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Периодизация истории зарубежного государства и права

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AAOEE?NEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

EINOEOOO I?AAA

EIIO?IEUeIAss ?AAIOA II EO?NO

“ENOI?Ess AINOAeA?NOAA E I?AAA CA?OAAAEIUO NO?AI”

(aa?eaio ? 1)

“IA?EIAeECAOeEss ENOI?EE CA?OAAAEIIAI AINOAeA?NOAA E I?AAA”

1 eo?n cai/iiai ioaeaeaiey (yenoa?iao)

i?iaa?ee: i?aiiaeaaaoaeue Aieeaaa ?.I.

OOA 2000 A.

IEAI.

Aaaaeaiea.

Oa?iaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee ca?oaaaeiiai
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.

Ia?enenoneay oai?ey.

Oai?ey E.I. Aeueyeiiiaa.

Oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee..

Iiiyoea oeeaeeecaoeee.

Oai?ey Inaaeueaea Oiaiaea?a.

Oai?ey A.Aeae.Oieiae.

Iauay nouiinoue oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai aiaeeca enoi?ee.

Aiciiaeiue neioac iiaeoiaeia.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aaaaeaiea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao iiiai eiioeaioeee (iiaeoiaeia),
iauyniythueo i?ienoiaeaeaiea e iineaaeothuoth yaiethoeeth ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa, ia/eiay io ?aeeaeiciuo oai?ee e eii/ay ia?enenoneeie e eiuie
eaai?aaeeeaeueiuie oai?eyie, ?anniao?eaathueie enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa aeaaiui ia?acii /a?ac i?ecio eeanniaie ai?ueau.

Nae/an, a naaoa ia?aiai, i?ienoiaeyueo a ?inneeneii iauanoaa e niciaiee,
a eeoa?aoo?a iineaaeieo eao iieacuaaaony ia?aie/aiiinoue e
iaeiinoi?iiiinoue acaeyaeia ia enoi?eth a naaoa ainiiaenoaiaaaoae a
oa/aiea ?yaea aeanyoeeaoee ia?enenoneie iyoe/eaiiie oi?iaoeeiiiie
ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Eaiiiece?iaaiiue oa?aeoa?
ainiiaenoaiaaaoae enoi?e/aneie noaiu aeae oie/ie e iieneo ae?oaeo
iiaeoiaeia, iacaaeneiuo io aiee ethaeae naycae i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo,
ee/iinoiuo, noauaeoeaiuo. Yoi i?eaaei e oe?ieiio eniieueciaaieth a
ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?eei-i?aaiaie iaoea iiiyoey “oeeaeeecaoeey”, eioi?ia
ieii/aoaeueii neiaeeeinue a Aa?iia aua a yiioo I?inaauaiey a na?aaeeia
XVIII aaea. ?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa aeaa iiaeoiaea e ia?eiaeecaoeee
enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai: oa?iaoeeiiiue e
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue.

Oa?iaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee ca?oaaaeiiai
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.

Ia?enenoeay oai?ey

Iaia/aiiay Ia?enii aua a XIX aaea e eaiiiece?iaaiiay a ?innee Noaeeiui a
30-a aiaeu XX aaea oai?ey yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee n/eoaeanue
aaeeinoaaiii aa?iie. Niaeanii yoie oai?ee, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu, o.a.
oaoiieiaey a ni/aoaiee n aa i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, ?acaeaathony aei oao ii?,
iiea ioaeaeai eo ?acaeoey niioaaonoaotho nouanoaothuea a iauanoaa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Eiaaea yoi oneiaea ia/eiaao ia?ooaoueny,
?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee caoi?iaaeeaaaony, /oi aucuaaao ia?aai?io
a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo, e iaeia iauanoaaiiay yiioa (oi?iaoeey)
niaiyaony ae?oaie. Ia?en ?acee/ae aceaoneee, aioe/iue e ao?aeoaciue
(eaieoaeenoe/aneee) niiniau i?iecaiaenoaa eae “i?ia?anneaiua yiioe
iauanoaaiiie oi?iaoeee”. Iicaeiaeoea ia?enenou caiaieee iiiyoea “yiioe
iauanoaaiiie oi?iaoeee” oa?ieiii “iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneay oi?iaoeey”
i?eiaieoaeueii ia ei anaio i?ioeanno, eae o Ia?ena, a e eaaeaeie
ioaeaeueiie aai noaaeee. E oaeeo noaaeee (oi?iaoeee) auei au/eaiaii
iyoue: aeieeanniaay (ia?aiauoiay); o?e eeanniaua, eee aioaaiienoe/aneea
(?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneay, oaiaeaeueiay e eaieoaeenoe/aneay) e
eiiioienoe/aneay eioi?ay aeieaeia auea ianooieoue, aa ia/aeueiui
ia?aoiaeiui yoaiii eioi?ie yaeyeny nioeeaeeci.

Iiae “eaieoaeeciii” Ia?en iiae?acoiaaae niinia i?iecaiaenoaa, i?e
eioi?ii ao?aeoaciia iaiueoeinoai yenieoaoe?oao o?oaeyuaany aieueoeinoai
– i?ieaoa?eao, e ii?aaeaeye yoio niinia i?iecaiaenoaa eae iaeio ec
ia?aoiaeyueo nooiaiae iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Niaianoii n auoaiacaaiiie
ia?eiaeecaoeeae enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, Ia?en i?eiaiee e aai
enneaaeiaaieth aaaaeaaneoth eaeath aeaeaeoueo i?ioeai?a/ee. Aeey o?ao
aioaaiienoe/aneeo oi?iaoeee yoi auei i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
yenieoaoe?oaiui e yenieoaoe?othuei eeannaie. Ii ia auei iaeaeaii ie
iaeiiai oaaaeeoaeueiiai i?ioeai?a/ey aeey ia?aie (ia?aiauoiie) e aeey
iineaaeiae (eiiioienoe/aneie). Iiyoiio eiiioienoe/aneay oi?iaoeey
?anniao?eaaeanue eae aaniethoiay aa?iiiey, /oi neeueii ia?aeeeeaaony n
o?enoeaineie ?aeeaeae (eaeay aaniethoiiai ?ay) e ieioi ayaeaony n
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneei iauyniaieai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Oai?ey E.I. Aeueyeiiiaa

“Nae/an iao niiiaiee a oii, /oi ia?enenoneay oai?ey enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna, io?aaeaaoay ?aaeee XIX a., aaciaaeaaeii onoa?aea – e ia
oieueei ec-ca oai?aoe/aneie neaainoe eiiioienoe/aneie iinueee, ii e
aneaaenoaea ae?oaeo eae oai?aoe/aneeo, oae e /enoi i?aaiaoe/aneeo
iaoi/iinoae e ioeaie”. Enoi?eeai noaei ynii, /oi yenieoaoaoeey ?aaneiai
o?oaea a i?iecaiaenoaa ia yaeyeanue aeaeaeouei oaeoi?ii ae?aaiae
iauanoaaiiie oi?iaoeee. Oioy a ae?aaiinoe, a n?aaeiaaaeiauea e iicaea
?aau i?enoonoaiaaee a iauanoaa, ii aaaeouoth ?ieue a i?iecaiaenoaa iie
ea?aee eeoue ia e?aoeii io?acea a?aiaie, a eiaiii a aioe/iuo iauanoaao,
iniaaiii a ?eia a?aiai iicaeiae ?anioaeeee e ?aiiae eiia?ee. Ii anee
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneay oi?iaoeey auea ia ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneay, oi e
oaiaeaeueiay auea ia oaiaeaeueiie. Ia?en aaae iiiyoea “oaiaeaeeci” a
ea/anoaa iaeiie ec nooiaiae enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu
iioiio eeoue, /oi a na?aaeeia XIX aaea eiae niooiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i
n?aaeiaaaeiaii iauanoaa Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e Acee. Oaiaeaeueii-caiaeueiia
aeaaeaiea – eee i?aai ia aeioiae, iiaeaeiaaiiia nthca?aiii aannaeo iiae
oneiaeai ianaiey neoaeau e oieaou aeaie nthca?aio. Yoi – nenoaia
i?aaiecaoeee n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna, oa?aeoa?iay aeey
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu aei yiioe aaniethoiuo iiia?oee, ii niaa?oaiii
ianaienoaaiiay aaeaa ee ia aieueoeinoao n?aaeiaaaeiauo iauanoa ca
i?aaeaeaie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie iieeoe/aneie o?aaeeoeee. Iiyoiio
iacuaaoue anyeia n?aaeiaaaeiaia iauanoai oaiaeaeueiui cia/eo
iiae?aaieaaoue aanue ie? iiae Aa?iio.

A ioee/ea io oaiaeaeueiuo, ioiioaiey o?oaea e eaieoaea eiatho
anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneee oa?aeoa?. Eaieoae iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a ?aciuo
enoi?e/aneeo oi?iaoeeyo, a eaieoaeeci, eae nenoaia – yaeaiea, aicieeoaa
oieueei iinea n?aaeiaaaeiaiai iauanoaa. “Ii iiaeii ee iaicia/eoue
oa?ieiii “eaieoaeeci” iauanoai, a eioi?ii ia oieueei eaieoaeenou, ii e
i?ieaoa?ee iaoiaeyony a iaiueoeinoaa, a aieueoeinoai iauanoaa caiyoi a
noa?a ianeoaeeaaiey? Iaaeaeo oai eiaiii oaeiau iaeaieaa ?acaeoua
nia?aiaiiua iauanoaa. Caiaaeiay iaoea iacuaaao eo iinoeiaeono?eaeueiuie,
iu aea aeieaeiu, i/aaeaeii, ?anniao?eaaoue eo eae
iinoeaieoaeenoe/aneea””.

Ia?enenoneay oai?ey oi?iaoeee, a oii aeaea, eaeie iia i?eiyea e enoiaeo
XX noieaoey, eiaao aua iaeei nouanoaaiiue iaaeinoaoie: a iae ia
i?aaeoniio?ai yanoaaiiue iaoaieci ia?aoiaea io iaeiie
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee e ae?oaie, e?iia ianeeuenoaaiiiai
ia?aai?ioa, ii ianeeuenoaaiiue ia?aai?io ia ioaeaeyao ie ae?aaiinoue io
ia?aiauoiinoe, ie n?aaeiaaaeiauea io ae?aaiinoe.

E?eoeeoy oaeei ia?acii ia?enenoneee oi?iaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae Aeueyeiiia
E.I. a naiae ?aaioa “Iooe enoi?ee. Io ae?aaiaeoaai /aeiaaea aei iaoeo
aeiae”, ia ioaa?aay, a i?eioeeia, oi?iaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e
ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, auaeaeyao ia 5 oac
(oi?iaoeee), a 8, auaeaeyy neaaeothuea:

ia?aiauoiay;

ia?aiauoiiiaueiiay;

?aiiyy ae?aaiinoue;

eiia?neay ae?aaiinoue;

n?aaeiaaaeiauea

aaniethoenoneia iinon?aaeiaaaeiauea;

eaieoaeenoe/aneay;

iinoeaieoaeenoe/aneay.

I?e yoii ii niaeaoaaony, /oi i?eieiaai ee iu iao/ioth aeieo?eio
ia?enecia eee ia i?eieiaai, ii enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann a ethaii neo/aa
inoaaony anoanoaaiiui i?ioeannii, eioi?ue aaconeiaii eiaao naie
caeiiiia?iinoe.

Ioee/ea oi?iaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea e enoi?ee Aeueyeiiiaa io ia?enenoeiai
ioee/aaony oai, /oi ii onoaiaaeeaaao acaeiinaycue eaaeaeie iineaaeothuae
oi?iaoeee n i?aaeuaeouae ia n ?an/eaiaiiie eaoaai?eae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
nee, a, ai-ia?auo, n ?acaeoeai o?iaiy oaoiieiaee, ai-aoi?uo, n
nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea, niaiie nioeeaeueiuo oeaiiinoae,
nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee. Nioeeaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea caaeneo
io aa nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie ioeaiee. A yoi cia/eo, /oi ia?aoiae io
iaeiiai oeia oicyenoaiaaiey e ae?oaiio e aeaeaa io iaeiie nenoaiu
nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee e ae?oaie, aeaaea eiaaea yoa ia?aiaia ia iineo
oa?aeoa?a niaiu i?eioeeia nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, a naiaeeony e
yoie/aneei, ?aeeaeicii-eaeaieiae/aneei eee aea aioo?enineiaiui naeaeaai,
aeieaeai nii?iaiaeaeaoueny niaiie nioeeaeueiuo oeaiiinoae.

Oaeia a ?aciuo eioa?i?aoaoeeyo oi?iaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e enoi?ee
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.

Oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee ca?oaaaeiiai
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.

Iiiaea iuneeoaee n/eoatho iai?aaiia?iui iienaiea enoi?ee eae eeiaeiiai
iinooiaoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey e aaeeiie oeaee, a eioi?ii ana ia?iaeu eaeoo
a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee (/oi , a i?eioeeia, iiae?acoiaaaao oi?iaoeeiiiue
iiaeoiae), iaaiiyy eee ionoaaay ae?oa io ae?oaa. Iai?ioea, enoi?ey aeey
ieo – yoi ?acaeoea ioaeaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo nouiinoae aieaa eee iaiaa
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo ae?oa n ae?oaii, aaea nia?oue iaeieo ninaaenoaoao n
?iaeaeaieai ae?oaeo. “Aianoi iiiioiiiie ea?oeiu eeiaeiiia?aciie
anaie?iie enoi?ee … y aeaeo oaiiiai iiiaeanoaa iiuiuo eoeueoo?, n
ia?aiauoiie neeie au?anoathueo ec iaae? ii?iaeeaoae eo no?aiu, … e o
eaaeaeie naiy nianoaaiiay eaeay, nianoaaiiua no?anoe, nianoaaiiay
aeeciue, aeaeaiey e /oanoaiaaiey e, iaeiiaoe, nianoaaiiay nia?oue”. Oae
ienae iaiaoeeee oeeinio ia/aea XX aaea Inaaeueae Oiaiaea?. A oai?eyo
oaeiai oeia iai?a?uaiia iinooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea /aeiaa/anoaa eae
oeaeiai caiaiyaony ia oeeeee/aneia ?acaeoea ioaeaeueiuo eieaeueiuo
oeeaeeecaoeee. E iuneeoaeyi, i?eaea?aeeaathueiny noiaeae oi/ee c?aiey ia
i?aaeiao enoi?ee, ioiineony e aiaeeeneee enoi?ee XX aaea A?iieueae
Oieiae. ?onneee enoi?ee E.I.Aoieeaa oiaea i?eaea?aeeaaaony oai?ee
oeeaeeecaoeee, ii a aai oai?ee aieueoaa ianoi caieiaao yoie/aneay
noi?iia. Iii?iaoai ?acia?aoueny a oeeaeeecaoeeiiiii iiaeoiaea e enoi?ee.

I?inaaoeoaee XVIII noieaoey, eioi?ia ecaanoii a enoi?ee Aa?iiu iiae
iacaaieai “aaea I?inaauaiey”, ia?auie aaaee a oe?ieee iao/iue iai?io
iiiyoea oeeaeeecaoeee, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyea niaie, ii eo iiaieth, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, ii?aaeaeaiiue yoai a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa,
neaaeothuee ca aeeeinoueth e aa?aa?noaii, n ae?oaie, – anth
niaieoiiinoue aeinoeaeaiee /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia e eo aiieiuaiee a
iauanoaaiiie aeecie ?acee/iuo ia?iaeia.

Oiio?aaeyy oa?iei Oeeaeeecaoeey a ia?aii aai cia/aiee, iie
iiae/a?eeaaee, /oi oeeaeeecaoeeth io ?aiieo nooiaiae ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/anoaa ioee/atho: aicieeiiaaiea iaoaiiiai caieaaeaeey, iiyaeaiea
ainoaea?noaa e ienaiiiai i?aaa, ai?iaeia, ienueiaiiinoe. Aiai?y i
oeeaeeecaoeee eae i niaieoiiinoe aeinoeaeaiee /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia, iie
eiaee a aeaeo i?eciaiea anoanoaaiiuo i?aa /aeiaaea, oaaaeaiea aai i?aa e
naiaiae, iniciaiea aa?oiaiie aeanoueth ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae iauanoaii,
ioe?uoey iaoee e oeeinioee. A /anoiinoe, i?inaaoeoaee iacuaaee
oeeaeeecaoeeae eaeaaeueiia iauanoai, iniiaaiiia ia ?acoia e
ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

N oao ii? iaiaei o/aiuo ?aaioaei a yoie iaeanoe, iiyoiio i?enooiay e
?anniio?aieth oaeeo aii?inia, eae oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e eco/aieth
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey e aai ioee/ey io oi?iaoeeiiiiai, neaaeoao
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeie niune naaiaeiy aeeaaeuaaaony a iiiyoea
oeeaeeecaoeee.

Iiiyoea oeeaeeecaoeee.

Aiaaoue yoiienoi?e/aneee iaoa?eae, iieo/aiiue a “yiioo iooaoanoaee” e
iaia?oaeeaoee ia?iiiia ?aciiia?acea i?aaia e eoeueoo? aia Aa?iiu,
i?eaaee e oiio, /oi a ia/aea XIX a. aicieeea “yoiia?aoe/aneay
eiioeaioeey oeeaeeecaoeee”, a iniiao eioi?ie auei iieiaeaii
i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi o eaaeaeiai ia?iaea – naiy oeeaeeecaoeey.

A oeaeii ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII – ia/aea XIX aa. ooaa?aeeeinue o?e
iiaeoiaea e iiciaieth oeeaeeecaoeee:

oieoa?iue (oeeaeeecaoeey eae eaeaae i?ia?anneaiiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa
eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai);

noaaeeaeueiue (oeeaeeecaoeey eae yoaiu i?ia?anneaiiai ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/anoaa eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai);

eieaeueii-enoi?e/aneee (oeeaeeecaoeey eae ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iua
oieeaeueiua yoie/aneea eee enoi?e/aneea iauanoaaiiua ia?aciaaiey).

Iiaeii niaeaneoueny n ii?aaeaeaieai, niaeanii eioi?iio oeeaeeecaoeey
anoue nianoaaiii nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey iauanoaa, oa?aeoa?ecothuayny
anaiauae naycueth eiaeeaeaeia e ia?ae/iuo iauiinoae a oeaeyo
aini?iecaiaenoaa e i?eoiiiaeaiey iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa.

?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa ianeieueei aa?eaioia a eioa?i?aoaoeee
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea e ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee iauanoaa.

Oai?ey Inaaeueaea Oiaiaea?a.

Aaciauie iiiyoeyie aeey yoie oai?ee yaeythony eoeueoo?a e
oeeaeeecaoeey, eioi?ua iaiaoeeee oai?aoee iiieiaao iao?aaeeoeeiiii,
aeeaaeuaay a yoe aeaa neiaa iniaue niune. Iaeuecy iiiyoue
auaeaeaaaiua Oiaiaea?ii iieiaeaiey, ia ?acia?aaoenue a eniieuecoaiuo ei
oa?ieiao. Enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iay eiioeaioeey Oiaiaea?a no?ieony ia
niiinoaaeaieyo, niioianaiee e, aieueoae /anoueth, i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee
“eoeueoo?u” e “oeeaeeecaoeee”.

*oiau ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeie niune Inaaeueae Oiaiaea? aeeaaeuaaao a
oa?ieiu “eoeueoo?a” e “oeeaeeecaoeey”, oaeaeaoue acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo
yoeie iiiyoeyie, iaiaoiaeeii auyaeoue eo ianoi a aai eiioeaioeee. Oioy
aaoi? “Caeaoa Aa?iiu” ia aue ia?aui, eoi i?ioeaiiinoaaee eoeueoo?o
oeeaeeecaoeee, aai acaeyae ia yoio aii?in i?eaeiaeai e iaiau/ai.
Oiaiaea? ioeacuaaaony io eiioeaioeee aaeeiiai anaie?iiai enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna, aaeeiie eeiee yaiethoeee /aeiaa/anoaa, eae i?ioiaeyuaai
iineaaeiaaoaeueiua yoaiu ?acaeoey, ieacuaathuaainy i?e anao
ioeeiiaieyo, ia?eiaeao canoiy eee oiaaeea a oeaeii iinooiaoaeueiui
aeaeaeaieai, eioi?ia a oa?iaoeeiiiie oai?ee ii?aaeaeyaony eae i?ia?ann,
oae eae yoa oi/ea c?aiey i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi “ethaay ec eoeueoo?,
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo iaoae, ?anoeaieaaaony eae iaoiaeyuayny ia iecoae
nooiaie, iacaaa?oaiiay, oai naiui eae au caaauaaoay iai i?iaeieaeaiea
ia/aoiai. Noaia “Ae?aaiee ie? – N?aaeiea aaea – Iiaia a?aiy”
onoaiaaeeaaao, ii iiaieth Oiaiaea?a, “/enoi aiaoiaa ia/aei e eiiaoe
oai, aaea a aieaa aeoaieii niunea iaeuecy aiai?eoue ie i ia/aea, ie i
eiioea. Ii yoie noaia no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu yaeythony iieiyueiny
iiethnii…, aie?oa eioi?iai ne?iiii a?auathony iiuiua ouny/aeaoey
i?ioeiai e aeaeaeea ia?iiiua eoeueoo?u”.

Iaeiaei, io?eoeay iaeio eiioeaioeeth enoi?ee, iaiaoiaeeii
iino?ieoue ae?oaoth, eeoaiioth i?ioeai?a/ee e iaaeinoaoeia oie, io
eioi?ie i?eoeinue ioeacaoueny. E Oiaiaea? iaoiaeeo oaeoth
eiioeaioeeth. Ii auaeaeaaao eaeath iaeeo niiauanoa ethaeae, iaaeaeaiiuo
iauae iaioaeueiinoueth. Eaaeaeia eo oaeeo niiauanoa iaeaaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiui iaai?ii oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o, eioi?ue iaiaoeeee oeeinio
iacuaaao noeeai. “Aianoi iiiioiiiie ea?oeiu eeiaeiiia?aciie anaie?iie
enoi?ee, aea?aeaoueny ca eioi?oth iiaeii oieueei cae?uaay aeaca ia
iiaeaaeythuaa eiee/anoai i?ioeai?a/aueo ae oaeoia, y aeaeo oaiiiai
iiiaeanoaa iiuiuo eoeueoo?, n ia?aiauoiie neeie au?anoathueo ec iaae?
ii?iaeeaoae eo no?aiu…”.

Oaeei ia?acii, Oiaiaea? iacuaaao eoeueoo?aie ii?aaeaeaiiua
iauanoaaiiua ia?aciaaiey aianoa n eo oa?aeoa?iuie iniaaiiinoyie.
Eaaeaeay iaoeey, ii aai iiaieth, iaaeaeyao ethaeae naiae eaeaae, naieie
no?anoyie, naiae aeeciueth, e ana eoeueoo?u “no?iai i?eaycaiu ia
i?ioyaeaiee naiaai nouanoaiaaiey” e oai no?aiai, eioi?ua iineoaeeee
iniiaie aeey eo aicieeiiaaiey. Eoeueoo?a aeey Oiaiaea?a – aeeaia
nouanoai aunoaai ii?yaeea, au?inoaa “ni naiae aicauoaiiie
aania/iinoueth”, “iiaeiaii oeaaoai a iiea”. E ai anaie?iie enoi?ee
iaiaoeeee oeeinio oaeaeae “ea?oeio aa/iiai ia?aciaaiey e eciaiaiey,
/oaeaniiai noaiiaeaiey e oie?aiey i?aaie/aneeo oi?i”. Oai?ee aaeeinoaa e
i?aainoaaiiinoe ie?iaie enoi?ee Oiaiaea? i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao o/aiea i
iiiaeanoaa caaa?oaiiuo, ?aciauaiiuo a i?ino?ainoaa e ai a?aiaie
oeeaeeecaoeee (“eoeueoo?”), ?aaiicia/iuo ii i?aaeaeueiie iieiioa
inouanoaeaiiuo a ieo aiciiaeiinoae e aeinoeaiooiio niaa?oainoao
au?aaeaiey, ycuea oi?i. “Oa ec ieo, eioi?ua iai eaaeoony iacaaa?oaiiuie,
ia noiaaoeie ?aaeeciaaoue naie oeaee, ia naiii aeaea no?aieeenue
nianai e eiiio, /ai i?aaenoaaeyaony iai. Yoi iieiaeaiea icia/aao, /oi
iao ieeaeie i?yiieeiaeiie i?aainoaaiiinoe a enoi?ee; iiaay eoeueoo?a
aieouaaao ec iiuoa i?ioeiai eeoue oi, /oi ioaa/aao aa aioo?aiiei
iio?aaiinoyi, a cia/eo, a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea iia ia ianeaaeoao
ie/aai”.

A aeaaa “I niunea /enae” ii ?ane?uaaao anth aeoaeio i?iianoe, eaaeauae
iaaeaeo aioe/iie e nia?aiaiiie iaoaiaoeeaie; iieacuaaao, eae iiiyoey,
ia?aianaiiua ec Yeeaaeu ia ii/ao Caiaaea, i?eia?aoatho nianai eiia
cia/aiea, oioy aiaoiyy i?aainoaaiiinoue e nio?aiyaony. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
Oiaiaea? iiae/a?eeaaao eieaeueiinoue eoeueoo?, neaainoue naycae iaaeaeo
ieie. Ionthaea auoaeaao iianiinoue iiiuoie aiaeeca i?ioeuo yiio ia
iniiaa nia?aiaiiuo e?eoa?eaa “Ianoi ioaeaeueiuo yaeaiee ii?aaeaeyaony
eneeth/eoaeueii aieueoae /enoioie e neeie eo ycuea oi?i,
iai?yaeaiiinoueth eo neiaiee/aneiai cia/aiey – aacioiineoaeueii e aeia?o
e ceo, aunieiio e ieceiio, iieueca eee eaeaaeo”. Oiaiaea?
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao eoeueoo?o e oeeaeeecaoeeth, e iacaaiea “oai?ey
eieaeueiuo oeeaeeecaoeee” i?eiaieoaeueii e iaio neaaeoao i?aia?aciaaoue
a “oai?eth eieaeueiuo eoeueoo?”.

Naia eaeay ?acaeaeaiey eoeueoo?u e oeeaeeecaoeee ia iiaa, ii Oiaiaea?
iao?aaeeoeeiiii iiaeioae e yoiio aii?ino, aa?iiie/anee iauaaeeiea
oa?ieiieiaeth ni naiae eiioeaioeeae. Iaiaoeeee oai?aoee iiae
oeeaeeecaoeeae iiieiaao eoia, caaa?oaiea e enoiae anyeie eoeueoo?u.
“Oeeaeeecaoeey – yoi oa naiua e?aeiea e eneonnoaaiiua ninoiyiey,
inouanoaeoue eioi?ua niiniaai aunoee aeae ethaeae”. Oiaiaea? iacuaae
oeeaeeecaoeeae iae?yoeaaooth eoeueoo?o, ?aaeeciaaaooth naie oeaee,
iiaeioaaeooth e eiioeo naiaai nouanoaiaaiey. Ca?iaeaeaiea eoeueoo?,
aiai?eo ii, i?ienoiaeeo a oio iiiaio, eiaaea “ec ia?aiauoii-aeooaaiiai
ninoiyiey aa/ii aeaoneiai /aeiaa/anoaa i?iaoaeaeaaony e auaeaeyaony
aaeeeay aeooa, iaeee ia?ac ec aacia?aciiai…”

Aeaaeue eoeueoo?u i?ienoiaeeo iinea oiai, eae yoa aeooa inouanoaeo
iieioth noiio naieo aiciiaeiinoae a aeaea ia?iaeia, ycueia,
aa?io/aiee, eneonnoa,… e, oaeei ia?acii, aiiaue aica?aoeony a
ia?ae/ioth aeooaaioth noeoeth. Eiaaea oeaeue aeinoeaiooa e eaeay,
o.a. ana eciaeeea aioo?aiieo aiciiaeiinoae, caaa?oaia e inouanoaeaia ai
aiaoiai, oiaaea eoeueoo?a aae?oa canouaaao, ioie?aao, aa e?iaue
naa?ouaaaony, neeu aa iaaeeaiuaathony – iia noaiiaeony oeeaeeecaoeeae.

I. Oiaiaea? ?anniao?eaaao eoeueoo?o eae iaaeaeieiae/aneee i?aaieci,
caeiiiia?ii i?ioiaeyuee ii?aaeaeaiiua noaaeee ?acaeoey. I?e yoii
i?ienoiaeyo iienee n?aaenoa ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiie eaeae, auyaeythony
enoi?e/aneea oi?iu aeaiiie eoeueoo?u. Oeeaeeecaoeey – enoiae e
caaa?oaiea yoeo iieneia, iineaaeiyy noaaeey ?acaeoey. Iia
oa?aeoa?ecoaony ineaaeaieai aeeyiey o?aaeeoeee, oiaaeeii ?aeeaeiciinoe,
?inoii ai?iaeia, ?ani?ino?aiaieai i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo (i?e?iaeiuo)
acaeyaeia ia ie?.

Iaiaoeeee iuneeoaeue iooai ?yaea aiaeiaee n eoeueoo?aie i?ioeiai
aeieacuaaao iaecaaaeioth aeaaeue Caiaaeiie eoeueoo?u. “…Iaaeaiea
Caiaaeiiai ie?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ie aieaa ie iaiaa eae i?iaeaio
oeeaeeecaoeee”. Aa?iia aeaaii oaea ia?aoea a oeeaeeecaoeeiiioth
noaaeeth, e aa ieii/aoaeueiay aeaaeue – oieueei aii?in a?aiaie. Yoei
I. Oiaiaea? iauyniyao ana e?eceniua yaeaiey, ioaaoeaoea nia?aiaiiia
iauanoai.

Oai?ey A.Aeae.Oieiae.

E iuneeoaeyi, i?eaea?aeeaathueiny noiaeae ni Oiaiaea?ii oi/ee c?aiey,
ioiineony aiaeeeneee enoi?ee XX aaea A?iieueae Oieiae. I?aaeaea /ai
aiai?eoue i oai?ee oeeeeia oeeaeeecaoeee Oieiae, iaiaoiaeeii iiiyoue,
/oi aea ii iiae?acoiaaaao iiae iiiyoeai “oeeaeeecaoeey”, eee, ae?oaeie
neiaaie, /oi yaeyaony “aaeeieoeae ecia?aiey” enoi?e/aneiai auoey ii
Oieiae. Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi ethaay no?aia, iieeoe/aneee nithc e o. ae.
aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny ia naie ii naaa, a enoiaey ec “enoi?e/aneiai
eiioaenoa”, Oieiae i?eoiaeeo e neaaeothuei auaiaeai ia “aoiia, ia
eioi?ii neaaeoao oieone?iaaoue naia aieiaiea enoi?eeo”:

Oeeaeeecaoeee “i?aaenoaaeytho niaie … iauanoaa n aieaa oe?ieie
i?ioyaeaiiinoueth eae a i?ino?ainoaa, oae e ai a?aiaie, /ai
iaoeeiiaeueiua ainoaea?noaa, ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa eee ethaua ae?oaea
iieeoe/aneea nithcu”;

Eiaiii oeeaeeecaoeee aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny enoi?eeaie;

Oeeaeeecaoeee niiinoaaeiu ae?oa n ae?oaii;

Ie iaeia ec oeeaeeecaoeee ia ioaaouaaao anaai /aeiaa/anoaa;

I?aainoaaiiinoue a ?acaeoee oeeaeeecaoeee ai?acaei iaiueoa, /ai
i?aainoaaiiinoue iaaeaeo oacaie ?acaeoey iaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee.

I?iaiaey aiaeec enoi?ee, Oieiae auaeaeyao aeaaaeoeaoue iaeio
oeeaeeecaoeeth, eiaaea-eeai nouanoaiaaaooth ia Caiea (aeaiiay oeeo?a
iaiyaony ii oiaeo eieae). Ia aeaiiue iiiaio eo inoaeinue iyoue (ia
n/eoay aeaa ?aeeeoiaua):

Caiaaeiay o?enoeaineay

I?aaineaaiay o?enoeaineay

Eneaineay

Aeaeueiaainoi/iay

Eiaeoenoneay

Iaaeaeo iaeioi?uie ec yoeo oeeaeeecaoeee nouanoaotho ?iaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey, iai?eia?, caiaaeiay o?enoeaineay e i?aaineaaiay o?enoeaineay,
iaoiaeyueany ae?oa n ae?oaii a “nano?eineeo” ioiioaieyo, i?ienoiaeyo ec
yeeeineie oeeaeeecaoeee. Oeeaeeecaoeee, e?iia yoiai, acaeiiaeaenoaotho
ae?oa n ae?oaii e iiaoo aeeyoue ae?oa ia ae?oaa. Oaeay oi/ea c?aiey a
ei?ia i?ioeai?a/eo oi/ea c?aiey Oiaiaea?a, niaeanii eioi?ie
oeeaeeecaoeee yaeythony caieioouie a naaa nouiinoyie, ia niiniaiuie
iiiyoue ae?oa ae?oaa e ia i?ienoaeathueie iaeia ec ae?oaie.

Oai ia iaiaa, Oieiae oaeaea aeoaiei ia i?eaieao e eiioeaioeeth
“aaeeinoaa oeeaeeecaoeee”, iauyniyy aa, eae e Oiaiaea?,
aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiui /oanoaii aa?ioeaio?ecia nia?aiaiiuo enoi?eeia:
“Caiaaeiua enoi?eee … n/eoatho, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oieoeeaoeey ie?a
ia yeiiiie/aneie iniiaa Caiaaea aieaa eee iaiaa caaa?oaia, a cia/eo, eae
iie iieaaatho, caaa?oaaony oieoeeaoeey e ii ae?oaei iai?aaeaieyi.
Ai-aoi?uo, iie iooatho oieoeeaoeeth n aaeeinoaii, i?aoaaee/eaay, oaeei
ia?acii, ?ieue neooaoeee, enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny nianai iaaeaaii e ia
iicaieythuae iiea aiai?eoue i nicaeaiee aaeeiie Oeeaeeecaoeee, oai aieaa
ioiaeaeanoaeyoue aa n caiaaeiui iauanoaii”

Eaaeaeay oeeaeeecaoeey i?ioiaeeo ia naiai aeeciaiiii iooe neaaeothuea
noaaeee: Noaaeey ca?iaeaeaiey – aaiacen. Oeeaeeecaoeey iiaeao
aicieeiooue eeai a ?acoeueoaoa iooaoeee i?eieoeaiiai iauanoaa eeai ia
?acaaeeiao “iaoa?eineie” oeeaeeecaoeee. Ca noaaeeae aaiacena neaaeoao
noaaeey ?inoa, ia eioi?ie oeeaeeecaoeey ec ca?iaeuoa ?acaeaaaony a
iieiioeaiioth nioeeaeueioth no?oeoo?o. Ai a?aiy ?inoa oeeaeeecaoeeth
iinoiyiii iiaenoa?aaaao iianiinoue ia?aoiaea a noaaeeth iaaeeiia,
eioi?ay, eae i?aaeei (ii ia iaycaoaeueii!) niaiyaony noaaeeae ?aniaaea.
?aniaaoenue, oeeaeeecaoeey eeai en/acaao n eeoea Caiee (aaeiaoneay
oeeaeeecaoeey, oeeaeeecaoeey Eieia) eeai aeaao aeeciue iiaui
oeeaeeecaoeeyi (yeeeineay oeeaeeecaoeey, ii?iaeeaoay /a?ac anaeaineoth
oea?eiaue caiaaeiia e i?aaineaaiia o?enoeainoai). Neaaeoao n?aco
ioiaoeoue, /oi a yoii aeeciaiiii oeeeea iao oie oaoaeueiie
i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe ?acaeoey, eioi?ay i?enoonoaoao a oeeeea
oeeaeeecaoeee Oiaiaea?a. Anee o Oiaiaea?a oeeaeeecaoeey – yoi aeeaie
i?aaieci, eioi?ue n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?anoao, nic?aaaao, oayaeaao e,
iaeiiaoe, oie?aao, oi Oieiae iooiaeeo io o?aeoiaaiey oeeaeeecaoeee, eae
iaeie iaaeaeeiie nouiinoe, n/eoay /oi “iauanoai ia yaeyaony e ia iiaeao
auoue ie/ai eiui, e?iia eae iin?aaeieeii, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai
ioaeaeueiua ethaee acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie. Ee/iinoe, a ia
iauanoaa nicaeatho /aeiaa/aneoth enoi?eth”. Oaeay eioa?i?aoaoeey
iauanoaa iicaieyao ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe ?acaeoey:
anee ana eiaeeaeaeooiu, ninoaaeythuea aeaiiia iauanoai, niiaoo
i?aiaeieaoue iaaeeii a aeooa, oi e iauanoai a oeaeii iiaeao aua?aoueny
ec noaaeee iaaeeiia. “Iaaeeiiu oeeaeeecaoeee ia iiaoo auoue ?acoeueoaoii
iiaoi?ythueony eee iinooiaoaeueiuo aeaenoaee nee, iaoiaeyueony aia
/aeiaa/aneiai eiio?iey”. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi Oieiae ioaa?aaao
noaeueao a aii?inao ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee, n/eoay, /oi iineaaeiaa neiai
anaaaea inoaaony ca /aeiaaeii.

Auaeaeea iniiaiua noaaeee ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee, iaiaoiaeeii ioaaoeoue
ia aii?in: /oi aea yaeyaony “iioi?ii” oeeaeeecaoeee, /oi canoaaeyao
i?eieoeaiia iauanoai, aeeaoaa noaoeeiia?ii ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo ouny/
eao, iaeiaaeaeu i?iniooueny e ia/aoue iai?a?uaiia iinooiaoaeueiia
aeaeaeaiea; anoue ee /oi-eeai aaeeiia, noiyuaa ca anaie noaaeeyie
?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee? A iieneao yoiai ia?aii?eioeeia Oieiae i?eoiaeeo
e eiioeaioeee Auciaa-e-Ioaaoa. Ia iaeaey aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo,
“iaiaeooaaeaiiuo” i?e/ei ca?iaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee, Oieiae
aaiaeeo /a?ac ieo ia eneooaiee oaa?e Aiaeueae Aeueyaieii e iineaaeothuai
i?aia?aaeaiee eneooaaiiai /a?ac oai?aiea Ainiiaeia i?ioeai?a/ea a
ea/anoaa iniiaiiai aeaeaeouaai iaoaiecia enoi?ee. Ia ia?aii yoaia
Aeueyaie (Aucia) auaiaeeo nenoaio ec ?aaiiaaniiai e ianneaiiai ninoiyiey
Eiue a aicaoaeaeaiiia e aeoeaiia ninoiyiea ssi. Ioaaoii ia aucia
aeieaeai auoue eeai ?ino – “ia?aoiae a aieaa aunieia e aieaa niaa?oaiiia
n oi/ee c?aiey oneiaeiaiey no?oeoo?u” ninoiyiea, eeai nia?oue, i?iea?uo.
Aueaey ia iiaoth nooiaiue, nenoaia aiiaue auaiaeeony ec ?aaiiaaney e oae
aeaeaa aei oao ii?, iiea ia i/a?aaeiie aucia ia iineaaeoao aaeaeaaoiiai
ioaaoa. Auciau iiaoo auoue eae aiaoieie (noeioeu, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
aaiacena oeeaeeecaoeee) oae e aioo?aiieie (oai?/aneee ii?ua aaiey,
?acaeoea iaoee). I?e/ai nenoaia o?aaoaony eeoue ia?aiia/aeueiia iaee/ea
aiaoieo noeioeia, eioi?ua caoai ii ia?a ?acaeoey nenoaiu i?aa?auathony
ai aioo?aiiea auciau. Eiaiii oaeia aeeiaie/aneia, i?ia?anne?othuaa
i?ioeai?a/ea e yaeyaony caeiaii ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee e eiaeeaeaeooiia,
aa ninoaaeythueo.

*oiau iauanoai niiaei ioaaoeoue ia aucia, a iai iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea
Ee/iinoae, naa?oethaeae. Eiaiii iie niiniaiu aeaoue ioaao, eiaiii iie
niiniaiu iiaanoe ca niaie anao inoaeueiuo. Eoi iie – yoe naa?oethaee?
Oieiae oeacuaaao, /oi eie iiaoo auoue eae ioaeaeueiua ethaee (Eenon,
Iooaiiaae, Aoaeaea) oae e nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu (aiaeeeneea
iiieiioi?ienou). A ethaii neo/aa iauanoai ?aneaeuaaaony ia aeaa
acaeiiaeaenoaothuea /anoe: ia oai?/aneia, ianouaa a naaa iioaioeeae
iaiueoeinoai e iniiaioth eia?oioth ianno. Iaee/ea a iauanoaa oai?/aneie
ee/iinoe – oaeoi? iaiaoiaeeiue e aeinoaoi/iue aeey ca?iaeaeaiey
i?ioeanna… Iaeiaei aeey ioaaoiiai aeaeaeaiey ioaeiu ii?aaeaeaiiua
oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo oai?/aneay ee/iinoue iiaeao oaea/ue ca niaie
inoaeueiuo”. Eaeia iaoaieci acaeiiaeaenoaey oai?/aneiai iaiueoeinoaa e
ianneaiiai aieueoeinoaa? Oieiae iacaae yoio iaoaieci “ieianen” –
nioeeaeueiia iiae?aaeaiea. Ieianen iiyaeyaony o /aeiaaea caaeieai aei
anooieaiey iauanoaa a oaco ?acaeoey. Aai iiaeii aeaeaoue e a iauanoaao n
i?eieoeaiui oeeaaeii e a ?acaeouo oeeaeeecaoeeyo. Iaeiaei aeaenoaea
ieianena a yoeo aeaoo neo/ayo i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeii: anee a i?eieoeaiuo
iauanoaao ieianen, au?aaeaynue a iau/ayo e iiae?aaeaiee noa?aeoeiai,
iai?aaeai a i?ioeia e yaeyaony aa?aioii noaaeeueiinoe iauanoaa, oi i?e
anooieaiee iauanoaa ia iooue oeeaeeecaoeee ieianen a iniiaiii iai?aaeai
ia oai?/aneia iaiueoeinoai, yaeyynue, oaeei ia?acii, naycothuei caaiii
iaaeaeo aeoeaiuie e ianneaiuie aai /eaiaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey
oniaoiiai ioaaoa ia aucia iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea a iauanoaa neaaeothueo
oaeoi?ia:

a iauanoaa aeieaeiu i?enoonoaiaaoue ethaee, niiniaiua iiiyoue aucia e
aeaoue ia iaai ioaao;

aieueoeinoai aeieaeii auoue aioiai e i?eiyoeth aeaiiiai ioaaoa, oi
anoue, a?oai aiai?y, “nic?aoue” aeey ioaaoa.

Eae oaea oiiieiaeinue, Oieiae auaeaeyao aeaa iooe aicieeiiaaiey
oeeaeeecaoeee: /a?ac iooaoeeth i?eieoeaiiai iauanoaa e /a?ac
io/oaeaeaiea i?ieaoa?eaoa io i?aayuaai iaiueoeinoaa ?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoeo
oeeaeeecaoeee. Eae e neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, a iaieo neo/ayo Oieiae
iauyniyao aaiacen n iiiiuueth eiioeaioeee Aucia-e-Ioaao, ioaa?aay i?e
yoii eae ?aniaua oai?ee, iinooee?othuea ?acee/ioth
“ainoaea?noaiia?acothuoth” neeo ?aciuo ?an, oae e aeaaii?eyoiua
i?e?iaeiua oneiaey, yeiau yaeythueany caeiaii aicieeiiaaiey
oeeaeeecaoeee. Caia/ay, /oi i?e?iaeiua oneiaey iiaoo aeeyoue ia oa?aeoa?
oeeaeeecaoeee, ii iaeiaei aiai?eo, /oi aeey oniaoiiai ca?iaeaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeii iiyaeaiea Auciaa – noeioea. Oieiae auaeaeyao iyoue iniiaiuo
noeioeia, eioi?ua iiaoo iieiaeeoaeueiui ia?acii iiaeeyoue ia oniaoiue
aaiacen oeeaeeecaoeee.

1. Noeioe i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu

a) Noeioe aanieiaeiie caiee

b) Noeioe iiaie caiee

2. Noeioe ie?oaeaiey

a) Noeioe oaea?a (?aaeoeey ia iaiaaeaiea)

b) Noeioe aeaaeaiey (“oi?iino”)

c) Noeioe ouaieaiey (aaaeiinoue, ?aanoai, iaoeeiiaeueiay
aeene?eieiaoeey)

Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiiai auoa nienea, noeioeu iiaoo auoue eae
i?e?iaeiuie, oae e nioeeaeueiuie. Eiaiii iiyaeaiea noeioee?othuaai
aicaeaenoaey ni noi?iiu i?e?iaeu eee ie?oaeathueo ia?iaeia niiniaii
auaanoe i?eieoeaiia iauanoai ec noaoeeiia?iiai ninoiyiey e canoaaeoue
aai ia/aoue ?acaeaaoueny. Aeieacuaay naia i?aaeiieiaeaiea, Oieiae
aiaeece?oao aieueoia eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo oeeaeeecaoeee e a eaaeaeii
neo/aa iaoiaeeo oaeie noeioe.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?inoa eaaeaeay oeeaeeecaoeey i?ioiaeeo naie oieeaeueiue
iooue ?acaeoey. I?e yoii iiuo, iieo/aiiue eaaeaeie oeeaeeecaoeeae,
oaeaea oieeaeai. Yoei Oieiae iauyniyao ?acee/ea oeeaeeecaoeee. *ai
neeueiaa ?acaeoa aeaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey, oai iaiiaoi?eiae i?ieaeaiiue ath
aeeciaiiue iooue e oai neeueiaa iaiioiaea iia ia ae?oaea. Oaeei ia?acii,
ii ia?a ?inoa oeeaeeecaoeee aicieeaao eo aeeooa?aioeeaoeey, /oi
neacuaaaony ia ie?iaicc?aiee eiaeeaeaeooiia, eoeueoo?a, eneonnoaa. A
ioee/ea io Oiaiaea?a, iauyniythuaai ?acee/ea oeeaeeecaoeee (o Oiaiaea?a
– eoeueoo?) ?acee/eai i?aoaiiiaiia – ia?ae/iuo neiaieia, eaaeaueo a
iniiaa eaaeaeie oeeaeeecaoeee, Oieiae oniao?eaaao ecia/aeueiia
aioo?aiiaa aaeeinoai anao oeeaeeecaoeee, ?acee/ey eioi?uo aucaaiu
iaiiaoi?eiinoueth aeeciaiiiai iooe eaaeaeie oeeaeeecaoeee:
“Iiiaiia?acea, i?aaenoaaeaiiia a /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaea, /aeiaa/aneie
aeecie e nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooao – yoi eneonnoaaiiue oaiiiai e ii eeoue
ianee?oao aioo?aiiaa aaeeinoai”.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iinooeaoia oai?ee Inaaeueaea Oiaiaea?a yaeyaony oi,
/oi iauanoaa nooue aeeaua i?aaieciu. A ?ac oae, oi eaaeaeia iauanoai
i?ioiaeeo /a?ac noaaeee, iaycaoaeueiua aeey ethaiai i?aaiecia:
?iaeaeaiey, ?inoa, oayaeaiey e nia?oe. Iaeiaei, eae auei iieacaii,
Oieiae ioaa?aaao yoo oi/eo c?aiey, ?anniao?eaay iauanoai eeoue eae iiea
aeaenoaey eiaeeaeaeooiia. Aaea aea oiaaea neaaeoao eneaoue i?e/eio
iaaeeiiia oeeaeeecaoeee? Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, i?ioeann ?inoa
oeeaeeecaoeee – yoi iinoiyiiay ai?ueaa. N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi
acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo auciaaie e oai?/aneei iaiueoeinoaii, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu yoi iinoiyiiia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo iaiueoeinoaii e einiie
iannie. Iaaeeii iiaeao i?iecieoe ii ?acee/iui i?e/eiai. Aiciiaeii, /oi
ia i/a?aaeiie aucia aeoeaiay /anoue i?inoi ia niiaeao aeaoue aaeaeaaoiue
ioaao. Ae?oaay i?e/eia iiaeao e?uoueny a i?e?iaea ieianena. Ieianen,
iai?aaeaiiue a aoaeouaa icia/aao ioeac io iau/aaa. Oaeei ia?acii,
nenoaia noaiiaeony neaai naaeaine?iaaiiie e iiaeaa?aeaiiie eaoaeeeciai.
Ia eiay aeinoaoi/ii /aoeiai e iaeiicia/iiai ioaaoa ia aii?in i i?e/eiao
iaaeeiia, Oieiae i?eaiaeeo aieueoia eiee/anoai i?eia?ia iaaeeiiia, ec
eioi?uo iiaeii au/eaieoue ianeieueei a?oii:

Ioeac aieueoeinoaa io ieianena. Ai a?aiy eaoaeeeciia aieueoeinoai iiaeao
iioa?youe aa?o a eaeaaeu iaiueoeinoaa e, ia eiay naea?aeeaathueo
o?aaeeoeee, ieacuaaaony a “iiaeaaoaiiii” ninoiyiee, /oi iaecaaaeii
aaaeao e oaino.

Ioeaea iaiueoeinoaa, au?aaeaiiay a ianneaiinoe iinea ?yaea nianoaaiiuo
iiaaae. Iauanoai n oaeei iaiueoeinoaii nouanoaoao aei ia?aiai
eaoaeeecia, auaiaeyuaai nenoaio ec “niyuaai” ?aaiiaaney.

Ecieyoeey i?aayuaai iaiueoeinoaa io iauanoaa e, eae neaaenoaea,
au?iaeaeaiea.

Eaeieiiieeiinoai – “eioaeeaeooaeueiia e ii?aeueii oua?aiia e neaiia
iaiaeanoaeaiea /anoe aianoi oeaeiai, oaa?e aianoi Oai?oea e a?aiaie
aianoi Aa/iinoe”. A yoo eaoaai?eth iiiaaeaao i/aiue oe?ieee niaeo?
iaaeeiiia. A /anoiinoe, nthaea iiiaaeaao nia?aiaiiay oaoiiaaiiay
caiaaeiay oeeaeeecaoeey, nia?oaineay oeeaeeecaoeey, iieiaeeaoay naay ia
aeoa?ue aiaa Aieiu.

Eae aeaeii, niaeo? iianiinoae, iiaenoa?aaathueo oeeaeeecaoeeth ia iooe
aa ?acaeoey, aanueia oe?ie. Iaeiaei ianooieaiea iaaeeiia e aeaaee ia
yaeyaony iaecaaaeiui. Anaaaea anoue oain auoiaea ec ooieeiaie neooaoeee.

Noaaeey ?aniaaea, ii Oieiae, yaeyaony na?eae iaoaea/iuo ioaaoia ia iaeei
e oio aea aucia, eioi?ue i?eaae e iaaeeiio oeeaeeecaoeee. A nioeeaeueiii
ieaia ia noaaeee ?aniaaea i?ienoiaeeo ?anuaieaiea iauanoaa ia o?e
ninoaaeythuea:

I?aayuaa iaiueoeinoai, aieueoa ia yaeythuaany oai?/aneie neeie
iauanoaa, ii oneeaiii oeaieythuaany ca aeanoue. N oeaeueth oaea?aeaiey
aeanoe iii nicaeaao oieaa?naeueiia ainoaea?noai.

Aioo?aiiee i?ieaoa?eao, ia aeiaa?ythuee aieaa i?aayuaio iaiueoeinoao.
Aai ioaaoiie ?aaeoeeae yaeyaony nicaeaiea anaeaineie oea?eae.

Aiaoiee i?ieaoa?eao. Ii i?iyaeyao naay a aa?aa?neeo iaaaaao ia
ineaaaaooth oeeaeeecaoeeth.

A aeooiaiie noa?a ?aniaae iauanoaa i?eaiaeeo e ?aneieo a aeooa. ?aneie a
aeooao ethaeae i?iyaeyaony a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oi?iao. Ii cao?aaeaaao
iiaaaeaiea, /oanoaa, aeeciue a oeaeii. A ia?eiae ?aniaaea iauanoaa
eaaeaeue aucia ano?a/aao a aeooao ethaeae i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiue ioeeee
– io aaniethoiie ianneaiinoe aei e?aeieo oi?i aeoeaiinoe… Ii ia?a
ia?anoaiey nioeeaeueiiai ?aniaaea aeueoa?iaoeaiua ?aoaiey noaiiayony ana
aieaa einiuie, iiey?iuie e aieaa cia/eiuie ii naiei iineaaenoaeyi.

?aceiaeaiea iauanoaa nii?iaiaeaeaaony iieiui ?aniaaeii i?aayuae aa?oooee
e iiyaeaieai iiaiai oai?/aneiai iaiueoeinoaa, auoaaeoaai ec
i?ieaoa?eaoa. Eiaiii yoi iaiueoeinoai niiniaii ia?aciaaoue iiaoth
oeeaeeecaoeeth. Aaeeinoaaiiue iieiaeeoaeueiue auoiae – “i?aia?aaeaiea”,
oi anoue nicaeaiea i?ieaoa?eaoii iiaie ?aeeaee, iie?athuaeny ia
i?eioeeieaeueii eioth nenoaio oeaiiinoae, iaaeaee ?aceaaathuayny
oeeaeeecaoeey. Nicaeaiiay i?ieaoa?eaoii anaeaineay oea?eiaue yaeyaony
oie “eoeieeie”, ec eioi?ie e aicieeiao a aoaeouai iiaay oeeaeeecaoeey.

Iauay nouiinoue oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai aiaeeca enoi?ee iauanoaa

Ec anaai neacaiiiai auoa noaiiaeoueny yniui iauee niune
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea – iino?ieoue oeiieiaeth iauanoaaiiuo
nenoai, enoiaeyuoth ec ii?aaeaeaiiuo, ea/anoaaiii ?acee/athueony iaaeaeo
niaie oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneeo aacenia. Aeeeoaeueiia eaii?e?iaaiea
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea na?ueacii iaaaeiyei iaoo enoi?e/aneoth
iaoeo e nioeeaeueioth oeeinioeth, iaoaei iiiyoue iiiaea i?ioeannu e
yaeaiey. Ainnoaiiaeaiea a i?aaao e iaiaauaiea oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai
iiaeoiaea iicaieeo naeaeaoue iaoa aeaeaiea enoi?ee aieaa iiiaiia?iui.

Aaaeiui iiiaioii ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee yaeyaony ia?aueaaiea
eioaa?aoeeiiiuo oaiaeaioeee a iauanoaa – oaiaeaioeee, eioi?ua iaeuecy
auaanoe i?yii e oieueei ec caeiiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey oie eee
eiie oi?iaoeee. A /anoiinoe, aia oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea
iaaiciiaeii iiiyoue nouiinoue e niaoeeoeeo nia?aiaiiiai caiaaeiiai
iauanoaa, ?aaii eae iaeuecy aeaoue enoeiioth ioeaieo aeaceioaa?aoeeiiiui
i?ioeannai, ?acaa?ioaoeiny a ianooaaa auaoaai NNN? e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu.
Yoi oai aieaa aaaeii, /oi aeaiiua i?ioeannu iiiaeie auaeathony e
i?eieiathony ca aeaeaeaiea e oeeaeeecaoeee.

Ec nouiinoe e no?oeoo?u iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee ia iiaoo
auoue i?yii auaaaeaiu e eiie?aoiua enoi?e/aneea oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee
iauanoaaiiiai oicyenoaa (iaoo?aeueiia, iaoo?aeueii-oiaa?iia, oiaa?iia,
oiaa?ii-ieaiiia?iia), iineieueeo oi?iu yoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ii?aaeaeythony, eae iu aeaeaee, oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneei aacenii,
eaaeauei a iniiaa oeeaeeecaoeee. Nii?yaeaiea oi?i i?aaiecaoeee
iauanoaaiiiai oicyenoaa n aieiaie (nooiaiyie) oeeaeeecaoeee iicaieyao
iiiyoue, /oi iaoo?aeecaoeey yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a ethauo
enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo ia anoue aeaeaeaiea aia?aae, ii eeiee ?acaeoey
oeeaeeecaoeee – ia?aae iaie iiiyoiia enoi?e/aneia aeaeaeaiea.

Oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae iicaieyao iiiyoue aaiacen, oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou
e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueii-yoie/aneeo iauiinoae,
eioi?ua iiyoue-oaee ia naycaiu iai?yioth n oi?iaoeeiiiui /eaiaieai
iauanoaa.

I?e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiii iiaeoiaea iaiaauathony e iaoe i?aaenoaaeaiey i
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneii iaeeea aeaiiiai eiie?aoiiai iauanoaa, aai
iaioaeeoaoa, i?e/ai aeoeaiay ?ieue iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey i?aaenoaao
aieaa ?aeueaoii, eai iiiaea /a?ou yoiai iaeeea yaeythony io?aaeaieai
oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneiai aacena, eaaeauaai a iniiaa oie eee eiie nooiaie
oeeaeeecaoeee.

Oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae aiieia niaeanoaony n nia?aiaiiuie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie i eoeueoo?a eae aiaaeieiae/aneii, /enoi nioeeaeueiii
niiniaa aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea e iauanoaa. Aieaa oiai,
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue eoeueoo?o ai anai aa
iauaia, ia eneeth/ay ie iaeiiai no?oeoo?iiai yeaiaioa. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, nai ia?aoiae e oeeaeeecaoeee iiaeao auoue iiiyo oieueei n
o/aoii oiai, /oi ii yaeeny oceiaui ioieoii oi?ie?iaaiey eoeueoo?u. Oaeei
ia?acii, oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae iicaieyao aeoaiei aieeiooue a aua
iaeei i/aiue aaaeiue n?ac enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna — oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue e aic?anoathuaa cia/aiea yoie/aneeo, eoeueoo?iuo e
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiuo ?acee/ee a nia?aiaiiii ie?a e oi, /oi eaeae
aeiaaeueiinoe ioaaouaatho aua i/aiue oceoth /anoue ianaeaiey ieaiaou.
Caiaaeiay, eneaineay, eiaeeeneay, eeoaeneay e ae?oaea oeeaeeecaoeee
i?iaeieaeatho nio?aiyoue naith aeeciaiioth neeo, eai iie neoaeao iniiaie
aeey naiiau?aaeaiey iann ianaeaiey, aeey au?aaioee niioaaonoaothuaai
ii?iaoeaii-oeaiiinoiiai i?ino?ainoaa eo auoey.

Iiiyoea “oeeaeeecaoeey” a oaeie eioa?i?aoaoeee iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaii eeoue aeey iienaiey nia?aiaiiiai ie?a, a eioi?ii
acaeiiaeaenoaea oeeaeeecaoeee yaeyaony onoie/eaie e aeiieie?othuae
oaiaeaioeeae, aaea oaea iao “/enouo” oeeaeeecaoeeiiiuo ia?aciaaiee e
nio?aiaiea eo eaeaioe/iinoe auaeyaeeo aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeaiaoe/ii.

Noi?iiieee eiioeaioeee, aaniethoece?othuae eioaa?aoeeiiiua oaiaeaioeee,
aeaeatho auaiae i oii, /oi aeiaaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea eoeueoo? aaaeao e
noaiiaeaieth aaeeiie ieaiaoa?iie oeeaeeecaoeee n iiaie oeaeie
iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae e aeaaea eieeaeoeaiui iauaieaiaoa?iui
?acoiii, Iaiyoueth e Aeooiaiui ie?ii.

3. Aiciiaeiue neioac iiaeoiaeia.

Oi?iaoeey e oeeaeeecaoeey ?aciua n?aaeu a ?acaeoee iauanoaa eae
oeaeinoiie nenoaiu. Eae iaeuecy iiciaoue iaoaieci ?acaeoey ethaiai
iauanoaa, enneaaeoy oieueei aaceniua oaeoi?u e iionoea iaaeno?ia/iua,
oae iaaiciiaeii e iiiyoue nae?aou oi?aaeaiey iauanoaaiiui ?acaeoeai,
i?eaioe?oynue eeai oieueei ia oi?iaoeeiiiue, eeai oieueei ia
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue aniaeo a aai aeeiaieea. Oi?iaoeey  —
nioeeiyeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, oeeaeeecaoeey  — nioeeieoeueoo?iay.

Iiiyoea oi?iaoeee eiaao cia/aiea eae nenoaiiia?acothuaai ia/aea anaai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai no?iy aeaiiiai iauanoaa.
Oi?iaoeee ?acee/athony ii aeiieie?othuei oi?iai nianoaaiiinoe. Ia?aoiae
io iaeiie oi?iaoeee e ae?oaie iaoneiaeai niaiie oi?i nianoaaiiinoe ia
iniiaiua n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?ienoiaeyuae iiae aeeyieai i?ia?anna
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, ioe?uaathuaai iiaua iaoa?eaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
aeey /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee.

A iiiyoee oeeaeeecaoeey iauaaeeiythony nioeeaeueiua e eoeueoo?iua
aniaeou aeecie iauanoaa, oeeaeeecaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yoai enoi?ee,
ia/eiathueeny aianoa n auoiaeii enoi?ee ec anoanoaaiiiai, o.a.
ia?aiauoiiai, ninoiyiey e ?acaeaathuainy aeaeaa ia iniiaa ei naiei
nicaeaaaaiuo i?aaeiinueie, /oi iia oa?aeoa?ecoao i?aainoaaiiinoue a
?acaeoee iauanoaa. Aianoa n oai ianoie/eai ooaa?aeaeaeanue iuneue, /oi
oaeoe/anee a enoi?ee nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oeeaeeecaoeee, oae neacaoue
“oi?iaoeeiiiua”: eaieoaeenoe/aneay oeeaeeecaoeey, eiiioienoe/aneay
oeeaeeecaoeey e o.i. A eoiaa oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae oa?ye naith
ioiineoaeueioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e iiae/eiyeny oi?iaoeeiiiiio, a
iiiyoea oeeaeeecaoeee noaiiaeeinue iiaeniaiui, ioaeiui eeoue aeey
auiieiaiey iaeioi?uo aniaeoia iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee. Anee
oai?ey oi?iaoeee i?eaioe?iaaia ia auyaeaiea caeiiiia?iinoae, i?enoueo
iauanoao ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao enoi?ee, a oae aea aai no?oeoo?u ia
eaaeaeii ec yoeo yoaiia, oi oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae ?aoaao niaa?oaiii
eiua iiciaaaoaeueiua caaea/e. Aeaaiay ec ieo — yoi aiaeec nioeeaeueiuo
iaoaieciia aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, iaania/eaathueo naio aiciiaeiinoue
nouanoaiaaiey iauanoaa ia aeaiiii, o.a. oeeaeeeciaaiiii o?iaia,
oaa?aaathueo aai io ?aniaaea e iaee/aiey. Yoe iaoaieciu iinoiyiii
?acaeaathony, niaa?oainoaothony eee ono?aiythony. Anee oio eee eiie
iaoaieci ono?aiyaony, oi ia/eiaaony aeaa?aaeaoeey naycaiiuo n iei
nioeeaeueiuo no?oeoo?. Eaaeaeay iineaaeothuay oi?iaoeey yaeyaony e oaaii
aia?aae a ?acaeoee oeeaeeecaoeee, a ia iinyaaoaeuenoaii ia aa iniiau.
Aeaaeue oao eee eiuo oeeaeeecaoeee a i?ioeii ia inoaiaaeeaaea
enoi?e/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, iioiio /oi yoi auee eieaeueiua eaoano?iou.

I?ia?ann oeeaeeecaoeee i?e anae aai i?ioeai?a/eainoe ana-oaee naycai n
?acaeoeai e niaa?oainoaiaaieai aa nioeeaeueiuo iaoaieciia. Yoe iaoaieciu
iaania/eaatho aeey aeecie nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, oaoieee, iaoee, iiaeaea?aeeaatho
niioaaonoaothuoth aeeiaieeo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Aoi?ay caaea/a, eioi?ay ?aoaaony oeeaeeeciaaiiui iiaeoiaeii e enoi?ee, —
auyaeaiea aa /aeiaa/aneiai ecia?aiey, iaoaieciia oi?ie?iaaiey ee/iinoe
oeeaeeeciaaiiiai /aeiaaea, aiaeec eoeueoo?u, eae ia?u ?acaeoey /aeiaaea,
aai niiniaiinoe e aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iiiyoea “oeeaeeecaoeee” oe?a iiiyoey oi?iaoeee, iaeiaei yoo aa
iauaiiinoue iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue oi?iuaiii: iaeuecy neaaeai,
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oeeaeeecaoeey — yoi oi?iaoeey iethn noa?a eoeueoo?u
aeaiiiai iauanoaa. ?acee/ey iaaeaeo yoeie eaoaai?eyie iaoneiaeaiu aua
iaaaeaeaaoiinoueth no?oeoo?iuo naycae iaaeaeo yaeaieyie e i?ioeannaie.

Eoae, oaeea iiiyoey eae oeeaeeecaoeey, oi?iaoeey e eoeueoo?a iaeuecy
o?aaiyoue, ii a oi aea a?aiy iie oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie.

?anniao?eaay oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae, neaaeoao oaeaea ioaaoeoue ia
aii?in – /ai iauynieoue o?iie/aneia ionoaaaiea ia?enecia a ?ac?aaioea e
eniieueciaaiee oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea?

I/aaeaeii, ooo aeaenoaiaae oeaeue eiiieaen i?e/ei.

Ia?eneci oi?ie?iaaeny a aanueia cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eae
aa?iiioeaio?enoneia o/aiea, i /ai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaee e naie aai
iniiaiiieiaeieee. Eco/aiea enoi?ee a aa oeeaeeecaoeeiiiii n?aca
i?aaeiieaaaao i?eiaiaiea eiiia?aoeaiiai iaoiaea a ea/anoaa aaaeiaeoaai,
oi anoue n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ?acee/iuo, ca/anooth iaiioiaeeo ae?oa ia
ae?oaa eieaeueiuo oeeaeeecaoeee. Iineieueeo aea a aeaiiii neo/aa a
oeaio?a aieiaiey ieacaeny iaeei ?aaeii, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie aaeeinoai
ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth e ii nia?aiaiiiio (eiaaony a aeaeo XIX aae)
ninoiyieth, oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue aniaeo aiaeeca auioaeaeaiii ieacaeny a
oaie.

Niaeaoaynue n Euethenii Ii?aaiii a ioiioaiee ia/aeueiiai a?aiaiiiai
ia?aie/eoaey oeeaeeecaoeee (“yiioe, neaaeothuea ca aeeeinoueth e
aa?aa?noaii”), O Yiaaeuen a oi aea a?aiy aaae e eiia/iue ia?aie/eoaeue
oeeaeeecaoeey — yoi oi, /oi aei eiiioiecia, yoi — na?ey
aioaaiienoe/aneeo oi?iaoeee. A ieaia enneaaeiaaoaeueneii yoi icia/aei,
/oi Ia?ena e Yiaaeuena eioa?aniaaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii eeoue oa noaaeey
oeeaeeecaoeee, ec eioi?ie aeieaeai aue aicieeiooue eiiioieci. Au?aaiiue
aea ec oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai eiioaenoa eaieoaeeci i?aaenoaaae e ia?aae
enneaaeiaaoaeai e ia?aae /eoaoaeai eneeth/eoaeueii a naiai oi?iaoeeiiiii
iaee/uea.

Aeey ia?enecia, eae ioia/ae a naia a?aiy A. Ia?eoca, oa?aeoa?ii
aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiia aieiaiea e neeai, aeaceioaa?e?othuei iauanoai, i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiie nouanoaaiiie iaaeiioeaiea nee eioaa?aoeee, ii aaaeue
oeeaeeecaoeey ii naiaio ecia/aeueiiio niuneo — aeaeaeaiea e eioaa?aoeee,
e iaocaeaieth ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo nee, a ?ac yoi oae, oi e o?iie/aneia
ionoaaaiea ia?enecia a ?ac?aaioea oeeaeeecaoeeiiiie eiioeaioeee
noaiiaeony aiieia iauynieiui.

Eaaei iaia?oaeeaaaony acaeiinaycue n aeeeoaeueiui “iaaieiaieai”
ia?enecia e i?iaeaia aeoeaiie ?iee iayeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Ioaa/ay ii
yoiio iiaiaeo iiiiiaioai, Yiaaeuen oeacuaae, /oi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia
iiieiaiea enoi?ee oi?ie?iaaeinue a ai?ueaa i?ioea eaeaaeecia, a neeo
/aai ie o Ia?ena, ie o iaai a oa/aiea aeanyoeeaoee ia oaaoaei ie
a?aiaie, ie iiaiaeia, ie nee, /oiau oaeaeyoue iayeiiiie/aneei yaeaieyi
(ainoaea?noao, aeooiaiie iaaeno?ieea, aaia?aoe/aneei oneiaeyi e o. ae.)
oaeia aea aieiaiea, eae yeiiiieea. Ii aaaeue eaaeauee a ooiaeaiaioa
oeeaeeecaoeee oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneee aacen — yoi oiaea iayeiiiie/aneia
yaeaiea.

Iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi a oiaea nia?aiaiiuo aeeneonnee yaii iaiaoeeanue
oaiaeaioeey ?aoaoue aii?in i ia?niaeoeaao i?eiaiaiey e naiie noaeueaa
oi?iaoeeiiiiai e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaeia ii i?eioeeio “eee—eee”.
Ai anao iiaeiaiuo eiioeaioeeyo enoi?e/aneay iaoea, ii nooe aeaea,
eneeth/aaony ec noa?u aeaenoaey iauaiaoeiaaae/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae e, a
/anoiinoe, ia iiae/eiyaony i?eioeeio niioaaonoaey, niaeanii eioi?iio
noa?ay oai?ey ia io?eoeaaony iieiinoueth, iineieueeo iia iaycaoaeueii
/aio-oi niioaaonoaoao a oai?ee iiaie, i?aaenoaaeyao aa /anoiue,
i?aaeaeueiue neo/ae.

Aicieeoay a enoi?e/aneie iaoea e iauanoaiaaaeaiee a oeaeii i?iaeaia
iiaeao auoue e aeieaeia auoue ?aoaia ii i?eioeeio “e—e” Iaiaoiaeeii
oeaeaono?aieaiiia enneaaeiaaiea e iaoiaeaeaiea oaeiai nii?yaeaiey
oi?iaoeeiiiie e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiie ia?aaeeai, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue
ieiaeioai?ii i?eeiaeaii e ?aoaieth caaea/e e?oiiiianooaaiiai /eaiaiey
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, /oi iicaieeo naeaeaoue naii aeaeaiea enoi?ee
aieaa iiiaiia?iui.

Eaaeaeay ec ?anniao?eaaaiuo ia?aaeeai iaiaoiaeeia e aaaeia, ii
iaaeinoaoi/ia naia ii naaa. Oae, oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae nai ii naaa
ia iiaeao iauynieoue i?e/eiu e iaoaieci ia?aoiaea io iaeiie nooiaie
oeeaeeecaoeee e ae?oaie. Iiaeiaiay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue iaia?oaeeaaaony e
i?e iiiuoeao iauynieoue, ii/aio eioaa?aoeeiiiua oaiaeaioeee a i?ioeie
enoi?ee ouny/aeaoeyie, ia/eiay n ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai iauanoaa,
i?ieeaaeuaaee naaa iooue a aeaceioaa?aoeeiiiuo oi?iao.

E “oi?iaoeeiiueee” e “oeeaeeecaoeeiiueee” iaeaaeatho iaoe?iuie
aiciiaeiinoyie aeey i?aiaeieaiey iaeiinoi?iiiinoe e iaiaauaiey naieo
eiioeaioeee. A /anoiinoe, “oi?iaoeeiiueeai” ia?yaeo n caaea/ae
inaiaiaeaeaiey naiae eiioeaioeee io oiai, /oi ia auaea?aeaei i?iaa?eo
a?aiaiai, i?aaenoieo iaaa?noaoue aeeeaoaany aeanyoeeaoeyie ionoaaaiea
ia?enecia a ?ac?aaioea i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n oeeaeeecaoeeae.

Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo oi?iaoeeiiiui (n aai yeiiiie/aneei aacenii) e
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiui (n aai oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneei aacenii) ?aaeueia e
inycaaia. Caeanue oianoii aniiiieoue E. ssnia?na: “Iiiuoea
no?oeoo?e?iaaoue enoi?eth, aeaeeoue aa ia ?yae ia?eiaeia anaaaea aaaeao
e a?oaui oi?iuaieyi, iaeiaei yoe oi?iuaiey iiaoo neoaeeoue no?aeeaie,
oeacuaathueie ia nouanoaaiiua iiiaiou”.

A iaeieo neo/ayo, eae iu aeaeei, ia iaeiii e oii aea oaoieei-
oaoiieiae/aneii aacena (caieaaeaeue/aneie aieiu oeeaeeecaoeee),
au?anoatho, iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiyy ae?oa ae?oaa, eeai ia?aeeaeueii — o
?aciuo ia?iaeia ii-?aciiio — aeaa i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/iua ae?oa io
ae?oaa iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneea oi?iaoeee, a ae?oaeo aea iaeia
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneay oi?iaoeey (eaieoaeeci), “ia aienuaaaony” a
eacaeinue au iieiaeaiioth ae aieio (eiaeono?eaeueioth) e “aoi?aaaony” a
neaaeothuoth, iiea naiaiaeioth io iaicia/aiey, eeaoi/eo. Ia iieiaiiaaia
yoa eeaoi/ea iioiio, /oi ieaaea a ie?a aua ia iaicia/eeny /aoei e
ii?aaeaeaiii oi?iaoeeiiiue no?ie, neaaeothuee ca eaieoaeeciii.

Aiaeec enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna iieacuaaao, /oi i?e anae oaniaeoae
acaeiinayce oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneiai aacena (e oaoie/aneeo ?aaiethoeee)
naycue yoa aanueia e aanueia iiin?aaeiaaia, ?aaeecoaony /a?ac neiaeiue
ia?aaeaoi/iue iaoaieci.

Nii?yaeaiea oi?iaoeeiiiiai e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai iineo
aeeaeaeoe/anee-i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?, eioi?ue iaia?oaeeaaaony oaea i?e
aiaeeca ia?aoiaea e oeeaeeecaoeee eae nioeeaeueiiai ia?aai?ioa.

Caeanue n?aco aea aicieeaao aii?in: oiaeaeanoaai ee oiiiyiooue ia?aai?io
oie nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee, eioi?ay aia?aea a naay iniiaiia
niaea?aeaiea ia?aoiaea io ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa e ia?aie eeanniaie
oi?iaoeee? I iieiii oiaeaeanoaa (niaiaaeaiee) aiai?eoue a?yae ee
i?eoiaeeony oioy au iioiio, /oi ia/aei ia?aoiaea e oeeaeeecaoeee — e a
yoii auea ii?aaeaeaiiay eiaeea — i?aaeoanoaiaaei ia/aeo ia?aoiaea e
eeanniaiio iauanoao.

Ii oiaaea aicieeaao aii?in aoi?ie: anee aeaa yoeo nioeeaeueiuo
ia?aai?ioa ia oiaeaeanoaaiiu, oi a eaeie noaiaie iie ana aea
iaeeaaeuaathony ae?oa ia ae?oaa a nioeeaeueiii i?ino?ainoaa e eae
niioiinyony ai a?aiaie? I/aaeaeii, ia?aue ia?aai?io i?aaeoanoaoao
aoi?iio oieueei a eaeie-oi noaiaie, eai, aicieeioa a oeaeyo
eioaa?aoeaiuo, oeeaeeecaoeey a oao eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo iiaea
auiieiyoue yoo naith iniiaioth ooieoeeth oieueei a aeaceioaa?aoeaiie
(aioaaiienoe/aneie) oi?ia. Ionthaea i?ioeai?a/eainoue nioeeaeueiuo
einoeoooia, eo ooieoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe a oneiaeyo
eeanniai-aioaaiienoe/aneiai iauanoaa.

Aeey oiai, /oiau aeoaaea iiiyoue acaeiinaycue aeaoo aiaeece?oaiuo
ia?aai?ioia e aeaeaeouoth neeo eo neeyiey, oeaeaniia?acii oioy au
ioieoe?ii iaicia/eoue nouiinoue eaaeaeiai ec ieo.

Oie/eii e ea?aeeiaeueiiio nioeeaeueiiio ia?aai?ioo, eiaioaiiio
ia?aoiaeii e oeeaeeecaoeee, iineoaeeea oiiieiaaoayny oaea oaoie/aneay
?aaiethoeey, aeaaoay aeeciue eoeueoo?iiio e inaaeeiio caieaaeaeeth, oi
anoue enoi?e/anee ia?aiio oeio i?iecaiaeyuaai oicyenoaa. Oaeiaa auea
enoiaeiay iiceoeey oeeaeeecaoeee caieaaeaeue/aneie. Nouiinoue ia?aoiaea
e oeeaeeecaoeee caeeth/aeanue a auoaniaiee e?iaii-?iaenoaaiiuo naycae e
ioiioaiee (i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, oa??eoi?eaeueiuo e o. ae.) noaoai e
nianoaaiii nioeeaeueiuie, iaaeaeieiae/aneeie, e eiaiii ia?aoiae e
i?iecaiaeyuaio oicyenoao iaoneiaee e aiciiaeiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue
oaeiai auoaniaiey.

*oi eanaaony i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa, oi ii nai oiaea yaeeny neaaenoaeai
ia?aoiaea e i?iecaiaeyuaio oicyenoao, neaaenoaeai aai aic?anoathuae
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe. Nayce iaaeaeo i?ioeannii ia?aoiaea e
oeeaeeecaoeee e iiyaeaieai i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
eae ooieoeeiiaeueiua, i?iecaiaeiua io iaeiiai e oiai aea i?e/eiiiai
oaeoi?a. Ae?oaia aeaei, /oi, iiyaeaoenue ia naao, i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo
iinoaaee aii?in i oie eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneie — a iioiio aaeeinoaaiii
aiciiaeiie — oi?ia, a eioi?ie aoaeao i?iaeieaeaii ?acaeoea
oeeaeeecaoeee. Oaeie eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneie oi?iie a oao oneiaeyo iiaea
auoue oieueei aioaaiienoe/aneay, i?e/ai ia aioaaiiecia caeanue
i?eoiaeeony aiai?eoue a aeaoo niuneao. Ai-ia?auo, anai naiei
aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai oeeaeeecaoeey cae?aieyea aicieeoee a iaae?ao
iauanoaa aioaaiieci, ai-aoi?uo aea, neiaeeeinue ii?aaeaeaiiia
aioaaiienoe/aneia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo eioaa?e?othuae nouiinoueth
oeeaeeecaoeee – e aeaceioaa?e?othuae oi?iie aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a
?aieao oeaeie na?ee iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee.

Aicieeaaoea eeannu aeey cae?aieaiey naiaai ainiiaenoaa eniieueciaaee
oaea neiaeeaoeany a i?ioeanna ia/aaoaainy ia?aoiaea e oeeaeeecaoeee
nioeeaeueiua einoeooou. Yoi noaei aiciiaeiui iioiio /oi:

naie nioeeaeueiua einoeooou a iioaioeee niaea?aeaee a naaa aiciiaeiinoue
io/oaeaeaiey;

aiciiaeiinoue yoa a oao enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo ia iiaea auoue
“i?eaeooaia”.

Aeey oiai, /oiau “i?eaeooeoue” aa a ca?iaeuoa, o?aaoaony c?aeay
iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a iauanoaa e, i?aaeaea anaai iann. Ia ii?iaa aea
oeeaeeecaoeee iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a (eae e noa?a iieeoeee a oeaeii)
oieueei aua aicieeaea.

Eeannu, i?ea?aaoea e ?oeai nioeeaeueiua einoeooou, oai naiui iieo/eee
aiciiaeiinoue iaeiaeeoue nouanoaaiiue ioia/aoie ia iiiaea ae?oaea
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu e iiae/eieoue eo naiei ei?unoiui eeanniaui
eioa?anai. (Iineieueeo aea eeannu nooue yaeaiey oi?iaoeeiiiiai ii?yaeea,
eo aicaeaenoaea ia oeeaeeecaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu au?aaeaao nouanoaaiioth
noi?iio nii?yaeaiey oi?iaoeeiiiiai e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai). Oae
iieo/eeinue n i?ioeannii ioaeaeaiey aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa io
iaoa?eaeueiiai (i?eaeeaaey caiyoee oinoaaiiui o?oaeii auea cae?aieaia ca
yenieoaoaoi?aie), n i?ioeannii o?aaiecaoeee (?acee/ey iaaeaeo ai?iaeii e
aea?aaiae i?aa?aoeeenue a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue, oa?aeoa?ecothuothny
yenieoaoaoeeae aea?aaie ni noi?iiu ainiiaenoaothueo eeannia ai?iaea), n
i?ioeannii e?enoaeeecaoeee ee/iinoiiai yeaiaioa a enoi?ee (i?icyaaiea
oe?i/aeoeo ia?iaeiuo iann aaeaie neoaeeei oiiii aeey aeayoaeueiinoe
auaeathueony ee/iinoae ec yenieoaoaoi?neeo neiaa).

Oaeei ia?acii, iaa enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeanna — ia?aoiae e oeeaeeecaoeee e
ia?aoiae e ia?aie eeanniaie oi?iaoeee naiui nouanoaaiiui ia?acii
iaeiaeeeenue ae?oa ia ae?oaa e a niaieoiiinoe ninoaaeee oaeie ia?aai?io,
eioi?ue ii naiae ea?aeeiaeueiinoe iiaeii n?aaieoue oieueei n
i?ienoiaeyueie iuia i?ioeannaie nioeeaeecaoeee a ?acaeouo,
oeeaeeeciaaiiuo no?aiao.

A yoii e caeeth/aaony neioac oi?iaoeeiiiiai e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai
iiaeoiaea e ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Aeueyeiiia E.I. Iooe enoi?ee. Io ae?aaiaeoaai /aeiaaea aei iaoeo
aeiae. I., 1994.

2. Inaaeueae Oiaiaea?. Caeao Aa?iiu,Iiaineae?ne, 1993, AI “Iaoea”
Neae?neay ecaeaoaeueneay oe?ia.

3. Oieiae A.Aeae. Iinoeaeaiea enoi?ee. I, 1991.

4. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. *anoue 1, O/aaiee
aeey aocia. Iiae ?aae. i?io. E?aoaieiieeiaie I.A. e i?io. AEeaeeiaa
I.A., I, 1998, Ecaeaoaeueneay a?oiia II?IA-EIO?A.

Aeueyeiiia E.I. Iooe enoi?ee. Io ae?aaiaeoaai /aeiaaea aei iaoeo aeiae.
I., 1994.

oai aea.

Inaaeueae Oiaiaea?. Caeao Aa?iiu,Iiaineae?ne, 1993, AI “Iaoea”
Neae?neay ecaeaoaeueneay oe?ia.

oai aea

oai aea

oai aea

oai aea

Oieiae A.Aeae. Iinoeaeaiea enoi?ee. I, 1991.

oai aea

oai aea

oai aea

oai aea

oai aea

oai aea.

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