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34

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

1 Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea nenoai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey

1.1 Iniiaiua yoaiu noaiiaeaiey nenoai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey

1.2 O?oaeiaua iainee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

2 Iainey ca auneoao eao

2.1 Iiiyoea iainee ca auneoao eao

2.2 E?oa a?aaeaeai, eiathueo i?aai ia iaineth ca auneoao eao e oneiaey
aa iacia/aiey

2.3 ?acia? iainee ca auneoao eao

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

I?aai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey eae naiinoiyoaeueiay io?aneue
noi?ie?iaaeinue a iauae nenoaia i?aaa ioiineoaeueii iaaeaaii.

A eiioea 60-o aiaeia aua aaeenue iao/iua aeeneonnee i iiiyoee aeaiiie
io?anee, aa i?aaeiaoa, iaoiaea i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy aa nouanoaiaaiea noaei ?aaeueiinoueth. Ii?iu nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie
caueou ianaeaiey neoaeao eiaeeeaoi?ii nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee
ainoaea?noaa. Iie i?ecaaiu naiaa?aiaiii e aaeaeaaoii ?aaae?iaaoue ia ana
nioeeaeueiua ?enee, iaecaaaeii naycaiiua n ia?aoiaeii no?aiu e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea. Yoi iaoneiaeeaaao eo /?acau/aeioth aeeiaie/iinoue.

Iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey ii nioeeaeueiiio iaania/aieth ii naiae
yeiiiie/aneie i?e?iaea yaeythony ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuie. *a?ac nenoaiu
nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey ?ani?aaeaeyaony aaniiay aeiey aaeiaiai
aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa no?aiu. Iaoaieci oaeiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoneiaeai
oa?aeoa?ii yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, iauaeoeaii aeeeoothueo oa eee eiua
niiniau oeiaine?iaaiey nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey.

Aeooaeueiinoue aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee
?acaeoey ethaiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai, i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa. Eiaiii
einoeooo nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey aa?aioe?oao a?aaeaeaieio e /aeiaaeo
iainee e iiniaey, a oii /enea, ii aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai aic?anoa.

Ia?aiai aeaeaa?y 2007 aiaea auei aiiaue ?aoi?ie?iaaii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
i ainoaea?noaaiiii iaineiiiii iaania/aiee. A /anoiinoe ?aoi?ia
einioeanue ii?yaeea e oneiaee iacia/aiey e auieaou iainee ca auneoao
eao.

Oe?ueth ??ie ???? ??? y?y?ny ???o??a ????i ??????y ????ey ??? ? ???o ?o
? ?????i y??.

A ?y? n ?????? ??th ????? ??? ??oth?a ???:

-e??? i???a y?? ????iey ??? ?????i ?????y;

-?? ?iy?a ???? ??? a ??n??? O????;

-????? ??? ????i ??????y ??? ? ???o ?o a ?????e ????e.

1 Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea nenoai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey

1.1 Iniiaiua yoaiu noaiiaeaiey nenoai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey

Iio?aaiinoue a nioeeaeueiii iaania/aiee iiyaeeanue iaeiia?aiaiii n
aicieeiiaaieai /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. A ethaii iauanoaa iacaaeneii io
aai yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa anaaaea anoue ethaee,
eioi?ua a neeo anoanoaaiiuo, ia caaenyueo io ieo i?e/ei, ia iiaoo
nianoaaiiuie oneeeyie i?eia?aoaoue enoi/iee n?aaenoa naiaai
nouanoaiaaiey. E /eneo oaeeo ethaeae ioiinyony i?aaeaea anaai aeaoe e
noa?eee. Ia?aua «aua», a aoi?ua «oaea» iao?oaeiniiniaiu. E?iia oiai,
?yaeu iao?oaeiniiniaiuo iiaeao iiiieieoue eaaeaeue /aeiaae, iioa?yaoee
niiniaiinoue o?oaeeoueny a?aiaiii eeai iinoiyiii a nayce n ?anno?ienoaii
caei?iauey.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey iauanoaa e oneiaeiaiey nioeeaeueiuo naycae e /eneo
i?e/ei ioaeaeaaiinoe /aeiaaea a nioeeaeueiie iiiiue i?eaaaeythony e oa,
eioi?ua iaoneiaeaiu oa?aeoa?ii ainiiaenoaothueo a iauanoaa yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee, ii?iaeaeathueo aac?aaioeoeo, eioeyoeeth, aaaeiinoue.

Nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea eae ii?aaeaeaiiay oi?ia aeeciaiaania/aiey
ethaeae eiaao eiie?aoiua enoi?e/aneea oeiu, iineieueeo iii
inouanoaeyaony a ?aieao oie eee eiie iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie
oi?iaoeee.

Niaea?aeaiea i?anoa?aeuo e iao?oaeiniiniaiuo i?e ia?aiauoiiiaueiiii
no?ia inouanoaeyeinue nei?aa anaai a neeo iau/ay. A ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneii
iauanoaa eaeeo-eeai oi?i iaania/aiey ?aaia a noa?inoe eee a neo/aa
iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe ia nouanoaiaaei, a aio aeey aaoa?aiia aieineie
neoaeau oaea a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee aaiaeyony iainee; a Ae?aaiai ?eia
neoaeaa aiciaa?aaeaeaaony i?aaeinoaaeaieai caiaeueiiai iaaeaea.

Oaiaeaeueiue ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony ainiiaenoaii iaoo?aeueiiai
oicyenoaa, iniiaie eioi?iai yaeyaony naiuey, ianouay iaycaiiinoe ii
iaoa?eaeueiiio iaania/aieth noa?eeia e iao?oaeiniiniaiuo. A yoio aea
ia?eiae iiyaeythony e eiua oi?iu nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee oao, eoi ia
iiaeao ?aaioaoue e ia eiaao oicyenoaa, iai?eia? aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoue,
naieoeeiie?iaaiiia ieuainoai. Ainoaea?noaaiiua iainee ia/eiatho
?acaeaaaoueny e?oiiui naiiaieeai, aieneiiai, i?aoaeoai e ae?oaei eeoeai,
eiathuei caneoae ia?aae iiia?oii. Oaeei ia?acii, iainey a yoi a?aiy
eiaea oa?aeoa? iaa?aaeu, a ia aeaea iaania/aiey iao?oaeiniiniaiuo.

Ii?aaeaeaiiue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao iiuo noaiiaeaiey e yaiethoeey nenoai
nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey ia ?one. Eae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
Ia/aeueiay eaoiienue, n i?eiyoeai a 988 a. o?enoeainoaa ia ?one eiycue
Aeaaeeie? aaeae «anyeiio ieuaio e oaiaiio i?eoiaeeoue ia eiyaeaneee
aeai?, a?aoue eooaiuea, ieouea e aeaiaa ec eaciu». Aeey oao aea, eoi ia
iia aeieoe aei aai aeai?a a neeo ae?yoeinoe e aieacie, i?iaeoeou
?acaiceee ia oaeaaao, ni?aoeaay, aaea iaoiaeyony aieueiua e ieuea. A 996
a. eiycue Aeaaeeie? ecaeae Onoaa (caeii), eioi?ui iauanoaaiiia i?ec?aiea
auei ii?o/aii iiia/aieth e iaaeci?o aeooiaainoaa a eeoea Iao?ea?oa e
iiae/eiaiiuo aio oea?eiaiuo no?oeoo?. Aeaaeeie? caaioeeny oaeaea i
nicaeaiee aiaaaeaeai, no?aiiii?eeiiuo aeiiia.

«?onneay I?aaaea» Eiycy ss?ineaaa yaeeanue ia?aui neaayineei caeiiii, a
eioi?ii cae?aieyeinue iiaeiaea nioeeaeueiie i?ia?aiiu. Iniaie caaioie i
aaaeiuo e oaiaeo ioee/aeny e Aeaaeeie? Iiiiiao.

Enoi?eee ioia/atho, /oi «ii ia?a oe?aieaiey ainoaea?noaa a ?acaeoee
iauanoaaiiiai i?ec?aiey noaee aieaa /aoei ii?aaeaeyoueny aeaa acaeiii
aeiiieiythueo ae?oa ae?oaa iai?aaeaiey. Ia?aia— i?iaeieaeaiea o?aaeeoeee
Aeaaeeie?a e ae?oaeo eiycae Eeaaneie ?one, iieacuaathueo i?eia? ee/iiai
aeaaiaeayiey e iie?iaeoaeuenoaa oaiaeo, i?anoa?aeuo, ne?io e ae?oaeo
no?aaeaeoueo. Aoi?ia— oneeaiea i?aaiecothuaai ia/aea, niaa?oainoaiaaiea
oi?i e ianooaaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?ec?aiey i?e
nio?aiaiee e iiiu?aiee aeaaioai?eoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe oea?eae». A
ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa aoi?iai iai?aaeaiey a noaiiaeaiee nenoaiu
iauanoaaiiiai i?ec?aiey iiaeii i?eaanoe Oeac Eaaia IV A?iciiai «I
ieeinouia», a eioi?ii a ea/anoaa iaioeiaeiuo ia? noaaeeanue caaea/a
auyaeoue ai anao ai?iaeao «i?anoa?aeuo e i?ieaaeaiiuo», iino?ieoue aeey
ieo aiaaaeaeueie, iaania/eoue eo iaeaaeaeie.

Ii Oeaco Oea?y Oaaei?a Aeaenaaae/a io 1682 a. a Iineaa auei iino?iaii
aeaa ainieoa-ey; oa ec /enea ieuainoaothueo e oaiaeo, eioi?ua iiaee
?aaioaoue, aeieaeiu auee «oeaa naie iaaeeaaoue ?aaioie eee ?aianeii ia
iauanoaaiioth iieueco».

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai XIX a. aeaeeei ieueo ia /aou?a eaoaai?ee:

1) oa, eioi?ua ia iiaoo naiei o?oaeii aeiauaaoue i?iieoaiea;

2)oa, eoi ii ne?ionoao e a?aiaiiui aieaciyi aiae a ioaeaeo, iaeiaei
iiaeao ?aaioaoue;

3)oa, eioi?ua iiaoo o?oaeeoueny, ii ieuainoaotho ii eaiinoe e aeo?iiio
iiaaaeaieth;

4) oa, eoi ii neo/aeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai aiae a e?aeithth ioaeaeo.

I/aaeaeii, oaeay «eeanneoeeaoeey» ioaeaeathueony auea iaiaoiaeeia aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?a nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee e i?eiaiaiey eiuo ia?
aeey ai?ueau n ieuainoaii.

N ca?iaeaeaieai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa enoi/ieeii
nouanoaiaaiey aianoi o?oaea a naiaeiii oicyenoaa noaiiaeony o?oae ia
?aaioiaeaoaey, eioi?ue iieoiaao ?aai/oth neeo, ia aa?aioe?oy ?aaioieeo
aiciiaeiinoue aai iaania/aiey a neo/aa ianooieaiey noa?inoe,
iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe, a aai naiuea— a neo/aa iioa?e ei?ieeueoea.

?aceia iaino?aiea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo o?oaeii
e eaieoaeii, oa?iaeathuaa nioeeaeueiui ac?uaii, ia iicaieeei
eaieoaeenoe/aneiio ainoaea?noao aeieai caieiaoue iiceoeeth
iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa a «naiaiaeo eiaeeaeaeooia». A ?yaea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ainoaea?noa i?eieiathony caeiiu ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ?aaioiaeaoaeae ca
ian/anoiua neo/ae ia i?iecaiaenoaa. A Aa?iaiee oaeie caeii aue i?eiyo a
1871 a., a Aiaeee — a 1880 a., a ?innee — a 1903 a. Iaeiaei yoe caeiiu
aua ia auee caeiiaie i nioeeaeueiii iaania/aiee, iineieueeo iie
cae?aieyee i?eioeeiu a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca a?aae,
i?e/eiaiiue caei?iaueth ?aaioieea. Aeey iieo/aiey aiciauaiey a?aaea
?aaioieeo iaiaoiaeeii auei aeieacaoue noaeo, /oi oaa/uea ianooieei ii
aeia i?aaei?eyoey.

A eiioea XIX a. a ?acaeoee nenoaiu nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey ianooiaao
i?eioee-ieaeueii iiaue yoai — nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea iaaiiuo
?aaioieeia ia/eiaao inoua-noaeyoueny ia i?aaiaie iniiaa, cae?aieyaiie
ainoaea?noaii. A ea/anoaa niiniaa aai i?-aaiecaoeee aaiaeeony
ainoaea?noaaiiia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia. Ia?aua
caeiiu ia iaycaoaeueiii ainoaea?noaaiiii no?aoiaaiee auee i?eiyou a
Aa?iaiee a ia?eiae i?aaeaiey Aenia?ea: 15 ethiy 1883 a. ?aeonoaa i?eiye
caeii ia iaycaoaeueiii ainoaea?noaaiiii no?aoiaaiee ia neo/ae aieacie; a
ethea 1884 a. — caeii i no?aoiaaiee io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa. Caeii io 22
ethey 1889 a. aaae iaycaoaeueiia no?aoiaaiea ii eiaaeeaeiinoe e ii
noa?inoe.

A ?innee caeii i no?aoiaaiee ?aai/eo ii aieacie e io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa
aue ecaeai 23 ethiy 1912a. Yoio caeii noae i?iia?acii caeiiia Aa?iaiee,
iaeiaei a ioee/ea io ieo ii i?aaeoniao?eaae iaiueoee iauai iieiiii/ee
cano?aoiaaiiuo. Oae, a caeiia ?innee ia niaea?aeaeinue ii?iu,
aiaeiae/iie ii?ia aa?iaineiai caeiia 1883 a., a neeo eioi?ie ii
enoa/aiee 26 iaaeaeue aieacie iacia/aeanue iainey ii eiaaeeaeiinoe.

Aneaae ca caeiiaie i ainoaea?noaaiiii nioeeaeueiii no?aoiaaiee ia neo/ae
aieacie, eiaaeeaeiinoe, noa?inoe, o?oaeiaiai oaa/uey ia/eiatho
i?eieiaoueny caeiiu i no?aoiaaiee ii aac?aaioeoea. Aia?aua no?aoiaaiea
aeaiiiai nioeeaeueiiai ?enea aaiaeeony a 1911a. a Aiaeee.

A ?acaeoee nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey neaaeoao auaeaeeoue aua iaeei
aaaeiue yoai, eiaaea ia?yaeo n ainoaea?noaaiiui e i?iecaiaenoaaiiui
nioeeaeueiui no?aoiaaieai iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia a no?aiao n ?uii/iie
yeiiiieeie ia/eiatho oi?ie?iaaoueny iaoeeiiaeueiua nenoaiu nioeeaeueiiai
iaania/aiey, ioaaouaathuea ana ianaeaiea e aa?aioe?othuea nioeeaeueioth
iiiiuue aia nayce n oieaoie no?aoiauo aciinia.

Ii ia?a ainoiaeaeaiey /aeiaa/anoaa e aa?oeiai oeeaeeecaoeee e
oi?ie?iaaiey a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa ?anoe?yaony e?oa oao, eoi, ia
ia?ooay aai ii?aeueiuo onoiaa, iiaeao i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia nioeeaeueioth
iiaeaea?aeeo, ia oa?yy naiae niiniaiinoe e o?oaeo, anee eeoaaony
aiciiaeiinoe eiaoue niioaaonoaothuee o?iaaiue aeinoaoea ii iacaaenyuei
io iaai i?e/eiai e ianoiyoaeuenoaai, i?eciaaaaiui iauanoaii nioeeaeueii
oaaaeeoaeueiuie.

E?iia oiai, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iiuo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoai
nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey a i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao, ii ia?a
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e iiauoaiey o?iaiy aeecie (oeo/oaiey aeeeeuiuo
oneiaee, ea/anoaa ieoaiey e cae?aaiio?aiaiey) o?ainoi?ie?oaony e
ia?a/aiue iniiaaiee, n eioi?uie naycai ?ene oo?aou enoi/ieea n?aaenoa e
nouanoaiaaieth e eioi?ua i?eciathony iauanoaii nioeeaeueii
oaaaeeoaeueiuie. Oaeea iniiaaiey iacuaathony nioeeaeueiuie ?eneaie.
Ia?yaeo n iniiaaieyie anoanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea (noa?inoueth,
eiaaeeaeiinoueth, a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoueth, aaeianoaii,
iaoa?einoaii, aeaonoaii) a yoio ia?a/aiue ia/eiatho aeeth/aoueny e oa,
eioi?ua iaoneiaeaiu oa?aeoa?ii ainiiaenoaothueo a iauanoaa yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee e n eioi?uie naycaiu ecaea?aeee a i?aaiecaoeee nioeeaeueiuo
oneiaee aeecie /aeiaaea (aac?aaioeoea, ?anneiaiea ianaeaiey ii o?iaith
aeioiaeia, ianiiniaiinoue /aeiaaea aaeaioe?iaaoueny e yoei ioiioaieyi e
ae?.).

Iaeiiaoe, io/aoeeai i?ineaaeeaaaony oaiaeaioeey eciaiaiey ?iee naiiai
ainoaea?noaa a i?aaiecaoeee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoai nioeeaeueiiai
iaania/aiey. Ii/oe aei eiioea XIX a. a iaeanoe iieeoeee ainiiaenoaiaaea
eiioeaioeey iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a ?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee ii
iaania/aieth n?aaenoaaie nouanoaiaaiey i?anoa?aeuo, iao?oaeiniiniaiuo.
Naiiiiiiuue, naiiiaania/aiea, acaeiiiiiiuue iiiu?yeenue ainoaea?noaii e
niinianoaiaaee aiieiuaieth a aeeciue aaioaiianeie oai?ee neeueiiai
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia, a neeo eioi?ie «iieiay naiaiaea eiaeeaeaeooia» iiaeao
auoue aeinoeaiooa oieueei i?e iieiii iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a
aeaea eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaeooia e a o?iaaiue aai aeecie. Iaeiaei ii ia?a
eiinieeaeaoeee a?iee iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia e iniciaiey eie naieo eeanniauo
eioa?ania oneeeaaaony ai?ueaa o?oaeyueony ca naie i?aaa, /oi auioaeaeaao
ao?aeoaciua ainoaea?noaa i?eieiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?u aeey
i?aaeioa?auaiey nioeeaeueiiai ac?uaa. ?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea anaai i
ia?auo caeiiao a iaeanoe nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey. Yoi auee caeiiu ia
iaycaoaeueiii nioeeaeueiii no?aoiaaiee o?oaeyueony. Eiaiii n i?eiyoeai
oaeeo caeiiia iiyaeythony ainoaea?noaaiiua nenoaiu nioeeaeueiiai
iaania/aiey. Ainoaea?noaaiiue oa?aeoa? yoeo nenoai au?aaeaaony a oii,
/oi caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieythony i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua niiniau
inouanoaeaiey nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey, eioi?ua aiineaaenoaee
aeiiieiythony iiauie; ii iaeciaiiui inoaaony iaeii: iaycaoaeueiinoue ei
i?eaeaao naii ainoaea?noai.

1.2 O?oaeiaua iainee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Ca iineaaeiaa 15-17 eao iaineiiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ia?aaeeei ianeieueei yoaiia ?aoi?ie?iaaiey. Ia?aue yoai
naycai n i?eiyoeai iinoniaaoneiai iaineiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy, iiaeii aiai?eoue i aoi?ii yoaia ?acaeoey iaineiiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eiaaea ia niaio caeiiai, i?eiyoui a ia?aoiaeiia
a?aiy, i?eoiaeeo iaiiaeaiiia iaineiiiia e o?oaeiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, iniiaiui caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoii, ?aaoee?othuei
ii?yaeie iacia/aiey, e en/eneaiey o?oaeiauo iainee yaeyaony
Oaaea?aeueiue caeii io 17 aeaeaa?y 2001 a. ?173-OC «I o?oaeiauo iaineyo
a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee» (n eci. e aeii. io 01 aeaeaa?y 2007 a.).

Ia?yaeo n iacaaiiui caeiiii a nenoaio iaineiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
aoiaeyo Caeiiu “Ia iniiaao iaycaoaeueiiai nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey”,
“Ia oi?aaeaiee n?aaenoaaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey
(no?aoiaaiey) a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” e “Ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii
(ia?niieoeoee?iaaiiii) o/aoa a nenoaia iaycaoaeueiiai iaineiiiiai
no?aoiaaiey”, eiuo oaaea?aeueiua caeiiu e i?eieiaaiua a niioaaonoaee n
ieie ii?iaoeaiua i?aaiaua aeou ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Eaaaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea o?oaeiaie iainee aeaaony a no.2 Caeiia «I
o?oaeiauo iaineyo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee» – aaeaiany/iay aeaiaaeiay
auieaoa a oeaeyo eiiiainaoeee a?aaeaeaiai ca?aaioiie ieaou eee eiiai
aeioiaea, eioi?ua iieo/aee cano?aoiaaiiua eeoea ia?aae onoaiiaeaieai ei
o?oaeiaie iainee eeai oo?aoeee iao?oaeiniiniaiua /eaiu naiuee
cano?aoiaaiiuo eeoe a nayce ni nia?oueth yoeo eeoe, i?aai ia eioi?oth
ii?aaeaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie e ii?iaie, onoaiiaeaiiuie
ianoiyuei Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii.

A niioaaonoaee ni no.5 OC «I o?oaeiauo iaineyo», eeoeai, eiathuei i?aai
ia o?oaeiaoth iaineth, iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu neaaeothuea aeaeu iainee
ii noa?inoe e ii eiaaeeaeiinoe, eioi?ua ninoiyo ec aaciaie, no?aoiaie e
iaeiieoaeueiie /anoae, a oaeaea ii neo/ath iioa?e ei?ieeueoea, ninoiyuae
ec aaciaie e no?aoiaie /anoae.

Niaoeeaeenou aeaeyo auoaiaicia/aiiua aeaeu iainee ia o?e a?oiiu:

Ia?aoth a?oiio ninoaaeytho iainee, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeythony a oeaeyo
eiiiainaoeee ca?aaioea (aeioiaea), oo?a/aiiiai a nayce n i?ae?auaieai
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau i?e aeinoeaeaiee onoaiiaeaiiie caeiiii auneoae
i?e auoiaea ia o?oaeiaoth iaineth ii noa?inoe (eiaaeeaeiinoe).

Aoi?oth a?oiio ia?acotho iainee, auiea/eaaaiua a oeaeyo eiiiainaoeee
a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai:

– i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie e i?e?aaiaiiie e iae neoaeau (ai aioo?aiieo
aieneao IAAe e a AEaeaciiaei?iaeiuo aieneao ?O, ONA ?innee e ae?.);

– a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo e oaoiiaaiiuo eaoano?io (ia
*a?iiaueueneie AYN a 1986 a., ia Naieiaeaoeineii aiaiiii iieeaiia a 1949
a. e a 1962 a., ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiii iauaaeeiaiee “Iaye” a 1957 a. e
ae?.).

A o?aoueth a?oiio aoiaeyo nioeeaeueiua iainee, auiea/eaaaiua
iao?oaeiniiniaiui eeoeai a oeaeyo i?aaeinoaaeaiey ei n?aaenoa
nouanoaiaaiey. I?aai ia ieo ia caaeneo io eaeie-eeai o?oaeiaie eee
iauanoaaiii-iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoueth a i?ioeii.

A?aaeaeaiai, ia eiathuei ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai i?aaa ia o?oaeiaoth
iaineth, onoaiaaeeaaaony nioeeaeueiay iainey ia oneiaeyo e a ii?yaeea,
ii?aaeaeyaiui OC «I ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaineiiiii iaania/aiee a ?O».

A?aaeaeaiai, eiathuei i?aai ia iaeiia?aiaiiia iieo/aiea o?oaeiauo iainee
?acee/iuo aeaeia, onoaiaaeeaaaony oieueei iaeia iainey ii eo auai?o.

Eeth??i ?iy?? a ?????e ??? ????o ????e ?? – ?????y ?e ?????e ??a ?
???oth ??eth ????y ????????ue ???? ??? e/?e ?? ?y????e, a ???a ?o??
?????? ????a ??? a ????? ?? ?????e O????, a ??a ?? ???u, ??????a a ????e
??.

A no?aoiaie noaae aeeth/athony (can/eouaathony):

– ia?eiae ?aaiou e/eee eiie aeayoaeueiinoe, auiieiyaoeany ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee eeoeaie, cano?aoiaaiiuie a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia
iaycaoaeueiii iaineiiiii no?aoiaaiee (aeaeaa – cano?aoiaaiiua eeoea);

– ia?eiaeu ?aaiou e/eee eiie aeayoaeueiinoe, auiieiyaoeany
cano?aoiaaiiuie eeoeaie ca i?aaeaeaie ?innee, a neo/ayo,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee aa
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeiaiai?aie, eeai a neo/aa oieaou no?aoiauo aciinia a
IO? i?e aeia?iaieueiii anooieaiee a i?aaiioiioaiey ii iaycaoaeueiiio
iaineiiiiio no?aoiaaieth;

– eiua ia?eiaeu, e eioi?ui ioiinyony:

· i?ioiaeaeaiea aiaiiie neoaeau, a oaeaea eiie i?e?aaiaiiie e iae
neoaeau, i?aaeoniio?aiiie Caeiiii ?O “I iaineiiiii iaania/aiee eeoe,
i?ioiaeyueo aiaiioth neoaeao, neoaeao a i?aaiao aioo?aiieo aeae,
o/?aaeaeaieyo e i?aaiao oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiie nenoaiu, e eo naiae”;

· iieo/aiea iiniaey ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio nioeeaeueiiio no?aoiaaieth a
ia?eiae a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe;

· ooiae iaeiiai ec ?iaeeoaeae ca eaaeaeui ?aaaieii aei aeinoeaeaiey eie
aic?anoa iieooi?a eao, ii ia aieaa o?ao eao a iauae neiaeiinoe;

· iieo/aiea iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea, o/anoea a iiea/eaaaiuo iauanoaaiiuo
?aaioao e ia?aacae ii iai?aaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau caiyoinoe a
ae?oaoth ianoiinoue aeey o?oaeiono?ienoaa;

· niaea?aeaiea iiae no?aaeae eeoe, iaiainiiaaiii i?eaea/aiiuo e
oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, iaiainiiaaiii ?ai?anne?iaaiiuo e
aiineaaenoaee ?aaaeeeoe?iaaiiuo, e ioauaaiea iaeacaiey yoeie eeoeaie a
ianoao eeoaiey naiaiaeu e nnueea;

· ooiae o?oaeiniiniaiiai eeoea ca eiaaeeaeii I noaiaie, ?aaaieii –
eiaaeeaeii eee ca eeoeii, aeinoeaoei 80 eao.

Ia?eiaeu ?aaiou eee eiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua auiieiyeenue eeoeaie,
eiathueie i?aai ia o?oaeiaoth iaineth, ca i?aaeaeaie oa??eoi?ee ?innee,
aeeth/athony a o?oaeiaie noaae a neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee aa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie
aeiaiai?aie, eeai a neo/aa oieaou no?aoiauo aciinia a IO? a niioaaonoaee
ni no.29 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia ?167-OC e iiaeoaa?aeaeathony aeieoiaioii
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai i?aaia IO? ia oieaoa no?aoiauo aciinia ia
iaycaoaeueiia iaineiiiia no?aoiaaiea, anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee aa iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
aeiaiai?aie.

Iniai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a o?oaeiaie noaae aeeth/athony ia?eiae
iieo/aiey iiniaey ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio nioeeaeueiiio no?aoiaaieth i?e
a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe, iacaaeneii io oieaou ca yoio ia?eiae
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae, e ia?eiaeu aaeaaiaeii iiea/eaaaiuo ioioneia, a
oii /enea aeiiieieoaeueiuo. E?iia oiai, ?aaioa a oa/aiea iieiiai
iaaeaaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea ia aiaeiii o?ainii?oa e a oa/aiea iieiiai
naciia a i?aaiecaoeeyo naciiiuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe o/eouaaaony a
eaeaiaea?iii ii?yaeea n oaeei ?an/aoii, /oiau i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
no?aoiaiai noaaea a niioaaonoaothuai aiaeo ninoaaeyea iieiue aiae.

En/eneaiea no?aoiaiai noaaea, o?aaoaiiai aeey i?eia?aoaiey i?aaa ia
o?oaeiaoth iaineth, i?iecaiaeeony a eaeaiaea?iii ii?yaeea. A neo/aa
niaiaaeaiey ii a?aiaie ianeieueeeo ia?eiaeia i?e en/eneaiee no?aoiaiai
noaaea o/eouaaaony iaeei ec oaeeo ia?eiaeia ii auai?o eeoea,
ia?aoeaoaainy ca onoaiiaeaieai oeacaiiie iainee.

Ii?yaeie iiaen/aoa no?aoiaiai noaaea ii?aaeaeai I?aaeeaie iiaen/aoa e
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey no?aoiaiai noaaea aeey onoaiiaeaiey o?oaeiauo iainee,
ooaa?aeaeaiiuie iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 24 ethey 2002 a. N
555.

Nio?aiyaony a aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e iiiyoea o?oaeiaiai
noaaea. O?oaeiaie noaae – o/eouaaaiay i?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaa ia
ioaeaeueiua aeaeu iainee ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio iaineiiiiio iaania/aieth
noiia?iay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaeia ?aaiou e eiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
eioi?ua can/eouaathony a no?aoiaie noaae aeey iieo/aiey iainee,
i?aaeoniio?aiiie Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii “I o?oaeiauo iaineyo a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee”.

Aeaaie II OC «I o?oaeiauo iaineyo» i?aaeoniio?aiu oneiaey iacia/aiey
o?oaeiaie iainee ii noa?inoe, eiaaeeaeiinoe e ii neo/ath iioa?e
ei?ieeueoea.

Iaineiiiue aic?ano, eae e aei i?eiyoey iii?aaie a aeaiiii Caeiia,
nio?aieeny e ii iauaio i?aaeeo ninoaaeyao aeey ioae/ei – 60 eao, a aeey
aeaiuei – 55 eao. Iaeiaei no.27 e 28 Caeiia i?aaeoniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue
aein?i/iiai iacia/aiey o?oaeiaie iainee ioaeaeueiui eaoaai?eyi a?aaeaeai
e eeoeai, ?aaioathuei ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeao ?aaio.

Eiino?aiiua a?aaeaeaia e eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa, iinoiyiii
i?iaeeaathuea a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eiatho i?aai ia o?oaeiaoth
iaineth ia?aaia n ?inneeneeie a?aaeaeaiaie, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?innee eee aa iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
aeiaiai?ii.

Iaeiei ec aaceniuo einoeoooia nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey yaeyaony iainey
ca auneoao eao. Eiaiii enneaaeiaaiea i?aaiauo iniia iainee ca auneoao
eao e yaeyaony iauaeoii iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey.

I iaia?aiee ainoaea?noaa aaanoe aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo iainee
ca auneoao eao aia?aua aiai?eeinue a no. 19 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia io 31
ethey 1995 a. «Ia iniiaao ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee». Aeaiiay noaouey cae?aieyea, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiue neoaeauee
eiaao i?aai ia iieo/aiea iainee ca auneoao eao, iacia/aiiie a
niioaaonoaee n oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii, eioi?ue a oi a?aiy oae e ia aue
i?eiyo.

Aei i?eiyoey niioaaonoaothuaai oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia iaineiiiia
iaania/aiea oeacaiiuo eeoe ?aaoee?iaaeinue Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O io
16.08.95 ?854 “I iaeioi?uo nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioeyo eeoeai, caiauaaoei
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e ainoaea?noaaiiua
aeieaeiinoe oaaea?aeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau” (a ?aae. io
13.12.2000). Niaeanii iacaaiiiio oeaco yoei eaoaai?eyi a?aaeaeai
onoaiaaeeaaeanue aaeaiany/iay aeiieaoa e ainoaea?noaaiiie iainee.
Oaaea?aeueiui ainoaea?noaaiiui neoaeauei aeiieaoa onoaiaaeeaaeanue i?e
iaee/ee 12,5 eao noaaea ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau o ioae/ei e 10 eao
oeacaiiiai noaaea o aeaiuei a oaeii ?acia?a, /oiau noiia iainee e
aeiieaou ninoaaeyea 55% iany/iiai aeaiaaeiiai niaea?aeaiey
oaaea?aeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai neoaeauaai. ?acia? aeiieaou
oaaee/eaaeny ia 3% iany/iiai aeaiaaeiiai niaea?aeaiey ca eaaeaeue iieiue
aiae auneoae nauoa onoaiiaeaiiie, i?e yoii noiia iainee e aeiieaou ia
iiaea ninoaaeyoue aieaa 80% iany/iiai aeaiaaeiiai niaea?aeaiey oeacaiiuo
eeoe.

Eiua oneiaey i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue aeey eeoe, caiauaaoeo ainoaea?noaaiiua
aeieaeiinoe. Iie eiaee i?aai ia aaeaiany/ioth aeiieaoo e
ainoaea?noaaiiie iainee iacaaeneii io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe noaaea
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau. I?e yoii ?acia? aaeaiany/iie aeiieaou
ii?aaeaeyeny ei n oaeei ?an/aoii, /oiau noiia iainee e aeiieaou
ninoaaeyea 80% iany/iiai aeaiaaeiiai niaea?aeaiey oeacaiiuo eeoe.

Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O io 15 ethiy 1999 a. N 755 “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee a Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 16 aaaonoa 1995
a. N 854 “I iaeioi?uo nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioeyo eeoe, caiauathueo
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e aeieaeiinoe
oaaea?aeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo” onoaiaaeeaaaony, /oi i?aai ia
aaeaiany/ioth aeiieaoo e ainoaea?noaaiiie iainee eiatho eeoea,
caiauaaoea ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe ?O ia iinoiyiiie iniiaa ia iaiaa
iaeiiai aiaea e iieo/aaoea aeaiaaeiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca n/ao n?aaenoa
oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa, inaiaiaeaeaiiua io aeieaeiinoae a nayce n
i?ae?auaieai iieiiii/ee (a oii /enea aein?i/ii), ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa
i?ae?auaiey iieiiii/ee a nayce n eo aeiiaiuie aeaenoaeyie. Eciaieeny e
ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?a aeiieaou oeacaiiui eeoeai. Noiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie iainee e aaeaiany/iie aeiieaou e iae i?e caiauaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeieaeiinoe ?O io iaeiiai aiaea aei o?ao eao ninoaaeea
55%, nauoa o?ao eao – 75% iany/iiai aeaiaaeiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.
Iany/iia aeaiaaeiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ii?aaeaeyeinue ii auai?o iieo/aoaey
aaeaiany/iie aeiieaou eeai ii ainoaea?noaaiiie aeieaeiinoe ?O,
caiauaaoaeny ia aeaiue aeinoeaeaiey aic?anoa, aeathuaai i?aai ia
ainoaea?noaaiioth iaineth ii noa?inoe, eeai ii iineaaeiae
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeieaeiinoe ?O, iieiiii/ey ii eioi?ie auee i?ae?auaiu.

Iiauoathony o?aaiaaiey e noaaeo ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau e aeey eeoe,
caiauaaoeo ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe oaaea?aeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie
neoaeau e ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe oaaea?aeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
neoaeaueo. Aeey iieo/aiey aaeaiany/iie aeiieaou ei iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue
oaea ia iaiaa 15 eao oaeiai noaaea, i?e yoii aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
onoaiaaeeaaaony iaeeiaeiaie eae aeey ioae/ei, oae e aeey aeaiuei. E?iia
oiai, Oeac io 15 ethiy 1999 a. N 755 i?aaeoniao?eaaao aua iaeei
th?eaee/aneee oaeo, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey iieo/aiey aeiieaou e
ainoaea?noaaiiie iainee, – ii?aaeaeaiiia iniiaaiea oaieueiaiey n
oaaea?aeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau, i?e/ai onoaiaaeeaaaony
en/a?iuaathuee ia?a/aiue oaeeo iniiaaiee.

Eciaiai oaeaea e ?acia? aaeaiany/iie aeiieaou. I?e noaaea
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau 15 eao noiia ainoaea?noaaiiie iainee e
aaeaiany/iie aeiieaou ninoaaeyao 45% iany/iiai aeaiaaeiiai niaea?aeaiey
oaaea?aeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai neoaeauaai. Ca eaaeaeue iieiue aiae
oaeiai noaaea nauoa 15 eao ?acia? aeiieaou oaaee/eaaaony ia 3% iany/iiai
aeaiaaeiiai niaea?aeaiey, ii iauay noiia ainoaea?noaaiiie iainee e
aeiieaou ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue 75% iany/iiai aeaiaaeiiai niaea?aeaiey
oaaea?aeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai neoaeauaai.

2 Iainey ca auneoao eao

2.1 Iiiyoea iainee ca auneoao eao

Iaineae ca auneoao eao i?eiyoi iacuaaoue iaineth, eioi?ay
onoaiaaeeaaaony i?e iaee/ee niioaaonoaothuaai aeeeoaeueiiai
niaoeeaeueiiai o?oaeiaiai noaaea iacaaeneii io aic?anoa e oaeoe/aneiai
ninoiyiey o?oaeiniiniaiinoe. I?eiaieoaeueii e iainee ca auneoao eao
oaeie noaae /anoi eiaioaony «auneoaie», «noaaeai oai?/aneie ?aaiou» e
o.i. Oaeei ia?acii, iainey ca auneoao eao anaaaea «noaaeaaay», eae e
iainey ii noa?inoe, ii aac aic?anoiiai oeaica. Iaeiaei eiiaaea iaineae
ca auneoao eao eiaioaony e oa iainey, eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaaony i?e
iaee/ee niioaaonoaothuaai niaoeeaeueiiai noaaea (auneoae) e aeinoeaeaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aic?anoa. A oi aea a?aiy iaineae ii noa?inoe iacuaaaony a
ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iainey, aeey onoaiiaeaiey eioi?ie o?aaoaony
aeeeoaeueiue niaoeeaeueiue o?oaeiaie. Ec yoiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae,
/oi caeiiiaeaoaeue ia anaaaea i?eaea?aeeaaaony oi/iiai ?aca?aie/aiey
yoeo aeaoo aeaeia iainee.

Iainee ca auneoao eao aaaaeaiu ia aeey anao ?aaioieeia, a eeoue aeey
ioaeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee. Iie onoaiaaeeaaeenue a ?aciia a?aiy, iaeioi?ua
aeaaea caaeieai aei iaineiiiie ?aoi?iu 1956 a. Iainee aeey ?aaioieeia
i?inaauaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey, eaoiiai ninoaaa, eaae?iauo
aiaiiineoaeaueo aaiaeeeenue ia ?oaaaea 30-o aiaeia, ?aiueoa, /ai auee
aaaaeaiu iainee ii noa?inoe aeey anao iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia. Nio?aieeenue
oaeea iainee e a ?inneeneii iaineiiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?e/ai a
iineaaeiea aiaeu noa?a eo i?eiaiaiey nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eeanue. Aeaaiay
i?e/eia — no?aieaiea aeanoiuo no?oeoo? oaeei iooai eiiiaine?iaaoue
yaioth aeaa?aaeaoeeth a iineaaeiea aiaeu iauae nenoaiu iaineiiiiai
iaania/aiey, a oaeaea nicaeaoue aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo eaoaai?ee neoaeaueo
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua iaineiiiua nenoaiu.

A Eiinoeoooeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee 1993 a. ia niaea?aeeony iniiaaiee
aeey onoaiiaeaiey iainee ca auneoao eao. Ia auei eo e a ?aiaa
aeaenoaiaaaoae Eiinoeoooeee. Oai?aoe/anee aaaaeaiea iainee ca auneoao
eao iauyniyaony aeaaiui ia?acii niaoeeoeeie ii?aaeaeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, neoaeau. Iinea aeeeoaeueiiai auiieiaiey iai?yaeaiiie e
ioaaonoaaiiie ?aaiou aeaeueiaeoaa aa auiieiaiea ii ?acee/iui i?e/eiai ia
anaaaea aiciiaeii e oeaeaniia?acii, iai?eia?, a nayce n iaeioi?uie
iau/iuie aic?anoiuie eciaiaieyie, ineoieiae/aneie e yiioeeiiaeueiie
ia?aa?oceie, iaeiieaoaeny ca iiiaea aiaeu, e o.ae. Oeaeue iainee ca
auneoao eao — inaiaiaeeoue oaeeo a?aaeaeai io iaiaoiaeeiinoe
i?iaeieaeaoue naith i?aaeithth ?aaioo, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
eiiiaine?iaaoue ei oo?a/aiiue ca?aaioie a nayce n ia?aoiaeii ia
ae?oaoth, eae i?aaeei, ieaeaiiea/eaaaioth ?aaioo eeai n iieiui
i?ae?auaieai o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iainee ca auneoao eao oeie/iu
aeey eaae?iauo aiaiiuo, ?aaioieeia ?acee/iuo i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo
i?aaiia, eaoii-iiaeuaiiiai ninoaaa aaeaoeee e aicaeooiieaaaiey,
iaeioi?uo ?aaioieeia o?ainii?oa (aiaeeoaeae eieiiioeaia,
noaeiaiaeeoaeae).

A ?innee iainey ca auneoao eao aeey ?yaea eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia yaeyaony
iniiaiui aeaeii iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey, aianoi iainee ii noa?inoe
(iai?eia?, aeey eaae?iauo aiaiiineoaeaueo, neoaeaueo i?aaiia aioo?aiieo
aeae, ?aaioieeia eaoii-iiaeuaiiiai ninoaaa a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee e
o.ae.). ?acia?u oaeeo iainee auoa, /ai iainee ii noa?inoe. Aeey ae?oaeo
a?aaeaeai onoaiiaeaiea iainee ca auneoao eao ia eneeth/aao a
aeaeueiaeoai eo ia?aoiae ia iaineth ii noa?inoe, ?acia? eioi?ie auoa
(?aaioieee i?inaauaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey, a?oenou e ae?.).

Iau/ii iainey ca auneoao eao iacia/aaony i?e iieiie auneoaa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iao iieiie auneoae, onoaiiaeaiiie caeiiii, iaeuecy
iieo/eoue e iaineth ca auneoao eao. Iaeiaei ec yoiai i?aaeea anoue
eneeth/aiey.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue niaoeeaeueiiai o?oaeiaiai noaaea (auneoae),
aeathuaai i?aai ia iaineth ca auneoao eao, a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ?acee/ia
aeey ioae/ei e aeaiuei, a a iaeioi?uo iaeeiaeiaa.

2.2 E?oa a?aaeaeai, eiathueo i?aai ia iaineth ca auneoao eao, e

oneiaey aa iacia/aiey

?anniio?ei nia/aea e?oa a?aaeaeai, iaania/eaaaiuo iaineae ca auneoao
eao, e oneiaey aa iacia/aiey.

A ia?aiia/aeueiie ?aaeaeoeee Caeiia io 20 iiya?y 1990 a. ? 340-I «I
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaineyo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee» i/a?/eaaeanue
aeinoaoi/ii /aoei oa i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue, n o/aoii
auiieiaiey eioi?ie i?aaeinoaaeyaony iainey ca auneoao eao. Iacuaaeenue
aeeeoaeueiay iiaecaiiay e iaeioi?ay ae?oaay ?aaioa n iniai a?aaeiuie e
oyaeaeuie oneiaeyie o?oaea, ?aaioa a a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee e
eaoii-eniuoaoaeueiii ninoaaa, iaaeaaiae/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue a oeieao e
ae?oaeo o/?aaeaeaieyo aeey aeaoae, ea/aaiay e eiay ?aaioa ii io?aia
caei?iauey ianaeaiey, oai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue a oaao?ao e ae?oaeo
oaao?aeueii-c?aeeuiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e eieeaeoeaao. Anaai iyoue aeaeia
oaeie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii eiaeinue a aeaeo, /oi ia?a/aiue ia
aeieaeai ?anoe?youeny. Iaeiaei a aeaeueiaeoai iainee ca auneoao eao
noaee aaiaeeoueny a nayce n auiieiaieai ae?oaie ?aaiou. I?aeoe/anee
ia?a/aiue ieacaeny ioe?uoui — iainee ca auneoao eao noaee
onoaiaaeeaaoueny a nayce n ethaie aeeeoaeueiie i?ioanneiiaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, anee yoi ni/oao iaiaoiaeeiui caeiiiaeaoaeue.

Caeiiiaeaoaeai i?aaeoniio?aiu neaaeothuea eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai,
iieuecothueony i?aaii ia iaineth ca auneoao eao, e oneiaey aa
iacia/aiey.

1. A?aaeaeaia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii caiyoua iieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue ia
iiaecaiiuo e ioe?uouo ai?iuo ?aaioao (aeeth/ay ee/iue ninoaa
ai?iinianaoaeueiuo /anoae) ii aeiau/a oaey, neaioea, ?oaeu e ae?oaeo
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo e ia no?ieoaeuenoaa oaoo e ?oaeieeia (ii Nieneo
?aaio e i?ioannee, ooaa?aeaeaaiiio I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O). Iie eiatho i?aai
ia iaineth iacaaeneii io aic?anoa, anee o?oaeeeenue ia oeacaiiuo ?aaioao
ia iaiaa 25 eao, a ?aaioieee aaaeoueo i?ioannee ia yoeo ?aaioao —
ai?ii?aai/ea i/enoiiai caaiy, i?ioiae/eee, caaieueee ia ioaieiuo
iieioeao, iaoeienou ai?iuo auaii/iuo iaoei, — anee o?oaeeeenue ia oaeeo
?aaioao ia iaiaa 20 eao. Noaaeaaua o?aaiaaiey a aeaiiii neo/aa ia
caaenyo io iiea ?aaioieea, iaeiaei oaeea ?aaiou auiieiythony eeoue
ioae/eiaie.

2. A?aaeaeaia, ?aaioathuea ia noaeao ii?neiai oeioa ?uaiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii aeiau/a, ia?aaioea ?uau e ii?ai?iaeoeoia, i?eaio
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia i?iiunea (iacaaeneii io oa?aeoa?a auiieiyaiie
?aaiou), a oaeaea ia ioaeaeueiuo aeaeao noaeia ii?neiai, ?a/iiai oeioa e
oeioa ?uaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iie eiatho i?aai ia iaineth iacaaeneii io
aic?anoa i?e auneoaa o ioae/ei —ia iaiaa 25 eao, o aeaiuei — 20 eao.

Caeanue i?aeoe/anee iacaaiu aeaa eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia. Ia?aay — caiyoua
?aaioie ia noaeao ii?neiai oeioa ?uaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii aeiau/a,
ia?aaioea ?uau e ii?ai?iaeoeoia e i?eaio aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia
i?iiunea. Aoi?ay — ?aaioa ia ioaeaeueiuo aeaeao noaeia ii?neiai, ?a/iiai
oeioa e oeioa ?uaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

3. A?aaeaeaia, ?aaioathuea nianaoaeyie a i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
aaa?eeii-nianaoaeueiuo neoaeaao, i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
aaa?eeii-nianaoaeueiuo oi?ie?iaaieyo (ii ia?a/ith aeieaeiinoae e
niaoeeaeueiinoae, ooaa?aeaeaaiuo I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O). Ei iiaeao
onoaiaaeeaaoueny iainey iacaaeneii io aic?anoa i?e auneoaa ia iaiaa 15
eao.

Ia?a/aiue aeieaeiinoae e niaoeeaeueiinoae ia ooaa?aeaeai. Yoi naycaii n
oai, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa i?aaeoniao?eaaaony eeoue aiciiaeiinoue
iacia/aiey oaeie iainee, iia «iiaeao onoaiaaeeaaoueny iacaaeneii io
aic?anoa i?e auneoaa ia iaiaa 15 eao». I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O ia ni/ei
aiciiaeiui ooaa?aeeoue ia?a/aiue, aeaeeii, a nayce n oai, /oi i?e oaeie
auneoaa (15 eao) iainey ii noa?inoe iacia/aaony nianaoaeyi ii
aeinoeaeaiee eeoue 40 eao — eae ioae/eiai, oae e aeaiueiai.

4. A?aaeaeaia, ?aaioathuea a a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee. Oaeeo eaoaai?ee
i?aeoe/anee o?e. Ia?aay — yoi a?aaeaeaia, eioi?ui i?aaeinoaaeyaony
iainey a nayce n ?aaioie a eaoiii e eaoii-eniuoaoaeueiii ninoaaa; aoi?ay
— a nayce n ?aaioie ii oi?aaeaieth aicaeooiui aeaeaeaieai; o?aouey — a
nayce n ?aaioie a eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneii ninoaaa ii ianeoaeeaaieth
aicaeooiuo noaeia.

Oneiaeai aeey onoaiiaeaiey iainee ia?aie eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai — eaoiiio e
eaoii-eniuoaoaeueiiio ninoaao — yaeyaony auneoaa ia iaiaa 25 e 20 eao
(niioaaonoaaiii aeey ioae/ei e aeaiuei); i?e inoaaeaiee eaoiie ?aaiou ii
ninoiyieth caei?iauey n?ie auneoae nie?auaaony ia 5 eao e ii?aaeaeai
aeey ioae/ei — ia iaiaa 20 eao e aeey aeaiuei — ia iaiaa 15 eao. Yoi
o?aaeeoeeiiiay, iaeia ec ia?auo, iainey ca auneoao eao, aeey aa
iacia/aiey iaiaoiaeeia oieueei niioaaonoaothuay auneoaa.

I?aaeea en/eneaiey n?ieia auneoae eao aeey iacia/aiey iainee ?aaioieeai
eaoiiai ninoaaa caaenyo io aeaea eaoaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa, iaeaoa /ania ia
niioaaonoaothueo eaoaoaeueiuo aiia?aoao, oa?aeoa?a iieaoia e iaeioi?uo
ae?oaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa, iaoneiaeeaathueo niaoeeoeeo auiieiyaiie eaoiie
?aaiou. Oae, ca iaeei ianyoe auneoae n/eoathony eaaeaeua 20 /ania iaeaoa
ia naiieaoao e 12 /ania iaeaoa ia aa?oieaoao; ca iaeei ianyoe auneoae
n/eoathony eaaeaeua 12 /ania iaeaoa (a oii /enea ia naiieaoao) a
aaeaoeee niaoeeaeueiiai i?eiaiaiey — naieoa?iua iieaou, aaeaoeie/aneea
?aaiou, iao?oee?iaaiea e o.ae.; ca iieoi?a aiaea auneoae n/eoaaony iaeei
aiae ?aaiou a aaa?eeii-nianaoaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo, a
o/aaii-nii?oeaiuo aaeaoeeiiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo (i?e oneiaee auiieiaiey
ieaia o/aaii-eaoiie iiaeaioiaee) e o.ae. A eueaioiii ii?yaeea
en/eneythony n?iee ?aaiou a eaoii-eniuoaoaeueiii ninoaaa.

E?iia oiai, o/eouaaaony a auneoao eao: a?aiy neoaeau a aeieaeiinoyo
eaoiiai ninoaaa Aii?oaeaiiuo nee (iiaen/ao auneoae a aeaiiii neo/aa
inouanoaeyaony a oii aea ii?yaeea, /oi e aeey iacia/aiey iainee ca
auneoao eao aiaiiineoaeauei); a?aiy iao/aiey a aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaieyo aaeaoeee, anee yoiio i?aaeoanoaiaaea ?aaioa a eaoiuo
aeieaeiinoyo; a?aiy iiea/eaaaiiai ioionea ii ooiaeo ca ?aaaieii.
Iineaaeiea aeaa ia?eiaea o/eouaathony ii oaeoe/aneie eo
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe.

Oneiaeyie aeey iacia/aiey iainee aoi?ie eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai — caiyoui
oi?aaeaieai aicaeooiui aeaeaeaieai — yaeythony: aeey ioae/ei —
aeinoeaeaiea 55 eao, iauee o?oaeiaie noaae ia iaiaa 25 eao, ec ieo ia
iaiaa 12 eao e 6 ianyoeaa ?aaiou ii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio oi?aaeaieth
iieaoaie aicaeooiuo noaeia; aeey aeaiuei — aeinoeaeaiea 50 eao, iauee
o?oaeiaie noaae ia iaiaa 20 eao, ec ieo ia iaiaa 10 eao ?aaiou ii
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio oi?aaeaieth iieaoaie aicaeooiuo noaeia.

?anniao?eaaaiay iainey oioy e iacaaia iaineae ca auneoao eao, iaeiaei a
iae iaeeoei e i?eciae iainee ii noa?inoe — ii?aaeaeaiiue aic?anoiie
oeaic, ii ieaea iauaai iaineiiiiai aic?anoa ia 5 eao. Ii oneiaeyi,
iaiaoiaeeiui aeey iacia/aiey iainee, yoa iainey aeecea e iainee ii
noa?inoe a nayce n iniauie oneiaeyie o?oaea.

?aaioa ii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio oi?aaeaieth iieaoaie aicaeooiuo noaeia — ia
iaiaa 12 eao e 6 ianyoeaa eee 10 eao (niioaaonoaaiii o ioae/ei e
aeaiuei) en/eneyaony ii eaeaiaea?th, ni aeiy aa ia/aea e aei aeiy aa
ieii/aiey.

A auneoao eao ?aaioieeai, inouanoaeythuei oi?aaeaiea aicaeooiui
aeaeaeaieai, can/eouaaaony ?aaioa a eaoiii ninoaaa aaeaoeee.

Oneiaeyie aeey onoaiiaeaiey iainee o?aoueae eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai —
caiyoui a eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneii ninoaaa ii ianeoaeeaaieth aicaeooiuo
noaeia — yaeythony: aeey ioae/ei aeinoeaeaiea 55 eao, iauee o?oaeiaie
noaae ?aaiou a a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee ia iaiaa 25 eao, ec ieo ia iaiaa
20 eao ii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio ianeoaeeaaieth aicaeooiuo noaeia; aeey
aeaiuei — aeinoeaeaiea 50 eao, iauee o?oaeiaie noaae a a?aaeaeaineie
aaeaoeee ia iaiaa 20 eao, ec ieo ia iaiaa 15 eao ii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
ianeoaeeaaieth aicaeooiuo noaeia. Caeanue oaeaea iaeeoei i?eciae iainee
ii noa?inoe — ii?aaeaeaiiue aic?anoiie ?oaaae.

Aeey o?aoueae eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai onoaiiaeaii niaoeeoe/aneia o?aaiaaiea
aeey iieo/aiey iainee — iauee o?oaeiaie noaae a a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee.
A caeiia ia ?anoeo?iauaaaony niaea?aeaiea aeaiiiai o?aaiaaiey, ia
?ane?uaaaony iii e a aeoao, ecaeaiiuo I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O. Aiieia
i/aaeaeii, /oi a yoio iauee noaae aeieaeia can/eouaaoueny ethaay ?aaioa
a nenoaia a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee — a ea/anoaa ?aai/aai eee neoaeauaai,
iacaaeneii io iaeiaiiaaiey i?ioannee, aeieaeiinoe e oa?aeoa?a
auiieiyaiie ?aaiou (iai?eia?, ?aaioa a ea/anoaa yeniaaeeoi?a eee
iaaenano?u ea/aaiiai o/?aaeaeaiey a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee).

A iauee o?oaeiaie noaae a a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee ?aaioieeai
eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneiai ninoaaa can/eouaaaony, a /anoiinoe, ?aaioa a
eaoiii ninoaaa aaeaoeee e ?aaioa ii oi?aaeaieth aicaeooiui aeaeaeaieai.

5. A?aaeaeaia, caiyoua iaaeaaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth a oeieao e
ae?oaeo o/?aaeaeaieyo aeey aeaoae. Iie eiatho i?aai ia iaineth i?e
auneoaa ia iaiaa 25 eao. Iainey ca auneoao eao aeey yoeo a?aaeaeai —
iaeia ec ia?auo oaeeo iainee, aaaaeaiiuo a NNN?: iia onoaiiaeaia a 1925
a., aeaaea ianeieueei ?aiueoa, /ai iainey ii noa?inoe. Oneiaey
iacia/aiey aeaiiie iainee iaiaeiie?aoii iaiyeenue. Iniaaiiinoue oneiaee,
aaaaeaiiuo Caeiiii I o?oaeiauo iaineyo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee,
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iainey iacia/aaony ca iaaeaaiae/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue a oeieao e ae?oaeo o/?aaeaeaieyo aeey aeaoae. Ieeaeay
eiay ?aaioa, iai?eia? auai?iay, ?aaioa ia ?oeiaiaeyueo, eino?oeoi?neeo e
einiaeoi?neeo aeieaeiinoyo a i?aaiao i?inaauaiey e o.ae., a noaae, n
o/aoii eioi?iai onoaiaaeeaaaony iainey, ia aeeth/aaony.

6. A?aaeaeaia, caiyoua ea/aaiie e eiie ?aaioie ii io?aia caei?iauey
ianaeaiey. Iie eiatho i?aai ia iaineth i?e auneoaa ia iaiaa 25 eao a
naeueneie ianoiinoe e iinaeeao ai?iaeneiai oeia e ia iaiaa 30 eao a
ai?iaeao. Iainey ca auneoao eao aeey a?a/ae, ae?oaeo iaaeeoeeineeo
?aaioieeia, eae e iainey aeey o/eoaeae e eiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo
?aaioieeia, — iaeia ec ia?auo iainee, aaaaeaiiuo a NNN?. Oneiaey aa
iacia/aiey oaeaea iaiaeiie?aoii iaiyeenue. Iniaaiiinoue oneiaee,
aaaaeaiiuo Caeiiii “I o?oaeiauo iaineyo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”,
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi yoa iainey iacia/aaony oai, eoi aeaenoaeoaeueii
caiyo ea/aaiie e i?ioeeaeoe/aneie ?aaioie; ieeaeay eiay ?aaioa, iai?eia?
auai?iay, ?aaioa ia ?oeiaiaeyueo, eino?oeoi?neeo e einiaeoi?neeo
aeieaeiinoyo a i?aaiao cae?aaiio?aiaiey e o.ae., a noaae, n o/aoii
eioi?iai onoaiaaeeaaaony iainey ca auneoao eao, ia aeeth/aaony.

Aeey oeacaiiuo ?aaioieeia o?aaeeoeeiiii onoaiiaeaia ?acee/iay auneoaa
eao a caaeneiinoe io ianoiinoe, a eioi?ie i?ioaeaea o?oaeiaay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Ii o?oaeiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ia oae oae ?aaeei
neeaaeuaaaony ec ia?eiaeia ?aaiou a ?aciuo ianoiinoyo. Eiaeea
iiaeneacuaaao i?inoia ?aoaiea aii?ina: a ai?iaeao iaiaoiaeeii
i?i?aaioaoue ia 25, a 30 eao, o. a. ia 5 eao, eee ia 20%, aieueoa, /ai a
naeueneie ianoiinoe; eiyooeoeeaio ia?aaiaea a?aiaie ?aaiou a naeueneie
ianoiinoe (iinaeeao ai?iaeneiai oeia), neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aaai 1,2
(30:25).

7. A?aaeaeaia, caiyoua oai?/aneie ?aaioie ia noeaia a oaao?ao e ae?oaeo
oaao?aeueii-c?aeeuiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo e eieeaeoeaao. Iainee aeey yoeo
?aaioieeia iiyaeeenue a NNN? ianeieueei iicaeiaa, /ai iainee ca auneoao
eao aeey o/eoaeae, a?a/ae, ae?oaeo ?aaioieeia i?inaauaiey e
cae?aaiio?aiaiey, a oaeaea eaoii-iiaeuaiiiai ninoaaa.

Aeey iieo/aiey aeaiiie iainee iaiaoiaeeia auneoaa 15, 20, 25 eee 30 eao
a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a ?aaiou. *ai neiaeiaa, iai?yaeaiiaa ?aaioa,
oai iaiueoae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe o?aaoaony auneoaa, e iaiai?io.

Nienie i?ioannee e aeieaeiinoae ?aaioieeia oaao?ia e ae?oaeo
oaao?aeueii-c?aeeuiuo i?aaiecaoeee, oai?/aneay ?aaioa eioi?uo aeaao
i?aai ia iaineth ca auneoao eao, ooaa?aeaeai I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O 28
aaaonoa 1991 a., eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey a iaai aianaiu I?aaeoaeuenoaii
22 naioya?y 1999 a.

Niaeanii Nieneo, i?e noaaea oai?/aneie ?aaiou ia iaiaa 15 eao i?aai ia
iaineth ca auneoao eao eiatho: a?oenou aaeaoa oaao?ia aaeaoa e oaao?ia
iia?u e aaeaoa, eniieiythuea nieueiua ia?oee; a?oenou (aeiianou,
yeaeeea?enou, ae?iaaou anao iaeiaiiaaiee, e?iia ae?iaaoia-yenoeaio?eeia)
oee?eia e eiioea?oiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

I?aai ia iaineth i?e noaaea oai?/aneie ?aaiou ia iaiaa 20 eao
i?aaeinoaaeaii: a?oenoai aaeaoa (a oii /enea ia eueaeo); a?oenoai —
eniieieoaeyi oaioeaaaeueiuo iiia?ia a i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
eieeaeoeaao; a?oenoai oaao?ia ieieee e aeanoa; o?aaanoe;
a?oenoeai-aieaeenoeai (nieenoeai) oaao?ia iia?u e aaeaoa e iaeioi?ui
ae?oaei. I?e oii aea noaaea oai?/aneie ?aaiou (ia iaiaa 20 eao) aeey
ai?oeia oee?eia e eiioea?oiuo i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeoniio?ai aic?anoiie
oeaic 50 eao.

I?e noaaea oai?/aneie ?aaiou ia iaiaa 25 eao i?aai ia iaineth ca auneoao
eao eiatho, iai?eia?, a?oenou-aieaeenou (nieenou) oaao?ia iia?u e
aaeaoa, iocueaeueii-ae?aiaoe/aneeo oaao?ia, eiioea?oiuo i?aaiecaoeee,
oaeaaeaeaiey e ?aaeeiaauaiey, iia?iuo nooaeee aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee
eneonnoa (a?oenoee-aieaeenoee (nieenoee) eiatho i?aai ia iaineth i?e
noaaea oai?/aneie ?aaiou ia iaiaa 20 eao), a?oenou, ea?athuea ia
aeooiauo eino?oiaioao a i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo eieeaeoeaao.
A aio aeey a?oenoie ae?aiaoe/aneeo oaao?ia aaaaeai aic?anoiie ?oaaae:
iainey onoaiaaeeaaaony ei i?e oeacaiiii noaaea oai?/aneie ?aaiou ii
aeinoeaeaiee 50-eaoiaai aic?anoa.

Iaeiiaoe, i?e noaaea oai?/aneie ?aaiou ia iaiaa 30 eao iainey ca auneoao
eao iacia/aaony a?oenoai oi?a i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
eieeaeoeaia, a?oenoai (ioae/eiai) ae?aiaoe/aneeo oaao?ia (iaeiaei
iineaaeiei eeoue ii aeinoeaeaiee 55 eao).

Eoae, iainey ca auneoao eao iaeioi?ui a?oenoai onoaiaaeeaaaony ii
aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai aic?anoa: ai?oeai oee?eia e eiioea?oiuo
i?aaiecaoeee — 50 eao, a?oenoeai ae?aiaoe/aneeo oaao?ia — 50 eao,
a?oenoai oaeeo oaao?ia — 55 eao.

Oaeaea a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii, iainee ca auneoao eao iacia/athony
eeoeai, i?ioiaeeaoei aiaiioth neoaeao, neoaeao a i?aaiao aioo?aiieo
aeae, o/?aaeaeaieyo e i?aaiao oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiie nenoaiu. Aeey
oaeeo a?aaeaeai iainey ca auneoao eao — iniiaiie aeae iainee, oae eae
iainee ii noa?inoe oeacaiiui caeiiii ia i?aaeoniio?aiu. Iiaeiaiua iainee
aeey eaae?iauo aiaiiineoaeaueo, ?yaeiaiai e ia/aeuenoaothuaai ninoaaa
IAAe nouanoaiaaee a ?innee e ?aiaa, auee iie e a NNN?, anoue oaeea
iainee i?aeoe/anee ai anao ae?oaeo no?aiao. Iiaeii naeaeaoue iaiauathuee
auaiae: iaineiiiua nenoaiu aeey eaae?iauo aiaiiuo, ?aaioieeia ieeeoeee,
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aiaiece?iaaiiuo i?aaiia ii/oe iianaianoii ioiinyony e
/eneo i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo nenoai, iie eae au aicauoathony iaae iaueie
iaineiiiuie nenoaiaie. Yoi iaoneiaeaii niaoeeoeeie, iniaaiiinoyie
eaae?iaie aiaiiie e ae?oaie iiaeiaiie neoaeau, ia eioi?oth iie?aaony
aeanoue.

Oneiaey aeey i?eia?aoaiey i?aaa ia iaineth — auneoaa 20 eao e aieaa ia
aeaiue oaieueiaiey ni neoaeau.

A?aaeaeaiai, auneoaa eioi?uo ia aeinoeaaao 20 eao, iainey
onoaiaaeeaaaony i?e oneiaee, /oi iie eiatho iauee o?oaeiaie noaae 25
eaeaiaea?iuo eao e aieaa, ec eioi?uo ia iaiaa 12 eao 6 ian. ninoaaeyao
oeacaiiay neoaeaa. Iiieii aeaoo iacaaiiuo oneiaee (iauee o?oaeiaie noaae
ia iaiaa 25 eaeaiaea?iuo eao, a oii /enea ia iaiaa 12 eao 6 ian.
niioaaonoaothuay neoaeaa) i?aaeoniio?aiu aua aeaa aeiiieieoaeueiuo
oneiaey: aeinoeaeaiea 45 eao ia aeaiue oaieueiaiey ni neoaeau e a oi aea
a?aiy oaieueiaiea ni neoaeau ii iaeiiio ec o?ao iniiaaiee: a nayce n
aeinoeaeaieai i?aaeaeueiiai aic?anoa i?aauaaiey ia neoaeaa, ii
ninoiyieth caei?iauey eee a nayce n i?aaiecaoeeiiii-ooaoiuie
ia?ii?eyoeyie. Eae aeaeei, a aeaiiii neo/aa aeey aicieeiiaaiey
iaineiiiiai i?aaiioiioaiey iaiaoiaeei aanueia neiaeiue oaeoe/aneee
ninoaa.

Iaineiiiia iaania/aiea, i?aaeoniio?aiiia Caeiiii aeey a?aaeaeai,
i?ioiaeeaoeo aiaiioth neoaeao, neoaeao a i?aaiao aioo?aiieo aeae,
o/?aaeaeaieyo e i?aaiao oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiie nenoaiu, e eo naiae
?ani?ino?aiaii ia iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo neoaeaueo e eo naiuee.

2.3 ?acia? iainee ca auneoao eao

Iainey ca auneoao eao, iacaaeneii io iniiaaiey aeey aa iacia/aiey
yaeyaony o?oaeiaie iaineae. Aa ?acia?, eae e ?acia? iainee ii noa?inoe,
niecia?yaony n o?oaeiaui aeeaaeii e ii?aaeaeyaony, eae oaea ioia/aeinue,
oai, eae aeieai i?iaeieaeaeanue niioaaonoaothuay o?oaeiaay
aeayoaeueiinoue e eae iia iiea/eaaeanue. A nayce n yoei aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy iainee iiaen/eouaaaony auneoaa eao (iau/ii a aiaeao)
e n?aaeiee ca?aaioie.

I?aeoeea ?an/aoa iainee ca auneoao eao a ?innee i?eioeeieaeueii ia
ioee/aaony io ie?iaie. ?acia? iainee en/eneyaony ia iniiaa ca?aaioea: ca
iieioth auneoao a iaineth ia?aoiaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiay /anoue ca?aaioea; ca
auneoao naa?o iieiie iainey iiauoaaony aei ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeia.
?acia? iainee ca auneoao eao a ae?oaeo no?aiao iau/ii niioaaonoaoao
?acia?o iainee ii noa?inoe, aeey iaeioi?uo a?aaeaeai ii auoa (iainee
aeey eaae?iauo aiaiiineoaeaueo e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai).

?acia? iainee ca auneoao eao ninoaaeyao, eae i?aaeei, io 55 aei 75%
ca?aaioea. Anee auneoaa ?aaia o?aaoaiie, oi ?acia? iainee 55%. Ca
eaaeaeue aiae iieiie auneoae naa?o o?aaoaiie yoio ?acia? iiauoaaony ia 1
%, ii ia aieaa, /ai aei 75%.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, iainee ca ?aaioo a eaoiii e eaoii-eniuoaoaeueiii
ninoaaa iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoueny i?e iaiieiie auneoaa. A oaeeo neo/ayo
iainey oiaiueoaaony ia 2 % ca?aaioea ca eaaeaeue aiae (a oii /enea e
iaiieiue), iaaeinoathuee aei iieiie auneoae.

Aeey ?aaioieeia, caiyouo ia iiaecaiiuo e ioe?uouo ai?iuo ?aaioao,
naeaeaii ecuyoea a /anoe ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?a iainee: anai oaeei
a?aaeaeaiai, eiathuei i?aai ia iaineth, aa ?acia? ninoaaeyao 75%
ca?aaioea.

Aeiiieieoaeueiia i?aaeei aaaaeaii aeey eao/eeia-eniuoaoaeae I eeanna: eo
iainey, en/eneaiiay ii iauei i?aaeeai, iiauoaaony ia 10%, iaeiaei ai
anao neo/ayo aa ?acia? ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue 75% ca?aaioea. Ieieiaeueiue
e iaeneiaeueiue ?acia?u iainee ca auneoao eao oaeea aea, eae e iainee ii
noa?inoe. Yoe ?acia?u iiauoathony ca auneoao naa?o iaiaoiaeeiie a oaeii
aea ii?yaeea, eae e i?e en/eneaiee iainee ii noa?inoe.

Iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? iainee aeey eaoiiai ninoaaa onoaiiaeai ia o?iaia ia
o?ao, a o?ao n iieiaeiie iaeneiaeueiuo ?acia?ia iainee ii noa?inoe. Aeey
eao/eeia-eniuoaoaeae I eeanna iaeneioi iainee ca auneoao eao aiiaua ia
onoaiiaeai.

Iniaue, iiauoaiiue iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? iainee aaaaeai n 1 iay 1999 a.
aeey /eaiia yeeiaaeae aicaeooiuo noaeia a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee (no. 56
Aicaeooiiai eiaeaena ?O (?aae. io 04.12.2007)(n eci. e aeii.,
anooieaoeie a neeo n 16.12.2007)). Ii ii?aaeaeai ia o?iaia 2,2
n?aaeiaiany/iie ca?aaioiie ieaou a no?aia. A oaeii iaeneiaeueiii ?acia?a
iainey onoaiaaeeaaaony /eaiai eaoiuo yeeiaaeae, a oii /enea oai ec ieo,
eioi?ui iia iacia/aia aei 1 iay 1999 a.

I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O 7 naioya?y 1999 a. ooaa?aeeei Nienie aeieaeiinoae
/eaiia eaoiuo yeeiaaeae aicaeooiuo noaeia a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee, ?aaioa
a eioi?uo aeaao i?aai ia iiauoaiea iaeneiaeueiiai ?acia?a iainee ca
auneoao eao (a iaai aeeth/aiu ieeiou, ooo?iaiu, ai?oiaua eiaeaia?u,
ai?oiaua iaoaieee, ai?oiaua ?aaeenou ?acee/iuo iaeiaiiaaiee), a oaeaea
I?aaeea en/eneaiey n?ieia auneoae e onoaiiaeaiey aaee/eiu iiauoaiey
iaeneiaeueiiai ?acia?a iainee ca auneoao eao /eaiai eaoiuo yeeiaaeae
aicaeooiuo noaeia a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee.

Niaeanii I?aaeeai, i?e ?an/aoa iiauoaiey iaeneiaeueiiai ?acia?a
o/eouaaaony auneoaa, au?aaioaiiay eeoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii a aeieaeiinoyo
/eaiia yeeiaaeae aicaeooiuo noaeia a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee (o. a.
auneoaa, eioi?ay iiaen/eouaaaony a caaeneiinoe io iaeaoa /ania), eiay
?aaioa ia i?eieiaaony ai aieiaiea.

Aaee/eia iiauoaiey iaeneiaeueiiai ?acia?a ii?aaeaeyaony oae: ?acieoea
iaaeaeo ?acia?ii iainee (n o/aoii iiauoaiey iainee a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii) a i?aaeaeao 2,2 n?aaeiaiany/iiai ca?aaioea a no?aia
e noiiie iainee, ?aaiie 3,5 ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iainee ii noa?inoe (n
o/aoii iaaeaaaie e eiiiainaoeeiiiie auieaou) oiiiaeaaony ia ioiioaiea
n?aaeiaiany/iie noiiu no?aoiauo aciinia ii aeiiieieoaeueiiio oa?eoo,
oaeoe/anee iinooieaoeo a Iaineiiiue oiiae ?O a i?aaeoanoaothuai aiaeo io
?aaioiaeaoaeae — i?aaiecaoeee, eniieuecothueo o?oae /eaiia eaoiuo
yeeiaaeae, e noiia n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oeiaine?iaaiey
iaeneiaeueiiai ?acia?a iainee iaineiia?ia ec /enea oeacaiiuo eeoe ia
ia/aei auieaoiiai ia?eiaea. Yoi ioiioaiea ?ann/eouaaaony aaeaeaa?oaeueii
Iaineiiiui oiiaeii ?O.

Aeey oao a?aaeaeai, auneoaa eioi?uo ninoaaeyao 20 eao (iieiay auneoaa),
?acia? iainee ?aaai 50% ca?aaioea (niioaaonoaothueo noii aeaiaaeiiai
aeiaieuenoaey); ca eaaeaeue iieiue aiae auneoae nauoa 20 eao ?acia?
iainee oaaee/eaaaony ia 3% ca?aaioea, ii ia aieaa /ai aei 85% ca?aaioea.
Ioee/ea caeanue a oii, /oi enoiaeiue ?acia? ia 55, a 50% ca?aaioea;
oaaee/aiea ca eaaeaeue iieiue aiae auneoae naa?o o?aaoaiie ninoaaeyao ia
1, a 3% ca?aaioea, e i?aaeaeueiue ?acia? iainee ia 75, a 85% ca?aaioea.

Auoa ioia/aeinue, /oi a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii I o?oaeiauo iaineyo a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, i?e ionoonoaee auneoae 20 eao i?aai ia iaineth
ca auneoao eao i?aaeinoaaeyaony a?aaeaeaiai, eiathuei iauee o?oaeiaie
noaae 25 eaeaiaea?iuo eao e aieaa, ec eioi?uo ia iaiaa 12 eao 6 ian.
ninoaaeyao aiaiiay neoaeaa, neoaeaa a i?aaiao aioo?aiieo aeae. ?acia?
iainee oaeeo a?aaeaeai ninoaaeyao 50% ca?aaioea iethn iaeei i?ioeaio
ca?aaioea ca eaaeaeue iieiue aiae noaaea nauoa 25 eao.

Caeeth/aiea

A caeeth/aiea aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou iiaeii iiaeaanoe neaaeothuea eoiae
i?iaeaeaiiiio enneaaeiaaieth:

O?oaeiaay iainey – aaeaiany/iay aeaiaaeiay auieaoa a oeaeyo eiiiainaoeee
a?aaeaeaiai ca?aaioiie ieaou eee eiiai aeioiaea, eioi?ua iieo/aee
cano?aoiaaiiua eeoea ia?aae onoaiiaeaieai ei o?oaeiaie iainee eeai
oo?aoeee iao?oaeiniiniaiua /eaiu naiuee cano?aoiaaiiuo eeoe a nayce ni
nia?oueth yoeo eeoe.

Eeoeai, eiathuei i?aai ia o?oaeiaoth iaineth, iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu
neaaeothuea aeaeu iainee ii noa?inoe e ii eiaaeeaeiinoe, eioi?ua ninoiyo
ec aaciaie, no?aoiaie e iaeiieoaeueiie /anoae, a oaeaea ii neo/ath
iioa?e ei?ieeueoea, ninoiyuae ec aaciaie e no?aoiaie /anoae.

No?aoiaie noaae – o/eouaaaiay i?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaa ia o?oaeiaoth
iaineth noiia?iay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaeia ?aaiou e/eee eiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a oa/aiea eioi?uo oiea/eaaeenue no?aoiaua aciinu a IO?,
a oaeaea eiua ia?eiaeu, can/eouaaaiua a no?aoiaie noaae.

O?oaeiaie noaae – o/eouaaaiay i?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaa ia ioaeaeueiua
aeaeu iainee ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio iaineiiiiio iaania/aieth noiia?iay
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaeia ?aaiou e eiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua
can/eouaathony a no?aoiaie noaae aeey iieo/aiey iainee.

Iaeiei ec aaceniuo einoeoooia nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey – iainey ca
auneoao eao.

Iainey ca auneoao eao ia iineo naiinoiyoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Ii nooe, iia
yaeyaony aeiiieiaieai e o?oaeiaie iainee ii noa?inoe (eiaaeeaeiinoe) e
ioaeaeueii io o?oaeiaie iainee ii noa?inoe (eiaaeeaeiinoe) ia
onoaiaaeeaaaony.

Iaineae ca auneoao eao i?eciaaony auieaoa, onoaiaaeeaaaiay
aeiiieieoaeueii e o?oaeiaie iainee ii noa?inoe (eiaaeeaeiinoe),
iacia/aiiie a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii i o?oaeiauo iaineyo.

Auneoaa eao onoaiiaeaiiie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe neoaeeo th?eaee/aneei
oaeoii, aeathuei i?aai ia iaineth (iacaaeneii io aic?anoa i?e oneiaee
oaieueiaiey n ?aaiou, a nayce n eioi?ie iacia/aaony iainey).

E?oa noauaeoia, eiathueo i?aai ia iaineth ca auneoao eao, aeiaieueii
oe?ie. A iaai aoiaeyo: ?aaioieee, caiyoua ia ?aaioao n iniauie oneiaeyie
o?oaea; ?aaioieee a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee; eeoea, caiyoua ea/aaiie e eiie
?aaioie ii io?aia caei?iauey ianaeaiey; a?oenou e ae?oaea eaoaai?ee
oai?/aneeo ?aaioieeia; aiaiiineoaeauea; ainoaea?noaaiiua neoaeauea.

Aicieeiiaaiea i?aaa ia iaineth ii auneoaa eao caeiiiaeaoaeue naycuaaao n
iaee/eai o ?aaioieea (neoaeauaai) iaiaoiaeeiiai noaaea. Eae i?aaeei, ia
i?aeoeea, iniiaiay neiaeiinoue caeeth/aaony a iiaen/aoa noaaea aeey
iacia/aiey iainee ca auneoao eao. Oae, anee aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
neoaeaueo oaeie noaae onoaiiaeai a n?ie ia iaiaa 15 eao, oi aeey
?aaioieeia eaoii-eniuoaoaeueiiai ninoaaa ii ninoaaeyao ia iaiaa 25 eao.
Nio?oaeieee oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaiia aeieaeiu eiaoue noaae a ?acia?a 20 eao e
aieaa e o.ae.

Ioaeaeueiuie caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie iiaeao onoaiaaeeaaoueny eueaioiia
en/eneaiea noaaea aeey iainee ca auneoao eao.

Oneiaey, e ii?yaeie iacia/aiey iainee ca auneoao eao ai iiiaii caaeneo
io niaoeeoeee iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey eiie?aoiuo eaoaai?ee neoaeaueo.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Eiinoeoooeey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 12 aeaeaa?y 1993 aiaea.
?inneeneay Aacaoa. 25 aeaeaa?y 1993

2. Niaeaoaiea iaaeaeo I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e
I?aaeoaeuenoaii Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee i iaineiiiii iaania/aiee (Iineaa,
29 ethiy 1999 a.) Nia?aiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. -8
ieoya?y 2001 a. – ?41. – No. 3889

3. Niaeaoaiea i acaeiiii ca/aoa a iauee o?oaeiaie noaae e auneoao eao
neoaeau a i?aaiao e o/?aaeaeaieyo i?ieo?aoo?u a ainoaea?noaao-o/anoieeao
Niae?oaeanoaa Iacaaeneiuo Ainoaea?noa (Iineaa, 25 iiya?y 1998 a.)

4. Iinoaiiaeaiea Ieio?oaea ?O e IO? io 27 oaa?aey 2002 a. ?17/19ia “Ia
ooaa?aeaeaiee I?aaee ia?auaiey ca iaineae, iacia/aiey iainee e
ia?a?an/aoa ?acia?a iainee, ia?aoiaea n iaeiie iainee ia ae?oaoth a
niioaaonoaee n oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie “I o?oaeiauo iaineyo a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee” e “I ainoaea?noaaiiii iaineiiiii iaania/aiee a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee” “Aaeaiaaeaeueiue atheeaoaiue caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e
aaaeiinoaaiiuo aeoia. – etheue 2004 a. – ?29

5. Iinoaiiaeaiea Ieio?oaea ?O io 30 ethiy 2003 a. ?44 “Ia ooaa?aeaeaiee
I?aaee ia?auaiey ca iaineae ca auneoao eao oaaea?aeueiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo, aa iacia/aiey e auieaou” ?inneeneay aacaoa.
– 26 aaaonoa 2003

6. Aca?iaa A. A., Aeiia?aaeiaa 3. Ae., Iieoiaiia I. E. Eiioeaioeey
?acaeoey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i nioeeaeueiii iaania/aiee. Eiioeaioeey
?acaeoey ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. I. 2003

7. Aaae/ A. I., Aai?ia A. I., AEeeueoeia. Yeiiiieea nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey. I. 2000

8. A?ao/eeiaa I.A. Iiaue ii?yaeie iacia/aiey o?oaeiauo iainee. Aaeaieao
– ? 10. I. 2007

9. Aaouaei E. N. I?aai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey. Iauay /anoue: O/aai.
iiniaea. I. 2002

10. Caaaeei E. A. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey. I.2000

11. Aeioeao?a E. ss. O?oaeiaie noaae ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo. I. 2004

12. AiiueaiAe., Oa??enAe., Caaae E. Aa?iiaeneay eiiaaioeey i i?aaao
/aeiaaea e Aa?iiaeneay nioeeaeueiay oa?oey: i?aai e i?aeoeea. I. 1998

13. Caoa?ia I. E., Oo/eiaa Y. A. Iaineiiiay ?aoi?ia a ?innee 1990 a.:
oi?ioaa ia/aei e iea/aaiua ?acoeueoaou. Ainoaea?noai e i?aai. 2002. ? 3

14. Caoa?ia I. E., Oo/eiaa Y. A. I?aeoe/aneee e iao/iue eiiiaioa?ee e
caeiio ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaineyo a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee». I. 1999

15. Ia/oeueneay A. A. I?aai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey: O/aai. iiniaea.
I. 2002

16. Ia/oeueneay A. A. I?aeoeeoi ii i?aao nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey. I.
2006

17. I?aai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey: O/aai. iiniaea / Iiae ?aae. E. I.
Aoniaa. I. 1999

18. Noeaeiaiiaa A. A. Nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea e nioeeaeueiia
no?aoiaaiea. I. 2004

19. Oo/eiaa Y. A. Oi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey ?innee
(i?aaiaua i?iaeaiu) // Iaineiiiay ?aoi?ia a ?innee: Ioeaiea
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20.  Oo/eiaa Y. A. I?aai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey: O/aaii-iaoiae,
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21. Oaeoaoaeoia A. O. I?aai nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey ?inneeneie
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