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Основные изменения в праве стран Запада

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Iniiaiua eciaiaiey a i?aaa no?ai Caiaaea (XX a.)

Ieai

1. Eciaiaiey a enoi/ieeao e nenoaia i?aaa

2. Iniiaiua eciaiaiey a a?aaeaeaineii e oi?aiaii i?aaa

Noauaeou i?aaa

Aioeo?anoianeia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai

I?aai nianoaaiiinoe

Iiaaeeu a iaycaoaeuenoaaiiii i?aaa

3. O?oaeiaia e nioeeaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai

4. Oaieiaiia i?aai e i?ioeann

1. Eciaiaiey a enoi/ieeao e nenoaia i?aaa

Nia?aiaiiia i?aai, a ioee/ea io einoeoooa ainoaea?noaa a XX aaea
?acaeaaaony aeinoaoi/ii ieaaii. I?aai a iaiueoae noaiaie, /ai
ainoaea?noai eniuouaaao ia naaa iineaaenoaey iieeoe/aneeo eaoaeeeciia.
Iii a aieueoae noaiaie ni?eaioe?iaaii ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea aeoaeiiuo e
ananoi?iiieo iio?aaiinoae /aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey1. A iniaaiiinoe yoi
eanaaony i?aaa oaieiaiiai. Oaieiaiia i?aai ioiineony e ae?aaiaeoei
io?aneyi i?aaa. A ioee/ea io oeiainiaiai, oaiiaeaiiiai, aaieianeiai, e
o.ae., io?aneae i?aaa, aicieeoeo oaea iinea aicieeiiaaiey
niioaaonoaothueo einoeoooia, oaieiaiia i?aai, aicieeei iaeiia?aiaiii n
iiyaeaieai ia?auo caeiiia. Oaieiaiia i?aai yaeyaony ia oieueei iaeiie ec
iaeaieaa ae?aaieo io?aneae i?aaa, ii e iaeiie ec naiuo eiina?aaoeaiuo.
Eciaiaiey a oaieiaiii i?aaa anaaaea i?ienoiaeeee iinoaiaiii, iau/ii a
nayce n na?ueaciuie eciaiaieyie a nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?a iauanoaa e a
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaii ono?ienoaa.

Aeey iiaaeoaai ia?eiaea enoi?ee oa?aeoa?iu ia oieueei nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey a iieeoe/aneeo nenoaiao, eiinoeoooeeyo ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa,
ii e caiaoiay yaiethoeey anae aai i?aaiaie nenoaiu. Iaiiaeaiea, eioi?ia
i?iecioei a i?aaa eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai a XX a., cao?iioei eae aai
oi?io, oae e niaea?aeaiea. Yoi iaiiaeaiea naycaii, i?aaeaea anaai, n
aeoaeiiuie i?ioeannaie ?acaeoey naiiai eaieoaeecia, anooieaoaai a
iinoeiaeono?eaeueioth oaco, eiaaea i?aai eniieuecoaony aeey ?aoaiey
iiauo iauanoaaiiuo caaea/, iaoneiaeaiiuo onei?ythuaeny eioi?iaoeeiiiie e
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeeae, oneiaeieaoaeny e iiaea?iece?othuaeny
yeiiiieeie, iaino?eaoeieny noa?uie e aiiaue iiyaeythueieny
nioeeaeueii-eeanniauie i?ioeai?a/eyie. I?aai no?ai Caiaaea ia
nia?aiaiiii yoaia aai ?acaeoey io?aaeaao oaeaea eciaieaoaany niioiioaiea
nee ia ie?iaie a?aia, onoaoaeythueany iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oicyenoaaiiua
nayce e iaae?athuea neeo eioaa?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a noa?a yeiiiieee e
iieeoeee.

A iiaaeoee ia?eiae a i?aaa ao?aeoaciuo no?ai io/aoeeai i?iyaeeny ?yae
iiauo /a?o, ianaienoaaiiuo ?aiiei yoaiai ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia. A oi aea
a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiiia aeaeieciaiaiea iaeioi?uo eeanne/aneeo
i?aaiauo einoeoooia, eioi?ua a XVIIIXIX aa. eacaeenue anoanoaaiiuie e
iaiieieaaeiuie, ii e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia a iieiie ia?a oaeiaeaoai?ytho
iio?aaiinoe iauanoaaiiie aeecie, ia niioaaonoaotho aicieeathuei a iae
iiaui yaeaieyi.

Eoae, iniiaiia iacia/aiea i?aaa a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ninoieo a caueoa
oie nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie no?oeoo?u, eioi?ay neiaeeeanue ia
i?aaeoanoaothueo nooiaiyo ?acaeoey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa, a
nio?aiaiee yoiai iauanoaa e neiaeeaoeony a iai aeaiie?aoe/aneeo
o?aaeeoeee, o?ainoi?ie?iaaa e i?eniiniaea aai e iiaui iauanoaaiiui
iio?aaiinoyi. Eiaiii iiyoiio eciaiaiey a i?aaa eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai a
iiaaeoaa a?aiy, i?iyaeythueany ia oieueei a eeanniauo, ii e a
iaua?aaoeyoeaiuo ooieoeeyo i?aaa, naycaiu n iauaeoeaiui io?aaeaieai a
iai aieaa aunieeo oi?i iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, n inouanoaeaieai aeaiia?aoe/aneie iieeoeee e
o.ae. Iaiiaeythuaany i?aai Caiaaea iaania/eaaao i?iaaaeaiea neeueiie
nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee, nio?aiyao i?eaa?aeaiiinoue e nianoaaiiiio iiuoo e
aeinoeaeaieyi ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee, iniaaiii a noa?a ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe e ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

I?ioeann ?acaeoey i?aaa a iaeieo ao?aeoaciuo no?aiao oa?aeoa?eciaaeny
aunieie noaiaiueth i?aaiaie i?aainoaaiiinoe, a ae?oaeo e?oiiuie
?aoi?iaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Ii a oeaeii anai i?aaiaui nenoaiai
nia?aiaiiiai eaieoaeecia i?enoue ?aceee ?ino i?aaioai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, oaaee/aiea ?iee th?eaee/aneie
oi?iu iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, i?eaioaoeey ia i?aai eae ia
iauai?eciaiioth e naiinoiyoaeueioth oeaiiinoue.

I?aai a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a XX a. ioee/aaony aieueoie
i?eniiniaeyaiinoueth, niiniaiinoueth ?aaoee?iaaoue iauanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey i?e ?aciuo iieeoe/aneeo ?aaeeiao.

Iiaua oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee i?aaiauo nenoai i?eaaee e eciaiaieyi a
enoi/ieeao i?aaa. Noa?ua eiaeaenu, iniaaiii i?eiyoua a XIX a., ia?inee
iiiai/eneaiiuie iii?aaeaie. A ?yaea no?ai ei ia niaio i?eoee iiaua
eiaeaenu, eioi?ua a aieueoae noaiaie niioaaonoaiaaee iio?aaiinoyi
nia?aiaiiiai eaieoaeecia. Oae, a Eoaeee aianoi eeaa?aeueiiai OE 1889 a.
aue aaaaeai i?e oaoenoao iiaue OE 1931 a., a Eniaiee aianoi OE 1870 a.
aue i?eiyo OE 1932 a., a Iaeneea aianoi AE 1884 a. AE 1932 a., a Ia?o
aianoi AE 1936 a. AE 1984 a. Ai O?aioeee OIE 1808 a. aue caiaiai a 1958
a. iiaui oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiui eiaeaenii, a 1986 a. aue i?eiyo iiaue
a?aaeaeainei-i?ioeannoaeueiue eiaeaen, a a 1994 a. iiaue Oaieiaiue
eiaeaen.

Cia/eoaeueiue ?ino e oneiaeiaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iiyaeaiea aieueoiai
/enea iiauo i?aaiauo aeoia iio?aaiaaee i?iaaaeaiey e?oiiuo
eiaeeoeeaoeeiiiuo ?aaio. Ai O?aioeee i?aaeoaeuenoai *aoaa?oie ?anioaeeee
oieueei n 1951 a. ii 1956 a. aaaei a aeaenoaea 19 eiaeaenia: o?oaeiaie,
aa?a?iue, ecae?aoaeueiue, iaineiiiue, aei?iaeiue, ioaee/iiai
cae?aaiio?aiaiey e ae?. Aeoeaecaoeey eiaeeoeeaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
iaaethaeaaony n na?aaeeiu XX a. e a ?yaea ae?oaeo no?ai Aa?iiu e
Eaoeineie Aia?eee. Oaiaeaioeey e oieoeeaoeee e nenoaiaoecaoeee i?aaiaiai
iaoa?eaea i?iyaeeanue aeaaea a no?aiao aiaeinaeniineie nenoaiu, aaea
i?aai a oeaeii inoaaony ia eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiui. Oae, a NOA a 1926 a. aue
ninoaaeai oaaea?aeueiue Naiae caeiiia, eioi?ue ia?eiaee/anee iaiiaeyaony
e iaeei ?ac a iyoue eao ia?aecaeaaony. Yoio naiae niaea?aeeo ?acaeaeu,
eiei?ii?e?othuea aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, a oaeaea
eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ?acaeaeu, a eioi?uo inouanoaeaiu ia?aniio? e
oii?yaei/aiea ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

A Aiaeee, aaea a neeo niaoeeoeee noaiiaeaiey noaoooiiai i?aaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ieacaeinue iniaaiii neiaeiui e caiooaiiui, a XX a.
aieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea i?aeoeea ninoaaeaiey
eiinieeaee?iaaiiuo caeiiia.

A XX a., ianiio?y ia cia/eoaeueiue ?ino caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, a iauae
ianna i?aaiaiai iaoa?eaea ?acei oaaee/eeny oaeaeueiue aan aeoia
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. I?aceaeaioneea e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aeae?aou,
i?eeacu e ?aaeaiaiou ieienoa?noa e ae?oaea aeaeu aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeoia
noaee aaaeiui eino?oiaioii i?aeoe/aneiai i?eniiniaeaiey niaea?aeaiey
i?aaa e auno?i iaiythueiny iauanoaaiiui oneiaeyi. I?ioeann ia?anoaiey
?iee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeoia onei?yeny a neo/aa ineaaeaiey
ia?eaiaioa?iie nenoaiu, auoiaea eniieieoaeueiiai aiia?aoa eciiae
oaeoe/aneiai eiio?iey i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia, ?acaeoey oae
iacuaaaiiai aeaeaae?iaaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A oaoenoneeo
ainoaea?noaao (Aa?iaiey 19331945 aa., Eoaeey 19221943 aa.), a oaeaea i?e
aaoi?eoa?iuo ?aaeeiao, i?aaeoaeuenoaa ioe?uoi oco?ie?iaaee
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua iieiiii/ey, ioiaiyy naieie aeoaie eiinoeoooeeiiiua
ii?iu.

A ?yaeo ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia i?aaa aic?anoaao oaeaea e cia/aiea noaeaaiie
i?aeoeee. Oioy a no?aiao aiaeinaeniineie nenoaiu i?aaa (Aiaeey, NOA,
Eaiaaea e ae?.) ?acei nie?auaaony noa?a i?eiaiaiey noaeaaiiai
i?aoeaaeaioa e noaeu a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa auiinyo ?aoaiey ia iniiaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, /enei eo ii-i?aaeiaio aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei. I?e
nie?auaiee oaeaeueiiai aana i?aoeaaeaioa aic?anoaao i?aaioai?/aneay
?ieue noaeaaiie i?aeoeee. Oae, a 1966 a. iaeaoa ei?aeia a Aiaeee i?eiyea
?aoaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio ia n/eoaao naay naycaiiie ?aiaa auianaiiuie
nianoaaiiuie iinoaiiaeaieyie (i?aoeaaeaioaie), a inoaaeyao ca niaie
i?aai ?aoaoue i?aaiaua aii?inu ii naiaio oniio?aieth. ?aoaiey aunoeo
noaeia ii naiaio oaeoe/aneiio cia/aieth ana aieueoa i?eia?aoaee naienoaa
i?aoeaaeaioia e a no?aiao eiioeiaioaeueiie nenoaiu i?aaa.

Noaeaaiia i?aaioai?/anoai a NOA cao?iioei aeaaea eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai.
Ia iniiaa eiinoeoooeeiiiuo aeieo?ei Aa?oiaiiai noaea ioiaiyeinue
i?ia?anneaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai oaaea?aoeee e ooaoia. Ii iaeiia?aiaiii
a NOA iiyaeeny e ?yae i?ia?anneaiuo noaeaaiuo aeieo?ei (cai?auaiea
naa?aaaoeee iaa?ia, i?eciaiea ?aaiiai ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa e ae?.),
eioi?ua aaee e aeaiie?aoecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo einoeoooia aia?eeaineiai
i?aaa. Aneaae ca NOA noaeaaiue eiinoeoooeeiiiue eiio?ieue aaiaeeony a
Eoaeee, ssiiiee, O?A e ae?.

?acaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee i?eaaei e ae?iaeaieth
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo io?aneae i?aaa (a?aaeaeaineiai e ae?.) e e iiyaeaieth
iiauo io?aneae caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa: iaoaioiiai, aaoi?neiai, aaieianeiai,
no?aoiaiai e o.ae.

Iaeiia?aiaiii iaiaoeeanue e ae?oaay oaiaeaioeey: oaniia ia?aieaoaiea
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo (aeeniiceoeaiuo) e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
(eiia?aoeaiuo) iaoiaeia i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Yoi icia/aei noe?aiea
/aoeeo a?aiae iaaeaeo aaeieieno?aoeaiui e a?aaeaeaineei i?aaii, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii ineaaeaiea ?acee/ee iaaeaeo ioaee/iui e /anoiui i?aaii.
A ?yaea no?ai en/acaao e aeoaeeci /anoiiai i?aaa, io?aaeaaoeeny a
naiinoiyoaeueiii ?acaeoee a?aaeaeaineiai e oi?aiaiai i?aaa. Oae, a
Eoaeee n 1942 a. aeaenoaoao aaeeiue a?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen, ioaaouaathuee
ana /anoiia i?aai. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaeeiiia?aciiai ?aaoee?iaaiey anae
niaieoiiinoe neiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee i?eaaea e iiyaeaieth
eiiieaeniuo io?aneae i?aaa: “aeaeiaiai i?aaa” a NOA, “oicyenoaaiiiai
i?aaa” a Aa?iaiee, “yeiiiie/aneiai i?aaa” ai O?aioeee.

Aeoeaiue ?ino caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, naycaiiiai n ?aaoee?iaaieai
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie, i?eaae e oneiaeiaieth, acaeiiaeaenoaeth e
naeeaeaieth i?aaiauo nenoai ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noa, /oi niinianoaiaaei
ii?aaeaeaiiiio noe?aieth ?acee/ee iaaeaeo aiaeinaeniineei e
eiioeiaioaeueiui i?aaii.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie yaiethoeee i?aaa no?ai Caiaaea iinea II ie?iaie aieiu
yaeyaony aic?anoaiea aicaeaenoaey iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiauo ii?i ia
iaoeeiiaeueiia i?aai ao?aeoaciuo ainoaea?noa. Yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey
i?eaaea e oi?ie?iaaieth aa?iiaeneiai i?aaa a ?aieao AYN.

2. Iniiaiua eciaiaiey a a?aaeaeaineii e oi?aiaii i?aaa

2.1 Noauaeou i?aaa

Oa?aeoa?iue aeey nia?aiaiiiai eaieoaeecia auno?ue ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa,
nii?iaiaeaeathueeny aai aeaeueiaeoae eiioeaio?aoeeae e oeaio?aeecaoeeae,
ia iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny a ?aieao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai (iaeiai) aeciana,
a o?aaoao iauaaeeiaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Eiaiii iiyoiio a oeaio?a
a?aaeaeaineiai e oi?aiaiai iai?ioa noaee iaoiaeeoueny ia oece/aneea, a
th?eaee/aneea eeoea, a /anoiinoe oi?aiaua oiaa?euanoaa, eioi?ua ia
i?aeoeea i?iyaeee naie i?aeiouanoaa a aeaea aeeoioeyoeee eaieoaeia e
i?iaaaeaiey neiaeiuo iia?aoeee a aaieianeii, no?aoiaii, oi?aiaii e eiii
aeciana. A XX a. aaaeiaeoae i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iie eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa noaiiaeony aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai, iauaaeeiythuaa a
aaeeiue aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua eaieoaeu n ia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth aai o/anoieeia (iaeueeia e aeoeeiia?ia).
Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao ai anao ao?aeoaciuo no?aiao
a iiaaeoaa a?aiy iinoiyiii iaiiaeyaony e niaa?oainoaoaony. Oae ai
O?aioeee aaaeiua caeiiu ia aeoeeiia?iuo oi?aiauo oiaa?euanoaao auee
i?eiyou a 1930, 1940, 1965, 1985 aa., a Aiaeee auea i?iaaaeaia oeaeay
na?ey caeiiia i eiiiaieyo a 1920, 1948, 1985 aa. Yoi caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
eee i?aaeoniao?eaaei nicaeaiea iiauo, aieaa oaeiaiuo oi?i iauaaeeiaiey
eaieoaeia (eiiiaiee n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, aea?aeaoaeueneea
eiiiaiee e ae?.), eee aea onoaiaaeeaaei aeiiieieoaeueiua eueaiou i?e
ia?aciaaiee e aeayoaeueiinoe aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa. Aeoeeiia?iia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iicaieyei i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi eneaoue iaeaieaa
auaiaeiua noa?u aeciana, aeiaeaaoueny aieueoiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e
eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa, onoaiaaeeaaoue eiio?ieue ca oeaeuie io?aneyie
yeiiiieee.

Iiaaeoaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaieyo i?aaeoniao?eaaao
auione aeoeee e eiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, /oi iicaieyao ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi
eiiiaiee eiio?iee?iaaoue aanue aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae. Iaaethaeaaony
aeaiie?aoecaoeey aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea, i?e eioi?ie aeoeee ei?ii?aoeee
?ani?ino?aiythony n?aaee ioiineoaeueii oe?ieiai e?oaa eeoe, ii
iiiaeanoai iaeeeo aea?aeaoaeae ?aaeueii ia eiatho ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e
oi?aaeaieth aeaeaie ei?ii?aoeee.

?aaeaiaioe?oy aioo?aiiea ioiioaiey, neeaaeuaathueany a aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoaao, iiaaeoaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yao iieiiii/ey
i?aaeaiey (aee?aeoi?ia) ca n/ao ia?aie/aiey i?aa iauaai nia?aiey
aeoeeiia?ia. I?aeoe/anee i?aaeaiea ai ana aieueoae noaiaie iiaeiaiyao
niaie iauaa nia?aiea. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai NOA, ssiiiee e ?yaea ae?oaeo
no?ai i?aaeinoaaeyao i?aaeaieth i?aai naiinoiyoaeueii ?aoaoue oaeie
aaaeiue aii?in, eae auione iiauo aeoeee.

Oa?aeoa?iui aeey aeoeeiia?iiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iineaaeieo
aeanyoeeaoee yaeyaony oi, /oi, i?aaeinoaaeyy aee?aeoi?ai ?aaeueiue
eiio?ieue iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth eiiiaiee e ei?ii?aoeee, iii ia?aaeaao
iianaaeiaaiia oi?aaeaiea aeaeaie yoeo eiiiaiee i?ioanneiiaeueii
iiaeaioiaeaiiui neoaeauei iaiaaeaea?ai. Yoi icia/aei ?acaeaeaiea a
ei?ii?aoeeyo ooieoeee nianoaaiieea e ooieoeee iia?aoeaiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa
oaeoueie aeaeaie.

Iiaia aeoeeiia?iia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai nicaeaao aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey
aeey i?aaiecaoeee noia?iauaaeeiaiee, o/anoieeaie eioi?uo yaeythony ia
oieueei ioaeaeueiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee, ii e oeaeua aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa
e ei?ii?aoeee. A Aa?iaiee aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee ea?oaee e
eiioea?iu, ai O?aioeee neiaeeeaou, a Aiaeee e NOA aea?aeaoaeueneea
(oieaeeiaiaua) eiiiaiee, eiioea?iu. Ca oaeeie iauaaeeiaieyie
ne?uaaeenue, eae i?aaeei, iiaouanoaaiiua iiiiiieee, eioi?ua
onoaiaaeeaaee naia ainiiaenoai iaae oeaeuie io?aneyie oicyenoaa e iaae
yeiiiieeie no?aiu a oeaeii.

2.2 Aioeo?anoianeia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai

?ino e?oiiuo aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee, aac o?oaea aeiaeaathueony
onoaiiaeaiey ainiiaenoaothuaai iieiaeaiey ia ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa,
i?yiua niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo aaaeoueie ei?ii?aoeeyie i iiaeaea?aeaiee
aunieeo oeai e oa?eoia aucuaatho aic?anoathuaa iaaeiaieuenoai oe?ieeo
e?oaia iio?aaeoaeae, a oaeaea iaeeeo e n?aaeieo nianoaaiieeia, ia
anaaaea auaea?aeeaathueo eiieo?aioeeth n iiiiiieeae. ?acaa?ioaoaany ai
iiiaeo no?aiao aioeiiiiiieenoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, a oaeaea iiieiaiea
naieie i?aayueie e?oaaie iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeaea?aeaiey naiaiaeiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e ii?iaeueiuo ?uii/iuo no?oeoo? n yooaeoeaiie
eiieo?aioeeae, i?eaaee a aieueoeinoaa ao?aeoaciuo ainoaea?noa e
i?eiyoeth niaoeeaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?aaeoniao?eaathuaai
onoaiiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey ca iiiiiieenoe/aneie i?aeoeeie.
Oaeia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i iiiiiieeyo iieo/eei iacaaiea
aioeo?anoianeiai, iineieueeo i?eiyoue a NOA aua a 1890 a. caeii Oa?iaia,
iai?aaeaiiue i?ioea iiiiiieee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eiae a aeaeo o?anou,
noaaoea a eiioea XIX a. iaeaieaa oaeiaiie e ?ani?ino?aiaiiie oi?iie aeey
iiiiiieenoe/aneeo nithcia. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea aioeo?anoianeea
caeiiu iieo/eee iinea ieii/aiey II ie?iaie aieiu. Oae, a Aiaeee caeiiu i
iiiiiieeyo e ia?aie/eoaeueiie oi?aiaie i?aeoeea i?eiyou a 1948, 1956,
1965, 1976 aa., a ssiiiee aioeo?anoianeea caeiiu a 1947 e 1953 aa., a
O?A caeii i ea?oaeyo a 1957 a., ai O?aioeee i?aeiiainu i naiaiaea oeai e
eiieo?aioeee a 1945 e 1986 aa., a NOA caeii 1950 a., cai?auathuee
neeyiea eiieo?e?othueo ei?ii?aoeee, caeii 1955 a., iiauoathuee naieoeee
ca ia?ooaiea caeiia Oa?iaia e ae?. Cai?auaiea ea?oaeae
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony oieueei ii caeiio O?A 1957 a. A inoaeueiuo no?aiao
ea?oaeueiua niaeaoaiey iiaeeaaeao eeoue ?aaeno?aoeee a niaoeeaeueiuo
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiao.

2.3 I?aai nianoaaiiinoe

Iiaay eiioeaioeey i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe a XX a. ii?uaaao n
eiaeeaeaeoaeeciii XIX a., i?ecuaaao e “nioeeaeecaoeee” /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, aa eniieueciaaieth a “iauanoaaiiuo eioa?anao”. Iia iaoea
io?aaeaiea e eiinoeoooeee Aa?iaiee 1919 a., a a?aaeaeaineeo eiaeaenao
Iaeneee (1932 a.), Ia?o (1984 a.) e ae?. A XX a. i?ienoiaeeo ana aieaa
aeoeaiia aoi?aeaiea e naiiai ao?aeoaciiai ainoaea?noaa a “nayuaiioth”
noa?o i?aa /anoiiai nianoaaiieea. Oae, iieo/aao ?acaeoea
ainoaea?noaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue, a oii /enea ca n/ao iaoeeiiaeecaoeee
/anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee. A Aiaeee e O?aioeee auei i?eiyoi niaoeeaeueiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i iaoeeiiaeecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo /anoae i?aaei?eyoee (n
auieaoie eiiiainaoeee /anoiui nianoaaiieeai). Ai O?aioeee a niioaaonoaee
n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Ia?iaeiiai o?iioa a 30o aa. a ainoaea?noaaiiue
naeoi? ia?aoee aaeaeeiee, aeaeaciua aei?iae, ioaeaeueiua noaeiaa?oe,
?aaeei, oaeaa?ao, oaeaoii, ai?iaeneie o?ainii?o, /anoue aaeaoeeiiiie e
iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iinea II ie?iaie aieiu auee
i?iaaaeaiu caeiiu i iaoeeiiaeecaoeee yeaeo?iyia?aee, aaca, oaey,
aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iineaaiaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i iaoeeiiaeecaoeee cao?iioei i?aaeaea
anaai i?aaei?eyoey, oauoi/iua aeey eo oicyaa e o?aaiaaaoea cia/eoaeueiuo
n?aaenoa aeey ?aeiino?oeoeee. Auaoea nianoaaiieee i?aaei?eyoee iieo/eee
ia?iiioth eiiiainaoeeth e niiaee oai naiui naeaeaoue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a
oaoie/anee aieaa iniauaiiua e i?eaueueiua io?anee yeiiiieee.

Ii /anoiue eaieoae i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie
neooaoeeyo ia oioneaao aiciiaeiinoe aiiaue aa?iooue naaa ia aieaa
auaiaeiuo oneiaeyo /anoue ?aiaa iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Oae,
a Aiaeee oaea a 1951 a. eiina?aaoi?u i?iaaee ?ai?eaaoecaoeeth
?aeiino?oe?iaaiiuo e yoiio a?aiaie ca ainoaea?noaaiiue n/ao i?aaei?eyoee
/a?iie iaoaeeo?aee e aaoiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa.

Ai O?aioeee e a eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo no?aiao iieo/eea aieueoia
?ani?ino?aiaiea niaoaiiay nianoaaiiinoue, i?eiaaeeaaeauay iauanoaai
niaoaiiie yeiiiieee, a eioi?uo ainoaea?noai yaeyeinue aeoeeiia?ii
ia?yaeo n /anoiuie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie. Nicaeaiea oaeeo iauanoa, eae
anei?a auynieeinue, i?aaenoaaeyei iniaia oaeianoai aeey e?oiiiai
eaieoaea, iineieueeo o/anoea ainoaea?noaa a oaeie nianoaaiiinoe
aa?aioe?iaaei iineaaeiaio ooiae io aiciiaeiie iaoeeiiaeecaoeee.

Ia/eiay ni aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, caiaoiia ?acaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe eaeao oaeaea ca n/ao ?inoa ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee a
oa io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ua o?aaiaaee iniaaiii aieueoeo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee (aoiiiay yia?aaoeea, ?aeaoino?iaiea, yeaeo?iieea e
o.i.). Ainoaea?noaaiiua eiouanoaa au?inee oaeaea a nayce n
ieeeoa?ecaoeeae yeiiiieee e oaaee/aieai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aiaiiuo
caeacia. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ?aaoee?othuaa aeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e anyeiai ?iaea niaoaiiuo eiiiaiee, oaeaea
niinianoaiaaei oe?aieaieth iiceoeee e?oiiiai eaieoaea, iineieueeo iii
onoaiaaeeaaao auaiaeiua aeey iineaaeiaai oeaiu ia ainoaea?noaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, iaania/eaaao /anoiua ei?ii?aoeee e eiiiaiee no?aoaae/aneei
nu?ueai, aa?aioe?oao ei onoie/eaue ?uiie e o.i.

Iinea I ie?iaie aieiu oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eioi?ia a eioa?anao e?oiiiai i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea
e o?ainii?oiuo eiiiaiee onoaiaaeeaaei eiio?ieue ca ?anii?yaeaieai iaeeie
nianoaaiiinoueth, aaiaeeei iiaua na?aeooou, ecuyoey ec iaia?aie/aiiie
naiaiaeu nianoaaiieeia a iieueco aeaaeaeueoeaa i?iiuoeaiiuo e
o?ainii?oiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Ai O?aioeee a ia?eiae III ?anioaeeee auee
onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ia?aie/aiey aeey nianoaaiieeia:
aeaaeaeueoeu caiee iaycaiu ?ac?aoaoue i?iaiaeeo yeaeo?ieeiee iaae naiei
o/anoeii, ia naaeaoue aea?aauey aaeece ay?iae?iiia, aeiioneaoue iieaou
naiieaoia iaae naiei o/anoeii e o.ae. Niaoeeaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
(1919 e 1938 aa.) ii?aaeaeeei, /oi nianoaaiieee caiee ia iiaoo
eniieueciaaoue aeaeaeouoth neeo aiaeu, ia iieo/ea niaoeeaeueioth
eiioeanneth io ainoaea?noaa.

2.4 Iiaaeeu a iaycaoaeuenoaaiiii i?aaa

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey, eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
oicyenoaa, oneeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a ?uii/iua
ioiioaiey i?eaaee e eciaiaieyi a einoeoooa aeiaiai?a. Oneiaeiythony
aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey, iiyaeythony iiaua aeaeu aeiaiai?ia (aeiaiai?
eeceiaa, ni/aoathuaai a naaa a?aiaeo e i?iaeaaeo oiaa?a, aeiaiai?u i
ia?aaea/a ?aciiai ?iaea iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eioi?iaoeee, iaeaaeathuae
eiiia?/aneie oeaiiinoueth iio-oao). Aeeooa?aioee?othony e i?eia?aoatho
iiaua oi?iu e o?aaeeoeeiiiua aeiaiai?u a?aaeaeaineiai e oi?aiaiai i?aaa,
eae, iai?eia?, eoiey-i?iaeaaea, iieo/athuay iniaoth th?eaee/aneoth
?aaeaiaioaoeeth a neo/ayo i?iaeaaee a e?aaeeo e n ?ann?i/eie ieaoaaea,
aoeoeeiiia, ioaee/iuo oi?aia e o.i.

Aaaeiua i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeyo oaeaea a nayce n eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae
aeiaiai?iiai i?aaa, eioi?ay io?aaeaao ?ino acaeiinaycaiiinoe iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie no?aiaie a nia?aiaiiii ie?a i?e oaeoaeaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. A ?acoeueoaoa aic?anoaao oaiaeaioeey e aa?iiiecaoeee
e oieoeeaoeee ii?i aeiaiai?iiai i?aaa ?aciuo no?ai, ioiinyueony e
?acee/iui i?aaiaui nenoaiai. Aioo?aiiaa aeiaiai?iia i?aai ioaeaeueiuo
no?ai eniuouaaao ia naaa ana aieueoaa aicaeaenoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
i?aaa, a /anoiinoe oi?ie?othuaainy iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai
i?aaa, ?aaoee?othuaai oi?aiaua e eiua oicyenoaaiii-eiiia?/aneea
ioiioaiey. Cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i ?aciuo aeaeao
aeiaiai?ia auee aianaiu a ainoaea?noaao, iiaeienaaoeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
eiiaaioeee, ioiinyueany e ii?neei, aicaeooiui, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui e
aaoiiiaeeueiui ia?aaiceai, e?aaeeoii-?an/aoiui ioiioaieyi,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea.

A oneiaeyo oeaio?aeecaoeee e eiioeaio?aoeee eaieoaea e i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaiythueony ?uii/iuo oneiaee a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ia i?aeoeea
aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee caiaaeiuo no?ai i?ienoiaeyo ionooieaiey io
eeanne/aneeo i?eioeeiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa XVIIIXIX aa., oaeeo, eae
oi?iaeueiay naiaiaea aieaecuyaeaiey e ?aaainoaa noi?ii a aeiaiai?a,
iacuaeaiinoue oneiaee aeiaiai?a e ae?. Iaaethaeaaony ia?aaainoai noi?ii
a aeiaiai?a, iii th?eaee/anee iiaee?aieyaony aeiaiai?iuie oi?iaie. Auee
ocaeiiaiu iaeioi?ua aeaeu ea?oaeueiuo niaeaoaiee, ia?aie/eaathueo
aeiaiai?ioth naiaiaeo eo o/anoieeia, eioi?ua eeoathony i?aaa aanoe aeaea
n o?aoueeie eeoeaie aac niaeaney i?aaiecaoi?ia ea?oaee.

E?oiiua eiiiaiee NOA eniieuecotho “naycuaathuea” aeiaiai?u, a eioi?ua
aeeth/athony ia?aie/eaathuea naiaiaeo eiio?aaaioa oneiaey. Iieo/eee
?ani?ino?aiaiea “eneeth/eoaeueiua” eiio?aeou, ii eioi?ui eiio?aaaiou
e?oiiuo eiiiaiee a?aee ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai ia anooiaoue a aiaeiae/iua
aeiaiai?u n ae?oaeie eiiiaieyie.

Ia?aie/aiey aeiaiai?iie naiaiaeu iaeeeo e n?aaeieo eiio?aaaioia
inouanoaeythony oaeaea iin?aaenoaii ?ani?ino?aieaoeony a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?aeoeea “aeiaiai?ia i?eniaaeeiaiey”. E?oiiua
eiiiaiee ia?aaeei naie ii?aaeaeytho oneiaey, ia eioi?uo iie niaeaniu
caeeth/aoue aeiaiai?u, oeene?oy eo a aeaea ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiiai
oaenoa, eioi?ue e i?aaeeaaatho anai eiio?aaaioai, i?iyaeythuei aeaeaiea
anooieoue n ieie a aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey. Iineaaeiea ia iiaoo iiaeeyoue
ia niaea?aeaiea oaeeo aeiaiai?ia, iie auioaeaeaiu io ieo ioeacaoueny eee
i?eiyoue eo a ca?aiaa caaioiaeaiiii aeaea.

Oneiaey oaeiai ?iaea oi?ioee?othony e?oiiuie eiiiaieyie iinoaaueeaie
oiaa?ia e oneoa a niaoeeaeueiuo oeiiauo aeiaiai?ao (oi?ioey?ao). A XX a.
iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea a aeaea oi?ioey?ia oaeea auaiaeiua aeey
/anoiiai eaieoaea e oaeiaiua aeey ianaeaiey oi?iu oi?aiaee, eae
i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia ii ii/oa, a e?aaeeo e o.i. Iaauaiaeiua oneiaey aeey
iio?aaeoaeae, eeoaiiuo aiciiaeiinoe iiaeeyoue ia niaea?aeaiea oaeeo
aeiaiai?ia, iai?ee?uoue aeeeoao ni noi?iiu iinoaaueeia aucaae a 6080a
aa. XX a. ai iiiaeo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao oe?ieia aeaeaeaiea
iio?aaeoaeae, eiaaoaa naiei ?acoeueoaoii i?eiyoea niaoeeaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A iai ia?yaeo n iauei aeiaiai?iui i?aaii aaiaeyony
iniaua i?aaiaua ii?iu, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea caueoo iio?aaeoaeae e
eanathueany oi?iu e ii?yaeea caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?ia n o/anoeai
iio?aaeoaey, eiie?aoiuo aeaeia ioaaonoaaiiinoe iinoaaueeia oiaa?ia e
oneoa.

Ia?aie/aiea naiaiaeu noi?ii a aeiaiai?a iaoneiaeaii oaeaea aic?anoathuei
a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ainoaea?noaaiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiui aiaoaoaeuenoaii
a noa?o aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee. A niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i
oicyenoaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee ioaeaeueiua ieienoa?noaa e aaaeiinoaa
iieo/aee i?aai ii?ie?iaaoue oeaiu e ii?aaeaeyoue ?yae ae?oaeo oneiaee
aeiaiai?ia, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue iauee iauai naeaeie, niaa?oaaiuo
ioaeaeueiuie eiiiaieyie. Aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/atho naeaeee,
i?eia?aoathuea, ii nooe aeaea, aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiia?aoeaiue oa?aeoa?. A
oaeeo naeaeeao ionoonoaoao aeaaea oi?iaeueiia ?aaainoai noi?ii,
iineieueeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue i?aai a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo iiaeao naiei
?anii?yaeaieai iaiyoue aeiaiai?iua oneiaey eee aeaaea eo i?ae?auaoue.

A XX a. a a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa i?ienoiaeeo iooiae io i?eioeeia
aaconeiaiie neeu aeiaiai?a. Noaeu auioaeaeaiu ia?aaeei inaiaiaeaeaoue
aeieaeieeia io eniieiaiey aeiaiai?ia e io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca eo
iaauiieiaiea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea a oneiaeyo /?acau/aeiie ianoaiiaee
(aiaiiie) aeieaeieee noaeeeaaeenue n iai?aaeaeaeaiiuie oicyenoaaiiuie
cao?oaeiaieyie (eioeyoeey, ionoonoaea ?aai/ae neeu, iaoa?eaeia e ae?.).

Ai O?aioeee noaeu eniieueciaaee n yoie oeaeueth n?aaeiaaaeiaoth
aeieo?eio ” i iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao”. Yoa aeieo?eia
i?eiaiyeanue a noaeao oaeei ia?acii, /oi niaea?aeaiea aeiaiai?ia,
iniaaiii aeieain?i/iuo, iiaei ia?aniao?eaaoueny ii i?inueaa iaeiie ec
noi?ii ni nnueeie ia eciaieaoothny ianoaiiaeo. Niaoeeaeueiue caeii 1918
a., aeiioneaaoee ?anoi?aeaiea aeiaiai?ia, caeeth/aiiuo aua aei I ie?iaie
aieiu, eiaaea aai eniieiaiea iiaeaeei au aeey iaeiie ec noi?ii oua?a,
eioi?ue iaeuecy auei i?aaeaeaeaoue a naia a?aiy. I?eiaiaiea aeieo?eiu
“ia eciaieaoeony ianoiyoaeuenoaao” iaaethaeaeinue a noaeaaiie i?aeoeea
Aiaeee, NOA e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao. Ii
iaaiciiaeiinoue eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a ii aiaei-aia?eeaineiio i?aao ia
inaiaiaeaeaao aeieaeieea io ioaaonoaaiiinoe. I?e aeaenoaeoaeueiie
iaaiciiaeiinoe eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniao?eaaeanue aeaiaaeiay aai
eiiiainaoeey. Ia i?aeoeea noi?iiu no?aieeenue ia e i?ae?auaieth
aeiaiai?a, a e eciaiaieth aai oneiaee. Iie noaee aiineoue a aeiaiai?
oneiaey, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ia/aaoea auiieiyoueny aeiaiai?u iiaee
auoue eciaiaiu a neo/aa ianooieaiey iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa.
Auoaoeacaiiua eciaiaiey a a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa ia i?eaaee e ia iiaee
i?eaanoe e en/aciiaaieth ii?i noa?iai eeanne/aneiai i?aaa, eioi?ua
i?eiaiythony i?e ?aaoee?iaaiee n?aaeiaai e iaeeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

3. O?oaeiaia e nioeeaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai

O?oaeiaia i?aai eae naiinoiyoaeueiay io?aneue neiaeeeinue eeoue a XX
aaea. Yoi iauyniyaony iaaeaeaieai ?aaioiaeaoaeae naycuaaoue naay ii?iaie
caeiia, ?aaoee?othueie o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey. Ii eieeaeoeaiay ai?ueaa
auioaeeea aeanoe iieoe ia ecaeaiea iiauo caeiiia i o?oaea. Iaeiaei
o?oaeiaia i?aai XX a. ioee/aaony ianoaaeeueiinoueth. Niaea?aeaiea aai
einoeoooia /anoi iaiyaony a noi?iio eae ?anoe?aiey, oae e noaeaiey
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aa o?oaeyueony. A Aiaeee, aaea i?ionithcu e
caaanoiaee iieo/eee caeiiiaeaoaeueiia i?eciaiea aua a XIX a.,
i?aaeoaeuenoai eiina?aaoi?ia, iaioaaiiia anaiauae caaanoiaeie 1926 a.,
i?iaaei /a?ac ia?eaiaio a 1927 a. caeii, cai?aoeaoee caaanoiaee e
noa/ee. Yoio aioei?ionithciue caeii aue ioiaiai a 1946 a.
i?aaeoaeuenoaii eaeai?enoia. A 1971 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai eiina?aaoi?ia
aeiaeeinue ecaeaiey caeiia i i?iiuoeaiiuo ioiioaieyo, eioi?ue
i?aaeoniao?eaae iaycaoaeueioth ?aaeno?aoeeth i?ionithcia. Yoa i?aeoeea
auea ioiaiaia a 1974 a., /oi iciaiaiiaaei aeaeueiaeooth
aeaiie?aoecaoeeth aiaeeeneiai o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Yoi caeiiu
i caiyoinoe, i ?aaiie ca?aaioiie ieaoa ioae/ei e aeaiuei, i
i?ioanneiiaeueiii iao/aiee e ae?., iie ?aaeaiaioe?iaaee io?aio o?oaea e
oaoieeo aaciianiinoe, iaeneiaeueioth i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy
aeey aeaiuei e iiae?inoeia, ii?yaeie auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou,
nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea ia neo/ae aieacie, eiaaeeaeiinoe, ?iaeia e
aac?aaioeoeu, ii?yaeie caeeth/aiey eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ia. Nia?aiaiiia
aiaeeeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iai?aaeaii ia inouanoaeaiea aeaoaaiai
aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, ?acaeoea cae?aaiio?aiaiey e iaoeeiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey ia io?aio ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Eoae, Aiaeey a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy eiaao iaeaieaa ?acaeoia o?oaeiaia e nioeeaeueiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, iiae aeeyieai eioi?iai oi?ie?iaaeenue
niioaaonoaothuea io?anee i?aaa a ae?oaeo no?aiao ie?a, a /anoiinoe a
NOA.

Aeieaea aiaeu a NOA a noa?a o?oaea e nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee
aeiieie?iaaee ?aniaay naa?aaaoeey e aeene?eieiaoeey. Ea/anoaaiiua
eciaiaiey a o?oaeiaii i?aaa NOA noaee i?ienoiaeeoue n na?aaeeiu 30o
aiaeia XX a., eiaaea oaaea?aeueiay aeanoue noaea i?iaiaeeoue
nioeeaeueioth iieeoeeo, iniiaaiioth ia i?eioeeia ie?a e ni?aaaaeeeainoe.
Yoio i?eioeei aue ?aaeeciaai a neaaeothueo iauaoaaea?aeueiuo caeiiao:
Aaaia?a (1935 a.), Oaooa Oa?oee (1947 a.), Eyiaea?aia A?eooeia (1959 a.)
e ae?. Ia eo iniiaa nicaeaaaeenue caeiiu ooaoia i o?oaea. O?oaeiaia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eae oaaea?aoeee, oae e ooaoia, ii?aaeaeyao a
iniiaiii iauea iai?aaeaiey e i?aaeea ai?ueau ca onoaiiaeaiea oneiaee
o?oaea. Oneiaey e ii?iu o?oaea ?aaoee?othony a eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ao.

I?aaiaua ia/aea ?aaoee?iaaiey o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee ai O?aioeee
ii?aaeaeyee aeaa o?oaeiauo eiaeaena, ecaeaiiuo a 1910 a. e 1973 a. Yoe
o?aioeocneea iaiyoieee o?oaeiaiai i?aaa niaea?aeaee iaua-ii?iaoeaioth e
niaoeeaeueioth /anoe. A ia/aea 80o aa. a o?oaeiaie eiaeaen O?aioeee auee
aianaiu nouanoaaiiua iii?aaee, eioi?ua auee iinayuaiu i?aaiecaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia a noa?a o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee,
?aaeaiaioaoeee ca?aaioiie ieaou e o?oaeiauo nii?ia, ?ac?aoaaiuo
niaoeeaeueiuie noaeaie. 1959 a. iciaiaiiaaeny ai O?aioeee iiyaeaieai
Eiaeaena nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey. Aai ii?iu onoaiaaeeaaee iainee e
iiniaey a nayce n aieaciueth, aa?aiaiiinoueth, o?aaiaoeciii,
eiaaeeaeiinoueth, noa?inoueth, iioa?ae ei?ieeueoea, aac?aaioeoeae.
Eiaeaen aa?aioe?iaae a?aaeaeaiai caueoo ia neo/ae “nioeeaeueiiai ?enea”.
Auoaoeacaiiua nioeeaeueiua auieaou ?aaoey?ii eiaeaene?iaaeenue.
Ainoaea?noaaiiia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea ai O?aioeee auei iniiaaii ia
aciinao i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ?aaioieeia, a oaeaea ia n?aaenoaao,
auaeaeyaiuo ainoaea?noaii. Eiaeaen i?aaeoniao?eaae iiaeaea?aeeo eeoe,
eioi?ua ieacaeenue a aaaeiinoue eee ieuaoa.

A Aa?iaiee a eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX a. oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee
oae iacuaaaiua “oa?eoiua niaeaoaiey” iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie e
iaaiiuie ?aai/eie. Aeaiiay i?aeoeea auea th?eaee/anee cae?aieaia a O?A a
caeiia i oa?eoiuo aeiaiai?ao (1949 a.).

A ?anniao?eaaaiia a?aiy a Aa?iaiee neiaeeeinue aunieiyooaeoeaiia
nioeeaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eeoei eioi?iai ii?aaeaeye Nioeeaeueiue
eiaeaen 1911 a. Aeaaiia aeinoieinoai eiaeaena a oii, /oi ii o?aaiye a
i?aaao ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo, aaae iaycaoaeueiia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, a eiioea XX a. aaaeouea no?aiu Caiaaea eiatho enoi?e/anee
neiaeeaoaany auniei?acaeoia o?oaeiaia e nioeeaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

4. Oaieiaiia i?aai e i?ioeann

Oaeoaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee eaieoaeecia i?eaaei e iaaeaeaiiiio
?inoo i?anooiiinoe a ao?aeoaciuo no?aiao. Yoa oaiaeaioeey iaoiaeeo naia
au?aaeaiea a oaaee/aiee iauaoaieiaiie i?anooiiinoe e a oe?ieii
?ani?ino?aiaiee i?aaieciaaiiie i?anooiiinoe, ?inoa i?anooieaiee,
niaa?oaaiuo ianiaa?oaiiieaoieie. Iaaethaeaaony naycue i?anooiiinoe n
e?eceniuie yaeaieyie a nioeeaeueiie e aeooiaiie aeecie iauanoaa, n
iniaaiiinoyie ineoiaeieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee i?aaiia?ooeoaeae. A yoeo
oneiaeyo aeanoe noa?athony ecuneaoue aieaa yooaeoeaiua iaoiaeu ai?ueau n
i?anooiiinoueth. N yoie oeaeueth ana aieueoaa aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
au?aaioea iiaie e anaiauaiethuae ainoaea?noaaiiie oaieiaiie iieeoeee.
Iia oi?ioee?oaony e inouanoaeyaony a eiie?aoiuo no?aiao ii-?aciiio a
caaeneiinoe io no?oeoo?u e aeeiaieee naiie i?anooiiinoe, io
?ac?aaioaiiinoe e?eieiieiae/aneeo e iaieoaioeea?iuo iiaeoiaeia, io
noaiaie aeoeaiinoe aeaiie?aoe/aneeo nee iauanoaa e eo niiniaiinoe
ionoaeaaoue aoiaienoe/aneoth eeieth a oaieiaiii i?aaa. Oaieiaiay
iieeoeea ana a iaiueoae noaiaie naiaeeony eeoue e oaieiaii-i?aaiaiio
i?eioaeaeaieth. Iia i?aaeoniao?eaaao oaeaea inouanoaeaiea oeaeiai
eiiieaena nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e ainieoaoaeueiuo i?ia?aii,
i?aneaaeothueo e?eieiieiai-i?ioeeaeoe/aneea oeaee.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoaiecia ai?ueau n i?anooiiinoueth
iio?aaiaaea nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a naiii oaieiaiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
a eioi?ii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, io?aceeanue oaiaeaioeey e oneeaieth
i?aaiaiai i?eioaeaeaiey, a n ae?oaie aeeyiey iauaaeaiie?aoe/aneeo e
aoiaienoe/aneeo eaeae. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aa?ao ia
aii?oaeaiea ?yae iiauo eiioeaioeee, nicaeaiiuo a XX a. a ao?aeoaciii
oaieiaiii i?aaa e e?eieiieiaee. Oae, iiae aeeyieai nioeeieiae/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey ao?aeoaciua ainoaea?noaa a naiae oaieiaiie iieeoeea n
iiiiuueth eeaa?aeueiuo ia? iuoathony inouanoaeoue “?aaaeaioaoeeth”
i?anooiieeia. Aieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/atho ?aoi?iaoi?ee
(eni?aaeoaeueiua oth?ueiu), nicaeathony niaoeeaeueiua aeaoneea
eni?aaeoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, cai?auathony iaeioi?ua aeanoieea
iaeacaiey, a a ?yaea no?ai (a Aiaeee, O?aioeee, Eoaeee e ae?.)
ioiaiyaony nia?oiay eaciue. A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
aieaa oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea oneiaiiai inoaeaeaiey e oneiaii-aein?i/iiai
inaiaiaeaeaiey, onoaiaaeeaathony ca ?yae i?anooieaiee eeoue
iaeneiaeueiua n?iee oth?aiiiai iaeacaiey, /oi iicaieyao noaeai auiineoue
aieaa iyaeea e aeaeea i?eaiai?u.

Iiaua oaieiaii-i?aaiaua eiioeaioeee iaoiaeyo naia io?aaeaiea e a naiie
oaoieea ninoaaeaiey oaieiaiuo eiaeaenia e caeiiia, a niaa?oainoaiaaiee
eo no?oeoo?u, a ono?aiaiee iiiaeo aiao?iieciia. Oae, a Aiaeee Caeii ia
oaieiaiii i?aaa 1967 a. oi?acaeiee n?aaeiaaaeiaia aeaeaiea i?anooieaiee
ia oaeiieth e ienaeeieii?. ?aoi?ia oaieiaiiai i?aaa a O?A (1975 a.)
cae?aieea ioeac io o?aaeeoeeiiiie aeey eiioeiaioaeueiie nenoaiu
o?ao/eaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee i?anooiiuo aeayiee, nio?aiea eeoue eo
aeaeaiea ia “i?anooieaiey” e “i?inooiee”. A nayce n oneiaeiaieai naiie
iauanoaaiiie aeecie e oaeoaeaieai nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee i?ienoiaeeo
?anoe?aiea e?oaa aeaenoaee, ?anniao?eaaaiuo a oaieiaiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a ea/anoaa i?anooieaiee e i?inooieia. Oae,
iiyaeythony iiaua aeaeu yeiiiie/aneeo e aeieaeiinoiuo i?anooieaiee, a
oaeaea oaieiaiuo i?aaiia?ooaiee, naycaiiuo n caa?yciaieai ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, ianiaethaeaieai o?ainii?oiuo e aei?iaeiuo i?aaee, oi?aiaeae
ia?eioeeaie e o.ae. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?yaea no?ai i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
oaeaea e ?anoe?aiea ninoaaa noauaeoia oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe:
iaeacaieth a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iiaeeaaeao ia oieueei oece/aneea, ii e
th?eaee/aneea eeoea, iai?eia? eiiiaiee, eioi?ua eae oaeiaua (ia?yaeo n
eo aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie) iiaeaa?aathony oaieiaiui oo?aoai ca ia?ooaiea
iaeiaiaiai, o?oaeiaiai, aioeo?anoianeiai e ae?oaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

A oaieiaiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iaeioi?uo no?ai iiyaeeanue oaiaeaioeey e
aeae?eieiaeecaoeee, o.a. e eneeth/aieth iaeioi?uo eaoaai?ee
iacia/eoaeueiuo i?anooieaiee: 1) ioiaia caeiiii 1975 a. ai O?aioeee
oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca noi?oaeaneoth eciaio; 2) a O?A caeiiii 1973
a. ca naiaeie/anoai, ii?iia?aoeth, i?inoeoooeeth e o.i.

Iaeioi?ua oaieiaiua eiaeaenu, i?eiyoua a ao?aeoaciuo no?aiao a XX a., a
oie eee eiie ia?a ioeacuaathony io iinooeaoa: iao i?anooieaiey aac
oeacaiey ia oi a caeiia. A ieo iiyaeyaony iiiaeanoai “eao/oeiauo” noaoae
n ?anieua/aouie aeeniiceoeeyie e naieoeeyie, iaii?aaeaeaiiuo ninoaaia
i?anooieaiee, eioi?ua iicaieytho iieeoeaeneei e noaeaaiui i?aaiai a
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?anoe?youe ianooaau oaieiaiie ?ai?annee

Aieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ao?aeoaciuo ainoaea?noaao iieo/eee
caeiiu, iai?aaeaiiua i?ioea oae iacuaaaiuo i?eau/iuo i?anooiieeia,
eioi?ui noaeu iiaoo iacia/aoue a aeiiieiaiea e iniiaiiio iaeacaieth eee
iiieii aai i?aaaioeaiia oth?aiiia caeeth/aiea. Iai?eia?, aiaeeeneee
Caeii ia oaieiaiii i?aainoaeee 1948 a. cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ee eaoaai?eth
aeae, ii eioi?ui e “i?eau/iui i?anooiieeai” iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaii
i?aaaioeaiia caeeth/aiea, caeiiaie 1967 e 1973 aa. auea i?aaeoniio?aia
aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeeaiey n?ieia oaeiai caeeth/aiey. O?aioeocneia
oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniio?aei aiciiaeiinoue i?eciaiey
eeoea “iiaeeciaiiui ?aoeeaeeaenoii” n niioaaonoaothueie th?eaee/aneeie
iineaaenoaeyie.

Oaieiaiia i?aai aeiioneaao i?aneaaeiaaiea ia oieueei i?anooiiuo
aeaenoaee, ii e eeoe, i?aaenoaaeythueo iianiinoue aeey nouanoaothuae
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. A oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aaiaeeony
iiiyoea iianiiai eee i?aaeaeaeeeoiiai ninoiyiey, e e eeoeai,
iaoiaeyueiny a oaeii ninoiyiee (a?iaeyae, i?inoeoooee, ia?eiiaiu e
o.i.), iiaoo auoue i?eiaiaiu iniaua ?ai?anneaiua naieoeee “ia?u
aaciianiinoe”, “ia?u nioeeaeueiie caueou”.

?aaeoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? einoeooou “iianiiai ninoiyiey” e “ia?u
nioeeaeueiie caueou” iieo/eee a oneiaeyo oaoenoneeo, aeeeoaoi?neeo
?aaeeiia, eioi?ua eniieueciaaee eo eae i?oaeea ianniaie ?ai?annee. A
oaoenoneie Eoaeee “ia?u aaciianiinoe”, aaaaeaiiua a Eiaeaen iieeoeee
aaciianiinoe 1926 a., eniieueciaaeenue i?aaeoaeuenoaii aeey
i?aneaaeiaaiey i?ioeaieeia oaoecia. Eiaeaen eaaaeeciaae iaia?aie/aiiue
i?iecaie iieeoe/aneie iieeoeee, iineieueeo “iianiuie” iia auoue iauyaeai
oe?ieee e?oa eeoe, a oii /enea oa, eoi “e?eoeeotho aeaenoaey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae”.

I?eiaiaiea “ia? aaciianiinoe” noaeaie auei ocaeiiaii a Eoaeee ii OE 1931
a., aaea oeacuaaeinue, /oi oaieiaiue caeii onoaiaaeeaaao oa neo/ae,
eiaaea “ia?u aaciianiinoe” i?eiaiythony “ca aeaenoaey, ia
i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiii a ea/anoaa i?anooiiuo”. Ii yoiio eiaeaeno
“nioeeaeueii iianiui” iiaei auoue i?eciaii eeoei, eioi?ia yaeyaony
iaaiaiyaiui eee ia iiaeeaaeauei iaeacaieth, ii eiaaony aa?iyoiinoue, /oi
“iii niaa?oeo iiaua aeaenoaey, i?aaeoniio?aiiua a caeiia a ea/anoaa
i?anooiiuo”. Eiaeaen niaea?aeae aieueoie ia?a/aiue “ia? aaciianiinoe”:
iiiauaiea a naeueneioicyenoaaiioth eieiieth eee ?aaioiue aeii,
niaea?aeaiea a noaeaaiii ?aoi?iaoi?ee, ioaea/a iiae iaaeci?, cai?auaiea
i?iaeeaaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiie ianoiinoe e o.ae.

A Aa?iaiee n i?eoiaeii e aeanoe oaoenoia a iiya?a 1933 a. aue aaaaeai
Caeii ia iianiuo i?eau/iuo i?anooiieeao e i ia?ao aaciianiinoe e
eni?aaeaiey. Ii yoiio caeiio, eeoea, iauyaeaiiua “iianiuie i?eau/iuie
i?anooiieeaie”, caeeth/aeenue a eiioeaio?aoeeiiiua eaaa?y, i?e/ai yoi
caeeth/aiea i?iaeieaeaeinue “aei oao ii?, iiea iii i?aaenoaaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui n oi/ee c?aiey caaea/, i?aneaaeoaiuo aeaiiie ia?ie
aaciianiinoe eee eni?aaeaiey”. Oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a oaoenoneie
Aa?iaiee noaei i?oaeeai inouanoaeaiey eo ?anenoneeo eaeae, niaeanii
eioi?ui i?anooiiinoue iauyaeyeanue “a?iaeaeaiiui” naienoaii ioaeaeueiuo
“iaiieiioeaiiuo” eeoe, a oaeaea oeaeuo ia?iaeia e ?an. A oneiaeyo
oaoenoneeo ?aaeeiia caeiiu i iieeoe/aneeo i?anooieaieyo noaiiaeeenue
eino?oiaioii ioe?iaaiiie ?ani?aau n i?ioeaieeaie oioaeeoa?iiai no?iy.

A ssiiiee a 1925 a. Caeii ia io?aia iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea a no. 1
eaaeeoeoee?iaae eae iieeoe/aneia i?anooieaiea o/anoea a iauanoaa,
oeaeueth eioi?iai yaeyaony “eciaiaiea onoaiiaeaiiuo eiinoeoooeeae
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy eee oi?iu i?aaeaiey eee ioiaiu /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe”. Iaeia eeoue i?iiaaaiaea oaeeo oeaeae iaeacuaaeanue
aeeeoaeueiuie n?ieaie oth?aiiiai caeeth/aiey. A 1928 a. caeii ia
“iianiuo iuneyo” aaae nia?oioth eaciue ca aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth
i?iiaaaiaeo e aeayoaeueiinoue.

A oaoenoneie Eoaeee caeii 1926 a. “I caueoa ainoaea?noaa” ainnoaiiaee
ioiaiaiioth ii OE 1889 a. nia?oioth eaciue e i?aaeoniao?eaae aa
i?eiaiaiea a neo/ayo niaa?oaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?anooieaiee: ca
iinyaaoaeuenoai ia ei?iey, ia aeaao i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ca aii?oaeaiiia
aunooieaiea i?ioea ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae e o.ae. Oiunae e niaa?oaieth
oaeeo i?anooieaiee ea?aeny oth?aiiui caeeth/aieai ia n?ie io 15 aei 20
eao. Iiiaea ec iieiaeaiee yoiai caeiia aioee caoai a OE Eoaeee 1931 a.
E?iia oiai, a no. 8 OE auei aeaii iauaa ii?aaeaeaiea iieeoe/aneiai
i?anooieaiey, iiae eioi?ia iiaeii auei iiaeaanoe ethaia iaoaiaeiia
aeanoyi aeaenoaea: “iieeoe/aneei n/eoaaony anyeia i?anooieaiea,
ia?ooathuaa iieeoe/aneee eioa?an ainoaea?noaa eee iieeoe/aneia i?aai
a?aaeaeaieia. N/eoaaony oaeaea iieeoe/aneei iauaoaieiaiia i?anooieaiea,
niaa?oaiiia iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii ii iieeoe/aneei iioeaai”.

Oa??i?enoe/aneee oa?aeoa? iineei oaeaea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i
iieeoe/aneeo i?anooieaieyo a oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee (Caeii i caueoa ia?iaea
e ainoaea?noaa io 18 oaa?aey 1933 a., Caeii i caueoa ia?iaea io eciaiu e
iyoaaeiuo i?ieneia io 28 oaa?aey 1933).

Oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i iieeoe/aneeo i?anooieaieyo
eniieueciaaeinue a ea?aoaeueiuo oeaeyo ia oieueei a oaoenoneeo
ainoaea?noaao, ii e a no?aiao n aeaiie?aoe/aneeie ?aaeeiaie. Oae, a
Aiaeee a 19291933 aa. a nayce n iaino?aieai iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau
i?aaeoaeuenoai, eniieuecoy Aeo i aicaoaeaeaiee iyoaaea 1797 a.,
ia?ooeeinue n ?ai?anneyie i?ioea eiiioienoia. A 1934 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai
Aiaeee i?eiyei iiaue Caeii i iyoaaea, eioi?ue iicaieee ea?aoue ethaua
oi?iu ?aaiethoeeiiiie aaeoaoeee.

Na?ueaciui ia?aie/aieai aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aa e naiaiae noaei aaaaeaiiia
a Aiaeee a nayce n niauoeyie a Naaa?iie E?eaiaeee /?acau/aeiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, a ?aieao eioi?iai a 19741978 aa. ia?eaiaioii auee
i?eiyou niaoeeaeueiua caeiiu ia ia?aie/aiee oa??i?ecia. Eacoenoe/iua
ii?iu yoeo caeiiia iicaieeee aeanoyi i?aneaaeiaaoue a ea/anoaa
oa??i?enoia o/anoieeia caaanoiaie, aeaiiino?aoeee, ?aniauo noieeiiaaiee
e o.ae.

A NOA oaea n 20o aiaeia a oiaea eaiiaiee “o?aaee e?aniuo” a aieueoeinoaa
ooaoia auee i?eiyou caeiiu i i?anooiiii aia?oecia, i i?anooiiii
neiaeeeaeecia, “eao/oeiaua” oi?ioee?iaee eioi?uo iicaieyee
eniieueciaaoue yoe caeiiu aeey i?aneaaeiaaiey eiiioienoia. A 1940 a. aue
i?eiyo oaaea?aeueiue caeii Nieoa i ?aaeno?aoeee eiino?aioeaa. A 1950 a.
Caeii i aioo?aiiae aaciianiinoe (Caeii Iaeea?aiaAoaea) e yaeaoeeny
aeiiieiaieai e iaio Caeii i eiio?iea iaae eiiioienoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth 1954 a., auee iai?aaeaiu i?ioea eiiioienoe/aneeo e
eiuo i?ia?anneaiuo i?aaiecaoeee, iauyaeaiiuo “iiae?uaiuie”. Iaeiaei a
oneiaeyo iineaaeiaaaoaai iiaeu?ia aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey iiiuoee
i?eiaieoue yoe caeiiu i?ioea Eiiia?oee NOA ia ano?aoeee iiaeaea?aeee a
Aa?oiaiii noaea NOA a nayce n eo yaiie iaeiinoeoooeeiiiinoueth.

Iiae i?aaeeiaii oneeaiey ai?ueau n i?anooiiinoueth e i?ana/aiey
“iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoaa e iyoaaeo” a NOA auei i?eiyoi caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai,
eioi?ia a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie ia?aie/eaaao i?aai a?aaeaeai ia
aeaiiino?aoeee e eiua ioaee/iua iaieoanoaoeee. Oae Caeii i eiio?iea iaae
i?anooiiinoueth ia oeeoeao 1968 a. iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa
“iyoaaea” e i?aneaaeiaaoue a oaieiaiii ii?yaeea iaeioi?ua aeaeu
a?oiiiauo aunooieaiee i?ioanoa, a oaeaea ia?ana/aiea aeaiiino?aioaie
a?aieoe iaaeaeo ooaoaie.

Iinea II ie?iaie aieiu oaoenoneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a O?A auei ioiaiaii
e ainnoaiiaeaii aeaenoaea OE Aa?iaiee 1871 a., eioi?ue a aeaeueiaeoai
aue /anoe/ii aeaeieciaiai. A 19691975 aa. ii no?oeoo?ii aue
iiae?acaeaeai ia iauoth e iniaaiioth /anoe, eioi?ua iiaeaa?aeenue
aeaeueiaeoae aoiaiecaoeee. Ec oaenoa OE 1871 a. auee eneeth/aiu
ioaeaeueiua ninoaau i?anooieaiee (?aeeaeiciua); iaeioi?ua oicyenoaaiiua
i?anooieaiey noaee ?anniao?eaaoueny eae aaeieieno?aoeaiua e
a?aaeaeaineea i?aaiia?ooaiey; iiiaea oyaeeea i?anooieaiey auee caiaiaiu
oo?aoiuie naieoeeyie e ae?.

Ai O?aioeee aei 1992 a. n eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie aeaenoaiaae OE
1810 a., eioi?ue a caaeneiinoe io iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee aeeth/ae iiaua
aoiaienoe/aneea eee ?ai?anneaiua iieiaeaiey. A ia/aea 80o aa. ai
O?aioeee auea ioiaiaia nia?oiay eaciue, n?ie oth?aiiiai caeeth/aiey iia
auoue caiaiai auiieiaieai “iauanoaaiii iieaciie ?aaiou”, eiioeneaoeeae
eiouanoaa. Iiaue OE O?aioeee 1992 a. ioee/aaony iiauoaiiie
oaieiaii-i?aaiaie caueoie i?aa /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia. A iai iniaia
aieiaiea oaeaeyaony oaeei i?anooieaieyi i?ioea /aeiaaea, eae
aeene?eieiaoeey ii ?aeeaeiciui, iaoeeiiaeueiui e ae?oaei i?eciaeai,
iioeuaiea eee acyoea a caeiaeieee ethaeae, iinyaaoaeuenoai ia
ineoe/aneoth iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue ee/iinoe e ae?. Iaaethaeaaony oneeaiea
oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iniai iianiua i?anooieaiey (aaiioeeae,
oa??i?eci, auiiaaoaeuenoai (?yeao), i?iecaiaenoai e ?ani?ino?aiaiea
ia?eioeeia, iioaiie/anoai (a oii /enea eiiiuethoa?iia), e iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea. Ca niaa?oaiea auoaoeacaiiuo aeayiee i?anooiieeo oa?iaeaei
no?iaia iaeacaiea, aieioue aei iiaeeciaiiiai caeeth/aiey.

Aoi?ay iieiaeia XX a. iciaiaiiaaeanue i?iaaaeaieai ?aoi?iu oaieiaiiai
i?aaa a Aiaeee. Caeii ia oaieiaiii i?aaa 1967 a. ieii/aoaeueii
oi?acaeiee o?aaeeoeeiiiia aeaeaiea i?anooieaiee ia oaeiieth e
ienaeeieii?. Aoiaiecaoeey aiaeeeneiai oaieiaiiai i?aaa au?aaeaeanue a
ioiaia nia?oiie eacie e eaoi?aeiuo ?aaio, aaaaeaiee einoeoooa oneiaiiai
inoaeaeaiey. A ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae cia/eoaeueii eeaa?aeece?iaaeanue
nenoaia iaeacaiee a NOA. A iaeioi?uo ooaoao auee i?eiyou caeiiu ia
ioiaia nia?oiie eacie. Iauaoaaea?aeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
i?aaeoniao?eaaei nio?aiaiea nia?oiie eacie eeoue a neo/ayo niaa?oaiey
oyaeeeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo, aieineeo e iauaoaieiaiuo i?anooieaiee.
I?eiaiaiea nia?oiie eacie ia aeiioneaeinue e eeoeai, ia aeinoeaoei e
iiiaioo i?anooieaiey 16 eao. I?e auianaiee i?eaiai?a noaeo i?enyaeiuo
aeieaeia auea auoue i?aaeinoaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue auai?a iaaeaeo nia?oiie
eaciueth e iiaeeciaiiui caeeth/aieai.

Iniiaiui iaeacaieai ca niaa?oaiea oyaeeiai oaieiaiiai i?anooieaiey
yaeyaony eeoaiea naiaiaeu ia ?aciua n?iee aieioue aei iiaeeciaiiiai. A
caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a i?anooieaiey e ee/iinoe i?anooiieea eeoaiea
naiaiaeu iiaeao iacia/aoueny n ioauaaieai iaeacaiey a oth?ueiao n ?aciui
?aaeeiii. Naiaia?aciie aeueoa?iaoeaie e eeoaieth naiaiaeu yaeyaony
i?iaaoeey. Iia ia i?aaeiieaaaao oth?aiiiai caeeth/aiey, ii noaaeo
inoaeaeaiiiai ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie iiae eiio?ieue niaoeeaeueiie neoaeau
iaaethaeaiey.

A eiioea XX a. oaieiaiay iieeoeea e i?aai NOA iai?aaeaiu ia ai?ueao ni
n?aaieoaeueii iiauie e iianiuie aeaeaie i?anooieaiee: n i?aaieciaaiiie
i?anooiiinoueth, oi?aiaeae ia?eioeeaie, oa??i?eciii, eiiiuethoa?iie
i?anooiiinoueth e ae?.

Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a XX a. i?ineaaeeaathony e a
oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiii i?aaa no?ai Caiaaea.

?ino i?anooiiinoe, oaaee/aiea /enea noaeaaiuo aeae, ia?aa?ocea e
iaaeeaiiia eo ?anniio?aiea iio?aaiaaee a XX a. ?aoi?ie?iaaiey noaeaaiie
nenoaiu e oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna a Aiaeee. Caeii i noaeao 1971 a.
eeeaeaee?iaae ?yae noaeaaiuo einoaioeee (noaeu annecia e ae?.) e
oieoeoee?iaae aeayoaeueiinoue noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Caeii i noaeao e
i?aaiaii ianeoaeeaaiee 1990 a. aaae a i?ioeann einoeooo aaeaieaoia e
ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaaeieoaey ii iaeaieaa aaaeiui oaieiaiui aeaeai.
Aeayoaeueiinoue iieeoeee ii iacia/aieth iaaeieoaey, i?iecaiaenoai
a?anoia, iauneia, ecuyoey i?aaeiaoia i?anooieaiey, eniieueciaaiea
yeaeo?iiiuo ono?ienoa e eiiiuethoa?iuo aeaiiuo auea ocaeiiaia e
iinoaaeaia iiae eiio?ieue iaaeci?iuo i?aaiia.

Iniaia aieiaiea auei oaeaeaii ?aoi?ie?iaaieth noaea i?enyaeiuo. Ioiuia
iiaeai? i?enyaeiuo inouanoaeyaony ia oa?eoii, a niaoeeaeueiuie
/eiiaieeaie, iacia/aaiuie ei?aeii-eaioeea?ii. Aianoa n oai iaaethaeaaony
ia?aie/aiea i?aaeaeia aeaenoaey iau/iie e aeaiie?aoe/aneie noaeaaiie
i?ioeaaeo?u. Yoi iaoei naia au?aaeaiea a oae iacuaaaiii noiia?iii
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, i?e eioi?ii oaieiaiua aeaea ?anniao?eaathony
aaeeiiee/iui noaeueae aac o/anoey i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae e a iniaii
oi?iuaiiii i?ioeannoaeueiii ii?yaeea.

Aiaeeeneea o?aaeeoeeiiiua einoeooou oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa
auee oai?/anee aini?eiyou e i?eiaiyeenue a NOA, n o/aoii ianoiuo
enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee e i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u. Aia?eeaineee oaieiaiue
i?ioeann neeaaeuaaaony ec ianeieueeeo noaaeee: 1) i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia
?anneaaeiaaiea, inouanoaeyaiia aieueoei eiee/anoaii aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe e
i?aaiia eae ia o?iaia ooaoia, oae e ia o?iaia oaaea?aoeee (iieeoeey,
OA?, aooi?iae e ae?.); 2) ?aoaiea aii?ina i i?aaeaiee iaaeiyaiiai noaeo.
Ai iiiaeo ooaoao iaaeieoaeue (aooi?iae) nai i?aaeuyaeyao iaaeiaiea e
iai?aaeyao aeaei a noae. A oaaea?aeueiie nenoaia e a iaeioi?uo ooaoao
iaaeiaiey i?aaenoaaeythony Aieueoiio AEth?e, ninoiyuaio ec iinoiyiiuo
canaaeaoaeae, eioi?ua e auiinyo aa?aeeeo i i?eaea/aiee iaaeiyaiiai e
oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe e i ia?aaea/a aeaea a noae. Anee Aieueoia
AEth?e ioeacuaaaony auianoe aa?aeeeo, aeaei i?ioea iaaeiyaiiai
i?ae?auaaony; 3) noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai i?ienoiaeeo a i?enoonoaee 12
canaaeaoaeae e i?e o/anoee naeaeaoaeae, yenia?oia, i?ieo?i?a, aaeaieaoa
e ae?oaeo iaiaoiaeeiuo eeoe, i?e niaethaeaiee ninoycaoaeueiinoe noi?ii e
i?acoiioeee iaaeiiaiinoe iiaenoaeeiiai. Iaycaiiinoue aeieacuaaiey aeiu
iaaeiyaiiai eaaeeo ia noi?iia iaaeieoaey, eioi?ue aeieaeai oaaaeeoue a
naiae i?aaioa eieeaaeth i?enyaeiuo. I?e yoii aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao
i?aaeei aeiionoeiinoe aeieacaoaeuenoa (o.a. oieueei oao ec ieo, eioi?ua
iieo/aiu caeiiiui iooai); 4) aii?in i aeiiaiinoe eee iaaeiiaiinoe
iaaeiyaiiai ?aoaao aeth?e i?enyaeiuo, a ia noaeuey; 5) i?eaiai? iaeaoaao
noaeuey.

Oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiay i?aeoeea NOA iieacuaaao, /oi eeoue iaaieueoia
/enei oaieiaiuo aeae ?anniao?eaaaony noaeii i?enyaeiuo. Cia/eoaeueiia
aieueoeinoai aeae ?ac?aoathony a noiia?iii ii?yaeea.

Aieueoea eciaiaiey i?aoa?iaei oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiia i?aai O?aioeee.
A 1958 a. aue i?eiyo iiaue OIE, eioi?ue cia/eoaeueii aeaiie?aoece?iaae
i?ioeann, oneeee aa?aioee i?aa a?aaeaeai, oi?inoee noaeii?iecaiaenoai,
oii?yaei/ee aeayoaeueiinoue neaaenoaaiiuo i?aaiia e noaea. Oaieiaiia
aeaei ii OIE 1958 a. aicaoaeaeaeinue i?ieo?i?ii ia iniiaa iaoa?eaeia
iieeoeaeneiai aeiciaiey.

Oaieiaiue i?ioeann ninoiye ec neaaeothueo noaaeee: i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia
neaaenoaea, noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai, eniieieoaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai,
iaaeaeiaaiea a aiaeeyoeeiiiii eee eannaoeeiiiii ii?yaeea. I?ioeann ii
oaieiaiui aeaeai ii OIE 1958 a. ai O?aioeee eiaao iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe:
1) I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea i?iaiaeeony iaaeanii neaaenoaaiiui
noaeueae iiae eiio?ieai i?ieo?i?a. 2) Anee i?ieo?i? niaeanai n auaiaeaie
neaaenoaaiiiai noaeuee, oi iineaaeiee auiineo iinoaiiaeaiea i
i?ae?auaiee aeaea, eee iai?aaeyao aai a niioaaonoaothuoth noaeaaioth
einoaioeeth (iieeoeaeneee o?eaoiae, eni?aaeoaeueiue o?eaoiae, noae
i?enyaeiuo). 3) Iaaeiyaiue niaea?aeeony a a?anoiii aeiio, aaea
ciaeiieony n iaoa?eaeaie aeaea. 4) Iinea iauyaeaiey i?eaiai?a
inoaeaeaiiue a a?anoiii aeiia aeaeao ?aoaiey ii aiaeeyoeee eee
eannaoeeiiiie aeaeiaa. 5) I?eaiai? anooiaao a caeiiioth neeo ii
enoa/aiee n?iea, onoaiiaeaiiiai aeey iaaeaeiaaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, a
o?aaeeoeeiiii-eeanne/aneeo io?aneyo i?aaa no?ai Caiaaea a XX a.
i?iecioee noieue na?ueaciua eciaiaiey, /oi iie i?eaeaee iiaue iaeee
iiaeaee i?aaa.

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