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I?iaeaiaoeea naiaeiuo ioiioaiee a ?aciuo no?aiao

Ia?aia a?a/iia iauyaeaiea auei iioaeeeiaaii a Aiaeee a eiioea XVII a., a
nionoy 100 eao noaei iau/iui yaeaieai ia no?aieoeao caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie
i?annu. Noeeue a?a/iuo iauyaeaiee e iiaeaeaiee io?aaeae, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, oeaee iauyaeoaey, a n ae?oaie — aai i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaeaieaa
iiaeoiaeyuae ia?oia?oa, iineieueeo a oa a?aiaia a?a/iua iauyaeaiey
aeaaaee ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii ioae/eiu (io aeaiuei i?aaeeiaeaiey
iinooiaee /a?ac ?iaeeoaeae eee ?iaenoaaiieeia). A oi a?aiy iiaeaoaeae
iauyaeaiee eioa?aniaaei, i?aaeaea anaai, yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea
aoaeouaai noi?oaa, iiyoiio i?eau/iie /anoueth a?a/iuo iauyaeaiee auee
ni?aaee i noieiinoe eiouanoaa, ?acia?a i?eaeaiiai, iaee/ee
iaaeaeaeeiinoe e o.i. Ino?ua nioeeaeueiua ?acee/ey oao eao ia iicaieyee
iiaeaaaoue a?a/iua iauyaeaiey aaaeiyeai. O?aaiaaiey e iniaaiiinoyi
oa?aeoa?a aiciiaeiiai ia?oia?a noaee iiyaeyoueny a iauyaeaieyo
cia/eoaeueii iicaea.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?acaeouo no?ai Caiaaea oaea aeaaii i?eciaei
oeaeaniia?aciui caeeth/aiea a?a/iiai aeiaiai?a. A ?aciuo no?aiao yoio
einoeooo eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe, ii iniiaiay oeaeue a?a/iiai aeiaiai?a –
i?aaeinoaaeoue noi?oaai aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey a a?aea naieo eiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Yoi aeaao ei
aiciiaeiinoue ionooieoue io ?aaeeia eiouanoaa, eioi?ue aaoiiaoe/anee
ia/eiaao aeaenoaiaaoue n iiiaioa caeeth/aiey a?aea. Ii ana aea i?aeoeea
caeeth/aiey a?a/iiai aeiaiai?a nouanoaoao, eae i?aaeei, a ninoiyoaeueiuo
naiueyo. A a?a/iii aeiaiai?a ii?aaeaeyaony i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia
eiouanoai ioaea e aeaiu, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoaa ei aei a?aea e i?eia?aoaiiia a
ia?eiae a?aea, eiiaaea i?aaeoniao?eaathony eiouanoaaiiua naieoeee ia
neo/ae ?acaiaea.

No?aiie n iaia?aie/aiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie yaeythony Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou
Aia?eee. A a?a/iii eiio?aeoa yoie no?aiu iiaeii i?aaeoniio?aoue
i?aeoe/anee ana. Iaeuecy eeoue ?aca?aie/eaaoue o/anoea a ainieoaiee
aeaoae e ?aoaoue, n eai ec noi?oaia iie inoaioony a ?acoeueoaoa
?acaiaea. Ai?i/ai, yoi ia icia/aao, /oi iiaeii ii iainoi?iaeiinoe
iiianoue a eaaaeo – aia?eeaineea noaeu eiatho i?aai ?aoaoue, ianeieueei
ni?aaaaeeeau oneiaey a?a/iiai eiio?aeoa. Ia?iaeiia oai?/anoai
aia?eeaineeo «eiio?aeoieeia» ia ciaao a?aieoe: aiaeiii ?aaeueii
nouanoaothuei aeieoiaioa noi?oae iaycaeenue «iauaoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii
ia iaiaa iieo/ana a aeaiue» e «neaaeeoue, /oiau a iaoeia auei oioy au
iieaaea ai?th/aai» .

A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa noi?oae aeinoaoi/ii naiaiaeiu a auai?a oiai
aa?eaioa, eioi?iio aoaeoo iiae/eiyoueny eo eiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Iie
iiaoo aiineoue ethaua ia i?ioeai?a/auea caeiio eciaiaiey a ?aaeei
noi?oaeaneiai eiouanoaa, i?aaeoniio?aiiue a oie eee eiie no?aia.
Iai?eia?, a oao no?aiao, aaea, eae e o ian, onoaiiaeai ?aaeei iauiinoe
noi?oaeaneiai eiouanoaa, noi?oaeaneiai eiouanoaa, noi?oae iiaoo aiana aa
eneeth/eoue, eca?aa ?aaeei ?acaeaeueiinoe, eee onoaiiaeoue ia?aie/aiioth
iauiinoue, eee eaeei-eeai eiui ia?acii eiiaeie?iaaoue aianoa
?acaeaeueiinoue e iauiinoue ia ?aciua aeaeu eiouanoaa. Oai, aaea
caeiiiui eee «eaaaeueiui» yaeyaony ?aaeei ?acaeaeueiinoe, noi?oae ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiiua oaeei ninoiyieai aeae, aeaeeii aoaeoo no?aieoueny,
iaiai?io, onoaiiaeoue noi?oaeaneoth iauiinoue ia eaeea-oi aeaeu
eiouanoaa eee aeioiaeu io iaai.

A Aieeaiaeee, iai?eia?, a ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a, ee/iay
nianoaaiiinoue iaieo noi?oaia, ninoiyuay eae ec eiouanoaa, oae ec eiaia,
iiae/eiyaony n iiiaioa caeeth/aiey a?aea i?aaiaiio ?aaeeio niaianoiie
noi?oaeaneie nianoaaiiinoe, anee a?a/iui eiio?aeoii ia i?aaeoniio?aii
eiia. Iauiinoue yaeyaony iieiie: ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana iaee/iua e
aoaeouea aaue e aeieae noi?oaia. Iauei, niioaaonoaaiii, yaeythony oaeaea
ana iaycaoaeuenoaa ii iiaaoaieth anao aeieaia noi?oaia .

A Aa?iaineii A?aaeaeaineii Oeiaeaiee 1960 aiaea aeaii iauaa ii?aaeaeaiea
iaycaoaeuenoaa e onoaiiaeai ?yae i?aaee, ioiinyueony ei anai
iaycaoaeuenoaai. E iiae?iaii ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua iieiaeaiey aeiaiai?a.
Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi Aa?iaiey naueeanue n nenoaiie iauiinoe eiouanoa, aua
Aa?iaineia a?aaeaeaineia oeiaeaiea 1886 aiaea noi?oaai i?aaeinoaaeyei
i?aai aeiaiai?ii “Ehevertrag” ii?aaeaeyoue naie eiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey
eae ei oaiaeii, eeoue au ia ia?ooaeenue eioa?anu o?aoueeo eeoe (no. 1432
AAO). Aeiaiai? “Ehevertrag” aeieaeai auoue cayaeai a ?aano? o/anoeiaiai
noaea ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa ioaea (no. 1558 AAO), aeiaiai? oaeaea
?aaeaiaioe?iaai a i?aaiaie nenoaia Oaaoeee .

Noi?oae iiaoo eciaieoue i?aaiaie ?aaeei niaianoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
aeeth/ea a a?a/iue aeiaiai? oneiaea i ee/iie nianoaaiiinoe. Oaeay
nianoaaiiinoue ia aoaeao iiaeeaaeaoue ?acaeaeo i?e i?ae?auaiee a?aea.
Noi?oae iiaoo iaoneiaeoue, /oi eaeay-oi eiie?aoiay nianoaaiiinoue eee
ana, /oi i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeiiio ec noi?oaia, aoaeao aai ee/iie
nianoaaiiinoueth. Iiae ee/iie nianoaaiiinoueth iiieiaaony eeoue
nianoaaiiinoue iaeiiai noi?oaa, iia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony niaianoiie
nianoaaiiinoe noi?oaia. Auaeaeyy aa a oii eee eiii iauaia, iiaeii
onoaiiaeoue ?aaeei iieiie ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe eee aa ia?aie/aiiie
iauiinoe, iai?eia? iauiinoe, niaianoii i?eia?aoaiiiai eiouanoaa. A?a/iue
aeiaiai? aeieaeai auoue iiaeaioiaeai a ienueiaiiie oi?ia, iiaeienai
iaieie noi?oaaie e aeaoiy naeaeaoaeyie e ca?aaeno?e?iaai a
niioaaonoaothuai ie?oaeiii noaea (noae iaania/eaaao ?aaeno?aoeeth
aeiaiai?a a niaoeeaeueiii ?aano?a ?acaeaeia iaaeaeo noi?oaaie, iauei
aeey anae no?aiu). Noi?oae iiaoo a ethaia a?aiy ?anoi?aiooue eee
eciaieoue aeiaiai? caeeth/aieai iiaiai aeiaiai?a. Ee/iay nianoaaiiinoue
iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaia aeey o?aoueae noi?iiu caaauaieai eee aea a
oi?ia aea?aiey ni niaoeeaeueiie iaiai?eie, /oi iia ia iiaeao auoue
ioiaiaia noi?oaaie. Aeiaiai?u i ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ano?a/athony
?aaeei. Iaeuecy aeeth/aoue a aeiaiai?u eaeea-eeai eiua aii?inu, e?iia
aeaeaiey nianoaaiiinoe ia noi?oaeaneoth e ee/ioth, e niioaaonoaaiii i
niiniaao oi?aaeaiey. A yoeo neo/ayo aeaenoaotho iau/iua ii?iu eee ii?iu
i aeieyo o/anoey.

Eiinoeoooeey Eoaeee i?eciaao e aa?aioe?oao iai?eeiniiaaiiua i?aaa
/aeiaaea, (no.no. 2, 4. 13 Eiinoeoooeee e no.no. 18-20, 29, 39, 45, 49
AE Eoaeee). Noaouey 29 Eiinoeoooeee i?eciaao i?aaa naiuee nicaeaiiie ia
a?aea. A?ae iniiaai ia i?aanoaaiiii th?eaee/aneii ?aaainoaa no?oaia, a
niioaaonoaee n ii?iaie caeiiia n oeaeueth iaania/aiey aaeeinoaa (no.no.
143, 148 AE) eioa?ania noi?oaia, naiuee. A?aaeaeaineee Eiaeaen Eoaeee
i?aaeoniao?eaaao caeeth/aiea a?a/iuo eiio?aeoia. Aeaaa VI,
(“Eiouanoaaiiue ?aaeei”) AE Eoaeee naeoeey 1 no. 159 i?aaeoniao?eaaao
caeiiiue eiouanoaaiiue ?aaeei naiuee, (i?e ionoonoaee niaeaoaiey,
caeeth/aiiiai a niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 162 AE), iniiaaiiue ia iauae
nianoaaiiinoe eiouanoaa noi?oaia, eae oeacaii a naeoeee 1 III aeaau VI
Eiaeaena.

Noaouey 162 i?aaeoniao?eaaao ii?yaeie caeeth/aiey a?a/iuo niaeaoaiee,
eioi?ua aeieaeiu caeeth/aoueny /a?ac ioeoeeaeueiue aeo (no. 2699) iiae
no?aoii iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (no.no. 1350, 1418 e ne., no. 2725). Auai?
?aaeeia ?acaeaeueiiai eiouanoaa iiaeao oiaea aeeth/aoueny a aeo
caeeth/aiey a?aea (no.no., 107,130,215). Niaeaoaiey iiaoo caeeth/aoueny
a ethaie iiiaio, ii a niioaaonoaee n iinoaiiaeaieyie noaouee 194.
A?a/iua niaeaoaiey ia iiaoo aunoaaeoueny i?ioea o?aoueeo eeoe, anee a
a?a/iue aeo ia auee aienaiu aeaoa eiio?aeoa, iaeiaiiaaiea iioa?eona,
ninoaaeythuaai aeo e iauea aieaoiua aeaiiua aeiaiaa?eaathueony noi?ii.

Eciaiaiea a?a/iuo niaeaoaiee ?aaeaiaioe?oaony noaoueae 163 AE Eoaeee.
A?a/iua niaeaoaiey, caeeth/aiiua aei e iinea a?aea ia eiatho aeaenoaey,
anee ioeoeeaeueiue aeo i a?aea (no., 2699) ia aue caeeth/ai i?e
niaeaoaiee anao eeoe, yaeythueo noi?iiaie; a yoeo niaeaoaieyo, eee eo
ianeaaeieeia, A neo/aa nia?oe iaeiiai ec noi?oaia iinea oiai, eae ii
(iia) niaeaneeny (niaeaneeanue) /a?ac ioeoeeaeueiue aeo n eciaiaieai
niaeaoaiee, oi eciaiaiey aoaeoo aeaenoaeoaeueiui, anee ae?oaea noi?iiu
caeeth/atho niaeaoaiea e noaeuey ooaa?aeaeaao yoi eciaiaiea. Aeiaiai?iua
eciaiaiey e ?aoaiea ia eo ooaa?aeaeaiee eiatho aeaenoaea e o?aoueei
eeoeai, oieueei a neo/aa eo aienuaaiey a a?a/iii eiio?aeoa. Aiiioaoeey
aienuaaaony a neo/aa aa o?aaiaaiey a niioaaonoaee ni no. 2643 e
neaaeothueie noaoueyie Eiaeaena .

O?aioeey- caeiiiaeaoaeue i?aaeeaaaao ia auai? noi?oaai, e?iia
«eaaaeueiiai» ?aaeeia iauiinoe, «oeiiaie» ?aaeei, eioi?ue i?aaeeaaaao
neaaeothuaa: 1) iauiinoue aoaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny oieueei ia aeaeaeeiia
eiouanoai e ia i?eia?aoaiiia eiouanoai; 2) i?aaeea ?aaeeia iauiinoe ii
oi?aaeaieth eiouanoaii ia aoaeoo i?eiaiyoueny; 3) iaeei ec noi?oaia
aoaeao eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue aua?aoue naaa ii?aaeaeaiioth /anoue ec
iauaai eiouanoaa a neo/aa ?acaiaea a ea/anoaa eiiiainaoeee; 4) aeiee
noi?oaia a iauai eiouanoaa aoaeoo ia?aaiuie; 5) iaaeaeo noi?oaaie aoaeao
onoaiiaeaia anaiauaiethuay iauiinoue.

Aiiaua ai O?aioeee caeii i?aaeeaaaao ia auai? noi?oaai /aou?a ?acee/iuo
?aaeeia eiouanoaa:

a) eiouanoai noi?oaia i?eciaaony iauei;

a) iauiinoue eiouanoaa ?ani?ino?aiyaony oieueei ia aeaeaeeiua aaue e ia
ana, i?eia?aoaiiia eaaeaeui noi?oaii iinea caeeth/aiey a?aea;

a) ii?aaeaeaiea ia?aaiuo i?aa noi?oaia a iauai eiouanoaa;

a) aa?eaio, eiaaea iinea ?anoi?aeaiey a?aea iaeei ec noi?oaia aoaeao
eiaoue i?aai auai?a ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe ec iauaai eiouanoaa.

A caeiia i?aaeoniio?aiu e ?aciua aa?eaiou iieueciaaiey iauei eiouanoaii
noi?oaia. Iai?eia?, noi?oae aoaeoo oi?aaeyoue eiouanoaii niaianoii e
iiaeienuaaoue ana aeieoiaiou ii ?anii?yaeaieth eiouanoaii ii acaeiiiio
niaeaneth. Iie iiaoo onoaiiaeoue, /oi aeiaa?ytho ae?oa ae?oao, e
eaaeaeue ai?aaa aeaenoaiaaoue ca ae?oaiai. Noi?oae iiaoo ii?aaeaeeoue
eiie?aoiua /anoe eiouanoaa, eioi?uie iie aoaeoo oi?aaeyoue ?acaeaeueii
eee, iaiai?io, niaianoii.

A caeiia oaeaea i?aaeoniio?aiu ia?aie/aiey naiaiaeu a?a/iiai aeiaiai?a.
Ii aeieaeai ia i?ioeai?a/eoue “aeia?ui i?aaai”, ia ia?ooaoue ii?iu
a?aaeaeaineiai e naiaeiiai i?aaa. Iieiaeaiey a?a/iiai aeiaiai?a ia iiaoo
ia?ooaoue ?aaiii?aaea noi?oaia, ia?aie/eaaoue eo naiaiaeo a auai?a
i?ioannee e ?iaea caiyoee.

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