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Общая характеристика источников гражданского и торгового права в основных правовых системах современности

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?aoa?ao ii A?aaeaeaineiio e oi?aiaiio i?aao ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai ia oaio:

1. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea enoi/ieeia a?aaeaeaineiai e oi?aiaiai i?aaa a
iniiaiuo i?aaiauo nenoaiao nia?aiaiiinoe.

2. Eae ?ani?aaeaeythony i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii aaaioneiio aeiaiai?o?

picscalex935

Ieai ?aaiou:

  1. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea enoi/ieeia a?aaeaeaineiai e oi?aiaiai i?aaa a
iniiaiuo i?aaiauo nenoaiao nia?aiaiiinoe. 2

2. Eae ?ani?aaeaeythony i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii aaaioneiio aeiaiai?o? 8

3. Caaea/a. 13

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. 14

1. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea enoi/ieeia a?aaeaeaineiai e oi?aiaiai i?aaa a
iniiaiuo i?aaiauo nenoaiao nia?aiaiiinoe.

Enoi/ieee – aiaoiyy oi?ia i?aaa, o.a. oa oi?ia, a eioi?oth iaeaeathony
naie i?aaiaua ii?iu.

Nouanoaoao /aou?a aeaea enoi/ieeia:

1) caeiiu eee aeou caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe;

2) iiaecaeiiiua aeou eee aeou eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe;

3) aaaeiinoaaiiua ii?iaoeaiua aeou;

3) noaeaaiay i?aeoeea;

4) iau/ae;

Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u auaeaeytho oaeaea aeieo?eio. Iaeiaei th?eaee/aneay
aeieo?eia oi?iaeueii ia yaeyaony enoi/ieeii i?aaa. Ii oae eee eia/a
aeieo?eia aeeyao ia ?aoaiea noaea e o.ae.

Nenoaia enoi/ieeia i?aaa – niaieoiiinoue enoi/ieeia i?aaa.

Nenoaia enoi/ieeia i?aaa ia iaeeiaeiaa aeey ?aciuo i?aaiauo naiae.

1. A nenoaia ?iiaii-aa?iaineiai i?aaa caeii noieo ia ia?aii ianoa, aeou
eniieieoaeueiie (aaeieieno?aoeaiie) aeanoe – ia aoi?ii. I?aaiu noaea
i?aaioai?/anoaii ia iaaeaeaiu, oi anoue noaeaaiay i?aeoeea – ia yaeyaony
enoi/ieeii i?aaa. Iau/ae – aeiiieieoaeueiue enoi/iee i?aaa
(noaneaeea?iue). *anoiay i?aeoeea eiaeeoeoee?iaaia. Eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua
caeiiu ooaa?aeaeaiu, aaaaeaiu caeiiii e iiyoiio iaeaaeatho iaeaieaa
aunieie aeanoueth a ea?a?oee enoi/ieeia i?aaa.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeou – oi?iaeueii noiyo ia aoi?ii ianoa, ii eo ?ieue
iinoiyiii oaaee/eaaaony e iauai eo aieaa oe?ie ii n?aaiaieth n caeiiaie,
iioiio /oi caeiiiaeaoaeue – eeoei auai?iia, ecae?aaony ia ii?aaeaeaiiue
n?ie, ia?eaiaio nouanoaoao a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea, a ia?eaiaioa
nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua oa/aiey, neeaaeuaathony ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
iieeoe/aneea neeu, iiyoiio aeou ia anaaaea auno?i i?ioiaeyo ?anniio?aiea
a ia?eaiaioa.

Ai anao no?aiao caeiiiaeaoaeue aeaeaae?oao (ia?aaeaao) aeinoaoi/ii
aieueooth /anoue naieo iieiiii/ee eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. Iiyoiio
aeaeaae?iaaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai – yoi iauai aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeoia,
eioi?ua i?eiyou a nayce n aeaeaae?iaaieai iieiiii/ee eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe.

A ?yaea no?ai aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee cae?aieaii a eiinoeoooeee.

Iai?eia?: O?aioeey 38 noaouey Eiinoeoooeey “I?aeiiain (aeou
i?aaeoaeuenoaa) eiatho neeo caeiia”.

Eiia/ii, oaeea aeou ia aeieaeiu i?ioeai?a/eoue eiinoeoooeee e caeiiai.

Noaeaaiay i?aeoeea, eae iu oaea ioia/aee – ia enoi/iee i?aaa.

Iai?eia? noaouey 5 O?aioeocneiai a?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena.

“Noaeuey ia aeieaeai auiineoue ?aoaiea a aeaea iauaai iinoaiiaeaiey.”

4 noaouey “A neo/aa iayniinoe, iaaeinoaoi/iinoe caeiia eee aai
ionoonoaee noaeuey ia iiaeao ioeacaoue a i?aainoaeee. Iiae no?aoii
oaieiaiiai i?aneaaeiaaiey”.

Iaaeaeo ieie i?ioeai?a/ee iao, noaeuey aeieaeai aoaeao oieeiaaoue
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aiiaua e ii?aaeaeyao caeii a /anoiinoe, eee eneaoue
aiaeiaeth caeiia, eee i?eaaaaoue e aiaeiaee i?aaa aiiaua, eee enoiaeeoue
ec iaueo i?eioeeiia i?aaa, ii ?anniio?aoue aeaei o?aaoaony iaycaoaeueii.

O?aioeocneay noaeaaiay i?aeoeea naeaeaea iiiai, /oiau aeiiieieoue OAE.

Anee i?e nicaeaiee OAE ionoonoaiaae einoeooo no?aoiaaiey, oi noaeaaiay
i?aeoeea au?aaioaea aeiaiai? no?aoiaaiey, enoiaey ec aiaeiaee caeiia,
i?eiaiyy aeiaiai? a iieueco o?aoueaai eeoea.

OAE ia ii?aaeaeye e?oa ioiioaiee, ia eioi?ue aue ?ann/eoai, o.a. ia
oeacuaae, /oi yoe ioiioaiey eiouanoaaiiua e ee/ii iaeiouanoaaiiua;
noaeaaiay i?aeoeea iinoaiaiii ii?aaeaeeea, eaeea ioiioaiey ?aaoee?oao
AE.

Oaeei ia?acii iaiaoiaeei ioiaoeoue, /oi ?ieue noaeaaiie i?aeoeee aaeeea.

Oae a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee oaeaea aic?anoaao ?ieue noaeaaiie i?aeoeee:
nai?ieee iinoaiiaeaiee Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai noaea e Aa?oiaiiai noaea
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee – iaycaoaeueiu a eniieiaiee aeey ieaeanoiyueo
noaeia.

A Oaaeoea?ee AE 1907 a. aeae naiua oe?ieea iieiiii/ey noaeueyi. Noaouey
1 aeaneo: “i?e ionoonoaee a caeiia niioaaonoaothuaai iieiaeaiey noaeuey
aeieaeai ?aoeoue niaeanii iau/iiio i?aao, o.a. ii iau/ath, a i?e
ionoonoaee iau/ay niaeanii oai i?aaeeai, eioi?ua ii onoaiiaee au, anee
au aue caeiiiaeaoaeai.”

Oa i?aaeea, eioi?ua ?ac?aaaouaaao oaaeoea?neee noaeuey, iaycaoaeueiu
aeey i?eiaiaiey anaie inoaeueiuie noaeueyie.

Iau/ae – yoi anoue i?aaeei iiaaaeaiey, neiaeeaoeeny a ii?aaeaeaiiie
iaeanoe ioiioaiee, iinyuee iinoiyiiue oa?aeoa?, eniieuecoaiia a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie e naieoeeiie?iaaiiia ainoaea?noaii, o.a.
ainoaea?noai ?ac?aoaao i?eiaiaiea iau/aaa noaeaie e ae?oaeie
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie, oai naiui, aicaiaey iau/ae a ?aiee
enoi/ieeia i?aaa. Iau/aaa ia oae oae e iiiai, a iniiaiii a naiaeiii
i?aaa, nio?aiythony iau/ae oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a: iau/ae
i?iaeioeee e caiaeue a oii eee eiii ainoaea?noaa, nio?aiythony ianoiua
(eieaeueiua) iau/ae.

Ianoiua yeiiiie/aneea iau/ae – iau/ae ii?neeo ii?oia (ia/aei ?aaiou
ii?oa, ii?yaeie caoiaea noaeia, ii?yaeie eioeiaineie i?iaiaeee e o.ae.);
(yoio iau/ae naycai n aaia?aoe/aneie iniaaiiinoueth ii?oa). Iau/ae
aiaoiae oi?aiaee, eio. neeaaeuaathony i?e caeeth/aiee aiaoiaoi?aiauo
aeiaiai?ia. Yoe iau/ae nenoaiaoece?oao iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaay iaeaoa
(IOI eee ICC – International Chamber of Commerce) e aeaao ei oieeiaaiea.

Auaeaeytho oaeaea iaueiiaaiea. Iaeiaei a aieueoeinoaa no?ai iaueiiaaiea
– yoi ia enoi/iee i?aaa. – oieueei a oi?aiaii eiaeaena NOA anoue
ii?aaeaeaiea oi?aiaiai iaueiiaaiey – yoi ethaay i?aeoeea eee ii?yaeie
aeaeiauo ioiioaiee a oao eee eiuo ianoao, i?ioanneyo eee noa?a
aeayoaeueiinoe, eio. iineo ioiineoaeueii iinoiyiiue oa?aeoa? i?eiaiaiey
e oiaea iaeeaeaaony a ioiioaiee eiie?aoiie naeaeee.

Iaee/ea niaea?aeaiey iaueiiaaiee aeieacuaathony eae oaeou. (Yoei
iaueiiaaiey ioee/athony io iau/ay), ii iau/ae naieoeeiie?iaai
ainoaea?noaii, a iaueiiaaiey noae ia iaycai ciaoue. Iineaaeiaa a?aiy
?ieue iaueiiaaiey iinoiyiii aic?anoaao. Ca iineaaeiea aeanyoue eao a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie noa?a, a oi?aiaii iai?ioa ana /aua
i?aaei?eieiaoaee, caieiathueany eaeie-eeai aeayoaeueiinoueth, anooiatho
a nithcu, annioeeaoeee e nicaeatho naie nianoaaiiua naiaeu i?aaee,
i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey eee eiaeaenu yoeee iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua aeiaiaeyony
aei naaaeaiey iieoiaoaey e eioi?uo iiaeao ia auoue o ia/eaiia nithca,
annioeeaoeee. Yoe naiaeu i?aaee e anoue iaueiiaaiey. E oaeeo iaueiiaaiee
noaiiaeony ana aieueoa e aieueoa.

Caaaaeaiiue ii?yaeie (/aua eniieuecoaony a aia?eeaineie i?aeoeea) –
order of dealing – yoi aaeeiiia?aciia iiaaaeaiea noi?ii ii aeaiiie
naeaeea, o.a. iaaeaeo eiie?aoiuie eeoeaie, eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaatho iniiao
eo acaeiiioiioaiee ia iniiaaiee i?aaeoanoaothuaai iiaaaeaiey noi?ii ii
aeaiiie naeaeea (o.e. ia ana caienuaaaony a eiio?aeoa, oi eniieuecoaony
eo i?aaeoanoaothuaa iiaaaeaiea, o.a. caaaaeaiiue ii?yaeie, eioi?ue
neacuaaaony ia oieeiaaiee aeiaiai?a noaeii eee eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a).
Caaaaeaiiue ii?yaeie eanaaony oieueei eiie?aoiuo noi?ii ii aeaiiiio
aeiaiai?o. Yoi iiiyoea iaiaa oe?ieia, /ai oi?aiaue iau/ae e oi?aiaua
iaueiiaaiey.

A ?iiaii-aa?iaineie naiuea nenoaiaoecaoeey i?aaa inouanoaeyaony n
iiiiuueth eiaeaenia.

Eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue aeo – yoi aeo, a eioi?ii ana i?aaiaua ii?iu
?aniieiaeaiu a no?iaie eiae/aneie nayce e a oi/iii niioaaonoaee iaeia ca
ae?oaie ia eiaao, eae i?aaeei, i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo niaie.

A nenoaia iauaai i?aaa eiaeaenia iao (ie a?aaeaeaineiai, ie oi?aiaiai).

Nenoaiaoecaoeey a yoeo no?aiao no?ieony eia/a.

Aiaeey. Ana iiiaiia?acea caeiiia iiaecaeiiiuo aeoia a noaeaaiie i?aeoeea
nenoaiaoece?oaony iooai ecaeaiey eiinieeaee?iaaiiuo aeoia, a eioi?uo
aeinoaoi/ii iaoaie/anee niae?athony ana i?aaiaua ii?iu ec anao
i?aaeoanoaothueo caeiiia eee noaeaaiie i?aeoeee (aeey oiai, /oiau
naeaeaoue aieaa oaeiaioth ?aaioo n i?aaiauie ii?iaie).

Iaeiaei eiinieeaee?iaaiiua aeou iiaoo niaea?aeaoue a naaa i?ioeai?a/ey.

Eoae, iu ia?aoee e ?anniio?aieth enoi/ieeia Aiaeinaeniineie i?aaiaie
naiuee.

?anniio?ei enoi/ieee a?aaeaeaineiai e oi?aiaiai i?aaa ia i?eia?a Aiaeee.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Aiaeee a?aaeaeaineia i?aai ia eiaeeoeoee?iaaii e
aiiaua ?ieue oae iacuaaaiiai ienaiiiai i?aaa cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai
?ieue iaienaiiai i?aaa (i?aoeeiaeaioiiai – case low e n/eoaaony aei neo
ii? aaaeouei enoi/ieeii a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa).

Iauay nooue i?aoeaaeaioa oaeiaa: auiiny ?aoaiea ii eiie?aoiiio aeaeo,
noae oi?ioee?oao noaeaaiue aeieoiaio, eioi?ue iacuaatho ?aoaieai. A yoii
noaeaaiii aeieoiaioa niaea?aeeony iaycuaathuea i?aaeienaiey a ioiioaiee
eiie?aoiuo noi?ii nii?a, a oaeaea niaea?aeeony iauay i?aaiaay ii?ia,
noi?ioee?iaaiiay noaeii, iaycaoaeueii aeey i?eiaiaiey anaie ieaea
noiyueie noaeaie e noaeaie ia ?aaiii iieiaeaiee.

I?aoeaaeaio – yoi na?aeoeaaeia noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey, i?aaiaay ii?ia
noi?ioee?iaaiiay noaeaaiui ?aoaieai.

Noaeaaiia ?aoaiea aeaeeony ia aeaa /anoe:

1 – ratio decidendi – yoi e anoue i?aaiaay ii?ia.

2 – obiter dicta

Noaeuey aeieaeai iienaoue i?aaiaoth ii?io a ?aoaiee auoanoiyueo noaeao.
A ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie iiiiaatho noaeueyi a iaoiaeaeaiee i?aaiauo ii?i
ecaeaiey noaeaaieeia eee aaeaaiaeieeia noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee. Noaeaaieee
ecaeathony iaeaoie Ei?aeia, aunoae noaeaaiie einoaioeeae, e i?e
ninoaaeaiee oaea i?ienoiaeeo iaeee ioai? i?aaiauo ii?i, ?aoaiee.
Noaeaaiua ?aoaiey, eioi?ua ia aioee a aaeaaiaeiee, ia niaea?aeao
i?aaiaie ii?iu. Cia/eo, noaeueyi ia ioaeii ia?auaoueny e a?oeaai, a
aeinoaoi/ii i?i/eoaoue yoio aaeaaiaeiee. Anoue iaeia i?iaeaia – i?iaeaia
oieeiaaiey i?aaiauo ii?i, noi?ioee?iaaiiuo noaeii. I/aiue ?aaeei, eiaaea
ana ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeaea auaatho aaniethoii aiaeiae/iuie, e i?e
?anniio?aiee aeaea noaeuey oaea iienae i?aaiaoth ii?io e aioia aa
i?eiaieoue, caaeoiuaaaony iaae oai, /oi iiaeao ee yoa i?aaiaay ii?ia
?aaoee?iaaoue i?aaiioiioaiey, eioi?ua ii nae/an ?anniao?eaaao eiie?aoii
e eiaiii yoa neooaoeey aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oae iacuaaaiiio oe?ieiio
oieeiaaieth. Noaeuey aeieaeai ?aoeoue eaeoth ii?io i?eiaieoue, iiaeii ee
aa i?eiaieoue eee ii aoaeao i?eiaiyoue eaeoth-oi eioth ii?io.

Eiaaony oaeaea i?aoeaaeaioiia i?aai e noaoooiia i?aai. Caeiiu
i?eieiathony ia?eaiaioii, eiathony iieiua aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeou. A
i?aaa nouanoaoao i?eciae aa?oiaainoaa caeiia, o.a. caeii anaaaea noieo
ia ia?aii ianoa. Caeii iiaeao ioiaieoue i?aoeaaeaioioth ii?io,
caeiiiaeaoaeue oiaea iiaeao ioiaieoue i?aoeaaeaioioth ii?io. Ii aio ooo
aicieeaao iniaaiiinoue: ieaeanoiyuea noaeu i?e i?eiaiaiee caeiia
?oeiaiaenoaothony ia oieueei ii?iaie yoiai caeiia, ii e ?aoaieyie anao
auoanoiyueo noaeia, eioi?ua yoio caeii oaea i?eiaiyao. E iieo/aaony, /oi
ethaie iiaue caeii i?aaeaea /ai ii ia/iao ?aaioaoue, aeieaeai iinoaiaiii
ia?anoe i?aoeaaeaioaie, eae ?aeooeaie. (Aaeeeee aiaeeeneee th?eno
neacae: “caeii aeeaao a i?aoeaaeaioa”). Oi?iaeueii caeii noieo ia ia?aii
ianoa, a oaeoe/anee i?aoeaaeaio inoaaony aaaeouei enoi/ieeii i?aaa.

Noaoooiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai nia?aii a nai?ieea caeiiia, eioi?ia
ninoaaeyao aieaa 50-oe oiiia. I?aoeaaeaioia oiaea i/aiue iiiai, e
ian/eouaaaony aieaa 800 oun. (oaieiaiua, aaeieieno?aoeaiua,
a?aaeaeaineea).

Aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeou. Yoe aeou iiaoo (a Aiaeee) ecaeaaaoue oeaeue ?yae
i?aaiia: i?aaeoaeuenoai, ianoiua i?aaiu eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe,
ioaeaeueiua ei?ii?aoeee, th?eaee/aneea eeoea, iaoiaeyueany ia
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa.

2. Eae ?ani?aaeaeythony i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii aaaioneiio aeiaiai?o?

 

Aaaioneee aeiaiai? oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a aiaei-aia?eeaineii i?aaa, aaea
caiaiyao niaie o?aaeeoeeiiiua aeey eiioeiaioaeueiie i?aaiaie nenoaiu
aeiaiai?u ii?o/aiey e eiiennee.

Aaaioneee aeiaiai? i?aneaaeoao oeaeue aeinoaoi/ii /aoeiai i?aaiaiai
ioi?ieaiey ioiioaiee, a eioi?uo iin?aaeiee (i?aaenoaaeoaeue) niaa?oaao a
/oaeeo eioa?anao eae naeaeee e ae?oaea th?eaee/aneea aeaenoaey, oae e
aeaenoaey oaeoe/aneiai ii?yaeea, ia aeaeouea th?eaee/aneeo iineaaenoaee.
Iai?eia?, eeoei, aeaenoaothuaa a ea/anoaa aaaioa, iiaeao acyoue ia naay
caaea/o nauoa /oaeeo oiaa?ia, eiay a aeaeo ia oieueei caeeth/aiea
aeiaiai?ia eoiee-i?iaeaaee, ii e i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee e
ae?oaeo ia?ii?eyoee ii eco/aieth e inaiaieth ?uiea (ia?eaoeiaiauo).
Aaaioneay aeayoaeueiinoue oaeiai ?iaea aiciiaeia e a
eoeueoo?ii-oai?/aneie noa?a, aaea i?aaei?eieiaoaee (“eii?ana?ei”,
“aio?ai?aia?u” e o. i.) inouanoaeytho eae th?eaee/aneea, oae e
oaeoe/aneea aeaenoaey ii i?aaiecaoeee e i?iaaaeaieth ?acee/iuo
oaao?aeueiuo, eiioea?oiuo, aano?ieueiuo e oiio iiaeiaiuo ia?ii?eyoee.

A aaaioneii aeiaiai?a eniieieoaeue-aaaio iaycoaony ii ii?o/aieth e ca
n/ao naiaai i?eioeeiaea niaa?oaoue a aai eioa?anao th?eaee/aneea e
oaeoe/aneea aeaenoaey eeai io naiaai eiaie, eeai io eiaie i?eioeeiaea.

Anee aaaio ii aeaiiiio aeiaiai?o aeaenoaoao io nianoaaiiiai eiaie, ii e
noaiiaeony noi?iiie naeaeie, caeeth/aiiuo ei n o?aoueeie eeoeaie, i?e/ai
e a oii neo/aa, eiaaea yoe eeoea ciaee i niaa?oaiee naeaeee a eioa?anao
i?eioeeiaea, a ia aai aaaioa, eeai aeaaea nai i?eioeeiae anooiee n
o?aoueei eeoeii – eiio?aaaioii ii naeaeea a iaiin?aaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey
ii aa eniieiaieth. Eeoue iinea caeeth/aiey naeaeee aaaio aeieaeai aoaeao
ia?aaeaoue i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii iae naiaio i?eioeeiaeo. Oaeie iiaeoiae
oa?aeoa?ai aeey aeiaiai?a eiiennee a eiioeiaioaeueiie nenoaia i?aaa.

Anee aea aaaio ii oneiaeyi caeeth/aiiiai n i?eioeeiaeii aeiaiai?a
aeaenoaoao io aai eiaie, i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii caeeth/aiiui aaaioii n
o?aoueeie eeoeaie naeaeeai aicieeatho n?aco iaiin?aaenoaaiii o
i?eioeeiaea, ieioy aaaioa. Oaeie iiaeoiae oa?aeoa?ai aeey aeiaiai?a
ii?o/aiey a eiioeiaioaeueiie nenoaia i?aaa.

Aaaioneee aeiaiai? i?aaeiieaaaao aiciiaeiinoue caeeth/aiey aaaioii
noaaaaioneiai aeiaiai?a n aiceiaeaieai eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa ii yoiio
aeiaiai?o ia o?aouea eeoei, anee oieueei oaeay aiciiaeiinoue i?yii ia
eneeth/aia niaeaoaieai aai o/anoieeia.

Aaaioneee aeiaiai?, anaaaea yaeyaony aiciacaeiui, a oii /enea e a
neo/ayo aunooieaiey aaaioa io eiaie i?eioeeiaea (ii iiaeaee ioiioaiee
ii?o/aiey, eioi?ua a eeanne/aneii aeaea ioithaeue ia i?aaeiieaaathony
aiciacaeiuie). Aaaioneee aeiaiai?, iiaeao i?aaeoniao?eaaoue oneiaey ia
ia?aie/aiee aeaenoaee aaaioa eee i?eioeeiaea ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?eae.
Aaaioneee aeiaiai? iaeuecy i?eciaoue ee/ii-aeiaa?eoaeueiui, iineieueeo
ii, a /anoiinoe, ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao aiciiaeiinoe iaeiinoi?iiiaai
aaciioeaiiai ioeaca io eniieiaiey aai oneiaee.

A ioiioaiee th?eaee/aneeo aeaenoaee eae i?aaeiaoa aaaioneiai aeiaiai?a
aeiioneaaony ioi?ieaiea iieiiii/ee aaaioa ia niaa?oaiea naeaeie io eiaie
i?eioeeiaea ia aeiaa?aiiinoueth, a aeiaiai?ii, caeeth/aiiui a i?inoie
ienueiaiiie oi?ia e i?aaeoniao?eaathuei iauea iieiiii/ey aaaioa ia
niaa?oaiea oaeeo naeaeie.

Aiciiaeiinoue onoaiaaeeaaoue a aaaioneii aeiaiai?a ia?aie/aiey
oa??eoi?eaeueiie noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe i?eioeeiaea eee aaaioa (iooai
cai?aoa caeeth/aiey iaeii?iaeiuo ii i?aaeiaoo aaaioneeo aeiaiai?ia
i?eioeeiaeo – n ae?oaeie aaaioaie, a aaaioo – n ae?oaeie i?eioeeiaeaie a
ioiioaiee ii?aaeaeaiiie aeiaiai?ii oa??eoi?ee) naycaia n iio?aaiinoueth
eiio?iey oie eee eiie noa?u niioaaonoaothuaai ?uiea (?acoiaaony, a
?aieao, ia i?ioeai?a/aueo aioeiiiiiieueiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao). Iia,
iaeiaei, ia aeieaeia ia?aie/eaaoue e?oa o?aoueeo eeoe – eiio?aaaioia ii
naeaeeai, caeeth/aaiui aaaioii, eai a i?ioeaiii neo/aa ii?aaeaeaiiay
eaoaai?ey eeoe ca?aiaa eneeth/aaony ec /enea aiciiaeiuo iio?aaeoaeae
(iieoiaoaeae, caeac/eeia) oiaa?ia, ?aaio eee oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo
aaaioii.

A ioiioaiee oaeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee eae i?aaeiaoa aaaioneiai aeiaiai?a,
aaaioo i?aaeinoaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeiaeeoue (aiceiaeeoue) eo
eniieiaiea ia o?aoueeo eeoe (noaaaaioia), anee oieueei oaeay
aiciiaeiinoue ca?aiaa ia eneeth/aia aeiaiai?ii. Eiaiii iioiio, /oi oaeea
aeaenoaey a neeo naiaai oa?aeoa?a ia aeaeoo th?eaee/aneiai yooaeoa
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey i?eioeeiaea, eo inouanoaeaiea o?aoueei eeoeii
aeiionoeii a niioaaonoaee n iaueie ii?iaie iaycaoaeuenoaaiiiai i?aaa.
Aaaioo aea i?aaeinoaaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue nin?aaeioi/eoue naie oneeey ia
auiieiaiee iaeaieaa neiaeiie /anoe ii?o/aiey i?eioeeiaea – th?eaee/aneeo
aeaenoaeyo, aeeth/ay niaa?oaiea aeey iaai naeaeie.

?acoiaaony, aaaio e a yoii neo/aa inoaaony iieiinoueth ioaaonoaaiiui
ia?aae naiei i?eioeeiaeii ca aeaenoaey noaaaaioia. Ii a aaaioneii
aeiaiai?a iiaeao auoue i?aaeoniio?aia aeaaea iaycaiiinoue aaaioa
caeeth/eoue noaaaaioneee aeiaiai?, a oii /enea e n oeacaieai aai
eiie?aoiuo oneiaee (iai?eia?, n ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aeeaiiie oe?iie e ca
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, ia i?aauoathuaa onoaiiaeaiiie noiiu). A aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa ?a/ue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaeao i i?eaea/aiee e eniieiaieth
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeiaiai?ii oaeoe/aneeo (iath?eaee/aneeo) aeaenoaee
iaiaoiaeeiuo niaoeeaeenoia. Oaeea oneiaey iaaiciiaeiu ie a aeiaiai?a
ii?o/aiey, ie a aeiaiai?a eiiennee, i?aaeiao eioi?uo, eae oaea
ioia/aeinue, ia?aie/eaaaony th?eaee/aneeie aeaenoaeyie, niaa?oaaiuie ii
iauaio i?aaeeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aaenoaaeoaeai (iin?aaeieeii).

Aaaioneee aeiaiai? iiaeao eiaoue eae n?i/iue, oae e aann?i/iue oa?aeoa?.

?acia? iaycaoaeueiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey aaaioo ii?aaeaeyaony oneiaeyie
aeiaiai?a, a i?e ionoonoaee oaeiai oneiaey a aeiaiai?a – ?acia?ii
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ia i?e n?aaieiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iau/ii
auiea/eaaaony ca aiaeiae/iua oneoae.

Ii?yaeie e n?ie i?aaeinoaaeaiey io/aoia aaaioii i?eioeeiaeo
onoaiaaeeaathony aeiaiai?ii. I?e ionoonoaee a iai eaeeo-eeai oneiaee
io/aou i?aaeinoaaeythony a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a ii?o/aiey eeai
ia?eiaee/anee, eeai ii auiieiaiee ii?o/aiey a oeaeii. I?aaeinoaaeaiea
oaeiai io/aoa a aaaioneii aeiaiai?a, eae e a aeiaiai?a eiiennee,
yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui.

Aaaioneee aeiaiai? i?ae?auaaony, iiieii iaueo iniiaaiee i?ae?auaiey
aeiaiai?ia, oaeaea iaaiciiaeiinoueth naiinoiyoaeueiiai aunooieaiey
aaaioa a a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ioiioaieyo a nayce n i?eciaieai aai
iaaeaaniiniaiui, ia?aie/aiii aeaaniiniaiui eee aacaanoii ionoonoaothuei,
a oaeaea ianinoiyoaeueiui (aaie?ioii).

Noa?a i?eiaiaiey aaaioneiai aeiaiai?a aiana ia ia?aie/eaaaony
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei iai?ioii. Ii aeiionoei e a eiuo
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ioiioaieyo, aaea aiciiaeiu e ii?aaeaeaiiua
iniaaiiinoe. A /anoiinoe, a noa?a oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aaaioneee
aeiaiai? iiaeao auoue naycai n i?eia?aoaieai, ia?aaea/ae eee
eniieueciaaieai eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa (aaoi?ia eee iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeae),
/oi o?aaoao o/aoa eo iniaie th?eaee/aneie i?e?iaeu.

3. Caaea/a.

Oe?ia, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiay a eiino?aiiii ainoaea?noaa, ia?aoeeanue n
eneii e ?inneeneiio aeoeeiia?iiio iauanoao i acuneaiee n iaai noieiinoe
eiio?aeoa ca iinoaaeo i?iaeoeoeee.

?inneeneei oi?aiaui i?aaei?eyoeai (iieoiaoaeai) a ethea 1996 aiaea aue
caeeth/ai aiaoiaoi?aiaue eiio?aeo n yoie oe?iie (i?iaeaaoeii) ia
iinoaaeo oiaa?a.

Noi?iiu i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeee a ienueiaiiie oi?ia aeiaiai?eeenue, /oi
iinoaaea oiaa?a aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny ia oneiaeyo NEO (ii?neay
ia?aaicea) a ?aaeaeoeee EIEIOA?IN-90. I?e yoii iaycaiiinoue ii iieaoa
o?aooa aei ioieoa iacia/aiey e ii no?aoiaaieth naeaeee aiceaaaoue ia
i?iaeaaoea – eiino?aiioth oe?io.

Oaeoe/anee ia?aaicea inouanoaeaia ia oneiaeyo OIA – i?iaeaaaoe iinoaaeo
ia no?aoiaae.

A iooe oiaa? aue enii?/ai iiiaaeaieai ii?neie aiaeu ai a?aiy ooi?ia.
Iieoiaoaeue, iieo/ea oiaa? a iaaiaeiii ninoiyiee, n/ae yoi aeiie
i?iaeaaoea, eioi?ue iaeiinoi?iiia eciaiee aaceniua oneiaey iinoaaee n
NEO ia OIA, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?eaaei e iaiaaeeaaeauaio
eniieiaieth iaycaoaeuenoa ii naeaeea.

Eiino?aiiay oe?ia ianoaeaaea, /oi aeaoonoi?iiiaa eciaiaiea aeiaiai?a
eiaei ianoi. A ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?eaiaeeeenue neaaeothuea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa: i?iaeaaaoe ioi?aaee ii oaeno ioa?oo n i?aaeeiaeaieai
nieceoue oeaio eiio?aeoa; iieoiaoaeue a oaeaoiiiuo ia?aaiai?ao
niaeaneeny n yoei i?aaeeiaeaieai. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeaoiiiuo ia?aaiai?ia
i?iaeaaaoe n/ae aiciiaeiui cao?aooiaaoue noaeii ia oneiaeyo OIA e ia
no?aoiaaoue naeaeeo.

?inneeneia i?aaei?eyoea io?eoeaei oaeo onoiiai niaeaney ia eciaiaiea
oneiaee eiio?aeoa.

Eaeia ?aoaiea a aeaiiie neooaoeee aeieaeai i?eiyoue noae?

Eciaiaiea oneiaee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie naeaeee, ?aaoee?oaiie Aaineie
eiiaaioeeae III i aeiaiai?ao iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia io
11.04.80, i?aaeoniao?eaathuae ienueiaiioth oi?io aeiaiai?a, aeiionoeii
eneeth/eoaeueii a ienueiaiiie oi?ia (no. 12).

E iiyoiio, iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue, auei ee aeinoeaiooue iaaeaeo noi?iiaie
oaeia niaeaoaiea.

Ii i?aaeaea iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi niaeanii Iinoaiiaeaiea AN NNN? io
23 iay 1990 a. N 1511-I “I i?eniaaeeiaiee Nithca Niaaoneeo
Nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ?anioaeee e Eiiaaioeee III i aeiaiai?ao
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia”, «Nithc Niaaoneeo
Nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ?anioaeee a niioaaonoaee ni noaoueyie 12 e 96
Eiiaaioeee cayaeyao, /oi ethaia iieiaeaiea noaouee 11, noaouee 29 eee
/anoe II Eiiaaioeee, eioi?ia aeiioneaao, /oiau aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee,
aai eciaiaiea eee i?ae?auaiea niaeaoaieai noi?ii eeai ioa?oa, aeoeaio
eee ethaia eiia au?aaeaiea iaia?aiey niaa?oaeenue ia a ienueiaiiie, a a
ethaie oi?ia, iai?eiaieii, anee oioy au iaeia ec noi?ii eiaao naia
eiiia?/aneia i?aaei?eyoea a Nithca Niaaoneeo Nioeeaeenoe/aneeo
?anioaeee».

Niioaaonoaaiii, o/eouaay auoaiaicia/aiiua i?aaeea, neaaeoao
eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi ii aeaiiiio aeaeo iaaeaeo noi?iiaie ia aeinoeaiooi
niaeaoaiea ia eciaiaiee oneiaee iinoaaee n CIF ia FOB oae eae iaaeaeo
noi?iiaie ia auei caeeth/aii ienueiaiiiai niaeaoaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii a aicieeoai nii?a i?aa iieoiaoaeue.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. 

1.                 Eiiaaioeey III I aeiaiai?ao iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
eoiee-i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia io 11 ai?aey 1980 aiaea. Aeieoiaio iioaeeeiaai a
Aanoieea Aunoaai a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, 1994, N1.

2.                 Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?aaeea oieeiaaiey oi?aiauo oa?ieiia
“Eieioa?in” (Ioaeeeaoeey Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaie iaeaou 1990 a. N
460). Oaeno Iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaee iioaeeeiaai a Iaoa?eaeao
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaie iaeaou (Aeaeeioaea th?enoa-iaaeaeoia?iaeieea)
ecaeaoaeuenoaii Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneiai Oeaio?a “Niaeioa?th?”, Iineaa, 1992
a. 

3.                 Iinoaiiaeaiea AN NNN? io 23 iay 1990 a. N 1511-1 “I
i?eniaaeeiaiee Nithca Niaaoneeo Nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ?anioaeee e Eiiaaioeee
III i aeiaiai?ao iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia”. Oaeno
iinoaiiaeaiey iioaeeeiaai a Aaaeiiinoyo Nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia
NNN? e Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 23 iay 1990 a., N 23, no. 428.

4.                 Iinoaiiaeaiea Ieaioia Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea ?O
io 25 ia?oa 1997 a. N 4670/96. Oaeno iinoaiiaeaiey (a ecaea/aieyo)
iioaeeeiaai a Aanoieea Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, 1997, N6. 

5.                 A?aaeaeaineia e oi?aiaia i?aai ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai.
O/aaiee. I. 2000.

6.                 E. O. Aaeaaaiia, A. E. Aaeaaaiia. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea
nayce. I. 1999.

7.                   O.I.?aoaoieeia. I?aaiaua nenoaiu no?ai ie?a. I.
1993.

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