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I?AAI E EIUA NIOeEAEUeIUA II?IU

A eth?i ???? ????o ???a ?oe???o ??ey??a, ???a a ?????? i???tho ????th?a
?????a ? ???? ?????? ????e. Y? ??ey?? ???eytho ????a eth?e, ? ?????e,
??yo ?i a ? ?e ?? ??e, ??y???tho ?????? ????y.

N?? ??? ?? ??ey??a ??y? ??ey? ?????a e ??????a ????? ??ey??. I?????
??ey?? ?????atho ??? ??e ????y eth?e, ???? ????? ???a (y?e?) ????y, o.a.
??o. I????? ??ey?? ?????tho ?????? ??iy?a ?????? ????e, a ?i ??a e n
???th ?? ?????i i????ey. E ?????i ??ey??i ??ny?y: ??u ??a, ???, ?????a,
??????a ??u, i??e (a ?i ??a ?e?? ?????y) e ?.

A? ?????a ??ey?? ??????otho ?? n ??? a ???? ??????y ?????? ????e, a ??a
n ?????i?e ??ey???.

N?? ??????o ??ey??a ??eytho ?????, ?????e e ???????. Oe????e ??ey??
?????? ? ?????? ????y n ???th ?????e ?????y ???u ????? ????e, ???a
???oth?y a ???? ????, ????o ???a, ??e, a ???????? ??a, ????? ???o e
o.ae. Y? ?? ? ?a???o ??ey??a a ?????? ????e. A?e ?????? ? ??o ????ue
???o ????? ????e, ?????y a ????, ? ??? ?? ??u e ?? ? a?? ???iy? ????i.

Ae????? ??ey?? ????ey? ?a? ?????a ? ?????? ???? ??a??? ????u, ???a,
???ey. O?? ??ey?? ???? ???? ?ey?a ? ??ue ????? ???? a ??? ??????y
???????i-????e ???u.

E??????e ??ey?? ???? ????a? ? ?????? ????y e ???nu n ???th ???a ????
?????, e??? ???? ???ue ?i ?e ?? ????i e ???eyi ??????a ?e ????e?? ????.
A?y?a ??????? ??ey??a ? ??ue ???? ???i: ?e ? ?u?o? ??atho ????? ????y,
?-???o ???atho ????a ?????? e ???? ???? e o.ae.

A? ????? ??ey?? ???tho ????? ??u, o.a. ??????? ?e ????? ???????? ???a
????y eth?e. Ni???? ??u ????tho ? eth?a, a ???? ????, ???? ??????
?i??ey, ???a ????? ?????ue a ??e.

I???y ? ?????? ????? ??, o ?o ?? ??a ??u:

1) ?a ?e ????tho ?????? ????y;

2) ?a ????? ??u ???th?y ethaeyi ?e ? ?????yi;

3) ?e ???eytho ???u ???? e a????i ????y;

4) ????tho ?? e ? ? ?? – o??y???a ?????? ????e;

I?? ?????e ???e ????tho ?????? ???ey. I? ??iyo a ??oth?i: Ai-???o, ?
????? ?????ey. Oae, ??i ???o ? ?????a, ???o ec ??, ??????o ??????; ??u ?
???, ????, a ??a ???, ????, ??ath?y ????i, e ?y ??, ??u i? ?????e, ?
?y???? ????a ? ??aea???. Ai-???, ?e ???athony ???, a ???th ???th?y: ??u
?a? ????tho ??? a ?????e, ????a?? ?????? ??a (?e ???i ????? – ??i, ??,
??????a), ?y ??? ? ? ????? ??? ??????e ??u. A-???o, ???ey ???eyth?y e
?e??y?, ? ???i ???atho ????a e ???? eth?e – ??? e ??i: ??? ?a??? ????a n
??e ??ey ??a e ?a, ??e, ???e, ???y??i e ????i? ????i, a ??i – n ??e ??ey
?????ai e ???????, ????i e ?????i, ?????i e ??????i. A-????o, ? ????o
???????e ? ????a ?? ??a ???o th????ay i???????, a ? ????a ?? ??? –
?????? ????a. A-iy?o, ? ??? ????o?? ?????? ????e: ??? ??? ????tho ?????i
???e ?? ?????? ????e, ?i ??i. Ia ?a ?????? ????y ????? ????o ??????th, a
? ??y, ?e n ??e ??ey ??? ??o ?? ???u eth?a ???? e ?i??ey.

A ? ? ??y ??u ??a e ??u ??? ??i ?y?? a ??????e ?????? ????e. I?? ??a ???
??a ?????i ??th?th?y e ???yth?y, ??a ?e ?atho ????a ?????a.

NENOAIA I?AA E NAIAIAe EE*IINOE

A ?????i ?? ????tho ??a ????a ???? ??, ?i?e, ????, ?????? ??????
????e??y. A ?e ? ???e ?????? ????? ???a ?????? ?? e ??? /???a, ?i
???????e n ??????. ????a ???? ????aii ????ie ????? ? ???????, ?????y?
????, ????? ??e, ??????e ???ey?, ??ay?, ???????? ?????? e ???e ????e.

N? ?? ?????ey ??????ey ???????o i ?i, ?i n ??e ??ey ????ey a “??? ??” ?e
???o ????? ?????o e ??????? ?? e ??? ???? ? ?????. ????n?th y?yth?y ??
??????y, ??y?, ??? i ?i, ?i ??a ??a ????, a ??a ????? ? ?o ??????,
th?????, ????a e ?? ??u.. Ac?y? e ??u ????tho ????th??y e ???ath??y a
???? ?????? e ???? ?????e e ?y???? eth?e.

I??i ?????? ???? e ??? ???? e ??o ? ??y? ?????e e ??????e ????e e ????y
??????? ???? ????????, ???????a?? ????? e ????o e ?????o ????th ??????
????. A? ????ey ??? ?? ????? ??? e ??a, ?a ?????e ? ????i-??????,
y?i????o, eo???? e ?? ?????? ????? ???. Y?o ???i a e???a ???? ?? e ???
???? ae??i e ??o ?? ????e ??? ??a? ????? ?????y ?????i ????? ?? ???i
?????i ??????o ??i??.

I???a ?????a e ???????i? ????a ??????? ???o a ???o???? e ???i ????????
?????.

A??? ?????, ???????a ?????a ??????y i ??? ???? ???? a 1776 a. a E?????
??????i ??a Ae???y, a ??i a A?? i ??? 1791 a., ???e ????eye ??e ?ny?e
???? e E????? NOA 1787 a. A 1789 a. ? O??? ?? ??y? Ae????y ?? ???? e
?????, ????y ????a ?ey?a ? ??????, ???? e ???? ???ea ??? ??i ??a. A??e
?????ueth y?o ????? y?y?ny ??????a a ?o ??, ??????o ????, ? ?a ????e:
??a ???? a ?????i ??? ??a, ???? ?o ? ???ey, ???????a ?e ?????ua, ??????a
e ? ????a ? ?????a; e ??a ?????, ???a ?o???? ???????e ???th, eth??
(????? ??i).

N?? ??????e e ???????? yaey?ny ??????y ?? e ??? a ?????? n ???????i
????? ???? ??? n?? ?????? ??e, a ???o ???atho e ???oth?y ??a e ?i??..
Ae??? ???e, y? ??????a ?? e ??? ? ? ?????o ????eth. Ii y?? ????th
??eytho ??? ???a ??? ?? e ???: ??????, ??a??-y?????ea, ???, ?????.

I? y?i ??ue, ????ay ??o y?? ???? ?? e ???, ????? ???a, ????o ?a ?e
?????otho ??oth, ????th ???o ?????? ????e. A i??a ????? ??a e ???u
?????? ??o ?? ???? e ?? ????i ????yi ??.

I?????a ??a e ???u ???? – y? ?????e ???? a ???????e e ?????i-?????? ??e,
?????th?a ?i ?????? ???????a e ???o, ?a?? a ????? ?????? e ????i. E ?i
??ny?y: ??i ? ?????a; ???a ????, ???e, ??????; ??i ???? e ?? ????i a ???
???????e ??? e ???? ??????ey; ??i ? ??? ??? e eth?i a??????? ????yi; ??i
?????ue ? an????o ????eyo e ?????yo (??????) e ?. I????, ????a ??????
??i, ??i y?y?ny ??i ? ?????a (???a ?????), ???? ??i??? ????? ???ey
?????? e ?uo ?????e, ??????? ????ey e ??? ? ?o. I????ey y?? ??a ??????u
e ??? ???????? ???i, a ???a ???u ???ey e aeay????e ?????e ???ath?y ??? a
???? ???? ????e ????.

EE*IUA I?AAA E NAIAIAeU

E??a ??a e ???u – y? ?????e ????, ???ath?a ? ?????i e ??????? ??????a a
?i ??oth ??ue e ????? ??, ????? ????? ??????a, ?????a e ????th ????.

A? ??a, ??????a ????, a ??? ???e y?yth?y ???e. O? ? ??a, a ??i ??? ??a
?ae ???e ???e ????ny ?? ??ue ??, ???????i ???th?o ??oth ??ue e ???o ???i
????. E ?i ??ny?y: ??i ? ae??; ??i ? ??oth ?????????; ??i ? ????, ???
??e e ae?????; ???a ???e; ??i ? ????????? ???; ??i ? ???o ?????ey e ???
??a ????? e ?. I????, ????? ??a ? ????????? ???? ?????ny a ?????e
??th/???? ???e, ?e ???o ???? ?????a e ???a ???u, a ?????? ?????i ???a
???y, ??e, ????i e ??athu?i ?????? ?????i ????y, a ??????? ?????o, ???o
e ?? ??? a ????e ????, a ????? ????? ??????. I????y ?????? ????, ?i
??iy?? a i?????e ????y ?????, ?? ?i ????oue ? ??o ???? a ???????i ???i
??y?a e ?????a a????i a ???oth ?? ????? ??. I??y?? ? ?y?i ????? ?ith
??i???ue, ?????? ???ey a ????? e?a ??oth?y a ??? ??iy??i, a ???????,
?e???a n ????? ???, ???th?y ? ?ath?? th????? ??.

EOEUeOO?IUA I?AAA E NAIAIAeU

E????a ??a e ??i? – y? ?????e ???? ?????ny ?o???, ?????e ???e e ????ey?,
????ue ???a a ? ???? a ????o?e ? ??? ????oy? e ????noy?. E ??o ??o ??
??ny?y: ??i ? ?????a ????ey? ????; ?a? ? ?????a; ???a ????, ????e?i e
???????i ????? e ????a ???.

A????i ????eth ??? e ?a????i ????i ???a ???atho ??a i?? e ?????a ??a
????. I?? i?? ?????o a ??? ???e ?? ????i, ?a ?????e ? ?????, ???????? e
?? ???????. O??u ?????e ?a ???????a ??a – ec?????a ??a, ??i ? ??, ??i ?
?????a, ??i ? ??? ??e e ?????a e ?. A ???a ??o ?? ???? ???i ???i ???
y?y?ny i??? ?????y ?? ???i. N????? ??a – y? ????a ??a, ???th?a ???eeo
????o ??i ????y, ???yth?a e ???ath?a ??a ??a e ? i??????a ?. I????, ??a
???????, ??a ?????a, ??a ????a, ??a i???e e o.ae. A ?ith ???ue ?????a
??a ??o ?? ?????? ? ?? a ????n? ? ???e ? ??????e. I????, ??i ???? ??a
????a ???o ???????? ???a, ??a ??????? ????? ??e e o.ae.

I????e ??????? y?y?ny ??????a ?? ?? e ??? ? ???????a ?e ????, o.a.
??????a e ??????a I???i ???i ???, e ? ??a e ???u, ???????a ???i
????????i.

I?????e ?? ?????, ?i ????tho ???? e ????y? ?? ??a ?? e ???. A y?i ???
??????a ????? ?? e ???, ??????a ????? ??o ?? ??ae ???e ???????u. O??i
?????y ??a n ???oeey?, ?????th?? ??eth?? ?????? ?e????o e ??? (?????o)
??, ??? ? ???i ????y ????i-y?????? ?? e ???. A?ue ?c ???e??? ????
????i-y?????? ?? ???a ??? ?????? e ??? ?? e ??? ???ny ?ae ???. Y?
??iy??n?i ???atho ????? ??eth?? ?????? ??i ?? ????a ??????-???? ae???? ?
??? ????, ??i???th?a ????i-y?????? ??a ???a n ???e ???e e ????e ????.

NIOeEAEUeII-YEIIIIE*ANEEA I?AAA E NAIAIAeU

N????-y?????? ??a e ???u – y? ?????e ???? a n?? ?????? e ??????y ???a??o
??, ????? ????? ??????? y?????? e ??i ?y??? n ?? ???? ?????? e ????a
????. E ??o ????i-y?????? ?? e ??? ??ny?y: ??i ? ??, ??i ? i??, ??i ?
???uei? ????i?, ??i ? ???, ??i ?????ey e ?. I????, ??i ? ??o ???o a ?i,
?i ?? ?c ??th??y ???th?i ? ??o a ???????o, ?????? ?e ???o ?????yo
??????y ????i?y ???i ????????ue ?ai?? ???e, ?????? ???? ?e, a ?e? ??????
????e ??? e ????a ??? ???y, ?????th?a ?????oth ?????ue ???? a ?????i
???.

IAAEAeOIA?IAeII-I?AAIAIA NIO?OAeIE*ANOAI AINOAeA?NOA E I?IAEAIA I?AA
*AEIAAEA

C?????i ????? a ???? ???? ????? a XX a. y??? ????a ???? ?????? ????, ?
?????a a ?????e ?y? n ??????ueth ?a???ey ?????o ???? ??????y e ?????
???ey ????. I?????i au???? y?? ??i ????? i???? ???e ??????? ?????
??/?????e ???i ?? e ???, ???e ?e ? ????i eth?? ???? e a eth?e ???. I???i
????i ?????y y?o ?? e ??? ??e ????? e ??y?a ?i????th?o ??????-????
?????, ?y????o ?y ????ey ??????e, ?????i ?????e ? th?????th, ?????oth e
????th ??.

A 1945 a. ?e ?eiyo O?? III, ???????e a ???? ??e ? ??e y?e ?????e
?o?n???a ??????? ??????? a ?????? ??a, ????a e ???? ???ey e ??? ???? e
???? ???? ?ao eth?e ?c ??th??y. Y?o ???? y?eny ?????? e th????? ?????i
?y ???oth?? ??????? ???a?uo ????? e ???a a ???e ?? e ??? ????. Ae??i ???
????? y??? A???y ????ey ?? ???? 1948 a. Ae????y ????? ?????e ??i ?? e
???, ???i ??? ???? eth?e ???e a ??o???e, y?????ie, ????? e ????? ???
?????? ??e, ?a i???ue ????? ??. N???? Ae????e ??????e ??e ???????? ???i
?aa e ??? ??aey ? ??? ????y ??iy ???ey ?????? ?????e a ??i. Ae????y ?
y?y?ny th????e ?y????i ????? e ??o ???a? ?????? ?? ???i e ?????? ??. O?
? ??a, ? ?????? ???? ?a? ???. E??i ? ? ??? e a ???? ? ????e a ???oth?i
?? ??y? th????e ?y????a ??????a ????u ? ??? ????. N??e ??????e ? ?o
y?yth?y I?o i ?????o e ?????? ??? e I?o ? y??????, ????? e ????? ???. I?
??a ??y? a 1966 a. e ???? a ??, a ?i ??a ?y NNN? e ???e a 1976 a. A
??iy?a ??y ???otho e ??? ??? ??????a ????ey ? ??? ????.

Aeey ????ey a ??ue ??? ?????a th????? ??, ?????ny a ??????o ????eyo ?
??? e ???? ????, ????? ? ??? ?a????ey ? ????ey ? ????? ???????? ???, ?
e, ??? ??i, ????y ????? ?????oth?e ????i-y?????? ????, ?????? ? ????
???e ?y ?????? ??????y ?????ny a ?o ?????. A ?io??i ??? ???? ??????-????
?? i ??? ???? ???ny ?????e, a ?????oth?a ?????i, ? ?????th?a ???e ?y
????? ?? e ???, ??? ?????y ??????e-?????e ????ey ?e ??iyth??y ? ?yo? ?
?ay ?yc????.

I?????? ??????? a ???e ?? ???? ? ???ny ??? e ????a e ??y?th ?????oth?o
????? e e ??????e ???? ?????ny a ?o ?? ? ????? ???????? ??i-o???oe
?????. O?? ??????? ?i???i e a ????? a ?eyo ????i ????ey ??????e ??y?o ?
?ay ?y????a e ??????y ??????? ???ey ? ? ?????i. A y?o ?eyo ???u ?????a
??????a ???, ??a??a ???i ?ae????? ??????th ????? ? ??? ????. I??? ?
?????ey ??????-???? ????a e ?? ? I??i ???? ?????ny e ???.

A? ????a ?? ? ???? ??, ?i ??a ???? (?e ????a ? yo? ??) ????n??? ?????
??th/???i ? ??????? ??????? e ??????? ??a. Ae??????a ??a eth?e, ?e ??
???yo, ??th?y ?a-?? ????i ?????i ??????i ????a. N?i ? ?? ??????-????
??????a ??aea?y ???? a ???? ??o ??ue ???a ???? e ??? ?????oth ?? a ??a
???y ???? ?? e???e. Ii ?e y?i ?i ??? y?y?ny ?????i, ????i ? ????th e
?o???e ??e ???i ????, ?i ????o??? ?????e e ?????? ?n?? a ??i, ????o ???
??????, n ??e ???u, ????? ??e ????o?, a n ??? – ?i ????i-y??????e,
??????e, ?????e e ???e ????noy?. A y?i ??? ???a ??i ? i?? ?? ???na? ??a,
??? ???? e ?????a.

A ? ? ??y a ?????i ?? ??i ???? ????y? e ????????ue ????? ????? ?? ? ??a,
????? ?????a ? ??i ???? ????? a ??i. A y?o ???yo ????a ??a e ?i?? ??o
????ue e ???????y ? ?a ???e ???e ?ae ?????? ???o ?y ?????i ???? e ?????a
???? e, a ????e, ?ae ?????? ??????-???? ????a e ??, ?????? ????e ???????
????/a??.

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