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Oaaea?aeueiia aaainoai ii ia?aciaaieth

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ia?aciaaoaeueiia o/?aaeaeaieai

aunoaai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

Oaa?neie ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

(AIO AII OaAO)

Oeeeae a a. ?aeaaa

Niaoeeaeueiinoue 030501 TH?eni?oaeaioeey

Eaoaae?a i?aaiauo aeenoeeieei

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

Iiiyoea, iniiaaiey e aeaeu caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea

§ 1. Iiiyoea caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa

§ 2. Iniiaaiey e aeaeu caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa

2.1 I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ?iaeeoaeyie

2.2 I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai onuiiaeoaeyie

2.3 I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai iiaeoiaie e iiia/eoaeyie

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

I i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a oeaeii iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aai nouiinoue, aai
caaea/e e i?aaenoaaeaiea i?aeoeea aai i?eiaiaiey eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea
a iieiie oeaie inouanoaeaiey a?aaeaeainei – i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa.
Anee aea aiai?eoue i caeiiiii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, eae iiaeaeaea, oi aio
ioaaaeaia iniaay ?ieue, oae eae a ionoonoaee aeaiiiai einoeoooa iaeio?ua
eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai aiiaua ia iiaee au i?aeoe/anee inouanoaeyoue caueoo
naieo i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania a a?aaeaeaineii noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.
Oaeei ia?acii caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai aanueia aaaeiue iiaeeinoeooo,
iaeiaei aio a A?aaeaeaineii i?ioeannoaeueiii eiaeaena iinayuaia a
i?eioeeia oieueei iaeia noaoueny – no. 52 “Caeiiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee”
AIE?O, neaaeiaaoaeueii i?e aai eco/aiee iaiaoiaeeii ia?auaoueny ia
oieueei e AIE?O, ii e e ae?oaei ii?iaoeaii i?aaiaui aeoai. Iniaoth
aeooaeueiinoue oaia eiaiii caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa i?eaeaao oi,
/oi 2007 a. a noieeoea iaoae no?aiu aue iauyaeai Aiaeii ?aaaiea, a
eiaiii ?iaeeoaee a iniiaiii caueuatho eo eioa?anu, yaeyynue oai ia?acii
eo caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie e eiaaii a iniiaiii aeaoe ninoaaeytho oo
eaoaai?eth a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua naiinoiyoaeueii ia iiaoo caueuaoue e
ionoaeaaoue naie eioa?anu a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea, neaaeiaaoaeueii caeiiiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ?ani?ino?aiyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ieo, a 2008 a.
a ?innee – Aiaeii naiuee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue eioa?an a ?aaoee?iaaiee naiaeiuo ioiioaiee au?aaeai a
no. 7 Eiinoeoooeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, niaeanii eioi?ie a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee iaania/eaaaony ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea naiuee,
iaoa?einoaa, iooeianoaa e aeaonoaa. Oaeei ia?acii nae/an oaeaeyaony
iiiai aieiaiey acaeiiioiioaiee aeaoae e ?iaeeoaeae, a oaeaea ono?ienoaa
aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac ?iaeeoaeae e caueou eo eioa?ania e i?aa. Oaeaea
anoue e ae?oaea eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai, eioi?ui iaiaoiaeeii /oiau eoi-oi
i?aaenoaaeye eo eioa?anu. Iiyoiio a neeo cia/eoaeueiinoe aeaiiiai aeaea
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa iai iaiaoiaeeii a aeaiiie ?aaioa ii?aaeaeeoue
iiiyoea, iniiaaiey e aeaeu caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii iaoeie caaea/aie aoaeoo yaeyoueny:

– ?anniio?aiea iiiyoea caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e aai cia/aiea;

– ii?aaeaeaiea aai iniiaaiee, oi anoue a neeo eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoa iii
onoaiaaeeaaaony e aai aeaeia, a caaeneiinoe io oiai eoi inouanoaeyao
aeaiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai.

Ianoiyuay ?aaioa iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa ia?aa?aoa, ec eioi?uo
iineaaeiee ia o?e ioieoa.

§ 1. Iiiyoea caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa

I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai eae i?aaiaay eaoaai?ey iiyaeeanue a ?innee
ianeieueei aaeia iacaae, a ienaiii i?aaa iii iiyaeyaony eeoue n
?acaeoeai eiouanoaaiiiai iai?ioa, oneiaeiaieai e ?aciiia?aceai
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Iniiau einoeoooa i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa auee
caeiaeaiu aua ai a?aiaia Ae?aaiaai ?eia. I?e/ai caeiiiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ca?iaeeeinue cia/eoaeueii ?aiaa aeiaiai?iiai e
ae?oaeo aeaeia. I?aaeaea /ai yoio einoeooo i?aaa i?eia?ae ii?aaeaeaiioth
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii oi?io, ii i?ioae aeeeoaeueiue iooue ?acaeoey.
I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai eae einoeooo a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii
?acaeaaeinue, iinoaiaiii i?eia?aoay i?eaeeaeaiioth e nia?aiaiiui ?aaeeyi
oi?io.

Iaeiaei naii iiiyoea i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, ianiio?y ia oeacaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeai aai eiinoeooe?iaaiea i?eciaeia, inoaaaeinue
aeeneonneiiiui a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a.1 Oae, iaeie aaoi?u i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoey i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa oeacuaaee, /oi iii yaeyao niaie
aeayoaeueiinoue iaeiiai eeoea (i?aaenoaaeoaey) ii inouanoaeaieth
iieiiii/ey io eiaie e a eioa?anao ae?oaiai eeoea (i?aaenoaaeyaiiai).
Ae?oaea aea aaoi?u iiae i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaii iiieiaee i?aaiioiioaiea, a
neeo eioi?iai i?aaiia?iua th?eaee/aneea aeaenoaey, niaa?oaiiua iaeiei
eeoeii (i?aaenoaaeoaeai) io eiaie ae?oaiai eeoea (i?aaenoaaeyaiiai),
iaiin?aaenoaaiii nicaeatho, eciaiytho eee i?ae?auatho aeey iineaaeiaai
a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe.

Aianoa n oai n?aaee noi?iiieeia iineaaeiae iiceoeee ia auei aaeeinoaa
acaeyaeia ioiineoaeueii oiai, eaeia eiaiii i?aaiioiioaiea (iaaeaeo
eaeeie noauaeoaie) yaeyaony i?aaiioiioaieai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. Oaeei
ia?acii nouanoaiaaee ?acee/iua acaeyaeu ia iiiyoea i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa,
eae ioia/ae aua a ni?ieiaua aiaeu i?ioeiai noieaoey ecaanoiue ?inneeneee
oeeaeeeno A.A. ?ynaioeaa, “aaeaa ee anoue aua einoeooo a?aaeaeaineiai
i?aaa, eioi?ue ii?iaeee au oaeoth iooaioth oa?ieiieiaeth, eae einoeooo
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. Iaeie e oa aea oa?ieiu eiatho ?aciia cia/aiea,
i?e/ai iiiyoey, eioi?ui iie niioaaonoaotho a iaoea, oi/ii ia
onoaiiaeaiu”. E yoe neiaa iiaeii ioianoe ia oieueei e einoeoooo
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a oeaeii, ii e e einoeoooo caeiiiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a /anoiinoe. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia aeaii /?oeiai ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoao, a
oaeaea e ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoaa, e nia?aiaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aeaao
/aoeiai ii?aaeaeaiey caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e ioaaoa ia aii?in,
yaeythony ee oiaeaeanoaaiiuie iiiyoey “caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai” e
“i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai, iniiaaiiia ia caeiia”. Caeiiiui
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaii yaeyaony oaeia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai, eioi?ia
iniiaaii ia i?yiii i?aaeienaiee caeiia. A nayce n yoei o?aaeeoeeiiii
auaeaeytho a ea/anoaa caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?iaeeoaeae, onuiiaeoaeae,
iiia/eoaeae e iiaeoiia ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae. Iaeiaei i?e yoii aeey
onoaiiaeaiey ioiioaiee ii onuiiaeaieth, iiaea e iiia/eoaeuenoao
iaiaoiaeei aeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai eee ioieoeeiaeueiiai i?aaia, a eiaiii
?aoaiea noaea ia onuiiaeaiee, ?aoaiea i?aaiia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa ia
onoaiiaeaiee iiaee eee iiia/eoaeuenoaa.

A oi aea a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi aeaiiue ia?a/aiue
yaeyaony aeaeaei ia en/a?iuaathuei. E a ea/anoaa caeiiiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiaeii auaeaeeoue oaeaea aee?aaeeoiaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee
ii oi?aaeaieth eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie aaoi?ia e eniieieoaeae ia
eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa, eiinoeia, eaieoaiia ii?neeo noaeia, ecaeaoaeae a
ioiioaiee aaoi?ia, ia ?ane?uaoeo naia eiy i?e ioaeeeaoeee i?iecaaaeaiey,
e ae?. 1 , oaeei ia?acii enneaaeoy iiiyoey caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa
a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ia?auaoueny e ae?oaei
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaui aeoai. Iaeiaei aeaiiia iiiyoea auaiaeeony a
th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ec iieiaeaiee i i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, oeacaiiuo
a aeaaa 5 AIE?O «I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai a noaea». Oae i?ioeannoaeueiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie auiieiaiea i?ioeannoaeueiuo
aeaenoaee eeoeii io eiaie e a eioa?anao ae?oaiai eeoea. A neo/aa
caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa yoi iaiaoiaeeii a oeaeyo ieacaiey iiiiue a
inouanoaeaiee i?aa, caeiiiuo eioa?ania, a oaeaea aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey eo
ia?ooaiey a i?ioeanna, ieacaiey noaeo niaeaenoaey a ioi?aaeaiee
i?aainoaeey e eiia/ii auianaiey iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiiai ?aoaiey aeey
eeoe, eioa?anu eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeyao i?aaenoaaeoaeue a neeo
iaaiciiaeiinoe naiinoiyoaeueii caueuaoue a noaea naie eioa?anu eee
naiinoiyoaeueii aunooiaoue a noaea (iai?eia?, iaaeaaniiniaiua eee ia
iieiinoueth aeaaniiniaiua a?aaeaeaia, aacaanoii ionoonoaothuea),
neaaeiaaoaeueii aeey yoeo eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
yaeyaony i?aeoe/anee aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie o/anoey a a?aaeaeaineii
i?ioeanna e inouanoaeaiey aeoeaiie caueou eo eioa?ania.

I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea e
neoaeeo aaaeiie aa?aioeae a aeaea iaania/aiey caueou i?aa, naiaiae e
caeiiiuo eioa?ania a?aaeaeai.1 Neaaeiaaoaeueii, caeiiiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeaeia noaeaaiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, iii eiaao naie iniiaaiey aicieeiiaaiey, naie
noauaeoiue ninoaa e ii?yaeie ioi?ieaiey iieiiii/ee i?aaenoaaeoaeae 2, a
nayce n /ai iiaeii auaeaeeoue aai iniaaiiinoue: oae caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
onoaiiaeai oe?ieee e?oa eeoe, eioi?ua iiaoo o/aanoaiaaoue a ea/anoaa
i?aaenoaaeoaeae a noaea, oi anoue niaeanii no.49 AIE?O i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
a noaea iiaoo auoue aeaaniiniaiua eeoea, eiathuea iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii
ioi?ieaiiua iieiiii/ey ia aaaeaiey aeaea, iaeiaei no. 52 AIE?O aiai?eo
iai eoi eiaiii iiaeao inouanoaeyoue aeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ii
i?aaenoaaeaieth eioa?ania, oi anoue yoi ?iaeeoaee, onuiiaeoaee, iiaeoiu,
iiia/eoaee, eeoei, eioi?iio ia?aaeaii a aeiaa?eoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea
eiouanoai aacaanoii ionoonoaothuaai e eiua eeoea, eioi?ui yoi i?aai
i?aaeinoaaeaii caeiiii, oi anoue eiatho iieiiii/ey i?aaenoaaeoaeae a
neeo caeiia. Oaeei ia?acii e?oa aeaiiuo eeoe noaeai a ioiioaiee
caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, oi anoue eaeie-ieaoaeue aaeaieao ia
niiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?anu i?aaenoaaeyaiiai, ia eiay ia oi
ii?aaeae?iiuo iieiiii/ee, iai?eia? ii?o/aiea ia aaaeaiea aeaea io
caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey.

Aeey auiieiaiey iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ i?aaenoaaeoaeue anooiaao a
i?aaiioiioaiey n noaeii. Ioiioaiey a noa?a caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa
a oie eee eiie noaiaie ioaaouaathony i?aeoe/anee anaie io?aneyie i?aaa,
a oii /enea a?aaeaeaineiai, naiaeiiai, aaeieieno?aoeaiiai, iaeiaiaiai,
i?ioeannoaeueiuo io?aneae i?aaa. A oi aea a?aiy i?eciaee, iniaaiiinoe
caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo caeiiiui
i?aaenoaaeoaeai e i?aaenoaaeyaiui eeoeii ?aaoee?othony i?aaeaea anaai
a?aaeaeaineei e naiaeiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, oi anoue ii?iaie
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa, iai?eia? no. 64, 123, 137, 145, 146, 147, 153
Naiaeiiai eiaeaena ?O. Aaciaie ii?iie yaeyaony no. 64 Naiaeiiai eiaeaena
?O, niaeanii i. 1 eioi?ie caueoa i?aa e eioa?ania aeaoae aiceaaaaony ia
eo ?iaeeoaeae. ?iaeeoaee yaeythony caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie naieo
aeaoae e aunooiatho a caueoo eo i?aa e eioa?ania a ioiioaieyo n ethauie
oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, a oii /enea a noaeao, aac
niaoeeaeueiuo iieiiii/ee.1

I?aaenoaaeoaeue aunooiaao io eiaie i?aaenoaaeyaiiai. Oi?ioea
«aunooieaiea io eiaie i?aaenoaaeyaiiai» a aeaiiii neo/aa icia/aao
i?aaiia?iua i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey noaeaaiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey,
niaa?o?iiua a i?aaeaeao aai iieiiii/ee ii ioiioaieth e noaeo,
inaaaeiie?iiiio i i?aaenoaaeoaeueneii oa?aeoa?a yoeo aeaenoaee, e
iai?aaeaiiua ia iieo/aiea ii?aaeae?iiuo i?aaiauo ?acoeueoaoia aeey
i?aaenoaaeyaiiai. O/anoea a i?ioeanna caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ia ono?aiyao ec aeaea i?aaenoaaeyaiia eeoei2,
iai?eia?, a nii?ao i ainieoaiee aeaoae iaaeaeo ?iaeeoaeyie
onoaiaaeeaaaony n eai oi/ao inoaoueny nai ?aaaiie (i?e oneiaee
aeinoaoi/iiai aic?anoa aeey i?eiyoey aeaiiiai ?aoaiey).

Caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai niaoeeoe/ii oai /oi iii aicieeaao a neeo
i?yiiai oeacaiey ia oi a caeiia. Nouiinoue caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa
a ioee/ea io aeiaiai?iiai ninoieo a oii, /oi:

1) ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeai e i?aaenoaaeyaiui, eo acaeiiia
aieaecuyaeaiea a ioiioaiee o?aoueeo eeoe, n eioi?uie i?aaenoaaeoaeue
anooiaao a i?aaiioiioaiey io eiaie i?aaenoaaeyaiiai, ia eiatho cia/aiey;

2) e?oa iieiiii/ee i?aaenoaaeoaey onoaiiaeai ii?iaoeaiuie i?aaiauie
aeoaie e ia ii?aaeaeyaony aieaecuyaeaieai i?aaenoaaeyaiiai;

3) i?aaiaua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeai e i?aaenoaaeyaiui
ii?aaeaeaiu ii?iaoeaiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie;

4) aeaenoaey caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey iiaoo auoue inii?aiu eeoue ii
iniiaaieyi, i?aaeoniio?aiiui ii?iaoeaiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie;

5) caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ia iiaeao auoue eiiia?/aneei;

6) iieiiii/ea caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey yaeyaony aaciocuaiui. Oaeei
ia?acii iieiiii/ey caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey ii?aaeaeythony oieueei a
neeo i?yiiai oeacaiey ia oi a caeiia.1

A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaia e i?ioeannoaeueiia caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
eiatho oeaeue ?yae iaueo i?eciaeia. Aianoa n oai neaaeoao ioee/aoue
noaeaaiia

i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai io i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna. Eo
?acee/atho ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia: ii oeaeyi e oa?aeoa?o ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeai e i?aaenoaaeyaiui,ii noauaeoiiio ninoaao, eioi?ua iiaoo
aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa noaeaaiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae, ii iniiaaieyi
aicieeiiaaiey, ii i?aaiaui iineaaenoaeyi. Oae, oeaeue
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa – nicaeaiea, eciaiaiea e
i?ae?auaiea a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae aeey i?aaenoaaeyaiiai
eeoea (no. 182 AE?O). Oeaeue aea noaeaaiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, a a
/anoiinoe caeiiiiai – caueoa a noaea eioa?ania i?aaenoaaeyaiiai, iiiiuue
aio a inouanoaeaiee i?ioeannoaeueiuo i?aa e eniieiaiee i?ioeannoaeueiuo
iaycaiiinoae. I?e i?ioeannoaeueiii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa i?aaenoaaeoaeue
niaa?oaao oeaeue eiiieaen ?acee/iuo i?ioeannoaeueiuo aeaenoaee,
iaoneiaeaiiuo iaiaoiaeeiinoueth caueou i?aaenoaaeyaiiai ei eeoea a
a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna. Oae, noaeaaiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue aioiaeo io eiaie
aeiaa?eoaey i?ioeannoaeueiua aeieoiaiou, iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaoao a
noaeaaiii canaaeaiee, aunooiay ii anai aii?inai, aicieeathuei ii oiaeo
i?ioeanna. I?e yoii i?aaenoaaeoaeue naycai oaie iieiiii/eyie, eioi?uie
ii iaaeae?i a nayce n auiieiaieai naieo ooieoeee a noaea, e ia ai?aaa
niaa?oaoue aeaenoaey auoiaeyuea ca yoe i?aaeaeu 1, iaeiaei aiai?y i
caeiiiii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi caeanue ii iaaeae?i
aieueoeie iieiiii/eyie /ai i?aaenoaaeoaeue iacia/aiiue ii aeiaiai?o oae,
enoiaey ec o?aaiaaiee no. 39, 173 AIE ?O, iaaei iieaaaoue, /oi a neo/aa
ioeaca io enea (eee eiiai o?aaiaaiey) eeoea, ia?aoeaoaainy a noae ca
caueoie i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania ?aaaiea, i?iecaiaenoai ii aeaeo iiaeao
auoue i?ae?auaii.

Anee ?aaaiie aeinoea aic?anoa 14 eao, oi i?ae?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa ii
aeaeo aiciiaeii oieueei n aai niaeaney, a anee ii ia aeinoea oeacaiiiai
aic?anoa – n niaeaney i?aaiia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa. I?e yoii
i?eieiaaony ai aieiaiea e niioaaonoaea ie?iaiai niaeaoaiey caeiio,
niaethaeaiea i?aa ae?oaeo eeoe.2 Noauaeoii a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeanna
inoa?ony aeiaa?eoaeue (noi?iiie eee eiui eeoeii, o/anoaothuei a aeaea)
inoa?ony aeiaa?eoaeue 3 , iiyoiio, n/eoaai, /oi iai?eia?, ?aaaiie ii
aeaeai, naycaiiui n ainieoaieai aeaoae, yaeyaony noi?iiie, oae eae ii
noauaeo nii?iiai i?aaiioiioaiey e ana i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey noaeaaiiai
?aoaiey, eioi?ia aoaeao auianaii ii eneo ?iaeeoaeae (eee eeoe, eo
caiaiythueo), aoaeoo ?ani?ino?aiyoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ?aaaiea.
Iiyoiio iauea i?ioeannoaeueiua iieiaeaiey i noi?iiao a a?aaeaeaineii
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa (no. 38 AIE ?O) iaiaoiaeeii aeiiieieoue nnueeie ia
oi, /oi iieiaeaiea enooea a i?ioeanna iiaoo caieiaoue eeoea, a caueoo
i?aa eioi?uo aicaoaeaeaaony i?iecaiaenoai ii a?aaeaeaineiio aeaeo,
iacaaeneii io iaee/ey o ieo i?ioeannoaeueiie aeaaniiniaiinoe.1

I i?ioeannoaeueiii iieiaeaiee i?aaenoaaeoaey a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna
aeaaii aaae?ony aeeneonney, ?aciiaeaney ii yoiio aii?ino iauyniythony
ionoonoaeai aaeeiie iiceoeee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea
. Oae, a nia?aiaiiie i?ioeannoaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a auaeaeyaony ?yae
i?eciaeia, i?enoueo eeoeai, o/anoaothuei a aeaea: i?aai ia niaa?oaiea
i?ioeannoaeueiuo aeaenoaee io nianoaaiiiai eiaie; i?aai ia
aieaecuyaeaiey, oi anoue i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey, iai?aaeaiiua ia
aicieeiiaaiea, ?acaeoea e ieii/aiea i?ioeanna a oie eee eiie noaaeee;
iaee/ea naiinoiyoaeueiiai th?eaee/aneiai eioa?ana a ?aoaiee noaea
(ee/iiai eee iauanoaaiiiai); ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia ieo a onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiii i?aaeaeao caeiiiie neeu noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey.2 Eoae, iaeie o/?iua
n/eoatho, /oi i?aaenoaaeoaee ia yaeythony eeoeaie, o/anoaothueie a
aeaea, ae?oaea ioiinyo eo e /eneo eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea. Oi/ea
c?aiey iineaaeieo yaeyaony aieaa i?aaeeueiie. Noaeaaiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue
yaeyaony noauaeoii a?aaeaeaineeo i?ioeannoaeueiuo ioiioaiee, eiaao
i?ioeannoaeueiue eioa?an a aeaea, naieie aeaenoaeyie ieacuaaao aeeyiea
ia ?acaeoea i?ioeanna.

Ii eiaao naiinoiyoaeueiua i?ioeannoaeueiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe. Ca
iaauiieiaiea naieo i?ioeannoaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae ii iiaeao auoue
i?eaea/?i e i?ioeannoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.3 Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia oi
/oi niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i?aaenoaaeoaeue a
a?aaeaeaineii (e a?aeo?aaeiii) i?ioeanna ia aoiaeeo a a?oiio eeoe,
o/anoaothueo a aeaea, ii eiaao y?ei au?aaeaiiia iniaia iieiaeaiea ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie eeoeaie, niaeaenoaothueie inouanoaeaieth
i?aainoaeey (naeaeaoaeai, ia?aaiae/eeii, yenia?oii, niaoeeaeenoii). Oae,
aii?inai o/anoey a i?ioeanna i?aaenoaaeoaey a AIE ?O iinayuaiu ia
ioaeaeueiua noaouee, a naiinoiyoaeueiay aeaaa, niioaaonoaaiii AIE ?O –
aeaaa 5. Aianoa n oai inoathony ia ?aoaiiuie ?yae aii?inia. A /anoiinoe,
a Eiaeaena iao noaoae, a eioi?uo auee au cae?aieaiu naiinoiyoaeueiua
i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaey. Oaeei ia?acii, n?aaieaay ae?oaeo
eeoe (iai?eia?, naeaeaoaey, yenia?oa), niaeaenoaothueo inouanoaeaieth
i?aainoaeey ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai, e i?aaenoaaeoaey iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi o iineaaeiaai caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaiu oieueei
niaoeeaeueiua iieiiii/ey (no. 54 AIE ?O). Iaeiaei, eae ecaanoii,
iieiiii/ey i?aaenoaaeoaeue inouanoaeyao io eiaie i?aaenoaaeyaiiai e
iineaaenoaey yoeo aeaenoaee aicieeatho oaeaea ia o i?aaenoaaeoaey, a o
i?aaenoaaeyaiiai. 1

Oaeei ia?acii einoeooo caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a a?aaeaeaineii
i?ioeanna yoi iaiouaieaiay /anoue i?aaa aac eioi?ie ia aiciiaeii auei au
inouanoaeyoue caeiiiua i?aaa, iaycaiiinoe e eioa?anu ioaeaeueiui
eaoaai?eyi a?aaeaeai a neeo naiae aeaaniiniaiinoe eee /anoe/iie
aeaaniiniaiinoe, a neeo /aai iie naie ia iiaoo eca?aoue naaa caeiiiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaey e iiyoiio aai ii?aaeaeyao caeii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai – yoi i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai, eioi?ia iniiaaii
ia i?yiii oeacaiee caeiia i?e iaee/ee ii?aaeae?iiiai oaeoe/aneiai
ninoaaa. Caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai caieiaao iniaia iieiaeaiea a a
einoeoooa i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, oae eae ?iaeeoaee, onuiiaeoaee, iiaeoiu
eee iiia/eoaee e eiua eeoea, eioi?ui yoi i?aaeinoaaeaii caeiiii, ai?aaa
niaa?oaoue ana i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey, eioi?ua iiaee au
inouanoaeyoue a i?ioeanna naie i?aaenoaaeyaiua, anee au iie iaeaaeaee
i?ioeannoaeueiie aeaaniiniaiinoueth, ca eneeth/aieai iaeioi?uo neo/aaa.

§2. Iniiaaiey e aeaeu caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa

Caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai eae iaeei aeae noaeaaiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, oaeaea iiae?acaeaeyaony niaeanii a?aaeaeaineiio
i?ioeannoaeueiiio eiaeaeno ia naie ioaeaeueiua aeaeu, oeaeue oaeie
eeanneoeeaoeee caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa caeeth/aaony a aai iaeaieaa
iieiii e aeaoaeueiii eco/aiee. Oae a a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
auaeaeythony neaaeothuea iniiaiua aai aeaeu: i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
?iaeeoaeyie, i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai onuiiaeoaeyie, i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
iiaeoiaie e iiia/eoaeyie, a oaeaea eiuie eeoeaie, eioi?ui yoi i?aai
i?aaeinoaaeaii oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii.

2.1 I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ?iaeeoaeyie

Niaeanii /.1 no. 52 AIE?O «i?aaa, naiaiaeu e caeiiiua eioa?anu
iaaeaaniiniaiuo eee ia iaeaaeathueo iieiie aeaaniiniaiinoueth a?aaeaeai
caueuatho a noaea eo ?iaeeoaee, …».1 A niioaaonoaee ni no. 64
Naiaeiiai eiaeaena ?O ?iaeeoaee yaeythony caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
naieo aeaoae e aunooiatho a caueoo eo i?aa e eioa?ania a ioiioaieyo n
ethauie oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, a oii /enea a noaeao, aac
niaoeeaeueiuo iieiiii/ee. 2 A oii neo/aa, eiaaea, ia o/anoaoy a nii?iii
iaoa?eaeueiii i?aaiioiioaiee, iie ia?auathony a noae n o?aaiaaieai i
caueoa i?aa ?aaaiea, iie i?eia?aoatho i?ioeannoaeueiua i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe, i?aaeoniio?aiiua no. 43 AIE ?O. Iie aunooiatho io eiaie e a
eioa?anao ?aaaiea. Enooeii yaeyaony nai ?aaaiie.3 ?iaeeoaee
i?aaenoaaeytho a noaea eioa?anu aeaoae a aic?anoa aei 18 eao i?e
oneiaee, /oi iaaeaeo eioa?anaie ?iaeeoaeae e aeaoae iao i?ioeai?a/ee (i.
2 no. 64 Naiaeiiai eiaeaena). Iniiaaieai aicieeiiaaiey caeiiiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a ioiioaiee aeaoae aunooiaao oaeo ?iaenoaa, oaeo
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ?aaaiea io aeaiiiai eeoea, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao ii?yaeie.

Ioi?ieaiey (iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey) iieiiii/ee ?iaeeoaeae ia aunooieaiea a
noaeaaiii i?ioeanna a ea/anoaa caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae naieo aeaoae.
Iie aunooiatho a caueoo naieo aeaoae ai anao o/?aaeaeaieyo, a oii /enea
e noaeaaiuo, aoc niaoeeaeueiuo iieiiii/ee (no. 64 NE?O). ?iaeeoaee
i?aaeuyaeytho noaeo ianii?o, a oaeaea naeaeaoaeuenoai i ?iaeaeaiee
i?aaenoaaeyaiiai ?aaaiea.1 Iaeiaei i?iaeaiie caeanue yaeyaony aii?in i
aeaaniiniaiinoe caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo. Anee n
onuiiaeoaeyie, iiaeoiaie, iiia/eoaeyie e i?eaiiuie ?iaeeoaeyie ana ynii,
iineieueeo iaeiei ec oneiaee iieo/aiey aeaiiiai noaoona yaeyaony
niaa?oaiiieaoea e, eae neaaenoaea, aeaaniiniaiinoue (ii aic?anoo)
a?aaeaeaieia (a?aaeaeai), i?aoaiaeothuaai auoue oaeiaui, oi
aeaaniiniaiinoue ?iaeeoaeae ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui ianoiyoaeuenoaii
aeey iieo/aiey ?iaeeoaeueneiai noaoona.

Ioieo 3 no. 62 NE ?O onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi “ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea ?iaeeoaee
eiatho i?aaa i?eciaaaoue e inia?eaaoue naia iooeianoai e iaoa?einoai ia
iaueo iniiaaieyo…”. Oaeei ia?acii, iiyaeaiea ?iaeeoaeueneiai noaoona
iiaeao i?iecieoe e o /aou?iaaeoeaoeeaoiaai iiae?inoea (oioy ecaanoiu
neo/ae e aieaa ?aiiaai iaoa?einoaa e iooeianoaa). Aeaiiay neooaoeey ia
iiaea ia iiaea/ue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae caeiiiaeaoaey e
ii?aaeaeaieth aeaaniiniaiinoe ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae.

Oae, ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea ?iaeeoaee, anooieaoea a a?ae, i?eia?aoatho
iieiue iauai ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae ia?aaia n
niaa?oaiiieaoieie eeoeaie, noaaoeie ?iaeeoaeyie (i. 2 no. 61 NE ?O).
Oaeiai aea naiaeii-i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae,
eioi?ua oioy e ia ninoiyo a a?aea, ii aeinoeaee oanoiaaeoeaoe eao (i. 2
no. 62 NE ?O). Iaeiaei ?acieoea iaaeaeo yoeie a?oiiaie
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae nouanoaaiia. Ia?aua, caeeth/ea a?ae,
aaoiiaoe/anee i?eia?aee e iieiue iauai a?aaeaeaineie aeaaniiniaiinoe, n
oi/ee c?aiey i?aaa iie iaeaaeatho anaie iaiaoiaeeiuie yeaiaioaie –
a?aaeaeaineie e /anoe/iie naiaeiie aeaaniiniaiinoueth (?iaeeoaeueneie)
aeey oiai, /oiau auoue iaaeeaaeaueie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie naieo aeaoae.
Aoi?ay aea a?oiia ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae iaoiaeeony a aeaiyeii
iieiaeaiee. Ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea ?iaeeoaee, ia ninoiyuea a a?aea e
aeinoeaoea oanoiaaeoeaoe eao, ii naiaeiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao eiatho
i?aai auoue iaaeeaaeaueie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie naieo aeaoae. I?e/ai
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ia oieueei a naiaeiuo i?aaiioiioaieyo, ii e a
a?aaeaeaineeo, a?aaeaeaineeo i?ioeannoaeueiuo e o.ae. Yoi auoaeaao ec i.
2 no. 62 NE ?O, aaea neacaii, /oi “ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea ?iaeeoaee, ia
ninoiyuea a a?aea… ai?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyoue ?iaeeoaeueneea
i?aaa ii aeinoeaeaiee eie oanoiaaeoeaoe eao”, e i. 1 no. 64 NE ?O,
onoaiiaeaoaai, /oi “?iaeeoaee yaeythony caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie naieo
aeaoae e aunooiatho a caueoo eo i?aa e eioa?ania a ioiioaiee n ethauie
oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, a oii /enea a noaeao, aac
niaoeeaeueiuo iieiiii/ee”. Iaeiaei oaeo ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea e
i?eia?aoaiea ?iaeeoaeueneie aeaaniiniaiinoe n oanoiaaeoeaoe eao ia
aeaeaao oaeiai ?iaeeoaey iieiinoueth aeaaniiniaiui a a?aaeaeaineii
i?aaa.

Iaeeoei ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?aaeien: ?anii?yaeaoueny nianoaaiiui eiouanoaii
oaeie ?iaeeoaeue naiinoiyoaeueii, aac niaeaney naieo caeiiiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia iiaeao (no. 26 AE ?O), a
niaa?oaoue oaeea aea naeaeee io eiaie naiaai ?aaaiea eiaao i?aai.
Niaeanii i. 3 no. 37 AIE i?aaa, naiaiaeu e caeiiiua eioa?anu
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae, ia ninoiyueo a a?aea, aeinoeaoeo
oanoiaaeoeaoe eao, caueuatho a i?ioeanna eo caeiiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee, a
niaeanii i. 5 oie aea noaouee i?aaa, naiaiaeu e caeiiiua eioa?anu aeaoae
oaeeo ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae aoaeoo caueuaoue oaea
ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea ?iaeeoaee naie. I?e caeeth/aiee aeeiaioiiai
niaeaoaiey, eiaaea oaeie ianiaa?oaiiieaoiee ?iaeeoaeue yaeyaony
ieaoaeueueeii aeeiaioia, o?aaoaony niaeanea aai caeiiiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae, a eiaaea oio aea ?iaeeoaeue aunooiaao eae
i?aaenoaaeoaeue iieo/aoaey aeeiaioia (o.a. aeaenoaoao eae caeiiiue
i?aaenoaaeoaeue naiaai ?aaaiea), ii naiinoiyoaeueii caeeth/aao
aeeiaioiia niaeaoaiea e niaeaney aai caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia
o?aaoaony.1 Oaeei ia?acii iieo/aaony, /oi eeoea iaeiiai e oiai aea
aic?anoa iiaoo iaeaaeaoue niaa?oaiii ?aciuie i?aaaie a noaeaaiii
?acae?aoaeuenoaa, /oi ii iaoaio iiaieth ineiaeiyao ?acae?aoaeuenoai
aeaea, neaaeiaaoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii caeiiiaeaoaeueii ia?aniio?aoue
neiaeeaoothny neooaoeeth, iooai oi/iiai ii?aaeaeaiey i?aa e iaycaiiinoae
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e eo caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae.1

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua i?aaiaua iiceoeee ii ?aoaieth oeacaiiie
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe.

· eciaiaiea a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e iaaeaeaiea
ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai ?iaeeoaey iieiie aeaaniiniaiinoueth n oanoiaaeoeaoe
eao eee… aeeth/aiea ?iaeaeaiey ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei ?aaaiea a /enei
ianoiyoaeuenoa, i?e iaee/ee eioi?uo ianiaa?oaiiieaoiee iiaeao auoue
yiaineie?iaai;

· oaeo ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoieie ?iaeeoaeyie, ia ninoiyueie
a a?aea, eae iniiaaiea aeey i?eciaiey eeoea iieiinoueth aeaaniiniaiui
eae a a?aaeaeaineii, oae e a naiaeiii i?aaa;

· Oaeaea aiciiaeii onoaiiaeaiea einoeoooa iiaee iaae aeaoueie oaeeo
?iaeeoaeae e ia?aeiaeaiea iaycaiiinoe ii caueoa i?aa e eioa?ania aeaoae
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae ia iiaeoiia. Ii a ooieoeee iiaeoia aoiaeyo
ia oieueei iaycaiiinoe ii caueoa i?aa e eioa?ania ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, ii
e eo iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ainieoaiea. A yoie nayce iiaoo iino?aaeaoue
eioa?anu naiiai ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai ?iaeeoaey, iiyoiio yaeyaony
aiciiaeiui eniieueciaaiea i?aaiaie iiaeaee, caeiaeaiiie a i. 2 no. 64 NE
?O. Oi anoue anee aeiionoeoue, /oi ianiaa?oaiiieaoiee ?iaeeoaeue ia a
ninoiyiee i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?anu aeaoae e inouanoaeyoue iaaeeaaeauoth
caueoo eo caeiiiuo i?aa e eioa?ania, oiaaea i?aai iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa iaycai iacia/eoue i?aaenoaaeoaey aeey caueou i?aa e
eioa?ania aeaoae.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia iao acaeyae, auei au iaaa?ii ia?aeeaaeuaaoue ia iea/e
thiuo ?iaeeoaeae, eioi?ua e oae aea-oaeoi ieacaeenue a oyaeaeie
aeeciaiiie neooaoeee, aua e a?oc ?aoaiey i?iaeai ii caueoa i?aa eo
?aaaiea.

Ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea ?iaeeoaee, eae i?aaeei, ec iaaeaaiiieo/iuo naiae,
iaeiiaania/aiiua, th?eaee/anee iaa?aiioiua. E eae neaaenoaea, iie naie
eioa?anu ca/anooth ia iiaoo ionoiyoue, a caeii eo iaycuaaao caueuaoue
eioa?anu naiaai nianoaaiiiai ?aaaiea, iiyoiio iu neeiiyainy e o?aoueaio
aa?eaioo ?aoaiey aeaiiiai aii?ina.

Aiai?y i aeaaniiniaiinoe ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae, iaeuecy ia
auaeaeeoue ioaeaeueii neaaeothuoth eo a?oiio – yoi ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea
?iaeeoaee, ia ninoiyuea a a?aea e ia aeinoeaoea oanoiaaeoeaoe eao.
Aeaiiui eeoeai i?aaeinoaaeaiu eeoue i?aai ia niaianoiia i?iaeeaaiea n
?aaaieii e i?aai ia o/anoea a aai ainieoaiee (i. 1 no. 62 NE ?O). Oaeea
?iaeeoaee ia eiatho i?aaa ia naiinoiyoaeueiia ainieoaiea e ia?aciaaiea
?aaaiea, ia eiatho i?aaa ia caueoo aai i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania e, eae
neaaenoaea, ia iiaoo auoue caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie naieo aeaoae.
Aieaa oiai, caeiiiaeaoaeue i?eiaieoaeueii e oeacaiiui ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei
?iaeeoaeyi ioioae io noaiaea?oiie eiino?oeoeee “i?aa e iaycaiiinoae”
?iaeeoaeae, i?aaeinoaaee ei eeoue “ona/aiiue” iauai ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa
e ia aiceiaeee ia ieo ?iaeeoaeueneeo iaycaiiinoae (a oii /enea e
iaycaiiinoe ii niaea?aeaieth ?aaaiea). Oai ia iaiaa niaeanii i. 2 no. 62
NE ?O iiaea iaae aeaoueie ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae, ia ninoiyueo a
a?aea e ia aeinoeaoeo oanoiaaeoeaoe eao, ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiie.
I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae caeiiiaeaoaey ia nianai
ii?aaaeai, i?ioeai?a/eo caeiio e a?yae ee niioaaonoaoao eioa?anai
oeacaiiuo eeoe. Ia iao acaeyae, iaee/ea o ?aaaiea ?iaeeoaeae, eioi?ua a
neeo aic?anoa ia iaeaaeatho iieiui iauaiii ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae, icia/aao, /oi a niioaaonoaee n i. 1 no. 121 NE ?O
iaaeeaaeauaa ?iaeeoaeueneia iiia/aiea o oaeiai ?aaaiea ionoonoaoao.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iniiaaiee i. 1 no. 145 NE ?O iiaea iaae oaeei
?aaaieii iaiaoiaeeia. 1

Oaeei ia?acii aii?in ia o/anoee ?iaeeoaeae a ea/anoaa caeiiiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae naieo aeaoae oaeaea neaaeoao ?aoaoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiii
a caaeneiinoe io ii?aaeae?iiuo oaeoia: aic?anoa, anooieaiey a a?ae.

Iaeioi?ua o/?iua-th?enou ooaa?aeaeatho /oi nouanoaoao ioaeaeueii
naiaeiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, a ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ?iaeeoaeyie aeaoae. Oae iii e anoue, oae eae NE?O
aiai?eo iai ei iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeoaeai aeaoae, iacuaay ana
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey yoiai oneiaey,neaaeiaaoaeueii aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
aii?ina caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ?iaeeoaeyie iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea
ia?auaoueny ia oieueei AIE?O, ii e e NE?O, AI?O, EiAI, IE?O e ae?oaei
ii?iaoeaii i?aaiaui aeoai, oae eae ioiioaiey a noa?a caeiiiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a oie eee eiie noaiaie ioaaouaathony i?aeoe/anee
anaie io?aneyie i?aaa. A oi aea a?aiy i?eciaee, iniaaiiinoe caeiiiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo caeiiiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai e
i?aaenoaaeyaiui eeoeii ?aaoee?othony i?aaeaea anaai a?aaeaeaineei e
naiaeiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, iai?eia? no. 64, 123, 137, 145, 146, 147,
153 Naiaeiiai eiaeaena ?O.

A naiaeiii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa caeiiiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue aeaenoaoao io
eiaie ?aaaiea. I?e yoii caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ii niaea?aeaieth
aeeth/aao a naay aanue eiiieaen i?aa ?aaaiea e eiuo th?eaee/aneeo
aeaenoaee. Naiaeiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ?iaeeoaeyie eiaao iniaua
iniiaaiey i?ae?auaiey, a eiaiii: aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai aic?anoa
?aaaieii, i?eia?aoaiea ei iieiie aeaaniiniaiinoe, eeoaiea eee
ia?aie/aiea ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa. 1

I?aaenoaaeyoue i?aaa e eioa?anu ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae iiaoo eae iaa
?iaeeoaey (iaa onuiiaeoaey), oae e iaeei ec ieo ii niaeaoaieth iaaeaeo
ieie, /oi auoaeaao ec i. 2 no. 66 Naiaeiiai eiaeaena ?O, niaeanii
eioi?iio ?iaeeoaee ai?aaa caeeth/eoue a ienueiaiiie oi?ia niaeaoaiea i
ii?yaeea inouanoaeaiey ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa ?iaeeoaeai, i?iaeeaathuei
ioaeaeueii io ?aaaiea. Ia i?aeoeea aiciiaeiu neooaoeee, eiaaea eioa?anu
aeaoae ouaieythony iaeiei ec caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae. I?e yoii neiaeii
niaethnoe eioa?anu ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, iineieueeo iaeei ec ?iaeeoaeae
(eeoe, eo caiaiythueo) ia caeioa?aniaai a iauaeoeaiii ?anniio?aiee
aeaea, oi?ie?iaaiee aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie aacu. A ?acoeueoaoa /aai iiaoo
iino?aaeaoue eioa?anu ?aaaiea. Aeey ono?aiaiey aicieeoae i?iaeaiu iaie
i?aaeeaaaaony iaania/eaaoue eaaeaeiio ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaio o/anoieeo
a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeanna aanieaoioth th?eaee/aneoth iiiiuue, iacaaeneii
io i?enoonoaey a i?ioeanna caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae e i?aaiia iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa. Yoi iineoaeeo e?eoa?eai ea/anoaaiiie caueou, /oi
yaeyaony iaiaeiaaaeiui i?e ninoycaoaeueiinoe i?ioeanna. Iiea/eaaoue yoo
iiiiuue aiciiaeii ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. A oii neo/aa anee
iaaeaeo eioa?anaie aeaoae e ?iaeeoaeae (onuiiaeoaeae) eiathony
i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu i?aaiaie iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa, oi
?iaeeoaee ia ai?aaa i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?anu aeaoae a ioiioaieyo n
ae?oaeie eeoeaie. 1

Iieiiii/ey ?iaeeoaeae caaenyo oaeaea io aic?anoa aeaoae, iie iiaoo
iaeaaeaoue i?aaii o/anoey a ?aaeecaoeee anaai eiiieaena noauaeoeaiuo
i?aa eeoea (aeaoe aei 6 eao), ae?oaie – eeoue ioaeaeueiuo i?aa
(?iaeeoaee ii ioiioaieth e aeaoyi io 6 aei 14 eao, aei 18 eao).Iaeiaei
caeii niaea?aeeo e iaeioi?ua cai?aou aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae, oae i?e
i?iaeaaea iaaeaeaeeiinoe ?iaeeoaeai iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aoaiea i?aaia iiaee
e iiia/eoaeuenoaa anee ?aa?ieo i?eiaaeeaaeeo aeiey a nianoaaiiinoe
aeaiiiai eiouanoaa, aeaaea anee aeaiiue ianiaa?oaiiieaoiee ?aa?iie a
aeaiiii aeeeii iiiauaiee ia i?iienai, oi anoue ia yaeyaony
nianoaaiieeii, ii i?iaeeaae a aeaiiii iiiauaiee n ?iaeeoaeyie, eee n
iaeiei ec ieo, a iu ciaai /oi ianoii aeeoaeuenoaa ?aa?iea yaeyaony ianoi
aeeoaeuenoaa ?iaeeoaeae, eee iaeiiai ec ieo, oi niioaaonoaaiii
i?iaeaaea, iai?eia?, eaa?oe?u eciaiyao aai oneiaey aeecie,
neaaeiaaoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ia inouanoaeaiea aeaiiie naeaeee
?ac?aoaiea i?aaia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa.2

Oaeei ia?acii, ?iaeeoaee i?eia?aoatho i?aai i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?anu
aeaoae a neeo ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho aeaoae i?e
?aaeecaoeee anaai eiiieaena i?aa aeaoae. A iniiaa oaeiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa eaaeeo e?iaiia ?iaenoai. Iniiaaiey i?ae?auaiey
caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ?iaeeoaeae iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa
a?oiiu: a) aeia?iaieueiia i?ae?auaiea a nayce n niaa?oaiiieaoeai
?aaaiea, iauyaeaieai aai yiaineie?iaaiiui, anooieaieai a a?ae aei
aeinoeaeaiey niaa?oaiiieaoey, nia?oueth ?iaeeoaeae eee naiiai ?aaaiea;
a) i?eioaeeoaeueiia i?ae?auaiea caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa iooai
eeoaiey eee ia?aie/aiey ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa; i?eciaiey eo aacaanoii
ionoonoaothueie eee oia?oeie, iaaeaaniiniaiuie eee ia?aie/aiii
aeaaniiniaiuie a neo/aa auyaeaiey i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo eioa?anaie
?iaeeoaeae e aeaoae.

Auaeaeyaony oaeaea a iniaue aeae i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, yoi
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai i?e?iiuie ?iaeeoaeyie, oioy aeaiiue aeae
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ia oeacai a AIE, ii a i?i i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, /oi
i?aaa, naiaiaeu e caeiiiua eioa?anu iaaeaaniiniaiuo eee ia iaeaaeathueo
iieiie aeaaniiniaiinoueth a?aaeaeai caueuatho a noaea eo ?iaeeoaee,
onuiiaeoaee, iiaeoiu, iiia/eoaee e eiua eeoea, eioi?ui yoi i?aai
i?aaeinoaaeaii oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii. Aeaiiia iieiaeaiea noi?ioee?iaaii
oaeei ia?acii, /oi ec iaai iiaeii iiiyoue, /oi i?eaiiua ?iaeeoaee oaeaea
ai?aaa inouanoaeyoue i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai naiaai ainieoaiieea a
a?aaeaeaineii noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, iineieueeo yoi i?aai i?aaeinoaaeaii ei
caeiiii. I?eaiiua ?iaeeoaee i?aaenoaaeytho a noaea eioa?anu i?eaiiuo
aeaoae (?aaaiea), iieuecoynue i?aaaie e iany iaycaiiinoe iiaeoiia
(iiia/eoaeae) (i. 3 no. 153, no. 150 NE?O, 36, 37 AE?O). Iniiaaieai
aicieeiiaaiey ioiioaiee caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a aeaiiii neo/aa
yaeyaony aeiaiai? i ia?aaea/a ?aaaiea (aeaoae) ia ainieoaiea a naiueth,
eioi?ue caeeth/aaony iaaeaeo i?aaiaie iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa e
i?eaiiuie ?iaeeoaeyie. Iieiiii/ey i?eaiiuo ?iaeeoaeae ia o/anoea a
noaeaaiii i?ioeanna a ea/anoaa caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?eaiiuo aeaoae
(?aaaiea) iiaeoaa?aeaeathony oaeinoiaa?aieai onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu.1 Iu
?aoeee ?anniio?aoue aeaiiue aii?in i i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa i?e?iiuie
?iaeeoaeyie, a yoii ioieoa iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey, oae eae ii iaoaio
iiaieth noaoon i?e?iiuo ?iaeeoaeae aeeaea e noaoono ?iaeeoaeae, /ai e
noaoono iiaeoiia eee iiia/eoaeae, oae eae naii iacaaiea i?e?iiua
?iaeeoaee aiai?eo iai , /oi iie a eaeii oi niunea yaeythony ?iaeeoaeyie
?aa?iea, oioy e ia ii e?iaiiio ?iaenoao. Nai NE?O ii?aaeaeyao aeaiiue
einoeooo eae i?e?iioth naiueth, oi anoue ?aa?iie aeieaeai ainieouaaoueny
ia iiae iiaeie eiai eeai, a eiaiii a naiuea n o/?oii oiai /oi naiuey yoi
naiay aaaeiay ia?aiia/aeueiay y/aeea iauanoaa. I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
i?eaiiiai ?iaeeoaey aiaeiae/iu oai, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho ae?oaea
caeiiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee, a /anoiinoe, ?iaeeoaee a ioiioaiee nianoaaiiuo
aeaoae.

?acieoea ninoieo eeoue a oii, /oi anee ?iaeeoaee ?ac?aoatho ana aii?inu,
aicieeathuea i?e ainieoaiee naieo aeaoae, eneeth/eoaeueii
naiinoiyoaeueii (ieeoi ia eiaao i?aaa aoi?aaoueny a yoo iaeanoue
acaeiiioiioaiee ?iaeeoaeae e aeaoae, e?iia neo/aaa, eiaaea ?iaeeoaee
naieie aeaenoaeyie eee aacaeaenoaeai iaiinyo a?aae ?aaaieo), oi i?eaiiua
?iaeeoaee a neeo oiai, /oi iie oiieiiii/aiu ainoaea?noaii ia ainieoaiea
aeaoae-ne?io e aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae, aeieaeiu
i?eneooeaaoueny e ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi i?aaia e iiia/eoaeuenoaa. Oaeaea
iniiaiie iaycaiiinoue eo yaeyaony inouanoaeaiea iiaee caueou i?aa e
caeiiiuo eioa?ania ainieoaiieea a ea/anoaa aai caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey.
Ioeac io ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiie iaycaiiinoe iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae
a?oaia ia?ooaiea, niiniaiia iiaea/ue iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey aeey
ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai ainieoaiieea. Aeaiiia ianoiyoaeuenoai, ia iao
acaeyae, yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey iono?aiaiey ?iaeeoaey-ainieoaoaey io
eniieiaiey iaycaiiinoae ii ainieoaieth i?eaiiiai ?aaaiea n iineaaeothuei
?anoi?aeaieai aeiaiai?a i ia?aaea/a ?aaaiea a i?eaiioth naiueth. Oaeaea
eae e o ?iaeeoaeae iauai iieiiii/ee i?eaiiiai ?iaeeoaey a ea/anoaa
i?aaenoaaeoaey ?aaaiea caaeneo io aic?anoa ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai. A yoii
ea/anoaa iaaeaeyaony eeai i?aaiii/eyie iiaeoia, eeai iiia/eoaey. A
ioiioaiee ?aaaiea, ia aeinoeaoaai 14 eao, iiaeoi (i?eaiiue ?iaeeoaeue)
niaa?oaao ca iaai ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeaenoaey, a iiia/eoaeue (i?eaiiue
?iaeeoaeue) eeoue ieacuaaao niaeaenoaea ?aaaieo a aic?anoa io 14 aei 18
eao a inouanoaeaiee ei naieo i?aa e auiieiaiee iaycaiiinoae. Anee
?aa?iie ia aue yiaineie?iaai eee ia anooiee a a?ae. 1

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi i?aaiaie noaoon i?eaiiiai
?iaeeoaey oiaeaeanoaai i?aaiaiio noaoono iiaeoia (iiia/eoaey), o.a. iie
iaaeaeaiu iaeeiaeiaui iaai?ii i?aa e iaycaiiinoae a ioiioaiee naieo
ainieoaiieeia. I?aaiioiioaiey ii caeiiiiio i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoao
aicieeatho ia iniiaaiee aeiaiai?a i ia?aaea/a ?aaaiea (aeaoae) ia
ainieoaiea a naiueth, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony iaaeaeo i?aaiii iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa e i?eaiiuie ?iaeeoaeyie (noi?oaaie eee ioaeaeueiuie
a?aaeaeaiaie, aeaeathueie acyoue aeaoae ia ainieoaiea a naiueth) (/.1
no. 151 NE?O) 1. A n?aaiaiee aea n i?aaiaui iieiaeaieai ?iaeeoaey
(onuiiaeoaey) aeaiiia ooaa?aeaeaiea ni?aaaaeeeai, ii eeoue io/anoe,
iineieueeo eiatho ianoi e oaeea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, eioi?ua
eiaeeaeaeoaeece?otho i?aaiaie noaoon ?iaeeoaey-ainieoaoaey. Oae,
i?eaiiua ?iaeeoaee ia ai?aaa eciaieoue oaieeeth, eiy, io/anoai naiaai
ainieoaiieea. Iie ia naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie aeeiaioiuie e
ianeaaenoaaiiuie i?aaiioiioaieyie.

2.2 I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai onuiiaeoaeyie

A niioaaonoaee ni no. 124. Aeaoe, a ioiioaiee eioi?uo aeiioneaaony
onuiiaeaiea (oaei/a?aiea) «Onuiiaeaiea eee oaei/a?aiea (aeaeaa –
onuiiaeaiea) yaeyaony i?ei?eoaoiie oi?iie ono?ienoaa aeaoae, inoaaoeony
aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae. Onuiiaeaiea aeiioneaaony a ioiioaiee
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae e oieueei a eo eioa?anao n o/aoii aic?anoa
?aaaiea e a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee iauaia aeaaniiniaiinoe ?aaaiea, a oaeaea n o/aoii
aiciiaeiinoae iaania/eoue aeaoyi iieiioeaiiia oece/aneia, ineoe/aneia,
aeooiaiia e i?aanoaaiiia ?acaeoea».1 A niioaaonoaee ni no. 7.
«Niaeaenoaea ?aaaieo a ?aaeecaoeee e caueoa aai i?aa e caeiiiuo
eioa?ania « OC «Ia iniiaiuo aa?aioeyo i?aa ?aa?iea» «?iaeeoaee ?aaaiea
(eeoea, eo caiaiythuea, oi anoue oaeaea e onuiiaeoaee) niaeaenoaotho aio
a inouanoaeaiee naiinoiyoaeueiuo aeaenoaee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?aaeecaoeeth
e caueoo aai i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania, n o/aoii aic?anoa ?aaaiea e a
i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
iauaia aeaaniiniaiinoe ?aaaiea».2 Onuiiaeoaee i?aaenoaaeytho a noaea
eioa?anu aeaoae a aic?anoa aei 18 eao. Iniiaaieai aicieeiiaaiey
ioiioaiee caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a ioiioaiee onuiiaeaiiuo
(oaei/a?aiiuo) aeaoae yaeyaony anooieaoaa a caeiiioth neeo ?aoaiea noaea
ia onoaiiaeaiee onuiiaeaiey (oaei/a?aiey), auianaiiia a ii?yaeea iniaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ii i?aaeeai aeaau 29 AIE ?O. Iieiiii/ey onuiiaeoaeae ia
aunooieaiea a noaeaaiii i?ioeanna a ea/anoaa caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
onuiiaeaiiuo a caaeneiinoe io niaea?aeaiey noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey ia
onoaiiaeaiee onuiiaeaiey (oaei/a?aiey) ?aaaiea iiaeoaa?aeaeathony
naeaeaoaeuenoaii i ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee aeoa onuiiaeaiey (no.
125 Naiaeiiai eiaeaena ?O) eee naeaeaoaeuenoaii i ?iaeaeaiee
i?aaenoaaeyaiiai ?aaaiea (no. 136 Naiaeiiai eiaeaena ?O). A neo/aa
onuiiaeaiey ?aa?iea aeaoiy eeoeaie iaa onuiiaeoaey yaeythony caeiiiuie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?aa?iea. Anee ?aa?iie onuiiae?i iaeiei eeoeii, i aai
caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie yaeythony ?iaeeoaeue ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth e
onuiiaeoaeue. 1 Oaeei ia?acii onuiiaeoaee eee oaei/a?eoaee auiieiytho
ooieoeee ii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoao e caueoa i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania
?aaaiea. Aiiaua eo i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea noiaeii n i?aaiaui noaoonii
?iaeeoaeae, a ea/anoaa i?aaenoaaeoaeae naieo aeaoae, iai?eia?, niaeanii
i.2 no. 137 NE?O iaeiia?aiaiii n i?eia?aoaieai i?aa e iaycaiiinoae ii
ioiioaieth e onuiiaeoaeyi, onuiiae?iiua aeaoe oo?a/eaatho ana ee/iua e
eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii ioiioaieth e naiei ?iaeeoaeyi e
eiui ?iaenoaaiieeai ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth, eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao no 138
NE a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie ?aaaiie, eiathuee e iiiaioo naiaai
onuiiaeaiey i?aai ia iaineth e iiniaey, iieaaathueany aio a nayce ni
nia?oueth ?iaeeoaeae, nio?aiyao yoi i?aai e i?e aai onuiiaeaiee, iaeiaei
eae oaea ioia/aeinue i?e onuiiaeaiee ?aaaiea iaeiei eeoeii ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe iiaoo auoue
nio?aiaiu ii aeaeaieth iaoa?e, anee onuiiaeoaeue – ioae/eia, eee ii
aeaeaieth iooea, anee onuiiaeoaeue – aeaiueia, a neaaenoaea /aai
onuiiaeoaeue a iaeio?uo ioiioaieyo ia yaeyaony aai caeiiiui
i?aaenoaaeoaeai.

Oaeaea anee aiai?eoue i onuiiaeaiee eiino?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie eee
eeoeaie aac a?aaeaeainoaa aeaoae, yaeythueony iiaeaeaiiuie ?O, oi
caeanue niaeanii i. 3 no. 165 NE caueoa i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania
aeaoae, yaeythueony a?aaeaeaiaie ?O e onuiiaeaiiuo eiino?aiiuie
a?aaeaeaiaie eee eeoeaie aac a?aaeaeainoaa, ca i?aaeaeaie oa??eoi?ee ?O,
anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ii ?O,
inouanoaeyaony a i?aaeaeao, aeiioneaaiuo ii?iaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa
eiinoeueneei o/?aaeaeaieai ?O, a eioi?ii oeacaiiua aeaoe ninoiyo ia
o/aoa. Iinoaiiaea aeaoae ia o/ao a eiinoeueneii o/?aaeaeaiee ?O,
iaoiaeyuainy a i?aaeaeao eiinoeueneiai ie?oaa ia oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noaa
i?iaeeaaiey onuiiaeoaeae (i?e ionoonoaee eiinoeueneiai o/?aaeaeaiey – a
aeeieiiaoe/aneii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ?O), inouanoaeyaony a o?aoiany/iue
n?ie ni aeiy auacaea eo a ainoaea?noai ianoa i?iaeeaaiey onuiiaeoaeae.

Ia?aaeei yoe i?aaeea ia niaethaeathony.1 Oaeei ia?acii, eae aeaeii
iieiiii/ey onuiiaeoaeae a ioee/ea io ?iaeeoaeae ianeieueei oaea
iineaaeieo, /oi ii-iaoaio iiaieth niaa?oaiii ii?aaaeaiii anayce n
o/anoeaoeieny neo/ayie ia?ooaiey iaycaiiinoae onuiiaeoaeyie a ioiioaiee
onuiiae?iiuo, anayce n /ai ca ieie oaeaea iaiaoiaeei eiio?ieue ni
noi?iiu oiieiiii/aiiuo ia oi ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, iniaaiii a
ioiioaiee onuiiaeoaeae, aeeaoueo iinoiyiii eee a?aiaiii ca i?aaeaeaie
?O, yaeythueony eiino?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie eee eeoeaie aac a?aaeaeainoaa,
oaeaea ia ?ac?aaioai aii?in i oii aoaeao ee inouanoaeyoue onuiiaeoaeue
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai onuiiaeyaiiai iinea aeinoeaeaiey ei 18 eao i?e
?aoaiee ioaeaeueiuo aii?inia, anee a no?aia onuiiaeoaey iieiay
aeaaniiniaiinoue o a?aaeaeai ia/eiaaony iai?eia? a 21aiae. Oaeei
ia?acii, caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai aeaoae eo onuiiaeoaeyie
inouanoaeyaony aei aeinoeaeaiey eie aic?anoa 18. Iiyoiio a niioaaonoaee
ni no. 24 Aeaeea?aoeee “I nioeeaeueiuo e i?aaiauo i?eioeeiao,
eanathueony caueou e aeaaiiieo/ey aeaoae, iniaaiii i?e ia?aaea/a aeaoae
ia ainieoaiea e eo onuiiaeaiee ia iaoeeiiaeueiii e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
o?iaiyo” (i?eiyoa 03.12.1986 ?aciethoeeae 41/95 Aaia?aeueiie Annaiaeae
III). A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea a?aaeaeainoai ?aaaiea eiia, /ai
a?aaeaeainoai aoaeoueo i?eaiiuo ?iaeeoaeae, iaiaoiaeeii a iieiie ia?a
o/eouaaoue eae caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa, a?aaeaeaieiii eioi?iai
yaeyaony ?aaaiie, oae e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa, a?aaeaeaiaie
eioi?iai yaeythony aoaeouea i?eaiiua ?iaeeoaee.

A yoie nayce neaaeoao iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii o/eouaaoue eoeueoo?iia e
?aeeaeiciia ainieoaiea e eioa?anu ?aaaiea.2 Iniiaaieai oaeiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa aoaeao yaeyoueny oaeo auianaiey noaeii ?aoaiey ia
onuiiaeaiee e anooieaiey aai a caeiiioth neeo, a oaeaea iethn
naeaeaoaeuenoai i ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee aeoa onuiiaeaiey e
naeaeaoaeuenoai i ?iaeaeaiee i?aaenoaaeyaiiai ?aaaiea.

I?ae?auaaony caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai onuiiaeoaeae aeia?iaieueii
eeai i?eioaeeoaeueii. Aeia?iaieueii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai i?ae?auaaony a
nayce ni nia?oueth eeoea, caiaiythuaai ?iaeeoaeae, eeai ?aaaiea, a
oaeaea aeinoeaeaiey ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiii aic?anoa,
oi anoue 18 eao, a neo/aa yiaineiaoeee e ae?oaea iniiaaiey. I
i?eioaeeoaeueiii i?ae?auaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
ioiaia onuiiaeaiey a niioaaonoaee ni no. 140-144 NE?O. Eae aeaeii ec
iaienaiiiai iaeaieueoee iannea ii?i eanathueony onuiiaeaiey niaea?aeeony
a NE?O, anayce n /ai iaeaieueoaa aieiaiee i?e ?anniio?aiee aeaiiiai
einoeoooa oaeaeyee eiaiii NE?O e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio i?aao.

2.3 I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai iiaeoiaie e iiia/eoaeyie

A niioaaonoaee n /.1 no. 52 AIE?O, caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
iaaeaaniiniaiuo eee ia iaeaaeathueo iieiie aeaaniiniaiinoueth a?aaeaeai
iiaoo auoue, iacia/aaiua a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii ii?yaeea, iiaeoiu e
iiia/eoaee. A AIE ia ?ane?uaaaony iiiyoee iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa
aiiaua, a oaeaea ii?yaeie e oneiaey onoaiiaeaiey iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa, iiyoiio n/eoaai ioaeiui ia?aoeoueny e ae?oaei
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaui aeoai, oae eae aeaaea nai AIE ionueaao ian e ae?oaei
caeiiai i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina ia inouanoaeaiee caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
ii?aaeae?iiuo aeaenoaee (/. 3 no. 52 AIE?O).

A niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 60 Eiinoeoooeee ?O a?aaeaeaia inouanoaeytho
naie i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe a iieiii iauaia n 18 eao. N yoiai iiiaioa iie
noaiiayony iieiinoueth aeaaniiniaiuie, oi anoue ia?aoatho aiciiaeiinoue
niaa?oaoue th?eaee/anee cia/eiua aeaenoaey ii ?aaeecaoeee naieo i?aa e
eniieiaieth iaycaiiinoae, ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Iaeiaei a ?aaeueiie
aeecie aiciiaeiu neooaoeee, iaoaaeoea io?aaeaiea a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
eiaaea ?aaeecaoeey a?aaeaeaieiii yoiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai iieiaeaiey
ieacuaaaony ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai iaaiciiaeiie. A yoie nayce a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa nouanoaotho einoeooou iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa.1

Iiae iiaeie ?aaiui ia?acii iiaeii iiieiaoue eae eiiieaen
iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee ii inouanoaeaieth nioeeaeueiie caaiou, oae e
i?aaiaoth naycue, i?aaiioiioaiea n o/anoeai iiaeoia (iiia/eoaey) e
iiaeiia/iiai.

?acoiaaony, iiaea e iiia/eoaeuenoai i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaeaea e
i?aaiaie einoeooo – niaieoiiinoue ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo inouanoaeaiea
aeaiiiai aeaea nioeeaeueiie caaiou i iaaeaaniiniaiuo e ia iieiinoueth
aeaaniiniaiuo eeoeao.

Iiaea e iiia/eoaeuenoai – yoi oi?ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ono?ienoaa. Iia
i?aaeiieaaaao oieueei eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ieacaiea iiiiue, ooiaea e
iiia/aiey ni noi?iiu ii?aaeaeaiiiai oece/aneiai eeoea. Iniiaiia
iacia/aiea iiaee (iiia/eoaeuenoaa) caaeneo io oiai, eaeea eiaiii
eioa?anu, iio?aaiinoe

1 A?oia A.A. Iiaea e iiia/eoaeuenoaa: TH?eaee/aneee noaoon e caueoa i?aa
e caeiiiuo eioa?ania aeaoae, eeo?iiuo ?iaeeoaeueneie iiaee,
iaaeaaniiniaiuo e ia?aie/aiii aeaaniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai, A?inniaaeea
?INAOO, 2008a.

iiaeiia/iuo eeoe iiaeeaaeao io?aia a ia?aii/a?aaeiii ii?yaeea.1

Eoae, iiaea – aeae i?aaiaie iiiiue, onoaiaaeeaaaiue a oeaeyo caueou
eioa?ania iaeieaoieo e a?aaeaeai, i?eciaiiuo a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea
iaaeaaniiniaiuie aneaaenoaea ineoe/aneiai ?anno?ienoaa, i?e eioi?ii
iacia/aiiue iiaeoi (oece/aneia eeoei) yaeyaony caeiiiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai
iiaeiia/iiai e iiaeao niaa?oaoue io aai eiaie ana th?eaee/anee cia/eiua
aeaenoaey.

Iiia/eoaeuenoai eae aeae i?aaiaie iiiiue onoaiaaeeaaaony iaae
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieie a aic?anoa io /aou?iaaeoeaoe aei ainaiiaaeoeaoe eao,
a oaeaea iaae a?aaeaeaiaie, ia?aie/aiiuie noaeii a aeaaniiniaiinoe
aneaaenoaea ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie iaieoeaie eee ia?eioe/aneeie
n?aaenoaaie, e ninoieo a ieacaiee iiia/eoaeai (oece/aneei eeoeii)
niaeaenoaey a inouanoaeaiee yoeie eeoeaie naieo i?aa e eniieiaiee
iaycaiiinoae, a oaeaea a io?aia eo io ceioiio?aaeaiee ni noi?iiu
o?aoueeo eeoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaea (iiia/eoaeuenoai) eae oi?ia io?aiu i?aa e eioa?ania
iaaeaaniiniaiuo e ia iieiinoueth aeaaniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai iaeaaeaao
neaaeothueie i?eciaeaie, iicaieythueie ioee/eoue aa io noiaeiuo i?aaiauo
yaeaiee:

– caueoa i?aa e eioa?ania iiaeiia/iiai aeaenoaeyie ii?aaeaeaiiiai
oece/aneiai eeoea;

– aicieeiiaaiea i?aaiioiioaiee ec aeoa i?aaia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey;

– i?aai iiaeoia (iiia/eoaey) niaa?oaoue a eioa?anao iiaeiia/iiai ana eee
ioaeaeueiua th?eaee/anee cia/eiua aeaenoaey aac niaoeeaeueiiai
iieiiii/ey.2

Oaeei ia?acii iniiaaieai aicieeiiaaiey ioiioaiee ii iiaea e
iiia/eoaeuenoao, a caaeneiinoe io iaoneiaeaoeo eo i?e/ei, yaeyaony
niioaaonoaothuee aeo noaea eee oiieiiii/aiiiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
i?aaia. Noaeaaiue ii?yaeie aicieeiiaaiey yoeo ioiioaiee onoaiaaeeaaaony
i?aaeeaie AIE ?O ia iniaii i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaeieieno?aoeaiue ii?yaeie
?aaoee?oaony aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieei e?oaii ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia,
ii?aaeaeythueo eiiiaoaioeeth i?aaiia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa (ai?i/ai, a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy iaicia/eeanue oaiaeaioeey e nenoaiaoecaoeee yoie
iaeanoe i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey: n 1 yiaa?y 2008 aiaea ooieoeee
oi?aaeaiey a noa?a iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa ia?aaeaiu i?aaiai
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe noauaeoia ?O). Aeey oiai /oiau iacia/aiea iiaeoia
eee iiia/eoaey ninoiyeinue, iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea iaeiiai ec
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii oneiaee:

1. Oo?aoa ?aaaieii ?iaeeoaeueneiai iiia/aiey eee iiia/aiey ni noi?iiu
eiuo eeoe, iaycaiiuo inouanoaeyoue aai ainieoaiea, a oaeaea
iaaeinoeaeaiea ?iaeeoaeai (?iaeeoaeyie) ?aaaiea oanoiaaeoeaoeeaoiaai
aic?anoa.

2. Anooieaiea a caeiiioth neeo ?aoaiey noaea i i?eciaiee a?aaeaeaieia
iaaeaaniiniaiui aneaaenoaea ineoe/aneiai ?anno?ienoaa (no. 29 AE ?O).

3. Anooieaiea a caeiiioth neeo ?aoaiey noaea ia ia?aie/aiee
aeaaniiniaiinoe a?aaeaeaieia aneaaenoaea ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie
iaieoeaie eee ia?eioe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie (no. 30 AE ?O).

Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aeiioneaao ii?aaeaeaiioth
aa?eaoeaiinoue i?e cae?aieaiee ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca inouanoaeaiea ooieoeee
ii iiaea e iiia/eoaeuenoao ca oai eee eiui ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii a
caaeneiinoe io ?aaeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae. Iaeiaei eiaaoaa ianoi
i?aaeaea, neiaeeaoaany a oa/aiea aeanyoeeaoee i?aaeiaoiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
oi?aaeai/aneeo iaycaiiinoae a noa?a iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa a oeaeii
nio?aieeinue. I?aaiaie iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa a ioiioaiee
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yaeythony i?aaiu
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe a noa?a ia?aciaaiey, a a ioiioaiee a?aaeaeai, a
ioiioaiee eioi?uo iiaea eee iiia/eoaeuenoai onoaiiaeaiu ii iaaeeoeeineei
oa?aeoa?enoeeai, – i?aaiu cae?aaiio?aiaiey e nioeeaeueiie caueou, oae
no. 35 AE ?O oeacuaaao, /oi i?e iiiauaiee a?aaeaeaieia a ea/aaiia,
ainieoaoaeueiia eee eiia aiaeiae/iia o/?aaeaeaiea iineaaeiaa yaeyaony
iiaeoiii (iiia/eoaeai) a?aaeaeaieia.

Iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiui niiniaii ono?ienoaa eeoe, ioaeaeathueony a ooiaea
eee ainieoaiee, yaeyaony i?iaeeaaiea a naiuea ?iaeiuo e aeeceeo. Noi?oa,
?iaeeoaee, aeaoe, aioee, eiua ?iaenoaaiieee (eae i?aaeei, aeeceea) ia
oieueei aacaiciacaeii inouanoaeytho ooiae ca a?aaeaeaieiii, a a
ioiioaiee ?aaaiea – ainieoaiea, ii e, /oi aieaa aaaeii, iiaeaea?aeeaatho
aai aeooiaii. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iauaiee – anoanoaaiiay iio?aaiinoue
ee/iinoe, e aa ?aaeecaoeey a iieiie ia?a aiciiaeia eeoue i?e i?iaeeaaiee
a naiuea, n oaie ethaeueie, eoi aeecie a neeo ?iaenoaa eee eiuo ee/iuo
ioiioaiee. E iai?ioea, caaioa i a?aaeaeaiao iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny oaie
eee eiuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie eee ioieoeeiaeueiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie
nioeeaeueiiai ianeoaeeaaiey. Iaeiei ec iaaeinoaoeia oaeie oi?iu io?aiu
i?aa e eioa?ania a?aaeaeai iaaeaaniiniaiuo eee ia iieiinoueth
aeaaniiniaiuo yaeyaony aa cao?aoiue oa?aeoa?. ?a/ue eaeao ia oieueei i
oii, /oi o/?aaeaeaiey nioeeaeueiiai ianeoaeeaaiey e aeaoneea
o/?aaeaeaiey o?aaotho oeiaine?iaaiey ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa. Aeaei e a
oii, /oi, e niaeaeaieth, ai iiiaeo neo/ayo iiiauaaiua a o/?aaeaeaiey
a?aaeaeaia iaycaiu aiciauaoue ?anoiaeu ia naia niaea?aeaiea. Oaeei
ia?acii, /eainoai a naiuea e ioiioaiey iiaee (iiia/eoaeuenoaa) iiaoo
niaiaaeaoue eee ia niaiaaeaoue. Iaeiaei niaiaaeaiea oaeeo i?aaiioiioaiee
ia nicaeaao niaoeeoeee a i?aaiauo iineaaenoaeyo.

Eiiiaoaioeey i?aaiia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa aeieaeia aeaoaeueii
ii?aaeaeyoueny a caeiiao noauaeoia ?O, iaeiaei iiiaea ioiinyueany e iae
aii?inu noi?ioee?iaaiu a ?aciuo ii?iao oaaea?aeueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, a nayce n /ai iiyaeythony ii?aaeae?iiua i?iaeaiu i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee eo iieiiii/ee.1 Niaeanii ioieoo 3 noaouee 36 AE ?O iiaeoiu
e iiia/eoaee anao iiaeiia/iuo (ca eneeth/aieai oao, eioi?ua ia?aie/aiu a
aeaaniiniaiinoe aneaaenoaea ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie iaieoeaie eee
ia?eioe/aneeie aauanoaaie) iaycaiu caueuaoue eo eioa?anu, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiatho i?aai e iaycaiu:

– iiaeaaaoue cayaeaiey i auieaoa i?e/eoathueony iiaeiia/iiio iiniaee,
iainee;

– iiaeaaaoue eneiaua cayaeaiey a noae i acuneaiee aeeiaioia n eeoe,
iaycaiiuo ii caeiio niaea?aeaoue iiaeiia/iiai;

– i?aaei?eieiaoue ia?u ii caueoa i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
iiaeiia/iiai(i?aaeuyaeyoue enee ia eno?aaiaaiee aai eiouanoaa ec /oaeiai
iacaeiiiiai aeaaeaiey, i i?eciaiee i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, i?eiaiyoue ia?u
naiicaueou e i?.);

– i?aaeuyaeyoue o?aaiaaiey i aiciauaiee a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai caei?iaueth
iiaeiia/iiai eee aai eiouanoao, i eiiiainaoeee ii?aeueiiai a?aaea,
i?e/eiaiiiai iiaeiia/iiio;

– ia?auaoueny a ea/aaiua, o/aaiua e eiua o/?aaeaeaiey n oeaeueth
iieo/aiey iiaeiia/iui iaaeeoeeineeo, ia?aciaaoaeueiuo e i?i/eo oneoa eae
ia aacaiciacaeiie, oae e ia aiciacaeiie iniiaa;

– caueuaoue aeeeeuiua i?aaa iiaeiia/iiai iooai iiaea/e eneia i aai
anaeaiee, i aunaeaiee eeoe, ia eiathueo i?aaa i?iaeeaaoue a aeeeii
iiiauaiee iiaeiia/iiai, iiaea/e cayaeaiey i i?aaeinoaaeaiee iiaeiia/iiio
aeeeiai iiiauaiey e i?.;

– ia?auaoueny n cayaeaieyie ei anai ae?oaei a?aaeaeaiai, i?aaiecaoeeyi,
i?aaiai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, aeieaeiinoiui
eeoeai a neo/ayo ia?ooaiey i?aa iiaeiia/iiai eee i?e oa?ica oaeiai
ia?ooaiey.

Iaeiaei anee enooeii a a?aaeaeaineii aeaea ieaaeaony iiaeiia/iue, a
ioaao/eeii aeeceee ?iaenoaaiiee iiia/eoaey, oi iiia/eoaeue aeieaeai
auoue iono?aiai io i?aaenoaaeaiey eioa?ania ia iieiinoueth
aeaaniiniaiiai eeoea (ii ia io iiia/eoaeuenoaa aiiaua). I?aai iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa aeieaeai iai?aaeoue eiia eeoei aeey o/anoey a aeaea ia
noi?iia iiaeiia/iiai, i?e/ai oaeiio eeoeo aeieaeia auoue auaeaia
aeiaa?aiiinoue, oaeinoiaa?ythuay aai iieiiii/ey ia aaaeaiea aeaea.

Oaeei ia?acii iiaeoiu e iiia/eoaee, aunooiay a ea/anoaa caeiiiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae niaeanii noaouea 37 AIE ?O niaa?oatho io eiaie
i?aaenoaaeyaiuo ana i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey, i?aai niaa?oaiey eioi?uo
i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?aaenoaaeyaiui, n ia?aie/aieyie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuie
caeiiii.

Aeey ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo noi?ii a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa,
iaeiaei, naeaeaii eneeth/aiea. Iie ai?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii o/anoaiaaoue a
iaeioi?uo aeaeao. Oae, a niioaaonoaee n ioieoii 2 noaouee 56 NE ?O i?e
ia?ooaiee i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania ?aaaiea, a oii /enea i?e
iaauiieiaiee eee i?e iaiaaeeaaeauai auiieiaiee ?iaeeoaeyie (iaeiei ec
ieo) iaycaiiinoae ii ainieoaieth, ia?aciaaieth ?aaaiea eeai i?e
ceioiio?aaeaiee ?iaeeoaeueneeie i?aaaie, ?aaaiie ai?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii
ia?auaoueny ca eo caueoie ii aeinoeaeaiee aic?anoa /aou?iaaeoeaoe eao a
noae.

Yoi icia/aao, /oi noauaeoeaiua i?aaa, naycaiiua n o/anoeai a
a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna, i?eiaaeeaaeao naiiio i?aaenoaaeyaiiio, a ia aai
caeiiiiio i?aaenoaaeoaeth. Oaeei ia?acii, cae?aieaiiua a AIE ?O i?aaa
(ciaeiieoueny n iaoa?eaeaie aeaea, aeaeaoue auienee ec ieo, nieiaoue
eiiee, cayaeyoue ioaiaeu, i?aaenoaaeyoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa, o/anoaiaaoue
a enneaaeiaaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa, caaeaaaoue aii?inu ae?oaei eeoeai,
o/anoaothuei a aeaea, naeaeaoaeyi e yenia?oai, cayaeyoue oiaeaoaenoaa,
aeaaaoue onoiua e ienueiaiiua iauyniaiey noaeo, i?aaenoaaeyoue naie
aeiaiaeu e niia?aaeaiey ii anai aicieeathuei a oiaea noaeaaiiai
?acae?aoaeuenoaa aii?inai, aic?aaeaoue i?ioea oiaeaoaenoa, aeiaiaeia e
niia?aaeaiee ae?oaeo eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea, iaaeaeiaaoue ?aoaiey e
ii?aaeaeaiey noaea e ae?oaea i?aaa) i?eiaaeeaaeao naiiio iiaeiia/iiio,
ii inouanoaeythony aai iiaeoiii eee iiia/eoaeai. A yoie nayce neaaeoao,
iai?eia?, aa?ii ii?aaeaeyoue enooea a eneiaii cayaeaiee a caueoo i?aa
iiaeiia/iiai.

Aoaeo/e iacia/aiiui a oaeii ea/anoaa, iiaeoi (iiia/eoaeue) iaycai
niaa?oaoue oaeea aeaenoaey e ai?aaa auae?aoue iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
aeaenoaeyie, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue eneeth/eoaeueii eioa?anaie naiaai
iiaeiia/iiai. Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo ooi/iaiea, eioi?ia
niaea?aeeony a no. 52 AIE ?O: caeiiiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue eiaao i?aai
niaa?oaoue ethaua aeaenoaey, ii n o/aoii ia?aie/aiee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii. Oioy oaeeo ia?aie/aiee a naiii i?ioeannoaeueiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia onoaiiaeaii, iie oai ia iaiaa auoaeatho ec
iieiaeaiee AE ?O i iieiiii/eyo iiaeoiia e iiia/eoaeae. Niaeanii noaouea
37 AE ?O aeaenoaey, iai?aaeaiiua ia io/oaeaeaiea, oiaiueoaiea eiouanoaa
iiaeiia/iiai, aeieaeiu niaa?oaoueny iiaeoiii (iiia/eoaeai) n
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey i?aaia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa. Ec yoiai
neaaeoao, /oi caeiiiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue iiaeiia/iiai a a?aaeaeaineii
i?ioeanna ia ai?aaa i?eciaaaoue ene, ioeacuaaoueny io enea e caeeth/aoue
ie?iaia niaeaoaiea, aeaeouaa oiaiueoaiea eiouanoaa iiaeiia/iiai, aac
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey oeacaiiiai i?aaia

Oaeie cai?ao iniiauaaaony ia oii, /oi ia?a/eneaiiua i?ioeannoaeueiua
aeaenoaey a nouiinoe i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeo ?aaeecaoeee noauaeoeaiiai
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa (i?aaa ia eiouanoai, ia aeeiaiou, ia acuneaiea
aeieaa e i?.). Iai?eia?, ioeac io enea aea/ao na?ueaciua iineaaenoaey, a
oii /enea iaaiciiaeiinoue iiaoi?iiai ia?auaiey a noae. ?acoeueoaoii
oaeeo i?ioeannoaeueiuo aeaenoaee aoaeao yaeyoueny iaiieo/aiea
iiaeiia/iui i?e/eoathuaainy aio eiouanoaa, /oi aeiionoeii oieueei n
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey i?aaia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa.1

Oaeei ia?acii iiaeoi eee iiia/eoaeue iiaoo inouanoaeyoue naith
aeayoaeueiinoue ia oieueei i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii iacia/aiee eo caeiiiuie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie o aeaiiiai eeoea i?e iaueo oneiaeyo(iai?eia?,
ionoonoaea ?iaeeoaeae,), ii e i?e, iai?eia?, ?ac?aoaiea aii?inia,
naycaiiuo n ainieoaiea aeaoae, o eioi?uo anoue caeiiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee,
ii a neeo iniaie cia/eiinoe aii?ina ?aaoee?iaaiey, eeai iaaeinoeaeaiey
niaeaney aai ?iaeeoaeae, yoe aii?inu ?aoathony noaeii, i?e /?i n
iaycaoaeueiui i?eaea/aieai i?aaenoaaeoaey i?aaia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa
ia iniiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiey noaea , eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?anu
?aa?iea. Oae a niioaaonoaee ni no. 3 Iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioia AN?O «I
i?eiaiaiee noaeaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?e ?ac?aoaiee nii?ia, naycaiiuo n
ainieoaieai aeaoae» – i?aai iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa iaycai i?iaanoe
ianeaaeiaaiea oneiaee aeecie ?aaaiea e eeoea (eeoe), i?aoaiaeothuaai ia
aai ainieoaiea, a oaeaea i?aaenoaaeoue noaeo aeo ianeaaeiaaiey e
iniiaaiiia ia iai caeeth/aiea ii nouanoao nii?a, iiaeeaaeauaa ioeaiea a
niaieoiiinoe ni anaie nia?aiiuie ii aeaeo aeieacaoaeuenoaaie.1

Iiieii oeacaiiuo i?aa, eeoei, o/anoaothuaa a aeaea, iaeaaeaao e
iaycaiiinoyie. Iaeiaei ana yoe iaycaiiinoe, i eioi?uo oiiieiaao AIE ?O,
iai?yioth auoaeatho ec nouiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. Iauaa e
iai?aeiaeiia i?aaeei i oii, /oi caeiiiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue nicaeaao i?aaa
e iaycaiiinoe ia aeey naay, a aeey naiaai i?aaenoaaeyaiiai, aeaenoaoao e
a ?aieao a?aaeaeainei-i?ioeannoaeueiuo i?aaiioiioaiee. Oaeei ia?acii,
iai?eia?, iaecaauaiea iiaeoiii noaea i ia?aiaia naiaai aae?ana a
eiia/iii n/aoa nicaeaao iineaaenoaey aeey i?aaenoaaeyaiiai, eai aeaei
iiaeao auoue noaeii ?anniio?aii a ionoonoaea aai i?aaenoaaeoaey (i?e
ionoonoaee oaeiai niiauaiey iiaanoea ionueaaony ii iineaaeiaio
ecaanoiiio noaeo aae?ano e n/eoaaony aeinoaaeaiiie, oioy au aae?anao ii
yoiio aae?ano aieaa ia i?iaeeaae, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaei iiaeao auoue
?anniio?aii a ionoonoaea oaeiai eeoea). A naith i/a?aaeue, ionoonoaea
i?aaenoaaeoaey ia iicaieeo caneooaoue iiyniaiey yoie noi?iiu,
?anniio?aoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa eee aic?aceoue i?ioea i?eiauaiey
eaeeo-eeai aeieacaoaeuenoa e aeaeo. A eiia/iii n/aoa yoi iiaeao iiaea/ue
auianaiea ?aoaiey ia a iieueco i?aaenoaaeyaiiai, /oi i?eioeeio
ninoycaoaeueiinoe a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ieneieueei ia
i?ioeai?a/eo.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaycaiiinoe, aiceaaaaiua ia iiaeoia (iiia/eoaey)
a?aaeaeaineei i?ioeannoaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, oae aea eae e i?aaa,
i?eiaaeeaaeao naiiio iiaeiia/iiio, iaeiaei inouanoaeythony io aai eiaie
aai caeiiiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai. Eiuie neiaaie, anee ii noaeaaiiio ?aoaieth
eee eiiio aeoo iiaeiia/iue eiio-eeai aeieaeai eee, iaiai?io, aio
aeieaeiu, oi inouanoaeyoue i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe iiaeiia/iiai,
aicieeathuea a i?ioeanna eniieiaiey noaeaaiiai aeoa, iaycai iiaeoi
(iiia/eoaeue).2

Iniiaaiey i?ae?auaiey iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa i?aaeoniio?aiu noaoueyie
39 e 40 AE ?O. Ana iniiaaiey iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu.

1. “aaoiiaoe/aneia” i?ae?auaiey, naycaiiia n i?eia?aoaieai iiaeiia/iui
a?aaeaeaineie aeaaniiniaiinoe a iaiaoiaeeiii iauaia, i?e yoii ia
o?aaoaony ecaeaiey niaoeeaeueiiai aeoa, aiaeiae/iiai aeoo i iacia/aiee.
Ioiioaiey i?ae?auathony naie niaie, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony aeieoiaioaie,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothueie i iiyaeaiee o a?aaeaeaieia aeaaniiniaiinoe.

1) Aeinoeaeaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoieie iiaeiia/iuie niioaaonoaothuaai
aic?anoa.

2) E?iia oiai, a?aaeaeaineay aeaaniiniaiinoue a iieiii iauaia ianooiaao
a niioaaonoaee ni no. 21 AE ?O i?e anooieaiee ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai
a?aaeaeaieia a a?ae.

3) Yiaineiaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iauyaeaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai
iieiinoueth aeaaniiniaiui a nayce n oai, /oi yoio a?aaeaeaiei “?aaioaao
ii o?oaeiaiio aeiaiai?o, a oii /enea ii eiio?aeoo, eee n niaeaney
?iaeeoaeae, onuiiaeoaeae eee iiia/eoaey caieiaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth” (no. 27 AE ?O). I?e yoii ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaio aeieaeii
eniieieoueny ia iaiaa 16 eao.

4) E iaeiiaoe, aua iaeia neooaoeey, a eioi?ie i?ae?auaaony iiaea iaae
?aaaieii. Anee iiaeoi aue iacia/ai ?aaaieo ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae
(no. 62 NE ?O), oi aeinoeaeaiea oaeei ?iaeeoaeai 18 eao, a ?aaii aai
yiaineiaoeey eee anooieaiea a a?ae aei 16 eao i?ae?auatho iieiiii/ey
iiaeoia iaae ?aaaieii. A aeaiiii neo/aa nai ?iaeeoaeue iaiin?aaenoaaiii
i?eia?aoaao iieioth a?aaeaeaineoth aeaaniiniaiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ai?aaa niaa?oaoue iaiaoiaeeiua th?eaee/aneea aeaenoaey io naiaai eiaie e
io eiaie naiaai ?aaaiea.

5) Ainnoaiiaeaiea aeaaniiniaiinoe eeoea.

Aeey oiai /oiau eeoei, i?eciaiiia iaaeaaniiniaiui aneaaenoaea
ineoe/aneiai ?anno?ienoaa eee /anoe/ii aeaaniiniaiui ceioiio?aaeaiey
nie?oiuie iaieoeaie e ia?eioe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie, i?eia?aei
a?aaeaeaineoth aeaaniiniaiinoue a iieiii iauaia, iaiaoiaeeii
niioaaonoaothuaa ?aoaiea noaea (i. 3 no. 29 AE ?O). Iiiaioii i?ae?auaiey
iiaee aoaeao a aeaiiii neo/aa aeaiue anooieaiey ?aoaiey noaea a
caeiiioth neeo.

Aoi?ay a?oiia iniiaaiee i?ae?auaiey iiaee (iiia/eoaeuenoaa)
iauaaeeiyaony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iauei oa?ieiii – inaiaiaeaeaiea
iiaeoia (iiia/eoaey) io eniieiaiey iaycaiiinoae a nayce n ?acee/iuie
aicieeoeie i?e/eiaie. Inaiaiaeaeaiea io auiieiaiey iaycaiiinoae aeieaeii
ioi?ieyoueny n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai iinoaiiaeaiey.1

Eoae, iiaea (iiia/eoaeuenoai) a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie i?aaiecaoeeth e oi?io caueou i?aa e eioa?ania iaaeaaniiniaiuo eee
ia iieiinoueth aeaaniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai, iooai aunooieaiey a i?ioeanna a
ea/anoaa caeiiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iineaaeieo. Iniiaaieai aicieeiiaaiey
iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa iaae oai eee eiuo eeoeii yaeyaony
niioaaonoaothuee aeo noaea eee oiieiiii/aiiiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaia
i iacia/aiee iiaee (iiia/eoaeuenoaa), iniiaaiiue ia ii?aaeae?iiuo
oneiaeyo, iai?eia?, oo?aoa ?aaaieii ?iaeeoaeueneiai iiia/aiey,
anooieaiea a caeiiioth neeo ?aoaiey noaea i i?eciaiee a?aaeaeaieia
iaaeaaniiniaiui aneaaenoaea ineoe/aneiai ?anno?ienoaa, ia ia?aie/aiee
aeaaniiniaiinoe a?aaeaeaieia aneaaenoaea ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie
iaieoeaie eee ia?eioe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie. Iiaeoiu (iiia/eoaee)
inouanoaeytho io eiaie i?aaenoaaeyaiuo ana i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey, n
ia?aie/aieyie i?aaeoniio?aiiuie caeiiii, iai?eia? ioieoii 2 noaouee 56
NE ?O. Inouanoaeaiea i?aa e iaycaiiinoae iiaeiia/iiai, aicieeathueo a
i?ioeanna eniieiaiey noaeaaiiai aeoa, iaycai iiaeoi (iiia/eoaeue).
Auaeaeytho c a?oiiu Iniiaaiee i?ae?auaiey iiaee(iiia/eoaeuenoaa): 1.
«aaoiiaoe/aneia i?ae?auaiea»: aeinoeaeaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei
ii?aaeae?iiiai aic?anoa, yiaineiaoeey, anooieaiea a a?ae e ae?. 2.
inaiaiaeaeaiea io eniieiaiey iaycaiiinoae: i?e iaee/ee oaaaeeoaeueiuo
i?e/ei, aica?ao ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai aai ?iaeeoaeyi, eeai aai
onuiiaeaiea, iiiauaiea iiaeiia/iiai a ainieoaoaeueiia, ea/aaiia
o/?aaeaeaiea e ae?. 3. iono?aiaiea i?e: eniieueciaaiee iiaeoiii
(iiia/eoaeai) iieiiii/ee a ei?unoiuo oeaeyo, inoaaeaiea iiaeiia/iiai aac
iaaeci?a e iaiaoiaeeiie iiiiue e ae?.

Caeeth/aiea

I?iaiaeece?iaaa eioa?anothuea ian aii?inu, iu iinoa?aeenue aeaoue aeaoue
ia ieo iaeaieaa iieiua e ?acaa?iooua ioaaou, ec eioi?uo oaea naeaeaoue
/?oeea no?oeoo?e?iaaiiua auaiaeu, eanathueany iniiaiuo iiiaioia eco/aiey
oiai eee eiiai aii?ina. Oaeei ia?acii, einoeooo caeiiiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna yoi iaiouaieaiay /anoue
i?aaa aac eioi?ie ia aiciiaeii auei au inouanoaeyoue caeiiiua i?aaa,
iaycaiiinoe e eioa?anu ioaeaeueiui eaoaai?eyi a?aaeaeai a neeo naiae
aeaaniiniaiinoe eee /anoe/iie aeaaniiniaiinoe, a neeo /aai iie naie ia
iiaoo eca?aoue naaa caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey e iiyoiio aai ii?aaeaeyao
caeii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai – yoi
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai, eioi?ia iniiaaii ia i?yiii oeacaiee caeiia i?e
iaee/ee ii?aaeae?iiiai oaeoe/aneiai ninoaaa. Nouanoaotho neaaeothuea
iniiaiua aeaeu caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa:

1) I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ?iaeeoaeyie. ?iaeeoaee i?eia?aoatho i?aai
i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?anu aeaoae a neeo ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea. Iie
i?aaenoaaeytho aeaoae i?e ?aaeecaoeee anaai eiiieaena i?aa aeaoae. A
iniiaa oaeiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa eaaeeo e?iaiia ?iaenoai. Aeieoiaioaie
oaeinoiaa?ythueie i?aai ?iaeeoaeae ia i?aaenoaaeaiea aeaoae yaeythony
ianii?o, a oaeaea naeaeaoaeuenoai i ?iaeaeaiee i?aaenoaaeyaiiai ?aaaiea.
Auaeaeytho oaeaea oaeie aeae i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, eae
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai i?e?iiuie ?iaeeoaeyie, yoio aeae aicieeaao ia
iniiaaiee aeiaiai?a i ia?aaea/a ?aaaiea (aeaoae) ia ainieoaiea a
naiueth, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony iaaeaeo i?aaiii iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa e
i?eaiiuie ?iaeeoaeyie (noi?oaaie eee ioaeaeueiuie a?aaeaeaiaie,
aeaeathueie acyoue aeaoae ia ainieoaiea a naiueth) (/.1 no. 151 NE?O).
I?aaiaie noaoon i?eaiiiai ?iaeeoaey oiaeaeanoaai i?aaiaiio noaoono
iiaeoia (iiia/eoaey), a n?aaiaiee aea n i?aaiaui iieiaeaieai ?iaeeoaey
(onuiiaeoaey) aeaiiia ooaa?aeaeaiea ni?aaaaeeeai, ii eeoue io/anoe,
iineieueeo eiatho ianoi e oaeea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, eioi?ua
eiaeeaeaeoaeece?otho i?aaiaie noaoon ?iaeeoaey-ainieoaoaey. Oae,
i?eaiiua ?iaeeoaee ia ai?aaa eciaieoue oaieeeth, eiy, io/anoai naiaai
ainieoaiieea. Iie ia naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie aeeiaioiuie e
ianeaaenoaaiiuie i?aaiioiioaieyie;

2) I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai onuiiaeoaeyie. Iniiaaieai oaeiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa yaeyaony oaeo auianaiey noaeii ?aoaiey ia
onuiiaeaiee e anooieaiey aai a caeiiioth neeo, a oaeaea iethn
naeaeaoaeuenoai i ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee aeoa onuiiaeaiey e
naeaeaoaeuenoai i ?iaeaeaiee i?aaenoaaeyaiiai ?aaaiea. I?ae?auaaony
aeaiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai aeia?iaieueii eeai i?eioaeeoaeueii.
Aeia?iaieueii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai i?ae?auaaony a nayce ni nia?oueth
eeoea, caiaiythuaai ?iaeeoaeae, eeai ?aaaiea, a oaeaea aeinoeaeaiey
ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiii aic?anoa, oi anoue 18 eao, a
neo/aa yiaineiaoeee e ae?oaea iniiaaiey. I i?eioaeeoaeueiii i?ae?auaiee
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ioiaia onuiiaeaiey a niioaaonoaee
ni no. 140-144 NE?O;

3) I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai iiaeoiaie e iiia/eoaeyie. iniiaaieai
aicieeiiaaiey aeaiiiai aeaea i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa yaeyaony
niioaaonoaothuee aeo noaea eee oiieiiii/aiiiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaia
i iacia/aiee iiaee (iiia/eoaeuenoaa), iniiaaiiue ia ii?aaeae?iiuo
oneiaeyo, iai?eia?, oo?aoa ?aaaieii ?iaeeoaeueneiai iiia/aiey,
anooieaiea a caeiiioth neeo ?aoaiey noaea i i?eciaiee a?aaeaeaieia
iaaeaaniiniaiui aneaaenoaea ineoe/aneiai ?anno?ienoaa, ia ia?aie/aiee
aeaaniiniaiinoe a?aaeaeaieia aneaaenoaea ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie
iaieoeaie eee ia?eioe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie., auaeaeytho c a?oiiu Iniiaaiee
i?ae?auaiey iiaee(iiia/eoaeuenoaa): 1. «aaoiiaoe/aneia i?ae?auaiea»:
aeinoeaeaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei ii?aaeae?iiiai aic?anoa, yiaineiaoeey, e
ae?.; 2. inaiaiaeaeaiea io eniieiaiey iaycaiiinoae: i?e iaee/ee
oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?e/ei, aica?ao ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai aai ?iaeeoaeyi, aai
onuiiaeaiee, iiiauaiea iiaeiia/iiai a ainieoaoaeueiia, ea/aaiia
o/?aaeaeaiea e ae?.; 3. iono?aiaiea i?e: eniieueciaaiee iiaeoiii
(iiia/eoaeai) iieiiii/ee a ei?unoiuo oeaeyo e ae?. Caeiiiua
i?aaenoaaeoaee inouanoaeytho io eiaie i?aaenoaaeyaiuo ana
i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey, n ia?aie/aieyie i?aaeoniio?aiiuie caeiiii,
iai?eia? ioieoii 2 noaouee 56 NE ?O. Inouanoaeaiea i?aa e iaycaiiinoae
i?aaenoaaeyaiuo, aicieeathueo a i?ioeanna eniieiaiey noaeaaiiai aeoa,
iaycai caeiiiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

I. Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua aeou

1. Aeaeea?aoeey “I nioeeaeueiuo e i?aaiauo i?eioeeiao, eanathueony
caueou e aeaaiiieo/ey aeaoae, iniaaiii i?e ia?aaea/a aeaoae ia
ainieoaiea e eo onuiiaeaiee ia iaoeeiiaeueiii e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
o?iaiyo” (i?eiyoa 03.12.1986 ?aciethoeeae 41/95 Aaia?aeueiie Annaiaeae
III), Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?O, naioya?ue, 2007

2. A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeannoaeueiue eiaeaen ?O (?aae. io 24.07.2007) OC io
14 iiya?y 2002 aiaea N 138-OC, Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?O, naioya?ue, 2007

3. OC «Ia iniiaiuo aa?aioeyo i?aa ?aa?iea» (?aae. io 20.07.2000) OC io
24 ethey 1998 aiaea N 124-OC, Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?O, naioya?ue, 2007

4. Naiaeiue eiaeaen ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (?aae. io 21.07.2007) OC io
29 aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea N 223-OC, Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?O, naioya?ue, 2007

II Niaoeeaeueiay eeoa?aoo?a

1. No?eiaa O.A. *a?ieeiaa I.N. Eiiiaioa?ee e a?aaeaeaineiio
i?ioeannoaeueiiio eiaeaeno, I.: Iiaaa-E, 2007

2. O?aooieeia I.E. A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann: O/aaiee,I.: III “Ai?iaeaoe”,
2003

3. ss?eia A.A. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai: o/aaiee aeey nooaeaioia aocia,
iao/athueony ii iai?aaeaieth 521400 “TH?eni?oaeaioeey” e ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 021100 “TH?eni?oaeaioeey”, I.: Aieoa?nEeoaa?, 2006a.

II Noaeaaiay i?aeoeea

1. Iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioia AN?O «I i?eiaiaiee noaeaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
i?e ?ac?aoaiee nii?ia, naycaiiuo n ainieoaieai aeaoae» io 27 iay 1998 a.
N 10, Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?O, naioya?ue, 2007a

IV Ia?eiaee/aneea ia/aoiua ecaeaiey.

1. Aa?aiia A.I. Caeiiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai: i?iaeaiu oai?ee e
i?aeoeee, “Naiaeiia e aeeeeuiia i?aai”, ?1, 2008

2. Aaoiaa I.N. Iooe ono?aiaiey i?ioeai?a/ee a?aaeaeaineiai
i?ioeannoaeueiiai e naiaeiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?e ?anniio?aiee
nii?ia, naycaiiuo n ainieoaiea aeaoae, AEo?iae ?inneeneiai i?aaa, ?7,
2006

3. Aaoiaa I.N. Iniaaiiinoe i?ioeannoaeueiiai iieiaeaiey
ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai ii aeaeai, naycaiiui n ainieoaieai aeaoae, AEo?iae
?inneeneiai i?aaa, ?3, 2005a.

4. Aaniaeia TH.O. Inouanoaeaiea naiaeiuo i?aa /a?ac i?aaenoaaeoaey,
Iioa?eon, ?3, 2005a.

5. Aaee/eiaa I.E. I?iaeaiu caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo , Oeeaeeeno, ?3, 2007a.

6. Aieoiae/ E. I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaey a a?aaeaeaineii
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, A?aeo?aaeiue e a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann, ?5, 2006

7. Aaeooeia E.I. Iiiyoea i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e iin?aaeie/anoaa a
a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa: n?aaieoaeueii-i?aaiaie aniaeo, AEo?iae ?inneeneiai
i?aaa, ?2, 2006.

8. A?oia A.A. Iiaea e iiia/eoaeuenoaa: TH?eaee/aneee noaoon e caueoa
i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania aeaoae, eeo?iiuo ?iaeeoaeueneie iiaee,
iaaeaaniiniaiuo e ia?aie/aiii aeaaniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai, A?inniaaeea
?INAOO, 2008a.

9. Eociaoeiaa E.I., Ieoaaaa E.TH. Nouiinoue iiaee (iiia/eoaeuenoaa) eae
oi?iu ono?ienoaa oece/aneeo eeoe, I?aai e iieeoeea, ?4, 2001a.

10. Ieoaaaa E. TH. Iauea iieiaeaiey ia iiaea e iiia/eoaeuenoaa, I?aai e
iieeoeea, ?3, 2002

11. Iinaiei E.E. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou caueou eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo a?aaeaeai a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea, Nioeeaeueiia e
naiaeiia i?aai, ?5, 2005

12. Inieeia A. Iiiyoea, iniiaaiey e aeaeu caeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa,
?inneeneay thnoeoeey, ?1, 1998a.

13. Ia?ai?eeeia I.A. *anoiii?aaiua aniaeou i?aaiaiai noaoona
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, Aeeethoaiue iioa?eaeueiie i?aeoeee, ?6, 2007a.

14. Oaoeniaa I.A. I?aaiaie noaoon i?e?iiuo ?iaeeoaeae, I?aai e iieeoeea,
?3, 2005

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