?e iino?iaiee ?acee/iuo e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo
aa?nee, ninoaaeaiee ia eo iniiaa ieaiia ?anneaaeiaaiey e ?icunea, i?e
i?iaaaeaiee neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, i?e oi?ioee?iaaiee auaiaeia e
i?eiyoee ?aoaiee aacaea, aaea o?aaoaony no?iaay eiae/aneay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, aeieacaoaeueiinoue e iainiiaaiiinoue noaeaeaiee e
aeaenoaee.

Aeey oiai /oiau i?ioeann niae?aiey, enneaaeiaaiey, ioeaiee e
eniieueciaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa iaania/ee onoaiiaeaiea enoeiu ii aeaeo e
aianoa n oai inouanoaeyeny auno?i, aac eceeoiae cao?aou nee e n?aaenoa,
yoio i?ioeann aeieaeai auoue oeaeaono?aieaiiui, i?aaieciaaiiui.
Aioo?aiiyy aai i?aaiecaoeey iaania/eaaaony auaeaeaeaieai aa?nee e
iniiaaiiui ia aa?neyo ieaie?iaaieai ?anneaaeiaaiey.

Iiae e?eieiaeenoe/aneie aa?neae caeanue e aeaeaa iiieiaaony iainiiaaiiia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea ioiineoaeueii ioaeaeueiiai oaeoa eee a?oiiu oaeoia,
eiathueo eee iiaoueo eiaoue cia/aiea aeey aeaea, oeacuaathuaa ia iaee/ea
yoeo oaeoia, iauyniythuaa eo i?ienoiaeaeaiea, niaea?aeaiea e naycue
iaaeaeo niaie e neoaeauaa oeaeyi onoaiiaeaiey iauaeoeaiie enoeiu.

Ia eniieueciaaiee i?aaeiieiaeaiee, aeiioac i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee
i?anooieaiee aia?aua a ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a oiiieiaao A.E. A?iiia.
Aiai?y i eiae/aneeo iniiaao ?anneaaeiaaiey, ii oeacuaae, /oi
neaaeiaaoaeue iieuecoaony eiaeoeoeaiui e aeaaeoeoeaiui iaoiaeaie
noaeaeaiee. Ii aai iiaieth, eiaeoeoeaiue iaoiae iicaieyao neaaeiaaoaeth
naeaeaoue aeinoiaa?iue, enoeiiue auaiae, a aeaaeoeoeaiue iicaieyao
auaeaeiooue eeoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea, “auneacuaay iauaa aieaa eee iaiaa
aa?iyoiia noaeaeaiea, eioi?ia i?e aeaeueiaeoai enneaaeiaaiee, ii iaoaio
iiaieth, aeieaeii iiaeoaa?aeeoueny ia ianeaaeoaiii oaeoa”. A
iineaaeothueo ?aaioao ii i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi aeiioaca iiaeao auoue
iino?iaia e eiaeoeoeaiui iaoiaeii, aeieaeia iniiauaaoueny ia oioy au e
iaaeinoaoi/iuo oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo e aeiioneaoue aiciiaeiinoue i?iaa?ee.
“Iino?iaiea oaeie aeiioacu, eioi?ay i?ioeai?a/eo eiaeea aauae eee aiiaua
yaeyaony iaeaiie e ia ioaeaeaaony a i?iaa?ea, eee aeaaea ii nouanoao ia
aeiioneaao aiciiaeiinoe i?iaa?ee, eiia/ii, auei au iai?aniie iioa?ae
a?aiaie, a a eiuo neo/ayo iiaei au oieueei ioaea/ue aieiaiea eeoea,
i?iecaiaeyuaai ?anneaaeiaaiea, io eiie?aoiuo oaeoia, aiaeec e ioeaiea
eioi?uo iiaee au i?eaanoe aai iaaeaaeiuie iooyie e onoaiiaeaieth
aeinoiaa?iuo aeieacaoaeuenoa”.

Aia?aua oa?iei “aa?ney” aue oiio?aaeai aaoi?aie o/aaieea ii
e?eieiaeenoeea aeey aocia 1936 a., a ia?aia ii?aaeaeaiea aa?nee
i?aaeeiaeee A.I. Oaaa?: “Iiae aa?neae iiieiaaony iniiaaiiia ia
iaoa?eaeao aeaea i?aaeiieiaeaiea neaaeiaaoaey i oa?aeoa?a ?anneaaeoaiiai
i?anooieaiey, iioeaao, a neeo eioi?uo iii niaa?oaii, e eeoeao, eioi?ua
iiaee niaa?oeoue i?anooieaiea”. Ana iineaaeothuea ii?aaeaeaiey aa?nee
io?aaeaee eeai aa eiae/aneoth i?e?iaeo, eeai niaea?aeaoaeueioth eee
ooieoeeiiaeueioth aa oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Eiae/aneea ii?aaeaeaiey aa?nee naiaeyony e oeacaieth ia oi, /oi aa?ney
yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth aeiioacu eeai noiaeia n iath. Aieueoeinoai
aaoi?ia iieaaaao, /oi ?a/ue aeieaeia eaeoe i iao/iie aeiioaca, ia
o/eouaay, /oi a eiaeea ?acee/atho aua e /anoioth, e ?aai/oth aeiioacu.

Iao/iay aeiioaca – yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea i caeiiiia?iinoyo ?acaeoey
iauanoaa, i?e?iaeu eee iuoeaiey, o.a. i yaeaieyo, eiathueo iauee
oa?aeoa?. A ioee/ea io iao/iie, /anoiay aeiioaca ioiineony e eaeiio-eeai
iaeiiio eee ianeieueeei oaeoai, yaeaieyi, iauyniyao oieueei eo. ?aai/ay,
eee a?aiaiiay, aeiioaca, eanaynue, eae e /anoiay, iaeiiai oaeoa eee
a?oiiu oaeoia, yaeyaony, a ioee/ea io /anoiie aeiioacu, eo oneiaiui
iauyniaieai, iinyuei a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa? e eniieuecoaiui eeoue aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai enneaaeiaaiey.

I?aaenoaaeyaony iaeaieaa i?aaeeueiui ?anniao?eaaoue e?eieiaeenoe/aneoth
aa?neth eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue /anoiie aeiioacu. Iauyniyy nouiinoue,
i?ienoiaeaeaiea e nayce ioaeaeueiuo oaeoia, aa?ney, eae e eiay /anoiay
aeiioaca, ia i?aoaiaeoy ia onoaiiaeaiea caeiiia ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu,
iauanoaa, iuoeaiey, eiaao cia/aiea oieueei aeey aeaiiiai neo/ay.

E?eieiaeenoe/aneoth aa?neth eiiaaea ?anniao?eaatho eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue
?aai/ae aeiioacu. I/aaeaeii, caeanue ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue ea?aao
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue naiiai oa?ieia. Iaeiaei oaeie acaeyae ia eiae/aneoth
i?e?iaeo e?eieiaeenoe/aneie aa?nee i?aaenoaaeyaony ioeai/iui. ?aai/ay
aeiioaca i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?aiaiiia, ia?aoiaeiia iauyniaiea oaeoa eee
yaeaiey, iauyniaiea, o?aaoaiia eeoue aeey aeaiiiai yoaia enneaaeiaaiey.
E?eieiaeenoe/aneay aa?ney ia iineo a?aiaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Aoaeo/e
auaeaeiooie, iia i?aoaiaeoao ia enoeiiinoue, o.a. iinoiyinoai
iauyniaiey. Aa?nee caiaiythony ae?oaeie ia iioiio, /oi iie iinyo
a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?, a a oii neo/aa, eiaaea iie ii?iaa?aioou eae eiaeiua.

I?eciaaay aa?neth /anoiie aeiioacie, a oi aea a?aiy neaaeoao oeacaoue ia
oa ioee/ey, eioi?uie iia auaeaeyaony n?aaee eiuo ?aciiaeaeiinoae /anoiie
aeiioacu. Iia ioee/aaony oai, /oi:

1) eiino?oe?oaony e eniieuecoaony a niaoeeoe/aneie oi?ia iauanoaaiiie
i?aeoeee – oaieiaiii noaeii?iecaiaenoaa;

2) iauyniyao oieueei oa oaeou e ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua eiatho cia/aiea
ii aeaeo;

3) aeieaeia auoue i?iaa?aia a ia?aie/aiiue caeiiii n?ie;

4) i?iaa?yaony niaoeeoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie e iaoiaeaie, iaoneiaeaiiuie
caeiiii;

5) i?iaa?yaony noauaeoaie, niaoeeaeueii ia oi oiieiiii/aiiuie caeiiii;

6) i?iaa?yaony a oneiaeyo, eiaaea aiciiaeii aeoeaiia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea
oaeie i?iaa?ea ni noi?iiu caeioa?aniaaiiuo a nie?uoee enoeiu eeoe.

ssaeyynue ii naiae eiae/aneie i?e?iaea aeiioacie, i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueiui
noaeaeaieai, aa?ney a oi aea a?aiy ia iiaeao auoue ioiaeaeanoaeaia n
ethaui i?aaeiieiaeaieai, aicieeoei a i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey. Ioee/ey
aa?nee io eiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee ii?aaeaeythony i?aaeaea anaai aa
niaea?aeaieai.

E?eieiaeenoe/aneay aa?ney ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth iiaeao ioiineoueny ei
anaio enneaaeoaiiio niauoeth a oeaeii, ei anae niaieoiiinoe eiathueony e
iiaeeaaeaueo iauyniaieth oaeoia, aeaiiuo eee e ioaeaeueiui
ianoiyoaeuenoaai niauoey, a?oiiai oaeoia e aeaaea aaeeie/iui oaeoai. Ii
yoiio i?eciaeo ?acee/atho iauea e /anoiua aa?nee.

Niaea?aeaoaeueiay noi?iia aa?nee i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi aa?ney iniiauaaaony
ia anae eiathuaeny a aeaiiue iiiaio niaieoiiinoe oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo ii
aeaeo e iai?ioeai?a/eai iauyniyao aa, i?e/ai yoi i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueiia
iauyniaiea oaeoia, ianoiyoaeuenoa, ioiinyueony e aeaeo.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia cia/aiea aa?nee iiaeao auoue ?anniio?aii a o?ao
aniaeoao: aiinaieiae/aneii, i?aaiecaoeeiiiii e oaeoe/aneii.

N aiinaieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, aa?neth ?anniao?eaatho eae iaoiae (eee
n?aaenoai) iiciaiey enoeiu a noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeie acaeyae ia
aa?neth ii?aaaeai aa eiae/aneie i?e?iaeie, iaeiaei anee auoue oi/iui, oi
neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi naia ii naaa aa?ney ia yaeyaony n?aaenoaii
i?e?auaiey ciaiey, n?aaenoaii ia?aoiaea io aa?iyoiinoe e aeinoiaa?iinoe
a noaeaaiii enneaaeiaaiee. Oaeoth ?ieue ea?aao i?ioeann i?iaa?ee aa?nee.

Anee naia aa?ney i?aaenoaaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii eiaeoeoeaiiai
oiicaeeth/aiey, oi auaaaeaiea ec iaa neaaenoaee, o.a. ii?aaeaeaiea oao
oaeoia, yaeaiee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu nouanoaiaaoue eee ia nouanoaiaaoue,
anee aa?ney aa?ia, – ?acoeueoao aeaaeoeoeee, iino?iaiea aeaaeoeoeaiuo
oiicaeeth/aiee.

Iie?aynue ia enoiaeiua aeaiiua, aa?ney aeieaeia ia i?inoi iauynieoue eo,
ii e ?ane?uoue ana aeaeu naycae iaaeaeo ieie. Niaea?aeaiea aa?nee,
?acoiaaony, anaaaea oe?a niaea?aeaiey enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo, oae eae
aeeth/aao e i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oaeoao, aua ia onoaiiaeaiiuo. Iaeiaei i?e
yoii niaea?aeaiea enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo – a iie iiaoo auoue ii/a?iioou eae
ec i?ioeannoaeueiuo enoi/ieeia (aeieacaoaeuenoaa), oae e ec
iai?ioeannoaeueiuo (i?eaioe?othuay eioi?iaoeey) – aeieaeii iieiinoueth
oeeaaeuaaoueny a niaea?aeaiea aa?nee. Anee aa?ney ia iiaeao iauynieoue
ana ecaanoiua ia iiiaio aa auaeaeaeaiey enoiaeiua aeaiiua, yoi icia/aao,
/oi:

1) oaeo, auoiaeyuee ca i?aaeaeu niaea?aeaiey aa?nee, ia eiaao ioiioaiey
e aeaiiiio niauoeth, ia naycai n iei;

2) aa?ney a oeaeii ia?aaeueia, ia io?aaeaao iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuae
iaaeaeo oaeoaie nayce e ia iiaeao neoaeeoue iai?aaeaieai a
?anneaaeiaaiee;

3) aa?ney ioaeaeaaony a ei??aeoe?iaea n oai, /oiau iauynieoue anth
niaieoiiinoue eiathueony oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo.

Ia?yaeo n eiie?aoiuie oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie, nouanoaaiioth ?ieue i?e
iino?iaiee e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo aa?nee ea?atho ni?aai/iua aeaiiua
iaiauaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, io?aaeathuea aeaiiua iaoee e i?aeoeee. A yoie
nayce neaaeoao inoaiiaeoueny ia oae iacuaaaiuo oeie/iuo aa?neyo.

Iiiyoea oeie/iuo aa?nee auei noi?ioee?iaaii ?.N. Aaeeeiui a 1966 a. Iiae
oeie/iie aa?neae iiieiaaony iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iia (oi/iaa, iaeii ec
iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuo) aeey aeaiiie neooaoeee, n oi/ee c?aiey iaiauaiiie
neaaenoaaiiie, noaeaaiie eee yenia?oiie i?aeoeee, i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueiia
iauyniaiea oaeoa eee ?anneaaeoaiiai niauoey a oeaeii. Niune
eniieueciaaiey yoeo aa?nee caeeth/aaony a iauyniaiee yaeaiey i?e
ieieiaeueiuo enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo, /oi iaiaoiaeeii, iai?eia?, aeey auai?a
iai?aaeaiey ?anneaaeiaaiey a naiii aai ia/aea. Oae, iaeiiai oaeoa
iaia?oaeaiey aceiiaiiiai caiea ia aeaa?yo iaaaceia aeinoaoi/ii aeey
auaeaeaeaiey aa?nee i e?aaea, einoeaie?iaea e?aaee, ooeeaaineeo
aeaenoaeyo, iiiuoea i?iieeiooue a iiiauaiea i?e oo?aoa eeth/a
nianoaaiieeii eee ioaaonoaaiiui ca eiouanoai eeoeii.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi oeie/iua aa?nee eiatho aanueia ia?aie/aiiia
iiciaaaoaeueiia cia/aiea. Iie iiaoo aeaoue oieueei naiia iauaa
i?aaenoaaeaiea i niauoee, eioi?ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii auoue
eiie?aoece?iaaii a aeaeueiaeoai.

I?e iino?iaiee e i?iaa?ea aa?nee iiieii eiaeoeoeee e aeaaeoeoeee
eniieuecothony e ae?oaea eiae/aneea “eino?oiaiou” – aiaeec e neioac,
aiaeiaey, iaiauaiea e i?.

Aoi?ie aniaeo ?anniio?aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiie ?iee e?eieiaeenoe/aneie
aa?nee – i?aaiecaoeeiiiue. Ii iauaio iiaieth, aa?nee ii?aaeaeytho
iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe neaaeiaaoaey, noaea, yenia?oa, iia?aoeaiiai
?aaioieea, yaeyynue i?aaiecothuei ia/aeii e “yae?ii” ieaie?iaaiey
aeaenoaee.

Iaeiiaoe, o?aoueei aniaeoii ooieoeeiiaeueiie ?iee aa?nee neoaeeo
oaeoe/aneee aniaeo, ii?aaeaeaiea, /ai neoaeeo aa?ney n oaeoe/aneie oi/ee
c?aiey: oaeoe/aneei i?eaiii, iniiaaieai aeey i?eiyoey oaeoe/aneiai
?aoaiey eee naiei ?aoaieai?

Aa?ney ia yaeyaony ie oaeoe/aneei i?eaiii, ie oaeoe/aneei ?aoaieai. I
oaeoe/aneii cia/aiee aa?nee neaaeoao aiai?eoue eeoue i?eiaieoaeueii e
i?ioeannai aa auaeaeaeaiey e i?iaa?ee.

Iiiai/eneaiiua eeanneoeeaoeee e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo aa?nee iiaeii naanoe e
neaaeothuei iniiaiui aeaeai:

– ii noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe – neaaenoaaiiua, iia?aoeaii-?icuneiua,
noaeaaiua, yenia?oiua aa?nee; ?aciiaeaeiinoueth neaaenoaaiiuo aa?nee
yaeythony ?icuneiua aa?nee neaaeiaaoaey;

– ii noauaeoo auaeaeaeaiey;

– ii iauaio (e?oao iauyniyaiuo oaeoia) – iauea e /anoiua;

– noaiaie ii?aaeaeaiiinoe – oeie/iua e eiie?aoiua.

Naiaeiay eeanneoeeaoeeiiiay noaia aa?nee auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

E?eieiaeenoe/aneea aa?nee – nouanoaaiiue, ii ia aaeeinoaaiiue yeaiaio
eiae/aneeo iniia aeieacuaaiey. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, a aeieacuaaiee i?e
iino?iaiee e i?iaa?ea aa?nee eniieuecothony e eiua eiae/aneea eaoaai?ee.
Ii yoe eaoaai?ee – aiaeec e neioac, aeaaeoeoeey e eiaeoeoeey e o.i. –
neoaeao eino?oiaioaie eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey noauaeoa aeieacuaaiey e ai
anao oacao ?aaiou n aeieacaoaeuenoaaie: i?e eo niae?aiee, enneaaeiaaiee,
ioeaiea e eniieueciaaiee, /oi aoaeao aeaoaeueii ?anniio?aii a
iineaaeothueo aeaaao ?aaiou. Caeanue aea oeaeaniia?acii ?anniio?aoue aua
iaeii iai?aaeaiea i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey, iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiia n
eiae/aneei caeiiii eneeth/aiiiai o?aoueaai. ?a/ue eaeao i aeieacuaaiee
oae iacuaaaiuo io?eoeaoaeueiuo oaeoia.

Iiae io?eoeaoaeueiui oaeoii I.N. No?iaiae/ iiieiaao “ionoonoaea
eaeiai-eeai oaeoa, niauoey, aeaenoaey”. Iaeiaei ii aii?ino i
nouanoaiaaiee e ?iee io?eoeaoaeueiuo oaeoia nouanoaotho ?acee/iua
iiaiey.

Oae, A.I. Ieeeoei n/eoaao iiae?acaeaeaiea oaeoia ia ooaa?aeeoaeueiua e
io?eoeaoaeueiua oaeei eo aiinaieiae/aneei aeaeaieai, eioi?ia nouanoaaiii
aeey iiieiaiey oaeoieiae/aneiai iauyniaiey. Ii ieoao: “Aeaei a oii, /oi
iauyniyaiui iiaeao auoue ia oieueei nouanoaiaaiea (iaee/ea), ii e
ianouanoaiaaiea (ionoonoaea) eaeiai-eeai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iauaeoa.
Iauyniyaiia ia?aiai oeia iienuaaaony iin?aaenoaii ooaa?aeeoaeueiiai
oaeooaeueiiai iieiaeaiey, eioi?ia iu aoaeai iacuaaoue ooaa?aeeoaeueiui
oaeoii… Iauyniyaiia aoi?iai oeia iienuaaaony iin?aaenoaii
io?eoeaoaeueiiai oaeooaeueiiai iieiaeaiey, eioi?ia iu iaciaai
io?eoeaoaeueiui oaeoii”.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiay oi/ea c?aiey au?aaeaaony a iai?eciaiee io?eoeaoaeueiuo
oaeoia ii oie i?e/eia, /oi oaeo – yoi eeoue “iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuaa”,
a ianouanoaothuaa ia iiaeao auoue i?eciaii oaeoii.

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi n iiceoeee e?eieiaeenoeee e aeieacuaaiey neaaeoao
i?eciaoue nouanoaiaaiea io?eoeaoaeueiuo oaeoia. A aei?aaiethoeeiiiie
i?ioeannoaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a yoi iiaiea auei iauai?eciaiiui. Oae, N.A.
Iiciuoaa ienae: “Aeieacuaaaiu iiaoo auoue eae ooaa?aeeoaeueiua, oae e
io?eoeaoaeueiua iieiaeaiey, iai?eia?, /oi oaeie-oi noauaeo ia aue a
oaeie-oi /an a ecaanoiii ianoa. A naiii aeaea, oaeia iieiaeaiea oieueei
ii oi?ia io?eoeaoaeueiia, ii nouanoao aea iii ne?uaaao a naaa
ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi noauaeo iaoiaeeeny a ecaanoiii eiii ianoa. Ii
aeieacuaaaiu iiaoo auoue eeoue iieiaeaiey, io?eoeathuea eiie?aoiue oaeo,
a ia iinyuea iauee iaii?aaeaeaiiue, io?eoeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?”. I?e/ai ec
aeieacaoaeuenoaa io?eoeaoaeueiiai oaeoa ia neaaeoao, /oi oai naiui
ooaa?aeaeaaony i?ioeaiiieiaeiia. Yoi i?eiaieoaeueii e aii?ino i
aeiiaiinoe ioia/ae E.A. Aeaaeeie?ia: “Ionoonoaea aeieacaoaeuenoa
iaaeiiaiinoe ia neaaeoao i?aa?auaoue a aeieacaoaeuenoai aeiiaiinoe”.

Ionoonoaea ieiei o?oia neaaeia e?iae, anee e?iaue, noaey ii
iia?aaeaeaieyi ia oaea, iaycaoaeueii aeieaeia auea au auoue, noieue aea
?aaeueii, eae e iaee/ea e?iae a ae?oaii neo/aa. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai
aiieia oaeiaeaoai?yao oaeiio i?eciaeo oaeoa, eae aai cia/aiea “auoue
iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuei”. Iaeia ec ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo o?aeoiaie
iaaaoeaiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa e caeeth/aaony eiaiii a oii, /oi iie eae ?ac e
iiieiathony oieueei eae “oaeou ionoonoaey”, o.a. eae io?eoeaoaeueiua
oaeou. Yoi, i?aaaea, ae?oaay e?aeiinoue, iineieueeo iaaaoeaiui iiaeao
auoue e iieiaeeoaeueiue oaeo – iaee/ea /aai-oi, /aai ia aeieaeii auei
auoue a aeaiiie neooaoeee eee aiiaua.

A ea/anoaa io?eoeaoaeueiuo oaeoia iiaoo aunooiaoue ?acee/iua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, a oii /enea aoiaeyuea a i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey, a
iaeioi?ua ec ieo iiaoo ia?aciauaaoue niaie aeaaea ninoaa i?anooieaiey
(iai?eia?, ianiaa?oaiea aeaenoaey, eioi?ia noauaeo aeieaeai aue
niaa?oeoue a aeaiiie neooaoeee). I?eciaiea nouanoaiaaiey io?eoeaoaeueiuo
oaeoia a oaeie eo eioa?i?aoaoeee auoaeaao e ec i?eiyoiai a i?aaa iiiyoey
th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia eae oneiaee eee ianoiyoaeuenoa, n eioi?uie i?aaiaua
ii?iu naycuaatho ianooieaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiauo iineaaenoaee, o.a.
aicieeiiaaiea, eciaiaiea eee i?ae?auaiea noauaeoeaiuo i?aa e
niioaaonoaothueo ei i?aaiauo iaycaiiinoae.

Iaia?oaeaiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai oaeoa i?e i?iaa?ea aa?nee, enoiaeiuie
aeaiiuie aeey iino?iaiey eioi?ie neoaeeee oieueei oaeou iieiaeeoaeueiua,
aua ia icia/aao ai anao neo/ayo, /oi yoa aa?ney iaaa?ia e o?aaoao
ei??aeoe?iaee eee caiaiu. Io?eoeaoaeueiue oaeo iiaeao niaeaniauaaoueny n
iieiaeeoaeueiuie oaeoaie e a iaeiie nenoaia iauyniaiey iiaeao auoue
iai?ioeai?a/eaui ii ioiioaieth e iei. Iai?eia?, oaeie io?eoeaoaeueiue
oaeo, eae ionoonoaea io?aiu iauaeoa, aaea auea niaa?oaia e?aaea, ia
oieueei ia i?ioeai?a/eo oaeoai iaia?oaeaiey aceiiaiiiai caiea, iaee/ey
neaaeia i?aauaaiey ia iauaeoa iinoi?iiieo eeoe e o.i., ii iieiinoueth
niaeanoaony n ieie e neoaeeo iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai aa?nee i e?aaea,
iino?iaiiie ia eo iniiaa. Oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea io?eoeaoaeueiue oaeo ia
iiaeao auoue iauyniai n oi/ee c?aiey i?iaa?yaiie aa?nee, ii nua?aao
?ieue oaeoa, ia aienuaathuaainy a yoo aa?neth. Ii a yoii neo/aa aai
?ieue ie/ai ia ioee/aaony io ?iee i?ioeai?a/aueo aa?nee iieiaeeoaeueiuo
oaeoia.

Eioa?anai aii?in: ana ee oaeou, iiiaaeathuea a i?aeoo i?ioeanna
aeieacuaaiey, aeieaeiu aeieacuaaoueny? Ioaao ia iaai, ?acoiaaony,
io?eoeaoaeueiue.

Ai-ia?auo, ia iiaeeaaeao aeieacuaaieth oaeou, ia ioiinyueany e aeaeo,
i?aaeiaoo aeieacuaaiey. Oioy, no?iainoe ?aaee, ioiaoei, /oi yoio iiiaio
iiaeao i?iynieoueny aeaeaei ia n?aco.

Ai-aoi?uo, ia iiaeeaaeao aeieacuaaieth oae iacuaaaiua iauaecaanoiua
oaeou. I?aaaea, iiiyoea iauaecaanoiinoe o?aeooaony ii-?aciiio. Oae, A.N.
Oaeueaeooaei ienae: “Iauaecaanoiinoue, iineieueeo iia ioaeaeaaony a
ii?aaeaeaiee, anoue iaeanoue oaeeo oaeoia, eioi?ua a aeaiiue iiiaio
n/eoathony aannii?ii onoaiiaeaiiuie a niciaiee /aeiaa/anoaa”. A oi aea
a?aiy ii n/eoae, /oi “aii?in ia iauaecaanoiinoe oaeoa ia oae i?ino, eae
yoi eaaeaony n ia?aiai acaeyaea, aaeaeo eciai/eainoe caiana
/aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey. Aannii?ii eeoue neaaeothuaa. Oaeou, ecaanoiua
noi?iiai, ii ia ecaanoiua noaeo, aeieaeiu iiaeeaaeaoue aeieacuaaieth.
Oaeou, ecaanoiua noaeo, aeieacuaaieth ia iiaeeaaeao, ca eneeth/aieai
oiai neo/ay, eiaaea iie noaiiayony ecaanoiuie noaeo /anoiui iooai, aia
noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa”.

Aeoiaaony, /oi ai aoi?ie /anoe naieo ?annoaeaeaiee aaoi? ionooiee io
naiaai aea ii?aaeaeaiey iauaecaanoiinoe oaeoia. I/aaeaeii, /oi oaeou, i
eioi?uo ii aaaeao ?a/ue i?eiaieoaeueii e noaeaaiiio ?acae?aoaeuenoao, ia
iiaoo n/eoaoueny iauaecaanoiuie i?inoi iioiio, /oi iie ecaanoiu ia anai
aai o/anoieeai. Iauaecaanoiinoue oaeoa i?aaeiieaaaao aai ecaanoiinoue
anai; aai iaecaanoiinoue eaeei-eeai ioaeaeueiui eeoeai aeieaeia auoue
iauynieia iiyoue-oaee iauaecaanoiuie i?e/eiaie, ia o?aaothueie
aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

A-o?aoueeo, ia iiaeeaaeao aeieacuaaieth ianoiyoaeuenoaa
“naa?ouanoanoaaiiua, i?ioeai?a/auea ecaanoiui iai caeiiai i?e?iaeu e
iioiio iaaiciiaeiua n oi/ee c?aiey eo… eaeiau /oaeana, enoeaeaiea
iieeoaith, aeeyiea caaiai?ia, auieiaiey neaaea e o.i.”). Yoe neiaa
cao/ao aanueia ceiaiaeiaaii a iaoe aeie i?e iiaaeueiii oaea/aiee
?aeeaeae “iiaiia?auaiiuo” a/a?aoieo aieinoaothueo aoaenoia, iaeeee
noaaa?ee e anaaiciiaeiie ienoeee.

Eiae/aneea iniiau aeieacuaaiey aeeth/atho a naay ?yae aeneii,
io?aaeathueo iauea caeiiu i?aaeeueiiai iuoeaiey.

1. Aeieacuaaaiue oaeo, ianoiyoaeuenoai e n?aaenoaa aai aeieacuaaiey
aeieaeiu auoue yaiuie e oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiuie. N oi/ee c?aiey eiaeee, yoi
icia/aao, /oi oacen (oi, /oi aeieacuaaaony) e a?aoiaiou (n?aaenoaa
aeieacuaaiey) aeieaeiu auoue au?aaeaiu iaeiicia/ii, ia aeieaeiu
aeiioneaoue ?acee/iua oieeiaaiey, i?e/ai a?aoiaiou aeieaeiu auoue
enoeiiuie.

2. Ia anai i?ioyaeaiee i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey oaeoa, ianoiyoaeuenoaa
aeieacuaaaiia aeieaeii inoaaaoueny iaeiei e oai aea. Yoi o?aaiaaiea
auoaeaao ec eiae/aneiai caeiia oiaeaeanoaa: eaaeaeay iuneue, eioi?ay
i?eaiaeeony a aeaiiii oiicaeeth/aiee, i?e iiaoi?aiee aeieaeia eiaoue
iaeii e oi aea ii?aaeaeaiiia, onoie/eaia niaea?aeaiea. Ia?ooaiea yoiai
i?aaeea, eioi?ia a eiaeea eiaioaony “iiaeiaiie oacena” (ignoratio
elenchi), aaaeao e oiio, /oi ianoiyoaeuenoai inoaaony iaaeieacaiiui.

3. Aaaeiua i?aaeea aeieacuaaiey auoaeatho ec eiae/aneiai caeiia
i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?ue aeaneo: ia iiaoo auoue iaeiia?aiaiii enoeiiuie
aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiua iunee ia iaeiii e oii aea i?aaeiaoa, acyoii a
iaeii e oi aea a?aiy e a iaeiii e oii aea ioiioaiee. Aio yoe i?aaeea:

a) aeieacuaaaiia ianoiyoaeuenoai ia aeieaeii eiaoue i?ioeai?a/eaiai
niaea?aeaiey, o.a. ia auoue aioo?aiia i?ioeai?a/eaui (iai?eia?,
iaiano?aeueiia ioaa?noea ia iiaeao iaeiia?aiaiii oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny e
eae aoiaeiia, e eae auoiaeiia);

a) iaeuecy iaeiei aeoii aeieacuaaiey iuoaoueny aeieacaoue aeaa eiae/anee
i?ioeai?a/eauo ianoiyoaeuenoaa, oaeoa;

a) aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eniieuecoaiua aeey aeieacuaaiey oaeoa,
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ia aeieaeiu i?ioeai?a/eoue ae?oa ae?oao.

4. Aeaa aeieacuaaaiuo oaeoa, ianoiyoaeuenoaa, i?ioeai?a/auea ae?oa
ae?oao, ia iiaoo auoue iaa enoeiiuie eee iaa eiaeiuie. Yoi i?aaeei
iniiaaii ia eiae/aneii caeiia eneeth/aiiiai o?aoueaai: aeaa
i?ioeai?a/auea noaeaeaiey ia iiaoo auoue iaeiia?aiaiii ie enoeiiuie, ie
eiaeiuie e iao iaaeaeo ieie n?aaeiaai, o?aoueaai.

5. Aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea a i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey eiaao eiae/aneee caeii
aeinoaoi/iiai iniiaaiey: anyeay enoeiiay iuneue aeieaeia auoue
iainiiaaia ae?oaeie iuneyie, enoeiiinoue eioi?uo aeieacaia. Ec yoiai
caeiia auoaeatho neaaeothuea i?aaeea aeieacuaaiey:

a) oaeou aeieacuaathony a eiia/iii n/aoa oaeoaie;

a) n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey aeieaeiu auoue iieiuie;

a) n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey a naiae niaieoiiinoe aeieaeiu neoaeeoue
aeinoaoi/iui iniiaaieai aeey i?eciaiey aeieacaiiui ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
oaeoa – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui ia?ooaieai yoiai i?aaeea yaeyaony
ioeaea, eiaioaiay a eiaeea nonsequitur (“ia neaaeoao”, “ia auoaeaao”),
eiaaea iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia o?aaoaony aeieacaoue, ia neaaeoao, ia
auoaeaao ec i?eaaaeaiiuo a aai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea aeiaiaeia);

a) n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey naie aeieaeiu auoue enoeiiuie;

ae) enoeiiinoue n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey aeieaeia auoue onoaiiaeaia
iacaaeneii io aeieacuaaaiiai oaeoa, ianoiyoaeuenoaa;

a) aeieacuaaiea eiie?aoiuo ooaa?aeaeaiee ia aeieaeii iayaii iie?aoueny
ia i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia enoeiiinoe naieo yoeo ooaa?aeaeaiee – aicieeathuay
i?e ia?ooaiee yoiai i?aaeea eiae/aneay ioeaea iineo iacaaiea “e?oa a
aeieacaoaeuenoaa” (circulus in demonstrando).

Aeneiiu aeieacuaaiey eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea i?e iino?iaiee e i?iaa?ea
aa?nee, i?e/ai i?e iino?iaiee aa?nee iie neoaeao aacie aeey auaeaeaeaiey
eiaiii eiae/anee i?ioeai?a/eauo i?aaeiieiaeaiee oeia “oaeenoai –
naiioaeenoai”, “e?aaea – einoeaie?iaea (ionoonoaea) e?aaee” e o.i.

Iiieii oiiiyioouo, a i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey iiaoo eiaoue ianoi e eiua
eiae/aneea ioeaee. E eo /eneo iiaeii ioianoe iiniaoiia iaiauaiea, eiaaea
eaeia-oi naienoai i?aaeiaoa ia?aiinyo ia ae?oaea i?aaeiaou aeaiiiai
eeanna, ?iaea – iau/ii ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi ia ano?a/aeinue i?aaeiaoia,
o eioi?uo iao yoiai naienoaa; niaoaiea i?e/eiiie nayce n eiui aeaeii
nayce, iai?eia? i?ino?ainoaaiiie eee a?aiaiiie e ae?.

5. Ineoieiae/aneea iniiau aeieacuaaiey

Ii anai aii?inai oaaaeeoaeueiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa ioe?uaathony iaie eeoue
oiaaea, eiaaea iu e aac oiai aeinoaoi/ii oaaaeaeaiu a enoeiiinoe
aeieacuaaaiiai (Eiaeao Yoaao).

Ineoieiae/aneea iniiau aeieacuaaiey – yoi ineoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe
aeayoaeueiinoe a i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey aai noauaeoia – neaaeiaaoaey e
ae?oaeo noauaeoia aeieacuaaiey.

I ineoieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoyo neaaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ineoieiaee
ae?oaeo o/anoieeia i?ioeanna nouanoaoao cia/eoaeueiay e?eieiaeenoe/aneay
e i?ioeannoaeueiay eeoa?aoo?a. Ana aaoi?u aaeeiiaeooiu a ioeaiea e
oa?aeoa?enoeea neaaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eae oai?/aneie,
i?ioaeathuae a oneiaeyo aeaoeoeeoa a?aiaie, a yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo,
aucuaathueo ii?ie no?anniaia ninoiyiea neaaeiaaoaey, o?aaothueo
iai?aeeia?iuo, ii?ie ya?enoe/aneeo ?aoaiee. Iiae/a?eeaaaony oaeay
iniaaiiinoue neaaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eae iaiaoiaeeiinoue
i?aiaeieaiey e iaeo?aeecaoeee i?ioeaiaeaenoaey eeoe, caeioa?aniaaiiuo a
iaoaea/a ?anneaaeiaaiey, a nie?uoee enoeiu ii aeaeo.

Ia inoaiaaeeaaynue ia aii?inao, aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii enneaaeiaaiiuo a
eeoa?aoo?a, ?anniio?ei eeoue iaeioi?ua aeeneonneiiiua e iaei
?ac?aaioaiiua i?iaeaiu ineoieiaee aeieacuaaiey. E eo /eneo ioiinyony
ineoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe neaaeiaaoaey a oneiaeyo
oaeoe/aneiai ?enea e eioi?iaoeeiiiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, oeie/iua oi?iu e
niiniau i?ioeaiaeaenoaey ?anneaaeiaaieth, ineoieiae/aneea iniiau
oi?ie?iaaiey aioo?aiiaai oaaaeaeaiey noauaeoia aeieacuaaiey.

Oeie/iie aeey ia/aea i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey i?aaenoaaeyaony neooaoeey
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, a eioi?ie i?eoiaeeony aeaenoaiaaoue
neaaeiaaoaeth, iineieueeo aieueoeinoai i?anooieaiee, iniaaiii oyaeeeo,
niaa?oaaony a oneiaeyo iai/aaeaeiinoe. Eiaiii ia neooaoeeth
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe ?ann/eoaiu oeie/iua aa?nee e
?ac?aaaouaaaiua aeai?eoiu ?anneaaeiaaiey. Iaeiie ec caaea/
ia?aiia/aeueiiai yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey e yaeyaony ono?aiaiea eee oioy au
nouanoaaiiia ineaaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, iaeiieaiea
aeaiiuo, iicaieythueo neaaeiaaoaeth ninoaaeoue aieaa eee iaiaa iieiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i niauoee e aai o/anoieeao.

Oeie/iinoue neooaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe iaoneiaeeaaao
o?aaiaaiey e iaee/eth o neaaeiaaoaey ii?aaeaeaiiuo ineoieiae/aneeo
ea/anoa: iaaethaeaoaeueiinoe, aieiaoaeueiinoe, niiniaiinoe e
aeaoaeueiiio aiaeeco ianoaiiaee, e oai?/aneiio iuoeaieth e, iaeiiaoe,
yiioeeiiaeueiie onoie/eainoe. A niaieoiiinoe ni ciaieai caeiiiia?iinoae
aicieeiiaaiey eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee e i?anooiieea, niiniaia
niaa?oaiey e nie?uoey i?anooieaiee yoi aeaao aio aiciiaeiinoue
iaeiieaiey naaaeaiee i iaoaiecia niauoey e iieo/aiey iniiaaiee aeey
i?eiyoey iaiaoiaeeiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e oaeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Aa?nee, oi?ie?othueany ia ia/aeueiii yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey, iicaieytho
ia/aoue ?anneaaeiaaiea ii ai?y/ei neaaeai e iinoaiaiii i?aiaeieaoue
eioi?iaoeeiiioth iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue. Yoei aea oeaeyi neoaeao a i?eioeeia
e ia?aiia/aeueiua neaaenoaaiiua aeaenoaey.

Oae, iaeiie ec caaea/ iniio?a ianoa i?ienoanoaey, i?iaiaeeiiai aua aei
aicaoaeaeaiey oaieiaiiai aeaea, neoaeeo i?eaioe?iaaiea neaaeiaaoaey a
nouanoaa niauoey, iiaeeaaeauaai ?anneaaeiaaieth. Oniaoiia auiieiaiea
yoie caaea/e iicaieyao n?aco aea nie?aoeoue /enei oeie/iuo aa?nee,
i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii iauyniythueo iaoaieci e niaea?aeaiea niauoey,
aua?aoue iaeaieaa i?aaeeueiia iai?aaeaiea ?anneaaeiaaiey. Ia neo/aeii
iiyoiio io ea/anoaa iniio?a ianoa i?ienoanoaey a eiia/iii n/aoa caaeneo
oniao ?anneaaeiaaiey.

Iuneeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue neaaeiaaoaey i?e iniio?a i?ioaeaao ia oiia
oao ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho aai ninoiyiea e
niiniaiinoue auiieiaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaea/. Aiaeece?oy
ineoieiae/aneea iniiau iniio?a ianoa i?ienoanoaey, O.A. Aeacu?ei
ni?aaaaeeeai caiaoee: “Eiaiii oaeay neiaeiay iuneeoaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue neaaeiaaoaey, iniiaaiiay ia i?aaiauo,
e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo, ineoieiae/aneeo ciaieyo, i?ioanneiiaeueiii e
aeeciaiiii iiuoa, n eniieueciaaieai iiiiue niaoeeaeenoia, ae?oaeo
o/anoieeia yoiai i?ioeannoaeueiiai aeaenoaey, ia i?iyaeaiee
i?ioanneiiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiuo ineoieiae/aneeo ea/anoa, aeaeaao iniio?
ianoa i?ienoanoaey ?aoeeiiaeueiui e yooaeoeaiui, iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue
naycue iaia?oaeaiiuo iauaeoia n ?anneaaeoaiui niauoeai, auyaeoue
?acee/iua i?e/eiiua caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo iaia?oaeaiiuie yaeaieyie,
iaaaoeaiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ?aniiciaoue aiciiaeiua einoeaie?iaee”. Oaeei
ia?acii, n iieiui i?aaii iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi ineoieiae/aneea iniiau
iniio?a – ninoaaiay /anoue ineoieiaee aeieacuaaiey.

Oi aea naiia ioiineony e e ae?oaei neaaenoaaiiui aeaenoaeyi, a
iniaaiiinoe oai, i?e i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?uo neaaeiaaoaeue noaeeeaaaony n
i?ioeaiaeaenoaeai ?anneaaeiaaieth, ia /ai iiae?iaiaa iu inoaiiaeiny
aeaeaa.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue, a oneiaeyo eioi?ie i?ioaeaao
i?ioeann aeieacuaaiey, aeaeaao aanueia aeooaeueiui ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu
oaeoe/aneiai ?enea.

A iauae oi?ia iiae oaeoe/aneei ?eneii iiieiaaony aeiiouaiea
io?eoeaoaeueiiai ?acoeueoaoa i?aaei?eieiaaiuo neaaeiaaoaeai aeaenoaee a
i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey.

Neooaoeey ?enea aicieeaao oaea ia ia/aeueiii yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey,
eiaaea neaaeiaaoaeue noieo ia?aae auai?ii iaeaieaa aa?iyoiie aa?nee,
iiaeeaaeauae i?iaa?ea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue. ?ene a yoii neo/aa
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi “neaaeiaaoaeue, “caiueaynue” ia iaeio, iaeaieaa
iiaeoiaeyuoth, ia aai acaeyae, aa?neth, inoaaeyao aac aieiaiey
inoaeueiua aa?nee, oioneay a?aiy, n eaaeaeui aeiai oo?a/eaay
aiciiaeiinoe ?ane?uoue i?anooieaiea”. Anoanoaaiii, /oi neooaoeey ?enea
nicaeaao ii?aaeaeaiioth ineoieiae/aneoth iai?yaeaiiinoue, i?aiaeieaoue
eioi?oth, e oi aei ecaanoiie noaiaie, iicaieyao eeoue i?ioanneiiaeueiay
aaeaioaoeey neaaeiaaoaey e ?eneiaaiiui neooaoeeyi.

Eae ioia/aao A.A. Ci?ei, “?ene – anoanoaaiiue ninoaaiie yeaiaio
neaaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a oneiaeyo eiioeaio?aoeee i?iaeaiiuo
neooaoeee, eioi?ua iinoiyiii noaayo neaaeiaaoaey ia?aae
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth auai?a”.

A ineoieiaee iiae ?eneii iiieiatho neooaoeaioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo
aeayoaeueiinoe, ninoiyuoth a iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe aa enoiaea e aiciiaeiuo
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo iineaaenoaeyo a neo/aa iaoniaoa. Yoi iiiyoea eiaao a
ineoieiaee o?e acaeiinaycaiiuo cia/aiey:

1) ?ene eae ia?a iaeeaeaaiiai iaaeaaiiieo/ey i?e iaoniaoa a
aeayoaeueiinoe, ii?aaeaeyaiay ni/aoaieai aa?iyoiinoe iaoniaoa e noaiaie
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo iineaaenoaee a yoii neo/aa;

2) ?ene eae aeaenoaea, a oii eee eiii ioiioaiee a?icyuaa noauaeoo
iioa?ae (i?iea?uoai, o?aaiie, oua?aii);

3) ?ene eae neooaoeey auai?a iaaeaeo aeaoiy aiciiaeiuie aa?eaioaie
aeaenoaey: iaiaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiui, caoi aieaa iaaeaaeiui, e aieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiui, ii iaiaa iaaeaaeiui, enoiae eioi?iai i?iaeaiaoe/ai e
naycai n aiciiaeiuie iaaeaaii?eyoiuie iineaaenoaeyie.

Iau/ii auaeaeytho ?ene ii?aaaeaiiue e iaii?aaaeaiiue e ?acee/atho aeaa
?aciiaeaeiinoe ?eneiaaiiuo neooaoeee:

a) aaea enoiae caaeneo io neo/ay (oainiaua neooaoeee);

a) aaea enoiae caaeneo io niiniaiinoae noauaeoa (neooaoeee iaauea).

Ieacuaaaony, /oi i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue ?enea
iaaethaeaaony a neooaoeeyo, naycaiiuo ia n oainii, a n iaaueii, “eiaaea
/aeiaae n/eoaao, /oi io iaai /oi-oi caaeneo”.

Iineieueeo i?iaeaiiay neooaoeey oeie/ia aeey neaaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe aiiaua, a oii /enea e i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiuo
neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, aiciiaeiinoue iaaeaaii?eyoiuo iineaaenoaee
iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ia oieueei i?e auai?a iai?aaeaiey ?anneaaeiaaiey
(ioaeaaay i?aaeii/oaiea iaeaieaa aa?iyoiie aa?nee), ii i?e i?iecaiaenoaa
i?aaeuyaeaiey aeey iiiciaiey, neaaenoaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa, iaunea e o.i.

Auai? ?aoaiey a neooaoeee ?enea iiaeao auoue ?acoeueoaoii eiae/aneiai
aiaeeca neooaoeee, “i?in/aoa” aiciiaeiuo iineaaenoaee aeaenoaee a
niaieoiiinoe n ia?aie ii nieaeaieth noaiaie ?enea, ii iiaeao auoue e
eiooeoeaai, a ia?aii i?eaeeaeaiee iaiauyniei, auoue neaaenoaeai einaeoa,
aiacaiiiai “ica?aiey” neaaeiaaoaey. Oaeia ica?aiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeiaaaeeo, a iniiaa eioi?ie iao ie/aai naa?ouanoanoaaiiiai, ia
iiaeaeathuaainy aiaeeco.

Ii ii?aaeaeaieth A.?. ?aoeiiaa, iaeiei ec ia?auo enneaaeiaaaoeo i?iaeaio
eiooeoeee i?eiaieoaeueii e neaaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, “eiooeoeey –
iainiciaiiia iinoeaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo iieiaeaiee, eioi?ia ia auaaaeaii
eiae/aneei iooai”. Ii eiooeoeey, eae e ethaia ?aoaiea, iniiaaii ia
i?ioeii iiuoa /aeiaaea. Eiooeoeaiia ?aoaiea iiaeaeaaony eiae/aneiio
aiaeeco, iicaieythuaio auyaeoue oio iooue, eioi?ue oaeoe/anee i?eaae e
eiooeoeaiiio ?aoaieth, oioy yoio iooue i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ia
iniciaaaeny, nouanoaiaae a “naa?iooii aeaea”. Eae ioia/aao A.?. ?aoeiia,
ca/anooth iuneeoaeueiue i?ioeann i?ioaeaao iaoeiaeii, ia?yaeo n iieiuie
eiae/aneeie oi?iaie, eioi?ua i?eieiathony a nie?auaiiii aeaea, a eiua
aiana auiaaeatho, iioneathony eae aeaaii ecaanoiua, i?iaa?aiiua iiuoii,
aeieacaiiua i?aeoeeie eee onoaiiaeaiiua eaeie-eeai io?aneueth ciaiee. A
?acoeueoaoa iieo/aiiue auaiae i?aaenoaaeyaony /enoie, ie/ai ia
iaoneiaeaiiie aeiaaaeeie. Oaeoe/anee aea ii aue iiaeaioiaeai
i?aaeuaeouei iuneeoaeueiui i?ioeannii. “Aniuoeaay a niciaiee eae aioiaia
iieiaeaiea, eiooeoeaiay aeiaaaeea ia?aneaeeaaao /a?ac ?yae caaiueaa
iniciaiiiai eiae/aneiai ?annoaeaeaiey e ioe?uaaao naienoaa e nayce
yaeaiee i?aaeaea, /ai aeeneo?neaiia iuoeaiea neaaeiaaoaey oniaao
aeieacaoue eo niioaaonoaea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe… A i?ioeanna
aeieacuaaiey ciaiea eiooeoeaiia aeieaeii auoue i?aa?auaii a eiae/anee e
oaeoe/anee iainiiaaiiia aeinoiaa?iia ciaiea”.

Eiooeoeey neaaeiaaoaey iiaeao nua?aoue nouanoaaiioth ?ieue ia oieueei a
neooaoeee oaeoe/aneiai ?enea, ii e a ae?oaeo neo/ayo i?iyaeaiey
ineoieiae/aneeo naienoa ee/iinoe neaaeiaaoaey eae noauaeoa aeieacuaaiey,
iai?eia? i?e onoaiiaeaiee neaaeiaaoaeai ineoieiae/aneiai eiioaeoa n
i?ioiaeyueie ii aeaeo eeoeaie eae iaeiiai ec iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee
iieo/aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa “io ethaeae”.

Iiae ineoieiae/aneei eiioaeoii i?eiyoi iiieiaoue nicaeaiea aoiinoa?u
aeiaa?ey e neaaeiaaoaeth, iioeaai e oeaeyi aai aeaenoaee, oi?ie?iaaiea o
noauaeoa iauaiey ni neaaeiaaoaeai oaaaeaeaiey, /oi neaaeiaaoaeue a naieo
aeaenoaeyo e iiaaaeaiee ?oeiaiaenoaoaony eeoue aeaeaieai onoaiiaeoue
enoeio e naiaiaeai io anaai ee/iiai.

Ineoieiae/aneee eiioaeo onoaiaaeeaaaony a i?ioeanna iauaiey neaaeiaaoaey
n o/anoieeaie neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee. Iiaeaioiaea e yoiio iauaieth –
aaaeiue yeaiaio iiaeaioiaee e i?iaaaeaieth neaaenoaaiiiai aeaenoaey.
A.A. Aeoeia oeacuaaao, /oi onoaiiaeaiea ineoieiae/aneiai eiioaeoa
o?aaoao io neaaeiaaoaey i?iyaeaiey aai eiiioieeaoeaiuo naienoa; oiaiey
i?eaeaeaoue e naaa aieiaiea, i?iaoaeaeaoue eioa?an, aeiaa?ea, iiae/an
neiiaoeth e ee/iinoe neaaeiaaoaey. “Noaiaiue eniieueciaaiey
eiiioieeaoeaiuo naienoa iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io oeaeae
iauaiey, ee/iinoiuo ea/anoa o/anoieeia, n eioi?uie i?aaenoieo anooieoue
a iauaiea. Neaaeiaaoaeue aeieaeai no?aieoueny onoaiiaeaieai
ineoieiae/aneiai eiioaeoa aucaaoue i?aaeaeueioth ineoe/aneoth
aeoeaiinoue o aoaeoueo o/anoieeia”.

Iiieii onoaiiaeaiey ineoieiae/aneiai eiioaeoa, iiaeaioiaea neaaeiaaoaey
e iauaieth n o/anoieeaie neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee aeieaeia aeeth/aoue a
naay e iiaeaioiaeo aai e aeoeaiiio ineoe/aneiio aicaeaenoaeth ia
o/anoieeia, e iiaeaioiaeo e aiciiaeiiio i?ioeaiaeaenoaeth ni noi?iiu oao
o/anoieeia, eioi?ua caeioa?aniaaiu a nie?uoee enoeiu ii aeaeo.

Ii ii?aaeaeaieth I.I. Oaeaeoeiaa, “aicaeaenoaea neaaeiaaoaey ia
o/anoaothueo a aeaea eeoe n oeaeueth auiieiaiey caaea/, iinoaaeaiiuo
ia?aae iei caeiiii, aeiionoeii e i?aaiia?ii oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea o
noauaeoa, ia eioi?iai ieacuaaaony aicaeaenoaea, eiaaony naiaiaea auai?a
eeiee naiaai iiaaaeaiey, naiaiaea i?eiyoey oiai eee eiiai ?aoaiey a
eiie?aoiie i?ioeannoaeueii-oaeoe/aneie neooaoeee, naycaiiie n
?anneaaeiaaieai i?anooieaiey. Aeiionoeiia e i?aaiia?iia aicaeaenoaea
neaaeiaaoaey i?aaeaea anaai aeieaeii iiaoaeeoue /aeiaaea, ia eioi?iai
iii iai?aaeaii, e niciaoaeueiiio eciaiaieth i?eiyouo ?aoaiee, e oiio,
/oiau ia?aniio?aoue eeieth naiaai iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ay i?ioeai?a/eo
eioa?anai iauanoaa e oeaeyi i?aainoaeey”. Ia yoii aea ieoao e A.?.
?aoeiia: “I?aaiia?iia ineoe/aneia aeeyiea naii ii naaa ia aeeeooao
eiie?aoiia aeaenoaea, ia auiiaaao iieacaiea oiai eee eiiai niaea?aeaiey,
a aiaoeaaynue ai aioo?aiiea ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu, oi?ie?oao
i?aaeeueioth iiceoeeth /aeiaaea, niciaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e naiei
a?aaeaeaineei iaycaiiinoyi e eeoue iiin?aaenoaaiii i?eaiaeeo aai e
auai?o ii?aaeaeaiiie eeiee iiaaaeaiey”.

Ineoieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea neaaeiaaoaey ia o/anoieeia ?anneaaeiaaiey
ea?aao iniaaiii aaaeioth ?ieue i?e i?aiaeieaiee eo i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
onoaiiaeaieth enoeiu.

Oa?aeoa?ecoynue a oeaeii eae i?ioeaiaeaenoaea neaaenoaeth, oaeoeea
iaaeia?iniaanoiuo o/anoieeia neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee iiaeao au?aaeaoueny
a ianneaiii e aeoeaiii nii?ioeaeaiee oneeeyi neaaeiaaoaey onoaiiaeoue
enoeio ii aeaeo.

Oi?iaie ianneaiiai nii?ioeaeaiey yaeythony:

– ioeac io aea/e iieacaiee;

– iaiioeae?oaiia (“aieia”) io?eoeaiea oaeoia n oeaeueth auea?aoue a?aiy
aeey iino?iaiey nenoaiu eo ii?iaa?aeaiey;

– oiie/aiea i oaeoao;

– iayaea ii auciao neaaenoaaiiuo e noaeaaiuo i?aaiia;

– ianiiauaiea cai?aoeaaaiuo naaaeaiee e iaauaea/a o?aaoaiuo iauaeoia
(i?aaeiaoia, aeieoiaioia);

– iaieacaiea iiiiue;

– iaauiieiaiea o?aaoaiuo aeaenoaee e ioeac io o/anoey a neaaenoaaiiuo
aeaenoaeyo e/eee iiaeienaiey niioaaonoaothueo i?ioieieia.

Aeoeaiia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea neaaenoaeth i?iyaeyaony a neaaeothueo oi?iao:

– oiuoeaiiay aeaceioi?iaoeey neaaeiaaoaey – aea/a eiaeiuo iieacaiee,
iaiai, nicaeaiea eaeaaeieacaoaeuenoa iooai einoeaie?iaie,
oaeueneoeeaoeee i?aaeiaoia, aeieoiaioia e o.i.;

– nie?uoea e oie/oiaeaiea ioaeiuo i?aaeiaoia eee aeieoiaioia;

– iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoai e aea/a eiaeiuo iieacaiee e iaiiaeiiaaieth
neaaeiaaoaeth;

– neeiiaiea e ioeaco io aeaiiuo i?aaaeeauo iieacaiee iooai oa?ic, eiiai
ianeeey, iiaeeoia e o.i.;

– i?yiia nii?ioeaeaiea neaaeiaaoaeth;

– oie/oiaeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa i?e iciaeiieaiee n iaoa?eaeaie
neaaenoaey.

Ii iaeaieaa iianiuie oi?iaie i?ioeaiaeaenoaey ?anneaaeiaaieth yaeythony
iiioaeaeaiea neaaeiaaoaey e i?ioeaii?aaiui aeaenoaeyi e ?aoaieyi iooai
oa?ic, oece/aneiai ianeeey, iiaeeoia e o.i. Iniaaiii iianiue oa?aeoa?
i?eia?aoaao i?ioeaiaeaenoaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iii enoiaeeo io
auoanoiyueo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae neaaeiaaoaey, eiuo ei??oiie?iaaiiuo
nio?oaeieeia aeanoiuo no?oeoo?. I?aiaeieaiea iiaeiaiiai i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
o?aaoao iaee/ey o neaaeiaaoaey oaeeo ineoe/aneeo ea/anoa, eae ioaeanoai,
i?eioeeieaeueiinoue, ?aoeoaeueiinoue, o?aaoao oiaiey i?in/eouaaoue
aa?eaiou iineaaenoaee naieo aeaenoaee ii i?aiaeieaieth iaaaoeaiuo
aeeyiee.

Ineoieiae/aneoth ie?aneo eiaao e i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey aioo?aiiaai
oaaaeaeaiey neaaeiaaoaey e ae?oaeo noauaeoia aeieacuaaiey. Iiiyoea
aioo?aiiaai oaaaeaeaiey neaaeiaaoaey e noaea oi?ie?iaaeinue ia iniiaa
oai?ee naiaiaeiie ioeaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa a na?aaeeia XIX a. A ?innee
yoi iiiyoea i?eaeaeei e naaa naiia i?enoaeueiia aieiaiea a ia?eiae
?ac?aaioee e ia?aiai iiuoa i?eiaiaiey noaeaaiuo onoaaia 1864 a. A
iineaaeothuai yoi iiiyoea aiaeece?iaaeinue i?e oa?aeoa?enoeea ioeaiee
aeieacaoaeuenoa a ?aciuo nenoaiao oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna. A
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie i?ioeannoaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a any/anee
iiae/a?eeaaeinue, /oi ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa “ii aioo?aiiaio
oaaaeaeaieth e niaanoe” – yoi ia ?aoaiea aeaea “ii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
aia/aoeaieth eee ii i?iecaieueiiio oniio?aieth”. “Aeey oiai, /oiau
aioo?aiiaa oaaaeaeaiea ia ia?aoiaeeei a ee/iue i?iecaie, – ienae E.ss.
Oieieoeeee, – caeii, ia naycuaay noaeueth eaaaeueiuie i?aaeeaie,
caaioeony, iaeiaei, i au?aaioea aai oaaaeaeaiey i?e oneiaeyo e a
ii?yaeea, eioi?uie iaania/eaaaony, /oi anyeee ?annoaeeoaeueiue e
cae?aaiiuneyuee /aeiaae i?e oao aea aeaiiuo i?eoae au e iaeeiaeiaiio
caeeth/aieth. I?aaeea i oaeeo oneiaeyo e ii?yaeea eiatho aunieia
cia/aiea; eie onoaiaaeeaaaony a?aiue iaaeaeo noaeaeneith naiaiaeith e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui i?iecaieii”.

E.ss. Oieieoeeee e ae?oaea aaoi?u a oeaeii iaeeiaeiai o?aeoiaaee yoe
i?aaeea, n/eoay, /oi aioo?aiiaa oaaaeaeaiea aeieaeii auoue:

a) auaiaeii ec aeieacaoaeuenoa, i?iaa?aiiuo a ii?yaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiii
caeiiii;

a) iniiaaii ia ?anniio?aiee e ioeaiea anao aeieacaoaeuenoa ii aeaeo (“Ec
yoiai i?aaeea, iaania/eaathuaai iieiioo noaeaaiiai ?acai?a, auoaeaao
e?aeia aaaeiia i?aai noi?ii ia i?aaenoaaeaiea eiathueony o ieo
aeieacaoaeuenoa: noae ia iiaeao ioeacaoue ei a oaeii i?aaenoaaeaiee iiae
i?aaeeiaii, /oi aeaei aeey iaai oaea ?acuyniaii ae?oaeie
aeieacaoaeuenoaaie eee /oi ii ia eiaao e aeieacaoaeuenoao aeiaa?ey”);

a) iniiaaii ia ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa a eo niaieoiiinoe;

a) iniiaaii ia ioeaiea eaaeaeiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa “ii aai nianoaaiiie
i?e?iaea e ii nayce n aeaeii”.

Yoe iniiaaiey oi?ie?iaaiey aioo?aiiaai oaaaeaeaiey auee aini?eiyou e
niaaoneeie i?ioeannoaeenoaie: “aioo?aiiaa noaeaeneia oaaaeaeaiea anoue
?acoiiay (auaeaeaii iiie. – A.A.) oaa?aiiinoue niaaoneeo noaeae a
i?aaeeueiinoe eo auaiaeia ii aeaeo, aeinoeaiooay ouaoaeueiui e
ananoi?iiiei enneaaeiaaieai ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea e auoaeathuay ec
oaa?aei onoaiiaeaiiuo e aeinoiaa?iuo ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea. Noaeaeneia
oaaaeaeaiea eeoaii anyeie e??aoeeiiaeueiinoe, yoi ia eiooeoeey e ia
aacio/aoiia /oanoai, a oaa?aeay oaa?aiiinoue noaeae a aeiiaiinoe eee
iaaeiiaiinoe iaaeiyaiiai, iniiaaiiay ia oii, /oi eiaiii yoio auaiae – e
oieueei ii – auoaeaao ec ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea, a ana eiua aiciiaeiua
?aoaiey aeaea ioa?ioaiu eae iaoiaeyueany a i?ioeai?a/ee n
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie aeaea e ia niioaaonoaothuea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”.
Caiaoei, /oi “?acoiiay oaa?aiiinoue” icia/aao oaa?aiiinoue a
aeinoeaeaiee enoeiu, oaa?aiiinoue a iaaa?iyoiinoe i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai
auaiaea a aeaiiuo oneiaeyo, a ia aiiaua. A nouiinoe, ec yoiai iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiaeu ioiineoaeueii niaea?aeaiey iauaeoeaiie enoeiu eae
ni/aoaiey aeaiiuo aeinoiaa?iuo e aeaiiuo aanueia aa?iyoiuo, o.a.
aeaiiuo, ?acoiiay aa?iyoiinoue eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeyaony aeinoaoi/iie aeey
i?eiyoey oaaaeaeaiiiai ?aoaiey. ?acoiiay oaa?aiiinoue iniiauaaaony ia
?acoiiie aeinoaoi/iinoe.

I aiinaieiae/aneii e eiae/aneii cia/aiee aioo?aiiaai oaaaeaeaiey
oianoiaa aanoe ?a/ue i?e ?anniio?aiee oaeie oacu aeieacuaaiey, eae
ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa, iiyoiio caeanue ia?aie/einy ?anniio?aieai
aii?ina i ineoieiae/aneie i?e?iaea aioo?aiiaai oaaaeaeaiey.

N ineoieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, oaaaeaeaiea – yoi oaa?aiiinoue,
ionoonoaea niiiaiee a i?aaeeueiinoe auaiaea. Niiiaiea eae neiaeiia
ineoe/aneia ninoiyiea aeeth/aao “niciaiea iaaeieacaiiinoe,
iaoaaaeeoaeueiinoe, ia?aaeeaaiea iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe oai, /oi auaeaaony
ca enoeio, ca ?aoaiea iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e”. A.?. ?aoeiia n/eoaao, /oi a
i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey niiiaiey ea?atho iieiaeeoaeueioth ?ieue,
iineieueeo iiaoaeaeatho e iieneo iiauo aeaiiuo aeey eo ono?aiaiey.
Iineieueeo /oanoai oaa?aiiinoe e i?ioeaiiieiaeiia /oanoai niiiaiey
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie, ii oa?ieiieiaee ineoieiaee, eioaeeaeooaeueiua
yiioeee, aioo?aiiaa oaaaeaeaiea – eaoaai?ey ineoieiae/aneay, /oi
iiae/a?eeaaaony neiaii “aioo?aiiaa”. Aioo?aiiaa oaaaeaeaiea
oa?aeoa?ecoao ineoe/aneia ninoiyiea noauaeoa aeieacuaaiey, i?e/ai ia
oieueei neaaeiaaoaey e noae, ii e inoaeueiuo o/anoieeia yoiai i?ioeanna
e iiyoiio n iieiui i?aaii iiaeao n/eoaoueny iaeiei ec yeaiaioia
ineoieiae/aneeo iniia aeieacuaaiey.

6. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu i?e aeieacuaaiee

Niiniaiinoue iiciaaaoue aaue – a?iaeaeaiiia naienoai /aeiaaea;
aiciiaeiinoue auoue iiciaiiui – caeiiiia?iinoue aauae (Nthiue-Oecu).

Aeieacuaaiea, eae iiciaaaoaeueiue i?ioeann, iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue eae
i?ioeann ecaea/aiey, iaeiieaiey, ia?a?aaioee, ia?aaea/e e eniieueciaaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiie
nouiinoe yoiai i?ioeanna iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue naii iiiyoea
eioi?iaoeee aiiaua e aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee a /anoiinoe.

Ie a oeeinioee, ie a eeaa?iaoeea – iaoeao, iaeaieaa aeaoaeueii
enneaaeothueo aii?inu oai?ee eioi?iaoeee e aa nouiinoe, – iao aaeeiiai
iiieiaiey e ii?aaeaeaiey yoiai iiiyoey. Iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia
oai?ee eioi?iaoeee e eeaa?iaoeee I. Aeia?, eanaynue yoiai aii?ina a
naiie iauae oi?ia, ienae: “Eioi?iaoeey – yoi iaicia/aiea niaea?aeaiey,
iieo/aiiiai ec aiaoiaai ie?a a i?ioeanna iaoaai i?eniiniaeaiey e iaio e
i?eniiniaeaiey e iaio iaoeo i?aaiia /oanoa”. Ianeieueei aeaeaa ii
aiai?eo i oii, /oi eioi?iaoeey – yoi ia?a oii?yaei/aiiinoe. ?acaeaay yoo
iuneue e noaay aii?in i oii, ia?ie oii?yaei/aiiinoe /aai yaeyaony
eioi?iaoeey, E. Iiaee i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi eioi?iaoeey – yoi ia?a
oii?yaei/aiiinoe io?aaeaiey, iiaeiaii oiio eae ooi – ia?a oaioe/iinoe
io?aaeaiey.

I?e anao ?acee/eyo a ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoey eioi?iaoeee, a aieueoeinoaa ec
ieo oeacuaaaony, /oi eioi?iaoeey – yoi naaaeaiey, niiauaiey i /ai-oi – i
oaeoao, niauoeyo, i?ioeannao, yaeaieyo e o.i. “Iiiyoea eioi?iaoeee
icia/aao ciaiea i /ai-oi eee i eii-oi”, “eioi?iaoeey – yoi niiauaiea i
niauoeyo, i?ienoiaeyueo eae ai aiaoiae ii ioiioaieth e nenoaia n?aaea,
oae e a naiie nenoaia”.

Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae, noiyueo ia aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo
iiceoeeyo, n/eoatho eioi?iaoeeth naienoaii iaoa?ee. Ii eioi?iaoeey
anaaaea nouanoaoao ia aiiaua, a aeey eiai-oi e eae oaeiaay aicieeaao
oieueei n iiyaeaieai aa “iio?aaeoaey”.

Aeey ian i?aaenoaaeyao iniaue eioa?an aii?in ia eioi?iaoeeiiiie noi?iia
iinooieia, aeaenoaee ethaeae, o.a. iaeiie ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae niauoee. Ii
i?eia?o A.E. Ei?theeia, n yoie oi/ee c?aiey, iu iiae?acaeaeyai
eioi?iaoeeth ia eioi?iaoeeth i niauoee e eioi?iaoeeth ec niauoey. Ia?aay
au?aaeaao ia?o nayce niauoey n iineaaeothueie eciaiaieyie a ie?oaeathuae
n?aaea, aoi?ay – n iineaaeothueie eciaiaieyie: “Anyeia niauoea naycaii n
eciaiaieyie a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Eciaiaiey a n?aaea i?aaeoanoaotho
ianooieaieth niauoey, ianooieaiea niauoey, a naith i/a?aaeue, aucuaaao
eciaiaiey a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea… Aeey oiai /oiau ociaoue i niauoee, iu
aeieaeiu auaeaeeoue naycaiiua n iei eciaiaiey. Naycue eciaiaiee n
niauoeai nouanoaoao iauaeoeaii, noauaeoeaai eeoue niinia aa onoaiiaeaiey
(ii iiaeao auoue e ioeai/iui)… ?acoiaaony, ethaia eciaiaiea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeoue /anoue anao eciaiaiee, naycaiiuo n niauoeai.
Naycue eciaiaiee n niauoeai e oa?aeoa?ecoaony eioi?iaoeeae. Ae?oaeie
neiaaie, eioi?iaoeey anoue ia?a nayce niauoey e aucaaiiuo yoei niauoeai
eciaiaiee a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea”.

Ia?aaiaey ana yoi ia ycue oai?ee aeieacuaaiey, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
eciaiaiey, naycaiiua n niauoeai, anoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a ia?a nayce
aeieacaoaeuenoa n niauoeai, e eioi?iio iie ioiinyony, iaoiaeyuayny a
i?yiie caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaaiiiai e ea/anoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey yoeo
eciaiaiee, anoue aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiay eioi?iaoeey.

Aiaeec auneacaiiuo a eeoa?aoo?a iiaiee i nouanoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia i?e aeieacuaaiee iicaieyao caeeth/eoue, /oi iie a iauae oi?ia
naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio.

1. Aeieacuaaiea anoue i?ioeann, caeeth/athueeny a iieo/aiee, o?aiaiee,
ia?aaea/a e ia?a?aaioea eioi?iaoeee a niaoeeaeueiuo oeaeyo
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

2. Aeieacaoaeuenoai – neaiae (neaiae-ia?ac e o.i.) eee niiauaiea eae
aaeeinoai niaea?aeaiey, enoi/ieea e oi?iu.

3. Eioi?iaoeey (aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiay, noaeaaiay, eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiay e
o.i.) – naaaeaiey i niauoee eae i?aaeiaoa aeieacuaaiey.

Eae ni?aaaaeeeai iiae/a?eeaaao ?.N. Aaeeei, ?anniao?eaay aii?in i
niaea?aeaiee aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eioi?iaoeey – yoi naaaeaiey i niauoee,
yaeaiee, e yoa eioi?iaoeey e ninoaaeyao niaea?aeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoaa.
Oaeay eioi?iaoeey, eniieuecoaiay a noaeii?iecaiaenoaa aeey onoaiiaeaiey
enoeiu ii aeaeo, auea iacaaia aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie, i?e yoii
ioia/aeinue, /oi iineoaeyie eioi?iaoeeiiiuo neaiaeia aunooiatho iauaeou
eae aeeaie, oae e iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu. N oi/ee c?aiey oai?ee io?aaeaiey,
aeieacaoaeuenoaa – eciaiaiey, naycaiiua n enneaaeoaiui niauoeai.

Eciaiaiey eiatho ea/anoaaiioth e eiee/anoaaiioth noi?iiu. Ea/anoaaiiay
noi?iia eciaiaiee – yoi eo iai?aaeaiiinoue; iia iiaeao auoue aiaoiae,
aioo?aiiae eee e oie e ae?oaie iaeiia?aiaiii e iiaeao eanaoueny
oece/aneie eee ineoe/aneie noa?u iauaeoa eciaiaiee. Eiee/anoaaiiay
noi?iia eciaiaiee – yoi eo aaee/eia, ia?acii aiai?y, oi “?annoiyiea”,
eioi?ia ioaeaeyao eiia/ioth oaco eciaiaiee io eo ia/aeueiie oacu.

Iiyniei yoi i?inoui i?eia?ii. Neaae iaoae ia a?oioa ianoa i?ienoanoaey –
eciaiaiea n?aaeu, aicieeoaa a ?acoeueoaoa ii?aaeaeaiiiai niauoey,
iai?eia? iiyaeaiey ia yoii ianoa i?anooiieea. Yoi eciaiaiea anoue
ioia/aoie niauoey, o.a. aeieacaoaeuenoai yoiai niauoey. Iai?aaeaiiinoue
eciaiaiey, o.a. aai ea/anoai, au?aaeaaony a i?aia?aciaaiee ieioiinoe
aeaiiiai o/anoea a?oioa iiae aicaeaenoaeai iiae /aeiaaea (aioo?aiiaa
eciaiaiea) e eciaiaiey ?aeueaoa yoiai o/anoea (ia?aciaaiea aaeaaeaiiiai
neaaea iiaeioau) – aiaoiaa eciaiaiea. Eiee/anoaaiiay noi?iia eciaiaiee
oa?aeoa?ecoaony noaiaiueth oieioiaiey a?oioa – a ioiioaiee aioo?aiieo
eciaiaiee, aeoaeiie e ae?oaeie ia?aiao?aie neaaea – a ioiioaiee aiaoieo
eciaiaiee.

Naycue eciaiaiee n niauoeai, eioi?ui iie aucaaiu, e au?aaeaaony a
eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa yoeo eciaiaiee. Ia?a yoie nayce anoue ia?a oaeiai
eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa. Yoi ia?a nayce aeieacaoaeuenoaa n niauoeai,
eioi?ia ei onoaiaaeeaaaony, e iacuaaaony iaie aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeeae. Eioi?iaoeey – yoi, ?acoiaaony, naaaeaiey, niiauaiey, eai
ieeaeei eiui iooai, ie a eaeie eiie oi?ia ia?a nayce aeieacaoaeuenoaa n
niauoeai ia iiaeao noaoue “aauueth aeey ian”.

I?ioeai?a/eo ee oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?aaenoaaeaieth i
aeieacaoaeuenoaa eae i neaiaea?

Neaiae anoue iaoa?eaeueiue iineoaeue e n?aaenoai ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.
Aia neaiaea eioi?iaoeey nouanoaiaaoue ia iiaeao. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey,
iaoa?eaeueiue iineoaeue eioi?iaoeee – aeieacaoaeuenoai – oaeaea yaeyaony
neaiaeii, eae e iineoaeue ethaie eioi?iaoeee aiiaua. Oaeei ia?acii,
i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeieacaoaeuenoaa eae i neaiaea ia i?ioeai?a/eo
i?aaenoaaeaieth i aeieacaoaeuenoaa eae ia eciaiaiee, naycaiiii n
niauoeai. Ia?aia au?aaeaao aai eioi?iaoeeiiioth ?ieue, aoi?ia –
aiinaieiae/aneoth nouiinoue. Ana noaiiaeony ia naie ianoa, anee
ainiieueciaaoueny oa?ieiieiaeae iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee: eioi?iaoeey – yoi
niaieoiiinoue no?oeoo?iuo naienoa iaeioi?iai iauaeoa, iiaeaee?othuay
ii?aaeaeaiiua no?oeoo?iua naienoaa i?eaeiaea. I?e yoii iauaeo,
ii?aaeaeaiiua no?oeoo?iua oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?iai iiaeaee?otho no?oeoo?o
i?eaeiaea, neoaeeo iineoaeai eioi?iaoeee. Yoei iauaeoii yaeyaony
aeieacaoaeuenoai. Niaieoiiinoue no?oeoo?iuo aai naienoa, iiaeaee?othuay
ii?aaeaeaiiua no?oeoo?iua naienoaa i?eaeiaea, – aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiay
eioi?iaoeey, a iiaeaee?oaiue n aa iiiiuueth i?eaeiae – niauoea, noaaoaa
i?aaeiaoii aeieacuaaiey, o.a. i?anooieaiea.

Oi?ia au?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai neaiaea ninoaaeyao aai eiae.
Eioi?iaoeeiiiui eiaeii neoaeeo e /aeiaa/aneay ?a/ue (neiaaniue eiae).
Iiyoiio iu n/eoaai, /oi naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey anoue aua ia nai
eioi?iaoeeiiiue neaiae, a caoeo?iaaiiay neiaaniui eiaeii oi?ia aai
au?aaeaiey. Nai aea eioi?iaoeeiiiue neaiae – yoi oi eciaiaiea, oio
ciae-ia?ac, io?aaeaiea ?aaeueii aini?eieiaaoaainy oaeoa, eioi?ia eiaaony
a niciaiee naeaeaoaey e i?aaenoaaeaiea i eioi?ii ia?aaeaaony
iieacaieyie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey – yoi aua ia
aeieacaoaeuenoai, iiieiaai ee iu iineaaeiaa eae neaiae eee eae
eciaiaiey, naycaiiua n enneaaeoaiui niauoeai, a oi?ia au?aaeaiey
neaiaea, “ni?yoaiiiai” a niciaiee naeaeaoaey e i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie n
aiinaieiae/aneie noi?iiu io?aaeaiea oiai eee eiiai oaeoa
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Naii yoi io?aaeaiea – oiaea ?aaeueii nouanoaothuee
oaeo, eioi?ue, a ioee/ea io io?aaeaaiiai oaeoa, iiaeii iacaaoue
oaeoii-io?aaeaieai. Aio yoio oaeo eae eioi?iaoeeiiiue neaiae e anoue
aeieacaoaeuenoai.

A aeieacuaaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiue neaiae iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a i?aaeiaoiie
e iuneaiiie (ia?aciie) oi?iao. Ia?aay – yoi aaue, eo ninoiyiea,
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua e eiua nayce, i?eciaee e naienoaa. Yoi, anee
iiaeii oae au?aceoueny, iaoa?eaeueiua oaeou. Aoi?ay – yoi io?aaeaiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo oaeoia a niciaiee /aeiaaea, eo iuneaiiua ioia/aoee-ia?acu,
oi, /oi iu iacuaaai oaeoaie-io?aaeaieyie. I?e?iaea eo oae aea
iaoa?eaeueia, eae e i?e?iaea ia?auo, ii ii naiae “oaeoo?a” iie oaeiau,
/oi ia iiaoo auoue aini?eiyou iinoi?iiiei ii ioiioaieth e iei
iaaethaeaoaeai. Ii e a oii e a ae?oaii neo/aa eioi?iaoeeiiiue neaiae a
aeieacuaaiee – yoi oaeo a oii niunea, a eaeii aai neaaeoao iiieiaoue a
oai?ee aeieacuaaiey.

Caeanue iu aiiaue io oai?ee eioi?iaoeee, ii aii?oaeaiiua aa iiiyoeyie,
aica?auaainy e aii?inai aiinaieiaee aeieacuaaiey, eai aac yoiai
iaaiciiaeii neacaoue, /oi icia/aao oeacaiea caeiiiaeaoaey ia i?e?iaeo
aeieacaoaeuenoa eae naaaeaiee (no. 74 OIE ?O) eee oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo
(no. 69 OIE ?NON?).

?anniio?ei nia/aea ?acieoeo iaaeaeo yoeie oeacaieyie.

A nia?aiaiiie iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a oaeo ii?aaeaeyaony eae aeene?aoiue
eonie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, onoaiiaeaiiue /aeiaaeii. I?e yoii
aeene?aoiinoue iiieiaaony eae iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuay aauue, i?eciae,
naienoai, niauoea, yaeaiea, auaeaeaiiia ec nenoaiu e oneiaee, a eioi?uo
iii nouanoaoao. Onoaiiaeoue oaeo – yoi cia/eo ioia?aceoue aai a iaoai
i?aaenoaaeaiee oaeei, eaeia ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Oaeia iiieiaiea oaeoa iicaieyao o?aeoiaaoue aai aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei.
Oaeoii aoaeoo e aeaenoaey, i?e/eieaoea nia?oue iioa?iaaoaio, e
iaia?oaeaiea aai o?oia, e ano?a/a oaeeoeu n /aeiaaeii, eioi?ue
aiineaaenoaee aoaeao naeaeaoaeai, e iuneaiiue ia?ac oaeeoeu, aicieeoee a
niciaiee naeaeaoaey a ?acoeueoaoa yoie ano?a/e, e o.i. Ana yoe oaeou –
eae eciaiaiey, aicieeoea a n?aaea a nayce n enneaaeoaiui niauoeai, eae
eioi?iaoeeiiiua neaiaeu ia yoii niauoee – aoaeoo aeieacaoaeuenoaaie
aeaiiiai niauoey.

?aaiicia/ii ee iiiyoea oaeoa iiiyoeth oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo – n
naiaioe/aneie e i?ioeannoaeueiie oi/ae c?aiey?

Iiae oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie a naiaioeea iiieiathony aeaenoaeoaeueiua,
iiaeeeiiua (ii?aaaeuaaaiua oaeoaie) naaaeaiey, ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
neoaeauea aeey eaeiai-ieaoaeue auaiaea, ?aoaiey.

Ec yoiai ii?aaeaeaiey oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo neaaeoao, /oi naiaioe/anee yoi
iiiyoea iicaieyao ioiineoue e eo /eneo:

a) naaaeaiey, ii?aaaeuaaaiua oaeoaie, o.a., ii nouanoao, naaaeaiey i
oaeoao;

a) ianoiyoaeuenoaa, o.a. naie oaeou.

Naaaeaiey i oaeoao – yoi caeiaee?iaaiiay oi?ia io?aaeaiey ?aaeueiuo
oaeoia a niciaiee noauaeoa. Aoaeo/e iuneaiiuie ioia/aoeaie iaoa?eaeueiuo
oaeoia, eae iu eo iacaaee, – oaeoaie-io?aaeaieyie, – yoe eioi?iaoeeiiiua
neaiaeu aunooiatho ia?yaeo n ae?oaie oi?iie eioi?iaoeeiiiiai neaiaea –
iaoa?eaeueiuie oaeoaie, eioi?ua aeinooiiu iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth
noauaeoa aeieacuaaiey.

Ec anaai neacaiiiai neaaeoao naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi caeiiiaeaoaeue,
aiai?y ?aiaa i aeieacaoaeuenoaao eae i oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, eiae a aeaeo
iaa oi?iu eioi?iaoeeiiiuo neaiaeia: e oaeou, e naaaeaiey i ieo, anee
naie oaeou eaaeao a i?ioeii e iiciathony noauaeoii aeieacuaaiey
iiin?aaenoaiaaiii.

A naaoa yoiai caiaia a oaenoa caeiia “oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo” ia
“naaaeaiey” a?yae ee oaea/ia. Iiieiaiea iiae aeieacaoaeuenoaaie oieueei
oaeoia eae “aeene?aoiuo eoneia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”, a ?aaii e iiieiaiea
iiae aeieacaoaeuenoaaie oieueei naaaeaiee i oaeoao – e?aeiinoe, ia
au?aaeathuea iiaeeeiiiai iiiyoey aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Aicieeaao aii?in: /oi aea yaeyaony enoi/ieeii aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee?

Anee enoiaeeoue no?iai ec iiiyoee oai?ee eioi?iaoeee, oi neaaeoao i?eeoe
e auaiaeo, /oi a aoeaaeueiii niunea enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee neoaeao naie
eciaiaiey a n?aaea, o.a. aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eai eioi?iaoeey e anoue ia?a
nayce yoeo eciaiaiee n niauoeai, a enoi/ieeii aeieacaoaeuenoa a oaeii
aea aoeaaeueiii niunea yaeyaony oi niauoea, n eioi?ui iie naycaiu.
Iaeiaei caeanue oa?ieiieiaey oai?ee eioi?iaoeee ?anoiaeeony n
oa?ieiieiaeae oai?ee aeieacuaaiey. Iau/ii enoi/ieeaie aeieacaoaeuenoa a
oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiii i?aaa iacuaathony iieacaiey, caeeth/aiey
yenia?oia, aeieoiaiou e o.i. N oi/ee c?aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iiiyoee, yoi
ia enoi/ieee aeieacaoaeuenoa, a oi?iu au?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeee. Yoe
i?ioeai?a/ey iiaeii i?aiaeieaoue, anee iiieiaoue oa?iei “enoi/iee” eae
oneiaiue, iaicia/ay ei iaeia “o?aieeeua” aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee, a ia enoi/iee aa i?ienoiaeaeaiey a aoeaaeueiii niunea. Iu
aeaenoaeoaeueii /a?iaai eioi?iaoeeth ec oaeiai “enoi/ieea”, eee
“o?aieeeua”, ii naia yoa eioi?iaoeey aicieeaao ia a yoii enoi/ieea, a ia
aaca eciaiaiee a n?aaea, naycaiiuo n aeieacuaaaiui niauoeai.

A i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey noauaeo eiaao aeaei ia oieueei n aeinoiaa?iie
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeeae, ii e n aeaceioi?iaoeeae, o.a.
eiaeiuie naaaeaieyie i niauoee. Anee eioi?iaoeey io?aaeaao ia?o nayce
eciaiaiee n niauoeai, oi aeaceioi?iaoeey – yoi eneaaeaiiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oaeie nayce eee nicaeaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee i oaeie
eiaeiie nayce.

Iiaeiaii oiio, eae nianoaaiii aeieacuaaiea ia en/a?iuaaao niaie
niaea?aeaiey ?anneaaeiaaiey e noaeaaiiai ?anniio?aiey oaieiaiuo aeae,
oae e aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiay eioi?iaoeey ia yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui aeaeii
eioi?iaoeee, n eioi?ie eiaao aeaei noauaeo aeieacuaaiey. Iiieii
i?ioeannoaeueiuo aeaenoaee ii niae?aieth, enneaaeiaaieth, ioeaiea e
eniieueciaaieth aeieacaoaeuenoa, noauaeo aeieacuaaiey inouanoaeyao
oeaeue eiiieaen i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo, ?icuneiuo e eiuo ia?ii?eyoee,
iaania/eaathueo aeieacuaaiea, ii eaaeaueo ca aai ?aieaie. A i?ioeanna
yoeo ia?ii?eyoee noauaeo oaeaea iieo/aao, ia?a?aaaouaaao e eniieuecoao
ii?aaeaeaiiue iauai eioi?iaoeee, ii yoa eioi?iaoeey ia yaeyaony
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie, eai aa enoi/ieeii neoaeao ia eciaiaiey a n?aaea,
o.a. aeieacaoaeuenoaa, e naiie yoie eioi?iaoeeae ie/aai ia
aeieacuaaaony. N iiiiuueth yoie eioi?iaoeee neaaeiaaoaeue e ae?oaea
o/anoieee i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey i?eaioe?othony a niauoeyo, oaeoao, oae
eee eia/a naycaiiuo n enneaaeoaiui niauoeai, ii ia aoiaeyueo a i?aaeiao
aeieacuaaiey. Ii naiae nouiinoe ana yoe naaaeaiey iiaoo auoue iacaaiu
i?eaioe?othuae eioi?iaoeeae, a eo iieo/aiea iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaii
eae i?ioeannoaeueiui, oae e iai?ioeannoaeueiui iooai. Iniiaiui eaiaeii
iieo/aiey oaeie eioi?iaoeee neoaeao iia?aoeaii-?icuneiua ia?u,
inouanoaeyaiua i?aaiii aeiciaiey, i /ai iiae?iaii aiai?eony a
neaaeothuae /anoe ianoiyuae aeaau.

Iieo/aiea, o?aiaiea, ia?aaea/a, ia?a?aaioea e eniieueciaaiea
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee inouanoaeythony ia anai i?ioyaeaiee
i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey. Yoe noaaeee aeaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee ianoieueei
oanii ia?aieaoathony ae?oa n ae?oaii, ianoieueei i?iieeatho iaeia a
ae?oaoth, /oi iiaoo auoue ?an/eaiaiu oieueei oneiaii. Iaeiaei a eaaeaeie
oaca aeieacuaaiey i?aiaeaaeaao, aeiieie?oao ii?aaeaeaiiay noi?iia yoiai
aaeeiiai ii naiae nouiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. Oae, a oaca
niae?aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiui ia?acii iaia?oaeaiea
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, aa ia?aaea/a e iaeiieaiea. A oaca
enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa iiciaaony niaea?aeaiea caeeth/athuaeny a
ieo aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, onoaiaaeeaaaony aa aeinoiaa?iinoue
e niaeanoaiinoue iaaeaeo niaie, a oaca ioeaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa
oi?ie?oaony noaeaeaiea i oeaiiinoe aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, i
aa cia/aiee aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae aeieacuaaiey. Eniieueciaaiea
aeieacaoaeuenoa – yoi eniieueciaaiea caeeth/athuaeny a ieo
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ aeieacuaaiey, a a
eiia/iii n/aoa – aeey iieo/aiey aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey ia enneaaeoaiii
niauoee.

Aeinoiaa?iinoue e aa?iyoiinoue – eae iiiyoey, eioi?uie iu iia?e?oai i?e
aeieacuaaiee, – iiaoo auoue ?ane?uou a aiinaieiae/aneii, eiae/aneii e
eioi?iaoeeiiiii ieaiao.

N aiinaieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, aeinoiaa?iinoue – yoi aeieacaiiay,
iainiiaaiiay enoeiiinoue, o.a. oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey enoeiu.
Aeinoiaa?iinoue auaiaeia neaaeiaaoaey e noaea icia/aao, /oi yoe auaiaeu
ia oieueei enoeiiu naie ii naaa, o.a. niioaaonoaotho aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
ii e “aeinoieiu aa?u” – aeieacaiu, iainiiaaiu. Aeinoiaa?iinoue ciaiey –
yoi oaaaeaeaiiinoue a aai enoeiiinoe, ooaa?aeaeaiea, a ia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea.

A ioee/ea io aeinoiaa?iinoe, aa?iyoiinoue anoue eiee/anoaaiiay
oa?aeoa?enoeea aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey aeaiiiai oaeoa, yaeaiey, eee,
eiuie neiaaie, aaee/eia niiniaiinoe aiciiaeiinoe noaoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth, noaiaiue iaiaoiaeeiiai a aiciiaeiii. Iineieueeo
i?aaeiaoii noaeaaiiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony aaeeie/iua oaeou,
iinoieueeo noaiaiue eo aa?iyoiinoe ia iiaeao auoue oi?iaeeciaaia, e
iiyoiio noaoenoe/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea aa?iyoiinoe ia iiaeao auoue
i?eiaiaii a ioiioaiee niioaaonoaey auaiaeia neaaeiaaoaey e noaea
iauaeoeaiui oaeoai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Noaiaiue aa?iyoiinoe, au?aaeaaiay
a iaeoiaea aa?aaeueii (aa?iyoii, aanueia aa?iyoii, a aunoae noaiaie
aa?iyoii e o.i.), io?aaeaao noaiaiue iaoae oaaaeaeaiiinoe a ?aaeueiinoe
nouanoaiaaiey oaeoa eee yaeaiey. Iaeiaei i?e ethaie noaiaie aa?iyoiinoe
ia eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey, iiyoiio,
ii eaeaa, aa?iyoiinoiia ciaiea ia iiaeao eiaoue aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiiai
cia/aiey ii aeaeo.

I?aaaea, a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo yoi iieiaeaiea a ecaanoiie noaiaie iineo
aeaeea?aoeaiue oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, eniieuecoaiay
a aeieacuaaiee “i?aeoe/aneay aeinoiaa?iinoue” anoue ia /oi eiia, eae
oaeay noaiaiue aa?iyoiinoe, eioi?ay i?aeoe/anee iicaieyao i?aiaa?a/ue
ath e i?eiyoue ca aeinoiaa?iinoue.

Oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneia niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey aeinoiaa?iinoe niaiaaeaao n
aai aiinaieiae/aneei niaea?aeaieai; aeinoiaa?iinoue anoue iainiiaaiiia
enoeiiia ciaiea.

Ecaanoii, /oi aeinoiaa?iinoue eee aa?iyoiinoue auaiaeia neaaenoaey e
noaea ii aeaeo, eae niaea?aeaiea noaeaeaiey, caaeneo io aeinoiaa?iinoe
eee aa?iyoiinoe iinueie e iainiiauaathuaai ciaiey – aeaiiuo,
niaea?aeaueony a aeaea, – e io eiae/aneie oi?iu auaiaea. Aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey aeinoiaa?iiai auaiaea eae iniiaiia, oae e iainiiauaathuaa
ciaiea aeieaeii iineoue aeinoiaa?iue oa?aeoa?. Aa?iyoiue auaiae anoue
neaaenoaea aa?iyoiiai, o.a. i?iaeaiaoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a iniiaiiai eee
iainiiauaathuaai ciaiey eee oiai e ae?oaiai aianoa.

I?e auyniaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai niunea iiiyoee aa?iyoiinoe e
aeinoiaa?iinoe a aeieacuaaiee neaaeoao enoiaeeoue ec aeeaeaeoe/aneiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?acaeoee ciaiey io aai aa?iyoiiai cia/aiey aei
aeinoiaa?iiai. Eioi?iaoeey eae ia?a nayce eciaiaiee n?aaeu n niauoeai,
aucaaaoei yoe eciaiaiey, ii ia?a aa iaeiieaiey aaaeao e ono?aiaieth
yio?iiee, o.a. iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. I?ioeann iaeiieaiey eioi?iaoeee anoue
i?ioeann oiaiueoaiey yio?iiee. Anee a ia/aea ?anneaaeiaaiey iaoaieci
niauoey aua iaynai e eioi?iaoeey i iai ieieiaeueia, oi e iiiaioo
ia?aaea/e aeaea a noae yio?iiey aeieaeia auoue ono?aiaia.

Iineieueeo iaono?aiaiiinoue yio?iiee icia/aao aeiionoeiinoue
i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai auaiaea, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi aa?iyoiinoue n yoie
oi/ee c?aiey anoue iaiieiay eioi?iaoeey. Ii ia?a iaeiieaiey eioi?iaoeee,
a iaoai neo/aa – aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, noaiaiue aa?iyoiinoe
iiauoaaony, a yio?iiey iinoaiaiii ono?aiyaony. Iaeiia?aiaiii n
iaeiieaieai eioi?iaoeee i?ienoiaeeo aa ioai? iiae oaeii aa ioiineiinoe,
aeiionoeiinoe e cia/eiinoe aeey aeaea. Iieiaeeoaeueioth oeaiiinoue eiaao
oa eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay iiauoaao aa?iyoiinoue aeinoeaeaiey oeaee
(i?eiaieoaeueii e aeieacuaaieth – aeinoeaeaiey enoeiu), io?eoeaoaeueioth
oeaiiinoue – eioi?iaoeey, oiaiueoathuay aa?iyoiinoue aeinoeaeaiey oeaee.
Iiyoiio, no?iai aiai?y, oieueei oa eioi?iaoeey oeaiia, eioi?ay
niaea?aeeo /oi-oi iiaia i i?aaeiaoa aeieacuaaiey. Iiyoiio iieo/aiea
eioi?iaoeee ia oaea ecaanoiuo oaeoao, anee aeinoiaa?iinoue eiathuaeny
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee i ieo ia aucuaaao niiiaiey, aua ia
i?eaeeaeaao ian e enoeia, oioy eiee/anoaaiii iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi ca
oaaee/aiea eioi?iaoeee. Ia naiii aeaea oaaee/eaaaony ia eioi?iaoeey, a
/enei aa enoi/ieeia, iai?eia? naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee ia iaeiii e oii
aea oaeoa.

Eae aeaeii ec eceiaeaiiiai, eioi?iaoeeiiiue niune iiiyoee aa?iyoiinoe e
aeinoiaa?iinoe ia i?ioeai?a/eo aiinaieiae/aneiio e
oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneiio niuneo yoeo iiiyoee e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeoue
eioa?i?aoaoeeth yoeo iiiyoee n oi/ee c?aiey oai?ee eioi?iaoeee.

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