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I?AAIAIE ?AAEEI CAIAEUe, I?AAeINOAAEAIIUO AeEss AAAeAIEss
E?ANOUessINEIAI OICssENOAA A ?ANIOAEEEA AAEA?ONUe

E?anoueyineia (oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai – iaeia ec i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo
oi?i aaaeaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Iii ?anniao?eaaaony e eae iaeia ec
oi?i naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. E?anoueyineia
(oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai yaeyaony noauaeoii aa?a?iuo, a?aaeaeaineeo,
caiaeueiuo, oeiainiauo e ae?oaeo i?aaiioiioaiee. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea
i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe oaeeo oicyenoa inouanoaeyaony Caeiiii
?anioaeeee Aaea?onue “I e?anoueyineii (oa?ia?neii) oicyenoaa” io 18
oaa?aey 1991 a., Eiiaenii i caiea (ae.15) e ?yaeii eiuo caeiiia e
iiaecaeiiiuo aeoia.

A no.78 e 80 Eiaeaena i caiea iacaaiu aeaa eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua
iiaoo iieo/eoue caieth aeey aaaeaiey e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa. Ia?aay –
yoi /eaiu eieoicia e ae?oaeo eiiia?aoeaia, ?aaioieee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (e?iia naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, ia caieyo eioi?uo i?iaiaeyony aeieaieaoiea iiuou),
iiaeaeaaoea aueoe ec eo ninoaaa (oaieeoueny) e aanoe e?anoueyineia
(oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai. Aoi?ay – yoi eeoea, ia naycaiiua n naeueneei
oicyenoaii.

*eaiai eieoicia e ae?oaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaia, ?aaioieeai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (e?iia naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, ia caieyo eioi?uo i?iaiaeyony aeieaieaoiea iiuou),
iiaeaeaaoei aueoe ec eo ninoaaa (oaieeoueny) e aanoe e?anoueyineia
(oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai, ii ?aoaieth ?aeiiiiai eniieieoaeueiiai e
?anii?yaeeoaeueiiai i?aaia n o/aoii iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey ?aaiuo
oneiaee oicyenoaiaaiey i?aaeinoaaeythony caiaeueiua o/anoee, ecuiaaiua
ec caiaeue oeacaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

A neo/ayo, eiaaea i?aaeinoaaeaiiue caiaeueiue o/anoie eiaao iaiueoee
?acia?, /ai onoaiiaeaii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii (oi anoue iaiaa 100 aaeoa?ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue), ii aeaeaieth aeaau e?anoueyineiai
(oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa ?aeiiiui eniieieoaeueiui e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiui
i?aaiii aio i?aaeinoaaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiue caiaeueiue o/anoie ec
caiaeue caiana eee niaoeeaeueiiai oiiaea caiaeueiiai caiana.

Eaaeano?iaay ioeaiea auaeaeyaiiai caiaeueiiai o/anoea aeieaeia auoue,
eae i?aaeei, ia o?iaia n?aaeiae ii oicyenoao. I?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia n ioeaieie ieaea n?aaeiae eaaeano?iaie ii oicyenoao
oaeiio oicyenoao onoaiaaeeaathony iaeiaiaua e ae?oaea eueaiou.

Aeaaniiniaiui a?aaeaeaiai, ecuyaeaoei aeaeaiea aanoe e?anoueyineia
(oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai, iniiaaiiia i?aeiouanoaaiii ia ee/iii o?oaea e
o?oaea /eaiia eo naiae, i?aaeinoaaeythony ii eo aeaeaieth a iiaeeciaiiia
ianeaaeoaiia aeaaeaiea eee a a?aiaeo caiaeueiua o/anoee n o/aoii ianoiuo
oneiaee e iniaaiiinoae, niaoeeaeecaoeee e aiciiaeiinoae ia?aaioee
i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo caiaeue. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue iiaoo
auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu ioaeaeueiua neo/ae e oneiaey i?aaeinoaaeaiey
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia oieueei a a?aiaeo.

Aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaeae a?aaeaeaia, aaaeouea e?anoueyineia
oicyenoai, iiaoo aeiiieieoaeueii a?aiaeiaaoue caiaeueiua o/anoee.
Ii?yaeie e oneiaey i?aaeinoaaeaiey caiaeue aeey aaaeaiey e?anoueyineiai
oicyenoaa ii?aaeaeythony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue.

Iaeioi?ua eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai eiatho i?aeiouanoaaiiia i?aai ia iieo/aiea
caiaeueiiai o/anoea aeey aaaeaiey e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa. Oaeeie
i?aeiouanoaaie iieuecothony a?aaeaeaia, i?iaeeaathuea a aeaiiie
ianoiinoe, iaeaaeathuea niaoeeaeueiuie ciaieyie e iaiaoiaeeiie
eaaeeoeeaoeeae.

Eiino?aiiui a?aaeaeaiai e eeoeai aac a?aaeaeainoaa, ecuyaeaoei aeaeaiea
aanoe e?anoueyineia (oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai, caiaeueiua o/anoee
ia?aaeathony a a?aiaeo. Eiie?aoiua ?acia?u caiaeueiuo o/anoeia
a?aaeaeai, aaaeoueo e?anoueyineia oicyenoai, a i?aaeaeao ii?i,
onoaiiaeaiiuo aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, ii?aaeaeytho ?aeiiiua
eniieieoaeueiua e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiua i?aaiu n o/aoii ?aaeiiaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae, niaoeeaeecaoeee e aiciiaeiinoae ia?aaioee i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo
caiaeue i?aeiouanoaaiii ee/iui o?oaeii /eaiia e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa.

Caiaeueiua o/anoee a?aaeaeai, aaaeoueo e?anoueyineia oicyenoai, ?acaeaeo
ia iiaeeaaeao. A yoii ninoieo i?aeiouanoaaiiay iniaaiiinoue i?aaiaiai
?aaeeia caiaeue e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa.

I?aaeinoaaeaiea caiaeueiuo o/anoeia a?aaeaeaiai, ia naycaiiui n ?aaioie
a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, aeey aaaeaiey e?anoueyineiai
oicyenoaa i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaaiee eo cayaeaiee ii i?aaenoaaeaieth
naeueneiai (iinaeeiaiai) eniieieoaeueiiai e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiiai i?aaia
?aoaieai ?aeiiiiai eniieieoaeueiiai e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiiai i?aaia. Yoe
o/anoee auaeaeythony a?aaeaeaiai, eae i?aaeei, aaeeiui caiaeueiui
ianneaii n ?aniieiaeaiiuie ia iai aiaeiuie enoi/ieeaie e eaniuie
oaiaeueyie. Oaeei eaoaai?eyi a?aaeaeai caiaeueiua o/anoee aeey aaaeaiey
e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa i?aaeinoaaeythony ec caiaeue caiana. I?e
ionoonoaee eee iaaeinoaoea oaeeo caiaeue nicaeaaony niaoeeaeueiue oiiae
caiaeueiiai caiana ca n/ao caiaeue, i?aai iieueciaaiey e i?aai aeaaeaiey
eioi?uie i?ae?auaii a niioaaonoaee ni no.49 Eiaeaena i caiea.

A?aaeaeaiei, iacaaeneii io ianoa iinoiyiiiai i?iaeeaaiey, i?iyaeaoee
aeaeaiea aanoe e?anoueyineia (oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai, iiaeaao cayaeaiea i
i?aaeinoaaeaiee aio aeey yoeo oeaeae caiaeueiiai o/anoea a naeueneee,
iinaeeiaue eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao ii ianoo iaoiaeaeaiey eni?aoeaaaiiai
o/anoea.

A cayaeaiee oeacuaathony:

· oi?ia eniieueciaaiey caiee – i?aaeinoaaeaiea eni?aoeaaaiiai o/anoea a
iiaeeciaiiia ianeaaeoaiia aeaaeaiea eee a?aiaeo;

· oeaeue eniieueciaaiey caiaeueiiai o/anoea;

· ?acia? e ianoiiieiaeaiea caiaeueiiai o/anoea;

· ieiuaaeue anao caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, oaea iaoiaeyueony a iieueciaaiee,
iiaeeciaiiii ianeaaeoaiii aeaaeaiee, /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, a?aiaea.

E cayaeaieth a?aaeaeaiei aeieaeai i?eeiaeeoue i?ia?aiio aaaeaiey
e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa. Ioaiae caiaeueiiai o/anoea
oece/aneiio eeoeo aeey aaaeaiey e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa
inouanoaeyaony aac ioi?ieaiey iaoa?eaeia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey
ianoa aai ?aciauaiey.

Aeaaie e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony iaeei ec aai aeaaniiniaiuo
/eaiia, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaoao a ainoaea?noaaiiuo e eiuo
no?oeoo?ao.

E?anoueyineia oicyenoai ?anniao?eaaaony a ea/anoaa iaeiie ec oi?i
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e aai ioee/aao neaaeothuaa.
Iii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio o?ao eiiiiiaioia: eiouanoaaiiue eiiieaen,
caiaeueiue o/anoie e eieeaeoea a?aaeaeai, iauaaeeieaoeony aeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie e eiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Caeii iaaeaeyao
e?anoueyineia oicyenoai i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie, eioi?ua aio iaiaoiaeeiu
aeey inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

E?anoueyineia oicyenoai iiaeao caieiaoueny anaie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
ia cai?auaiiuie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Iii ai?aaa caeeth/aoue aeiaiai?u,
i?eia?aoaoue eiouanoai a nianoaaiiinoue, i?iaeaaaoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth oece/aneei e th?eaee/aneei eeoeai,
auoue noauaeoii iiiai/eneaiiuo eiouanoaaiiuo, oeiainiauo e eiuo
ioiioaiee.

Eiouanoai e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa iaoiaeeony o aai /eaiia ia i?aaa
niaianoiie nianoaaiiinoe, anee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eee aeiaiai?ii
iaaeaeo ieie ia onoaiiaeaii eiia.

A niaianoiie nianoaaiiinoe /eaiia e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa
iaoiaeyony ianaaeaeaiey, oicyenoaaiiua e eiua iino?ieee, iaeei?aoeaiua e
ae?oaea nii?oaeaiey, i?iaeoeoeaiue e ?aai/ee neio, ioeoea,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiay e eiay oaoieea e iai?oaeiaaiea, o?ainii?oiua
n?aaenoaa, eiaaioa?ue, nicaeaiiua oicyenoaii oieoa?iua i?aaei?eyoey e
ae?oaia eiouanoai, i?eia?aoaiiia aeey oicyenoaa ia iauea n?aaenoaa aai
/eaiia. Ieiaeu, i?iaeoeoeey e aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa
aeayoaeueiinoe e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa, iaoiaeyony a
iauae nianoaaiiinoe /eaiia e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa e
eniieuecothony ii niaeaoaieth iaaeaeo ieie (no.260 AE).

Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia caiaeue e?anoueyineeo (oa?ia?neeo)
oicyenoa ninoiyo oaeaea a neaaeothuai.

Ai-ia?auo, oaeea caiee aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoueny no?iai ii oeaeaaiio
iacia/aieth.

Ai-aoi?uo, ia aeiioneaaony a?aaeaeaineee iai?io caiaeueiuo o/anoeia
e?anoueyineeo (oa?ia?neeo) oicyenoa. Oaeea o/anoee ianeaaeothony a
ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii caiaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

A-o?aoueeo, caiee e?anoueyineeo (oa?ia?neeo) oicyenoa ia iiaeeaaeao
i?eaaoecaoeee e ia?aaea/a a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue.

I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa ii eniieueciaaieth caiee
iacaaiu a no.64 e 65 Eiaeaena i caiea. I?e i?iaeaaea eiouanoaa
e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa e ia?aaea/a caiaeueiiai o/anoea ae?oaiio
a?aaeaeaieio, i?aaei?eyoeth eee i?aaiecaoeee ii ?aoaieth ianoiiai
eniieieoaeueiiai e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiiai i?aaia caieaaeaaeaeaoe eiaao
i?aai ia iieo/aiea io iaai iieiie eiiiainaoeee anao cao?ao iiae o?iaeae,
a oaeaea ia oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa caiee a niioaaonoaee n iiauoaieai
eaaeano?iaie ioeaiee ca a?aiy aeaaeaiey caiaeueiui o/anoeii. Ii?yaeie e
oneiaey aiciauaiey oauoeia ii?aaeaeythony Niaaoii Ieieno?ia ?anioaeeee
Aaea?onue.

I?e ioeaca aeaau e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa aicaeaaeyoue yoi
oicyenoai e auoue aai /eaiii i?aai iiaeeciaiiiai ianeaaeoaiiai aeaaeaiey
caiaeueiui o/anoeii, i?aaeinoaaeaiiui aeey aaaeaiey e?anoueyineiai
(oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa, a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ii?yaeea n
niaeaney anao /eaiia e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa ia?aaeaaony
iaeiiio ec /eaiia naiuee, aaaeouaio niaianoii n aeaaie e?anoueyineia
(oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai, eee eiiio o?oaeiniiniaiiio eeoeo, eiathuaio
iaiaoiaeeioth eaaeeoeeaoeeth, iiuo ?aaiou a naeueneii oicyenoaa, a
oaeaea eiathuaio i?aai a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee
Aaea?onue aanoe e?anoueyineia (oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai, n ioi?ieaieai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeoa ia i?aai iiaeeciaiiiai ianeaaeoaiiai aeaaeaiey
caieae.

A neo/aa ioeaca aeaau e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa aanoe
e?anoueyineia (oa?ia?neia) oicyenoai aii?in i aeaeueiaeoai
eniieueciaaiee caiaeueiiai o/anoea ?aoaaony ?aeiiiui eniieieoaeueiui e
?anii?yaeeoaeueiui i?aaiii a niioaaonoaee n caiaeueiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue (no.81 Eiaeaena i caiea).

I?e i?ae?auaiee e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa a nayce n
auoiaeii ec iaai anao /eaiia eee ii eiui iniiaaieyi iauaa eiouanoai
iiaeeaaeeo ?acaeaeo ii i?aaeeai, i?aaeoniio?aiiui ii?iaie a?aaeaeaineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (no.255 e 257 AE).

Caiaeueiue o/anoie, oieoa?iia i?aaei?eyoea e n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea e?anoueyineiio (oa?ia?neiio) oicyenoao, i?e auoiaea
iaeiiai ec aai /eaiia ec oicyenoaa ?acaeaeo ia iiaeeaaeao. Auoaaeoee ec
oicyenoaa eiaao i?aai ia iieo/aiea aeaiaaeiie eiiiainaoeee, ni?acia?iie
aai aeiea a iauae nianoaaiiinoe ia yoi eiouanoai. I?e yoii aeiee /eaiia
e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa i?eciathony ?aaiuie, anee niaeaoaieai iaaeaeo
ieie ia onoaiiaeaii eiia.

N?aaee i?aaiauo ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo caiaeueiua ioiioaiey, ii?iu,
ioiinyueany e caieyi ianaeaiiuo ioieoia, caieiatho iniaia ianoi. A
ioee/ea io caiaeue, eniieuecoaiuo aeey naeueneiai e eaniiai oicyenoaa,
caiee ianaeaiiuo ioieoia neoaeao naiaia?aciui iia?aoeeiiiui aacenii,
ianoii aeeoaeuenoaa aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue,
?aciauaiey aeeeuo, i?iiuoeaiiuo, o?ainii?oiuo i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee
eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai e ae?oaiai iacia/aiey.

I?aaeinoaaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea caiaeue ianaeaiiuo ioieoia
inouanoaeyaony eiiieaenii. A ninoaaa yoeo caiaeue anoue e caiee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ae?oaiai oicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey. Iaeiaei iniiaiie
oeaeueth eo i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia yaeyaony ia i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, a
nicaeaiea iaaeeaaeaueo oneiaee ?aciauaiey aeeeuo caeaiee, oeie,
aieueieoe e ae?oaeo ianeoaeeaathueo ianaeaiea iauaeoia, nicaeaiea
i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena aeey caiyoey o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey.

Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao a ianaeaiiuo ioieoao e eniieueciaaiea
aiaeiuo, eaniuo ?ano?nia, ae?oaeo i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia e eiiieaenia.
Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo caaea/, ?aoaaiuo n iiiiuueth caiaeueii-i?aaiauo
ii?i, yaeyaony ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea caiaeue ianaeaiiuo ioieoia,
a?aiioiia ?aciauaiea ia oa??eoi?ee ai?iaeia e ae?oaeo ianaeaiiuo iano
aeeeuo e iaaeeeuo caeaiee, i?aaei?eyoee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?ainii?oa,
eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa. ”

Iaiaeiaaaeiui oaeoi?ii yaeyaony o?aaiaaiea o/aoa yeieiae/aneeo
ii?iaoeaia no?ieoaeuenoaa ianaeaiiuo ioieoia. Ii aeaiiui naieo
a?aaeino?ieoaeae, ie iaeei ec ai?iaeia ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue ia iino?iai
n o/aoii anao yeieiae/aneeo ii?i e iiyoiio ia iiaeao i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia
iaeeo/oaa ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa. •

A Eiaeaena i caiea 1999 a. (no.101) e eaoaai?ee caiaeue ianaeaiiuo
ioieoia ioianaiu caiaeueiua o/anoee, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua aeey ?acaeoey
naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia, ai?iaeia e iinaeeia ai?iaeneiai oeia,
ae?oaeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia. Caiee ianaeaiiuo ioieoia eiatho naie
a?aieoeu, onoaiaaeeaaaiua a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

A ioiioaiee caiaeue ianaeaiiuo ioieoia ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee
?acaeoey eo i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey nouanoaiaaee niaoeeaeueiua
ii?iaoeaiua aeou. N?aaee ia?auo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia – Aeae?ao AOeEE
io 20 iiya?y 1918 a. “Ia ioiaia i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
iaaeaeaeeiinoue a ai?iaeao”. Niaeanii aio, ioiaiaii i?aai /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia ana aac eneeth/aiey o/anoee, eae cano?iaiiua, oae e
iiaeeaaeauea cano?ieea, eae i?eiaaeeaaeauea /anoiui eeoeai, i?iiuoeaiiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi, oae e aaaeiinoaai e o/?aaeaeaieyi, iaoiaeyueiny a
i?aaeaeao anao ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee.

E a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee, e a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie Aaei?onnee
ai?iaeneea caiee auee iauaeoii i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Ano?a/aeenue
ia oieueei iaeeea ianoa/ee, ii e e?oiiua ianaeaiiua ioieou, aaea
no?ieoaeuenoai aaeinue oeaeeeii ia /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneie caiea. Any
cano?iaiiay caiey i?iaeieaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeaoue /anoiiio aeaaeaeueoeo.
Iieuecoynue caueoie naiaai i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e
aunieie caiaeueiie ?aioie, iniaaiii aic?anoaaoae a nayce n i?iaeoii
eaeiai-eeai aeaaiono?ienoaa a oii eee eiii ?aeiia ai?iaea, aeaaeaeueoeu
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia i?aeoeeiaaee ie/ai ia naea?aeeaaaioth niaeoeyoeeth
yoeie o/anoeaie.

I?eioeei ia?ooeiinoe, iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
ai?iaeneoth iaaeaeaeeiinoue, eoaea auee ioianaiu e ai?iaeneea caiee,
oi?iicee ana ai?iaeneia oicyenoai, aeaaiono?ienoai ai?iaeia e
i?aa?aaeaeae iooue eo ieaiiia?iie ia?ano?ieea.

Aeae?ao AOeEE io 20 iiya?y 1918 a. ana ai?iaeneea caiee ia?aaeaaae a
?anii?yaeaiea i?aaiia ianoiie aeanoe, e a aeaeueiaeoai i?aaiaia
?aaoee?iaaiea eniieueciaaiey caiaeue ai?iaeia oei ii iooe onoaiiaeaiey
iniaaiiinoae eo i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia. A iniaue ?acaeae noaouee i ai?iaeneeo
caieyo auaeaeaiu a “Iaueo ia/aeao caieaiieueciaaiey e caieaono?ienoaa”
io 15 aeaeaa?y 1928 a.

*oi aea eanaaony caiaeue, caiyouo naeueneeie iinaeaieyie, oi iie
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy aeeth/aeenue a ninoaa caiaeue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, aeaaiui ia?acii eieoicia e niaoicia. E oieueei a
Caiaeueiii eiaeaena 1970 a. iiyaeyaony niaoeeaeueiue ?acaeae,
?aaoee?othuee ?aaeei eae ai?iaeneeo, oae e naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia,
eioi?ua iauaaeeiaiu a aaeeioth eaoaai?eth – caiee ianaeaiiuo ioieoia.

Aianoa n oai, ii naiaio i?aaiaiio ?aaeeio caiee naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo
ioieoia iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia aeaa aeaea:

· caiee, iaoiaeyueany a aaaeaiee naeueneeo Niaaoia ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia;

· caiee, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa caieaiieueciaaiey eieoi cia, niaoicia,
ae?oaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ana ianaeaiiua ioieou iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa eaoaai?ee:

· ai?iaeneea iinaeaiey;

· naeueneea ianaeaiiua ioieou.

E /eneo ai?iaeneeo ioiinyony ai?iaea e iinaeee ai?iaeneiai oeia, e /eneo
naeueneeo – ana ae?oaea ianaeaiiua ioieou.

Aeaaiia ianoi a /enea ianaeaiiuo ioieoia caieiatho ai?iaea. I?e
ioianaiee ianaeaiiiai ioieoa e ai?iaeneiio o/eouaaaony /eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey, aai o/anoea a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa e oa?aeoa? oaeiai
o/anoey (naeueneia oicyenoai eee i?iiuoeaiiinoue), ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey
ianaeaiiiai ioieoa.

Ai?iaea, iinaeee ai?iaeneiai oeia e naeueneea ianaeaiiua ioieou iiaoo
aunooiaoue aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuie oeaio?aie niioaaonoaothuae
oa??eoi?ee. Yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioiineony e ai?iaeneei iinaeaieyi,
eioi?ua aunooiatho eae naiinoiyoaeueiua
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiua aaeeieoeu, eo i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea
eiaao aieaa ?acaeooth caeiiiaeaoaeueioth ?aaeaiaioaoeeth.

Aoaeo/e naiinoiyoaeueiuie aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuie
aaeeieoeaie, ai?iaea eiatho naie athaeaeao, ai?iaeneia oicyenoai,
iaeaaeatho eae aaeieieno?aoeaiie, oae e yeiiiie/aneie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth. Eo i?aaiaie noaoon iinoiyiii ?anoe?yaony.

E?iia ?acaeaeaiey ia ai?iaeneea e naeueneea iinaeaiey, nouanoaoao
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiay eeanneoeeaoeey ai?iaeia.

A niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue “Ia
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiii aeaeaiee e ii?yaeea ?aoaiey aii?inia
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ono?ienoaa ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue”
ianaeaiiue ioieo – eiiiaeoii canaeaiiay /anoue oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee
Aaea?onue, ianoi iinoiyiiiai aeeoaeuenoaa a?aaeaeai, eiathuay
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iaania/aiey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe a?aaeaeai aeeeua e
eiua caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey, nianoaaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea e onoaiiaeaiiua a
niioaaonoaothuai ii?yaeea oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaeaeu.

Ianaeaiiua ioieou ioiinyony e ii?aaeaeaiiui eaoaai?eyi a caaeneiinoe io
/eneaiiinoe i?iaeeaathuaai ianaeaiey; o?iaiy ?acaeoey e niaoeeaeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie eio?ano?oeoo?u;
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ooieoeee, inouanoaeyaiuo ia niioaaonoaothuae
oa??eoi?ee.

A ?anioaeeea Aaea?onue onoaiaaeeaathony o?e eaoaai?ee ai?iaeia: ai?iae
Ieine – noieeoea ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue; ai?iaea iaeanoiiai iiae/eiaiey;
ai?iaea ?aeiiiiai iiae/eiaiey.

Noaoon ai?iaea Ieinea ii?aaeaeyaony caeiiii.

Ai?iaea iaeanoiiai iiae/eiaiey – ianaeaiiua ioieou n /eneaiiinoueth
ianaeaiey ia iaiaa 50 ouny/ /aeiaae, yaeythueany aaeieieno?aoeaiuie e
e?oiiuie yeiiiie/aneeie e eoeueoo?iuie oeaio?aie n ?acaeoie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?ie. E eo /eneo iiaoo auoue
ioianaiu ianaeaiiua ioieou n /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey iaiaa 50 ouny/
/aeiaae, yaeythueany aaeieieno?aoeaiuie e e?oiiuie yeiiiie/aneeie e
eoeueoo?iuie oeaio?aie, eiathueie aaaeiia i?iiuoeaiiia, enoi?e/aneia
cia/aiea, ia?niaeoeau aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey e ?inoa /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey.

Ai?iaea ?aeiiiiai iiae/eiaiey – ianaeaiiua ioieou n /eneaiiinoueth
ianaeaiey nauoa 6 ouny/ /aeiaae, eiathuea i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey,
naoue o/?aaeaeaiee nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai e auoiaiai iacia/aiey, n
ia?niaeoeaaie aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey e ?inoa /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.

Ana inoaeueiua ianaeaiiua ioieou (aea?aaie, naea e ae?oaea) ioiinyony e
eaoaai?ee naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia. Aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey naeueneeo
ianaeaiiuo ioieoia o/anoaoao a naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa.

A ninoaa caiaeue ianaeaiiuo ioieoia aoiaeyo:

· caiee cano?ieee;

· caiee iauaai iieueciaaiey;

· caiee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey;

· caiee, caiyoua eanaie;

· caiee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?ainii?oa, nayce, yia?aaoeee, iai?iiu e eiiai
iacia/aiey.

I?aaiaie ?aaeei caiaeue ai?iaeneeo e naeueneeo iinaeaiee iaiaeeiaeia. A
?aieao caiaeue ai?iaeia e iinaeeia ai?iaeneiai oeia ?acaeaathony oi?iu
eniieueciaaiey caiaeue, naycaiiua n i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii, e?oiiui
i?iiuoeaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii, eieeaeoeaiie cano?ieeie. Caiee naeueneeo
ianaeaiiuo ioieoia iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. I?aaiaie ?aaeei caiaeue ianaeaiiuo
ioieoia i?e anai eo ?aciiia?acee eiaao iauea /a?ou e iniaaiiinoe,
ioee/athuea eo io ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee caiaeue.

Iniiaiua ec ieo:

Caiee ianaeaiiuo ioieoia ii?aaeaeythony a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eae ana
caiee, ?aniieiaeaiiua a i?aaeaeao ai?iaeneie /a?ou, /a?ou iinaeea
ai?iaeneiai oeia e a?aieoe naeueneiai ianaeaiiiai ioieoa.

Ai?iaeneay /a?oa, /a?oa iinaeea ai?iaeneiai oeia, a?aieoea naeueneiai
ianaeaiiiai ioieoa – aiaoiyy a?aieoea caiaeue yoiai ianaeaiiiai ioieoa,
ioaeaeythuay aeaiiua caiee io ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee caiaeueiiai oiiaea e
aunooiathuay a ?iee aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiie a?aieoeu ai?iaea,
iinaeea ai?iaeneiai oeia, naeueneiai ianaeaiiiai ioieoa.

Caiee ianaeaiiuo ioieoia ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a aeecie iauanoaa e
ainoaea?noaa. Ia iaaieueoie ii ?acia?o oa??eoi?ee nin?aaeioi/aia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay, aeeeay, nioeeaeueiay eio?ano?oeoo?a.

I?aaiaie ?aaeei caiaeue ianaeaiiuo ioieoia eiaao iauea /a?ou. Aaeeinoai
eo i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia caeeth/aaony a ii?yaeea i?aaeinoaaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey, oi?aaeaiee yoeie caieyie, e?oaa noauaeoia i?aaa
iieueciaaiey e caieaaeaaeaiey e ae?.

Iaeia ec iniaaiiinoae i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia caiaeue ianaeaiiuo ioieoia –
i?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey yoeie caieyie. Oi?aaeaiea caieyie naeueneeo e
ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee eiaao ?acee/ey.

Ieaie?iaea ianaeaiiuo ioieoia – iaeia ec oi?i i?aaiecaoeee caiaeueiie
oa??eoi?ee. Iia ninoieo a ?aoeeiiaeueiii ?aciauaiee iauaeoia ia caiea. E
/eneo ae?oaeo oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeee iiaeii ioianoe i?aaeinoaaeaiea e
ecuyoea, o/ao caiaeue, ?ac?aoaiea caiaeueiuo nii?ia.

Oi?aaeaiea caieyie ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia oieueei ia
caiee ai?iaea, iinaeea ai?iaeneiai oeia, ii e ia i?eai?iaeioth ciio.

Caiee ianaeaiiuo ioieoia aeieaeiu ioaa/aoue ?yaeo yeieiae/aneeo
o?aaiaaiee.

Ia caieyo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia iiiaeanoai noauaeoia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe,
aeaaeaiey caieae. A?aaeaeaia eae noauaeou caiaeueiuo i?aaiioiioaiee
iiaoo auoue eae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie eo o/anoieeaie, oae e a ninoaaa
?aciiia?aciuo eiiia?aoeaia (aeeeeuiuo, aea/iuo, aa?aaeiuo e eiuo).

?aaeei caiaeueiuo o/anoeia e ?aciauaaiuo ia ieo no?iaiee (eae
iaaeaeaeeiinoe) ia caieyo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia ?aciiia?acai; nianoaaiieee
aeeeuo aeiiia (a?aaeaeaia ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue) iiaoo auoue
nianoaaiieeaie caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, ianeoaeeaathueo aeaiiua no?iaiey;
/anoue a?aaeaeai, yaeyynue nianoaaiieeaie caeaiee e ae?oaiai
iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, iiaoo auoue aeaaeaeueoeaie caiaeue; nianoaaiiee
no?iaiey a ai?iaea, iinaeea ai?iaeneiai oeia, ae?oaii ianaeaiiii ioieoa
iiaeao auoue iieueciaaoaeai, a oii /enea a?aiaeaoi?ii, a ia
nianoaaiieeii caiee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ?yae iiaaee a i?aaiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee ?aaeeia
caiaeue ianaeaiiuo ioieoia aiineo Caiaeueiue eiaeaen ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee. Oae, ana caiee ianaeaiiuo ioieoia iauaaeeiaiu a ninoaaa
caiaeue iinaeaiee. I?e/ai auaeaeytho caiee ai?iaeneeo e naeueneeo
iinaeaiee. Ana oa??eoi?ee a i?aaeaeao a?aieoe iinaeaiee aeaeyony ia
oa??eoi?eaeueiua ciiu. Iie io?aaeathony ia ea?oa ciie?iaaiey. Aeey
eaaeaeie ec cii onoaiaaeeaathony a?aaeino?ieoaeueiua ?aaeaiaiou, eioi?ua
ii?aaeaeytho iniiao i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia ioaeaeueiuo caiaeueiuo o/anoeia,
aoiaeyueo a oo eee eioth ciio. ?aaeaiaio ii?aaeaeyao oaeaea ii?yaeie
eniieueciaaiey iiaecaiiiai e aicaeooiiai i?ino?ainoaa aeaiiie ciiu i?e
aa cano?ieea e iineaaeothuae yenieoaoaoeee caeaiee, no?iaiee e
nii?oaeaiee.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUO ENOI*IEEIA

1. Eiinoeoooeey ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue 1994 aiaea. I?eiyoa ia
?anioaeeeaineii ?aoa?aiaeoia 24 iiya?y 1996 aiaea (n eciaiaieyie e
aeiiieiaieyie, i?eiyouie ia ?anioaeeeaineeo ?aoa?aiaeoiao 24 iiya?y
1996a. e 17 ieoya?y 2004a) Ieine “Aaea?onue” 2004a.

2. A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue: n eiiiaioa?eyie e
?acaeaeai / Eiiiaioa?ee A.O. *eae?a. – 3-a ecae. – Ii.: Aiaeoay, 2000. –
704n.

3. Eiaeaen ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue i caiea io 23 ethey 2008a. ? 425. I?eiyo
Iaeaoie i?aaenoaaeoaeae 17 ethiy 2008 aiaea. Iaeia?ai Niaaoii ?anioaeeee
28 ethiy 2008 aiaea. TH?eaee/aneay aaca “THNEAN”.

4. Eieaanei Ae.A. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai. Iauay /anoue. – Ii.: IieeAea. Ii
caeaco iauanoaaiiiai iauaaeeiaiey “Iieiaeaaeiia iao/iia iauanoai”. 1999.
– 360n.

5. Noaieaae/ I.A. Caiaeueiia i?aai ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue. O/aaiia
iiniaea. – Ii.: Aiaeoay, 2000. – 480n.

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