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Преступления против жизни: общая характеристика

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?aoa?ao

I?anooieaiey i?ioea aeecie: iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea

1. I?anooieaiey i?ioea aeecie niaeanii Oaieiaiiio eiaeaeno ?innee

Oaieiaiue eiaeaen ?O ioiineo e i?anooieaieyi i?ioea aeecie ?acee/iua
aeaeu oaeenoaa (no. 105-108), a oaeaea i?e/eiaiea nia?oe ii
iainoi?iaeiinoe (no. 109) e aeiaaaeaiea aei naiioaeenoaa (no. 110).

Yoe ninoaau i?anooieaiee iiiauaiu ia ia?aia ianoi enoiaey ec oiai, /oi a
ieo eaeao ?a/ue i caueoa aaaeiaeoaai anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa /aeiaaea –
i?aaa ia aeeciue. I?aai /aeiaaea ia aeeciue onoaiiaeaii ?acee/iuie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeoaie, iai?eia?, iaaeaeoia?iaeiui iaeoii io 16
aeaeaa?y 1966 a. «I a?aaeaeaineeo e iieeoe/aneeo i?aaao»[1], Eiiaaioeeae
io 4 iiya?y 1950 a. «I caueoa i?aa /aeiaaea e iniiaiuo naiaiae»[2],
cae?aieaii a no.20 Eiinoeoooeee ?O.

Iiiauaiea i?anooieaiee i?ioea aeecie ia ia?aia ianoi aiai?eo e i
oeaiiinoe aeecie eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea aeey ainoaea?noaa. Aeey n?aaiaiey a
niaaoneeo oaieiaiuo eiaeaenao ia ia?aia ianoi noaaeeenue
«?aaiethoeeiiiua aeinoeaeaiey» e «ia?iaeiia oicyenoai».

Ana i?anooieaiey i?ioea aeecie iauaaeeiyao oi, /oi iauaeoii eaaeaeiai ec
ieo yaeyaony aeeciue /aeiaaea.

AEeciue eae iauaeo i?anooieaiey ia iiaeeaaeeo ea/anoaaiiie eee
eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea. ?aaiay caueoa anao ethaeae io i?anooiiuo
iinyaaoaeuenoa ia eo aeeciue – aaaeiaeoee i?eioeei oaieiaiiai i?aaa. Ia
eiaao cia/aiey aic?ano, ninoiyiea caei?iauey iioa?iaaoaai, aai
«nioeeaeueiay cia/eiinoue», ?ana, iaoeeiiaeueiinoue, iaee/ea eee
ionoonoaea a?aaeaeainoaa e o.ae.

Oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia aeiioneaao
eeoaiey aeecie e aaciaaeaaeii aieueiiai /aeiaaea aeaaea i?e iaee/ee aai
niaeaney eee i?inueau (yaoaiacey). Eiaiii ?aaiioeaiiinoueth iauaeoa
iauyniyaony, ii/aio i?e/eiaiea nia?oe /aeiaaeo, ioeai/ii i?eiyoiio ca
ae?oaiai, ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae «ioeaea a iauaeoa» e ia aeeyao ia
eaaeeoeeaoeeth niaeayiiiai eae ieii/aiiiai oaeenoaa. Oneeaiea
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oaeenoai ioaeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee eeoe a niaoeeaeueiuo
ii?iao naycaii ia n iiauoaiiie oeaiiinoueth aeecie iioa?iaaoaai, a n
iaee/eai iaeiia?aiaiii ae?oaiai iauaeoa iinyaaoaeuenoaa eee
aeiiieieoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee, ioya/athueo aeio.

AEeciue /aeiaaea iiieiaaony a neaaeothueo aniaeoao:

a) aeieiae/aneee aniaeo – aeeciue /aeiaaea anoue niinia nouanoaiaaiey
aaeeiauo oae, eioi?ue ii naiae nooe ninoieo a iinoiyiiii naiiiaiiaeaiee,
ninoaaiuo /anoae yoeo oae e auiieiaiee aaaeiuo ooieoeee i?aaiecia;

a) ineoieiae/aneee aniaeo – aeeciue /aeiaaea anoue niaieoiiinoue oaeeo
yeaiaioia, eae ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu, ineoe/aneia ninoiyiea, ineoe/aneea
naienoaa a oeaeii, ninoaaeythuea ineoeeo /aeiaaea, a oaeaea ineoe/aneea
yaeaiey e ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u. Ii?aaeaeaiea ineoieiae/aneeo iiiyoee,
nii?iaiaeaeathueo oaeenoai: ianeeea, aa?anney, aeanoieinoue;

a) nioeeaeueiue aniaeo – aeeciue /aeiaaea anoue acaeiiaeaenoaea iauanoaa
e ee/iinoe, oi?ie?iaaiea eiie?aoiuo nioeeaeueiuo onoaiiaie n o/aoii
nioeeaeueiuo aeaoa?ieiaioia i?e niaa?oaiee oaeenoaa;

a) oaieiaii-i?aaiaie aniaeo ?anniao?eaaao aeeciue ae?oaiai /aeiaaea eae
iauaeo oaieiaii-i?aaiaie io?aiu.

2. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?innee
onoaiaaeeaathuaai ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oaeenoai

Oaieiaii-i?aaiaay caueoa ee/iinoe anaaaea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue icia/aea
caueoo aeecie e caei?iauey /aeiaaea. Oaea a iaiyoieeao ae?aaia?onneiai
i?aaa, aaaeiaeoei ec eioi?uo yaeyaony ?onneay I?aaaea,
i?aaeoniao?eaaeanue ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ioaeaeueiua aeaeu iinyaaoaeuenoa
ia aeeciue, a oii /enea e ca oaeenoai.

A iaiyoieeao ?onneiai i?aaa (?onneie i?aaaea, Iiaai?iaeneie Ne?a)
eeoaiea aeecie /aeiaaea eiaiiaaeinue aeooaaoanoaii (aeooaoaeenoaii eee
aeooaaoaeoaeuenoaii).

Ea?aeinue aeooaaoanoai, ii ?onneie i?aaaea – aeaiaaeiie ae?ie. A oae
iacuaaaiie Iiaai?iaeneie Ne?a, – niaea?aeauae a naaa ioa/anoaaiiua
caeiiu, ii eioi?ui iaioeu noaeeeenue iaaeaeo niaith a Iiaai?iaea,
oaeenoai ea?aaony nia?oiie eaciueth /a?ac iona/aiea aieiau[1].

A ia?auo noaeaaieeao, Niai?iii oeiaeaiee 1649 a., caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
aeoao Iao?a I neeaaeuaaaony nenoaia ii?i i i?anooieaieyo i?ioea aeecie.
Eioa?anii caiaoeoue, /oi a caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoao Iao?a I
i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue iaeacaiea ca «oaeenoai naiiai naay» (eia/a – aeey
naiioaeeoe). A Onoaaa aieineii neacaii: «Aaeaee eoi nai naay oaeaaao, oi
iaaeeaaeeo iaea/o oaei aai a aan/anoiia ianoi ioaiei/ue e caeiiaoue,
aiei/a i?aaeaea ii oeeoeai eee iaico». A ca iaoaea/ioth iiiuoeo
naiioaeenoaa aac oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?e/ei iieaaaeanue nia?oiay eaciue.

Ia?aui e?oiiui, eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoii, iiae?iaiaeoa
?aaoee?othuei oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oaeenoai yaeeinue Oeiaeaiea
i iaeacaieyo oaieiaiuo e eni?aaeoaeueiuo 1845-1885 aa. Oaeenoai a
aeaiiii aeoa eiaiiaaeinue eae nia?oioaeenoai.

Oeiaeaiea ?acee/aei oaeenoai n i?yiui e iai?yiui oiuneii, ?acaeaeyy
ia?aia ia oaeenoai n iaaeoiaiiui ca?aiaa iaia?aieai (no. 1454), aac
iaaeoiaiiiai ca?aiaa iaia?aiey (no. 1455 /. 1), e a caiaeue/eainoe e
?acae?aaeaiee (no. 1455 /. 2). Eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui n/eoaeinue, a
/anoiinoe, oaeenoai ?iaeeoaeae (no. 1449), ?iaenoaaiieeia (no. 1451),
ia/aeueieea, ainiiaeeia e /eaiia naiaenoaa ainiiaeeia, aianoa n iei
aeeaoueo, oicyeia, ianoa?a, eeoea, eioi?iio oaeeoea iaycai naiei
ainieoaieai eee niaea?aeaieai (no. 1451), nayuaiiineoaeeoaey (no. 212),
/aniaiai eee eiai-ieaoaeue ec /eiia ea?aoea, io?aiythueo eiia?aoi?a eee
/eaia eiia?aoi?neie oaieeee[2].

Oaieiaiia oeiaeaiea 1903 a. neaaeothuee eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue aeo, i?eiyoue
a oea?neie ?innee. A iai i?anooieaiey i?ioea aeecie e caei?iauey eae
aeae i?anooieaiee i?ioea /anoiiai eeoea (i?ioea ee/iinoe) auee iiiauaiu
a ae. XXII Oaieiaiiai oeiaeaiey. Nenoaia ninoaaia i?anooieaiee i?ioea
aeecie (no. 453-466) noaea aieaa /aoeie e eiiiaeoiie. Oeiaeaiea
ioeacaeinue io iaeacoaiinoe naiioaeenoaa, ioiany e i?anooieaieyi i?ioea
aeecie oieueei iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia aeeciue ae?oaiai eeoea.

Oeiaeaiea 1903 a. ?acee/aao: oaeenoai n iaaeoiaiiui ca?aiaa iaia?aieai
(eaoi?aa io 15 aei 20 eao); oiuoeaiiia, ii aac iaaeoiaiiiai ca?aiaa
iaia?aiey (eaoi?aa io 12 aei 15 eao) e oaeenoai a caiaeue/eainoe e
?acae?aaeaiee eaoi?aa io 4 aei 12 eao eee nnueea ia iinaeaiea). A aeaeo
/?acau/aeiie aaaeiinoe aeaaa aeecie, iaeacaieth iiaeeaaeeo e
iainoi?iaeiia i?e/eiaiea nia?oe. Oiuoeaiiia eeoaiea aeecie aeaeeony ia
o?e aeaea: i?inoia, n iiauoaiiie iaeacoaiinoueth (oae iacuaaaiia
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia) e n iiieaeaiiith iaeacoaiinoueth (oae iacuaaaiia
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia)[3].

Noieo caiaoeoue, /oi yoa nenoaia ia auea aini?eiyoa oaieiaiuie
eiaeaenaie niaaoneiai ia?eiaea e eeoue a Oaieiaiii eiaeaena ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee 1996 a. ii?iu ia oaeenoaao neaaeotho oaeie aea nenoaia.

A ia?aii niaaoneii oaieiaiii eiaeaena – OE 1922 a. ia?yaeo ni iiiaeie
iieiaeaieyie, noiaeiuie n ii?iaie ia oaeenoaao a Oaieiaiii oeiaeaiee,
eiaeenue e ioee/ey. A ae. V – «I?anooieaiey i?ioea aeecie, caei?iauey,
naiaiaeu e aeinoieinoaa ee/iinoe» ana i?anooieaiey auee ?acaeaeaiu ia
iyoue a?oii, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo eiaea niioaaonoaothuee iiaecaaieiaie.

Ia ia?aia ianoi aue iinoaaeai iaeaieaa oyaeeee aeae oaeenoaa, caoai
i?inoie ninoaa e oaeenoai iiae aeeyieai neeueiiai aeooaaiiai aieiaiey.
I?e/eiaiea nia?oe ii iainoi?iaeiinoe auei iacaaii, a ioee/ea io
Oaieiaiiai oeiaeaiey, «oaeenoaii ii iainoi?iaeiinoe» (no. 147).
Iniaiyeii noiye aeae oaeenoaa, aaea oi?ia aeiu ia eiie?aoece?iaaeanue:
«I?aauoaiea i?aaeaeia iaiaoiaeeiie iai?iiu, iiaeaeoaa ca niaie nia?oue
iaiaaeaaoaai, a oaeaea oaeenoai canoeaiooiai ia ianoa i?anooieaiey
i?anooiieea n i?aauoaieai iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aai caaea?aeaiey ia?» (no.
145). A yoie aea a?oiia ieacaeenue no. 146 («Niaa?oaiea n niaeaney
iaoa?e ecaiaiey ieiaea eee eneonnoaaiiiai ia?a?uaa aa?aiaiiinoe eeoeaie,
ia eiathueie aeey yoiai iaaeeaaeaua oaeinoiaa?aiiie iaaeeoeeineie
iiaeaioiaee eee oioy au e eiathueie niaoeeaeueioth iaaeeoeeineoth
iiaeaioiaeo, ii a iaiaaeeaaeaueo oneiaeyo») e no. 148 («Niaeaenoaea eee
iiaeaiai? e naiioaeenoao ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai eee eeoea, caaaaeiii ia
niiniaiiai iiieiaoue naienoaa eee cia/aiea niaa?oaaiiai eee ?oeiaiaeeoue
naieie iinooieaie, anee naiioaeenoai eee iieooaiea ia iaai
iineaaeiaaee»). Iaeuecy i?eciaoue oaea/iui iauaaeeiaiea yoeo ninoaaia a
iaeei ?acaeae n oaeenoaaie. Ia?aia i?anooieaiea (aai?o) aiiaua ia
iinyaaao ia aeeciue /aeiaaea. Aoi?ia, oioy e eiaao naiei iauaeoii
aeeciue, ii oaeenoaii ia iiaeao n/eoaoueny, iineieueeo ia yaeyaony
oaeiaui naiioaeenoai eee iieooaiea ia iaai.

Oaieiaiue eiaeaen ?NON? 1926 a. ii/oe iieiinoueth nio?aiee nenoaio e
i?eciaee ninoaaia i?ioea aeecie. Iniaaiiinoyie auee: 1) ioeac io
aioo?aiiae ?oa?eeaoeee aeaau i i?anooieaieyo i?ioea aeecie, caei?iauey,
naiaiaeu e aeinoieinoaa ee/iinoe, a nayce n /ai oaeenoaa ia auee
auaeaeaiu a naiinoiyoaeueioth a?oiio; 2) iauaaeeiaiea a iaeiie ii?ia
(no. 139) oaeenoaa ii iainoi?iaeiinoe e oaeenoaa, yaeaoaainy
?acoeueoaoii i?aauoaiey i?aaeaeia iaiaoiaeeiie iai?iiu. Iaaeaeo oai a
Eiaeaena 1926 aiaea, eae yoi neaaeoao ec no.136 e 139 oaeenoai
aeaeeeinue ia oiuoeaiiia e iainoi?iaeiia.

Noieo caiaoeoue, /oi oaeenoai iaeacuaaeinue n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeie
n?ieaie eeoaiey naiaiaeu. Oae, iaeacaiea ca naiia oyaeeia ec yoie a?oiiu
i?anooieaiee (no.136 OE ?NON?) – eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia oaeenoai –
i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue «eeoaiea naiaiaeu ni no?iaie ecieyoeeae ia n?ie aei
aeanyoe eao»[4].

Oiuoeaiiia oaeenoai, niaa?oaiiia aac eaaeeoeoee?othueo i?eciaeia, –
eeoaiea naiaiaeu ia n?ie aei ainueie eao. Eioa?anii caiaoeoue, /oi
oiuoeaiiia oyaeeia oaeaniia iia?aaeaeaiea… auei i?aaeoniio?aii oaeia aea
iaeacaiea, eae e ca i?inoia oaeenoai – eeoaiea naiaiaeu ia n?ie aei
ainueie eao. Anee aea a ?acoeueoaoa oiuoeaiiiai oyaeeiai oaeaniiai
iia?aaeaeaiey ianooieea nia?oue, oi iaeacaiea auei ?aaii
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiio oaeenoao, oi anoue, eeoaiea naiaiaeu ia n?ie aei
aeanyoe eao.

Oaeenoai ii iainoi?iaeiinoe, a ?aaii oaeenoai, yaeaoaany i?aauoaieai
i?aaeaeia iaiaoiaeeiie iai?iiu (no.139 OE ?O), – iaeacuaaeinue eeoaieai
naiaiaeu ia n?ie aei o?ao eao eee i?eioaeeoaeueiua ?aaiou ia n?ie aei
iaeiiai aiaea.

Eeoue 1 naioya?y 1934 a. no.136 auea aeiiieiaia /anoueth aoi?ie,
onoaiiaeaoae aunooth ia?o iaeacaiey ca oaeenoai, niaa?oaiiia
aiaiiineoaeauei i?e iniai ioya/athueo ianoiyoaeuenoaao. Iaeacaiea ca
eiua aeaeu eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai oaeenoaa inoaaaeinue i?aaeiei, a oi a?aiy
eae nia?oiay eaciue oe?iei i?eiaiyeanue ca ainoaea?noaaiiua,
eiouanoaaiiua e ae?oaea i?anooieaiey. Iicaeiaa I?aceaeeoi Aa?oiaiiai
Niaaoa NNN? Oeacii io 30 ai?aey 1954 a. «Ia oneeaiee oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oiuoeaiiia oaeenoai» aeiionoee i?eiaiaiea nia?oiie
eacie e eeoeai, niaa?oeaoei oiuoeaiiia oaeenoai i?e ioya/athueo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao.

A oaieiaiii eiaeaena 1960 a. iaei /oi eciaieeanue, e?iia cae?aieaiey
aieaa no?iaeo iaeacaiee ca oaeenoai. Ii-i?aaeiaio ia ia?aii ianoa
inoaeanue ii?ia ia oiuoeaiiii oaeenoaa i?e ioya/athueo ianoiyoaeuenoaao
(eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia oaeenoai – no. 102), caoai – ia oaeenoaa aac
ioya/athueo ianoiyoaeuenoa (i?inoia oaeenoai – no. 103), aeaa ii?iu i
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiii oaeenoaa: a ninoiyiee neeueiiai aeooaaiiai aieiaiey
(no. 104) e i?e i?aauoaiee i?aaeaeia iaiaoiaeeiie iai?iiu (no. 105).
Ii?ia i iainoi?iaeiii oaeenoaa auea auaeaeaia a naiinoiyoaeueioth no.
106. Caaa?oaea a?oiio i?anooieaiee i?ioea aeecie no. 107 – «Aeiaaaeaiea
aei naiioaeenoaa».

Oaeia ?aniieiaeaiea ii?i iaaiaeeei ia iuneue, /oi iniiaiie ii?iie ia
oaeenoaa yaeyaony no. 102, a no. 103 eiaao noaneaeea?iue,
aniiiiaaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Yoi iai?aaeeueii i?eaioe?iaaei ea?aoaeueioth
i?aeoeeo. A oai?aoe/aneeo ?aaioao e o/aaiie eeoa?aoo?a i?eiyoi auei
aiaeece?iaaoue nia/aea i?eciaee «iauaai ninoaaa oaeenoaa» («oaeenoaa
aiiaua»), a caoai iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?eciaee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai e
i?inoiai oaeenoaa. I?e yoii iaecaaaeiu auee iiaoi?aiey. Caauaaeinue, /oi
ieeaeiai «oaeenoaa aiiaua» ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue, /oi a eaaeaeii
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiii oaeenoaa anoue ana i?eciaee ninoaaa i?inoiai oaeenoaa
iethn iaeei eee ianeieueei eaaeeoeoee?othueo i?eciaeia[5].

3. Iiiyoea e i?eciaee oaeenoaa ii aeaenoaothuaio

caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?O

Eae iu oaea iiae/a?eioee, a oaieiaiuo eiaeaenao niaaoneiai ia?eiaea,
?aaii eae e a aei?aaiethoeeiiiii oaieiaiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
ionoonoaiaaei iiiyoea oaeenoaa.

Aeaenoaothuee oaieiaiue caeii (OE ?O) aia?aua onoaiiaee eaaaeueiia
ii?aaeaeaiea oaeenoaa eae: «oiuoeaiiia i?e/eiaiea nia?oe ae?oaiio
/aeiaaeo» (/. 1 no. 105 OE ?O).

Aei i?eiyoey Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena 1996 aiaea a oai?ee nouanoaiaaee aeaa
iiey?iua oi/ee c?aiey a ioiioaiee ii?aaeaeaiey oaeenoaa. Oae, A.A.
Ieiioeianeee iieaaae, /oi oaeenoai anoue i?ioeaii?aaiia oiuoeaiiia eee
iainoi?iaeiia eeoaiea aeecie /aeiaaea[1]. I.Ae. Oa?ai?iaeneee iiieiae
iiae oaeenoaii eeoue oiuoeaiiia i?e/eiaiea nia?oe e ia ioiinee e iaio
iainoi?iaeiia eeoaiea aeecie[2].

Aoi?ay oi/ea c?aiey aini?eiyoa aeaenoaothuei ?inneeneei oaieiaiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e i?aaenoaaeyaony aieaa niaa?oaiiie e oi/iie. OE ?O
aeaii ii?aaeaeaiea oaeenoaa eae oiuoeaiiiai i?e/eiaiey nia?oe ae?oaiio
/aeiaaeo. Iaoiuoeaiiia, oi anoue iainoi?iaeiia oaeenoai OE ?O
ioaa?aaaony, oioy i?eciaaony i?e/eiaiea nia?oe ii iainoi?iaeiinoe –
no.109 OE ?O.

Iiiyoea oaeenoaa a aeaenoaothuai OE ?O ioaaouaaao aeayiey,
i?aaeoniio?aiiua noaoueyie 105, 106, 107, 108.

Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi naii ii naaa caeiiiaeaoaeueiia (eaaaeueiia)
ii?aaeaeaiea oaeenoaa au? ia iicaieyao a iieiie ia?a ?aca?aie/eoue
aeaiiia aeayiea ni noiaeeie i?anooieaieyie — eae aieaa, oae e iaiaa
iianiuie, e iioiio eiaaony ianouiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaanoe a iao/iue e
i?aeoe/aneee iai?io au? iaeii, aeieo?eiaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea oaeenoaa,
eioi?ia ia i?ioeai?a/eei au eaaaeueiiio, a aeiiieiyei aai,
eiie?aoece?iaaei e iiiiaaei ?aoeoue neiaeiaeoea i?iaeaiu eaaeeoeeaoeee
ianeeuenoaaiiuo iinyaaoaeuenoa[3].

I?iaiaeece?oai ?acaeoea ii?aaeaeaiey oaeenoaa a iaoea oaieiaiiai i?aaa.

Oaea a oaieiaiie eeoa?aoo?a ia/aea 20 aaea aeaaaeinue neaaeothuaa
ii?aaeaeaiea oaeenoaa: eeoaiea aeecie – anoue «i?ioeaicaeiiiia aeiiaiia
i?e/eiaiea nia?oe ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo»[4].

A niaaoneie eeoa?aoo?a i?aaaee?iaaei oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea oaeenoaa – yoi
«i?ioeaii?aaiia, oiuoeaiiia eee iainoi?iaeiia, eeoaiea aeecie ae?oaiai
/aeiaaea, eiaaea i?e/eiaiea nia?oe yaeyaony iniiaaieai oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe»[5]

Nia?aiaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey i/aiue iioiaee ia i?eaaaeaiiua iaie auoa.
Oaeenoai – «i?ioeaii?aaiia oiuoeaiiia i?e/eiaiea nia?oe ae?oaiio
/aeiaaeo[6]. Oaeenoai – iauanoaaiii iianiia, i?ioeaii?aaiia, oiuoeaiiia
i?e/eiaiea nia?oe ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo, eiaaea iii ia iai?aaeaii
iaeiia?aiaiii ia eiia io?aiyaiia oaieiaiui caeiiii iauanoaaiiia
ioiioaiea»[7].

Iaeioi?ua ec ii?aaeaeaiee n iiceoeee naaiaeiyoiaai caeiia aiiaua ia
auaea?aeeaatho e?eoeee – iai?eia?, oi?ioea ecaanoiaeoaai enneaaeiaaoaey
i?iaeai eaaeeoeeaoeee i?anooieaiee i?ioea aeecie N.A. Ai?iaeeia:
«Oaeenoai — yoi i?aaeoniio?aiiia Iniaaiiie /anoueth Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena
aeiiaiia aeayiea, iinyaathuaa ia aeeciue ae?oaiai /aeiaaea e
i?e/eiythuaa aio nia?oue»[8]. Oi/ii oaeia aea ii?aaeaeaiea aeaaony a
?yaea eiiiaioa?eaa e oaieiaiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao[9].

Ii/oe ana aeieo?eiaeueiua ii?aaeaeaiey oaeenoaa aeeth/aee (a iiiaea e
oaia?ue aeeth/atho) oeacaiea ia «i?ioeaii?aaiinoue» («iai?aaiia?iinoue»,
«oaieiaioth i?ioeaii?aaiinoue») i?e/eiaiey nia?oe. A oi?ioee?iaea /.1
no.105 OE ?O oaeiai oeacaiey iao. Iaeiaei i?eciae i?ioeaii?aaiinoe a
oa?aeoa?enoeea oaeenoaa yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui. Ii iicaieyao ioa?aie/eoue
oaeenoai io i?aaiia?iiai eeoaiey aeecie /aeiaaea. Oae, i?e/eiaiea nia?oe
i?e iaiaoiaeeiie iai?iia ia oieueei ia aea/ao oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
ii e ia iiaeao auoue iacaaii oaeenoaii. ?aaiui ia?acii ia yaeythony
oaeenoaii e ae?oaea neo/ae i?aaiia?iiai eeoaiey aeecie: i?e eniieiaiee
i?eaiai?a e nia?oiie eacie, a oiaea aiaauo aeaenoaee e ae?.

Oeacaiea a /. 1 no. 105 OE ia i?e/eiaiea nia?oe ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo
iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi i?e/eiaiea nia?oe naiiio naaa ia yaeyaony
i?anooieaieai. Eae iu oaea iiae/a?eeaaee, a enoi?ee eiathony
i?aoeaaeaiou, eiaaea onoaiaaeeaaeinue iaeacaiea e ca naiioaeenoai.

Eoae, iaeaieaa i?aaeeueii n oi/ee c?aiey i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey,
ii?aaeaeaiea oaeenoaa iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue oae: — yoi iauanoaaiii
iianiia, i?ioeaii?aaiia, oiuoeaiiia i?e/eiaiea nia?oe ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo,
eiaaea iii ia iai?aaeaii iaeiia?aiaiii ia eiia io?aiyaiia oaieiaiui
caeiiii iauanoaaiiia ioiioaiea.

4. Iauaeoeaiua i?eciaee oaeenoaa

Iauaeoii oaeenoaa yaeyaony aeeciue /aeiaaea, iiieiaaiay ia oieueei eae
oeceieiae/aneee i?ioeann, ii e eae iaania/aiiay caeiiii aiciiaeiinoue
nouanoaiaaiey ee/iinoe a iauanoaa.

AEeciue eiaao ia/aei e eiiaoe. O?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi
ia/aeii aeecie a oaieiaii-i?aaiaii niunea yaeyaony iiyaeaiea aeeaiai
ieiaea ec oo?iau iaoa?e ai a?aiy ?iaeia. Iaeiaei e ooo anoue ithainu,
iineieueeo ?iaeu — yoi i?ioeann, i?ioyae?iiue ai a?aiaie, eiiaaea ia 10
— 12 /ania. Aieueoeinoai e?eieiaeenoia n/eoaao, /oi ia/aeueiue iiiaio
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie (eiaiii n iaai aiciiaeia eaaeeoeeaoeey niaeayiiiai
eae oaeenoaa; aei yoiai aea iiiaioa ?a/ue iiaeao eaeoe, i?e iaee/ee anao
i?eciaeia ninoaaa i?anooieaiey, oieueei i iacaeiiiii i?iecaiaenoaa
aai?oa — no. 123 OE ?O) neaaeoao ii?aaeaeyoue ia iniiaa e?eoa?eaa
aeeai?iaeaeaiey, onoaiiaeaiiuo Eino?oeoeeae Ieicae?aaa ?O «Ia
ii?aaeaeaiee e?eoa?eaa aeeai?iaeaeaiey, ia?oai?iaeaeaiey,
ia?eiaoaeueiiai ia?eiaea»[1].

Aaaeiaeoei ec e?eoa?eaa iaaei i?eciaoue ia/aei naiinoiyoaeueiiai
aeuoaiey ieiaea aia oo?iau iaoa?e (iau/ii iii i?iyaeyaony a ia?aii e?eea
iiai?iaeae?iiiai). Eae neaaeoao ec i.1 auoaiacaaiiie eino?oeoeee
aeeai?iaeaeaieai yaeyaony iieiia ecaiaiea eee ecaea/aiea i?iaeoeoa
ca/aoey ec i?aaiecia iaoa?e aia caaeneiinoe io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
aa?aiaiiinoe, i?e/ai ieiae iinea oaeiai ioaeaeaiey aeuoeo eee i?iyaeyao
ae?oaea i?eciaee aeecie, oaeea, eae na?aeoeaaeaiea, ioeuenaoeey ioiiaeiu
eee i?iecaieueiua aeaeaeaiey ioneoeaoo?u, iacaaeneii io oiai, ia?a?acaia
ioiiaeia e ioaeaeeeanue ee ieaoeaioa. Eaaeaeue i?iaeoeo oaeiai
?iaeaeaiey ?anniao?eaaaony eae aeeai?iaeaeaiiue.

Eiaao cia/aiea e iiiaio ieii/aiey aeecie. Oaeiaui n/eoaaony ianooieaiea
oeceieiae/aneie nia?oe, eiaaea aneaaenoaea iieiie inoaiiaee na?aeoea e
i?ae?auaiey niaaaeaiey eeaoie eenei?iaeii i?ienoiaeeo iaia?aoeiue
i?ioeann ?aniaaea eeaoie oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu. A?aiaiiay
i?einoaiiaea ?aaiou na?aeoea (eeeie/aneay nia?oue) ia icia/aao ieii/aiey
aeecie. Ecuyoea i?aaiia eee oeaiae o /aeiaaea a yoii ninoiyiee
iaaeiionoeii e iiaeao auoue i?e iaee/ee aeiu eaaeeoeoee?iaaii eae
oaeenoai.

I?e ?ane?uoee eaoaai?ee «iiiaio nia?oe /aeiaaea» iaiaoiaeeii
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny: I?eeacii Ieicae?aaa ?O io 4 ia?oa 2003 a. ?73 «Ia
ooaa?aeaeaiee Eino?oeoeee ii ii?aaeaeaieth e?eoa?eaa e ii?yaeea
ii?aaeaeaiey iiiaioa nia?oe /aeiaaea, i?ae?auaiey ?aaieiaoeeiiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee»[2]; I?eeac Ieicae?aaa ?O io 20 aeaeaa?y 2001 a. ?460 «Ia
ooaa?aeaeaiee Eino?oeoeee ii eiinoaoaoeee nia?oe /aeiaaea ia iniiaaiee
aeeaaiica nia?oe iicaa»[3].

Caeeth/aiea i nia?oe aea?ony ia iniiaa eiinoaoaoeee iaia?aoeiie aeaaee
anaai aieiaiiai iicaa (nia?oue iicaa), onoaiiaeaiiie a niioaaonoaee n
i?ioeaaeo?ie, ooaa?aeae?iiie Ieienoa?noaii cae?aaiio?aiaiey ?O

Auaeaeythony noaaeee i?ioeanna oie?aiey /aeiaaea: aaiiey, eeeie/aneay
nia?oue, nia?oue iicaa e aeieiae/aneay nia?oue (iinia?oiua eciaiaiey ai
anao i?aaiao e nenoaiao, eioi?ua iinyo iinoiyiiue, iaia?aoeiue, o?oiiue
oa?aeoa?). Aeaiiay eino?oeoeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi n aeaaeueth eeaoie
aieiaiiai iicaa i?ae?auaaony oaieiaii-i?aaiaay io?aia aeecie eiie?aoiiai
eiaeeaeaeooia.

N iauaeoeaiie noi?iiu oaeenoai eae oeie/iia i?anooieaiea n iaoa?eaeueiui
ninoaaii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoai o?ao yeaiaioia:

1) aeaenoaea (aacaeaenoaea), iai?aaeaiiia ia eeoaiea aeecie ae?oaiai
eeoea;

2) nia?oue iioa?iaaoaai eae iaycaoaeueiue i?anooiiue ?acoeueoao;

3) i?e/eiiay naycue iaaeaeo aeaenoaeai (aacaeaenoaeai) aeiiaiiai e
ianooieaoae nia?oueth iioa?iaaoaai.

Oaeenoai iiaeao auoue niaa?oaii eae iooai aeoeaiuo aeaenoaee, iai?eia?,
n eniieueciaaieai eaeeo-eeai i?oaeee i?anooieaiey eee iooai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai oece/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia i?aaieci iioa?iaaoaai,
oae e iooai aacaeaenoaey, iai?eia?, eiaaea ia aeiiaiii eaaeaea
iaycaiiinoue i?aaeioa?aoeoue ianooieaiea nia?oaeueiiai enoiaea. Yoa
iaycaiiinoue iiaeao auoaeaoue ec aeiaiai?a, o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee,
i?aaeoanoaothuaai iiaaaeaiey aeiiaiiai e ae?oaeo oaeoe/aneeo
ianoiyoaeuenoa. Noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ecaanoiu neo/ae, eiaaea iaoue
ioeacuaaaony ei?ieoue iieieii ?aaaiea, oai naiui oiuoeaiii i?e/eiyao
nia?oue naiaio ?aaaieo.

Iaycaoaeueiui, eeth/aaui oneiaeai iauaeoeaiie noi?iiu oaeenoaa yaeyaony
– iaee/ea i?e/eiiie nayce iaaeaeo aeaenoaeai (aacaeaenoaeai) aeiiaiiai e
nia?oueth iioa?iaaoaai.

Aeey oaeenoaa oeie/ia i?yiay (iaiin?aaenoaaiiay) i?e/eiiay naycue.
Neaaeai, iiiai/eneaiiua oaea?u iiaeii, iiaeaeee nia?oue.

Eae iiae/a?eeaatho yenia?ou, cia/eoaeueii neiaeiaa auaaao onoaiiaeoue
i?e/eiioth naycue, eiaaea iia iineo iai?yiie, iiin?aaeiaaiiue oa?aeoa?.
I?e/eiiay naycue i?e oaeenoaa iiaeao auoue iiin?aaeiaaia:

1) aeaenoaeai aaoiiaoe/aneeo ono?ienoa (/aniaie iaoaieci, ?acee/iua
caiaaeeeoaee i?e ac?uaa);

2) iaeeaeaaiuie aeaenoaeyie iioa?iaaoaai, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eae
i?aaiia?iuie (iai?eia?, ane?uoea aae?anaoii iinueee, niaea?aeauae
ac?uaiia ono?ienoai, eeai i?eaaaeaiea a aeaenoaea aeaeaaoaey
caieie?iaaiiie aaoiiaoeiu iioa?iaaoaai), oae e iai?aaiia?iuie (iai?eia?,
niciaoaeueiia inoaaeaiea a naeiia aaoiiiaeey aooueee n io?aaeaiiie
aiaeeie a ?an/aoa ia oi, /oi oaiiuee aa auiueao);

3) aeaenoaeai iaeieaoiaai eee ineoe/anee aieueiiai, ia iniciathueo
oa?aeoa?a niaeayiiiai;

4) aeaenoaeai i?e?iaeiuo nee (iai?eia?, inoaaeaiea ia ii?ica ecaeoiai
aei iioa?e niciaiey iioa?iaaoaai);

5) aeaenoaeai o?aoueeo eeoe (iai?eia?, caiicaeaeia eee
iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia ieacaiea iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue iioa?iaaoaio)[4].

Ii?aaeaeythuei aeey onoaiiaeaiey i?e/eiiie nayce yaeyaony auaiae i oii,
/oi nia?oaeueiue ?acoeueoao – iaiaoiaeeiia iineaaenoaea aeaenoaey
(aacaeaenoaey) aeiiaiiai a eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo ianoa e a?aiaie.

I?eaaaeai i?eia? ec i?aeoeee:

«Eieoeiiia acye a aeiea o naieo aeaith?iaeiuo aaaooae Aea?aaa?y I. e A.
3500 ?oa., inoaaea ei ?anieneo. Eiaaea Eieoeiiia iaoiaeeeny a ainoyo o
aaaooae, aai iii?ineee aa?iooue aeiea, ii ii ioeacaeny. Ii ?aoee
caa?aoue naith ?anieneo, a oaeaea caaeaaeaoue aeaiueaaie aaaooae. N yoie
oeaeueth ieiei 24 /an., eiaaea ana eaaee niaoue, Eieoeiiia, ?acaoaeea
Aea?aaa?y A. e oa?iaeay eooiiiui iiaeii, noae o?aaiaaoue naith
aeieaiaoth ?anieneo e aeaiueae. Iieo/ea ioeac, Eieoeiiia iaian ae
iiiaeanoai oaea?ia iiaeii a ?acee/iua /anoe oaea. I?eoaaeoae ia iiiiuue
aa nano?a Aea?aaa?y I. ii oaeaea iaian iiaeaaua oaea?u.

Io iieo/aiiuo oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee Aea?aaa?y I. neii/aeanue ia ianoa
i?ienoanoaey, a Aea?aaa?y A. – ia o?aoee aeaiue a aieueieoea.

Ia iaia?oaeea ?anienee, Eieoeiiia caa?ae 3000 ?oa., aeaa
i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aea e ooae. Aa?ioaoenue aeiiie, Eieoeiiia naeaa a
ia/e a?thee, ?oaaoeo, naeoa? e aioeiee, a eioi?uo ii aue a iiiaio
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey.

Ii caeeth/aieth noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineiai yenia?oa, nia?oue Aea?aaa?y I.
ianooieea a ?acoeueoaoa i?iieeathueo eieioi-?acaiuo ?ai a?oaeiie eeaoee,
a?thoiie iieinoe n iia?aaeaeaieai aioo?aiieo i?aaiia e ?acaiie ?aiu oae,
nia?oue Aea?aaa?y A. – io ino?ie na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe,
?acaeaoaeny a iineaiia?aoeeiiiue ia?eiae iinea i?iieeathueo
eieioi-?acaiuo ?ai a?oaee e aeeaioa. Noaeaaiay eieeaaey ii oaieiaiui
aeaeai Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?O i?eaiai? inoaaeea aac eciaiaiey.

Caianoeoaeue Aaia?aeueiiai i?ieo?i?a ?O a i?ioanoa iinoaaee aii?in ia
ioiaia noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee e iai?aaeaiee aeaea ia iiaia noaeaaiia
?anniio?aiea. A i?ioanoa oeacuaaeinue, /oi aeaenoaey Eieoeiiiaa,
niaa?oaiiua a ioiioaiee Aea?aaa?y A., aac aeinoaoi/iuo iniiaaiee
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiu noaeii eae iieooaiea ia oaeenoai (neaaenoaaiiuie
i?aaiaie yoio yieciae eaaeeoeoee?iaai eae oiuoeaiiia oaeenoai).
Onoaiiaea, /oi Eieoeiiia n oeaeueth oaeenoaa iaian Aea?aaa?y A. a
aeeciaiii aaaeiua i?aaiu iiiaeanoaaiiua eieioi-?acaiua ?aiaiey,
ioiinyueany e oyaeeei oaeaniui iia?aaeaeaieyi, noae ia enneaaeiaae
aii?in, i?aaenoaaeyee ee yoe iia?aaeaeaiey iianiinoue aeey aeecie
iioa?iaaoae e iaoiaeeeenue ee iie a i?yiie i?e/eiiie nayce n aa
nia?oueth.

Noae a i?eaiai?a oeacae, /oi «niaeanii caeeth/aieyi
noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineeo yenia?oia iioa?iaaoei iaianaiu iiiaeanoaaiiua
iiaeaaua ?aiaiey a aeeciaiii aaaeiua i?aaiu, /oi… naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia
oiunea iiaenoaeeiiai ia oaeenoai». Iaeiaei eaeia eiee/anoai ?aiaiee auei
i?e/eiaii iioa?iaaoae Aea?aaa?y A., noae ia onoaiiaee. E?iia oiai, noae
ia enneaaeiaae e aii?in i oii, iaoiaeeeenue ee i?iieeathuea
eieioi-?acaiua ?aiaiey a?oaee e aeeaioa iioa?iaaoae a i?yiie i?e/eiiie
nayce n ianooieaieai aa nia?oe.

Auyniaiea yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoa eiaao nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea aeey
i?aaeeueiie th?eaee/aneie ioeaiee aeaenoaee Eieoeiiiaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?eaiai? auianai ii iaaeinoaoi/ii enneaaeiaaiiui
iaoa?eaeai aeaea, a nayce n /ai ii ioiaiai n iai?aaeaieai aeaea ia iiaia
noaeaaiia ?anniio?aiea»[5].

Iiae/a?eiai, /oi n i?aeoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey aaaeii aeaeaiea i?e/eiiuo
naycae ia i?yiua e iiin?aaeiaaiiua, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ?aciii
o?iaia aicaeaenoaey aeiiaiiai ia i?anooiiue ?acoeueoao. Noaiaiue
aicaeaenoaey aeiiaiiai ia i?anooiiue ?acoeueoao ioaeii eiaoue a aeaeo,
eiaaea ?aoaaony aii?in i oi?ia aeiu, i niaea?aeaiee e iai?aaeaiiinoe
oiunea, i iieooaiee ia oaeenoai, i niciaiee io/eoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
niiniaa oaeenoaa eee aai iianiinoe aeey aeecie iiiaeo ethaeae e o.ae.

Ieii/aiiui oaeenoai n/eoaaony ia n iiiaioa i?e/eiaiey nia?oaeueiiai
oua?aa (ii iiaeao auoue e nouanoaaiii ?anoyioo ai a?aiaie), a n
ianooieaiey nia?oe iioa?iaaoaai.

Ia eiaao cia/aiey, eiaaea ianooieea nia?oue: iaiaaeeaiii eee nionoy
eaeia-oi a?aiy. OE ?O a o?aaeeoeeyo ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
onoaiaaeeaaao ieeaeeo «e?eoe/aneeo n?ieia» ianooieaiey nia?oe, anee o
aeiiaiiai aue oiunae ia oaeenoai. Aeaenoaey eeoea, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
iai?aaeaiiua ia i?e/eiaiea nia?oe ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo, anee iie ii
ianoiyoaeuenoaai, ia caaenyuei io aiee aeiiaiiai, ia i?eaaee e yoiio
?acoeueoaoo, eaaeeoeoee?othony eae iieooaiea ia oaeenoai.

5. Noauaeoeaiua i?eciaee oaeenoaa

N noauaeoeaiie noi?iiu oaeenoai ioiineony e /eneo i?anooieaiee, eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiu oieueei oiuoeaiii eae n i?yiui, oae e n einaaiiui
oiuneii. Yoi icia/aao, /oi eeoei iniciaaaei, /oi aai aeaenoaea (eee
aacaeaenoaea) iiaeao i?eaanoe e nia?oe iioa?iaaoaai, aeaeaei eee
niciaoaeueii aeiioneaei aa ianooieaiea eeai aac?acee/ii ioiineeinue e
ianooieaieth oaeiai iineaaenoaey. I?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i niaea?aeaiee
oiunea aeiiaiiai iaiaoiaeeii enoiaeeoue ec niaieoiiinoe anao
ianoiyoaeuenoa niaa?oaiiiai i?anooieaiey. ?aca?aie/aiea i?yiiai e
einaaiiiai oiunea i?e oaeenoaa eiaao cia/aiea aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ioa?aie/aiey yoiai i?anooieaiey io ae?oaeo
i?anooieaiee.

Ieaioi Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?O oeacae a naiai Iinoaiiaeaiee io 27.01.99 ?1
«I noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ii aeaeai ia oaeenoaa (no. 105 OE ?O)» «Anee
oaeenoai iiaeao auoue niaa?oaii eae n i?yiui, oae e n einaaiiui oiuneii,
oi iieooaiea ia oaeenoai aiciiaeii eeoue n i?yiui oiuneii, oi anoue
eiaaea niaeayiiia naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i oii, /oi aeiiaiue iniciaaae
iauanoaaiioth iianiinoue naieo aeaenoaee (aacaeaenoaey), i?aaeaeaeae
aiciiaeiinoue eee iaecaaaeiinoue ianooieaiey nia?oe ae?oaiai /aeiaaea e
aeaeae aa ianooieaiey, ii nia?oaeueiue enoiae ia ianooiee ii ia
caaenyuei io iaai ianoiyoaeuenoaai (aaeaeo aeoeaiiai nii?ioeaeaiey
aea?oau, aiaoaoaeuenoao ae?oaeo eeoe, naiaa?aiaiiiio ieacaieth
iioa?iaaoaio iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue e ae?.» (i.2).

Iaycaoaeueiuie i?eciaeaie noauaeoeaiie noi?iiu oaeenoaa yaeythony iioea
e oeaeue i?anooieaiey. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi io eo niaea?aeaiey caaeneo
eaaeeoeeaoeey oaeenoaa.

Ieaioi Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?O o?aaoao io noaeia auyniaiey iioeaia e oeaeae
oaeenoaa ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo (i. 1 iinoaiiaeaiey io 27.01.99 ?1). A /. 1
no. 105 ia oeacaiu iioeau i?inoiai oaeenoaa. Yoi i?anooieaiea iiaeao
auoue niaa?oaii ii ethaui iioeaai, ca eneeth/aieai oao, eioi?ui caeii
i?eaeaao eaaeeoeoee?othuaa cia/aiea (i. «c», «e», «e», «e», «i» /. 2 no.
105). Aeey i?inoiai oaeenoaa oa?aeoa?iu oaeea iioeau, eae ianoue ca
eaeia-eeai aeaenoaea iioa?iaaoaai, a oii /enea ca niaa?oaiiia
i?anooieaiea, ?aaiinoue, caaenoue, iai?eyciue, iaiaaenoue, aicieeoea ia
ii/aa ee/iuo ioiioaiee. Aiciiaeii oaeaea oaeenoai ec nino?aaeaiey e
aaciaaeaaeii aieueiiio eee ?aiaiiio, ec eiaeiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i naiai
iauanoaaiiii eee neoaeaaiii aeieaa, ec no?aoa ia?aae iaeeaeaaiui eee
i?aaeiieaaaaiui iaiaaeaieai i?e ionoonoaee ninoiyiey iaiaoiaeeiie
iai?iiu e o.ae. E i?inoiio oaeenoao ioiineony oaeaea oiuoeaiiia
i?e/eiaiea nia?oe a iaithaeiie ae?aea eee nni?a iiae aeeyieai
yiioeeiiaeueiuo iioeaia – aiaaa, y?inoe, no?aoa ca naith aeeciue i?e
ionoonoaee i?eciaeia neeueiiai aeooaaiiai aieiaiey.

Noauaeoii oaeenoaa iiaeao auoue eeoei, aeinoeaoaa e iiiaioo niaa?oaiey
i?anooieaiey 14 eao. Iiae?inoee, aeinoeaoea 14-eaoiaai aic?anoa, ianoo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?eaioiaeaiea e oaeenoao, iieooaiea ia aai
niaa?oaiea e ca nio/anoea a iai. Aeaiiua, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ee/iinoue
noauaeoa oaeenoaa, i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo iiaoo ieacuaaoue aeeyiea
ia noaiaiue aai ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca niaa?oaiiia i?anooieaiea.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy a eeoa?aoo?a cao/ao i?aaeeiaeaiey ?yaea o/?iuo i oii,
/oi iiauoaiea aic?anoa oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aei 16 eao ii noaoueyi
106, 107 e 108 OE ?O yaeyaony aeoii aoiaiecia e aiieia ii?aaaeaiii[1].
Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony oaeia i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?aoeeiiaeueiui. Iai?ioea,
oiaaea iiae?inoee a aic?anoa 14-16 eao noaioo noauaeoaie eneeth/eoaeueii
no.105 OE ?O, /oi eneeth/eo eo inaiaiaeaeaiea io ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Aaaeii
o/eouaaoue, /oi OE ?O niaea?aeeo iaeioi?ua i?eciaee noauaeoa, eiathuea
cia/aiea aeey eaaeeoeeaoeee niaa?oaiiiai ei oaeenoaa. Yoe aeaiiua iiaoo
eiaoue nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea e aeey iacia/aiey iaeacaiey. Oae, oaeenoai,
niaa?oaiiia aeieaeiinoiui eeoeii i?e i?aauoaiee aeieaeiinoiuo
iieiiii/ee, eaaeeoeoee?oaony ii niaieoiiinoe i?anooieaiee,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo no. 105 e 286 OE ?O.

6. Iaeacaiea ca oaeenoai

A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei oaieiaiui caeiiii i?inoia oaeenoai (/.1
no.105 OE ?O) «iaeacuaaaony eeoaieai naiaiaeu ia n?ie io oanoe aei
iyoiaaeoeaoe eao». Eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia oaeenoai (/.2 no.105 OE ?O)
«iaeacuaaaony eeoaieai naiaiaeu ia n?ie io ainueie aei aeaaaeoeaoe eao
eeai nia?oiie eaciueth eee iiaeeciaiiui eeoaieai naiaiaeu». A aeaeo
oiai, /oi a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aaaaeai ii?aoi?ee ia auianaiea
noaeaie i?eaiai?a a aeaea nia?oiie eacie, nia?oiay eaciue iieiinoueth
caiaiaia iiaeeciaiiui caeeth/aieai.

Aeaea ia oaeenoaa aac ioya/athueo ianoiyoaeuenoa (/. 1 no. 105 OE ?O)
iiaenoaeiu ?aeiiiiio (ai?iaeneiio) ia?iaeiiio noaeo, a ia oaeenoaa i?e
ioya/athueo ianoiyoaeuenoaao (/. 2 no. 105 OE ?O) – Aa?oiaiiio noaeo
?anioaeeee, e?aaaiio, iaeanoiiio, ai?iaeneiio noaeo oaaea?aeueiiai
iiae/eiaiey, noaeo aaoiiiiiie iaeanoe e noaeo aaoiiiiiiai ie?oaa.

Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi niaoeeoeea aeaiiie eaoaai?ee i?anooieaiee
ii?iaeaeaao neooaoeeth, eiaaea ?anneaaeiaaiea oaeiai i?anooieaiey (e
i?eia?o, oaeenoaa n iniaie aeanoieinoueth) iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii auoue
nii?yaeaii n i?iecaiaenoaii noaeaaii-ineoeao?e/aneie yenia?oecu
iaaeiyaiiai. A yoii neo/aa nai niinia niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey aucuaaao
niiiaiey ii iiaiaeo aai aiaiyaiinoe a iiiaio niaa?oaiey iauanoaaiii
iianiiai aeayiey eee niiniaiinoe e iiiaioo i?iecaiaenoaa ii aeaeo
ioaeaaaoue io/ao a naieo aeaenoaeyo eee ?oeiaiaeeoue eie[1].

I?e iacia/aiee iaeacaiey ca oaeenoai iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ana
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, i?e eioi?uo iii niaa?oaii: aeae oiunea, iioeau e
oeaeue, niinia, ianoaiiaeo e noaaeeth niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, a oaeaea
ee/iinoue aeiiaiiai, aai ioiioaiea e niaeayiiiio, ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
niya/athuea e ioya/athuea iaeacaiea. ?aaiui ia?acii aeieaeiu auoue
enneaaeiaaiu aeaiiua, ioiinyueany e ee/iinoe iioa?iaaoaai, aai
acaeiiioiioaiey n iiaenoaeeiui, a oaeaea iiaaaeaiea, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaa
oaeenoao.

Iaeacaiea i?e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiii oaeenoaa ia aeieaeii iacia/aoueny ii
eaaeaeiio ioieoo a ioaeaeueiinoe, iaeiaei i?e iacia/aiee aai iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue iaee/ea ianeieueeeo eaaeeoeoee?othueo i?eciaeia.

A neo/ayo, eiaaea iiaenoaeeiiio aiaiaii niaa?oaiea oaeenoaa i?e
eaaeeoeoee?othueo i?eciaeao, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ianeieueeeie ioieoaie /.2
no.105 OE ?O, e iaaeiaiea ii iaeioi?ui ec ieo ia iiaeoaa?aeeeinue, a
iienaoaeueiie /anoe i?eaiai?a aeinoaoi/ii n i?eaaaeaieai iaaeeaaeaueo
iioeaia noi?ioee?iaaoue auaiae i i?eciaiee iaaeiaiey ii oai eee eiui
ioieoai iaiainiiaaiiui.

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