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Понятие и сущность брака

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IEAI

No?.Aaaaeaiea31. Ii?aaeaeaiea a?aea42. TH?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea a?aea53.
A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie oa?aeoa? a?aea124. I?eciaee a?aea155. Oaeoe/aneee
a?ae196. Iineaaenoaey oaeoe/aneiai
a?aea23Caeeth/aiea24Eeoa?aoo?a27Aaaaeaiea.

I?ioanneiiaeeci th?enoa caeeth/aaony a aai ciaiee e oiaiee
i?eaioe?iaaoueny a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo i?aaa. Naiaeiia i?aai caieiaao
iaeii ec aaaeoueo ianoi n?aaee inoaeueiuo io?aneae i?aaa, oae eae naiuey
iaiaoiaeeia eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo. Iia ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
iauanoaa, aai i?aanoaaiiia caei?iauea e yaeyaony iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia
iiauoaiey nioeeaeueiie aeoeaiinoe ethaeae.

Eiaiii a naiuea oi?ie?othony iniiau oa?aeoa?a /aeiaaea, aai ioiioaiea e
o?oaeo, ii?aeueiui, eaeaeiui e eoeueoo?iui oeaiiinoyi. Aio ii/aio
aeaiie?aoe/aneia iauanoai caeioa?aniaaii a i?i/iie, aeooiaiie e
i?aanoaaiii caei?iaie naiuea. E?aieay naiuey – yoi cia/eo e?aieia
iauanoai.

Iiae a?aeii iiieiaaony naiaeiue nithc ioae/eiu e aeaiueiu ii?iaeaeathuee
eo i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao e aeaoyi.

?iaeeoaee iaycaiu niaea?aeaoue aeaoae aei eo niaa?oaiiieaoey.
Niaa?oaiiieaoiea aeaoe iaycaiu caaioeoueny i naieo iao?oaeiniiniaiuo
?iaeeoaeyo.

Naiuey, aeaonoai, iaoa?einoai e iooeianoai io?aiythony ainoaea?noaii.

I?eiyou iiiaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou, yaeythueany naeaeaoaeuenoaii
caaiou ainoaea?noaa i naiuea.

1. Ii?aaeaeaiea a?aea.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aeaao ii?aaeaeaiey a?aea, eniieuecoy
yoio oa?iei eae iauaecaanoiue. A th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a neiaeeeenue
?acee/iua ii?aaeaeaiey a?aea. I?eaaaeai iaeii ec ieo, i?aaeeiaeaiiia A.
E. Iaoaaaaui: “A?ae anoue naiaiaeiue, ?aaiii?aaiue e a i?eioeeia
iiaeeciaiiue nithc aeaiueiu e ioae/eiu, caeeth/aiiue n niaethaeaieai
ii?yaeea e oneiaee, onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii, ia?acothuee naiueth e
ii?iaeaeathuee iaaeaeo noi?oaaie acaeiiua ee/iua e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe”. Iaoaaaa A. E. Niaaoneia naiaeiia i?aai. I., 1985. N. 45.

A aeaiiii ii?aaeaeaiee, eae e a aieueoeinoaa ae?oaeo, a?ae iiieiaaony
eae iniaue einoeooo naiaeiiai i?aaa. Iainiiauaay io?aneaaoth
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue naiaeiiai i?aaa, aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia n/eoaee, /oi a
iiiyoee a?aea eeth/aaui neiaii aunooiaao “nithc”, iiae/a?eeaathuee
ianiaianoeiinoue e ianaiaeeiinoue a?aea e a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui
naeaeeai. Iiieiaiea a?aea eae nithca ia ioiineony e aeinoeaeaieyi
niaaoneie th?eaee/aneie iunee. ?onneay aei?aaiethoeeiiiay oeeaeeenoeea,
?ane?uaay iiiyoea a?aea, oaeaea ii?aaeaeyea aai eae “nithc ioae/eiu e
aeaiueiu n oeaeueth niaeeoaeuenoaa, iniiaaiiue ia acaeiiii niaeaoaiee e
caeeth/aiiue a onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia”2, ia io?eoeay i?e yoii
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaoth i?e?iaeo a?a/iuo ioiioaiee.

2.TH?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea a?aea.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei i?aaiauo oai?ee, iauyniythueo th?eaee/aneoth
i?e?iaeo a?aea. A iaeaieaa iauai aeaea eo iiaeii naanoe e iiieiaieth
a?aea eae aeiaiai?a, eae oaeinoaa e eae einoeoooa iniaiai ?iaea. Oai?ey
a?aea eae aeiaiai?a aa?ao naia ia/aei a Ae?aaiai ?eia. A ?eineii i?aaa
eeanne/aneiai ia?eiaea ana iniiaiua oi?iu anooieaiey a a?ae iineee ia
naaa i?eciae i?inoie a?aaeaeaineie naeaeee. Aeaiiue iiaeoiae aue
i?aaeaea anaai naycai n oai, /oi i?aaiaiio ?aaoee?iaaieth a ?eia
iiaeaa?aaeanue oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiay noa?a a?a/iuo ioiioaiee, eo
oeeaeeenoe/aneay noi?iia, eo i?aanoaaiiay e nae?aeueiay (i?eiauaiea e
naiaeiiio eoeueoo) iaeanoe niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeai inoaaaeenue ca
?aieaie i?aaa.

A aeaeueiaeoai eaiiie/aneea ii?iu i?eaeatho einoeoooo a?aea oa?aeoa?
ienoe/aneiai oaeinoaa, iiae/a?eeaay aai aeooiaioth noi?iio. Eeanne/aneei
eaiiie/aneei iiiyoeai a?aea noaiiaeony i?aaenoaaeaiea i iai, eae i
“naiii iieiii (oece/aneii, i?aanoaaiiii, yeiiiie/aneii, th?eaee/aneii,
?aeeaeiciii) iauaiee iaaeaeo ioaeai e aeaiie”. Caai?ianeee E.A. Eo?n
naiaeiiai i?aaa. — Iaeanna, 1902. — N. 5. 109 Oaeei ia?acii, a i?aeoo
i?aaa iiiaaeatho ia oieueei i?aaiaua, ii e yoe/aneea, ?aeeaeiciua e a
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie oece/aneea yeaiaiou a?aea. A oio ia?eiae, eiaaea
naiaeiua ioiioaiey ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue ?aeeaeiciuie i?aaeeaie, yoio
iiaeoiae aue aiieia ii?aaaeai, ii n caiaiie eaiiie/aneeo ii?i naaoneeie
onoaiiaeaieyie ii ecaeeaaao naay. Naaoneia i?aai, a ioee/ea io ?aeeaee,
ia ?aaoee?oao e ia iiaeao ?aaoee?iaaoue ioiioaiey, i?eiaaeeaaeauea
aeooiaiie, yoe/aneie noa?a.

A a?aea iiaeii oneiaii auaeaeeoue ?aciua a?oiiu ioiioaiee: aeooiaiua,
oece/aneea e iaoa?eaeueiua. Aeooiaiua e oece/aneea yeaiaiou a?aea,
aaconeiaii, ia iiaoo ?aaoee?iaaoueny i?aaii, e n yoei niaeaoathony
i?aeoe/anee ana nia?aiaiiua e aei?aaiethoeeiiiua o/aiua. Iaeiaei oaeia
?acaeaeaiea ioiioaiee, ninoaaeythueo a?a/iue nithc, iieo/eei i?eciaiea
ia n?aco. Enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeaiee i a?aea i?ienoiaeeei
oaeei ia?acii, /oi ia ianoi ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i a?aea, a
eiiaaea e aianoa n iei anoaee yoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey. Iiiyoea a?aea a
yoie eiioeaioeee auaiaeeony ia ec inayuaiey aai oea?eiaueth (eee ia
oieueei ec iaai), ii ec niioaaonoaey a?a/iiai nithca i?aanoaaiiie
i?e?iaea /aeiaaea. A?ae ?anniao?eaaaony i?e yoii oaea ia eae oaeinoai,
ii e ia eae aeiaiai?, a eae einoeooo iniaiai ?iaea. I?aai aeieaeii auei
noiyoue ia no?aaea yoiai onoaiiaeaiey, i?e yoii a?ae iiyoue iiiaaeae a
noa?o aeaenoaey i?aaa oeaeeeii, ai anai iiiaiia?acee ninoaaeythueo aai
ioiioaiee.

Oaeia iiieiaiea a?aea iu ano?a/aai o E. Eaioa a “Iaoaoeceea i?aaia”.
Eaio n/eoaao, /oi oieueei oaeia niaaeeiaiea, aaea iaa eeoea iaeaaeatho
ae?oa ae?oaii, nio?aiyao eo i?aanoaaiioth naiaiaeo e aeinoieinoai. Eaio
i?eaea?aeeaaeny oi/ee c?aiey, /oi eiioeaioeey aeiaiai?a ia i?eiaieia e
a?aeo. Aeiaiai?, ii aai iiaieth, ia iiaeao ii?iaeaeaoue a?ae, iineieueeo
aeiaiai? anaaaea eiaao a aeaeo ia/oi a?aiaiiia, eaeoth-eeai oeaeue, n
aeinoeaeaieai eioi?ie ii naay en/a?iuaaao, a a?ae ioaaouaaao anth
/aeiaa/aneoth aeeciue e i?ae?auaaony iaaeinoeaeaieai ii?aaeaeaiiie
oeaee, a oieueei nia?oueth ethaeae, ninoiyaoeo a a?a/iii iauaiee.
Iaaeinoaoeii yoie oai?ee yaeyaony ia?aianaiea yoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i
a?aea a iaeanoue i?aaa. I?aai, aaconeiaii, aeieaeii no?ieoueny a
niioaaonoaee n yoe/aneeie i?aaenoaaeaieyie naiae yiioe. Ii i?aai ia
iiaeao iieiinoueth aeeth/aoue a naay yoe/aneea ii?iu. E?iia oiai,
a?a/iua ioiioaiey ianoieueei oanii naycaiu n aeoaeiiuie iniiaaie
/aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey, /oi iaeaeoay iiiuoea i?aaa aoi?aiooueny a
eioeiiua eee aeooiaiua acaeiiioiioaiey noi?oaia iiaeao i?eaanoe e
iinyaaoaeuenoao ia /aeiaa/aneoth ee/iinoue e aa aaaeiaeoea i?aaa.

A nia?aiaiiii ieth?aeenoe/aneii iauanoaa iaaiciiaeii iaaycuaaiea anai
aai /eaiai aaeeiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i a?aea. Iiyoiio i?aai, iniiauaaynue
ia i?aanoaaiiuo ii?iao, aeieaeii ioaaouaaoue eeoue oo noa?o a?a/iuo
ioiioaiee, eioi?ay, ai-ia?auo, iiaeaeaaony i?aaiaiio ?aaoee?iaaieth, a
ai-aoi?uo, ioaeaeaaony a iai. Iinoaiaiii iniciaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeiai
?acaeaeaiey ana aea i?iaeaaao naaa aei?iao. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei
aic?iaeaeaaony eioa?an e eiioeaioeee a?aea eae aeiaiai?a. “Niaeanii n
aicc?aieyie, neiaeeaoeieny ai O?aioeee, — ieoao ii yoiio iiaiaeo E.Ae.
Eaaaeei, — a?ae ii naiae aeooiaiie noi?iia anoue oaeinoai e eae oaeinoai
iiaeeaaeeo aaaeaieth oea?eae, ii eae naaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea, auoaeathuaa
ec eiio?aeoa e ia iai iniiaaiiia, a?ae anoue a?aaeaeaineee einoeooo”.
Aeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea, ia iao acaeyae, niioaaonoaoao e nia?aiaiiie
neooaoeee. A oie /anoe, a eioi?ie a?a/iua ioiioaiey ?aaoee?othony
i?aaii, — yoi a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua ioiioaiey. A ae?oaie naiae /anoe,
eioi?ay eaaeeo a ?aeeaeicii-yoe/aneie eee i?inoi yoe/aneie noa?a, a?ae
iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae oaeinoai, eae ienoe/aneee nithc, eae nithc,
i?aaeiieaaathuee iaeaieaa iieiia iauaiea, eee aeaaea eae n?aaenoai
aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo auaiae — ana yoi eaaeeo ca a?aieoeaie i?aaa.

Yoe/aneay ioeaiea naiaai a?aea — noaoai ee/iia aeaei eaaeaeie
noi?oaeaneie ia?u, iia caaeneo eneeth/eoaeueii io eo ?aeeaeiciuo,
oeeinioneeo e yoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee. Iaaycuaaiea oaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiee
ecaia anoue ia /oi eiia, eae iinyaaoaeuenoai ia naiaiaeo ie?iaicc?aiey
ee/iinoe. Eaoieee iiaeao n/eoaoue naie a?ae ia?anoi?aeeiui e, aeaaea
iieo/ea ?acaiae a naaoneii o/?aaeaeaiee, ia aeiioneaoue aeey naay
aiciiaeiinoe anooieaiey a iiaue a?ae. Noi?oae, caeeth/eaoea a?ae ec
/enoi iaoa?eaeueiuo iiaoaeaeaiee, iiaoo n/eoaoue, /oi ana eo i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe auoaeatho ec caeeth/aiiie eie naeaeee, e ainoaea?noai
i?eciaao oaeie a?ae aeaenoaeoaeueiui, iineieueeo iioeau caeeth/aiey
a?aea ia eiatho i?aaiaiai cia/aiey. Ana yoi iaaac?acee/ii aeey ?aeeaee e
ii?aee, ii e oi e ae?oaia iiaeao auoue o ?aciuo ethaeae ?aciui, e
i?eciaiea yoiai oaeoa yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo aa?aioee
/aeiaa/aneie naiaiaeu.

Eiioeaioeey a?aea eae einoeoooa iniaiai ?iaea auea aanueia iiioey?ia e a
i?ioeii. Aa noi?iiieee i?eciatho iaee/ea a a?a/iii i?aaiioiioaiee oao
eee eiuo aeiaiai?iuo yeaiaioia, ii ioeacuaathony ?anniao?eaaoue aai eae
aeiaiai?iia. E.A. Caai?ianeie, iai?eia?, oeacuaaao, /oi oioy a?ae “a
i?ienoiaeaeaiee naiai caeeth/aao yeaiaiou aeiaiai?iiai niaeaoaiey, ii a
niaea?aeaiee naiai e a i?ae?auaiee aeaeae io i?e?iaeu aeiaiai?a; eae
niaea?aeaiea a?aea, oae e aai ?anoi?aeaiea ia caaenyo io i?iecaiea
noi?oaia. Iiyoiio a?a/iue einoeooo aa?iaa i?e/eneeoue ia e iaeanoe
aeiaiai?iiai i?aaa, a e ?ac?yaeo einoeoooia iniaiai ?iaea”. Caai?ianeee
E.A. Oeac. ni/. — N. 5. A.O. Oa?oaiaae/ n/eoae, /oi iniiaaieai
aicieeiiaaiey e a?aea, e a?aaeaeaineiai iaycaoaeuenoaa yaeyaony
aeiaiai?, ii a?a/iia i?aaiioiioaiea, ii aai iiaieth, ia yaeyaony
a?aaeaeaineei iaycaoaeuenoaii. Ioee/ey a?aea io iaycaoaeuenoaa ii aeaeeo
a oii aea, /oi e E. Eaio: “Eiaaea aeiaiai? iai?aaeai ia eniieiaiea
iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo aeaenoaee, oi iineaaenoaeai aai aoaeao
iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia ioiioaiea. A?a/iia aea niaeeoaeuenoai ia eiaao a
aeaeo ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaenoaee, ii iauaiea ia anth aeeciue, iii eiaao, ii
eaeaa, i?aanoaaiiia, a ia yeiiiie/aneia niaea?aeaiea”. Oa?oaiaae/ A.O.
Oeac. ni/. — N. 160. Oaeei ia?acii, A.O. Oa?oaiaae/ i?eciaao
th?eaee/aneee oaeo, ii?iaeaeathuee a?a/iia i?aaiioiioaiea, aeiaiai?ii,
ioiioaiea aea, aicieeathuaa ia aai iniiaa, ii oiaea ioiineo e einoeoooai
iniaiai ?iaea.

I?aeoe/anee ana nia?aiaiiua o/aiua a iaoae no?aia ioeacuaathony
i?eciaaaoue niaeaoaiea i caeeth/aiee a?aea a?aaeaeaineei aeiaiai?ii.
Iniiaiua eo aeiaiaeu iiaeii naanoe e neaaeothuaio: ai-ia?auo, iie
oeacuaatho, /oi oeaeueth caeeth/aiey a?aea yaeyaony ia oieueei
aicieeiiaaiea a?a/iiai i?aaiioiioaiey, ii oaeaea e nicaeaiea nithca,
iniiaaiiiai ia ethaae, oaaaeaiee e o. ae. Aoi?ui aeiaiaeii yaeyaony
oeacaiea ia oi, /oi, anooiay a a?ae, aoaeouea noi?oae ia iiaoo
ii?aaeaeyoue aeey naay niaea?aeaiea a?a/iiai i?aaiioiioaiey, eo i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe ii?aaeaeaiu eiia?aoeaiuie ii?iaie caeiia, /oi iaoeie/ii aeey
aeiaiai?iuo i?aaiioiioaiee.

Iai?eia?, I. N. Eiooa ioia/ae, /oi a?ae aicieeaao ia iniiaaiee
th?eaee/aneiai aeoa, niaa?oaiiiai n iaia?aieai ii?iaeeoue i?aaiaua
iineaaenoaey. A yoii i?iyaeyaony noiaenoai a?aea n a?aaeaeaineie
naeaeeie. Ii oai ia iaiaa nioeeaeueiia niaea?aeaiea e i?aaiaua
iniaaiiinoe a?aea a nioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa, ii aai iiaieth,
eneeth/aee eaaeeoeeaoeeth a?aea a ea/anoaa iaeiie ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo naeaeie. Naeaeea eiaao naiae th?eaee/aneie
oeaeueth nicaeaiea aeey aa o/anoieeia eiie?aoiuo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae.
A?ae, iniiaaiiue ia ethaae, a ia ia naiaei?unoiuo eiouanoaaiiuo
eioa?anao, oaeie i?aaiaie oeaee ia i?aneaaeoao. Oeaeueth anooieaiey a
a?ae I.N. Eiooa iacuaae aeaeaiea iieo/eoue ainoaea?noaaiiia i?eciaiea
nicaeaiiiai nithca, “iniiaa eioi?iai — acaeiiay ethaiaue e oaaaeaiea —
ia aoiaeeo a aai th?eaee/aneia niaea?aeaiea”. Iiyoiio a?ae iiaeao
i?ae?aoeoueny a ethaia a?aiy, eae oieueei yoa iniiaa aoaeao iiaei?aaia,
/oi iaaiciiaeii a a?aaeaeaineeo naeaeeao. Eiooa I.N. Niaaoneia
a?aaeaeaineia i?aai. — E., 1965. — O.C. — N. 187-188.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aiey eeoe, caeeth/athueo a?ae, iai?aaeaia ia
aeinoeaeaiea oeaeiai ?yaea iineaaenoaee, eae i?aaiauo, oae e iai?aaiauo.
I?aaeaea anaai iie no?aiyony i?eia?anoe iauanoaaiiue e i?aaiaie noaoon
caeiiiuo noi?oaia. Noaoon ninoiyiey a a?aea aea/ao ca niaie e
i?eia?aoaiea i?aa e iaycaiiinoae noi?oaia. Aicieeatho ee iie a neeo
caeiia iacaaeneii io aiee noi?oaia? Ii-aeaeeiiio, iao. I?aaeaea anaai
anee noi?oae eaoaai?e/anee i?ioea eo aicieeiiaaiey, iie iiaoo ia
?aaeno?e?iaaoue a?ae. Caeeth/ay a?ae, iie aeatho niaeanea ia anooieaiea
a ioiioaiey, aieueoay /anoue eioi?uo ?aiaa auea eiia?aoeaii ii?aaeaeaia
caeiiii. Iiaeii ee ia yoii iniiaaiee caeeth/eoue, /oi a?ae ioee/aaony io
aeiaiai?a oai, /oi aeiaiai?ii noi?iiu naie onoaiaaeeaatho aeey naay
niaea?aeaiea i?aaiioiioaiey, a ana i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, auoaeathuea ec
a?aea, oaea cae?aieaiu a ii?ia caeiia? Ai-ia?auo, n oneeaieai
aeeniiceoeaiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e iiyaeaieai a?a/iuo aeiaiai?ia e
aeeiaioiuo niaeaoaiee yoe aiciiaeiinoe cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ythony2. Naii
caeeth/aiea a?aea eae th?eaee/aneee oaeo ia i?aaeiacia/aii aeey
eiie?aoecaoeee i?aa e iaycaiiinoae noi?oaia. Ec yoiai oaeoa auoaeaao
oieueei oi, /oi aeaa eeoea noaiiayony ioaeai e aeaiie, i?eia?aoay iiaue
i?aaiaie noaoon. N iiiiuueth a?a/iiai aeiaiai?a e aeeiaioiiai niaeaoaiey
noi?oae iiaoo ii/oe iieiinoueth eciaieoue naie eiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey.
Aeaaea anee a?a/iue aeiaiai? ia aue caeeth/ai aeaiiie noi?oaeaneie
ia?ie, noi?oae ia oa?ytho aiciiaeiinoe caeeth/eoue aai a aoaeouai.

Eiaaea iu aiai?ei, /oi a?ae — yoi iaeaieaa iieiia iauaiea noi?oaia:
iaoa?eaeueiia, oece/aneia e aeooiaiia, oi iu i?aaeiieaaaai, /oi iaaeaeo
noi?oaaie aicieeaao aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai ee/iuo ioiioaiee,
niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo iie ii?aaeaeytho aeey naay naie. Ana yoe ioiioaiey
ia ?aaoee?othony i?aaii, a, cia/eo, e niaeaoaiey, onoaiaaeeaathuea eo
niaea?aeaiea, eaaeao ai aiai?aaiaie noa?a. Iiyoiio iaaiciiaeii neacaoue,
/oi ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea ec a?aea, eae a naiae th?eaee/aneie, oae e a
naiae iath?eaee/aneie /anoe, ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiu caeiiii, a oi a?aiy eae
ioiioaiey, auoaeathuea ec a?aaeaeaineiai aeiaiai?a, ii?aaeaeythony yoei
aeiaiai?ii. Iai?ioea, niaea?aeaiea noi?oaeaneeo ioiioaiee iiaeao
aa?uee?iaaoueny aua a aieueoae ia?a, /ai niaea?aeaiea ae?oaeo
aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee, ii eciaiaiea yoeo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae
i?iecaiaeeony ia aeoii anooieaiey a a?ae, a n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo
th?eaee/aneeo aeoia: a?a/iuo aeiaiai?ia e ae?oaeo niaeaoaiee iaaeaeo
noi?oaaie.

Ii iaoaio iiaieth, ana auoaneacaiiia iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae i oii,
/oi niaeaoaiea i caeeth/aiee a?aea ii naiae i?aaiaie i?e?iaea ia
ioee/aaony io a?aaeaeaineiai aeiaiai?a. A oie /anoe, a eaeie iii
?aaoee?oaony i?aaii e ii?iaeaeaao i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey, iii yaeyaony
aeiaiai?ii.

I?eciaiea yoiai oaeoa ie/ooue ia i?eieaeaao yoe/aneiai cia/aiey a?aea.
Aaconeiaii, yoi niaeaoaiea ea?aao e aiai?aaiaoth ?ieue, e a yoie /anoe
iii ?anniao?eaaaony anooiathueie a a?ae ii-?aciiio. A caaeneiinoe io
naieo oaaaeaeaiee iie iiaoo ?anoeaieaaoue aai eae eeyoao ia?aae aiaii
eee eae ii?aeueiia iaycaoaeuenoai, eee eae /enoi eiouanoaaiioth naeaeeo.
Neaaeoao aua ?ac iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ana yoi eaaeeo ai aiai?aaiaie noa?a.

3. A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie oa?aeoa? a?aea.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo nia?aiaiiuo aaoi?ia, cayaeaoeo i a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie
aeiaiai?iie i?e?iaea a?aea, yaeyaony I. A. Aioieieueneay eioi?ay
oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacuaaao, /oi niaeaoaiea i caeeth/aiee a?aea ii naiae
i?aaiaie i?e?iaea ia ioee/aaony io a?aaeaeaineiai aeiaiai?a e a oie
/anoe, a eaeie iii ?aaoee?oaony i?aaii e ii?iaeaeaao i?aaua
iineaaenoaey, yaeyaony eiaiii aeiaiai?ii. Aioieieueneay I. A. Oeac. ni/.
N. 114. Eae aeaeii, ?a/ue eaeao eneeth/eoaeueii i niaeaoaiee i
caeeth/aiee a?aea. Aia ii?aaeaeaiey a?aea inoathony ioiioaiey,
aicieeathuea iaaeaeo eeoeaie, anooieaoeie a a?ae, oi anoue ninoiyiea a
a?aea. Noaoon ninoiyiey a a?aea icia/aao i?eia?aoaiea i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae noi?oaia. Iiaeii ee n/eoaoue, /oi aeaiiua ioiioaiey
yaeythony aiai?aaiauie eee aac?acee/iu i?aao? ?acoiaaony, iao, iaeiaei
iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue i aiciiaeiuo i?aaeaeao i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
naiaeiuo ioiioaiee. Aia i?aaiaiai iiin?aaeiaaiey inoathony oaeea
oeaiiinoe, eae acaeiiay ethaiaue e oaaaeaiea, yoe/aneea e ii?aeueiua
iniiau noi?oaeaneeo ioiioaiee, oece/aneea ioiioaiey. Oioy yoe ioiioaiey
e ia yaeythony th?eaee/anee aac?acee/iuie, ii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
i?aaiaiio ?aaoee?iaaieth iie ana aea ia iiaeaa?aathony. Iie iiaeeaaeao
o/aoo i?e i?eiyoee oao eee eiuo ?aoaiee, aini?eieiaynue i?e yoii eae
ii?aaeaeaiiay aeaiiinoue, eioi?ay ia iiaeao auoue ie aeieacaia, ie
ii?iaa?aiooa, ie naaaeaia e eaeiio-eeai iaeiiio ciaiaiaoaeth. Iai?eia?,
i?e i?eciaiee a?aea iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui eae niaa?oaiiui aac iaia?aiey
nicaeaoue naiueth, noae ioeaieaaao i?aaeaea anaai ii?aeueii-yoe/aneea
oaeoi?u, iineieueeo ie a iaeiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiii aeoa iao e ia iiaeao
auoue eaeiai-eeai e?eoa?ey, iicaieythuaai aeinoiaa?ii onoaiiaeoue, eiaee
ee noi?iiu a?a/iiai ioiioaiey iaia?aiea nicaeaoue naiueth eee iao.

Ii?aaeaeyy i?aaiaoth i?e?iaeo niaeaoaiey i caeeth/aiee a?aea,
iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi aeiaiai? ia yaeyaony
eneeth/eoaeueii a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui einoeoooii, a ecaeaaia i?eiaiyaony
e a noa?a ioaee/iuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie, e a o?oaeiauo
ioiioaieyo e iiiaeo ae?oaeo. Nianoaaiii a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie aeiaiai?
anoue ?aciiaeaeiinoue aeaonoi?iiiae naeaeee. Niaeaoaiea i caeeth/aiee
a?aea oaeaea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaoth naeaeeo.

O?aeoiaea aea niaeaoaiey i caeeth/aiee a?aea eae naeaeee iicaieyao
ii?aaeaeeoue ?ieue e cia/aiea aeaiiiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa eae
th?eaee/aneiai oaeoa, ii?iaeaeathuaai ioiioaiey iaaeaeo noi?oaaie.

A oi aea a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii ?acee/aoue niaeaoaiea i caeeth/aiee a?aea e
aicieeathuea ec iaai ioiioaiey, eioi?ua eiatho eioth i?aaiaoth i?e?iaeo,
iaaeaee ii?iaeeaoay eo naeaeea. Oeacaiiua ioiioaiey — ioiioaiey
noi?oaeanoaa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie einoeooo iniaiai ?iaea (co oaiao).
Iineieueeo iie nouanoaotho eneeth/eoaeueii iaaeaeo aeaoiy eiie?aoiuie
noauaeoaie — noi?oaaie, iie a ioee/ea io aaniethoiuo i?aaiioiioaiee
yaeythony ioiineoaeueiuie.

Caeiiiaeaoaeue ?aaoee?oao aeaaiui ia?acii eiouanoaaiiua aniaeou
aicieeathueo iaaeaeo noi?oaaie ioiioaiee, ii?aaeaeyy i?aaiaie ?aaeei
eiouanoaa noi?oaia, a oaeaea i?aaeoniao?eaay ?aae eiuo iineaaenoaee
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a, aicieeathueo ec oaeoa ninoiyiey a
a?aea. Iai?eia?, aiciiaeiinoue ianeaaeiaaiey iaeiei ec noi?oaia
eiouanoaa, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai ae?oaiio noi?oao, iinea aai nia?oe. Iaeuecy,
iaeiaei, ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi niaea?aeaiea noi?oaeaneiai ioiioaiey
iieiinoueth en/a?iuaaaony eiouanoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie. Oae, ioiioaiey
iaoa?einoaa, iooeianoaa, ainieoaiey e ia?aciaaiey aeaoae, ae?oaea
aii?inu aeecie naiuee, eioi?ua a niioaaonoaee ni no. 31 NE ?aoathony
noi?oaaie niaianoii, enoiaey ec i?eioeeia ?aaainoaa noi?oaia, oaeaea
aeeth/athony a niaea?aeaiea noi?oaeaneiai ioiioaiey. Iiaeii ee
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi e yoe iaeiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey iieiinoueth
ioaaouaathony a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai? Ioaao ia yoio aii?in
iaiaeiicia/ai. A?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai onoaiaaeeaaao niiniau
caueou iaeiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a neo/aa eo ia?ooaiey, iaania/eaaao
aiciiaeiinoue ainnoaiiaeaiey ia?ooaiiuo i?aa iaeiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a.
Aianoa n oai iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea iaeiouanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia inouanoaeyao.
Iaeiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea iaaeaeo noi?oaaie, ia
oeeaaeuaathony a ?aiee iau/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaii
?aaoee?iaaiee iaeiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Ioiioaiey noi?oaeanoaa iiaoo ni/aoaoue a naaa yeaiaiou iiiaeo
a?aaeaeaineeo ioiioaiee. Oae, ioiioaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa,
nianoaaiiinoe, ioaeaeueiua ?aciiaeaeiinoe iaycaoaeuenoaaiiuo naycae
i?enoonoaotho a oie eee eiie ia?a e a noi?oaeaneeo ioiioaieyo. Iaeiaei
ioiioaiey noi?oaeanoaa ie e iaeiiio ec ecaanoiuo aeaeia a?aaeaeaineeo
ioiioaiee ia naiaeeiu. Ioiioaiey noi?oaeanoaa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
oaeoth ?aciiaeaeiinoue a?aaeaeaineeo ioiioaiee, eioi?ua a naiae
niaieoiiinoe ii?iaeaeatho iniaue i?aaiaie noaoon eo o/anoieeia — noaoon
ninoiyiey a a?aea. Yoi ioiioaiey aeeyueany, neiaeiua, iaeaaeathuea
aieei, ca/anooth o?oaeiioeiaeiui niaea?aeaieai. Iineaaeiaa iauyniyaony
oai, /oi noi?oaeaneea ioiioaiey ia naiaeyony e inouanoaeaieth i?aa e
eniieiaieth iaycaiiinoae a no?iaii th?eaee/aneii niunea neiaa. Ana
neacaiiia iicaieyao ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a oeaeii ioiioaiey noi?oaeanoaa
yaeythony a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui einoeoooii iniaiai ?iaea.

4. I?eciaee a?aea.

Iau/ii auaeaeytho i?eciaee, ioiinyueany i?aaeaea anaai e ioiioaieyi
noi?oaeanoaa. Iaoaaaa A. E. Niaaoneia naiaeiia i?aai. I.: TH?. Eeo.,
1971, N. 44. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua i?eciaee yaeythony iaueie e aeey
niaeaoaiey i anooieaiee a a?ae e aeey ioiioaiee noi?oaeanoaa.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?eciaao oieueei iiiiaaiiue a?ae, oi anoue
aaeeiia?a/iue nithc ioae/eiu e aeaiueiu. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee ia
i?eciaao noi?oaeaneeie ioiioaieyie nithcu, iniiaaiiua, ia iieeaaiiie
nayce. A oi aea a?aiy a?aee, caeeth/aaiua ii i?aaeeai ionoeueiaineie
?aeeaee, i?eciathony ai iiiaeo no?aiao Ainoiea. Eae i?aaeei, iiiiaaiiay
eee iieeaaiiay iiaeaeue a?aea ecae?aaony oai eee eiui ainoaea?noaii ia
iniiaa enoi?e/aneeo o?aaeeoeee, ainiiaenoaothueo a iauanoaa ?aeeaeiciuo
e eiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee. I?aaiaua nenoaiu nia?aiaiiinoe iau/ii i?eciatho
iaeio iiaeaeue a?aea: iiiiaaiioth — no?aiu eiioeiaioaeueiie e
aiaei-aia?eeaineie nenoaiu, iieeaaiioth — no?aiu ionoeueiaineiai i?aaa
e ao?eeaineea no?aiu. Iaeiaei acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea i?aaiauo ii?i e
o?aaeeoeee i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi iiiaea ionoeueiaineea no?aiu
aeiioneatho i?eciaiea iaaeo iiaeaeae a?a/iiai nithca. A nayce n ?inoii
aeoeaiinoe ?acee/iuo naenoaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa a no?aiao Aa?iiu e
Aia?eee noaee auneacuaaoueny i?aaeeiaeaiey i aeiiouaiee ?aaeno?aoeee
a?aea e iaaeaeo eeoeaie iaeiiai iiea, Ia/aaaa A. I. Naiaeiia i?aai. I.,
1998. N. 91 /oi i?ioeai?a/eo naiie i?e?iaea a?aea.

?inneeneia naiaeiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai onoaiaaeeaaao i?eioeei naiaiaeu
a?aea. Yoi icia/aao, /oi anooieaiea a a?ae, ?aaii eae aai ?anoi?aeaiea,
iniiaaiu ia naiaiaeiii e aeia?iaieueiii aieaecuyaeaiee noi?ii. A?ae,
niaa?oaiiue iiae oece/aneei eee ineoe/aneei i?eioaeaeaieai eeai
iniiaaiiue ia ia?aaeeoeao ianoiuo iau/aaa, ia i?eciaaony ainoaea?noaii e
iiaeao auoue i?eciai iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui.

?aaainoai noi?ii eae iaeei ec i?aaeiaoiuo i?eciaeia a?aaeaeaineeo
ioiioaiee i?iyaeyaony e a a?aea. A?ae — ?aaiii?aaiue nithc ioae/eiu e
aeaiueiu. A ioee/ea io ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?innee,
eiaaea i?eioeeiii a?aea yaeyeanue aeanoue ioaea iaae aeaiie, oaea e
eiioeo XIX a. a ?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa cae?aieyaony i?eioeei
?aaainoaa ioaea e aeaiu a a?a/iuo ioiioaieyo. Oioy aeanoue ioaea e
i?eciaaony a aieueoeinoaa ionoeueiaineeo no?ai, iaeiaei i?aaa aeaiu eee
aeai a ieo oaeaea caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaiu e caueuaaiu, /oi
oaeoe/anee e a yoeo no?aiao o?aaieaaao aeaio e ioaea a a?a/iii
ioiioaiee.

A niioaaonoaee n i. 4 no. 1 NE cai?auathony ethaua oi?iu ia?aie/aiey
i?aa a?aaeaeai i?e anooieaiee a a?ae e a naiaeiuo ioiioaieyo ii
i?eciaeai nioeeaeueiie, ?aniaie, iaoeeiiaeueiie, ycueiaie eee
?aeeaeiciie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. I?aaa a?aaeaeai a naiuea iiaoo auoue
ia?aie/aiu oieueei ia iniiaaiee oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia e oieueei a oie
ia?a, a eaeie yoi iaiaoiaeeii a oeaeyo caueou i?aanoaaiiinoe,
caei?iauey, i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania ae?oaeo /eaiia naiuee e eiuo
a?aaeaeai.

Ioiioaiey noi?oaeanoaa ia iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie,
iie, eae i?aaeei, iiaeeciaiiu. A?a/iia ioiioaiea onoaiaaeeaaaony aac
ii?aaeaeaiey n?iea, a iai ia i?aneaaeoaony oeaeue ?aaeeciaaoue eeoue
eaeoth-eeai iaeio eee ianeieueei aiciiaeiinoae. A oii neo/aa, eiaaea
onoaiiaeaiea noi?oaeaneeo ioiioaiee i?aneaaeoao eiie?aoioth oeaeue,
iai?eia? ?iaeaeaiea ?aaaiea, a?ae iiaeao auoue i?eciai
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui. Iineieueeo oeaeue a?aea — nicaeaiea naiuee,
?iaeaeaiea e ainieoaiea aeaoae, iia ia iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaaia e
eiie?aoiiio n?ieo eeai ia?aie/aia eiie?aoiui n?ieii, a ?aaeecoaony aei
oiai iiiaioa, iiea noi?iiu eiatho aiciiaeiinoue e aeaeaiea aa
inouanoaeyoue. Eae i?aaeei, yoa oeaeue eiinoeooe?oao a?ae aei oao ii?,
iiea ii i?iaeieaeaaony: a oa/aiea anae aeecie noi?oaia eeai aei iiiaioa,
eiaaea noi?oae ?aoeee ?anoi?aiooue a?ae.

?iaeaeaiea e ainieoaiea aeaoae oaeaea iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny a ea/anoaa
iaeiiai ec i?eciaeia a?aea. Oioy ia?aaeee e aacaeaoiua a?aee, iaeiaei
iaeiie ec iniiaiuo oeaeae a?aea yaeyaony i?iaeieaeaiea ?iaea. I?e yoii
aiciiaeii ?iaeaeaiea aeaoae e aia a?aea. A yoii neo/aa caeii
i?aaeoniao?eaaao oaeea oi?iu i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, eioi?ua
iaeneiaeueii iicaieytho ainiieieoue ionoonoaea noi?oaeaneeo ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo ?iaeeoaeyie, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a oeaeyo caueou eioa?ania ?aaaiea.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo i?eciaeia a?aea a ethaie i?aaiaie nenoaia yaeyaony
aai niaa?oaiea a ii?yaeea e oi?ia, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo caeiiii. Yoio i?eciae
iiaeii n/eoaoue aaeeinoaaiiui, eiathuei eiinoeoooeaiia cia/aiea aeey
ioianaiey neeaaeuaathueony ioiioaiee e noi?oaeaneei.

A?aee iiaoo niaa?oaoueny ii ?aeeaeiciui ia?yaeai eeai ii naaoneei
i?aaeeai. Auai? oie eee eiie oi?iu ?aaeno?aoeee a?aea iniiauaaaony ia
o?aaeeoeeyo e noaiaie aeeyiey ?aeeaee. ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
i?eciaao eneeth/eoaeueii a?ae, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue a i?aaiao caiene aeoia
a?aaeaeaineiai ninoiyiey (i. 2 no. 1 NE). Iiiaea eeoea, anooiathuea a
a?ae, ia?yaeo n ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeae a?aea a i?aaiao caana
ioi?ieytho naie ioiioaiey e ii ?aeeaeiciiio ia?yaeo. Aieueoeinoai
eiioannee, aeaenoaothueo ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee, aeiioneatho aiciiaeiinoue
niaa?oaiey ?aeeaeiciiai ia?yaea oieueei iinea ?aaeno?aoeee a?aea a
i?aaiao caana. Oai naiui ?aeeaeiciay i?ioeaaeo?a a i?eioeeia ia
ieacuaaao aeeyiey ia noaeueao a?aea. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho neo/ae,
eiaaea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee i?eciaao ?aaeno?aoeeth a?aea,
niaa?oaiioth ii ?aeeaeiciui ia?yaeai ia a?aiaiii ieeoie?iaaiiuo
oa??eoi?eyo, aoiaeeaoeo a ninoaa NNN? a ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieiu, aei ainnoaiiaeaiey ia yoeo oa??eoi?eyo i?aaiia caiene aeoia
a?aaeaeaineiai ninoiyiey (i. 7 no. 169 NE). NE ia niaea?aeeo oeacaiee ia
i?eciaiea th?eaee/aneie neeu ca ?aeeaeiciuie a?aeaie, caeeth/aiiuie aei
i?eiyoey ia?aiai niaaoneiai aeae?aoa “I a?aaeaeaineii a?aea” io 18
aeaeaa?y 1917 a. e ia?aciaaiey i?aaiia caana, iaeiaei th?eaee/aneay neea
ca oaeeie a?aeaie nio?aiyaony, iineieueeo i?yiia oeacaiea ia yoii
niaea?aeaeinue a ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Ni. I?eia/aiea
e no. 2 ECiANI ?NON? 1918 a.; no. 6 EiAN ?NON? 1969 a. I?eciaiea
aeiionoeiinoe ?aaeno?aoeee a?aea ii ?aeeaeiciiio ia?yaeo ioiineony e e
a?aeai, niaa?oaiiui iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaieiii ?innee e eiino?aiiui
a?aaeaeaieiii ca i?aaeaeaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee n niaethaeaieai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?iai iie caeeth/aiu
(i. 1 no. 158 NE, i. 2 no. 2 Caeiia ?O “Ia aeoao a?aaeaeaineiai
ninoiyiey” io 15 iiya?y 1997 a.). Oae, anee a?ae niaa?oai aia i?aaeaeia
?innee a ainoaea?noaa, i?eciathuai ?aaeno?aoeeth a?aea ii ?aeeaeiciiio
ia?yaeo, iai?eia? a NOA, oi oaeie a?ae i?eciaaony aeaenoaeoaeueiui e a
?innee i?e ionoonoaee ianoiyoaeuenoa, i?aiyonoaothueo caeeth/aieth a?aea
(no. 14 NE).

5. Oaeoe/aneee a?ae.

Oaeoe/aneei a?aeii eiaiothony ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ninoiyueie a ieo
eeoeaie, oaeiaeaoai?ythuea anai o?aaiaaieyi e oneiaeyi anooieaiey a
a?ae, ii ia ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii ii?yaeea.
Oaeoe/aneee a?ae ia iiaeao ii?iaeeoue oao. i?aaiauo iineaaenoaee,
eioi?ua aicieeatho ec ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiiai a?aea. Ieeaeie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiue cai?ao ia iiaeao eneeth/eoue ec iau/iie aeecie
aiaa?a/iua nayce aeeeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua naie noi?iiu, aeaeay
oiai eee iao, i?eciatho oaeoe/aneei a?aeii. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iiiaeo
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai e NOA ia i?iaiaeyo aeanoeeo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiui e oaeoe/aneei a?aeii a /anoe ii?iaeaeaaiuo eie
iineaaenoaee. Iai?eia?, a Oioeaiaeee i?eciathony ?aaiicia/iuie e
a?aaeaeaineay e ?aeeaeiciay oea?aiiiey a?aeini/aoaiey, i?eciaaony oaeaea
aeaenoaeoaeueiui a?ae, aicieeoee aneaaenoaea oaeoe/aneiai niaianoiiai
i?iaeeaaiey. ?aoaoieeia O.I. I?aaiaua nenoaiu no?ai ie?a. Ni?aai/iee.
I., 1993. N. 37. A ?innee iieiaeua ia?u ia anaaaea niaoao ocaeiieoue
naie ioiioaiey, i?aaeii/eoay eo/oa ociaoue ae?oa ae?oaa, i?eniio?aoueny
e iiaaaeaieth naiaai eca?aiieea a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie e eeoue
aiineaaenoaee eeai ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue a?ae, eeai ioeacaoueny io aai
?aaeno?aoeee. Iauanoaaiiay ii?aeue a ioiioaiee oaeoe/aneeo a?aeia oaeaea
i?aoa?iaea ii?aaeaeaiiua eciaiaiey, ana aieaa e aieaa niya/ay oo
iaoa?ieiinoue a ioiioaiee oaeoe/aneeo a?aeia, eioi?ay ainiiaenoaiaaea a
70—80-a aiaeu. Oai ia iaiaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee aeanoei noieo ia
iiceoeee i?eciaiey th?eaee/aneie neeu oieueei ca a?aeii,
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiui a i?aaiao caana.

Aaeeinoaaiiui eneeth/aieai yaeyaony i?aaeei, onoaiiaeaiiia Oeacii
I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? “I ii?yaeea i?eciaiey oaeoe/aneeo
a?a/iuo ioiioaiee a neo/aa nia?oe eee i?iiaaee aac aanoe ia o?iioa
iaeiiai ec noi?oaia” io 10 iiya?y 1944 a. Aaaeiiinoe NNN?. 1944. ? 60.
I?aaeiaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?eciaaaei ia oa??eoi?ee Niaaoneiai Nithca
th?eaee/aneoth neeo e ca oaeoe/aneeie a?a/iuie ioiioaieyie. N iiiaioa
ecaeaiey Oeaca I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 8 ethey 1944 a.
Ni.: Aaaeiiinoe NNN?. 1944. ? 37; 1980. ? 30. No. 630. oo?aoeee
th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea aeaaea i?iaeieaeathueany a?a/iua nayce. A
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie i. 19 Oeaca io 8 ethey 1944 a. aaeeinoaaiiui
niiniaii th?eaee/aneiai i?eciaiey oaeoe/aneiai a?aea noaea ?aaeno?aoeey
oaeoe/aneiai a?aea a i?aaiao caana n oeacaieai n?iea niaianoiie aeecie.
Oae, anee oaeoe/aneea a?a/iua ioiioaiey neiaeeeenue a 1937 a., oi aeey
oiai, /oiau iie ii?iaeaeaee i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey iinea 8 ethey 1944 a.,
iie aeieaeiu auoue ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a i?aaiao caana. Oeac io 8 ethey
1944 a. ia i?aaeoniao?eaae aiciiaeiinoe i?eciaiey eaeiai-eeai cia/aiey
ca oaeoe/aneeie a?aeaie, aicieeathueie iinea aai ecaeaiey. Oae, anee
noi?iiu ?aaeno?e?otho oaeoe/aneea a?a/iua ioiioaiey a ianoiyuaa a?aiy,
oi iie i?eia?aoatho i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe noi?oaia eneeth/eoaeueii n
iiiaioa ?aaeno?aoeee a?aea a i?aaiao caana iacaaeneii io n?iea ninoiyiey
a oaeoe/aneii a?aea. Iaaeaeo oai ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue iiaeii auei eeoue
oaeie a?ae, a eioi?ii iaa noi?oaa eiaee aiciiaeiinoue yaeoueny a i?aaiu
caana, iaeiaei aieia aianea nouanoaaiiua ei??aeoeau a aeeciue ethaeae.
Aneaaenoaea aeaaee eee i?iiaaee aac aanoe iaeiiai ec noi?oaia i?aaiu
caana ia?aaeei ia iiaee i?eiyoue ?aoaiea i ?aaeno?aoeee oaeoe/aneiai
a?aea. Iiyoiio 10 iiya?y 1944 a. e auoae a naao Oeac, onoaiaaeeaathuee
eiie ii?yaeie i?eciaiey th?eaee/aneiai cia/aiey ca oaeoe/aneeie a?a/iuie
ioiioaieyie. A niioaaonoaee n Oeacii, anee oaeoe/aneea a?a/iua
ioiioaiey, nouanoaiaaaoea aei ecaeaiey Oeaca I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai
Niaaoa NNN? io 8 ethey 1944 a., ia iiaoo auoue ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu niaeanii
no. 19 Oeaca aneaaenoaea nia?oe eee i?iiaaee aac aanoe ia o?iioa iaeiiai
ec eeoe, ninoiyaoeo a oaeeo ioiioaieyo, — ae?oaay noi?iia eiaao i?aai
ia?aoeoueny a ia?iaeiue noae n cayaeaieai i i?eciaiee aa noi?oaii
oia?oaai eee i?iiaaoaai aac aanoe eeoea ia iniiaaiee ?aiaa
aeaenoaiaaaoaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (no. 11 e 12 ECiANI ?NON? 1926 a.).

Iiae/a?eiai aua ?ac, /oi n 8 ethey 1944 a. caeiiiaeaoaeue i?eciae
eiathuei th?eaee/aneoth neeo ia oa??eoi?ee Niaaoneiai Nithca oieueei
a?ae, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue a i?aaiao caana. Oeac io 10 iiya?y 1944 a. ia
aian eciaiaiee a yoi i?aaeei, ii?aaeaeea eeoue ii?yaeie i?eciaiey
ioiioaiee, neiaeeaoeony aei ecaeaiey Oeaca io 8 ethey 1944 a., eioi?ua
ia iiaoo auoue ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a i?aaiao caana. Anee ia?aiia/aeueii
aiciiaeiinoue noaeaaiiai i?eciaiey oaeoe/aneeo a?a/iuo ioiioaiee
aeiioneaeanue oieueei a ioiioaiee eeoe, iiaeaoeo eee i?iiaaoeo aac aanoe
ia o?iioa, oi a aeaeueiaeoai noaeaaiay i?aeoeea iioea ii iooe
?anoe?eoaeueiiai oieeiaaiey Oeaca, ?ani?ino?aiea aai e ia ioiioaiey,
eiaaea nia?oue eee i?iiaaea iaeiiai ec noi?oaia i?iecioea oioy e iinea
aieiu, ii oaeoe/aneea a?a/iua ioiioaiey, aicieeoea aei 8 ethey 1944 a.,
i?iaeieaeaeenue aei iiiaioa nia?oe noi?oaa, e iauaeoeaiua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa (oyaeeay aieaciue e ae?oaea ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
i?aiyonoaiaaaoea ?aaeno?aoeee a?aea) ia aeaee aiciiaeiinoe noi?oaai
aiineaaenoaee ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue a?ae. Ni.: iinoaiiaeaiea Ieaioia
Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN? “I noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ii aeaeai ia onoaiiaeaiee
oaeoia, eiathueo th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea” io 7 iay 1954 a. ? 3 (a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia aeaenoaoao) // Nai?iee aeaenoaothueo iinoaiiaeaiee
Ieaioia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN? 1924—1957. I., 1957. N. 206. Oioy a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eeoe, ninoiyueo a oaeoe/aneeo a?a/iuo ioiioaieyo,
aicieeoeo aei 8 ethey 1944 a., inoaaony ana iaiueoa e iaiueoa,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue th?eaee/aneiai i?eciaiey oaeeo ioiioaiee iieiinoueth ia
nieiaaony. Ni.: i. 6 iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN? “I
noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ii aeaeai ia onoaiiaeaiee oaeoia, eiathueo
th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea” io 21 ethiy 1985 a. ? 9 // Nai?iee iinoaiiaeaiee
Ieaioiia Aa?oiaiuo. Noaeia NNN? e ?NON? (?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee) ii
a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai. I., 1995. N. 151. Oaeo ninoiyiey a a?aea,
ii?iaeaeathuai i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey, iiaeao ieacuaaoue aeeyiea e ia
ioiioaiey, ia naycaiiua iaiin?aaenoaaiii n ?aaeno?aoeeae a?aea. Oae, i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee e?oaa ianeaaeieeia, ninoaaa ianeaaenoaaiiiai eiouanoaa a
noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ia?aaeee neo/ae onoaiiaeaiey oaeoa ninoiyiey a
a?a/iuo ioiioaieyo, aicieeoeo aei 8 ethey 1944 a.

6. Iineaaenoaey oaeoe/aneiai a?aea.

Oaeoe/aneee a?ae ia ii?iaeaeaao oao aea iineaaenoaee, /oi e
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue a?ae. A oi aea a?aiy ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a oaeii
a?aea, ia yaeythony th?eaee/anee aac?acee/iuie. A niioaaonoaee n iauei
i?aaeeii ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea a?ae ii?iaeaeaao
?aaeei iauae niaianoiie nianoaaiiinoe noi?oaia, anee a?a/iui aeiaiai?ii
ia onoaiiaeai eiie ?aaeei noi?oaeaneiai eiouanoaa (no. 33 NE). I?e
oaeoe/aneii aea a?aea ?aaeei iauae niaianoiie nianoaaiiinoe
i?eiaiyoueny ia iiaeao. Noi?oae, yaeyynue noauaeoaie a?aaeaeaineiai
i?aaa, ai?aaa anooiaoue a a?aaeaeaineea ioiioaiey iacaaeneii io
ninoiyiey a ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiii eee oaeoe/aneii a?aea. ?acee/ea iniiaaii
ia oii, /oi ninoiyiea a ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiii a?aea i?acthie?oao
?ani?ino?aiaiea ia niaianoii iaaeeoia eiouanoai i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia iauae
niaianoiie nianoaaiiinoe noi?oaia. A oaeoe/aneii a?aea eiouanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey noi?oaia iiaoo ?aaoee?iaaoueny oieueei ii?iaie a?aaeaeaineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia iauae aeieaaie nianoaaiiinoe, /oi iiae/a?eiooi a
iinoaiiaeaiee Ieaioia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?NON? io 21 oaa?aey 1973 a. “I
iaeioi?uo aii?inao, aicieeoeo a i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey noaeaie Eiaeaena i
a?aea e naiuea ?NON?” (a ?aae. iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioia io 21 aeaeaa?y 1993
a. ? 11, n eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie, aianaiiuie iinoaiiaeaieai
Ieaioia io 25 ai?aey 1995 a. ? 6); nii? i ?acaeaea eiouanoaa eeoe,
ninoiyueo a naiaeiuo ioiioaieyo aac ?aaeno?aoeee a?aea, aeieaeai
?aoaoueny a niioaaonoaee ni no. 252 IN, i?e yoii aeieaeia o/eouaaoueny
noaiaiue o/anoey yoeo eeoe n?aaenoaaie e ee/iui o?oaeii a i?eia?aoaiee
eiouanoaa.

A noa?a ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo noi?oaaie oaeoe/aneee
a?ae ia ii?iaeaeaao ieeaeeo i?aaiauo iineaaenoaee. Iaeiaei a iaeanoe
ioiioaiee ii?aeueii-yoe/aneeo, i?aanoaaiiuo ioiioaiey oaeoe/aneiai a?aea
i?e?aaieaathony e ninoiyieth a ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiii a?aea. Ii niuneo i. 1
no. 51 Eiinoeoooeee ?O i?aaeei ia inaiaiaeaeaiee a?aaeaeaieia io
iaycaiiinoe naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i?ioea naay naiiai, naiaai noi?oaa e
aeeceeo ?iaenoaaiieeia, e?oa eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony oaaea?aeueiui
caeiiii, aeieaeii auei au i?eiaiyoueny e a ioiioaiee oaeoe/aneeo
noi?oaia. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a noa?a ee/iuo ioiioaiee oaeoe/aneee a?ae e
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue a?ae ia iiaoo eiaoue neieueei-ieaoaeue nouanoaaiiuo
?acee/ee, io?eoeaiea yoiai oaeoa i?eaaei au e oiio, /oi iaycaiiinoue
aeaaaoue naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey iiaeao auoue aiceiaeaia e ia eeoe,
ninoiyueo a oaeoe/aneeo a?a/iuo ioiioaieyo ia i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeeaoee,
/oi i?ioeai?a/eei au aa?aioeyi, onoaiiaeaiiui a Eiinoeoooeee ?O.

A ioiioaieyo, naycaiiuo n ?iaeaeaieai e ainieoaieai aeaoae, i?aaa aeaoae
caueuathony iacaaeneii io oiai, ninoiyo ee ?iaeeoaee a
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiii eee oaeoe/aneii a?aea. Iaeiaei iaycaiiinoue ii
niaea?aeaieth e ainieoaieth aeaoae iiaeao auoue aiceiaeaia ia noi?oaa,
ninoiyuaai a oaeoe/aneii a?aea, oieueei a neo/aa onoaiiaeaiey
i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeaoae a ii?yaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiii caeiiii (no. 48, 49
NE).

Caeeth/aiea.

Ec aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiaeu:

1. A?ae – yoi nithc, ia naeaeea, ia aeiaiai?, a eiaiii nithc aeaiueiu e
ioae/eiu, iniiaaiiue ia iiiiaaiiie nayce. Yoi aaeeiia?a/iue nithc a
ioee/ee io iieeaaiiuo a?aeia, eioi?ua aua nio?aiythony a iaeioi?uo
no?aiao, aaea ainiiaenoaoao ionoeueiaineay ?aeeaey, aeiioneathuay
iiiaiaeainoai.

2. A?ae – yoi naiaiaeiue nithc. Anooieaiea a a?ae naiaiaeii e
aeia?iaieueii. Naiaiaeii e ?anoi?aeaiea a?aea.

3. A?ae – yoi ?aaiii?aaiue nithc aeaiueiu e ioae/eiu. Iie ?aaiii?aaiu
iaaeaeo niaie, eae a ioiioaiee ee/iuo i?aa (oaieeey,
ianoiaeeoaeuenoai, auai? i?ioannee, ainieoaiea aeaoae), oae e a
ioiioaiee eiouanoaa iaaeeoiai niaianoiui o?oaeii ai a?aiy a?aea.

4. A?ae yoi a i?eioeeia iiaeeciaiiue nithc. Iiaeeciaiiinoue a?aea
iaoneiaeaia aai oeaeyie – nicaeaiea naiuee, ?iaeaeaiea e ainieoaiea
aeaoae. Acaeiiie ii?aeueiie e iaoa?eaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee. Yoe oeaee
?an/eoaiu ia anth aeeciue.

5. A?ae yoi oaeie nithc, eioi?ue caeeth/ai n niaethaeaieai
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee, onoaiiaeaiiuo ainoaea?noaii. Iaoe
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu, ?aaeno?e?oy a?a/iue nithc, i?aaeuyaeytho e iaio
oeaeue ?yae oneiaee (aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai aic?anoa; ianinoiyiea
a ae?oaii a?aea eee aeeceii ?iaenoaa; ionoonoaea o eeoe, anooiathueo a
a?ae, ii?aaeaeaiiuo aieaciae).

6. Oeaeue a?aea – nicaeaiea naiuee, eiay a aeaeo ?iaeaeaiea e ainieoaiea
aeaoae. Iiiyoea naiuee oe?a iiiyoey a?aea. A?ae – iniiaiay
i?aaeiinueea naiuee, aa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia oneiaea. Ii?iaeueiay
iieiioeaiiay naiuey aicieeaao e ?acaeaaaony eeoue ia iniiaa a?aea, ii
ia aia a?aea e ia ?aiaa aai.

Oaeaea ec i?eaaaeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
enoiaeiuie i?aaeiinueeaie a?aea yaeythony – niaeanea ia a?ae e
?aaeno?aoeey a?aea, ii iaee/ea yoeo i?aaeiinueie aua ia aeinoaoi/ii aeey
i?eciaiey caeiiiinoe a?a/iiai nithca. Iaiaoiaeeii:

1. Aeinoeaeaiea eeoeaie a?a/iiai aic?anoa.

2. Ianinoiyiea a ae?oaii a?aea.

3. Ionoonoaea aeeceiai ?iaenoaa anooiathueo a a?ae. Cai?auaiu a?aee ii
i?yiie ainoiaeyuae e ienoiaeyuae eeieyo, iieii?iaeiuie e iaiieii?iaeiuie
(iauee ioaoe eee iaoue) a?aoueyie e nano?aie, a oaeaea onuiiaeoaeyie e
onuiiaeyaiuie.

4. Ionoonoaea aeooaaiie aieacie e neaaioiey.

Ii?yaeie caeeth/aiey a?aea onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi caeeth/aiea a?aea
i?ienoiaeeo ii enoa/aiee iany/iiai n?iea iinea iiaea/e aeaeathueie
anooieoue a a?ae cayaeaiey a caan. i?e niaeanee eeoe, anooiathueo a
a?ae, caeeth/aiea a?aea i?iecaiaeeony oi?aeanoaaiii. Anyeee a?ae, anee
e iaio iiaeoiaeeoue n i?aaiaie noi?iiu yaeyaony a eaaeaeii neo/aa
niaa?oaiiieiie?aoiui i?aaiioiioaieai, o.a. ioiioaieai ii?iaeaeathuei
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe. ?aaeno?aoeey a?aea yoi th?eaee/aneee
aeo. A niaieoiiinoe n niaeaoaieai ia anooieaiea a a?ae ii nicaeaao
a?a/iue nithc, eae oeaeinoiia e neiaeiia i?aaiioiioaiea iaaeaeo
noi?oaaie.

Ia?ooaiea aea caeiiiuo oneiaee a?aea eee oioy au iaeiiai ec ieo
neoaeeo iniiaaieai aeey aeey i?eciaiey a?aea iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui. A?ae,
caeeth/aiiue n ia?ooaieai caeiiiuo oneiaee i?eciaaony noaeii
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui e ana oa i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey, naycaiiua ni
anooieaieai a a?ae.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. Iaoaaaa A. E. Niaaoneia naiaeiia i?aai. I., 1985.

2. Caai?ianeee E.A. Eo?n naiaeiiai i?aaa. — Iaeanna, 1902.

3. Eiooa I.N. Niaaoneia a?aaeaeaineia i?aai. — E., 1965. — O.C. — N.
187-188.

4. Ia/aaaa A. I. Naiaeiia i?aai. I., 1998.

5. Aaeyeiaa A. I. Aii?inu niaaoneiai naiaeiiai i?aaa a noaeaaiie
i?aeoeea. –I., 1989

6. TH?eaee/aneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue — I., 1987

7. Niaaoneia naiaeiia i?aai /Iiae ?aae. ?ynaioeaaa — I., 1982

8. TH?eaee/aneee ni?aai/iee aeey ianaeaiey — I., 1989

9. A. A. Iaaeiaeneee. Noaeaaiay caueoa i?aa e eioa?ania a?aaeaeai — I.,
1986

10. Naiaeiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Nai?iee ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia e
aeieoiaioia. I.: Nia?oae. 1995

11. Nai?iee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia NNN?. Auione XLVI, 1993.
EIIAAIOeEss I I?AAAO ?AAAIEA. (Iaeia?aia Aaia?aeueiie Annaiaeaae III
20.11.89) (Anooieea a neeo aeey NNN? 15.09.90)

12. Atheeaoaiue Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?O. ? 12. 1994. IAAEAeOIA?IAeIUE IAEO
IA YEIIIIE*ANEEO, NIOeEAEUeIUO E EOEUeOO?IUO I?AAAO.

13. Atheeaoaiue Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?O. ? 12. 1994. IAAEAeOIA?IAeIUE IAEO
io 16.12.66. I A?AAEAeAINEEO E IIEEOE*ANEEO I?AAAO.

14. Atheeaoaiue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia. ? 2. 1995. EIIAAIOeEss I
I?AAIAIE IIIIUE E I?AAIAUO IOIIOAIEssO II A?AAEAeAINEEI, NAIAEIUI E
OAIEIAIUI AeAEAI. (Caeeth/aia a Ieinea 22.01.93) (Anooieea a neeo
19.05.94, aeey ?innee – 10.12.94)

15. ?inneeneay aacaoa. ? 17. 27.01.96. NAIAEIUE EIAeAEN ?INNEENEIE
OAAeA?AOeEE. 29.12.95 ? 223-OC (i?eiyo AAe ON ?O 08.12.95) (?aae. io
15.11.97).

13. ?inneeneay aacaoa. ? 224. 20.11.97. OAAeA?AEUeIUE CAEII. 15.11.97 ?
143-OC. IA AEOAO A?AAEAeAINEIAI NINOIssIEss. (i?eiyo AAe ON ?O 22.10.97)

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