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I?AAINICIAIEA E I?AAIAAss EOEUeOO?A

I?????? ????ey? ??e ??? e ?????oth n???oth ??ue ???? ??e ???????i a
?????i ????. I? ???? ? ?? ???ey ?????? ??? n ??????i ?????a a ???????
????o. Ia ?????? e ???? ??????y ?e ?? ? ?? ??????i ???ey ?a??tho ?????a
????i-??????, y??????, ????? ???u, ?i ????y?? e ?????o?? n ?????? ????i,
???th, ?????, ????, ?????, ???. I?????? ?? ????a ???? ??e ????, ????
????e, ???? e ?? ???? ?????? a ???? ????, ????? ???, ????. I?????? ??
??? i ??a, ??? ???oth?? ??a e i??, ?? i ???? e???eyo a ??a, o.a. ??????a
– ? ??? ????o ????y ???a, ? e ???? ?????y ? ???, ? ?th ???oth ???o
?????a.

I?????? ????ey? ??e ?????? ??y?a, ??, ?a?a, ?????, ??ny??y e ??o. I?
?eth?? e n?i ??????a i ??a, o.a. ???????, ??y? ? ?? ??a, ???? ????? a
??e ???? e ?????a, ?? i ??? ????, ?i ???????e ??ae ??e? eth??, ?????? e
????i. I??????a ???? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ????e eth?e, ?????th?a ?????
?????e ????. N????? ??????a ???a ????o ??? ????i ?????y e ???ey ???i e
??????i ??????? ??o a?????? ? ??????i ???.

A??e ?????a e ? ??????i ??? ??????a ????o a ??? ?y? n ?????? ????i, ?i
?? ????a ?y ????ey a th????? e ?????e ????? ?iy?y “????-???? ???ea”.
C????? a th????? ??o, ?????yo ????o ??e ???? ?????a, ?i ?????, ?????? ??
e ??? ???i ??? ??i ? ?????e ??, ?i ??????a ???????i ?y?? n ?????? ????i.
I??i ??ay nay? ??o ?? ? ??th?? ??n???? ???ey ??o ????? ???e ???ey.

I?????a ???? ???? ?????? ????y ????, y?i ???? ???tho ????y ??o ?????e
????, ????, ??y?, ????, ? ????y e ?????o. I?????a ???? ???? ???- e
????????? ????y a ?????, ????????i ??. I???a ???? ???? ???? ????y ??o
?????e ?a??e ??e ????. A ??o ????i ???ey ?eth?th?y ??a i???a y??ey, e???
???tho ?????oth ???, ? ? ??e ????, a????? ???? ? y?yth?y ??????e. O?,
????, ?n?? ?? n ?????e, y??????e, ?????e ???e ????, ????y? a ???e ????ey
e ???e???ey, ????e ??? ???th?e ??u, ???u e ?????e ??a.

E?????ey ???? e ????ey ??????y ?????ny ? ??i ????e ??a. N??? ?????ue, ?i
a ?????o ???yo a ??????? i?????ue ????i ??oe?, o?? ??ey. Y? ????ny e ?
????? ???? ??i???ey. I???? ??? ?eth?tho ??i, ????? ?e ?????? ??, ??????o
e ??i????? ?????? a ??????? ??????y, ?????ath?y ??u ?e ??????i? y???u
??????y. I????i, ?i i????? ???? ??a ?? ?? ? ????o ???? a ??????? ????
y?? ?????i ????. A ? ? ??y ??i ????ny e ?e ??? ?ae ??n???o ????e – ????
?i???.

A ??e? ???u ??a ????u ??, ????oth?a ?y? ??a n ???th, ???????th; ??i
????ny ?e ?????a ????a ???????. O?? ??? a ??????ee ?? ?????ue ????
e????-?????? ???? ????? ?????i?e e ? ????a a ??? ??a, ???eyth?o ??
??ay?y e ???a?y, ??? ???a, ???y?? e ????i ??a.

N????e ???e ??a y?y?ny ????a ??????? ????e, ???u ????. I???? i?? ?e ??
???u, ??u ???u a ???? ??o?eyo ????? ?????ue ????y ????? ?????? ???? a
???e ????a ????? y???. I?? – y? ?????y ???a, ????? ????i eth?e.

I?????? ?e ????y ?n??ay ??ue ???? ??e i?a?? ???????o n ??e? y????e ????
???u: th?????e ???e, ?????, ?????e, ??????th ???? ?????; ????? ???????a
e ???????e; ????e ?i??ey?. Y? ???? ?y? e ??????? y???? ???ie ???u ?tho
?????ue ?????ue a ???? ???oth ???o ?????? ??e.

I?? ? ?? ?i ???nyo ????ey? ??e ??????i? ???i. A ????????? ???a ??????a
??i ?n????? ?e y??? ???? ??n?a, ?i ???? ????. I???y ???? ?eth?? ????,
????a eth?? a ???e ??a. I? ?????y e ?????y ? ??? ???? ???????e. A??a
???? ?????e ???? e???u ?? ???u ?a a Ae??? ??a ?i ????e??e th???e. I???y
????a ???? – y? e ??ae???a ??iy?a, e ???ue i?????ey, ?????? ????????, ??
???u th????? ??a, y?????? ?y????e th????eo ?????, ???? th????? ????.
I?????? e ????? ???? ???ay ???? ????ny e ?e ??ae???a ????? ??iy?a ?
??????y e ?????oth?a ?????a ????a.

A ???e ?????? ???i ??????? ?? ???ey ??a, ??????y, ?? ??i?e ????u. E???,
? ????o y??o ??e ?????i ????, ?????a ??i ??th?? e ?????y, ???e, ????a
????. I???a ???u ??????e ?atho ?? ??? a ???? ??e e th????? ???? ???o
?????e A??e, ??a, Ae???i A???, E??, E?ay. ????????? ??e, ????i, ?????a e
???? ?????i ???? ??e ?? ??ae?? a ???a ??a, ??????e, th????? ??a. I???u
???u, ????a, ???????, ????a ???? ?a ??a ??????a e ?????a ??u ????y a
??????e, ??a ??? ???a e ?????. Aeey ?????i ???? ?????e ??? y?y?ny
th????? ??????a, ???a ??????o ??i ?e ???n??, ????o ?????? ??e. TH?ae????
??????th ??ou ????? ??? e ???o ????o ????e e ?????. A ???? ??????
???oth?y ???? ????e “????i ?????a”, “?????? ??a”, ????eyth?y ??a ????,
????? ????a e ?????a a ?y? ??a ??o????i ????? e ??? ??i ? “A???e ?????
?? ????” (1948 a.), “I?????? ??a ? y??????, ????? e ????? ???” (1966
a.), “I?????? ??a i ?????o e ?????? ???” (1966 a.). A “Ae????e ?? e ???
???ea e ?????”, ??y?e a 1991 a. A???? N??? ?NON?, ??????ny, ?i “??a e
???u ???? ?????o ?o ? ???ey”, “????i??a ??????a ??u, ??ny??y e ??? ????,
?atho ???u??i ??ae ???? ?NON?”.

N???? e ?? ??????y

A ????a ????i ???ey ????i ???? ???? ????e e ???? ?????. I???y ????y,
o.a. ?????????a, ???a ????a ???? ??y?a, ?????, ?? ?u??a, ????? ???.
O?????a ???? ????e ????ey?ny ?e ???n ??????? ????y ????a, ??e e ??/
????, ?????a, ????. I???y ????y ?? ???a?? ??????o ?e ??????? th?????
????e, ?? ??a, ????? e ????y?a. A ????? ???? ????e ???atho ???a
???-????u, ?????? ????e th????? ?????, ?????? ?y??. Ii ???? ?? ?? i
?????? ??????y ? ??????i ??ia, a e??? ???atho ???a ??????u.

A ????? ???? ??, ??????o ???i ??a, ?a??? ??????y ?????u ??ath?y ? ?????a
??ey, ???tho ???? ?? ???? ??e ????, ???atho ????? e ????a ????? ?????y
?????o th????? ??a, ?????o ????e a ???a ???? ???a, a ? ???????? ?e
???e??o ????eyo a ????i-????n?e, y?????? e ????? ??e ????. A ?????? ????
????e ????? e y?? ?????? ?????u ????tho ????u ????? ???????o ??????,
??????? ??? i ??iy?e y????, ???????o ????a a ????, ???atho ?????? ???,
????ey a ????o ????? ???o, ???o e ???? ???????. A ?????e ??? ???ey
?n???? ????, ??a ????ey?ny ???ae e ???? y????, a ????? ??????o i???
??????y, ??a ??i ????ue ??????? ???? ???u ???aa n ??o???i e ??????
????i. AE?? ????o ? ??????ue ?????y ??????? ???ey, ???? ?????? ???u,
?????? ????? ???a, ?????i ????? ???y ?? ????? ?????.

E???, y? ? ?i??o ??????y ????a ????o ????? ??i, ???a, ??coth?o ?????
????, ??o ????? ??i, ????th??y a ?i. I??, ??????a, ???ath??y a ???yo
?????, ?th???a ???, ???? ????ue ??? ?? ??????e, a ?i ??a e ???e ??????e.
Ae??????a ????? ???? ???o ? ??????? ??????y ????? th????? ??a, ???eyth?o
???? ?? ???? ? ?? ??? ??e ????.

A ??????e ????? e ??i??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???, ?i ???? ?????o ???eth
ae????e, ????eth th????? ??e. ?????a ???? ????? ? ?????? ????y ??n?? ?e
???????e ????e. Ii ????????a ???u, ??e?ey ?e ????a ????a ???, ????? ???
?a??tho ?????a ? ??????a ????, ????. A ????a ??????y ?????i ???? a
?????e ??? ????? ????ue ????a ? ??a?? ?? ?ey?a ?????? ???ey. E?tho ??i
?a???a ?iy??ey ?????????i ??????y, ???????i ???ey. N??? ????, ?i ???a??y
e ?????ay ???a ????a, ???y e ????ey a ??a ???? ??e ???? a ???yo ?????c?
a ?y? n??? ??????ny ????i ??o ??a.

AE?? ????, ?i ???y ??e ???, a ?i ?n? e a ????e ???, ?????. I? ??a ????a
a ???????? ????? ?????a, ??????y ????. Ii ?e ?? ???? y? ??ue ? a?a
??i??, ?????, ?y?? ??cy ?????? ????ue e ??? ??????o ???a, ????ue ??? n
???e ?????????i ??????y, ?????, ?i ???????a a ????i ?u??a ??? ?????e ??e
? ????ue ? ??? ??a e ???????? ???.

A ?????o ???yo ? ??th?? ????th?a ???? ????-y???? ????a a i??a ???? y???
??e ????, a ?i ??a e ???? ??y?a, ??, ???e??? ????e. I????i, ?i ???y?y
????y ? y?? ????y ????o ?????a ? ??iy?a e ???? ??????y ? ?i ??????? e
???????i ???. O?? ? ?ey?a ? ??????a ????o e ?????ay ????y, o.a. ??? i
??? e ?????? ??a. ???a?? y?e ??????, ?????i, ????y e a ??????i ??????e,
????, a ????a ?y????e ?????i ??, th????? ???????e ???? e, ??? ??i, ?e
????? ??????e ???????e. Ia ????? ???? ????e ?????? ?????a ????o ????a
???? ???a ????o ????e n i?????-y???? e ???????e ???e ????y?o ????e. Nay?
???? ????e n ???c?????e ?????, ?????? ???y? a ???yo ???? ?th???a ???o
????ue ????i, ????ue ????e ??? i ?????e a ?????? ???? ??? ??a e ??a
????e – ? ?????a n ?i ??e ??? ???u ? ????? n ?i ??e ????a e ?????
???????.

A ????a ??????y ??i?y ????y ???????o n ???? ?????e, ???y ????? ??????
???? ???a???, ???e, ???, ?????, ?????o ?y ????? ????? ??? ?e ???? a ??i.
I???y ????ey y?y?ny ???? ???????? ????? ????o ????e eth?e, ???o a
???????-???c???i ????, ???eyth?o ??e, ???, ??? ????y. A ?????? ????
????? ????? ???, ???? a ??i ???atho ???a ?a ??u y?e ???, ??i ????. I?
y?i eth? ?????oth?y ??i ????i ????i, ???i ???i. I?a?ay ????ey ????ny ?e
????a ????????i ??a ???y eth?e a ???? ????yo, ??????i ???y a ???? ??a
??e ????. I???y ????ey ?? ??????a ??????, ????? ? ???? ????, ??ae??eyo,
?a ?y?? n y?????i ???i ???? ???, y???, ? ???e, ?????e e a ???? ????, e a
???? ???o, i?a??o. I?????a ??????a ?e ?????ay ??a ????? ???ey ?? ????
?c??a.

N??? ????, ?i ??????e ???????e ??u ??a ???? ? ????a, ?i ?? ??i ????y a
????a ????, ?i ?????yo, ?i y??e ??o a ??? ????y ????. I????? E.E. I?????
e ?i ??????e ??y? ???a ???? ???o y???? ?????e e ??????i, e ?a??? ??. A ?
??????e ???? ???? ??o ?a?i e ???????. C???e ????? ???????e ??u ??a ??
????? ???? ???? e ???? ?????yi, y??yi ????.

*??? ???ey e ??o, ???, e ???? ????eyi ?e y??? ????ey ??i???ey ???????o,
????y??? ???i y?y?ny ???e ???? ????y?a, ?????i ??? ?????. *??? ??oa ??ae
???i ??a ???a?? ????i ????yi ???i, ???a ??atho ??????? ?? ? ?????a
??????.

I?? ???? – y?i ?i??????i, ???????? ??????y. I? ???o ???? ???? ??a, ??a o
???i ??o ? ??? ????? ??? y?o ??, ? e ???i ???e ?? a ????, ?????a ??
??a?a, ???a ? ?????? e? ??i, ???? ??e. O ???i ??? ?? ??a ???? e ???i ??
??? ?????y ??? ??a? e a ? ? ??y ???? e ??? ??o. Aeey ????i ??????y
?e??a, ???? a ?i ???????e ??a, ????? ???i e ?????a ?? ? ???????, ????
?iu ? ??????.

Ia ??? ????i ???ey ??? ???ay ????ey ???o ????a a ????a. A ???? ?????,
?????, ??yo ??i ????ny ?e ???, ???????, ?e ?, ?i ?????? ???, ???i?,
????eyi. I ????, ?????? ??y?o, ??????yo, ???? ??? ??i ????ue ???o ?
????i A.E. Ae?? “I????i ???? ???”, ???? a ????: “I???a – ??i”, “I??????
– ????i”, “A???? – a??ae”, “N? – ????e”, “N? – ???”, “N? – ?????”, “E???
– ?????”, “Ni??? – ??e”, “E?a – ????a – ?????”, “E??”, “Oe?ue”, “C??”,
“I????i – ??? – ?????” e ?. A ??a ???? ???? ????? ??y?, ???a ?????u e
????? ?????? a ???? ????e. I????, “??i ??ae ? ???y” ??????o ????o ????th
“C?? ???? ?? ? ??o”, ????a “I???? ??? ??i ? ??????y!” n?????? ???? ???i
“I??y ????y ? ???? ??ia”.

A ??????? ??? ??a e ??a ??????y ???athony ?i ???? ?? ???? ???u, ????, a
???i ?a ????o, ???u, ?????th?a ? ????? e ???????? ??????y. N?? ???i
?iy?? y?y?ny ??????a ?u??a, ?????? ??????a. I?????? ?????? ???e e
?????y? ???tho ?a????? ???, ?????? ???i???, a ??a ??????a ????? ??i
????y ???, ????, – ????, ???i ???? ????, ??e? ???a, ???? ????e, ?o? ?
????????, ???????i? ????i.

A ??????e ??aeyo ???i? ?????? ???? ???, ???????a ?????e eth?e, ????th?a
????i-??????, y?i????a e ????? ???y ??e ????. ?. Ae?? a ??a “I???a ????
???u ??????e” ???? ?????e ??a e ??????y a ??? ?????? ??. A ???e XIX –
??? XX a. ?? ???? ???ay ???a ????????. Ii ????i ???a ? ??i???i ???
?????, ??a???? ???i ?? ?????i ????? ????????. A i???i ???? ???? ????a,
?i ?? ??? ?????ey? ???i. O?a “??i e ?????”, ???u ????i n???y ??? ??a
?????i ???? ??e ????a a ??????? ????? – a ?????eyo A.N. I???, I.A. A??y,
O.I. Ae?????i, I.A. N????-U???, I.A. I??n?a, E.I. O???i, A.I. *??a e ?.

A ???yo ????e ????????e ????????e e ????ae???? ????? ?????? ?e ?????
“???????? ??????a”. I??i ?iy??ey ????i ????a, ????? ???e ???ue ??????
??e ??i a NNN? e ? ?? ???e, ??a ????e ??? ?th??i ?????a, ?i ???i ????i
??????.

Ia ??????? ??????a ???atho ?????a ????? ??i ?????a, ???????ay ???????,
????a e ???e, ????? a ??? ?e ???? ????e, ???y ??a, a ?i ??a e ??i?? ???a
n ???, ???a?? ? ?????ey a ??? ???y ???u.

Ia ?????i y?? ???ey ?????i ???? ??????y ??o ???th ???????ue ca ??????
???? ???, ????? ????th?? ????y ???i. I???i ??? ?? th????? ??????e,
eth?e, ???th?o ???????? ?????i?i, ???o ????th ????th ???????ue ? ??th??a
c????e, ?????a ????y?a.

I???????a ??????a th??a – y? ??? ?????ay, ???ay ???a ???? ???, ????e e
???, ?o??e ? ???????y a ??e ?y????e. I???????a ??????a ? ??ith ????y ??a
????y e ??????io ???eth. I? ?????y a ???? ???ey ???? n??? ????, ???? e
?? ??a, ???ey ????o th????? ????i, a ?? i?????e ?y????e ? ????? ??a.
Aeey ????????i ??????y ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?e ???u, ????a ????y?e
????o ???? ??, ??????a i ?????e ??a ? ?????? ????y, ? ??au ????y ???? a
???? ??a. I???????a ??????a th??a ??? n ???? ??????o ??? ? ??o ????o
??a, ???? ??e ???? ?eth?? ??a ?????? ???????a ???ey a ??e-?? ????? ??a
??a, – ????, ??????, ?????i, ????i, ????i, ????i, ????????i, y??????i,
?????.

I?????? ?????y? ???tho ??????a ?oe n ???yth?iny ?????, ???? ??????y e
???a ???i, ??aath?o ????a a ??? ???y ???u, ??????-??????. N???????
?????ey ????tho, ?i a ?y? ???a o ????, ?????? ??????, ??? ? ???i ???
????? ???a ?????o ???????a ????a e ?a?, ?????? ???e ? ????a ???. O?
????? “?? a ???” ???tho ??????e ???? ?????e, ?i ???ey? ? ????o a ?????
??a. O?????ee e ?????? e??? ????ey? ???? ???e ae??, ??????y ?????????
????????, ???? ?????y ? ? ??????a n ??th ?????y ?????? ????, ????
??????.

??ue ??????y a ??e ????

I?????? ????o ???? ?????a ? ??????? ??i ?????ey ????o ????a a ???? e
?????a, ?????? ?????? ???i, ?? ????? ??i, ?????th e ????eth ?e???? ????,
??y?a a i?. C???a ??????a ????, ???? ???i e ??? y?yth?y ???e ????
??ae???, y?????i ???????ey i?????e e ???? ???. I???a ??????y i ???????,
???? ?? e ?yc???? ????, ????? e ???? – ?a y? ???n??o ? ?????? ???a e
????e ????y ???? a ???? ??a ??e ????, a ??c ??????a ????i ????y ????
?iy?y?ny ?? ??a, ??????y.

A ???? ???? a ???? ????? ???a ??e ???? ?????e ?????ue ??i ??????e, ???a
????o ?e ??i ???e n??????, ?????? ?e ???e ??????e. A “Ae????e ?? e ???
???? e ?????” ?????e O???? ????y, ?i “??? ?a? ??i ?? ??????i, o.a. ??o
??i ???ue, ?????ny e ???y??ny ??i ????? e ???e ????e ??????e ?e ??????i,
?e e ????i n ???e ???. I?? ?????ey ??????y ???i” . I?? ? ??o ?? ??????i,
?????i ??i ??? e????. O???????? ?? ??a ??????e, ???ay ???a ???? ??a
??????e ? ???, ?????a, ?i “??????ue ?y??a e ???????a”, ? ?? ?a, e
??e?eth, ?????e ????? ??a ????? ?i, ?e ??????a ???u ??????i ???y ????
??????e. ????a a ??????? e ???? ??????e ???ey e “?ae?o ??o” ??????e,
???? ?????o ????i-y?????? e ???????? ???e, ??th?thu? ? ??? ???y, ii e ??
??ue i ?????? ????? ??? ????a, – ????a ????a ? ?????? ??????eth ??????
????e e ????i ???ey.

E ????i ?ayi ??????y ?????o ???i ??th??y ????a, i?iy?o ? ?ay ?y????e. A?
a Ae??? ??a ?????: “Pacta sunt servanda” (Ae???u ??i ??th??). E ?y? ????
??????e ?a????ey ????y ???i ????oe. Y?o ???i ?????? o???????? ??????
????e ???? ?????a, ???a ??th??a ???a ??e ????? ??a, ???????ue ? ????a
???a. ??th???ny, ?i ??i ?????, ? ???? ??? th????? ?e?.. C?? ??o ?? ???i,
? ?i ????? ??th??: “Dura lex, sed lex est” (?o. – ??a ??i, ? ??i). I???
????? ??o ? ??? th????? ????: a a? ????? ??yo e ??????, e ?????? y???u.
A????? ?????? ?? a???? ?y???? ??th?? ???, ?????o a ? ? ??y ????? ?? ??ae
???i: ??i ?? ??i ?y ??. ??? ????? ?????? ??a, ?i ????, ???i ????i y?o
??i, ?atho i ???oth?i ???. E???, ????ay ????ey ??ey ????? ???, ?????i a
????, a ???? ??e ????o ?????? ?????ey, ?????a ???o ?y?? n ????????? ????
??????y ???????o ??a, a ??a ?? ??? ? ????o ????eth ???i. C??u, ????a ?
????ey ?atho ??i ??? ???? ??????i e ???i, ????? ??u ????? ?a?. I???
“Nullum crimen, nulla poena, sine lege” (?o. – ?o ?????ey, ?o ????y ?c
???) ???? ?????? ??? ??????y, ????o ? ?? ??????. A ???yo ???i?y?a, ?????
????o ????ey ??????. O??i ?ae ??o ???e ???a i ??a??e ???? a ?????
i?????y. N???y ??? ????? ?? y?y?ny ??? ??e ????i ???ey. C??a ?? ???o
??th??y ?????? ????a??o ??. N?????e ??e ??????y y?y?ny ??????? ???????y
???.

I??a ??y?????e a ??a????i ??a, ???ay ??? ????? ??, ??????a i?????
??????a – ?a y? e a ???????, e a y?????? ???a ???o ????a a ????i ???: “A
??? ???? ? ??i ??”. I????? ???e, ??? ??, ????? ?y????e ?????tho ????
?????a ????, ?i ???? ?????. I???? a ?ae ? ???e ?????i ??a, ?????a
??????? ???ey ? y?yth?y “?oy?????”, a ???atho a ???? ??????e ???? e ????
?e ?????? ???? ???ey.

????a ???? ??????a, ??? ??????a e ???ay ????? ????o ???i y?yth?y ???e
?????? i?? a ??????? ????, ?????i ????i ?????a. A????a ??????y ???i –
?????y ????y ??ue ?????? ???????, ??? n ??????th.

A????a ???? ??o ??a?a ?? ??????y a ???????e ?y????e ?????a, a ?????e
?????? ????y ???i, a ????? ??a ???????? ???? e ?????? ???. I???a ????
???o ????a a th?????o ??o, ????o ?????a ? n? ???n ???????a. A ?????? n
?????e ??????y ?????th?y ????? e ??a th?????i ??, ?????a ?????e ?? e
????i ?? a ??i. A??a n ??????? ??ueth ???ay ????ey ??? ?????th?i ???i a
????? ???? ??a. I???a ???? ?y??? a ????o ??? ???? th????? ????y, ??????
?????ue ??y?a ???, ??? ???? ??. ss?e ????i ??, ?i ?????ey ??? ????
?????y a ???? ?a??i ??????yi, ??ith ???ey ????i ???ey ?a??.

A ????? ????o ???? ??a ???th ?? ??? ???? ??????a ???, e??? ???o ????a a
?????? ???. A ???? ????????y, ???????e ?y????e ?????a ?????? ??a?a ??o
???? ????? ??????? ?e ????? i???o ????e, ??, ????ath?o ???? ???, ?i ??i.
I?????? ???? ?? ??????th ??? ?????o th?????o ??o, ????? ??????ue ?e
???????? ???? ??, ???ue ????? ???o?? th?????i ????a.

A?????a ?????? ??iy???a ??, ???? ??? ???a?e ????? ???ytho ????? ?????oth
????ue ???????i ?y?y, ???, ???? ????????ue ??, ?????a ??????, ??e
?????th ??? ? ?????a ??????. I???a ??u, a ?ith ???ue, ???atho ?????a ?
???? ??????y ???i, ?????? ??????, ?????? ?ae??e, ??????e i ???? ????eyo,
???? i???eyo, ?????? ???, ?y???oyo, ???????e. A???y ?? ?? ?iy?y?ny ?
????th e ???????o e ????o ???eth, ?????? ? ?a????a ???? e ??????
i?????ey ???i. A????ea ?? ??a ? ?????? ??????a ?iy?y?ny a ?i, ?i th?????
?? ?????a ??atho ?y????a ???? ?i ???? ??y?i, ???a ????? a ?????? n???e,
? ?a ? ??e a ?i ????thu?e. Y? ??y?, ?? a ???? ???e ????? th?????i ??
????th?y ?????? ???, ??????th?y, ??????th?y.. I??? ????a a ?????a?? ????
??, ?e ???tho ????o ???????e ??, ?i e ?????o ? a???th ?? a ????
??i???ey.

I???a ??u ?????tho ?i???th e ??????e ????ey ??????y, ?e ?e ?e ? ?????e
???tho ?o ?e ?? ???? ??yae, a ??????tho ?i, ???eytho ? ??? ??a, ? e
??????a ???? th?????i ??a, ???? ?????? ?e ??????? ????y ????a ???????.
O???y ????i-??????, y??????, ???? ???u ?????? ??e, ?????? ???ey? ???u
????i ??????a a ?a????? ?????? ????e, ??o ?? ???oth ?????eth ?? ???eth,
???a a ????i?i ??? ? ??????i i??? ???????ue ?e ??? ????e ??? e ? ????i
????o ?????th. O?? ???i, ???? ?? ???iu ???y? ????? ???i??ey, ????ue ?i
?y? n ???????th. C?????a ?ey?a ? ???? ??????y ????o th????ay ??a.

I??????, ??i e y?e th????? ??a

ss?e ?? ???? ??????i ???y, ???ey e ????y, ???? ?????. E?e, ??????y ?
????tho ???? ? y??. I??????, ??i ????tho a y???e ??a, ??aeyo ????a a
th????? ?????? e ?????e. I???? ????e ???ey? ????ey?ny ??i ???ey th?????
?iy?e, ????, ?????e. Iiy?? ???? ??????y, ??a e y?? ?????-???? ??a, y??
???????-????i ??i?????a ??o ??????? ??a?a e a ??????i, e a ??????
????yo. ss?e th???n?o ????? ???a?o ?i ???n, ???th ??e?y ???????-???????i
????, ??????y ??o ????e, o??th?o ???? ??????e, a ??a ??? ???????e a ????
??a, ??? ???? ???, ????th?o a ??. E???i, ?i ???? ?iy?y, ?????ey,
???????ny a Ae??? ??a, ?????? ??a???e ????e ????e.

Nay? ??????y, ??a e y?? ??i ??????ue a ?? ????. Ai-???, ???a?y? ???n,
???? a ?????o o??eyo ??e ?????, ??a-? ????o a Nithc NN?, ???? ??????y
??????? y?? (y??a) ?e ?????a ????i ??????y, ???????y y??a ???a, ???ath?o
? ????? ???i ?????a. A ????? y?e ????, ???i, ?????u ??????, ????,
??????, ?????a ??, ??????y e ???a. Ai-???, ???? i?????ey, ??a e y??
????a e a ??a ??? ??????i ??????y y???o ???a ?y ????y ????i?ey, ?a?.

A ?????? e ???? ???? ?????ue ?iy?a “???????? y??”. Ia ?????a?? y??, ???
???? ????i ???i, ???oth?y ???????-???? ??, y? y?e ?????? ????????, a ?i
??a e ??????n?a. Ia ???????i y?? ??th/ath?y ??????a ????, ????e. A ????o
????? ??ae???o ??? “???????? y??” ????ny ?????i ????i ?????a. O?????a
???i i ?????a ??????, ?????, ?cy????o ?????e ?y ?oe, ? ???th?o ???
??ey?, ?? ? ??n?o ??????y, ????a ?. 2 “A???e ????? ?? ????”, ???y ???:
“E?ae? ???e ??? ???? ??e ???e e ????e, ??i?????e ??iy?e Ae?????, ?c ???
? ? ? ?? ???ey, ?e-? a ????e ??, ??a ??, ?ea, y??, ???e, ?????? ?e ??
????e, ??????i ?e ?????i ??????y, e??????i, ????? ?e ??i ????y”.

A??ay ???a ?y??ey ???a i y??o a ??a??? ??????, ???a ???? ? ????? ???i
Nith? NN?, ?y?? n ??e ??????i ?????y. A??u “???????? y??” ??aeyo ? ??,
?i y?e – y? ????a ???a ????y e ????ey ??e, ?i ? eiy ??????i ????, ????
???? ??e ??i “????ue” ??????? ??? ??e. A?????? ?????y ? ?????? “?oy??y”
? ???????i ??? ???atho ???????a a ?y? ??o ?????o ?????. A????th?y ?????
?????y, a ?i ??a e ?????y, ?i “??? ???e ???e ? ??o ???ue ??? y?e”.

A ?? ?????? ???? a ????o ??? ????o ?????o ????????y ???ae n ???? ???? ?
????, a a ??? ???i????ny ???ay ??????. A ???i y??, a ?i ??a e a
???????-???? ??o, ????? ????a ???? ?????, ???a, ???e, ???a, ?y??? ??a
???ey, ???th?a ????y a ????i-?????? e ???? ??e.

Aeey ?????ey ??????e i ???? ??o ? ??? ????i ???ey ????i ????? ??ue ????a
???? ?iy?y, th????oth ?????eth. I?y?y e ???u ? a??a ???atho, ?e ?
???atho ??? ???ey e ??? y??. I????, ?? ?iy?a ??a ???o ????a a ?y? ????,
?????e.

TH????? y?e ????ey? n?? ??????ue ??????i y??. E????a ????ny ??ue ?e
????? ?????, ??? ????? ????y. ss?e ??i?o ??a a ??i ???? ?????? ??????
???i??y, ????e. I?i ? ??a?? ????? e th?????o y?? – ? ??? ?? y??, ?iy??.
Y? ????y ??? ??i e ???? ??i ??? ????, ????i?i ? ???? ?iy?e ??i?i ????i
???a. E???, a ??????e ??o ??, ?e ?????y ???a, ???y y????a, ????ay ???a,
??????ey ?????? ???a e ???, ????ny ???u, ???? ?????y, ??oth?a ?y ????y e
???ey ?????e ?????, ???o ???. Ii ??a ????? e y?? ??? – ???? i???u e
?????e ??? ?????y e a ???yo ???-?????? ????a.

E th?????o ?? ??uy?y?ny ????? ???? ??????, ??????? ????e ?????e. O?????e
??? ?? ?????e, ?????e, ? ?i??th?? ?????? ?????. O?i??, ???y ??????? e
??????? ?????? ???ath?y ??th??? ????? y??, ?i ???e, ?????, ???a?o ????.
I? ????? o??? ???a, ??? th????? ??a ?????y ????? y?????? y???o ???a. *?
?????e ?o ???, ?i ??a y? ?y ?i i???ey, ???ey. A th????? ?? ? ??? ??
?????? ?????e, ????? e ??????o ????.

Aeey y?? ???? ??a ????? ????????ue. Y? ????, ?i ??th??ny ?????ay
??????ey ??y, y???o ??. A ?????i ?? ????u ??a ?????? ????, ?e ????,
????y, ????a. I????? ???? y?? ???? ??a y?y?ny ????e ??? ??????. I?
?????, ?????e ???? ??a ??? ?????? ??a?a ??o ????? ???a ???? ????a e
????. ??ue ?? a ??? ?o?a i ??? ? ??? ??? ? ???? ?y ?????y ?iy?y, ? ???
???, ????, ?ath?y a ?? ??? ?iy?y, ???? ????? ????i.

I? ????? ???? y?? ???? ??a a ?????o ???yo ??i ??o ??? ? ??????e ?????o
?? e ????. ????a ??????a, ???? e ??????a ?? ? ??? y??a a ???i y?? –
??n???a y???. Iu n ???e ?????, ?e a ?? ??y ?????? ???-y???? ?????? ???
??a “???” e ????? ?????? ?i ???ae – “?????”, ??i “???” ??iy? ?i?i
“?????” e ?. I??i e a ?? ??y ? ??th?? ???oth ????a, ??????a ??????a
?????o ??. O?, o ?n a th????? ??o e ??e ?? ?y??? ??a “iy?”, “??a?”,
“????o”, “??????o”, “???” e ??? ??????? ??????y.

O???? ????i ?y ???ai y??, ????i ???ey eth?e y?y?ny ????a y?? ? ???? ???
???e e ????e ? “????? yc?a”, ??, ?i a ??? ???tho “???i y??i”. Y?o y?e ?e
y??? ??????e ?????u ?oe n ???yth??y ?????, ?????? a ??? ???y ???u,
?????, ?????e, ?????a ????o ????? ?ey?a ? ??e, ????, ??th ????o ????y. E
????th, ??o?? ??? ???? ????? ????tho ????i ???? e ???? ???? y??, ???ytho
a ???? ???? ??? ?? y???u y?? AOEAAa e ?????e, ?e “??i”, “????”, “??ue”,
“??e”, n??tho ?????? ??e ??????th. Y?? ?? “????” ??o e ??????o e ????o
????eth ????, e????e ????? ????.

I???? ???? ??????e, ??? ????, ? ???????? ??? ????ue ??o th?????i ??,
??th?y ?e y?i y???a e y???? ????ey ??y, – ??ay ????y ??ue ?? ??? ? ?????
?????. *? ????i a ????o ??ayo ?????, ?????, ? ? ???o ??? ????o,
?i???oth?? th????? ??, ????oth?? ?????e ????. TH?? ? ??o i???ue a ????a
???a ??a ???a??y: “I??? ??a ????e ???e”, ? ????o a th????? ????a ??a
“?????o ????”. A ??? ??? “????y” – ????a y???? ??ey???? a ????e e ????,
?i ??o ? ??ue; ? ??? ??? – y? ? ???? ?iy?a, a ???????? i??o, ???e ??o a
??i ?y? n ??? ???e, ?e “?????o ?????y”, “?????o ??????” e o.i. ?????
th????? ??????, y?? th????? ??a, ????? e ??y??? ????ey ??? y?yth?y ????e
??ueth ????i ?????y ???.

I???a ????? ???i

N?i ???a a ???? ??e ???? ????o ?????a ? ??????a ????, ?????? ???eth ?
???? ??? e ???a. Ia??? e ?????i ??????? a ?????? ????i ???? e a ? ? ??y
???????o ???i. O???ay ??i ?e ???th ????oth ????, ????a e ??? ????? ???u
????, ?n???? ?????? ????eth ??i??e, ????y?a, ?????? ?????. A ?????o
???yo a ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????, ????? ??? eth?e, ???u?? ??????
????a e ???, ???? e ???i ???????e, ??????? e i????, ????e, ??? ??iy?th
???? ???u e ?????? ???, ???e ?a?tho ?iy?? “????e”. I???e ?????ey ????i
??????i e ????i ???ey ????? ???i y?yth?y ????? ??, ?????a ????, ???ia
??????? ?? ????i?o ??i ????y, ????a ?????y?y ???, ????? ?????? ???? ??
????.

Eth?a ?iy??ey ?e ?????i “?????”, o.a. ??????y ??a, ??? ????? ??, ????ey
?????? ??????? ???o ?oe, ????th?o ??????y i ????? ? ???a “O?o, ??u ?? ?,
?i ???”, ???tho ??? ? ?? ?????ey ?????? ????, ????i ?????a. Y? ?iy??ey
?????i ?a ????? ?????, e ??e ? ????o ????o ??? ?? ??? ? ?????th ????a,
????a, ????? ??? y?yth?y ???? ?? ? ????o ????eth ???i.

A????a ????i ???ey a ?????? ?y? n ???ie ???????, ???????? ???ey ?? ???i
????ey? ???n ????y ???? i???a, ????, ????y ? ?????a, ???u e ????e??e. A
???? ??e ??? ???? ? ????a ?? ???? ??ey?a ?? ???ue?-?????? ???ey. I??i
?????e yaeyth?y ???u ?????y ????? e ???u ????, ?? ???? e ?i ?????e
???????e, ???ey ?????. I???i, ?i ????ey, ?????, ??a ???? ?????? n ????,
???a????ueth, ?????. N??? ???ea a ? ?????? e ???? ??? ???? ??e ???o
????y ??, a ???i ????ey ?i ????, ???? e ?????o ????? ????? ? n ????i
????a ??? ?oe, ????, ?????a.

A ???? ???o ????? ?????? ?????e ????a e ???? ????a ?ay i ????, ???a e
ae????? ????. C?????? ??e e ???ey ???? ?i I??i, A????ue, ????e ??a ????
???e. I??i o????: “I??? ? ??i c?? – o ?? ?? ??i”, ?i ???o ????ue a ?y? n
???e ?ay? ????y i ??? ???n?a ?????a, a ???i ?aayo ????, ????a eth?,
???????? ?????? ???. O. ??? a ?????i ??? “A???tha e I???thy?”, ???ay
??ae ??e ??? O???? ???e, ???e, ?i “?y ? ??ue ?? ????a ? ???i, ? ???i e ?
????, a ? ?????e ??? ?? e ???th”, a ??a ???e ??iye ? ??? ???a: “Ae??, ?i
???”. E???, a y?i ???a ???? ????a ?ay ???u??? ???????.

??? ??o e i ?i, ??a ???u ???eytho ????e ??? ????y ????a, ??????, ?i y?o
????o eth?e, ????y?o ? ??? ????e, ??????, ??ath??y a ??y??? ????, ??
???a ???? ??e??i e ??????e ??e, ???a ??iy?i ???eytho ? ? ??? ?? e
???atho ? ???, e ?? y? ???y o ?o ??ueth.

A?????, ?i ????? ??????y ????ny n ???ey ?????? ????e, ?? a ??a, ??a, a
???? ?u??, a ?i ??a a ??o ? ??????, ????? e ??uey?. C?? ??????y ??????
????o, ? ???i ???oth?y y???u ????i ???ey. A ??th??yo ?ae ??ueth, ?????yo
i ????i ???ath?o ???yo e ???o, ????? ?????, ?y??? n ???e ??a, th?????e
????, ????th?y ???? ??????y, ??y?, ???ath?y ???a ???o ?a??.

A ???? ?????, a ?i ?????e ?y? n ??e ????e ???y ?? ?????o ??????? ?????a,
????i ???? ?????, a ?i ??a ?????th, ??i, ???? ????eyi. A????a ????i
???ey y?y?ny ????e ??ueth ?? ????ie ??e ????, ????? o???e ?????a,
?iy?yth?? ??oo i ?????e e ???a?e ????th?? ????y. I???a ?????a ???? ???i
??a ??o ??????? ???? a ???? ????i ?c??y ????. A??????y ??? ????o ???????
??????a ???? ? ????y ??i?a ??o th????? ?e??? e ?????, ???th?o ????i ??i
????, ?????a. A????a a ?? ??a, ????? ? ??????ny ???? ??????, ??????i
?????i ????y e ???, ??o, a ???o ?? ????? a ???? ????? ???oe, a ? ????
??o?a.

I???y ???? ???? ????ny a ????e ath ???ie th????? ???, a ???? e ???, ??o,
a ?????? ??th??e ?? ??a, a ????e ?????, th???n?e ???????e, a ??????? e
??????eyi, a a??a n ??. C??a ????ie ??o ??, ???, a ??a ?y????e ??ae
?????? e ????i y?y?ny n???? ??ueth ???? ????. I???a ???? ???? ?eth??
???i ?????? a o?, ?i ? ??? o ?????a, ?i ???a ??? a ??? ??o ??, ????
????a, ?i ?????i ?????i ???o ? ?? ????ey ?????o ?y????e e ?i ? ??i a ???
n ???e ?????, ??i ? ??e ??ae c??? e ??i.

N????e ????y ???? e???u ???i y?yth?y ????? ??a, ???? o ???i th????? ???,
?????? ????? ?????. A??? a??????a ????, ?????a ? ???i, ???? ? ????,
????o ??? ??????e, a ?i ??a ?????o ?oe a???????i ????, a ???????i
??th??e ???a, a ??? n ??????th. I???y ???? – ?????a ???a ??????i ??????y
?????i ??? ??a ??? ????i e ??????. ????a ??????y ?????, ??no? ??????
?????th ???? ??y?a, ???yth??ny ???iey eth?e, ??????eth ???a ????a e ???y
?ae ????th. A???a ??? ??i???o, ????? ???? ??????e, ??y?a a ???? ??ae?,
??? n ??????th yaeyth?y ??????e ????ey ????? e ????y?a, ?c ?? ?????
????ue ?????a ???? e ???? ?????i.

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