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Некоторые проблемы национальной безопасности

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29

Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?O

Aeoaeneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Iieeoaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao

Aoiaieoa?iue oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a ?aaeiiiaaaeaiey

AUIONEIAss ?AAIOA

“Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu

“iaoeeiiaeueiie” aaciianiinoe ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee”

(N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec

Oeaca I?aceaeaioa ?O ?1300 io 17 aeaeaa?y 1997 aiaea “Eiioeaioeey
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” e

Eiioeaioeee Iauanoaaiiie Aaciianiinoe ?innee –

“I??oaay aiaea”)

 

Nooaeaioa 5-ai eo?na

O/aaiie a?oiiu ?A-51

Aioiithea A.N.

Iao/iue eiinoeueoaio

Ieeoeei A.E.

?aoeaicaio

__________________

?________________

Aa?iaoe

2000

IEAI

1.Aaaaeaiea ………………….. no?.1

2.Oa?icu aaciianiinoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ….. no?.4

2.1.Oa?icu aaiiieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a ……… no?.4

2.2.Oa?icu yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a …………. No?.13

3.Iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea ….. no?.15

3.1.Eiiiaioa?ee e aeieoiaioo “INIIAU EIIOeAIOeEE IAOeEIIAEUeIIE
AACIIANIINOE” …… NO?.15

3.1.1.*anoiua caia/aiey e aeieoiaioo ….. no?.18

3.1.2.Caia/aiey iauaai oa?aeoa?a ….. no?.25

3.2. “Iiea /oaean” “iaoeeiiaeueiie” aaciianiinoe ….. no?.27

4.Eiioeaioeey iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe ?innee – “I??oaay aiaea” …..
no?.40

5.Noaiaoe/iue ieai ii iaania/aieth iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe e
oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe ?innee ii “I??oaie aiaea” ….. no?.58

5.1.Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii … no?.58

5.2.Iauay no?oeoo?a aeanoiuo ioiioaiee …….. no?.59

5.3.Eaae?iaay iieeoeea ….. no?.62

5.4.Iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe ….. no?.64

5.5.Ii?aaeaeaiea oeaeae ?acaeoey no?aiu …. no?.66

5.6.Iaania/aiea yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe ….. no?.67

5.6.1.E?aaeeoii-oeiainiaay nenoaia …. no?.72

5.6.2.Aiaoiee aeiea …….. no?.74

5.6.3.Iaeiaiaay, aeioaoeeiiiay e oaiiaeaiiay iieeoeea … no?.76

5.7.Naeueneia oicyenoai …. no?.78

5.8.I?iiuoeaiiinoue …. no?80

6.Caeeth/aiea …… no?.82

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u ….. no?.83

1.Aaaaeaiea.

A “Eiioeaioeee iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”,
iauyaeaiiie oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?innee ? 1300 io 17 aeaeaa?y 1997 aiaea,
neacaii: “Iiaay aeey ?innee aaiiieeoe/aneay e iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
neooaoeey, iaaaoeaiua i?ioeannu a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieea, iaino?aiea
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee e nioeeaeueiay iiey?ecaoeey ?inneeneiai
iauanoaa nicaeatho i?yiua oa?icu iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe no?aiu”
Eiioeaioeey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe ?O.no?.2.. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iie
i?eia?aee iniaoth ino?ioo, iineieueeo ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey
iauanoaa aiaaeeii neeeenue a i?ino?ainoaa e ai a?aiaie oa?icu aiaoiaai e
aioo?aiiaai oa?aeoa?a.

A oneiaeyo ia?aiina iniiaiuo aeoeaioia iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aciiaeanee
ec iaeanoe eaeaieiaee a noa?o iieeoeee e yeiiiieee e oiaiueoaiey
aa?iyoiinoe ?acaycuaaiey e?oiiiianooaaiie aieiu cia/eoaeueii aic?inea
aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey eiioeeeoia ia ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia.
Iaino?yaony eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo e oi?ie?othueony
oeaio?ia neeu ca ?anoe?aiea noa? aeeyiey, a oii /enea e ca n/ao
iieo/aiey aeinooia e aaino?aoaae/aneiio e yeiiiie/aneiio iioaioeeaeo
?innee e iiainoaa?aiiuo ?anioaeee auaoaai Niaaoneiai Nithca. Ecaanoiue
aia?eeaineee iieeoieia C.Aaeaceineee a naiai eieaa “Aaeeeay oaoiaoiay
aeinea”, auoaaeoae a 1996 aiaeo, ienae: “?inney noaea aeaaiie ?aciaiiie
ea?oie aia?eeaineie aaiiieeoeee. Iiaue ie?iaie ii?yaeie i?e aaaaiiiee
NOA nicaeaaony i?ioea ?innee, ca n/ao ?innee e ia iaeiieao ?innee”.
Aaeaceineee C.”Aaeeeay oaoiaoiay aeinea.”no?.41. Yoe neiaa,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaiua niauoeyie iineaaeieo eao, aua ?ac aeieacuaatho, /oi
aeaaiuie no?aoaae/aneeie caaea/aie NOA e eo nithcieeia, a oaeaea ae?oaeo
i?aoaiaeaioia ia ?aaeiiaeueiia eeaea?noai ia Aa?aceeneii eiioeiaioa,
ii-i?aaeiaio inoathony ?an/eaiaiea ?inneeneiai aaiiieeoe/aneiai
i?ino?ainoaa n aai aaeeiui iai?iiii-no?aoaae/aneei e
ia?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiui eiiieaenii, ieaiiia?iia auaaaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo
?aaeiiia ec-iiae th?enaeeeoeee ?innee n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
iaia?aie/aiiiai aeinooia e eieinnaeueiui caianai i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia
iaoae no?aiu e iaoe?iiio ?uieo nauoa eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia, a oaeaea
no?aieaiea eneeth/eoue a enoi?e/aneie ia?niaeoeaa aiciiaeiinoue
nicaeaiey ia aa?aceeneii i?ino?ainoaa iiuiiai ainoaea?noaa, niiniaiiai
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia ie?iaia eeaea?noai.

A ?inneeneie enoi?ee iaiaei i?eia?ia, eiaaea oeaeinoiinoue no?aiu
iiaeaa?aaeanue iianiinoe. Yoi e iaaaae oaca?, e iaoanoaea oaoa?i-iiiaie,
e aoi?aeaiey oaaoiineeo ?uoea?ae, a oaeaea ?onnei-oo?aoeeea aieiu,
iioiae Iaiieaiia, Ia?aay e Aoi?ay ie?iaua aieiu. A iineaaeiea aea aiaeu
ca?oaaaeiuie oai?aoeeaie oaeaea i?aaeeaaaeenue iiiai/eneaiiua aa?eaiou
?acaeaea ?innee. Oae, a 1992 aiaeo aeinoiyieai aeaniinoe noaee
“Aia?eeaineea i?iaiicu ?acaeoey aaino?aoaae/aneie neooaoeee a ie?a a
eiioea XX – ia/aea XXI aaeia”, aaea iaiaeia aieiaiea oaeaeaii aiciiaeiui
?aaeeeaeueiui eciaiaieyi ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa ?innee a
aeeaeaeoea 10-15 eao. A /anoiinoe, aaaeouea iieeoaaia?aou
Ainaeaia?oaiaioa NOA O.Aoae, E.Oaa?oe, i?aaenaaeaoaeue Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
aaia?aoe/aneiai nithca Ae.Iaeo, o/aiua X.Aeeaea, Ae.Aeaiei, N.A?oii
i?iaiice?iaaee ?aniaae iaoae no?aiu ia oanoue iacaaeneiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?aciaaiee: Caiaaeioth ?inneth, O?ae, Caiaaeioth
Neae?ue, Ainoi/ioth Neae?ue, Aeaeueiee Ainoie e Naaa?iua oa??eoi?ee.
E?iia oiai, ii eo aa?nee, iieo/ao ainoaea?noaaiioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
iaeua yoie/aneea aieeaau – Oaoa?ey, Aaoee?ey, Inaoey, *a/iy e ae?oaea,
i?iecieaeao ioaeaeaiea io ?O Ea?aeee, aicieeioo i?aeoe/anee iacaaeneiua
aaoiiiiiua ciiu – Eaeeieia?aaeneay iaeanoue, ?anioaeeee Ooaa, Ao?yoey e
ae?. A 1994 aiaeo aia?eeaineee iieeoieia Oieoa? IEAe i?aaeeiaeee naiaio
i?aaeoaeuenoao i?inoi eoieoue Neae?ue, iiae/a?eeaay, /oi i?aoeaaeaio
oaea anoue – Aeynea. A a 1996 aiaeo Caeaiaa Aaeaceineee i?aaenoaaee
oaeie noeaia?ee ono?ienoaa ?O: “Naiaiaeii eiioaaea?aoeaiay ?inney,
ninoiyuay ec Aa?iiaeneie ?innee, Neae?neie ?anioaeeee e
Aeaeueiaainoi/iie ?anioaeeee” Aaeaceineee C.”Aaeeeay oaoiaoiay
aeinea.”no? 76.. Iiaeiaiua ioaeeeaoeee aeieacuaatho, /oi iuneue i
?acaeaea ?innee e iaeaaeaiee a? i?e?iaeiuie aiaaonoaaie i?i/ii
oei?aieeanue a iieeoe/aneii niciaiee caiaaeiuo i?aaeoaeae. Oai aieaa /oi
ii ioeaieai Ie?iaiai niaaoa ii yia?aee, ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
nin?aaeioi/aii ieiei 60% iaaiciaiiaeyaiuo ie?iauo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia,
ec ieo 20% ninoaaeytho caianu iaooe, 35% – aaca, 12% – oaey, a oaeaea
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ie?iauo caiania cieioa, aeiacia, aeaeaciuo ?oae,
oeaaoiuo e ?aaeeeo iaoaeeia.

Aiaoiea i?e/eiu i?aeoe/anee anaaaea eiaee ianoi, ii ?aaeeciauaaoueny iie
ia/aee oieueei nae/an, eiaaea iiyaeeenue i?aaeiinueee aioo?aiiaai
oa?aeoa?a, naycaiiua n i?iaeaiaie nioeeaeueiiai “iacaei?iauey” iaoeee,
eioi?ia iniiauaaaony ia aeooiaiinoe. Aioo?aiiea oa?icu.

I?e nio?aiaiee nouanoaothueo oaiaeaioeee (iaaeaiey i?aanoaaiiinoe, ?inoa
i?anooiiinoe, oaaee/aiey /enea aieueiuo aeeiaieeciii e ia?eiiaieae)
no?aia iiaeao inoaoueny n ianaeaieai, ii aac a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa.
Ainoaea?noai aea aac iauanoaa eeoaaony naiaia?aciie ia?aiie nenoaiu,
oo?a/eaaao einoeieo naiinio?aiaiey, eino?oiaiou naiiiiciaiey. Iii ia
iniciaao noaiaiue iaoeeiiaeueiie oa?icu, en/acaao niiniaiinoue iuouaoue
iauaiaoeeiiaeueioth e eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth aieue. Iauanoai ?aniaaeaaony ia
iiiaeanoai eciee?iaaiiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa eiaeeaeaeooiia, ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo eioi?uie iinoaiaiii i?eia?aoatho oa?aeoa? oioaeueiie
eiio?iioaoeee e aa?anneaiie a?aaeaeaaiinoe. ?eineay, Eeoaeneay,
Iiiaieueneay eiia?ee noaee aea?oaaie, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, eiaiii oaeiai
?ac?ooaiey ecioo?e. A ioa/anoaaiiie aea enoi?ee aiaeiae/iay neooaoeey
neiaeeeanue ia ?oaaaea XI-XII aaeia, eiaaea (a oii /enea) a ?acoeueoaoa
iaaeaiey i?aaia, ioeaca io o?aaeeoeeiiiie ?onneie ii?aee, oo?aou /oanoaa
yoie/aneie iauiinoe ?aniaeinue ia ioaeaeueiua eiyaeanoaa aaeeiia
ainoaea?noai – Eeaaneay ?onue. A nianai iaaeaaii iu noaee naeaeaoaeyie e
iaaieueiuie o/anoieeaie oiai, eae ?acaeoea aeaceioaa?aoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia i?eaaei e ?acaaeo Niaaoneiai Nithca (eaaeoeiiia ioi?ieaiea
yoiai oaeoa ninoiyeinue a 1991 aiaeo a Aaeiaaaeneie ioua).
Aeaniaaoecaoeey i?iecioea. *oiau ecaaaeaoue aea?oneoeeaoeee e nio?aieoue
?inneeneoth ainoaea?noaaiiinoue iniciaiea oa?ic iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe e au?aaioea aaeaeaaoiie eiioeaioeee i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
i?aaenoaaeyaony aeeciaiii aaaeiui.

2.Oa?icu aaciianiinoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

2.1.OA?ICU AAIIIEEOE*ANEIAI OA?AEOA?A.

A oeaea i?ei?eoaoia aaciianiinoe ?innee naaiaeiy ia ia?aia ianoi
aeieaeii auoue iinoaaeaii nio?aiaiea aa ainoaea?noaaiiie oeaeinoiinoe.
Caeanue, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue auciau ecaia,
eiathuea aiaiioth iai?aaeaiiinoue. Iiiaea caiaaeiua yenia?ou n/eoatho,
/oi a aeeaeaeoae ia?niaeoeaa ?innee i?aaenoieo ?aoaoue caaea/o
naea?aeeaaiey aiaiiie oa?icu n o?ao iai?aaeaiee: caiaaeiiai, ainoi/iiai
e thaeiiai. Ia Caiaaea aiaiii-iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony
no?aieaieai IAOI oe?aieoue naith eeaee?othuoth ?ieue ia eiioeiaioa. O
?innee naaiaeiy iao ino?uo iieeoe/aneeo eee yeiiiie/aneeo eiioeeeoia ni
no?aiaie Naaa?iaoeaioe/aneiai aeiea, iaeiaei, no?aieaiea yoie
i?aaiecaoeee e ?anoe?aieth ia Ainoie i?aaenoaaeyao cia/eoaeueioth
aiaiioth oa?ico aeey iaoae no?aiu. No?aiu Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie
Aa?iiu ioeoeeaeueii au?aaeatho eioa?an e anooieaieth a
Naaa?iaoeaioe/aneee aeie. Oaeoe/anee oaea ii?aaeaeaiu eaiaeeaeaou e
n?iee eo anooieaieth a aeueyin. A 1999 aiaeo /eaiaie IAOI iiaoo noaoue
Iieueoa, Aaia?ey, *aoey. ?a/ue eaeao i anooieaiee a aeie no?ai Aaeoee e
aeaaea Oe?aeiu. ?oeiaiaeeoaee aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie a?oiie?iaee ia onoatho
cayaeyoue i oii, /oi IAOI ia yaeyaony oa?icie aeey ?innee, iai?ioea ana
iieo/atho auaiaeo. E Naaa?iaoeaioe/aneee aeueyin yeiau ia no?aieony e
i?eaea/aieth iiauo /eaiia a naie ?yaeu, a i?ienoiaeeo yoi iioiio, /oi ii
yaeyaony ioe?uoie i?aaiecaoeeae. Ii, i?eaeaeay a naie ?yaeu iiauo
/eaiia, inouanoaeyaony i?ioeann ecieyoeee ?innee io auaoeo nithcieeia e
nii?aaeaeueiuo ainoaea?noa. I?ienoiaeeo aic?anoaiea aiaiiie iiue IAOI,
oaeoe/anee i?ioeainoiyuae ?inneeneie. I?e ?acaeoee ianoaiiaee ii yoiio
noeaia?eth, ?inney iai?aiaiii ieaaeaony ia?aae oa?icie yeiiiie/aneiai e
iieeoe/aneiai oaioaaea ni noi?iiu NOA, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aeiea IAOI.
?O ie?oaeaia iiuiui eieueoeii eiino?aiiuo aiaiiuo aac. Ia?ooai ia?eoao
ii iau/iui aii?oaeaieyi iaaeaeo IAOI e NIA. Iaeuecy ia o/eouaaoue e
oiai, /oi aiaiii-neeiaie iooue ?aoaiey iieeoe/aneeo i?iaeai noaiiaeony
?aoathuei aeey NOA e IAOI. Iieacaoaeai oio oaeo, /oi ia ninoiyaoainy a
iiya?a 1998 aiaea a Yaeeiao?aa canaaeaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeae no?ai-/eaiia
IAOI ianoaeaeaeanue aiciiaeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey aiaiiuo iia?aoeee aia
oa??eoi?ee aeiea aac iaiaeaoa III, e oaea a aeaeaa?a iiaeiaiua aeaenoaey
auee ai?iae?iaaiu a E?aea. Iiyoiio eneeth/aoue aiciiaeiinoue aiaiiuo
i?iaieaoeee a i?ea?aie/iuo i?ino?ainoaao ?innee ia neaaeoao. Iiaiaeii
aeey ?acaycuaaiey ia Caiaaea aii?oaeaiiiai eiioeeeoa iiaoo iineoaeeoue
oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?eoycaiey e ?innee ?yaea ainoaea?noa. Ni noi?iiu
II?AAAEE iie aiciiaeiu ii iiaiaeo ?aca?aie/aiey aiae Aa?aioeaaa ii?y e
i. Oieoeaa?aai. Ii?aaeaeaiiua e?oae OEIEssIAeEE no?aiyony e
iauaaeeiaieth aeeceeo ii ycueo ea?aeia, naaiia, eiie e aainia.
O/anoeeenue e i?ecuau i i?eaeaiee iniaiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai noaoona
Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe iiae niaianoiui i?ioaeoi?aoii ?innee, Aa?iaiee,
Iieueoe e Eeoau. Auaeaeaatho ?innee naie oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aoaicee e
AAEOEENEEA AINOAeA?NOAA, aaea aeene?eieiaoeey ?onneiycu/iiai ianaeaiey
(a Eaoaee aai 48 i?ioeaioia, a Ynoiiee – 40) aicaaaeaia oaea a ?aia
ioeoeeaeueiie ?anenoneie iieeoeee n oeaicaie inaaeeinoe, ia?aie/aieyie a
i?iienea e i?aaeinoaaeaiee a?aaeaeainoaa. Aianoa n oai Ynoiiey e Eaoaey
i?aaeeaaatho naia a?aaeaeainoai ?onneiio ianaeaieth ?yaea ?aeiiia
Ineianeie iaeanoe. E iaeioi?ua ec ineiae/ae ioioii eaeoo ia yoi,
no?aiynue inaiaiaeeoueny io neoaeau a ?inneeneie a?iee. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi
ia iiauo ea?oao, auiouaiiuo a Eaoaeeneie ?anioaeeea, Iuoaeianeee ?aeii
Ineianeie iaeanoe (auaoee Aa?aineee oacae Eaoaee n 1920 ii 1944 aiae)
oeao?e?oao eae ninoaaiay /anoue Eaoaee. Ynoiiey ianoaeaaao ia a?aieoea,
niioaaonoaothuae Oa?ooneiio aeiaiai?o 1920 aiaea, ii eioi?iio Ecai?ne e
Ia/i?u auee i?eciaiu ynoiineie oa??eoi?eae. I?aoaiaeoao iia e ia /anoue
Eaieia?aaeneie iaeanoe. Eeoianeea aeieaeiinoiua eeoea iioeae?otho
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue Eeoaa Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe, nnueaynue ia
?inneeneoth oa?ico e iaiaeiie?aoiia a i?ioeii aoiaeaeaiea yoie
oa??eoi?ee a ninoaa Eeoau. Iaeiaei neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aei
i?eniaaeeiaiey e ?innee, ie Oeieyiaeey, ie Eaoaey, ie Ynoiiey ia oii eee
eiii enoi?e/aneii yoaia nianoaaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe ia eiaee.

Ia thaeiuo ?oaaaeao no?aiu ianoaiiaea ii?aaeaeyaony eae iaino?aieai
ai?ueau ca aeiieie?iaaiea a ?aaeiia n enoi?e/aneie niia?ieoeae –
Oo?oeeae, oae e no?aieaieai aaaeoueo caiaaeiuo ainoaea?noa acyoue iiae
naie eiio?ieue Oeaio?aeueioth Aceth e Eaaeac n eo i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie
e o?ainii?oiuie iooyie. Iaioth?eenoneee i?iaeo ooaa?aeaeaao eaeath
iauaaeeiaiey oth?eneeo ia?iaeia iinoniaaoneiai i?ino?ainoaa e aeaaea
naiie ?innee (!) a eiioaaea?aoeeth iiae yaeaeie Oo?oeee. Yoio i?iaeo ia
oieueei iiaeaea?aeeaaaony Caiaaeii ia i?iiaaaiaeenoneii o?iaia, ii e a
ecaanoiie noaiaie oeiaine?oaony ei a oi?ia iiiiue Oo?oeee. Aio /oi ieoao
ii yoiio iiaiaeo aia?eeaineee iieeoieia N.Oaioeiaoii: “E?ao NNN?
ioe?uaaao ia?aae Oo?oeeae oieeaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue noaoue eeaea?ii
aic?iaeaeaiey oth?eneie oeeaeeecaoeee, ioaaouaathuae naiue no?ai io
aa?aaia A?aoeee aei Eeoay. Iiiu?yaiay Caiaaeii, Oo?oeey i?eeaaaao ana
oneeey, /oiau auno?ieoue aeey naay yoo iiaoth eaeaioe/iinoue”. Iniaia
aieiaiea Oo?oeee nin?aaeioi/aii ia yoie/anee aeeceeo ae naaa?ieaaeacneeo
aaoiiiieyo. A i aoaeouai no?aiyueony iiae yaeaeo Oo?oeee ia?iaeia iiaeii
noaeeoue ii iieiaeaieth eo?aeia – eo a Oo?oeee ieiei 14 iei. E, oai ia
iaiaa, nouanoaiaaiea eo eae ioaeaeueiiai noauaeoa ainoaea?noaa
iieiinoueth io?eoeaaony oo?aoeeeie aeanoyie. Aua iaeei ec i?iaeoia
iie?aaony ia aeaaithth eaeath aic?iaeaeaiey Aaeeeiai oaeeiaiai iooe, a
ae?aaiinoe naycuaaaoaai aeaa ieaaia – Oeoee e Aoeaioe/aneee. I?aoai?aiea
a aeeciue i?iaeoa ainnicaeaiey “iinoa oeeaeeecaoeee” a iaoiae ?innee,
ia?aeei au ian ia iianioth ecieyoeeth e auoaniaiea ec anaai
thai-ainoi/iiai i?ino?ainoaa aeaeaei ia Naaa?. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi
?aaeecaoeey yoiai i?iaeoa noaea /anoueth ieaia ecieyoeee ?innee
(niaeanii aeieo?eia Iaaeeai Iea?aeo e Caeaiaaa Aaeaceineiai), a ai?ueaa
ca iaeaaeaiea o?ainii?oiuie ei?eaei?aie auea i?eciaia aia?eeaineeie
iieeoieiaaie aeaaiie aeiieiaioie ie?iaie iieeoeee ia iaic?eioth
ia?niaeoeao. A oeaeii e thao io a?aieoe auaoaai NNN? oi?ie?oaony ciia
i?ioeaiai?noaa ?yaea ainoaea?noa, eioi?ua niiniaiu i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo a oeaeyo naiiooaa?aeaeaiey e oeo/oaiey naiaai iieiaeaiey
ia/aoue iiaue ia?aaeae ie?a. Ii iiaieth ?yaea yenia?oia, aiaiiay oa?ica
a aeaea eieaeueiuo aiei e eiioeeeoia caeanue iaeaieaa aa?iyoia. Iia
iinoiyiii i?iyaeyaony a aeaea aniuoae iai?yaeaiiinoe ia Naaa?iii
Eaaeaca, a Caeaaeacuea e Oeaio?aeueiie Acee. Caeanue iiaoo aicieeiooue
i?yiua oa?icu aaciianiinoe ?inneeneeo aiaiiuo iauaeoia, o?aiceoo,
oiaa?iui iioieai, e, iaeiiaoe, niioa/anoaaiieeia, i?iaeeaathueo ia
iinoniaaoneii i?ino?ainoaa. A ?yaea iinoniaaoneeo ?anioaeee
onoaiiaeeenue aeeeoaoo?u i?aaenoaaeoaeae “oeooeueiuo iaoeee” n
aioe?onneie eaeaieiaeae. Iaeioi?ua ia?i/eoi ineiaeiytho ioiioaiey n
Iineaie, no?aiynue oaeei ia?acii ooaa?aeeoueny a ie?iaii niiauanoaa.
Aieueoeinoai iiaiia?aciaaiiuo ainoaea?noa no?aieony oi?aiaaoue naiae
iieeoeeie e o?aiceoiui iieiaeaieai, iioiio /oi eiuo oiaa?ia aeey
oi?aiaee iao. Iiyaeaiea oaeeo neaauo e iaaeecianiiniaiuo ainoaea?noa
no?aoaae/anee iianii aeey ?innee. Eaaeiiia?acii ?anoao /eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey Oeaio?aeueiie Acee, aai oaeaiaiea i?ienoiaeeo eaaeaeua 20-25
eao. I?e ia?aie/aiiinoe aeeciaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa ionouiiuie e
aunieiai?iuie oa??eoi?eyie aeaeueiaeoee ?ino ianaeaiey /?aaao ai?ueaie
ca ia?aaeae noa? aeeyiey e ia?aniio? a?aieoe, ia?acaiiuo oaea a ia?aie
iieiaeia aeaaaeoeaouo aiaeia. E i?eia?o, Oa?aaineay aeieeia,
?acaeaeaiiay i?e niaaoneie aeanoe iaaeaeo Oaaeaeeeneie, Ee?aecneie e
Ocaaeneie ?anioaeeeaie, iinea ?aniaaea NNN? iaiiaaiii i?aa?aoeeanue a
iauaeo ino?uo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ?aciiaeanee aeey iiauo iacaaeneiuo
ainoaea?noa.

Aiaiii-iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea ia ainoiea no?aiu oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iaee/eai oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee, oneeaieai niia?ie/anoaa NOA,
ssiiiee e Eeoay ca eeaea?noai, eo no?aieaieai ia?aie/eoue ?ieue ?innee a
?aoaiee ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?iaeai. (Eeoae i?aoaiaeoao ia /anoue oa??eoi?ee
*eoeineie e Aio?neie iaeanoae, Oaaa?ianeiai e I?eii?neiai e?aaa, a
ssiiiey ianoaeaaao ia ia?aaea/a ae /aou?ao ino?iaia THaeii-Eo?eeueneie
a?yaeu – Eoiaoe?a, Oeeioaia, Eoo?oia, Oaaiiae). Eeoae i?iaeieaeaao
oe?aieyoue naie iiceoeee a ?aaeiia, ia?aueaaoue aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneee
iioaioeeae. Yoi e?oiiia yaea?iia ainoaea?noai caieiaao iaeio
/aou?iaaeoeaooth /anoue oa??eoi?ee Caiee, oai ?aciauaii ieiei 1/4
ianaeaiey ieaiaou. Ia anai ?inneeneii Aeaeueiai Ainoiea i?iaeeaaao ia
aieaa 8 iei. /aeiaae. A iaeiie oieueei naaa?i-ainoi/iie i?iaeioeee Eeoay
Oyeeoioecyi n oeaio?ii a Oa?aeia i?iaeeaaei a 1984 aiaeo 33 iei.
/aeiaae. Aeaiia?aoe/aneay iaa?ocea ia eeoaeneea /anoe
?inneenei-eeoaeneeo
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????????????????????????????????aiey a eiioeeeoao iaaeaeo o?aoueeie
ainoaea?noaaie iaeuecy. A yoii neo/aa aiciiaeii ?aaeeiaeoeaiia
ca?aaeaiea Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, Oeaio?aeueiie Acee e ae?oaeo ?aeiiia.
?ani?ino?aiaiea yaea?iiai i?oaeey iaecaaaeii ni?iaioee?oao ia?u
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey ni noi?iiu ae?oaeo aea?aeaa, /oi iiauneo o?iaaiue
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie iai?yaeaiiinoe aeec a?aieoe ?innee. Iaaei eiaoue a
aeaeo e oi, /oi e?iia NOA, ?innee, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, aua aieaa 30 no?ai, a
/enea eioi?uo e no?aiu o?aoueaai ie?a n eo iaonoie/eaie iieeoe/aneie
aeanoueth, iaeaaeatho ?aeaoiui iioaioeeaeii, a 15 no?ai oaea naaiaeiy
iiaee au aeinoaaeyoue aiaca?yaeu e ?acee/iui, a oii /enea e aeeciaiii
aaaeiui ?aeiiai ?innee.

Na?ueacioth oa?ico aaciianiinoe ?innee iaiineo e aeayoaeueiinoue
eiino?aiiuo niaoeneoaea, no?aiyueony oi?aaeyoue a iae aioo?aiieie
i?ioeannaie a naieo eioa?anao. Ii aeaiiui OAINE, anoue ana iniiaaiey
iieaaaoue, /oi nio?oaeie/anoai e niia?ie/anoai ainoaea?noa ia ie?iaie
a?aia ec o?aaeeoeeiiii iaoa?eaeueiie noa?u ana aieaa io/aoeeai niauaaony
a eioi?iaoeeiiioth iaeanoue. Iniaaiii ino?ie yaeyaony i?iaeaia
iaania/aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe a noa?a oi?aaeaiey
ainoaea?noaii e Aii?oaeaiiuie Neeaie, iineieueeo eiaiii caeanue
?acaeouie eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie a iineaaeiaa a?aiy aaaeaony
iaeaieaa aeoeaii eioi?iaoeeiiiay ai?ueaa. Aeey inouanoaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee (ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a ?aaioo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, aiaae?aiea ca?aaeaiiuo iee?inoai a
eiii?oe?oaioth au/eneeoaeueioth oaoieeo, ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeaceioi?iaoeee
e o.i.) a NOA nicaeathony niaoeeaeueiua neeu e n?aaenoaa, ia
niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo aaeaaiaeii auaeaeyaony ii?yaeea 2 ie?ae. aeieea?ia.
A iaoae aea no?aia oeiaine?iaaiea ?aaio ii caueoa io eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
i?oaeey i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaoao. Aeoeaece?iaaeanue e aeayoaeueiinoue
i?ioea ?innee eiino?aiiuo ?acaaaeie, iai?a?uaii aeaenoaotho
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiua einie/aneea, iacaiiua, aicaeooiua e ii?neea
?acaaaeuaaoaeueiua nenoaiu n aeiaaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie. Ia oiia
?aceiai oiaiueoaiey eiee/anoaa ?inneeneeo einie/aneeo aiia?aoia
einie/aneoth ?acaaaeeo yeiiiieee e Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee ?innee iinoiyiii
aaaeoo NOA, O?aioeey, Aiaeey, O?A, ssiiiey, Ec?aeeue. Aeey yoiai
caaeaenoaiaaii nauoa 50 einie/aneeo aiia?aoia. Ii-i?aaeiaio aaeieue
?inneeneeo a?aieoe naiieaou niaa?oatho ?acaaaeuaaoaeueiua iieaou. Aaeece
?inneeneeo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aiae aeaenoaotho ei?aaee ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiie
?acaaaeee eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa. E?oaeinooi/ii aeaenoaoao aeiaaeueiay
naoue iacaiiuo noaioeee ?aaeeiia?aoaaoa, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ii anaio
ia?eiao?o NIA. ?inney aea, i?iaicaeaneaoay naay i?aaiieoeae NNN? e
nio?aieaoay iaycaoaeuenoaa ii io?aia a?aieoe Niae?oaeanoaa, i?aeoe/anee
ath ia noaea. Aeinoaaoayny ?O /anoue auaoeo niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee
iioa?yea i?aaeithth aianiiniaiinoue. A /anoiinoe, iaainiieieia iioa?y
iai?iiiuo iauaeoia, inoaaoeony ia oa??eoi?ee ae?oaeo no?ai NIA.
Iieo?ac?ooaia nicaeaaaaoayny aeanyoeeaoeyie nenoaia iai?iiu ia aeaeueieo
?oaaaeao. Aiaiii-Ii?neie Oeio iioa?ye ieiei o?aoe naiaai ieaaninoaaa,
iiiaea oeaio?u aace?iaaiey e aa?aaiaie eio?ano?oeoo?u. O ?innee
i?aeoe/anee ia inoaeinue aiaiiuo nithcieeia – iiiuoee iauaaeeiaiey
iai?iiiuo oneeee auaoeo ?anioaeee NNN? ia aeaee iiea nouanoaaiiuo
?acoeueoaoia. Anneaiiaaiey ia niaea?aeaiea Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee
nie?auaeenue. Aeiey aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia a no?oeoo?a AAI ninoaaeyea a 1991
a. – 11,1% (aeaiiua aeey anaai NNN?), a 1992 a. – 4,5%, a 1993 a. –
4,8%, a 1994 a. – 6,6%, a 1995 a. – 3,71%, a 1996 a. – 3,76% (i?e yoii
nai AAI e 1996 aiaeo nie?aoeeny ii/oe a aeaa ?aca), a 1997 – 3,82% AAI,
/oi ninoaaeyao iaiaa 19 ie?ae. aeieea?ia (270 ie?ae. aeieea?ia) a NOA),
a 1998 – 2, 8% AAI, a 1999 – 3,1% AAI. Ineaaeaiea iai?iiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae ?innee a oneiaeyo oaeoaeythuaainy yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena e
iieeoe/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii aeey aeaaeaiey a
oeaeyo iieo/aiey onooiie, a oii /enea e oa??eoi?eaeueiuo, iaiinyueo
oua?a aeeciaiiui eioa?anai iaoae no?aiu. A oeaeii aiaoiea aiaiiua oa?icu
aeey aaciianiinoe ?innee no?aiu inoathony ?aaeueiuie e iaiaeuie, ei
iaiaoiaeeii i?ioeainoiyoue. Ii ethaay nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe ia yooaeoeaia, anee ia i?ioeainoieo aioo?aiiei oa?icai,
eioi?ua noieue aea ?aaeueiu, eae e aiaoiea. Eiaiii iiyoiio, aica?auaynue
e oa?ica oeaeinoiinoe ?innee, iaeuecy ia inoaiiaeoueny ia naia?aoenoneeo
ono?aieaieyo iaeioi?uo noauaeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Nia?aiaiiay
?inney, caieiathuay 1/7 /anoue caiiie nooe, eiaao i/aiue neiaeiia
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea: 89 noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee
aanueia ?acii?iaeiu ii ?acia?ai, i?e?iaeiui oneiaeyi, /eneaiiinoe e
ninoaao ianaeaiey, o?iaith ?acaeoey yeiiiieee e eoeueoo?u (21
?anioaeeea, 6 e?aaa e 49 iaeanoae, 1 aaoiiiiiay iaeanoue e 10 aaoiiiiiuo
ie?oaia). ?inneeneay iiaeaeue oaaea?aeecia ni/aoaao aeaa ?aciuo
i?eioeeia: 51 noauaeo oaaea?aoeee auaeaeai ii oa??eoi?eaeueiiio
i?eciaeo, 38 – ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio. I?e yoii aaoiiiiiua iaoeeiiaeueiua
ia?aciaaiey, aoaeo/e naiinoiyoaeueiuie noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee, naie,
iiaeiaii ?onneie iao?aoea, aoiaeyo a ninoaa ae?oaeo noauaeoia (iai?eia?,
Oaiou-Iaineeneee e ssiaei-Iaiaoeeee aaoiiiiiua ie?oaa a ninoaaa
Othiaineie iaeanoe). Aioo?aiiea aaeieieno?aoeaiua a?aieoeu /anoi
iaonoie/eau. Iiiaea ec ieo onoaiaaeeaaeenue i?iecaieueii e ia ?ac
ia?aniao?eaaeenue. I?e yoii ?annaeaeenue a?aaeu ioaeaeueiuo ia?iaeia,
cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee aieaaui ii?yaeeii ia?aiiae/eiyeenue ae?oaei
iaeanoyi e ?anioaeeeai. Ia?aaeei i?ienoiaeeei e ia?aiauaiea aieueoeo
a?oii ethaeae a /oaeaeia ei nioeeieoeueoo?iia i?ino?ainoai. Iiaeiaiay
i?aeoeea i?eiaiyeanue ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca, a Iiaieaeuea, a E?uio, a oii
/enea e a nayce n aeaii?oaoeeae, a caoai – ?aaaeeeoaoeeae ?yaea ia?iaeia
(aaeuae, /a/aioeu, eiaooe, iaioeu, oaoa?u). A 20 ?aaeiiao ?innee
aicieeee o?aaiaaiey i nicaeaiee iiauo noaa?aiiuo ?anioaeee ni noi?iiu
eeoaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiinoe yoiinia. I?e yoii auea i?aaeeiaeaia iiaay
ia?ano?ieea a?aieoe nouanoaothueo noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee. Ia Naaa?iii
Eaaeaca aicieeee ?aciiaeaney aeaaea iaaeaeo iaeiiii?yaeeiauie
aaoiiiieyie, no?aiyueieny ionoiyoue caiyoia eie i?ino?ainoai eee
?anoe?eoue aai. Oaeie eiioeeeo i?ineaaeeaaaony iaaeaeo Naaa?iie Inaoeae
e Eiaooaoeae. *a/iy auaeaeaaao oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?eoycaiey e Aeaaanoaio,
Eiaooaoee, Noaa?iiieue. *a?eanneea oeueo?aiaoeeiiaeenou auiaoeaatho
ieaiu nicaeaiey i?ioeainoiyuae ?innee “Aaeeeie Aaeuaae” – oaaea?aoeaiiai
ainoaea?noaa, aeeth/athuaai a naay Eaaa?aeo, *a?eanneth, Aaeuaath e
Aaoaceth. Nouanoaiaaaoee ia Eaaeaca aei 90-o aa. yoiiiieeoe/aneee aaeain
nicaeaaaeny aeanyoeeaoeyie. Oaia?ue ii ia?ooai. Naaa?iue Eaaeac noae
aeey ?innee oaeei aea ac?uaiiianiui, eae e I?eaaeoeea aeey NNN? eee
Iieueoa aeey ?inneeneie Eiia?ee. I noaa?aieoaoa a ?innee ana /aua noaee
cayaeyoue aiaaoua nu?ueai ?aaeiiu, ia eiathuea ieeaeeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo
i?iaeai: nouanoaotho eaeae nicaeaiey Aienaeneie, Iiii?neie e O?aeueneie
?anioaeee, a oaeaea Aaeoeeneie ?anioaeeee a ninoaaa Eaeeieia?aaeneie
iaeanoe. A I?eii?uea aucaaia ec iaauoey oaiue Aeaeueiaainoi/iie
?anioaeeee. Aiciee ec i?ioeiai oaioii neae?neiai naia?aoecia,
eiioeaioeey eioi?iai eiaao aeoaieea enoi?e/aneea ei?ie. Eaeay
eniieueciaaoue oyaeaeia yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea aeey ?aaeecaoeee naieo
aaiiieeoe/aneeo oeaeae iiaeoaa/aia e nia?aiaiiuie aia?eeaineeie
iieeoeeaie – Ieaeii, Aaeaceineei, Iea?aeo.

N o/aoii ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee ia Caiaaea,
THaa e Ainoiea, a oaeaea iai?aaeaiiinoe no?ieoaeuenoaa AN aaaeoueo
eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa, ?acaycuaaiea e?oiiiianooaaiie aiaiiie aa?annee
i?ioea ?O a ia?eiae aei 2005 aiaea iiea iaeiaa?iyoii. Iaeiaei ?aaeueiuie
oa?icaie aeey aiaiiie aaciianiinoe ?O e aa nithcieeia a aeeaeaeoae
ia?niaeoeaa inoathony: · aiciiaeiay yneaeaoeey aii?oaeaiiuo eiioeeeoia
ia THai-Caiaaeiii e Oeaio?aeueii-Aceaoneii no?aoaae/aneeo iai?aaeaieyo;
· oneeaiea iiceoeee eneaineiai yeno?aiecia a Caeaaeacuea e Oeaio?aeueiie
Acee, a oaeaea naia?aoeci e ?aeeaeicii-iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey
aioo?e ?innee; · ?aaeecaoeey ieaiia ii ?anoe?aieth IAOI ia Ainoie; ·
eo?n aiaiii-iieeoe/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa NOA ia nio?aiaiea ie?iaiai
eeaea?noaa, ?ino yeiiiie/aneiai i?enoonoaey NOA e eo nithcieeia a
?aaeiiao o?aaeeoeeiiiiai aeeyiey ?innee.

2.2.OA?ICU YEIIIIE*ANEIAI OA?AEOA?A.

Yeniainey Caiaaea iai?aaeaia, i?aaeaea anaai, ia yeiiiieeo ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, ia i?aa?auaiea ?innee a yia?ainu?ueaaie i?eaeaoie, a?
yeiiiie/aneoth ecieyoeeth ia oieueei io caiaaeiuo aea?aeaa, ii e no?ai
Niae?oaeanoaa, iecaaaeaiey aei iieiaeaiey no?aiu o?aoueaai ie?a. I?e
nie?auaiee aioo?aiiaai i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey, a oaeaea iinoaaie a
no?aiu NIA, iioie oiieeaa e nu?uey ono?aieeny ia Caiaae. A 1995 a. ia
yenii?o ooei 40% aeiauoie iaooe, a n o/aoii i?iaeoeoia aa ia?a?aaioee
i?iaeaaea ia ie?iaii ?uiea iiaeioeea 55% aeiau/e aeeaeeiai oiieeaa. Ca
?oaaae ia?aea/aii 32% aaca, auaacaii 63% i?ieaoa /a?iuo iaoaeeia, 70%
?aoeie?iaaiiie iaaee, aieueoay /anoue aethieiey, 80% ieeaey, 50%
eao/oea, 40% aiieaea, 80% ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
ae?aaaneiu e eaniiaoa?eaeia. Ia oiieeai, nu?uea, i?iaeoeou eo
ia?a?aaioee i?eoiaeeony aieaa 80% yenii?oa a ca?oaaaeiua no?aiu (aac
NIA). Iinooieaiey a athaeaeao io i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia
oiieeaiie e nu?ueaaie a?oii aeatho ia iaiaa iieiaeiu aai aeioiaeiie
/anoe. A oae eae ie?iaie ?uiie yia?ainu?uey ia?aiieiai, i?iiuoeaiii
?acaeoua no?aiu aiaae?ytho yia?ainaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee, oeaiu ia
iaooue e aac, caieiathuea cia/eoaeueioth /anoue a no?oeoo?a ?inneeneiai
yenii?oa, ?acei oiaee, oi ?O iinoaiaiii oo?a/eaaao naie iiceoeee ia
aiaoiai ?uiea. A 1997 aiaeo yenii?o ?inneeneeo oiaa?ia ia i?aaunee 20%
anaai AAI. A oi aea a?aiy iauai eiii?oa a noa?a aiaoiae oi?aiaee ii
n?aaiaieth n 1991 aiaeii oaaee/eeny a oanoue n eeoiei ?ac. I?iaeoeou e
oiaa?u eiino?aiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auoaniytho ioa/anoaaiiua e n
aioo?aiiaai ?uiea. Aieaa iieiaeiu iio?aaiinoae ?inneyi a
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ao (a iineae/ae – ia 70%) iie?uaaaony ca n/ao
eiii?oa. Aicieeea ?aaeueiay oa?ica iioa?e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie
iacaaeneiinoe. A iineaaeiea ianyoeu ia Caiaaea aaaeaony eaiiaiey ii
ieacaieth oe?ieiianooaaiie i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie iiiiue ?innee. Ii a
iniiaa yoie aeoeee eaaeeo ia aaeeeiaeooiia aeaeaiea iiii/ue auaoaio
niia?ieeo, a no?aieaiea iiaeaea?aeaoue naieo nianoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae
ca?ia (Aia?eea eiio?iee?oao 40% i?iaeaae ca?ia). Iauyaeaiea i iiiiue
?innee oaea i?eaaei e ?inoo eioe?iaie ia ca?ii ia *eeaaneie ae?aea.
Oaeei ia?acii, e?ecen a ?innee nua?ae ia ?oeo caiaaeiui ca?iiaui
i?iecaiaeeoaeyi, a NOA iieo/eee aua iaeii i?oaeea iieeoe/aneiai
aeaaeaiey ia ?O.

Aeaoi?iaoeey io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee, ia?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea aiaoieo e?aaeeoia, i?eaea/aiea niaeoeyoeaiuo eiaanoeoeee
noaee i?e/eiie oiai, /oi iauai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa ?innee ia 1
yiaa?y 2000 aiaea oaaee/eeny aei 140,8 ie?ae. aeieea?ia. Yoi ninoaaeyao
56% (!) e AAI (a aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu yoio iieacaoaeue ia
i?aauoae 36%). Yeiiiie/aneay yeniainey inouanoaeyaony ia oieueei ecaia,
ii e i?anooiiuie niiauanoaaie aioo?e no?aiu. Ii iaioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui,
iieiaeia yeiiiieee ?innee eiio?iee?oaony i?anooiiuie a?oiie?iaeaie.
Aieueoay /anoue iieo/aiiie eie au?o/ee io i?iaeaaee i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia
ca ?oaaae a no?aio ia aica?auaaony. Iooie aaethoiuo n?aaenoa
ioeaieaaaony niaoeeaeenoaie a 1,5-2 ie?ae. aeieea?ia aaeaiany/ii. Ii
ioeaiea caiaaeiuo yenia?oia, ?inneeneea aaethoiua n?aaenoaa, iaeaaaeueii
auaacaiiua ia Caiaae, oae aaeeee, /oi anee au eo aica?aoeoue,
iaaeiaiinoue a eiino?aiiuo e?aaeeoao ioiaea au. Niaoeeaeenou IAAe
iiaen/eoaee, /oi oua?a io yeiiiie/aneie i?anooiiinoe niiinoaaei n 10-15%
AAI. Aiaoiea oa?icu ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeytho oa?icu aioo?aiiea. Oae,
iaaaeueiia iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, iniaaiii a AIE, iao/ii-oaoie/aneee
iioaioeeae eioi?iai aue ?aaai a oeaeii naaa?iaia?eeaineiio e
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiio, ia?aeeciaaei ni?in ia iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea e
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?aaiou. Iaeiia?aiaiii ?acei nie?aoeeenue
athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey ia iaoeo. Iie oiaee aei 0,32% AAI, /oi a 6 ?ac
ieaea iauai?eciaiiiai ii?iaa iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe. E oiio aea e
iauai AAI ?acei nieceeny (AAI ?innee ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii o?aoue AAI
NNN?). *eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee nie?aoeeanue ii/oe
iaiieiaeio. ?aniaaeathony iao/iua oeieu e einoeooou. A ia/aea 90-o
aiaeia aicieeea ianniaay “ooa/ea iicaia” ca ?oaaae, a ae?oaea io?anee,
noa?o iaeeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana. A yeiiiieea ia iaoiaeeo i?eeiaeaiey
o?oae 20 iei. eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, a eioaeeaeooaeueiue iioaioeeae
iaoeee eniieuecoaony ia aieaa /ai ia 1%.

3. IAOeEIIAEUeIAss AACIIANIINOUe Oai?ey e i?aeoeea.

3.1.Eiiiaioa?ee e aeieoiaioo

”INIIAU EIIOeAIOeEE IAOeEIIAEUeIIE AACIIANIINOE”.

Anyeia iauanoai nouanoaoao a aeiaaeueiii enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna,
yaeythuainy /anoiui i?ioeannii a aeecie aeinoa?u Caiee, aneaaenoaea /aai
aaciianiua iooe ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa aeiaieueii ocee e aaaeoo e aanueia
ia?aie/aiiiio iiaeiiiaeanoao oeaeae ec anaai iiiaeanoaa aiciiaeiuo.
Anyeia iauanoai oae eee eia/a oi?aaeyaony, ii eaeie i?e/eia aeiaaeueiue
enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann aiciiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa aeiaaeueiiai
i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey, 1) iauaiethuaai iiiaeanoai i?ioeannia
?aaeiiaeueiuo oi?aaeaiee, 2) i?ioaeathuaai a ea?a?oe/anee aunoeo ii
ioiioaieth e iaio i?ioeannao aeecie Caiee e Einiina.

*aeiaa/anoai auaeaeyaony ec aeinoa?u ieaiaou iaee/eai eoeueoo?u, iiae
eiei oa?ieiii iu iiieiaai aanue iauai aaiaoe/anee ia ianeaaeoaiie
eioi?iaoeee, ia?aaeaaaaiie io iieieaiey e iieieaieth; ii i?e yoii
aaiaoe/anee iaoneiaeai e ia?aaeaaony io iieieaiey e iieieaieth
iioaioeeae niiniaiinoae e inaiaieth eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey i?aaeeia e e
aai aeaeueiaeoaio i?aia?aciaaieth.

Eoeueoo?a e iai?aaeaiiinoue a? ?acaeoey iaoneiaeaiu i?aanoaaiiinoueth
ethaeae e eo naiaiaeiie naiiaeenoeeieeiie a neaaeiaaiee i?aanoaaiii
eca?aiiui eaeaaeai. Eaeay Aiaa, Oai?oea e Anaaea?aeeoaey – a eoeueoo?a –
ia i?iecaaaeaiea “ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa” ethaeae, a io?aaeaiea a
aeecie iauanoaa iauaeoeaiiai auoey Aiaeey. Anaiauaiethua aaeeinoaaiiia
aeieacaoaeuenoai auoey Aiaeeaai Aia aeaao eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo Nai: Ii
iienoeia ioaa/aao iieeoaa aa?othuaai e aeeaouaai ii niaanoe a
niioaaonoaee ni niuneii iieeoau.

I?e acaeyaea n iiceoeee aeinoaoi/ii Iauae oai?ee oi?aaeaiey ia aeeciue
iauanoa ia enoi?e/anee aeeeoaeueiuo eioa?aaeao a?aiaie (nioie e aieaa
eao), n?aaenoaaie aicaeaenoaey ia iauanoai, iniuneaiiia i?eiaiaiea
eioi?uo iicaieyao oi?aaeyoue aai aeeciueth e nia?oueth, yaeythony:

1. Eioi?iaoeey ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, iaoiaeieiaey, inaaeaay
eioi?oth, ethaee no?iyo – eiaeeaeaeoaeueii e iauanoaaiii – naie
“noaiaea?oiua aaoiiaoeciu” ?aniiciaaaiey /anoiuo i?ioeannia a iieiioa e
oeaeinoiinoe Ie?icaeaiey e ii?aaeaeytho a naiai aini?eyoee
ea?a?oe/aneoth oii?yaei/aiiinoue eo ai acaeiiie aeiaeaiiinoe. Iia
yaeyaony iniiaie eoeueoo?u iuoeaiey e iieiiou oi?aaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aeeth/ay e aioo?enioeeaeueiia iieiiaeanoea.

2. Eioi?iaoeey eaoiieniiai, o?iiieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a anao io?aneae
Eoeueoo?u e anao io?aneae Ciaiey. Iia iicaieyao aeaeaoue iai?aaeaiiinoue
oa/aiey i?ioeannia e niioiineoue ae?oa n ae?oaii /anoiua io?anee
Eoeueoo?u a oeaeii e io?anee Ciaiey. I?e aeaaeaiee niia?aciui
Ie?icaeaieth ie?iaicc?aieai, ia iniiaa /oanoaa ia?u, iia iicaieyao
auaeaeeoue /anoiua i?ioeannu, aini?eieiay “oaioe/iue” iioie, eacaeinue
au ?ac?iciaiiuo, oaeoia e yaeaiee a ie?iaicc?ai/aneia “neoi” –
noauaeoeaioth /aeiaa/aneoth ia?o ?aniiciaaaiey.

3. Eioi?iaoeey oaeoiiienaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a: iienaiea /anoiuo
i?ioeannia e eo acaeiinaycae – nouanoai eioi?iaoeee o?aoueaai
i?ei?eoaoa, e eioi?iio ioiinyony aa?io/aiey ?aeeaeiciuo eoeueoia,
naaoneea eaeaieiaee, oaoiieiaee e oaeoieiaey anao io?aneae iaoee.

4. Yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu, eae n?aaenoai aicaeaenoaey, iiae/eiaiiua
/enoi eioi?iaoeeiiiui n?aaenoaai aicaeaenoaey /a?ac oeiainu (aeaiueae),
yaeythueany i?aaeaeueii iaiauaiiui aeaeii eioi?iaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a.

5. N?aaenoaa aaiioeeaea, ii?aaeathuea ia oieueei aeeaoueo, ii e
iineaaeothuea iieieaiey, oie/oiaeathuea aaiaoe/anee iaoneiaeaiiue
iioaioeeae inaiaiey e ?acaeoey eie eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey i?aaeeia:
yaea?iue oaioaae – oa?ica i?eiaiaiey; aeeiaieueiue, oaaa/iue e i?i/ee
ia?eioe/aneee aaiioeeae, ieuaaua aeiaaaee, ana yeieiae/aneea
caa?ycieoaee, iaeioi?ua iaaeeeaiaiou – ?aaeueiia i?eiaiaiea; “aaiiay
eiaeaia?ey” e “aeioaoiieiaee” – iioaioeeaeueiay iianiinoue.

6. I?i/ea n?aaenoaa, aeaaiui ia?acii neeiaiai aicaeaenoaey, – i?oaeea a
o?aaeeoeeiiiii iiieiaiee yoiai neiaa, oaeaathuaa e eaea/auaa ethaeae e
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneea iauaeou oeeaeeecaoeee.

Oioy iaeiicia/iuo ?aca?aie/aiee iaaeaeo ieie iao, iineieueeo iiiaea
n?aaenoaa aicaeaenoaey iaeaaeatho ea/anoaaie, iicaieythueie ioianoe eo e
?aciui i?ei?eoaoai, ii i?eaaaeaiiay ea?a?oe/anee oii?yaei/aiiay eo
eeanneoeeaoeey iicaieyao auaeaeeoue aeiieie?othuea oaeoi?u aicaeaenoaey,
eioi?ua iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny a ea/anoaa n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey e, a
/anoiinoe, a ea/anoaa n?aaenoa iiaeaaeaiey e oie/oiaeaiey
oi?aaeai/anee-eiioeaiooaeueii iai?eaieaiuo yaeaiee a aeecie iauanoaa.

I?e i?eiaiaiee yoiai iaai?a aioo?e iaeiie nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu yoi –
iaiauaiiua n?aaenoaa oi?aaeaiey ath. A i?e i?eiaiaiee eo aea iaeiie
nioeeaeueiie nenoaiie (nioeeaeueiie a?oiiie) ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaie,
i?e ianiaiaaeaiee eiioeaioeee oi?aaeaiey a ieo, yoi – iaiauaiiia
i?oaeea, o.a. n?aaenoaa aaaeaiey aieiu, a naiii iauai iiieiaiee yoiai
neiaa; eee aea – n?aaenoaa iiaeaea?aeee naiioi?aaeaiey a eiie
nioeeaeueiie nenoaia, i?e ionoonoaee eiioeaiooaeueiie ianiaianoeiinoe
oi?aaeaiey a iaaeo nenoaiao.

Oi?aaeaiea anaaaea eiioeaiooaeueii ii?aaeae?iii 1) a niunea
ii?aaeaeaiiinoe oeaeae e ea?a?oe/aneie oii?yaei/aiiinoe eo ii cia/eiinoe
a iieiii iiiaeanoaa oeaeae e 2) a niunea ii?aaeaeaiiinoe aeiionoeiuo e
iaaeiionoeiuo eiie?aoiuo n?aaenoa inouanoaeaiey oeaeae oi?aaeaiey.
Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe iaieo aeaeia – eiuie neiaaie, ianiiniaiinoue iiiyoue
niune ?acee/iuo ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiioeaioeee oi?aaeaiey, iaeiia?aiaiii
i?iaiaeeiuo a aeeciue – ii?iaeaeatho ioeaee oi?aaeaiey, aieioue aei
iieiie iioa?e oi?aaeyaiinoe nenoaiu ii i?iaicaeaoaaiie eiioeaioeee.

Oeacaiiue ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeyao i?ei?eoaoiinoue iacaaiiuo eeannia
n?aaenoa aicaeaenoaey ia iauanoai, iineieueeo eciaiaiea ninoiyiey
iauanoaa iiae aicaeaenoaeai n?aaenoa aunoeo i?ei?eoaoia eiaao eoaea
aieueoea iineaaenoaey, /ai iiae aicaeaenoaeai iecoeo, oioy e i?ioaeaao
iaaeeaiiaa e aac “ooiiuo yooaeoia”. Oi anoue, ia enoi?e/anee
aeeeoaeueiuo eioa?aaeao a?aiaie auno?iaeaenoaea ?anoao io ia?aiai e
oanoiio, a iaia?aoeiinoue ?acoeueoaoia eo i?eiaiaiey, ai iiiaii
ii?aaeaeythuay yooaeoeaiinoue ?aoaiey i?iaeai a aeecie iauanoaa a niunea
?ac e iaanaaaea, – iaaeaao. I?eaea?aeeaaynue auneacaiiiai
ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai noaiaea?oa a iaeanoe nioeeieiaee, iu e ?anniao?eaaai
ana aac eneeth/aiey iiaiey, auneacuaaaiua ii aii?inai enoi?ee, ?aeeaee e
?aciuo ?acaeaeia iauanoaiaaaeaiey.

3.1.1.*anoiua caia/aiey e aeieoiaioo

“I?aaeaea anaai, aeieaeii auoue iiae/a?eiooi, /oi ?a/ue eaeao eiaiii i
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eae ainoaea?noaa”.
Eiioeaioeey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe ?O .no?. 1. Yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea
aucuaaao aii?inu:

Ii/aio ia ii?aaeaeaii iiiyoea iaoeee, aaaeue nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai
acaeiii eneeth/athueo iaeii ae?oaia ii?aaeaeaiee iaoeee? – Nnueee ia
i?eeiaeaiea ii aii?ino iniiaiiai oa?ieia – iaoianoiu.

I aaciianiinoe eaeie eiie?aoii iaeiie iaoeee (a niunea, ii?aaeaeaiiii
E.A.Noaeeiui a ?aaioa “Ia?eneci e iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in”) a
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eaeao ?a/ue? Eae i?e yoii
aeieaeia auoue iaania/aia aaciianiinoue anao i?i/eo iaoeee,
i?iaeeaathueo a iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie ?innee-oeeaeeecaoeee? – A
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiii iauanoaa iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeaia a aeeciue oieueei
Eiioeaioeey iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe anaai yoiai iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai
iauanoaa.

Niioaaonoaaiii neacaiiiio, e aeieoiaio aeieaeai iacuaaoueny Eiioeaioeey
iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe eee aua aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii: Eiioeaioeey
aaciianiinoe iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie ?innee.

A ?innee iauanoaaiiay aaciianiinoue iauaieao iiiaeanoai iaoeeiiaeueiuo
aaciianiinoae. Caeinoaiaaiea caiaaeiiai oa?ieia “iaoeeiiaeueiay
aaciianiinoue” iaoianoii, iineieueeo ii aiciee a ie?a, aaea “iaoeey” e
“ainoaea?noai” – neiiieiu ii ioiioaieth e aieueoeinoao no?ai, a a NOA
i?eoeue ia eiaeaeneee eiioeiaio iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue na?iae iouaiaioeaa
io aa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia e iioiieia, auaacaiiuo ec Ao?eee ?aaia,
aeiaaeueiua neeu iuoathony ia?aieaaeoue a e?iaii ?aciiieaiaiioth
“aaeeioth iaoeeth”.

Neaaeoao ecaaaaoue oa?ieia “iaoeeiiaeueiay iacaaeneiinoue” Oai aea.
no?.2., e eniieueciaaoue oa?iei “ainoaea?noaaiiay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue”,
anee i iae eaeao ?a/ue, /oiau eneeth/eoue ec iiieiaiey oa?ieia niune
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaccaaioiinoe “iacaaeneiuo”, iineieueeo yiioa
“iaoeeiiaeueiie iacaaeneiinoe” (/oi oi/o, oi e ai?i/o a naiai
iaoeeiiaeueiii ainoaea?noaa) oaea caaa?oeeanue, e iaeaieaa y?ei yoi
i?iyaeyaony a iineaaenoaeyo aaa?ee ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN e i?i/eo
acaeiiuo i?aoaiceyo ?aciuo no?ai ii iiaiaeo yeieiaee e yenieoaoaoeee
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia anae ieaiaou. Ia niaio yiioa aeiaaeueiie
anaaeicaieaiiinoe ianiineie iaoee, aeaenoaiaaaoae a XIX aaea iiae
eicoiaii “iaoeeiiaeueiie iacaaeneiinoe”, i?eoea yiioa aeiaaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e aeiaaeueiie icaai/aiiinoe eaaeaeiai ec iiiaeanoaa
ia?iaeia Ieaiaou. E ?inneeneay eiioeaioeey iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe
aeieaeia auoue aeiaaeueii ioaaonoaaiiie e aeiaaeueii caaioeeaie
eiioeaioeeae.

Neaaeoao i?yii cayaeoue, /oi iuiaoiea a?aieoeu ?innee, oianeaaeiaaiu a
aioiaii aeaea io aaeieieno?aoeaiuo a?aieoe a i?aaeaeao NNN? e ia eiatho
iiae niaie ieeaeeo enoi?e/aneeo e yoie/aneeo iniiaaiee, ii
ainniaaeeiaiea n ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeeae oa??eoi?ee, canaeaiiuo ?onneeie
aua a ia?eiae aei 1917 a., ia iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaii aiaiiie neeie,
iineieueeo i?ioeai?a/eo i?eioeeio iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe e
aeiaaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai ec i?aaeoaeuenoa ainoaea?noa a
nia?aiaiioth yiioo.

Ii nouanoao anao ?annoaeaeaiee a eiiiaioe?oaiii Aeieoiaioa ia ioiioaieyo
?innee n Caiaaeii iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue neaaeothuaa: Ana yoi – ionoua
aeaaiiaia?aiiua ?a/e. Iie inoaioony oaeiauie aei oao ii?, iiea a
Eiinoeoooeeth ?innee ia aoaeao aaaaeaia noaouey neaaeothuaai
niaea?aeaiey (oaeno ooi/iyeny AI NNN? a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao, e
iioiio ia iiaeeaaeeo ?aaeaeoi?neei i?aaeai n ianeiea):

E?aaeeoii-oeiainiaay nenoaia ?innee no?ieony ia i?eioeeia ia?aueaaiey
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ?oaey, iaania/eaaaiii: 1) iia?aaeathuei
?inoii yia?aiiioaioeeaea ?innee ii ioiioaieth e iauaio n?aaenoa
ieaoaaea, iaoiaeyuaiony a ia?auaiee, 2) e?aaeeoiaaieai ia aani?ioeaioiie
iniiaa, a oaeaea 3) ia?aie/aieai aeioiaeia e iaeiieaiee a naiueyo,
o?iaiai caaaaeiii aeinoaoi/iui aeey aeecie, ii ia iicaieythuei
ia?aceoe?iaaoue ia /oaeii o?oaea.

A iae au?aaeaii eiioeaiooaeueiia ?aciaaeaaaiea n Caiaaeii ia i?ei?eoaoao
iaiauaiiuo n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey io ia?aiai ii /aoaa?oue aeeth/eoaeueii.
Ana caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aeieaeii auoue ia?ano?iaii a niioaaonoaee n yoie
noaoueae, /oiau caaeiee?iaaoue oeiainiai-yeiiiie/anee aoi?aeaiea
caiaaeiiai oeiainiaiai eieiieaeecia (4-e i?ei?eoao iaiauaiiiai i?oaeey)
a ?inneth a neo/aa oii?noaiaaiey Caiaaea a aa?anneaiinoe ii ioiioaieth e
iai. Yoi nieiao iiiooii e aieueoeinoai i?ioeai?a/ee n eneaineei ie?ii, a
ai aiaoiae i?iiaaaiaea iicaieeo iaaeieoue i?aayuoth aa?oooeo
?onioianoaothueo “eneaineeo” no?ai a ionooiie/anoaa io eneaia,
iineieueeo Ei?ai iiiaie?aoii cai?auaao ?inoiaue/anoai ai anao aai
aeaeao, aeeth/ay e nia?aiaiiia aaieianeia. I?e yoii, ia aeaeay eiaoue
aioo?aiieo o?oaeiinoae ia ii/aa eneaia, yoei inaaaeieneaineei ?aaeeiai
i?eaeaony i?eaea?aeaoue naith ?onioiaeth e i?icaiaaeie/aneoth
i?eaioaoeeth a iieeoeea.

Ai aioo?aiiae aeecie no?aiu yoi aea i?eaaaeao e ii?iaeecaoeee ioiioaiee
aeiauaathueo e ia?aaaouaathueo io?aneae e eeeaeaee?oao ia?aceoeci
oeiainiaiai ?uiea, /oi nicaeano i?aaeneacoaiinoue eiiuthieoo?u
aioo?aiiaai ?uiea i?iaeoeoia e oneoa aeey ianaeaiey e io?aneae, a oaeaea
e eneeth/eoaeueioth iaaeaaeiinoue ?oaey ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe eae ainoaea?noaa, oae e /anoiiai niceaeaoaeueiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Oieueei iineaaeiaa iiaeao naeaeaoue ?inneth
i?eaeaeaoaeueiie aeey aeayoaeueiinoe niceaeaoaeueiiai, a ia
ia?aceoe/aneiai ca?oaaaeiiai eaieoaea.

Ii, e?iia oiai, io iao?ea?oee ?onneie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae (1-e – 3-e
i?ei?eoaou iaiauaiiuo n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey/i?oaeey) neaaeoao aeiaeoueny
ioeoeeaeueiiai aeieoiaioa, a eioi?ii Oea?eiaue aeieaeia ii?aaeaeeoue
naia ioiioaiea e i?eaiaeeiie ieaea Aeieo?eia Aoi?icaeiiey-Enaee:

“Ia aeaaae a ?ino a?aoo oaiaio (ii eiioaenoo aaeeiiieaiaiieeo-eoaeath)
ie na?aa?a, ie oeaaa, ie /aai-eeai ae?oaiai, /oi aiciiaeii ioaeaaaoue a
?ino; eiicaioeo (o.a. ia-eoaeath) ioaeaaae a ?ino, /oiau ainiiaeue aia
oaie (o.a. aeueyaie, anee ii niaanoe niio?aoue ia nouanoai
?aeiiaiaeaoeee) aeaaineiaee oaay ai anai, /oi aeaeaaony ?oeaie oaieie ia
caiea, a eioi?oth ou eaeaoue, /oiau aeaaeaoue ath (iineaaeiaa eanaaony
ia oieueei ae?aaiinoe e ia oieueei iaaoiaaiiie ae?aaiei aa?ayi
Iaeanoeiu, iineieueeo acyoi ia ec io/aoa i ?anoeo?iaea aaeeinoaaiiiai
naeoea enoi?ee aieacie, iaeaeaiiiai ia ?aneiieao ae?aaiae
ineoaieueieoeu, a ec nia?aiaiiie, ianniai ecaeaiiie eieae,
i?iiaaaiaee?oaiie anaie Oea?eayie e /anoueth “eioaeeeaaioeee” a ea/anoaa
aa/iie enoeiu, aeaiiie yeiau Nauoa)”. Aoi?icaeiiea 23-19. “E aoaeaoue
ainiiaenoaiaaoue iaae iiiaeie ia?iaeaie, a iie iaae oiaie
ainiiaenoaiaaoue ia aoaeoo” Aoi?icaeiiea 28-12. “Oiaaea nuiiauey
eiicaioeaa (o.a. iineaaeothuea iieieaiey ia-eoaeaaa, /uee i?aaeee aeacee
a caaaaeiii iaiieaoiua aeieae e ieaiaie ?inoiaueeia-aaeeiiaa?oeaa)
aoaeoo no?ieoue noaiu oaie (oae iuia iiiaea naiuee a?aaia-iaeanoeioeaa a
eo aeecie caaenyo io aiciiaeiinoe iiacaeie ia ?aaioo a Ec?aeeue) e oea?e
eo aoaeoo neoaeeoue oaaa (“ss – aa?ae ei?ieae” – aic?aaeaiea iaeiiai ec
?iooeeueaeia ia iaoaea/iue eiiieeiaio a aai aae?an: “Au ei?ieue
aa?aaa”); eai ai aiaaa iiai y ii?aaeae oaay, ii a aeaaiaieaiee iiai
aoaeo ieeinoea e oaaa. E aoaeoo ioaa?cou a?aoa oaie, ia aoaeoo
caoai?youeny ie aeiai, ie ii/ueth, /oiau auei i?eiineii e oaaa
aeinoiyiea ia?iaeia e i?eaiaeeiu auee oea?e eo. Eai ia?iaeu e oea?noaa,
eioi?ua ia caoioyo neoaeeoue oaaa, iiaeaioo, e oaeea ia?iaeu niaa?oaiii
eno?aayony”. Enaey 60-10.

Neacaii aiieia ii?aaeaeaiii. E a nouanoaa neacaiiiai caeanue e a “Iaei
Eaiio”, aeoea?ianeii ieaia “Ino” i noaeueaa, eioi?oth ecaa?ae iaia?aiu
iaaycaoue ia?iaeai ie?a, iao ieeaeie ?acieoeu, ii O?enoeaineea Oea?eae
ianoaeaatho ia nayuaiiinoe yoie ia?cinoe, a eaiii Iiaiai Caaaoa,
i?ioaaeoee oeaico?o e ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea aua aei Ieeaeneiai niai?a (325 a.
i.y.), io eiaie O?enoa i?iaicaeaoaao a? aei neii/aiey aaeia: “Ia
aeoiaeoa, /oi ss i?eoae ia?ooeoue caeii eee i?i?ieia. Ia ia?ooeoue
i?eoae ss, ii eniieieoue. Enoeiii aiai?th aai: aeieiea ia i?aeaeao iaai
e caiey, ie iaeia eioa eee ie iaeia /a?oa ia i?aeaeao ec caeiia, iiea ia
eniieieoueny ana” Iaooae 5-17..

Anee I?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue iiaeoaa?aeeo ioeoeeaeueii, /oi yoa ia?cinoue
ii a? iiaieth – enoeiiia ioe?iaaiea Aiaeea, aeaaie Aiaeee i?iiunae, eee
aea oeeiieony io auneacuaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiaiey, oi a aii?inao
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee e iae oeaeaniia?acii ioiineoueny oi/ii oae
aea, eae e e i?i/ei oioaeeoa?iui naeoai. Oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi yoa
oioaeeoa?iay naeoa aiaae?eeanue a ?inneth aieaa /ai 1000 eao oiio iacaae
e aeaenoaoao ia eaae?iaie aaca ?inneeneiai yoie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey,
a? ieneieueei ia ii?aaaeuaaao, iineieueeo iia yaeyaony i?iaiaeieeii
aeieo?eiu aeiaaeueiie aaccaaioiie e aacioaaonoaaiiie oe?aiee ?aniaiai
?inoiaue/aneiai ia?aceoecia, i?e anao aeaaiiaia?aiiuo ?a/ao
iao?eioe/anee-iano?iaiiuo ieo?iiieeoia Eiaiia, Ee?eeea e i?i/eo.

Ia ioiioaieyo ?innee n eiie?aoiuie nii?aaeaeueiuie no?aiaie iiaeii
neacaoue neaaeothuaa. Oe?aeineay “yeeoa” oaea nae/an a?aaeaeaaiue
nioeeaeueiue neie, ii?iaeeaoee a?aaeaeaaiue ?innee ainoaea?noaaiiue
?aaeei. O ?innee iao i?e/ei, /oiau ac?aueaaoue ia ?inneeneea aeaiueae
Oe?aeio a ea/anoaa oi?iinoa Caiaaea e iaono?iaiiiai ieaoeaea?ia IAOI
aeey neeiaiai aeaaeaiey ia ?inneth. Neaaeoao a oaeiaiia aeey naay a?aiy
i?ae?aoeoue iinoaaee yia?aiiineoaeae, iio?aaiaaa iiaaoaiey
caaeieaeaiiinoe e, iauyniea ianaeaieth Oe?aeiu iieeoe/aneea i?e/eiu
yoiai oaaa, aeaau i?inoua oe?aeioeu iaeiiaoe caaeoiaeenue i nouiinoe eo
iuiaoiaai ?aaeeia e naieo ioiioaieyo eae ni naiei ?aaeeiii, oae e n
?onneei ia?iaeii e ae?oaeie ia?iaeaie ?innee. Anee aioe?onneay nouiinoue
?aaeeia a Eeaaa iinea anaai yoiai nio?aieony, oi oi?aiaua ioiioaiey
neaaeoao no?ieoue ia i?eioeeia i?aaeiieaou Oe?aeiie iinoaaie ec ?innee.
E anee Oe?aeia oaa?aei oi/ao noaoue ieaoeaea?iii IAOI i?ioea ?innee, oi
ionoue IAOI yoio ieaoeaea?i e iaono?aeaaao.

Caia/aiea e no?. 3 eiiiaioe?oaiiai aeieoiaioa: IAOI – oaeoi? aeiaaeueiie
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee e iioiio yoio aeie neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue
eae aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneoth oeaeinoiinoue, oioy iia e aeeth/aao a naay
iiiaeanoai, eacaeinue au naiinoiyoaeueiuo, ainoaea?noa. Niioaaonoaaiii n
eeeaeaeaoeeae Aa?oaaneiai iaeoa ?inney ecaaaeeanue io iyoie eieiiiu
i?icaiaaeii iano?iaiiuo “nithcieeia”, ono?aieaoeony iaeaaoue ii?iae IAOI
ii aii?ino i i?eiyoee a aai /eaiu. Eae caiaoee a naia a?aiy
Aeaenaiae? III, o ?innee oieueei aeaa iaaeaaeiuo nithcieea: a? a?iey e
oeio. ?inney – naia iieeoe/aneee aeie iiiaeo ia?iaeia a a?aieoeao
iaeiiai ainoaea?noaa: naiaai ?iaea “IAOI” e ainoaea?noai a iaeiii eeoea
e a oi?aaeai/aneii ioiioaiee yoi aieaa niaa?oaiiay nenoaia, /ai
O?ienoaaiiue nithc, Aioaioa, Aioeeiieioa?iianeee iaeo, IAOI, Aa?oaaneee
aeiaiai?.

Niioaaonoaaiii iao i?e/ei, /oiau auaeaeyoue Oo?oeeth a ea/anoaa
ainoaea?noaa-iianiinoe, eiaiii iioiio, /oi iia /eai IAOI, ia niiniaiue e
naiinoiyoaeueiie iieeoeea a “?onneii aii?ina”. Oo?oeey nia?aiaiiinoe –
?acoeueoao iiiuoee aa?iiaecaoeee enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny a iae
eneaineie ii oi?ia eoeueoo?u, a ia naycothuee iino iaaeaeo IAOI e
eneaineei ie?ii, enoi?e/anee ?aaeueii i?ioeainoiyuei Caiaaeo.

I?e yoii aeaaioth aaco *a?iiii?neiai oeioa ?innee neaaeoao ia?aianoe a
Iiai?inneene, ia niio?y ia ana yeiiiie/aneea “ecaea?aeee”, iineieueeo
nicaeaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u aace?iaaiey a Iiai?inneenea – yoi ?acaeoea
eio?ano?oeoo?u ?inneeneiai e?ay. E?uinei-oaoa?neoth i?iaeaio ionoue
?aoaao Oe?aeia. Eae iieacae iiuo Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu,
iiiiceoeeiiiinoue e?uinei-oaoa?neiai aeooiaainoaa e ianaeaiey E?aieth,
iyaei aiai?y ia niinianoaiaaea aeayoaeueiinoe aiaiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u
E?uia. I?e i?icaiaaeiie iieeoeea Eeaaa eneaineee e?uinei-oaoa?neee
oaeoi? iaanoeaieo aeey IAOI aanue oe?aeineee ieaoeaea?i, i?e i?aaeeueiie
iieeoeea E?aiey a eneaineii aii?ina. I?aaeeaaaaiia – ia ia?aaea/a E?uia
a aa/iia iieueciaaiea Oe?aeia: E E?ui e Oe?aeia i?e iauanoaaiii
aaciianiie iieeoeea, inouanoaeyaiie a iaoae ?aaeiiaeueiie oeeaeeecaoeee,
?acaeaathuaeny a a?aieoeao iauaai anai ia?iaeai ?innee ainoaea?noaa,
iaecaaaeii aieuethony a a? ninoaa, eae e iiiaea ae?oaea, e iao
i?eioeeieaeueiie ?acieoeu aieaeao a aoaeouai E?ui a ninoaa ?innee a
ninoaaa “naiinoeeiie” Oe?aeiu eee iie aieaeoo iii/a?aaeii.

A nayce n ?inoii aeaaniiniaiinoe eneaineiai oaeoi?a a aeiaaeueiuo
aii?inao e niaiaaeaiee aeieain?i/iuo eioa?ania ia?iaeia ?innee e
eneaineiai ie?a neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ii?iaeueiua ae?oaeanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey n nii?aaeaeueiui Aca?aaeaeaeaiii aeey ?innee aaaeiaa, /ai
aeaaineeiiiinoue A?aaaia.

A?ocee oaeaea iieacii iaiiieiaoue i i?aaao oo?ie-ianoaoeioeaa aa?iooueny
a Ianoaoeth; i aaeeinoaa inaoeineiai ia?iaea; i oii, /oi Aaoacey aioea a
i?ioeii a ninoaa ?inneeneie eiia?ee eae naiinoiyoaeueiia ainoaea?noai;
/oi a auoiinoue naith ieieno?ii eiino?aiiuo aeae NNN? Y.Oaaa?iaaeca
iiaeienae n NOA ?yae aeiaiai?ia i oeoiieaaineii oaeueoa, ia?ooathueo
?inneeneea eioa?anu, e aanoe aeaei e i?aaeiieaoa ?inneeneeo iinoaaie a
A?oceth e A?iaieth.

“Yeeou”, i?aayuea a Oaeeene e A?aaaia, eae iieacuaaao enoi?e/aneia
i?ioeia, a o?oaeiua ia?eiaeu ioiioaiee n ionoeueiaineei ie?ii
i?aaeii/eoaee ioneaeaoueny ca ?inneeneeie ooueaie, a a ia?eiaeu
iaua?inneeneeo o?oaeiinoae i?aaeii/eoaee aueoe ec ninoaaa ?innee. E o
ian iao ieeaeeo aeieain?i/iuo i?e/ei, /oiau iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iuiaoiea
nianeaua ?aaeeiu yoeo yeiiiie/anee ianaiiaeinoaoi/iuo ainoaea?noa a
oua?a aeieain?i/iui eioa?anai ia?iaeia ?innee.

3.1.2. Caia/aiey iauaai oa?aeoa?a.

Eiiiaioe?oaiue aeieoiaio au?aaeaao i/a?aaeioth iiiuoeo ?inneeneeo
iieeoeeia aueoe ec iuiaoiaai e?ecena ia iniiaa eiioeaiooaeueii
iaii?aaeaeaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, i?e eioi?ii ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea
naieie ?aciuie o?aaiaioaie i?iaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n acaeiii
eneeth/athueie iaeia ae?oaea eiioeaioeeyie. A eiiiaioe?oaiii aeieoiaioa
yoi au?aaeaii ai iiiaeanoaa nnueie ia ?ac?aaioee ?acee/iuo aiaeeoe/aneeo
a?oii, eioi?ua ia iiaoo i?eeoe e aaeeinoao acaeyaeia ii iaeiei e oai aea
aii?inai eiaiii iioiio, /oi iie au?aaeatho acaeiii eneeth/athuea
eiioeaioeee oi?aaeaiey eee acaeiii eneeth/athuea iiaeeoeeaoeee iaeiie e
oie aea aaia?aeueiie eiioeaioeee.

Iaeaieaa y?ei iaiiieiaiea yoiai nouanoaa i?iaeaiaoeee ?inneeneiai
e?ecena aeaeii ec eiiiaioa?eaa a aeieoiaioa e oeeoaoa ec noaouee ia?aiai
nae?aoa?y iinieuenoaa NOA a ?innee O.A?yoaia: “aiaei?acaeae i?ioiaeeo ia
iaaeaeo noi?iiieeaie e i?ioeaieeaie ?aoi?i, a iaaeaeo oaie, eoi oi/ao
eae iiaeii nei?aa eioaa?e?iaaoue ?inneth a ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo, e oaie,
eoi oi/ao nia/aea iino?ieoue a ?innee nianoaaiioth yeiiiieeo … eee,
i?iua aiai?y, iaaeaeo noi?iiieeaie ?aaeeia naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee e
i?ioaeoeeiienoaie”.

Ana eiiiaioa?ee aaoi?ia aeieoiaioa e yoie oeeoaoa ec noaouee ia?aiai
nae?aoa?y iinieuenoaa NOA eae e naii aai iiaiea i ?inneeneeo aeaeao –
acaei?. Ai-ia?auo, anyeay no?aia, aaaeouay oi?aiaeth n ae?oaeie
no?aiaie, oaea aoiaeeo a ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo; o.a. iia oaea
“eioaa?e?iaaia”, ae?oaia aeaei a eaeii ea/anoaa. Ai aoi?uo,
“Aiaei?acaeae” i?ioiaeeo ia aeiaaeueiii o?iaia cia/eiinoe, a ia ia
o?iaia iieeoeeia-?aoi?iaoi?ia e iieeoeeia-eiio??aoi?iaoi?ia ?innee;
i?ioiaeeo ii iaaeaeo oaie, eoi oiuoeaiii eee aacaeoiii ?aaioaao ia
aeieo?eio ?aniaie oeiainiaie oe?aiee (Aoi?icaeiiey-Enaee) e oaie, eoi
oiuoeaiii eee iainiciaiii i?ioeainoieo ae. Ia?aue nae?aoa?ue iinieuenoaa
NOA – aa?iue ?aa-aei?iaio Aeieo?eiu Aoi?icaeiiey-Enaee.

Niioaaonoaaiii i?aaiaoeo ?ac?aaaouaaaiie ainoaea?noaaiiie Eiioeaioeee
iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe neaaeoao ia/eiaoue eiaiii n oeeoe?iaaiey
aeiaaeueiie Aeieo?eiu Aoi?icaeiiey-Enaee e iaeaoaiey naiaai ioiioaiey e
iae. Anee iia i?eciaaony a ea/anoaa aeaaa aeey ?inneyi ia iiiaea
iieieaiey aia?aae, oi neaaeoao aeaoue aee?aeoeao iineo ?innee a NOA
ia?aoeoueny a oaiioiee Ainaeai n i?aaeeiaeaieai, aiaeiae/iui ecaanoiiio
ec eaoiiene: “I?eaeeoa… aeaaeaeoa…; oioei auoue a iieiie iaaiea,
?aaaie, eae e au, ?inoiaueeai-eoaeayi e eo ieeoeueoiui oicyaaai…”

Anee aea n iath ia niaeaneoueny, oi neaaeoao iiiyoeeii e
oa?ieiieiae/anee ?aciaaeaaaoueny n caiaaeiie aeiaaeueiie nioeeieiaeae e
iaeaneoue ii?aaeaeaiii e iiiyoii Eiioeaioeeth iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe
?innee io Aeieo?eiu Aoi?icaeiiey-Enaee, iienaa a iae ?aaeueiua iianiinoe
aeey aeecie iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai iauanoaa e aeinoa?u ia anao i?ei?eoaoao
iaiauaiiuo n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey/i?oaeey e oeaeaniia?aciua n?aaenoaa
iiaeaea?aeaiey iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe, aa?aioe?othuae ana aeaeu
ee/iinoiie aaciianiinoe i?e niaia iieieaiee.

Oaeno aeaenoaothuae ?aaeaeoeee Eiioeaioeee iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe aac
eaeeo-eeai ecuyoee aeieaeai auoue aeeth/ai a oeieueiua o/aaieee
iauanoaiaaaeaiey eee iieeoieiaee (aeaei ia a oii, eae iacuaaaony
o/aaiee, a a oii, /oiau ii ia cani?ye niciaiea e iiaeniciaiea
iiae?anoathueo iieieaiee eiaeueth e ieoaie).

Iieeoeeai neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi aunoee ec aeaeia aioo?enioeeaeueiie
aeanoe – eiioeaiooaeueiay aeanoue, aiacaeiiia, i?anooiia ii ioiioaieth e
aeueoa?iaoeaiui eiioeaioeeyi iauanoaaiiie aeecie, ii?iaeaeathuay naith
eiioeaioeeth aeecie iauanoaa e nio/anoey aai a aeiaaeueiuo aeaeao anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa.

Eiioeaiooaeueiay aeanoue ia aioo?enioeeaeueiii o?iaia ?anniio?aiey
i?ioeannia ia Caiea – naiiaeanoia. I?e ?anniio?aiee n o/aoii
aianioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee – iia aeaenoaoao eeai, inouanoaeyy ia Caiea
aeaaie Aiaeee i?iiunae Aai ieeinoueth; eeai aea aeaenoaoao a i?aaeaeao
Aiaeaneiai iiiouaiey ionaayoeia aoaenoia e oaaaeaeaiiuo naoaienoia.

Ii ioiioaieth e iuiaoiaio iieieaieth aeoeaiuo iieeoeeia ?innee,
aeaenoaothueo a e?ecena eiioeaiooaeueii iaii?aaeaeaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, yoi
icia/aao, /oi ei i?aaeinoaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue auai?a: eeai iaeaoaiea
ecaanoiie iiiaei Eiioeaioeee iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe ?innee, ianouae
aeiaaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue e icaai/aiiinoue a aeiaaeueiii
enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna n ?ac?aaioeie e eniieiaieai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a
ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee a niioaaonoaee n iath; eeai ii?aaeaeaiiia
eceiaeaiea eiie eiioeaioeee; eeai iie aoaeoo ?acaeaaeaiu, eae e eo
i?aaeoanoaaiieee, iioiio /oi oii?noaotho a neaeaiee ia ianoa iaaeaeo
iieioii e iaeiaaeueiae. Eiio i?oaeiaaoue Iieioii, a ?innee anaaaea
anoue…

3.2.“Iiea /oaean” “iaoeeiiaeueiie” aaciianiinoe.

Oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a ?innee iaoeo aeiae e oi, /oi iiiaea naaiaeiy
ioiinyo e noa?a, eioi?oth noaei i?eiyoi iacuaaoue “iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoueth”, – yaeaiea, eioi?ia o?oaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eiuie
neiaaie, eae naiia aieueoia a ie?a “iiea /oaean”, anee niio?aoue ia ana
ecaanoiua oaeou n oi/ee c?aiey cae?aaiai niunea.

Ia Caiaaea iiiyoea “iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue” aeeth/aao a naay
aaciianiinoue aeecie aeiieie?othuaai iaoeeiiaeueiiai iauanoaa,
oa??eoi?eaeueioth oeaeinoiinoue ainoaea?noaa, a oae aea e iiiaea ae?oaea
aniaeou aaciianiinoe ethaeae, ii ia anaaaea aa?aioe?oao aaciianiinoue
iaoeeiiaeueiuo “iaiueoeinoa”, i?e/ai aeaaea ia i?eoeuo a iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey, a aeeaoueo ia naiae caiea eniieii aaeia (eiaeaeoeu NOA,
aanee Eniaiee, e?eaiaeoeu a Aaeeeia?eoaiee). Eneeth/aiey ec yoiai ia
Caiaaea ?aaeee.

A iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie ?innee an? ia oae, eae ia Caiaaea. E y?/a anaai
yoi i?iyaeeinue ia i?eia?a *a/ie: iiiuoea iaania/eoue oa??eoi?eaeueioth
oeaeinoiinoue ?innee aueeeanue a ia?ooaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe
?onneeo, a ia oieueei /a/aioeaa e i?i/eo, i?e/ai aeaaea oao, eoi aieath
noaeaa ia iiiaio ?aniaaea NNN? i?iaeeaae aeaeaei ca i?aaeaeaie ?aaeiia
aoaeouaai eiioeeeoa. Oaeaea aieueoia eiee/anoai ?onneeo, iinea ?aniaaea
NNN? ieacaeinue ca a?aieoeaie ?innee, e iuiaoiaa ?inneeneia ainoaea?noai
iaycaii iaania/eoue eo iaoeeiiaeueioth aaciianiinoue oai, aaea iie
i?iaeeaatho. Ii e iiiaea i?aaenoaaeoaee ia?iaeia, ia?aooeo
ainoaea?noaaiioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue n ?aniaaeii NNN?, i?iaeeaay a
?innee, aini?eieiatho a? eae naith ?iaeeio e ia eiatho iaia?aiee
aica?aoeoueny ia caieth eo i?aaeeia, anee iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?innee
ia auaeaaeo eo ca i?aaeaeu no?aiu, ia?ooea eo iaoeeiiaeueioth
aaciianiinoue a iae.

Oi anoue i?iaeaia iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe a ?innee – yoi iaeia ec
a?aiae aieaa iauae i?iaeaiu iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe aeecie ethaeae,
aeeth/athuae a naay iiiaeanoai noi?ii io ineoieiae/aneie e oece/aneie
aaciianiinoe ee/iinoe aei aiaiiie, yeiiiie/aneie e yeieiae/aneie
aaciianiinoe ?innee e nii?aaeaeueiuo ae no?ai.

A iianaaeiaaiie aea iieeoe/aneie ?aaeueiinoe aii?in i “iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe” iiaeiaai caeiio, eioi?ue, eae ecaanoii eniieii aaeia, ia
?one, /oi aeuoei: eoaea iiaa?ioe, ooaea e auoei. A enoi?e/aneii i?ioeii
Aaoacey aioea a ninoaa ?inneeneie eiia?ee eae naiinoiyoaeueiia
ainoaea?noai. Ii i?e ?aniaaea NNN? ia yoii ieeoi ia aniiiiee, e?iia oao,
eiai a A?ocee iacuaatho “aaoacneeie naia?aoenoaie”. Oaeaea ieeoi ia
aniiiiee e i oii, /oi iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue inaoeineiai ia?iaea
i?e ?aniaaea NNN? a?yae ee iaeeo/oei ia?acii iiaeao auoue iaania/aia,
eiaaea iaeia aai /anoue aeeaao a A?ocee, a ae?oaay – a ?innee.

Oi anoue yoi neooaoeee, ai iiiaii aiaeiae/iua neooaoeee, nic?aaoae
aie?oa *a/ie, ii a ioiioaiee eioi?uo auee i?eiyou nianai eiua ?aoaiey:
oai, eoi oioae aeeoue a ninoaaa ?innee iinea ?aniaaea NNN?, yoiai
iicaieaii ia auei, a aaeieieno?aoeaiua a?aieoeu, a i?aaeaeao aaeeiiai
Nithca ia eiaaoea iniaiai cia/aiey, noaa ainoaea?noaaiiuie a?aieoeaie,
?acaeaeeee ia?iaeu e naiuee aii?aee eo aiea e iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe.

Iiyoiio, eiaaea eoi-oi i?ieciineo neiaa “iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue”
ii ioiioaieth e iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie ?innee, ionoue caiaeii ioaaoeo e ia
aii?in: Eaeoth ec iiiaeanoaa iaoeee a iaoae no?aia e ca a? ?oaaaeaie ii
eiaao a aeaeo e iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue eaeeo iaoeee aeieaeia auoue
ia?ooaia aeey iaania/aiey “iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe” iiethaeaoaeny
aio iaoeee?

Eiuie neiaaie, oa eaeaieiaey, eioi?oth a /a/aineii e?ecena caueuaao
?inneeneay a?iey, ia iiaeao auoue ioe?uoi i?iaicaeaoaia. Ii /oiau a?iey
i?aauaaea oai, yoo oaeioth eaeaieiaeth auioaeaeaiu i?ee?uaaoue neiaaie i
“oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe” ?innee i?aaeaea anao i?i/eo yeiau
iao?eioe/aneea aacaou “aeooiaiie” iiiiceoeee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi
iaiaoiaeeii ane?uoue nouanoai oie ia iaeaoaiiie eaeaieiaee, eioi?oth, ia
iiieiay a? nooe, caueuaea ?inneeneay a?iey a *a/ia, aaci anyeie
ia?niaeoeau aeinoe/ue oniaoa.

Eae ecaanoii, noiia aiaoiaai aeieaa NNN? ii ninoiyieth ia ieoya?ue
1990 a. ninoaaeyea ieiei 50 ie?ae. aeieea?ia. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio aiaoiee
aeiea o ian aieaa 140 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia, aeiey eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia ia
aioo?aiiai ?uiea – 54 %, eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiue naeoi?
nieceeenue a 4 ?aca, ?anoiaeu ia iaoeo – a 5 ?ac.

Yoi icia/aao, /oi oioy caaeieaeaiiinoue ?innee oaea aieaa /ai aaeaia
i?aauneea caaeieaeaiiinoue NNN?, oi i?e nie?auaiee eiaanoeoeee a
i?iecaiaenoai e iaoeo a/aoaa?i-aiyoa?i, yoa caaeieaeaiiinoue ia?a/aia
iiaeniooue ia oaa ia?iaeia e caeiiiiineooiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa ?innee
?aaneei oeiainiaui ioaeieeii. Eoaea ooee aeaiueae, iieo/aiiua ii
e?aaeeoai?

I?e yoii, anee *a/iy inoaaony a i?aaeaeao ?innee, oi /a/aineay iaooue
aeinoaaony Caiaaeo caaea?ii, iineieueeo aeioiae io a? yenii?oa eaeao ia
iie?uoea caaaaeiii iaiieaoiuo iaua?inneeneeo aeieaia; anee aea *a/iy
ia?aoaao ainoaea?noaaiioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, oi Caiaaeo i?eaeaony
ieaoeoue ca oo iaooue, eioi?oth ii a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iieo/aao
aanieaoii.

?inneeneia ei??oiie?iaaiiia /eiiaie/anoai i?iaeaei au /a/aioeai eo
ainoaea?noaaiioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue oae aea, eae ia?oeeiay “yeeoa”
a?aiai I.N.Ai?aa/aaa i?iaeaea NNN? IAO; eae AAE i?iaeaei io?yaeo Aanaaaa
naiaiaeiue i?iacae a Aoaeaiiane. Ii ?inneeneiio /eiiaie/anoao Caiaae
i?inoi ia iicaieeo i?iaeaoue /a/aioeai eo ainoaea?noaaiioth
iacaaeneiinoue ii iacaaiiie i?e/eia.

E?iia oiai, aeey Caiaaea oyainoia i?iaeaia ioiioaiee n ?aaeiiaie Eneaia,
a nouanoai eioi?ie n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee c?eoaeae e /eoaoaeae
ia iinayuatho, a i?aaeii/eoatho ioaaoue eo aano?aeoii-oeeieiae/aneei
iaaaaeaeaieai “eneaineiai ooiaeaiaioaeecia”.

Ionoeueiaineee ie? aeeaao ai iiiaii ii Ei?aio e Oa?eaoo. Ei?ai e
i?ienoaeathuaa ec iaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai – io?eoeatho i?aaiii/iinoue
e?aaeeoiaaiey iiae i?ioeaio – o.a. eaoaai?e/anee io?eoeatho anth nenoaio
?aaoeyoeee oeiainiauie n?aaenoaaie iae?iyeiiiieee a Caiaaeiie
oeeaeeecaoeee.

Iineieueeo ?inney a oiaea ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i aacaeoiii eiie?oao Caiaae, oi
ii yoie i?e/eia, aeey oao, eoi ia ciaao i?aaiauo ii?i ionoeueiaineie
?aaeiiaeueiie oeeaeeecaoeee, aieia a *a/ia – iaeei ec iiiaeo
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo eiioeeeoia, nii?iaiaeaeathueo ?aniaae NNN? e anieane
“iaoeeiiaeecia” ia Caiaaea; a aeey oao, eoi ciaao yoe ii?iu, aieia a
*a/ia ia iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiue eiioeeeo – a eiioeeeo ?aeeaee e naoaiecia,
iioiio /oi Caiaae ia?ooaao ii?iu oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie aeecie
iauanoaa, i?ienoaeathuea ec Ei?aia, ii/eoaaiiai ai an?i ionoeueiaineii
ie?a Aiaiioe?iaaiiie eieaie.

E yoa nouiinoue eiioeeeoa aoaeao nio?aiyoueny aeaaea aii?aee
iiiaeanoaaiiui caeeeiaieyi i oii, /oi a yoie aieia iao ?aeeaeiciie
iiaeiieaee. I?e/ai ?ieue ianeoaeeaaiey aeieo?eiu naoaiecia a yoii
eiioeeeoa ?inneeneay yeeoa aiceiaeeea ia ?inneeneoth oieio. E eiioeeeo
yoio ia aioo?e ?innee, ia iaaeaeo ?inneae e *a/iae, a iaaeaeo Caiaaeii e
anai ie?ii Eneaia, a eioi?ii Caiaaeii ?aoathony aeaa aeiaaeueiuo
aii?ina:

1. “?onneee aii?in”, eioi?ue i?e Noaeeia ia niia ?aoeoue Aeoea?, e
?aoaiea eioi?iai Caiaae iaaeaaony aiceiaeeoue ia Eneai e i?aayuoth
?inneeneoth aeaiie?aoe/aneoth “yeeoo”.

2. Aii?in ia eneaineie oa?ica aaieianeiio ?inoiaue/anoao “ia?aaeiaiai”
Caiaaea, eioi?ue Caiaae iaaeaaony ?aoeoue iin?aaenoaii aiaiiie iiue
?innee.

Oi anoue ii-i?aaeiaio eiaao ianoi ecaanoiay n ae?aaieo a?aiai iieeoeea:
?acaeaeye e aeanoaoe, e auei au aeoii iiianoueny ia yoo noa?oth oaei/eo
iaeaioia XXI aaea. Ii aeey oiai, /oiau aiaiioth iiuue ?innee iiaeii auei
nionoeoue eae oeaiioth ineio ia a?aaia aeiaaeueiie oeiainiaie oe?aiee
aeaoo aeanyoeia ?inoiaue/aneeo eeaiia, eiio?iee?othueo aaieianeia aeaei
(ii/aio-oi iacuaathueo naay aeaiie?aoeae)- e iaiaoiaeeiu caaaaeiii
iaiieaoiua aeieae ?innee.

Oae /oi aieia a *a/ia – yoi iao?aoea ec iiiaeanoaa aeiaeaiiuo ae?oa a
ae?oaa i?iaeai, acaeiinaycaiiuo iaae niaie. E iioiio iiae eicoiaii
iaania/aiey a yoie aieia oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe ?innee eneonii
ni?yoaia i?eieoeaiay eaeay: “?inney – aaeeeay noi?iaeaaay ineia
?iooeeueaeia”. Yoi – ia oa eaeay, n eioi?ie iiaeii iiaaaeeoue aia
caaeneiinoe io oiai, iaeaoaia iia a ia?auaiee i?aceaeaioa e a?iee e
ia?iaeo no?aiu eee i?iaiaeeony a aeeciue iie/aeeai a naiai?a n IAO.

Yoi ia icia/aao, /oi /a/aineay noi?iia i?aaa ai anao aac eneeth/aiey
aii?inao a? ioiioaiee n ?inneae (oaeueoeaua aaeci, nio/anoea a
aeaenoaeyo iaoee ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee, ?aca?aaeaiea o?aiceoiuo iiacaeia
ia ia?aaiiao a naiie *a/ia, auaic ethaeae a *a/ith n oeaeueth
?aaiaeaaeaiey): ca ia?ooaiey ni?aaaaeeeainoe, caiiaaaeaiiie a Ei?aia
ionoeueiaiai ii ioiioaieth ei anai aac eneeth/aiey ethaeyi, /a/aioeu
oaeaea ia?a/aiu ioaaoeoue. Ii e ?inney ia iiaeao ia ioaaoeoue ca oi, /oi
aacaeoiii ianao /a/aioeai ?inoiaue/aneia ?aanoai.

E?aaeeoia, naa?o oianeaaeiaaiiuo ?inneae io NNN?, iiiaa?aee e
caaeieaeaiiinoue ii iei naeaeaee caaaaeiii iaiieaoiie naiae iieeoeeie ia
ie?iaay caeoeena, a eiie?aoiua ainoaea?noaaiiua aeayoaee: A.O.Aaeaea?,
A.A.*oaaen, A.N.*a?iiiu?aeei, A.N.Eeaoeoe. I?e yoii aeieaeiinoiua
ieeaaeu e i?i/ea aeioiaeu anao iacaaiiuo aeinoaoi/ii auniee, /oiau iie
naie e eo naiuee ia eniuouaaee oaeaaee yoiai ceioiuoeaiii iaiieaoiiai
aeieaa. Ii yoei aeieaai oaea naaiaeiy auioaeaeaiu ieaoeoue ana
inoaeueiua ?inneyia, /ueth ineoieiae/aneoth e yeiiiie/aneoth, aiaiioth e
oece/aneoth aaciianiinoue niciaoaeueii ia?ooeee ana auoa ia?a/eneaiiua.
?aaeueiay aea iieaoa yoeo aeieaia auaeyaeeo eae e?ecen iaieaoaaeae,
caaeieaeaiiinoue ii ca?ieaoa e iaineyi, iai?a?uaiue ?ino oeai,
iia?aaeathuee ?ino aeioiaeia a iiieiaeueiii en/eneaiee, onoie/eaia a
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao i?aauoaiea nia?oiinoe iaae ?iaeaeaaiinoueth.

I?e/ai iieacii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea, /oi ana ia?a/eneaiiua, e?iia
A.N.*a?iiiu?aeeia, eiatho eaiaeeaeaoneea e aeieoi?neea aeeieiiu a
iaeanoe yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe, aea e Aeeoi? Noaiaiiae/ – ia auioneiee oeieu
aeey oinoaaiii ionoaeuo aeaoae. I?iua aiai?y, anee aeeieiiu auaeaiu
/anoiui e oiiui ethaeyi, eioi?ua oaea ianeieueei eao i?aauaatho a aunoeo
yoaeiiao ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a ?iee aaeieieno?aoi?ia e
eiinoeueoaioia ii aii?inai yeiiiieee, oi oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen
iaoeo aeiae – aaeethoeeiaoeee aieueiiai aiia?aaeaiey aieueoeinoaa
?inneyi. Anee aea oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen – aeeciaiiay
?aaeueiinoue, oi aeeieiiu auaeaiu ia oiiui e ia /anoiui ethaeyi, a
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe eniieiytho oa, eiai e aeecei iaeuecy
aeiioneaoue e oaeie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ionthaea n iai?aeiaeiie caeiiiia?iinoueth neaaeoao, /oi anai oiiui e
/anoiui, ene?aiia aieathuei ca noaeueao Ioa/anoaa, ?aii eee iicaeii
i?eaeaony aieeaoue a nouanoai aeae, a ia niio?aoue caai?iaeaii ii
oaeaaeaeaieth, eae Aiaoieee Ai?eniae/ caeeaaaony ia i?ann-eiioa?aioeeyo
(oi eaai, oi nieiaueai), a Aeaenaiae? Naiaiiae/, caaaaei/ii oeuaaynue,
aiai?eo, /oi ia iaaei aeaeaoue ec iaai iiino?a.

Eae ecaanoii anai ec oeieueiiai eo?na oeceee, iieaciue yooaeo, eioi?ue
iiaeii iieo/eoue io ethaie nenoaiu, /eneaii ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai:
“Iieaciue yooaeo” = “Eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai aeaenoaey”? “Eiee/anoai
aaaaeaiiie a nenoaio yia?aee”. Ana yeiiiie/aneea yooaeou – iieaciua e
a?aaeiua – /aeiaa/anoai ecia?yao a oeiainiauo iieacaoaeyo: oeaiao,
iai?ioao, iauaiao i?iaeaae e o.i.

Niioaaonoaaiii “oi?ioea i?i EIAe”, ni?aaaaeeeaie e aeey
iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo nenoai, ii ioiioaieth e eioi?ui iia oaeaea au?aaeaao
iauaoece/aneee caeii nio?aiaiey e i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee, eiee/anoai
aeaiaa e i?i/eo n?aaenoa ieaoaaea a iai?ioa iauanoaa aeieaeii auoue
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii iiuiinoe yia?aaoe/aneiai iioiea, ia iniiaa eioi?iai
?aaioaao an? i?iecaiaenoai a iae?i- e a iee?iyeiiiieea iauanoaa.

A i?ioeaiii neo/aa any oeiainiaay eioi?iaoeey ianiiinoaaeia iaaeaeo
niaie. Iieueciaaoueny oaeie oeiainiaie noaoenoeeie a aeaeao
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey – oi aea naiia, /oi iieueciaaoueny a
no?ieoaeuenoaa ?anoyaeeiie ?aceiiaie ia?iie eaioie. Ii aii?aee yoiio,
eiee/anoai aeaiaa a iai?ioa ?innee ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai ia?eiaea ?aoi?i
au?inei a ouny/e ?ac: yoi ia?aoeei ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao ?innee a
o?eoeei eaooai, e oiio aea ?ane?iaiiue ii ?anoyaeeiie aue?ieea.

I/aaeaeii, /oi i?iaeoeoiiaiai eaaeeo a iniiaa iiiaiio?aneaaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e niioonoaoao oaeiio i?iecaiaenoao. I/aaeaeii, /oi, anee
iiiaiio?aneaaia i?iecaiaenoai onoie/eai, oi onoie/eaiio i?iaeoeoiiaiaio
niioonoaoao onoie/eaay noaoenoeea ieaoaaeae e io/eneaiee i?e niaa?oaiee
naeaeie eoiee-i?iaeaaee. E niioaaonoaaiii yeiiiienou, aeieoi?a e
aeaaeaieee, ii?aaeaeythuea ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee
yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa, iaycaiu auee iauynieoue
i?aaeoaeuenoao e caeiiiaeaoaeyi yeaiaioa?iua aaue:

– oeiainiaua iai?iou io?aneae e i?aaei?eyoee a io?aneyo yaeythony
oeiainiaui ecia?eoaeai eo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, a iniiaa eioi?uo
eaaeeo yia?aiiio?aaeaiea e oaoiieiae/aneay eoeueoo?a (EIAe io?aneae);

– iineieueeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe oaoieei-oaoiieiae/anee
iaoneiaeaiu e iaaeeaiii eciaiythony ii ia?a iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna, oi i?e aieueoeo eieaaaieyo oeai e aeaiaaeiie iannu a iai?ioa
ainoaea?noaa iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa iaeioi?uo
io?aneae iiaeao ieacaoueny iaaeinoaoi/iie ii ioiioaieth e eo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iiuiinoyi, e iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa a ieo o?iieo
i?iecaiaenoai a ae?oaeo io?aneyo, yaeythueony eo iinoaaueeaie e
iio?aaeoaeyie;

– oaeia iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa naiae i?e/eiie eiaao ?anno?ienoai
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaie nenoaiu iieeoeeaie, ii ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae a i?iaeoeoeee yoeo io?aneae;

– iiyoiio onoie/eainoue i?iaeoeoiiaiaia a iiiaiio?aneaaii i?iecaiaenoaa
o?aaoao iiaeaea?aeaiey aeiaieueii aeanoeeo, iaaeeaiii iaiythueony ii
ia?a oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ia?anna, i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo iauaeoeaii
nouanoaothueie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iiuiinoyie, e iiieiaeueiuie
oeiainiauie iai?ioaie io?aneae, ii?aaeaeythueie eo ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue
i?e niaa?oaiee naeaeie eoiee-i?iaeaaee;

– auiaaeaiea yoeo i?iii?oeee ec aeiaieueii oceiai aeeaiaciia iiae
aicaeaenoaeai eieaaaiee iauaia aeaiaaeiie iannu a iai?ioa, iauaia
e?aaeeoiie caaeieaeaiiinoe e o.i. aaaeao e oo?aoa ?uii/iui iaoaieciii
niiniaiinoe e naii?aaoeyoeee iiiaiio?aneaaiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Niioaaonoaaiii no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa –
aeeeoaeueiue i?ioeann, o?aaothuee inoi?iaeiiai ia?auaiey n niaie, a
aao/a?iay i?eaaoecaoeey e nicaeaiea ?uiea “oeaiiuo” aoiaa i?e
eaii?e?iaaiee iauaeoeaiuo noaoenoe/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo oeiainiauie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e ?aaeueiui i?iecaiaenoaii – oeiainiaay aoa?a a iniai
e?oiiuo ?acia?ao i?e eniieiaiee aeieaeiinoiuo iaycaiiinoae.

E iyoue eao ?aoi?i, a?oai ia?ooeaoeo iacaaiiua i?eioeeiu, no?aia
aeaenoaeoaeueii ie/aai oi?ioaai ia i?eianee. Ii, aoaeo/e
i?ioanneiiaeueiuie yeiiiienoaie, eaiaeeaeaoaie iaoe, A.A.*oaaen e
A.O.Aaeaea? iaycaiu auee yoi ciaoue e i?aaeaeaeaoue aaaenoaaiiua
iineaaenoaey ia/aouo eie aeaenoaee AeI IA*AEA aao/a?iie i?eaaoecaoeee e
ioionea ia oieueei oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth, ii e nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia e oeaio?iaaiea.

Anoue aaue, eioi?ua /aeiaae, ieii/eaoee oaeoeueoao yeiiiie/aneie
eeaa?iaoeee (eeaa?iaoeea – iaoea ia oi?aaeaiee; yeiiiie/aneay
eeaa?iaoeea – ia oi?aaeaiee iee?i- e iae?iyeiiiieeie), iaycai iiieiaoue
e, aoaeo/e i?ioanneiiaeii, ia eiaao i?aaa ia?ooaoue e iaycai
oaea?aeeaaoue io ia?ooaiee ae?oaeo, iaeiaei e Aeaenaiae? Naiaiiae/
Eeaoeoe an? a?aiy ?aoi?i i?ieciineo neiaa ie i /?i e oeuaaaony i?e yoii,
ninoycaynue a caaaaei/iinoe oeuaee n Aeaeieiiaeie.

A iiea ana aieoatho, oai a?aiaiai iaoneiaeaiiinoue a iauanoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, iio?aaeaiey e oeiainia yia?aaoe/aneie aacie neoaeeo oaiie
aeey ea?eeaoo?, ii ia iniiaie aeey iino?iaiey athaeaeaoa ainoaea?noaa e
aai aeieaia?aiaiiie no?aoaaee iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey: oae
“Oeiainiaua ecaanoey” ia ia?aie no?aieoea ecia?aceee “eoith?o” a noeea
“aeieea?” n iiieiaeii “One Barrel”.

Ii anee au iaoneiaeaiiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e oeiainia yia?aiiioaioeeaeii
auea ia oaiie ino?io ea?eeaoo?enoia, e eiee/anoai ?oaeae a iai?ioa auei
iiae/eiaii aioo?aiiaio yia?aiiio?aaeaieth a no?aia, oi iiiaeo i?iaeai
?inney au ia eiaea. An? aea a?aiy ?aoi?i a ?innee iauai aeaiaaeiie iannu
a iai?ioa aue iaoneiaeai ia yia?aiiioaioeeaeii, a ?aciocaeaiiui nnoaeiui
i?ioeaioii eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, /oi e i?eaaei e iuiaoiaio
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneiio aaaenoaeth.

Anae oiaa?iie ianna i?ioeainoieo ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue iauanoaa, eae
naienoai. *eneaiiie ia?ie ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe yaeythony aeaiueae,
iaoiaeyueany iaeiiiiiaioii ia ?oeao e n/aoao oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo
eeoe.

Yia?aaoe/anee iaania/aiiue ?ino iiieiaeueiie ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, eae
iieacuaaao enoi?eei-yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec, ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo 150
eao – ia aieaa 3 % a aiae. I?e noaaea nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa ii e?aaeeoo,
i?aauoathuae yoe n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu, i?ienoiaeeo iia?aaeathuee ?ino
oeai ii ioiioaieth e aeioiaeai oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe. Oae
einoeooo e?aaeeoa ni nnoaeiui i?ioeaioii iaia?aoeii ia?aea/eaaao
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue ec iauanoaa a ei?ii?aoeeth aaieia, ii eaeie i?e/eia
iaeioi?ay /anoue i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee caaaaeiii ia iiaeao iaeoe
nauoa – aia caaeneiinoe io a? ea/anoaa e iio?aaiinoe a iae ethaeae, ii
eneeth/eoaeueii ii i?e/eia ?inoiaue/aneiai oaeooaiey a? iioaioeeaeueiiai
iio?aaeoaey. Eae neaaenoaea: eaeao aieia acaeiiuo iaieaoaaeae e
aaie?ionoa, a nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa ioaaouaaao an? ia?iaeiia
oicyenoai; ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao ia iieo/aao iaeiae; iaineiia?ai ia
ieaoyo iainee; athaeaeaoieeai ia ieaoyo ca?ieaoo. A i?aiuea?-ieieno? e
iiiiuiee i?aceaeaioa ii aii?inai yeiiiieee aiai?yo oi?ii, /oi ai anai
yoii aeiiaao aee?aeoi?neee ei?ion e ianoiay aaeieieno?aoeey, ia
i?iyaeythuea aeieaeiie i?aaei?eei/eainoe, iaiaoiaeeiie a ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea.

Ii ni?aoeaaaony, eoi nicaeae e iiiu?ye ?inoiaue/anoai eiiia?/aneeo
aaieia, niae?aaoaa ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, ianaeaiey e
ainoaea?noaa: aee?aeoi?neee ei?ion, aaeieieno?aoeey ia ianoao, eee an?
aea oeaio?aeueiay aeanoue: oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneea niaaoieee ai aeaaa n
i?aiuea?aie, ia/eiay io A.O.Aaeaea?a e eii/ay A.N.*a?iiiu?aeeiui,
iaaeiythuea ai anao yoeo a?aoao aee?aeoi?neee ei?ion e aaeieieno?aoeeth
ia ianoao?

Aaaeue yoi A.N.*a?iiiu?aeei a eiioea 1993 a. aeae oeacaiea oeaio?iaaieo
ia aeaaaoue e?aaeeou iiae i?ioeaio, iaiueoee, /ai i?ioeaio eioeyoeee e
oai naiui oyioe aaa?o ca ooe eioeyoeeth, aucaaiioth e aeecie
yia?aaoe/anee ia iaania/aiiie yienneae a?aiai A.O.Aaeaea?a, e
iiaeoeanouaae oai naiui ?inoiaue/anoai eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, ia
i?iecaiaeyueo ie/aai, ii oaeooathueo e i?iecaiaenoai, e iio?aaeaiea.
Oiaaea noaaea nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa a ?innee auea ii?yaeea 200 % aiaeiauo;
ai a?aiy iiacaeee a I?aiao?a ai a?aiy ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee
i?aceaeaioa a 1996 a. A.N.*a?iiiu?aeei iacaae aeaeaoaeueiie 30 %
aiaeiauo, /oi oiaea ?ac a 20 i?aauoaao i?aaeaeu oeiainiaie aaciianiinoe
iiiaiio?aneaaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. E iinea anao yoeo aeae ia
i?ann-eiioa?aioeee a ethea 1996 a. A.N.*a?iiiu?aeei cayaee, /oi ia iaai
eiii?iiaoa ia auei, iao e ia aoaeao. – A yoi /oi?

Ii iiaieth I.E.Aaeaaeiaa, auaoaai aieaa 20 eao I?aaenaaeaoaeai Ainieaia
NNN?, anee au ii, eae iuia A.O.Aaeaea?, aeiionoee au 20-ieeeea?aeioth
yienneth, ia iaania/aiioth oiaa?aie e oneoaaie, oi a eo/oai neo/aa ii
iieo/ee au 10 eao eaaa?ae.

E?iia oiai o ?inoiaue/anoaa anoue e ae?oaea iineaaenoaey: anee a?iee
ianyoeaie ia ieaoyo ca?ieaoo e ia oeiaine?otho a? i?iieoaiea (ia aiai?y
oae i oeiaine?iaaiee ia?aaii?oaeaiey iiaaeoei i?oaeeai e ooeeecaoeee
niyoiai n aii?oaeaiey), oi oai naiui i?eioaeaeatho a?ieth e /aou??i
aauai: 1) i?iaeaaea i?oaeey e iiaeaioiaea aiaaeeia, i?ioea eioi?uo
ae?oaea /anoe yoie aea a?iee aiineaaenoaee e aiththo; 2) i?iaeaaea
aiaiiuo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo nae?aoia ca ?oaaae; 3) i?e aaaeaiee aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee – e aaiaeeoecio e ia?iaea?noao; 4) e neeiaiio ?aoaieth oao
aii?inia, eioi?ua ioeai/ii ?aoaiu a oiaea inouanoaeaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneeo
i?ioeaaeo? iauanoaa. E eaeea iiaoo auoue iinea yoiai i?aoaicee e a?iee?

E eaeay iieueca ia?iaeai ?innee io Aeoiu, anee Aeoia ia iaoaieci
aicieeiiaaiey e oaeoaeaiey oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai
e?ecena a ?innee nenoaiaoe/anee oeacuaatho n 1994 a.? A aeoineeo
eiieoaoao i?aaeeaaaeinue aeaaea ?anniio?aoue aii?in i aianaiee a
Eiinoeoooeeth ?innee noaouee, neaaeiaaiea eioi?ie iicaieeei au niyoue
iiiaea oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu a aeecie no?aiu, iooai ia?aaiaea
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaie nenoaiu a eiie ?aaeei ooieoeeiie?iaaiey:

E?aaeeoii-oeiainiaay nenoaia ?innee no?ieony ia i?eioeeia ia?aueaaiey
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ?oaey e eiiaeee, iaania/eaaaiii: 1)
iia?aaeathuei ?inoii yia?aiiioaioeeaea ?innee ii ioiioaieth e aeaiaaeiie
ianna, iaoiaeyuaeny a ia?auaiee, 2) e?aaeeoiaaieai ia aani?ioeaioiie
iniiaa, a oaeaea 3) ia?aie/aieai aeioiaeia e iaeiieaiee a naiueyo,
o?iaiai caaaaeiii aeinoaoi/iui aeey aeecie, ii ia iicaieythuei
ia?aceoe?iaaoue ia /oaeii o?oaea.

Oieueei i?e niaethaeaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, niioaaonoaothuaai yoie
EIINOEOOOeEIIIIE II?IA, ainoaea?noai niiniaii auoue “aieeiaeaaii”,
eioi?ue caueoeo oicyenoai ia?iaeia ?innee io ia?aceoe/aneie nai?u
?inoiaueeia anaai ie?a.

– Ii a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo e aeoineeo e?oaao a ioaao eeai iie/aiea yaiyo,
ia eiathueo aic?aaeaiee; eeai aacaeoiii caaeathony au?aaeathuea
iaaaaeanoai aeinoaeea aii?inu: A eae aiiaua iiaeao ?aaioaoue
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaay nenoaia aac nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa?

– Oi?ioi iiaeao ?aaioaoue: A eieaa yiiineiai aaoi?a Neaeaoi Oeo?o
“Eiiaoe yiiineiai “yeiiiie/aneiai /oaea” niiauaaony, /oi a ssiiiee
ieeiaaea ia auei naiaiaeiiai nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa. Oeiainiaua i?aaiu
ainoaea?noaa e aaiee ?ani?aaeaeyee n?aaenoaa ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Ii
yoi icia/aao, /oi a ssiiiee iao oeiainiaiai ?uiea a oii aeaea, a eaeii
ii neiaeeeny ia Caiaaea, e a? yeiiiieea, ia eiay naiaiaeiiai nnoaeiiai
i?ioeaioa, iiaea au ?aaioaoue e n caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiui
aani?ioeaioiui e?aaeeoiaaieai. I?e/ai iae?iyeiiiie/aneay ?aaoeyoeey a
oneiaeyo aani?ioeaioiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey inouanoaeyeanue au aua i?iua e
yooaeoeaiaa, eae iieacuaaao aiaeec nenoaiu iaaeio?aneaauo aaeainia.
Aaieianeay i?eaueue a 1960-a aa. ninoaaeyea a ssiiiee aaee/eio ii?yaeea
0,5 % (n. 136), /oi a i?aaeaeao aaee/eiu ioeaee ecia?aiee
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee. Iaaeaeo oai, yoi aue ia?eiae a? iaeaieaa
auno?iai iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey a
iineaaiaiiua aiaeu.

Aiaeec niioiioaiey oa?aeoa?a aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe e yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa iieacae, /oi iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aneei “/oaeii” a ssiiiee e
ionoonoaeai a iae naiaiaeiiai nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa i?e iaiaa /ai 1 %-iie
aaieianeie i?eauee nouanoaoao i?yiay naycue, iaeiaei ia caia/aaiay
ii-caiaaeiiio iuneyuae yeiiiie/aneie iaoeie. E iaaeaeo ?inoiaue/aneei
?acaoeii a ?innee e a? oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneeie aieaciyie, oaeaea anoue
naycue – iaeiaei ia?aoiay ii ioiioaieth e oie, /oi eiaao ianoi a
yeiiiieea ssiiiee. Ii ia oioyo caia/aoue yoie nayce ?inneeneea iieeoeee.

Ii niiauaieth “Oeiainiauo Ecaanoee” ” noieeioaoenue n i/a?aaeiuie
yeiiiie/aneeie o?oaeiinoyie, ssiiiey ni/ea ca aeaai naanoe nnoaeiue
i?ioeaio i?aeoe/anee aei ioey: 0,5%.” Oeiainiaua ecaanoey.?64,
12.09.95. no?.4. Yoi ioee/aao aeaenoaey yiiineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
aeciana io aeaenoaee A.N.*a?iiiu?aeeia, acaeioeaoaai nnoaeiue i?ioeaio
aei aaee/eiu auoa oaiiia eioeyoeee e nicaeaaoaai oai naiui eioeyoeeiiiue
onei?eoaeue, ia?aoeaoee ana aaiee a ?inoiaue/aneea eiioi?u aianoi oiai,
/oiau ei auoue eiaanoeoeeiiiuie oiiaeaie.

Ii a yoie neaiioa e iie/aiee ii aii?ino i ?iee nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa a
oeiainiaie nenoaia ainoaea?noaa a iauai-oi iao i?eioeeieaeueiie ?acieoeu
iaaeaeo aeanoaothueie A.O.Aaeaea?ii, A.N.*a?iiiu?aeeiui, A.A.*oaaenii,
A.N.Eeaoeoeai, e anae eiiioienoe/aneie e i?i/ae eo iiiiceoeeae. E
i?inoui o?oaeaieeai, auaoei e ianoiyuei /eaiai eiiioienoe/aneeo ia?oee,
aii?inia auoue ia iiaeao: ethaee, /anoii o?oaeynue io ca?e aei ca?e,
onoaee io ia?aae?ya e aeaeatho ii?iaeueiie /aeiaa/aneie aeecie,
aaciianiinoe e ni?aaaaeeeainoe a iauanoaa aeey naieo naay e naieo aeaoae
e aioeia, e iioiio iiaeaea?aeeaatho iiiiceoeeth, a eioi?ie aeiieie?otho
eiiioienou, eeai aiiaua eaii?e?otho auai?u.

Ii e eeaea?ai e oai?aoeeai anao eiiioienoe/aneeo ia?oee aii?inu anoue:
Eoi ec ieo ia neeaaea aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee a ninoiyiee ioee/eoue
“iaiaoiaeeiue i?iaeoeo” io “i?eaaai/iiai”? Eoi ec ieo a ninoiyiee
?acee/eoue a oa/aiea ?aai/aai aeiy eee athaeaeaoiiai aiaea “iaiaoiaeeiia
?aai/aa a?aiy” io “i?eaaai/iiai”? Eoi ec ieo aeaeae “i?eaaai/ioth
noieiinoue”? Yoi an? – ecia/aeueiua eaoaai?ee ia?enenoneie
iieeoyeiiiiee, ia iniiaa eioi?ie iie niae?athony yeiau no?ieoue
“nioeeaeeci e eiiioieci”. Iaieioi au i?e yoii aua iauynieoue, /oi iie
iiae neiaaie “nioeeaeeci e eiiioieci” iiieiatho

Any aaaea a oii, /oi oeacaiiua auoa eaoaai?ee ia?enenoneie iieeoyeiiiiee
ia iiaeaeathony ecia?aieth a i?ioeanna yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
iauanoaa. Iiyoiio n ieie iaaiciiaeii naycaoue o/ao e eiio?ieue ia
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaaiciiaeii eo aaanoe e a i?aeoe/aneoth aooaaeoa?eth. E
iineieueeo A.E.Eaiei aeae iaeii ec ii?aaeaeaiee, eioi?ia o?oaeii
inii?eoue: “nioeeaeeci yoi – o/ao e eiio?ieue” Eaiei A.E. Nia?aiea
ni/eiaiee. o.7. no?.247., oi yoi icia/aao, /oi ia iniiaa ia?enenoeie
iieeoyeiiiiee aiciiaeii oieueei aeo?a/eoue ethaeae ia ieoeiaao e
iieeocaiyoeyo, ii iaaiciiaeii oi?aaeyoue yeiiiieeie ainoaea?noaa ia
ieaiiaie iniiaa ie aaeieieno?aoeaii-aae?anii, ie iin?aaenoaii iano?ieee
iaoaiecia oeiainiaie ?aaoeyoeee ?uiea ia iauanoaaiii iieaciua oeaee, /oi
iaauatho eiiioienou, a neo/aa naiaai i?eoiaea e aeanoe. Iaeiaei e
aioeeiiioienou, ia o?iaatho “nayuaiioth ei?iao” ia?enecia ca a?
aioeiao/iia iieeoyeiiiie/aneia auiy, iineieueeo io iaai aea ieoathony?

E ia eo/oa ee eiiioienoai iaeoiaoueny e i?iaanoe aooaaeoa?neoth ?aaeceth
ia?enecia, i?aaeaea /ai ?aaoueny e aeanoe iiae eicoiaii “Aeaiie?aou!
Aeaeoa ii?oeeoue!” Ia?iae an? aieueoa e aieueoa onoaao io anaai oiai,
/oi i?aaeoaeuenoai e iiiiceoeey ac?aueaatho ia yoii “iiea /oaean
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe”. Yoi – “iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue” eiai
oaiaeii, ii oieueei ia ia?iaeia ?innee. E yoi “iiea /oaean” oaea aeaaii
ii?a ia?aiaoaoue.

4.Eiioeaioeey iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe ?innee “Ia?oaay aiaea”.

E n/anoueth a ?innee ia ia?aaaeenue aua ethaee, eioi?ui iaaac?acee/ia
noaeueaa iaoaai ia?iaea e /aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii. A?oiia o/aiuo iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii aaia?aea Iao?iaa E.I. ?ac?aaioaea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaoth
eiioeaioeeth iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe iiae iacaaieai ”Ia?oaay aiaea”.

Eae ecaanoii ec ?onneeo ia?iaeiuo neacaiee, ia?oaay aiaea yoi – ia
io?aaa e ia ia?cinoue, a aeaaiaeaoaeueiia n?aaenoai: anyeie ia/enoe aa
aeaaaee ieoue, /oiau iia naia niaie ca/aoea; a aeia?ua ethaee i?e aa
iiiiue ainnoaiaaeeaaee oeaeinoiinoue oae iinea ?aiaiee e aeaaea iinea
?an/eaiaiey oaeouo, ia?aae oai, eae aic?iaeeoue eo e iieiioa aeecie
aeeaie aiaeie. Iaienaiiia neiai – ia?oai, a aeeaay iuneue a aeeaii neiaa
– ?a/ue /aeiaaea – aeeaay aiaea: oae /oi iacaaiea aanueia ciaiaiaoaeueii
aeey eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeee ia?iaeia ?innee.

Ia oeooeueiii eenoa eiioeaioeee – ciae i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eioi?iaoeee:
“Aioo?aiiee I?aaeeeoi? NNN?”, “i?aaeeeoi?” ii-?onnee – i?aaeoeacaoaeue.
A eiioea eaaeaeie ec aeaoo /anoae eieae oeacaiu aeaou iaienaiey: /anoue
I: oaa?aeue – ethiue 1991; /anoue II: oaa?aeue – iae 1991, – ana neacaii
aei AE*I.

*anoue I “Ia?oaie aiaeu” iacuaaaony “?acaa?iaoecaoeey”, /oi i?yii
i?ioeainoieo aa?iaoecio (oaeiie aeieo?eia ii?aaiuaiey /aeiaa/anoaa) e
eiaao iiaecaaieiaie “Enoi?eei-oeeinioneee i/a?e aeecia?a/aiey”.
Ninoaaeoaee “Ia?oaie aiaeu” n?aco aea aa?oo auea (noaey ii eiioaenoo: –
aaeiaoneiai Aiiia) ca ?iaa: oeacuaatho ia ?ieue ae?a/anoaa a no?oeoo?a
iauanoaa e i?aaiecaoeee aai naiioi?aaeaiey, eioi?ay, eae aeaeaa yanoaoao
ec oaenoa “Ia?oaie aiaeu”, ea/anoaaiii ioee/aaony io ?iee aeooiaainoaa e
eioaeeeaaioeee a iaoea e eneonnoaao, ecaanoiie iai ii nia?aiaiiinoe.

N oi/ee c?aiey ninoaaeoaeae “Ia?oaie aiaeu” nioeeieiaey, eae iaoea,
au?aaeaao niaie Aeinoaoi/ii Iauoth Oai?eth Oi?aaeaiey ii ioiioaieth e
iauanoao, e yaeyaony iauaiethuae ii ioiioaieth ei anaio iiiaeanoao
/anoiuo iao/iuo aeenoeeieei e anae nenoaia ciaiee. Iia ia i?iua, a
neiaeiaa, /ai iaoaiaoeea eee oeceea – o?aaeeoeeiiii-iauaaoaeueneea oanou
ia eioaeeaeooaeueiinoue – e oaeaea o?aaoao niaanoeeaiai
i?ioanneiiaeecia, eae e ethaia aeia?ia aeaei, iineieueeo i?aanoaaiiinoue
aeaeaoaeae iauaeoeaii i?aaeii?aaeaeyao ?acoeueoao. Niioaaonoaaiii
aeaeaaony auaiae: ”Nioeeieiaia-i?ioanneiiaeia a iaoea iao.
Aacioaaonoaaiiue aeaaiiaia?aiiue aeeeaoaioeci oeceeia (i/aaeaeiue iaiae
ia aeaaeaieea Naoa?iaa) eo caiaieoue ia iiaeao. NioeeIEOOE aea,
caiieiiea ainoaea?noaaiiua no?oeoo?u, acyee i?aaeaiea ia naay e
caeiiiia?ii aiaiaee iauanoai a oain (yoi – ioeaiee ninoiyiey ia?aie
iieiaeiu 1991 a.). Iiyoiio iacaaiea (ii eiioaenoo: “Enoi?eei-oeeinioneee
i/a?e aeecia?a/aiey”), aeinoaoi/ii no?iai i/a?/eaay oaiaoeeo eceiaeaiey,
inoaaeyao nioeeIEOOIA i?e eo iiiiiieee ia aiai?eeueith (
ii-“aeaiie?aoe/anee” – ia?eaiaioa?eci)”.

A?oaiaaoi e ia aeaeeeaoii, eiia/ii, neacaii, caoi aeioiae/eai. Ii
?aoi?iaoi?u-aeaiie?aoecaoi?u iiea ia naeaeaee ie/aai oaeiai, /oi
iicaieeei au iacaaoue ninoaaeoaeae “Ia?oaie aiaeu” iaaaaeanoaaiiuie
a?oaeyiaie, oai aieaa, /oi i iaaaoeaiuo iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneea
iineaaenoaeyo “aeaiie?aoecaoeee” iie i?aaeoi?aaeaeaee aua a 1991 a., a o
naeaeaaoeo oiaaea “aeaiie?aoe/aneee” auai?, auei aeinoaoi/ii a?aiaie,
/oiau naaiaeiy iiniayoueny iaae noa?ui a?aaeii “Ia?oaie aiaeu”.

A oae, iinea anao oneeee eaieoaeenoe/aneie ?aoi?iaoeee a aiaeeoe/aneie
?ac?aaioea iaeiie ec /anoii-i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo?
iiaeii i?i/eoaoue ioeaieo aeaiie?aoecaoeee e ?uii/iie eeaa?aeecaoeee
yeiiiieee ii Aaeaea?o e *oaaeno n oi/ee c?aiey aecianiaiia, oiathueo
aeaeaoue e n/eoaoue aieueoa /ai aeaiueae:

Anee ioeaieaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ?innee-NNN? a
iineaaeiea aeanyoue eao ii ?acoeueoaoai, iiaeaeathueiny ecia?aieth e
niiinoaaeaieth (aeeiaieea ?inneeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey,
ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, a?aaeaoeey ianaeaiey ii o?iaiyi iio?aaeoaeueneie
aeoeaiinoe ia ?acee/iuo ?uieao, aioo?enioeeaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue e
i?anooiiinoue), oi auaiae iiaeii naeaeaoue oieueei iaeei: e?iia
aeaaiiaia?aiiuo aeaeea?aoeee e iaauaiee, eioi?ua ainoaea?noaaiiay
aeanoue ia oiaao auiieiyoue, o I?aaeoaeuenoaa, eae, ai?i/ai, e o
“iai?eie?eiie” iiiiceoeee, ca aeooie ie/aai iao.

Naie aaeieieno?aoi?u, /uey iiaeienue e neiai i?eaeatho aeanoioth neeo
i?iaeoai oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee, aeaenoaotho ia iniiaa ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
aaoi?eoaoiuo niaoeeaeenoia. A iaaeaaniiniaiinoe /eiiaieeia oaeei ia?acii
i?iyaeyaony iaeiiiaoaioiinoue e neaiioa eiinoeueoaioia io iaoee,
o/anoaothueo a au?aaioea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee; i?aaeaea anaai yoi
eanaaony yeiiiie/aneie iaoee. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, aeaiiua eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui
yeiiiienoii aaeieieno?aoeee, i?e eo auiieiaiee aeieaeiu i?eaiaeeoue e
oai iineaaenoaeyi, eioi?ua iaauaao yeiiiieno, a ia e ia?aoiui, eae yoi
eiaei ianoi a iineaaeiea aiaeu a ?innee i?e neaaeiaaiee I?aaeoaeuenoaa
niaaoai aeiii?iuaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo “aaoi?eoaoia”.

Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai i?eaiaeeo e i?iaeaia caueou ei?ii?aoeee, eae
oicyenoaaiiie oeaeinoiinoe, iauaaeeiythuae iiiaeanoai aaeieieno?aoeaii
naiinoiyoaeueiuo /anoiuo oicyenoa ?aciie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe, io
aacioaaonoaaiiinoe ii ioiioaieth e ?aaeueiiio i?iecaiaenoao
eiinoeueoaioia e niaaoieeia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

Ei?i/a aiai?y, eicoia aeiy: “A?aoaa! Ia no?aeyeoa ae?oa a ae?oaa!
I?ieaoa?ee e i?aaei?eieiaoaee! Au – ia?iae: iauaaeeiyeoanue aeey caueou
naay e naieo aeaoae io iaaaaeanoaaiiuo iieeoeeaiia –
ia?enenoia-eaieioeaa e aeaiie?aoia!”

A aeey iauaaeeiaiey ?aciuo neiaa iauanoaa ioaeia i?eaieaiay aeey
aieueoeinoaa ie?iaicc?ai/aneay iniiaa, ia eioi?ie aiciiaeii
i?aaieciaaoue onoie/eaia naiioi?aaeaiea iauanoaa: o.a. i?iecaiaenoai e
?ani?aaeaeaiea, ainieoaiea aeaoae e o?oaeiono?ienoai iieiaeaaee, a
oaeaea e ac?ineuo, ii ia?a iaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aacu;
iaania/aiea ineoe/aneie e oaeaniie aaciianiinoe a?aaeaeai. Yoi,
eacaeinue au, aeieaeii auoue iauaiiiyoii anai, ii… E a nayce n yoei
“ii” iieacii ociaoue, /oi a “Ia?oaie aiaea” niaea?aeeony ?acaeae
“Aeinoaoi/ii iauay oai?ey oi?aaeaiey”.

Eoi-oi iiaeoiaao, /oi ia yoii ana, aua ii/oe iieaaea iacaae, iaienae a
naiae “Eeaa?iaoeea” I.Aeiia?. Ii a “Ia?oaie aiaea” yoi eceiaeaii ei?i/a,
a niaea?aeaoaeueii – oeaeinoii e iieiaa, /ai oi, /oi iaienaii
I.Aeiia?ii, eee /oi eco/aaony a iaeioi?uo aocao iiae iacaaieyie
“eeaa?iaoeea”, “ANO”, “oai?ey aaoiiaoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey”.
Enoi?eee-i?ioanneiiaeu, iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai “iieeoieiaia” yoeo
?acaeaeia iaoee ia ciatho, a oa ec ieo, eoi eco/ae, ia naycuaatho yoi
ciaiea n ?aoaieai i?iaeai, aicieeathueo a aeecie iauanoaa, oioy ana
i?iaeaiu iauanoaaiiie aeecie ii eo nouanoao – i?iaeaiu ia?ooaiey
ii?iaeueiiai iauanoaaiiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Iaaaaeanoai a iaeanoe
oi?aaeai/aneeo ciaiee – i?e/eia oiai, ii/aio iieeoeee e “iieeoieiae”
/anoi ianoo acaei? i i?ioeii e i aoaeouai; e?iia oiai iiiaea ec ieo ia
niia?aaeatho neia e ia iiieiatho ia?acia.

Ii au?aaeaieth iaeiiai aecai aoaeaeeeneiai iiiaoa, – “neiai eoia –
oieueei iaeaoe, oeacothuee ia eoio (eae ia iaeia yaeaiea), ii ia naia
eoia (o.a. ia naii yaeaiea)”. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iiiao oeacae ia
nouiinoioth ?acieoeo iaaeaeo iaeei yaeaieai (i?e?iaeiui eee
nioeeaeueiui) e “iaeueoeai ia iaai oeacothuei” – neiaii. Iaeiaei, iiiao
ie/aai ia neacae i o?aoueae ninoaaeythuae i?ioeanna iiciaiey: ia ia?aca
“eoiu”, aicieeathuai a niciaiee e iiaeniciaiee /aeiaaea.

A ie?iaini?eyoee ninoaaeoaeae “Ia?oaie aiaeu” Anaeaiiay –
i?ioeann-o?eaaeeinoai: iaoa?ey (oi, /oi nouanoaoao) – eioi?iaoeey (eaeei
ia?acii nouanoaoao) – ia?a (iicaieythuay ?acee/aoue iaeei ia?ac
nouanoaiaaiey io ae?oaiai). A yoii i?ioeanna iauaeoeaia eaaeaeay ec o?ao
ia?ac?uaiuo aai ninoaaeythueo. *aeiaae, yaeyynue /anoueth Ie?icaeaiuey,
iiciaao ie?oaeathuee aai ie? yaeaiee e aauae /a?ac iyoue i?aaiia /oanoa,
aeaiiuo aio Aiaii ii Aai i?aaeii?aaeaeaieth. Ia?acu, aicieeathuea a
niciaiee /aeiaaea, – noauaeoeaii iaoneiaeaiiue ?acoeueoao ioia?aaeaiey
iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe /a?ac i?aaiu /oanoa, e anoue eioi?iaoeey. Ii
ioiioaieth e iae neiai-eiae – anoue i?iyaeaiea iauaeoeaiie ia?u; neiai,
a iauaiee n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, auae?aao /aeiaae ia iniiaa oanoiai
/oanoaa – /oanoaa ia?u. *aeiaae ii ieeinoe Aiaeueae iaaeaeai naiaiaeie
aiee. Naiaiaea aiee i?aaeaea anaai i?iyaeyaony a niiniaiinoe:

?acee/ii ioia?aaeaoue ie?oaeathuee aai ?aaeueiue ie? aauae e yaeaiee,
o.a. nieiaoue n o?eaaeeinoaa aai eioi?iaoeeiiioth ninoaaeythuoth,
eioi?iaoeey ai Anaeaiiie iauaeoeaia, ii aini?eyoea aa noauaeoeaii;

?acee/ii, ia aaeeiiia?acii eiaee?iaaoue yoo eioi?iaoeeth, o.a.
iaaeaeyoue aa ia?ie, eiaeii, neiaii.

E iao ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai a oii, /oi o ?aciuo ethaeae, aeaaea
iaeiiai iieieaiey, i?e acaeyaea ia iaeie e oa aea aaue e yaeaiey
aicieeatho ?aciua ia?acu, eioi?ua iie e oiio aea aua e ii ?aciiio
eiaee?otho, o.a. aeatho ei ?acee/iua iacaaiey. E eiaaea eoi-eeai, eae
iiioaae, iiaoi?yao aacaeoiii o?aco: “Ieeoi ia eiaao iiiiiieee ia
enoeio”, oi aio ana aea ni a?aiaiai i?eaeaony oaaaeeoueny: Ieeoi ia
eiaao iiiiiieee ia enoeio, iioiio /oi iia ioe?uoa Aiaii aeey inaiaiey a
aai aeooa eaaeaeiio. E eaaeaeiio aeaii i?aai au?aceoue aai aeaeaiea
enoeiu a oao neiaao, eioi?ua ii iaeaeao iaeaieaa oi/iuie; ii oa, eoi
ano?aoeony n iiaui ciaieai, au?aaeaiiui aeaaea a ecaanoiuo ei neiaao,
ana aea aeieaeiu naie iino?ieoue ia?acu oao yaeaiee, i eioi?uo eaeao
?a/ue, naycaa eo ni anaie eo i?aaeieie iiiyoeyie i ie?a. Iu ia iiieiaai
iaeioi?ua aaue ia iioiio, /oi iaoe iiiyoey neaau, a iioiio, /oi nee aaue
ia aoiaeyo a e?oa iaoeo iiiyoee.

Iniaaiiinoue “Ia?oaie aiaeu” a oii, /oi yoi – aaeeinoaaiiay a iaoe aeie
eieaa, a eioi?ie aii?inu enoi?ee (iauanoaiaaaeaiey) inaauathony n
iiceoeee ynii eceiaeaiiie a iae aea iauae oai?ee oi?aaeaiey, /oi e
ioe?uaaao eaaeaeiio iiaua aiciiaeiinoe naiiiniciaiey naay a iauanoaa,
/oiau ia auoue ea?ooeie aeey caeeeiaoaeae nioeeaeueiie noeoee.

Oae iinea inaiaiey iiiyoeeiiai e oa?ieiieiae/aneiai aiia?aoa iauae
oai?ee oi?aaeaiey “caaaaeee” ia?ano?ieee e “aeaiie?aoecaoeee” noaiiayony
i?ic?a/iu e iiiyoiu, a ana aic?aaeaiey ianiaeaniuo ni neacaiiui a
“Ia?oaie aiaea” onoie/eai ia?aoatho oi?io enoa?ee. I?eia?ii oiio
ecaanoiue aeaiie?ao-aaeaieao A.Iaea?ia: caaua i ii?iao caeiiiinoe e
i?aaiaii ainoaea?noaa, ii a?ineeny a aeoineeo ei?eaei?ao n eoeaeaie ia
I.I.Eaaiiaa (iiiiuieea A.Aaiaa?ianeiai – caianoeoaey i?aaenaaeaoaey
ieaeiae iaeaou Aeoiu), aianoaai a “eoeoa?u Aeoiu” iacaaiioth eieao; a ia
no?aieoeao “Ecaanoee” io 9 aeaeaa?y 1995 a. eo ?aaeaeoeey, ii
ioiioaieth e oiio aea I.I.Eaaiiao, iionoeeanue aei iieneia ioaaoa ia
nae?aiaioaeueiue aii?in iacaaaaiiiai I.N.Iaieeianeiai: “A ou eoi
oaeie??!!…”, au?aaeathuae a aeaiiii neo/aa iuouaiea “yeeoa?iie”
ouaieaiiinoe: “*oiacue ia iiaeao!!…” (ec “Iaieii/aiiie iueanu aeey
iaoaie/aneiai ieaieii”).

Ec anaai, i /ai iiae?iaii ?anneacaii a “Ia?oaie aiaea”, aieueoeinoai
/eoaoaeae iaiin?aaenoaaiii cao?aaeaatho i?ioeannu a yeiiiieea.
Ninoaaeoaee nai?ieea a 1991 a. ii anae aeaeeiinoe iin/eoaee
iaoeaeaniia?aciui iieueciaaoueny aiia?aoii eeiaeiie aeaaa?u aeey
iienaiey i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e iio?aaeoaeueneiai
i?iaeoeoiiaiaia a iauanoaa. Yoi Aioo?aiiee I?aaeeeoi? naeaeae a “E?aoeii
eo?na…” Aecian e o/ao a ?innee..?5-6.1994.(aeo?iae “Aecian e o/ao a
?innee” – ecaeaiea aeey i?ioanneiiaeia yeiiiienoia e aooaaeoa?ia), ec
eioi?iai ethaie nooaeaio-aoi?ieo?niee, ciathuee aeaaa?o iao?eoe e
aaeoi?ia, a ninoiyiee iiiyoue, /oi iao eaeie-eeai i?eioeeieaeueiie
?acieoeu a yeiiiie/aneii iaaaaeanoaa Aaeaea?a, ssaeeineiai, ssneia,
Eeooeoea, O?ainiia, Cthaaiiaa, Nieaeaieoeuia, Naoa?iaa, Oaoa?aae/a,
*oaaena e iiiaeo ae?oaeo. Ana iie a naia a?aiy, ii/oe aanieaoii,
iieo/eee aunoaa ia?aciaaiea e eco/aee eeiaeioth aeaaa?o, – ii, iinyaay
ia iieeoe/aneia eeaea?noai, aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeieaeiinoe a
ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa, ia eioaeeaeooaeueiia iie?iaeoaeuenoai oai eee
eiui iieeoe/aneei oa/aieyi “i?inoiia?iaeuey”, – ie iaeei ec ieo ia
iiaeao acaeyiooue ia iae?iyeiiiieeo n iiceoeee oai?ee oi?aaeaiey e
naeaeaoue aaeeinoaaiiue auaiae, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeii
auei iano?ieoue iaoaieci ?uii/iie naii?aaoeyoeee oae, /oiau a no?aia ana
auee aa?aioe?iaaii caei?iau, ainieoaiu e iao/aiu, nuou, iaeaou, eiaee
e?uoo iaae aieiaie; e /oiau oae auei ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea.

Yoio auaiae i?ino: I?aeneo?aio (o.a. nienie oaeoueo oeai) – aaeoi?
ioeaee oi?aaeaiey anae nenoaiie iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ec yoiai
iieiaeaiey ?acaa?ouaaaony any yeiiiie/aneay iaoea a nioeeieiaee.

A i?inouo neiaao, aaci anyeie iao/iie oa?ieiieiaee iii icia/aao: A ?inoa
oeai, i?aaeaea anao i?i/eo nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, au?aaeaao naay
iaaaaeanoai, neaaioiea, ?aa/anoai /eiiaieeia aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey e eo
aaoi?eoaoiuo eiinoeueoaioia io iaoee; a oaeaea – i?iaeaaeiinoue anao
iacaaiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ?inoiaue/aneie iaoee, ne?uaathuaeny iiae
aeaaiaeaeiie auaaneie “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae”.

Iaeiaei, n 1991 a. e “eiiioienou”, e “aioeeiiioienou” aaeeiu a iai?eyoee
yoiai yeiiiie/aneiai aicc?aiey, aac eioi?iai ie iaeia ?uii/iay oai?ey ia
iicaieyao i?eaioe?iaaoue oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci ia i?iecaiaenoai ioaeiie
aieueoeinoao ethaeae i?iaeoeoeee a aeinoaoi/iuo iauaiao. Anee iao
oai?ee, oi yoi aiciiaeii inouanoaeoue ia iniiaa iaecaanoiiai ei anai
/oaeiai “know-how”, aneaaenoaea /aai iie ana – ia?eiiaoee aai
iaeaaeaoaeae; eeai aiciiaeii inouanoaeoue ia iniiaa ee/iie, iaecuynieiie
ioae?inoe aiaeaey-oioaeeoa?enoa – naiaai ?iaea ia?iaeiiai oiaeueoea,
eioi?iio aoaeao iaeeiaeiai iaieaaaoue e ia iaeaaeaoaeae “iio-oao” e ia
eo ia?eiiaoie.

Ia?enenoai-eaieioeai a “Ia?oaie aiaea” (/anoue II, ei. 2) naa?o oiai
iniai oeacaii ia acaei?iinoue “Eaieoaea” E.Ia?ena: ?aaeueiua iioiee
i?iaeoeoiiaiaia ia iiaoo auoue aoenioou a aai noaio I e II
“iiae?acaeaeaiee” Ia?en E. Eaieoae. o.2.no?.311. ni anaie auoaeathueie
ec yoiai aeey ia?niaeoea ia?enecia-eaieiecia-o?ioeeecia e ia?enenoia
anao ianoae iineaaenoaeyie.

A “Ia?oaie aiaea” iauyniaiu ia oieueei iiiaea “ioeaee” auaoeo a NNN?
Ainieaia e Ieioeia, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo aiciee canoie e ie?aae
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaoi?aiey a ?innee caiaaeiiai iiuoa iauanoaaiiiai e
oicyenoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa; ii a iae aea caaiaey iacaaiu e i?e/eiu
iuiaoieo aaaenoaaiiuo iao?yaeeoe: ii?iaeaeaiea nenoaiu eiiia?/aneeo
aaieia.

E iinea oiai, eae acaeiiiiieiaiea n e?aaeeoi?ii aeinoeaiooi, neooaoeey
ea/anoaaiii eciaieeanue. Anee aei yoiai iiiaioa, n oi/ee c?aiey /anoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, “noeoey ?uiea” nouanoaiaaea, oi a iiiaio iiyaeaiey
I?AAIECIAAIIIAI e?aaeeoa noeoey ?uiea en/acea, e ia/aeinue IIAAEAAAIEA
“noeoeae”, oioy a aiia?aaeaiee /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey, a aiciiaeii, e
iiiaeo niaaoneeo ?uii/ieeia, iia i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue.

Aaieianeee e?aaeeo io e?aaeeoa /anoiiai ?inoiaueea ioee/aaony oieueei
oai, /oi ?inoiauee aeaao a ?ino “naie” “/anoii” iaaeeoua aeaiueae, a
aaie aeaao a ?ino aeaiueae aeeaae/eeia, aica?auay aeeaae/eeai, /anoue
nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa a ea/anoaa i?ioeaioa ii aeeaaeai (/oi
iiae?acoiaaaao: ia?aceoe?oy ia naieo aea aeeaae/eeao e ia ia eiathueo
aeeaaeia).

Ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?inueaa i
e?aaeeoa i?aaei?eieiaoaey nii?iaiaeaeaaony ano?a/iuie aii?inaie: /oi ii
niae?aaony i?iecaiaeeoue; ii /ueei iaoaioai e oaoiieiaeyi; eiio ii
niae?aaony i?iaeaaaoue? A caaeneiinoe io ioaaoia ia yoe aii?inu
aunoaaeythony oneiaey e?aaeeoa, ii?aaeaeythuea IA ONIAOE
NIAA?OAINOAIAAIEss I?IECAIAeNOAA, enoiaey ec iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania, a
ONOIE*EAINOUe IEAOAAEANIINIAIINOE i?aaei?eieiaoaey, enoiaey ec
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe e?aaeeoi?a a oniaoiii ooieoeeiie?iaaiee aeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaiiii iauanoaa i?e aeaiiie aai nioeeaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee e i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiui aai aeaaeaeueoeai.

Oioy aieueoeinoai ia aeaeeo ?acieoeu iaaeaeo auieaoie iaeiaia
ainoaea?noao e auieaoie i?ioeaioia ii e?aaeeoiie nnoaea, ii ?acieoea
anoue. Iaeia – anaaaea aeiey, ioaeaaaaiay ainoaea?noao io oaea
i?iecaaaeaiiiai, io oaea ia?aoaiiiai. Naiaiaeiue nnoaeiue i?ioeaio ii
e?aaeeoo – aeiey io aua ia i?iecaaaeaiiiai, aua ia i?eia?aoaiiiai, ii
oaea i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiay e ioaea/a ?inoiaueeo-ia?aceoo. I?e yoii nnoaeiue
i?ioeaio anaaaea iiaeaea?aeeaaaony o?ain?aaeiiaeueiie ei?ii?aoeeae
?inoiaue/aneeo eeaiia auoa, /ai oaiiu ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa a iaeciaiiuo
oeaiao. Aneaaenoaea yoiai ei?ii?aoeey ?inoiaue/aneiai ia?aceoecia,
oaaaeeoaeueii eiaioaiay “iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaieianeie nenoaiie”,
iiiiiieueii i?oaeoy nnoaeiui i?ioeaioii, ia?aea/eaaao iauanoaaiiia
aiaaonoai a noieiinoiie oi?ia aai o/aoa io i?iecaiaeeoaeae e ia?aceoai.
Iineieueeo e?aaeeo ni nnoaeiui i?ioeaioii – ea?a ia iiea, aaea anaai
iaeie ai?ioa, ei?ii?aoeey aeiieie?oao a noa?a oeiainia, iaeaaeay
oeiainiaie iiuueth, aieueoae, /ai “aaeeeea aea?aeaau”, /oi iicaieyao ae
aac?acaeaeueii oi?aaeyoue eiaanoeoeeiiiuie iioieaie e ea/anoaii aeecie
ai anao no?aiao, aaea i?eciaii caeiiiui e?aaeeoiaaiea iiae i?ioeaio (oai
aieaa iiae naiaiaeiue nnoaeiue i?ioeaio, ia ia?aie/aiiue
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii).

Yoa eeaiiaay oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneay iaoeiciay aeeeoaoo?a i?aaeii/eoaao
ioi?ieyoue naith aac?acaeaeueioth aeanoue iaae iauanoaaie a oi?iao
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe oeia “caiaaeiay aeaiie?aoey”, iineieueeo a yoie
nenoaia eaiaeecaoeee iieeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe iaaieueieeia ei?ii?aoeee
eeaiia ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa eaa/a anaai ono?aiyoue io aeanoe iai?iaeaaeiuo
ia?iaeiuo aiaeaeae e iacia/aoue naieo “e.i. aiaeaey”, ia eioi?iai
aiineaaenoaee aoaeoo nienaiu aa aea i?anooieaiey i?ioea /aeiaa/anoaa
(oaeei aue Aeoea?).

?aaioathuee aia?eeaiaoe o?oaeeony ia aieueoa, /ai ?aaioathuee a?aceeaoe
eee eieoiaeaoe; ii a aai aeioiaeao ?inoiaue/aneay ninoaaeythuay –
aieueoa, e iioiio ii aeeaao a iio?aaeoaeueneii ioiioaiee aiaa/a. Oae
auno?aeaaaony aeiaaeueiay ie?aieaea acaeiiiai ?inoiaue/aneiai
ia?aceoecia, a eioi?ie eaa/a anaai aeeaaony ?inoiaue/aneie yeeoa,
oyaeaeaa anaai – oai, eoi ia?a/ai ath o?oaeeoueny, ii eeoai
?inoiaue/aneiai aeioiaea: a n?aaeiee eeann (aeeth/ay e
“eioaeeeaaioeeth”) – nuoia aii?aeueiia auaeei, eioi?ia eae-oi o?oaeeony
e i?e yoii i?yii (/a?ac “oeaiiua” aoiaae) eee iiin?aaeiaaiii (/a?ac
?acieoeo a ca?ieaoa a ?aciuo io?aneyo e no?aiao) iieo/aao e aeieth
?inoiaue/aneiai aeioiaea, auaeaeyaioth aio eeaiaie ei?ii?aoeee.
Aeeaae/eee – aea?oau iiiaeanoaa aoa? io “Iaiaiu” aei “III” –
?inoiaueee-iaoaea/ieee: ioeoaea aeieaeiu auee acyoueny aiaeaeaeaiiua eie
300 % aiaeiauo, anee yia?aaoe/anee iaoneiaeaiiua oaiiu ?inoa
i?iecaiaenoaa a ianooaaao ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a oeaeii ia aieaa 5 % a
aiae? – oieueei ec ea?iaiia o?oaeaieeia, eioi?ui iaaeiiea/aii ca eo
o?oae e ec yiennee ia?eniaaiiuo aeaiaa, ia iaania/aiiuo i?iaeoeoeeae ii
oaeouei oeaiai.

Oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiia oi?aaeaiea
eiaanoeoeeiiiuie iioieaie oiuoeaiii neeoi a enoi?e/anee ?aaeueiie
aaieianeie nenoaia n ?inoiaue/aneei ia?aceoeciii, ia i?eaeaao
ia?aceoecio nayoinoe: aaiee? a i?aaa oi?aaeyoue eiaanoeoeeiiiuie
oiiaeaie iauanoaa a eioa?anao iauanoaa, ii ia a i?aaa e?aaeeoiaaoue iiae
i?ioeaio, ii?iaeaeay a iauanoaa iioiee acaeiiiai ia?aceoecia, a eioi?ii
ii aac?acaeaeueii aeiieie?oao. Yoiio o?aaiaaieth aeieaeii
niioaaonoaiaaoue iauanoaaiii-ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai aeecie ethaeae,
iaienaiay yoeea e ienaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

Oio, eoi iie/eo ia yoii – eeai ia?acoiiu e ia iiieiatho anaai yoiai,
eeai – i?yiua noaaeaiieee e i?eoeaaaoaee aeiaaeueiie ?inoiaue/aneie
iaoee, e iioiio iie no?iyo ?inoiaue/aneoth yeiiiieeo iauanoaa acaeiiiai
ia?aceoecia: ”Anee au oioeoa inoaoueny ?aaaie aaiee?ia e iiea/eaaoue
ecaea?aeee nianoaaiiiai ?aanoaa, iicaieueoa ei i?iaeieaeaoue oi?aaeyoue
e?aaeeoii no?aiu”, Ecaanoey. ?12. 10.02.98. – ny? Aeaeicao Noyii,
auaoee i?aceaeaio Bank of England.

Eae yanoaoao ec oeeoe?iaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, ?acoiiue auai? aoaeouaai
?innee ii naiae eiioeaioeee aanueia ioee/ai e io
oioaeeoa?ii-iaeiiia?oeeiiai ia?enenonei-eaieineiai i?ioeiai, e io yeiau
aeueoa?iaoeaiie aio iiaeaee iauanoaa caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee n
iiiaiia?oeeiie eaiaeecaoeeae iieeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe iaaieueieeia – io
?iaeaeaiey aeeaie nianoaaiiinoe, i?eiaaeeaaeauae eeaiai ?inoiaueeia. A
yoeo eiioeaioeeyo o?acaue ?acoi ia aeaeeo ?acee/ee: Ana yoi naaoneea eee
“aiaineianeea” ?aciiaeaeiinoe iaeeyaea ia iaeiii e oii aea – iinoa?aaoai
– eeea ?aniai-“yeeoa?iiai” ceiaeaenoaa ai eniieiaiea aeieo?eiu oieiaeiie
aieiu Aoi?icaeiiey-Enaee. Eiaaea ia/oi iiaeiaiia auei iieiaeaii a iniiao
aeoea?ecia, oi aieueoeinoai ia niiiaaaeinue a enoi/ieea i?ienoiaeaeaiey
aeoea?ianeiai eeea yoie aea aeieo?eiu.

Iaeeyae ia aeiaaeueiii ia?aceoecia, e a /anoiinoe ?inoiaue/aneii, oi?ioi
niuaaaony “Ia?oaie aiaeie”. Ii io?eoeaiea aeieo?eiu Aoi?icaeiiey-Enaee –
aua ia ?ac?aoaiea ?inneeneiai e?ecena naiioi?aaeaiey, iineieueeo
ooaa?aeaeaiea “ia iaaei ooaea aoaoue” ia aeaao ioaaoa ia aii?in: Eoaea
aeieaeii aoaoue e eae? Ii yoio aii?in iac?ae, /oi aeaeii ec
iiiai/eneaiiuo ioaeeeaoeee e a “i?aaie”, e a “eaaie” i?anna i
iaoeeiiaeueiuo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo naa?ocaaea/ao ?innee. *oiau ioaaoeoue
ia iaai iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoueny iieiaeeoaeueii ii oeaeyi
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey e aeiionoeiui n?aaenoaai eo aeinoeaeaiey, a aeey
yoiai niioianoe ?inneth n aa ie?oaeaieai.

Anee auianoe ca neiaee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, oi iiaeii
oaeaeaoue, /oi a noa?a iauanoaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey Caiaae e eiioeo OO aaea
oieueei iiaeoiaeeo e ia/aeo oiai iooe, eioi?ui ?inney eaeao ii e?aeiae
ia?a ni a?aiai acyoey iiae aeanoue Iineau, ?ycaie, Oaa?e, Iiaai?iaea,
Eacaie, Ano?aoaie – iaeiaaea auaoeo noieeoeaie nii?aaeaeueiuo
Iineianeiio eiyaeanoao ainoaea?noa, ?acia?ii n nia?aiaiiua Aieeaiaeeth,
Ethenaiao?a e o.i. Iinea iauaaeeiaiey a a?aieoeao ?innee e caie?aiey –
anee iauaaeeiaiea auei neeiaia – ana aeeaoeany a ?inneth ia?iaeu
?acaeaaee naie iaoeeiiaeueiua eoeueoo?u aaeaie, e ana iie nio?aieeenue a
a?aieoeao iauaai ei ainoaea?noaa e 1917 a. I?e yoii oicyenoai
iianaianoii aaeinue ia iniiaa iaua?inneeneiai ?oaey; iaania/eaaeinue
aaeeinoai oi?aaeaiey, o.a. aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee, a i?aaeaeao
yoiai iiiaieoeueoo?iiai ?aciiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey.

Nio?aiiinoue e ?acaeoea eoeueoo? e ia?iaeia icia/aao, /oi iaaeiaiea a
“?oneoeeaoeee” ii nouanoao – iocu?ue eeaaaou, ?acaeooue ec eiaaoeo ianoi
ceioiio?aaeaiee aeanoueth ia ianoao. “?oneoeeaoeey” cao?iioea oieueei
iaoeeiiaeueiua “yeeou”, /oi iicaieeei ei aeeoueny a eaae?iaoth aaco
iauaeiia?neie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey. Ai?oeaie n “?oneoeeaoeeae” auee ia
noieueei oa, /uea iaoeeiiaeueiia aeinoieinoai auei aeaenoaeoaeueii
oieaeaii e inei?aeaii, neieueei oa, /uee nianue e aaeeeiaea?aeaaiua
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea “yeeoa?iua” i?eoycaiey ieacaeenue a ?innee
iaoianoiu. I?eia?ii oiio niiaeaeaeieee O.Einothoei a Iieueoa, ia
iiaeaeaaoea inaiaiaeeoue naieo e?aiinoiuo. Iie aoceee iioiio, /oi eeoaiu
auee aiciiaeiinoe iaiiaaoue ia Oe?aeia, eae yoi auei ianeieueeeie aaeaie
?aiaa. Aoaaeciu yoiai aeiaeeee aeaaea aei 1945 a., eiaaea Aienei
Iieueneia ?aniaaaei “Aaeia Iieueoa aaeiaeiaa io Eeaaa aei E?aeiaa”.

Oi anoue aua aei 1917 a. a ?innee ianeieueei noieaoee, oioy e
i?aiaeieaaay e?ecenu, ii a oeaeii onoie/eai aeaeaee oi, /oi Caiaae
oieueei iaia?aaaaony i?iaeaeaoue ia iniiaa Iaano?eooneeo niaeaoaiee, ai
iiiaii, enoaoe, iiaoi?ythueo Oa?oeth NN 1944 a., eiaaea aioo?e NN
aicieeea iiiiceoeey Aeoea?o. I?e yoii aua – iniaue aii?in, oaeanony ee
ia?iaeai Aa?iiu nio?aieoue eo iaoeeiiaeueiua eoeueoo?u, eee oaiioiea
iaaeaeoia?iaeieee-eioa?iaoeeiiaeenou (ia iaycaoaeueii ia?enenou) noiatho
eo ecaanoe a oeaeyo oi?iuaiey iea?aoeee ?aaneeu e caianoeoue
iaoeeiiaeueiua eoeueoo?u “i?ieaoeoeueoii” – ianneoeueoo?ie –
iiieoeueoo?ie: eoeueoo?ie o?oaeyueony iann – eeoaiiie enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeiai, e iioiio – aaciaoeeiiaeueiie, ne?iaiiie ia iniiaa
eaeiai-ieaoaeue oaae-iaoaee-?ie-“ynia?aioi”, iaae eioi?ie yeiau
aicieeiao iaeay iauaanaeaineay (einiiiieeoe/iay, oieaa?naeueiay)
eoeueoo?a “yeeoa?iiai” inaaaei/aeiaa/anoaa. A ?innee aea
eioa?iaoeenou-ia?enenou, i?eoaaeoea e aeanoe a 1917 a., a naiai
aieueoeinoaa ia ia?aaeeee 1937 a. aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi onoie/eainoue
iaua?inneeneiai oi?aaeaiey i?aacioea aiciiaeiinoe oaeiuo aeieo?eia?ia
Caiaaea ii aa oie/oiaeaieth.

Yoi oiaea ia “neo/aeiinoue”. Aua a ia?eiae e?ecena Cieioie I?aeu auei
aeaa oeaio?a eiinieeaeaoeee ?onneeo caiaeue: Iineaa e iuiaoiee
Aeeueithn. Aeeueithn aeaenoaiaae noieue oniaoii, /oi Eaeoaa (ieiei 190
ei e thai-caiaaeo io Iineau) auea e?aiinoueth ia a?aieoea n Eeoaie. Oi
anoue Aeeueithn a ae?aaiinoe eiae ?aaeueiua oainu noaoue ni a?aiaiai
“noieeoeae NNN?”. Ii n ioeacii io naiiauoiinoe ?acaeoey e i?eiyoeai
caiaaeiie i?eaioaoeee, Aeeueithn iioa?ye aeanoue iaae iaoe?iuie
oa??eoi?eyie, noaaoeie nia?aiaiiie ?inneae. Iie ioioee e Iineaa iioiio,
/oi naiiauoiia Iineianeia ea/anoai onoie/eaiai oi?aaeaiey auei auoa, /ai
aeueoa?iaoeaiia aio naiiauoiia caiaaeiia ea/anoai oi?aaeaiey.

E niioaaonoaaiii yoiio caiaaeie/anoai ?anoeaaoaei a ?innee
eneeth/eoaeueii eae yenieoaoaoi? aicieeaaoeo e?ecenia naiiauoiiai
?acaeoey iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ?inneeneiai iauanoaa – niooa,
iaiieaiiiaoeu, aeaeaa?enou, ia?enenou, aeenneaeaiou, nia?aiaiiua
“aeaiie?aoecaoi?u” – aicieeaee eae aiaoiyy eee aioo?aiiyy, ii iaeeiaeiai
e?aeia iiaa?oiinoiay ?aaeoeey ia e?ecenu naiiauoiinoe. A aeoaeia aea
e?ecenia e a i?aaeunoi?ee eo aicieeiiaaiey iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue
aeayoaeueiinoue caiaaeiuo “aaaioia aeeyiey”, oae eee eia/a ianaaeaeaaoeo
iiaiea i oii, /oi iaua/aeiaa/iinoue yoi anoue Caiaae, eae aaeeinoaaiii
ia?aaeiaay ?aaeiiaeueiay oeeaeeecaoeey: Eaoi?o i?e Iao?a I; “aoaa?ia?u”
aeaeaa?enoia; oieaa?neoaoneay coa?aaeea caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?u i?e
nianoaaiiii aacaeoiuea (ia?enenou), – ?ac?aoay iaeie e?ecenu
ianinoiyoaeueiinoe caiaaeainoaa a ?innee, ii?iaeaeaiiua caiaaeieeaie a
i?ioeuo iieieaieyo, naie nayee naiaia aoaeoueo e?ecenia.

Ana neacaiiia iicaieyao iiiyoue, /oi Caiaae – anaai eeoue ?aaeiiaeueiay
oeeaeeecaoeey, io ?iaeaeaiey naiaai ca?aaeaiiay yeniaineae ?aniaaea
eiia?ee ae?aaiaai ?eia. A i?ioeii iia aeeth/aea a naay iiiaea
iaoeeiiaeueiua ainoaea?noaa, iai?anoaiii a?aaeaeiaaaoea iaaeaeo niaie, e
oieueei oaia?ue a iae ia/eiatho no?ieoue nenoaio aioo?aiia
aaneiioeeeoiiai oi?aaeaiey aeeciueth ethaeae a iauae ei anai
oeeaeeecaoeee.

?inney aea – ii e?aeiae ia?a ni a?aiaie acyoey Eacaie – ?aaeiiaeueiay
oeeaeeecaoeey a a?aieoeao iaeiiai iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, a
eioi?ii aioo?aiiea aieiu – yieciaeu, a ia ii?ia nouanoaiaaiey:
“100-eaoiyy aieia”, “30-eaoiyy aieia” – yoi ec enoi?ee Caiaaea, a ia
?innee. ?inney-oeeaeeecaoeey ?acaeaaeanue aioo?aiia ie?ii iioiio, /oi
oaea aeaaii eiaea ea?a?oe/anee yoaeiie?iaaiioth nenoaio oi?aaeaiey
oeeaeeecaoeeae, onoie/eaoth e aiaoiei aoi?aeaieyi, eae e neeiaui, oae e
e eioi?iaoeeiiiui. Ainoaea?noaaiiinoue a iae – oieueei iaeei ec yoaeiiia
oi?aaeaiey Oe E A E E E C A Oe E E, i?e/ai ia iaeaunoee a eo ea?a?oee,
ii eaeie i?e/eia i?aia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a ?inneeneie
oeeaeeecaoeee eiatho oieueei aeaeeiinoue aiaeiaee n aicieeiiaaieai e
?aniaaeii eiia?ee ia Caiaaea eee ia Ainoiea.

Caiaeii oeaaeai, /oi ia aiieia iauaiiiyoiiio eaoeineiio neiao-ciaeo
“oeeaeeecaoeey” anoue iaeiicia/ii iiieiaaiua ?onneea yeaeaaeaiou:
naiiauoiinoue, naiiauoiue ia?ac aeecie, anoanoaaiii – ia?iaea,
iineieueeo /aeiaae nouanoai iauanoaaiiia.

Iineieueeo iauanoai ?innee-oeeaeeecaoeee – iauanoai iiiaeo ia?iaeia, ii
eaouie – “iaoeee”, oi a ?innee-oeeaeeecaoeee ia iiaeao auoue eiioeaioeee
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe, iineieueeo oaeia iacaaiea eiioeaioeee ii
oiie/aieth aeiioneaao, /oi aaciianiinoue iaeiie iaoeee (eee
inaaaeiiaoeee) iaania/aia ca n/ao oaiaoaiey ?acaeoey ae?oaeo. Oi anoue a
?innee iiaeao auoue iaeaoaia iaeia eee aieaa /ai iaeia Eiioeaioeey
iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai iauanoaa. Ii i?eiyoa
aeeciueth iiiaeo ia?iaeia aoaeao oieueei iaeia aaeeinoaaiiay
Eiioeaioeey, a eioi?ie ana ia?iaeu-o?oaeaiieee oaeaeyo yniia au?aaeaiea
ia oieueei eo aeeciaiiuo eaeaaeia, ii e ?aaeueiuo niiniaia eo
inouanoaeaiey a iianaaeiaaiinoe. Yoi ecia/aeueii i?aaeii?aaeaeyao
aeiaaeueiue o?iaaiue ioaaonoaaiiinoe oaeie eiioeaioeee, iineieueeo yiioa
ionoineiaey i “iaoeeiiaeueiie iacaaeneiinoe” caaa?oeeanue.

A nayce n yoei ioiaoei, /oi aoi?ay /anoue nai?ieea “Ia?oaay aiaea”
iacuaaaony “Aienaiea”. Eiioeaioeey iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe”. Oi anoue
yoi iaeia ec aiciiaeiuo eiioeaioeee aoaeouaai ?innee. Oioy iia auea
iioaeeeiaaia aua a 1992 a. e ecaanoia a ?oeiaiaenoaa anao iieeoe/aneeo
ia?oee ?innee, ii ie iaeia ec ieo ca yoi a?aiy ia oeacaea ie ia ioeaee a
“Ia?oaie aiaea”, ie auaeaeioea aeueoa?iaoeaiie ae ioe?uoie eiioeaioeee,
/oi canoaaeyao caaeoiaoueny i iie/aeeaie eiioeaiooaeueiie iauiinoe,
eacaeinue au a?iiiaeanii iaee/athueo ae?oa ae?oaa ia?oee e iauanoaaiiuo
aeaeaeaiee.

?inney iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiay e iiiaieiioanneiiaeueiay oeeaeeecaoeey. E a
iae aaeaie aeeaao iineiaeoea, au?aaeathuay nouiinoue aaeeiaiey ia?iaeia
?innee: Aia – iaeei, a aa?u – ?aciua. Iineieueeo Aia – anoue Aia ia
iaono?ienoaa, ii ie?a, a iiaeiaiua neiaa anoue a eaaeaeii aa?io/aiee, oi
naiiauoiue iooue ?acaeoey ?innee iaeei: e Aiaiaea?aeaaeth. E anee
ia?aoeoueny ia e ?eooaeueiui ia?yaeiaui o?aaeeoeeyi ?acee/iuo eiioannee,
a e aaeeiiio niuneo ia eca?auaiiuo Ioe?iaaiee, oi iiaeii oaeaeaoue, /oi
Iienae, Eenon, Iooaiiaae, eaaeaeue a naia a?aiy o/eee ethaeae iaeiiio e
oiio aea: Eae aeeoue oae, /oiau Oea?noaea Aiaeea niecioei a iauanoai
ethaeae. Enoi?e/anee ?aaeueiay iaaeeiioanneiiaeueiay
i?aaeoaaaeaeaiiinoue e a?aaeaea – neaaenoaea oiuoeaiiiai eca?auaiey
niunea Ioe?iaaiee caiiuie aeanoiethaoeaie, i?eia? /aai e yaeyao
aeieo?eia, oneiaii iacaaiiay Aoi?icaeiiey-Enaee, oioy enoeiiua i?i?iee
ia eiatho e i?eienaiiie eo aaoi?eoaoo ionaayoeia ieeaeiai ioiioaiey. Eoi
yoi io?eoeaao, ionoue ciaiaioao, /oi ia?cinoue ?inoiaue/aneiai
ia?aceoecia – Aiaeuea i?aaeii?aaeaeaiea. Anee ei aeaii yoi ciaiaiiaaoue,
oi o ieo iao i?e/ei aiyoueny “Ia?oaie aiaeu”; ii iie/aiea i iae a
oa/aiea o?ao eao – ciaiaioao oi, /oi ei anoue /aai a iae aiyoueny.

Iinea anaai neacaiiiai noaiiaeony iiiyoiui anoanoaaiiia iiiaiaaeiaia
no?aieaiea ia?iaeia ?innee e ea?a?oe/anee aunoaio iauaieauaio
oi?aaeaieth eee ii-?onnee e A I A I Ae A ? AE A A E TH.

*oi-oi iiaeiaiia iuoathony au?aceoue a naie ?a/ao e ioaeeeaoeeyo iiiaea
nia?aiaiiua iieeoeee, eiaaea i?ino?aiii ?annoaeaeatho i “iaoeeiiaeueiie
naa?ocaaea/a”, eioi?oth iuoathony naanoe eeai e iieneo iooae
iaoeeiiaeueiiai auaeeaaiey, eeai e nicaeaieth iaeie eioa?eoeueoo?u,
eioa??aeeaee. Noaey ii niaea?aeaieth, ninoaaeoaee “Ia?oaie aiaeu”, a
ioee/ea io anao nia?aiaiiuo ioaeeoeenoia, ieeiio ie/aai ia iaaycuaatho e
ieeaeeo iiauo eaeaieiaee ia nicaeatho. A ia?o naiaai iiieiaiey iauaai
oiaea aauae iie iienuaatho a aeinoaoi/ii no?iaeo eaene/aneeo oi?iao
nia?aiaiiiai ei ?onneiai ycuea oa nioeeaeueiua i?ioeannu, eioi?ua oae
eee eia/a cao?aaeaatho ana neie nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa. Aiciiaeii ae?oaea
iieooo oa aea naiua i?ioeannu eae-oi eia/a, iaeiaei, naaiaeiy, iinea
i?i/oaiey “Ia?oaie aiaeu”, iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue eeoue iaeii:
iauanoai ia i?eiao ia?u iiieiaiey ieaea, /ai aunoaaeaii a
“?ACAA?IAOECAOeEE” (Enoi?eei-oeeinioneee i/a?e) e “AIENAIEE”
(Eiioeaioeey iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe). Iino?iaiea ni?aaaaeeeaiai,
eiioeaiooaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiiai iauanoaa o?aaoao aeaoo aauae:

ai-ia?auo, iauanoai aeieaeii oioaoue aeeoue a oneiaeyo ni?aaaaeeeainoe
e,

ai-aoi?uo, iii aeieaeii ciaoue, eae ia?aeoe io acaeiiiai oaiaoaiey
iaeieo ae?oaeie e ni?aaaaeeeaui ioiioaieyi ethaeae.

Yoi an? caaeneo io naiiai iauanoaa.

Ana ia?iaeu aeeaoo ianeieueei eo/oa, /ai iie iiaee au aeeoue a neo/aa,
anee au a aeecie inouanoaeeinue an? oi cei, eioi?ia ethaee iinyo a eo
aeooao, e n eioi?ui iie naueeenue.

AEeaoo ii eo enoeiiie i?aanoaaiiinoe, i?iyaeythuaeny a eo aeaeao, ii
naea?aeeaaaiie a a? ceii?aaee Aunoae Ieeinoueth, oioy ethaee ia anaaaea
iiieiatho, e ia anaaaea niaeaoathony n yoie oi/eie c?aiey.

Ni?aaaaeeeaue no?ie aeecie ia ninoiyeny a ?innee-NNN? aei neo ii?
iioiio, /oi i?aayuay aeaiiie/aneay “yeeoa” ia oioaea aai iino?iaiey, a
ia?iae ia aeaeae aeoiaoue nai, eae aai iino?ieoue, ii ai iiiaii
caaeaeiaae aieaa aunieei iio?aaeoaeueneei aiciiaeiinoyi naiae “yeeou” e
oieiu ca ?oaaaeii. Ia?iae oioae aiaeaey, eioi?ue aai — aacaeoiiiai, ia
aeaeathuaai ioeacaoueny ie io iaeiiai ec naieo iauaeoeaiuo ii?ieia — ia
naiai ai?ao aianao a naaoeia aoaeouaa, a ii oai a?aiaiai aoaeao
iieeaaoue aai a?ycueth, eae oi eiaao ianoi a ioiioaiee E.A.Noaeeia. Ii
ieeiio ia iicaieaii auaoaoue a ?ae ia /oaeii ai?ao. Aoaeouaa au?anoaao
ec anao eoiaia i?ioeiai: /oi iinaaoue a ianoiyuai — oi e iiaeiaoue a
aoaeouai noi?eoeae.

Aeey aic?iaeaeaiey ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa ethaee, ia iniiaa
eceiaeaiiiai, niiniaiu iauaaeeieoue aeayoaeueiinoue anao
iaia?aceoe/aneeo, niceaeaoaeueiuo nee, ia?oee, aeaeaeaiee, iauanoaaiiuo
iauaaeeiaiee e ioaeaeueiuo eeoe e auiieieoue aeaaiua caaea/e:

1. Auaiae no?aiu ec-iiae oi?aaeaiey ii aeaeaeneie oieii -“yeeoa?iie”
eiioeaioeee aei?iaioecaoeee ianaeaiey.

2. Ia aeiionoeoue noaiiaeaiey oieii -“yeeoa?ecia” ii naaioieiae/aneie
iiaeaee, i?aaeoniao?eaathuae ia?aono?ienoai ineoeee anao ii aaeeiiio
oaaeiio, n aueeth/aieai aanniciaoaeueiuo aaoiiaoeciia eiioeeeoiiai
iiaaaeaiey, ii n nio?aiaieai iiiiiieee aeaiiie/aneiai ciaoa?noaa ia
iaoiaeieiae/aneoth eoeueoo?o, /oi yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniia
oieii-“yeeoa?ecia”.

I?e yoii noaaeeueiinoue ?aaeeiia, i?eaea?aeeaathueony
“yeeoa?ii”-ia?aceoe/aneeo aicc?aiee ii ioiioaieth e ?innee, — yoi eo
i?iaeaiu e i?iaeaiu eo oicyaa. Ia?aceoeci ia ?innee ni noi?iiu
aeiaaeueiiai neiii-eioa?iaoeenoneiai ianiinoaa aoaeao i?ana/ai.

3. Naeaeaii yoi aoaeao ia iniiaa i?inaauaiey ia?iaeia NNN? ia enoeiiuo
i?e/eiao e aeiiaieeao ia/aea e naa?oaiey anao yeiau ?onneeo ?aaiethoeee
e nioo, anao e?ecenia e aiei, eiioeeeoia, ia?ano?iae, anaai oaiaoaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiuo eoeueoo? anao ia?iaeia NNN?.

4. Caiueaiea ainoaea?noaaiiinoe ?innee-NNN? ia a? aioo?aiithth
eiioeaiooaeueioth aeanoue, oaea aeaaii aeaenoaothuoth a iauanoaa, ii
iiea a oneiaeyo aeaiaaeanoey eiioeaioeee. N yoei eiioeaiooaeueiui
aeaiaaeanoeai aoaeao iieii/aii a iaoo iieueco e iieii/aii iaia?aoeii.

Eae neaaenoaea aoaeao eiaoue ianoi eciaiaiea i?aeiouanoaaiii ianeeiauie
iaoiaeaie a eioa?anao o?oaeyuaainy aieueoeinoaa aaia?aeueiiai
iieeoe/aneiai eo?na ainoaea?noaa ai anao aniaeoao aai aeayoaeueiinoe:
i?aanoaaiiii, ia?aciaaoaeueiii, eoeueoo?iii, oicyenoaaiiii e
iauanoaaiiie caueuaiiinoe ee/iinoe.

5. Nicaeaiea oneiaee iino?iaiey eioaa?e?othuae eoeueoo?u a aaeeiii
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiii ainoaea?noaa-noia?eiioea?ia, iicaieythuae naiaiaeii
?acaeaaoueny ethaeyi aia caaeneiinoe io eo eeanniaiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey,
iaoeeiiaeueiie e ?iaeiieaiaiiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe.

6. Oi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe /aeiaa/iinoe,
eneeth/athuae aioo?aiiaa e eiino?aiiia oaiaoaiea e eca?auaiea
aeinoieinoaa /aeiaaea ai anao aai ea/anoaao e i?iyaeaieyo.

7. Oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai ie?iaiai ono?ienoaa, ia iniiaa ni?aaaaeeeaiai,
eneeth/athuaai oaiaoaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo eoeueoo? nio?oaeie/anoaa anao
ia?iaeia a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo aeayoaeueiinoe, n oeaeueth iaania/aiey
noaaeeueiinoe aeinoa?u ieaiaou, /anoueth eioi?ie yaeythony ana ethaee.

NEEA ”Ia?oaie aiaeu”— A IOE?UOINOE AA IAOIAeIEIAE*ANEIE IEAOOI?IU E
IO?EOeAIEE IIIIIIEUeIUO I?AA IA AeINOOI E EIOI?IAOeEE EIAI AU OI IE
AUEI. IIA IO?EOeAAO AIOO?ENIOeEAEUeIOTH EA?A?OE*IINOUe EE*IINOIUO
IOIIOAIEE ETHAeAE, *OI IOE?UAAAO AICIIAEIINOE, IAAeINOOIIUA EA?A?OEssI
EE*IINOIUO IINAssUAIEE.

5.Noaiaoe/iue ieai ia?ii?eyoee ii iaania/aieth iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe
e oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe ?innee ii ”Ia?oaie aiaea”.

5.1.Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii.

Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeaiey Ainoaea?noaii aeieaeii iniiauaaoueny
ia anaia?iii iaania/aiee i?aaeneacoaii onoie/eaiai iauanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey ?innee a eioa?anao aeinoeaeaiey aeieain?i/iuo oeaeae ?acaeoey.

Oi?aaeaiea aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny ii noaia: ioeaiea oaeouaai ninoiyiey
iauanoaa – i?iaiic – oi?aaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea – ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoa –
ii?aaeaeaiea aaeoi?a ioeaee – ei??aeoe?iaea oi?aaeythuaai aicaeaenoaey,
/oi iicaieeo auaanoe no?aio ec na?ee caieaie?iaaiiuo eaoaeeeciia.

Oi?aaeaiea iaaiciiaeii, anee:

1) Ia ii?aaeaeai aaeoi? oeaeae, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo iauaeoeaii
nouanoaoao a oa/aiea a?aiaie, aeinoaoi/iiai aeey i?aaiecaoeee
onoie/eaiai oi?aaeaiey.

2).Aaeoi? oaeouaai ninoiyiey no?aiu iai?aaeneacoaii eciaiyaony iiae
aicaeaenoaeai aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia.

E oi e ae?oaia i?enoonoaoao a iuiaoiae ?innee, iiyoiio aeaeaa a oaenoa
Iu iiiuoaainy ii?aaeaeeoue aaeoi? oeaee e i?aaeeiaeeoue ia?ii?eyoey ii
iiauoaieth i?aaeneacoaiinoe eciaiaiey neooaoeee a no?aia.

Oeaee i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii i?ei?eoaoai:

•Inouanoaeaiea iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe e onoie/eainoe ?acaeoey anao e
eaaeaeiai ec ia?iaeia ?innee;

•Inouanoaeaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe ?innee, oe?aieaiea nithciuo
ioiioaiee ni no?aiaie NIA e n ae?oaeie no?aiaie;

•Iaania/aiea niuneiaiai aaeeinoaa aeiaaeueiie, aiaoiae, aioo?aiiae
(oaaea?aoeaiie, ?aaeiiaeueiie, nioeeaeueiie, yeiiiie/aneie,
athaeaeaoiie) iieeoeee;

•Nicaeaiea Aaeeiie Nenoaiu Oi?aaeaiey Ainoaea?noaii ia iiauo i?eioeeiao
e n iii?ie ia ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea;

•Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa e yooaeoeaiinoe Oi?aaeaiey i?e cia/eoaeueiii
nie?auaiee oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa; ia?aoiae ia oaiaeaiiue i?eioeei
oi?aaeaiey.

5.2.Iauay no?oeoo?a aeanoiuo ioiioaiee

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee iauae no?oeoo?u aeanoiuo ioiioaiee neaaeoao enoiaeeoue
ec neaaeothuaai:

•Aeanoue-?aaeecoaiay niiniaiinoue oi?aaeyoue (oaeay o?aeoiaea
i?aaeiieaaaao aaeeiiia?aciia iiieiaiea aeanoe eae i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey e
oi?ie?oao aeaaii?eyoioth eaeaieiae/aneoth i?aaeiinueeo aeey au?aaioee
iauanoaaiiuo e?eoa?eaa ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia o?oaea oi?aaeaioeaa).
Eaae?iaoth iniiao aeanoiuo no?oeoo? ninoaaeytho oi?aaeaioeu, iaiyoua
iauanoaii aeey iaania/aiey iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa a
iai?aaeaiee caaeaiiuo oeaeae. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iaycai ciaoue iauoth
oai?eth Oi?aaeaiey e iiieiaoue, /oi oi?aaeai/aneee o?oae ia aeieaeai
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia i?eaaai/iia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ii ioiioaieth e
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiio o?oaeo;

•Iauay no?oeoo?a aeanoiuo ioiioaiee oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa iaania/aiey
iieiie ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey a iauanoaa e ninoieo ec neaaeothueo aeaeia
aeanoe:

– eiioeaiooaeueiay aeanoue;

– eaeaieiae/aneay aeanoue;

– caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue;

– eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue;

– noaeaaiay aeanoue;

Eiioeaiooaeueiay aeanoue ianao ia naaa:

•?aniiciaaaiea oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo aeaaeaiea n?aaeu ia iauanoai;
•oi?ie?iaaiea aaeoi?a oeaeae a ioiioaiee oaeoi?a, ieacuaathuaai
aeaaeaiea; •oi?ie?iaaiea oeaeaniia?aciie eiioeaioeee oi?aaeaiey
?ano?naie iauanoaa a ioiioaiee auyaeaiiiai oaeoi?a.

Eiioeaiooaeueiay aeanoue anaaaea ?aaioaao ii noaia i?aaeeeoi?-ei??aeoi?
(i?aaeoeacaoaeue-iii?aauee). Iia – ia/aei e eiiaoe anao eiioo?ia
aioo?enioeeaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, aunoee ec aeaeia aioo?enioeeaeueiie
aeanoe.

Aeaaiay caaea/a eiioeaiooaeueiie aeanoe ninoieo a iiaeaea?aeaiee
nianoaaiiiai ?inneeneiai Ie?iaicc?aiey, au?aaioea noai acaeiiaeaenoaee n
aioaaiienoe/aneeie e iaaioaaiienoe/aneeie eiioeaioeeyie ia iniiaa
eco/aiey iiuoa e iiiaeanoaa i?eiaiyaiuo noeaia?eaa iauanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey ai anai ie?a (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia iniiaa eco/aiey iiuoa
eoeueoo? NOA, Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, Eneaineiai ie?a, Eeoay, ssiiiee, Eiaeee,
Oeaaoa).

Aeaaiay i?iaeaia aeaenoaeoaeueiiai ia?iaeiaeanoey (aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
ono?ienoaa iauanoaa) ia a niiniaao e n?ieao aieiniaaiee. Aeaaiay
i?iaeaia – a iino?iaiee i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiie aeecie, i?e eioi?ie
naiiaeanouea eiioeaiooaeueiie aeanoe ?aaeueii aeinooiii anai aeaeathuei
e niiniaiui inaieoue iaiaoiaeeiua ciaiey e iaauee: a yoii neo/aa
aaoie?aoey, naiiaeanouea a? ia iiaeao noaoue aioeia?iaeiie neeie –
caeanue ei?aiue ia?iaeiaeanoey.

EAeAIEIAE*ANEAss AEANOUe (iieeoe/aneay) iaeaeaao eiioeaioeeth a
i?eoyaaoaeueiua aeey oe?ieeo ia?iaeiuo iann (eee oioy au oi?aaeai/anee
cia/eiie aeiee ianaeaiey) oi?iu. A oneiaeyo oieii-yeeoa?ecia –
niaea?aeaiea eiioeaioeee iiaeao auoue neieue oaiaeii aeaeaei io
i?eoyaaoaeueiinoe oi?i e aeaeea?aoeee a? i?iiaaaiaeenoia, a /ai ana
iiaee oaaaeeoueny e ii i?aaeaieth ia?oiiiaieeaoo?u, e ii i?aaeaieth
aeaiie?aoecaoi?ia. Ii ii iaoiaeieiae/aneie ieuaoa oieia ia iiaeao aeaoue
ethaeae, eioi?ua ?aciaea/eee au i?eoyaaoaeueiinoue oi?i e, iieacaa a
yaiii aeaea cei ethaiai eeea oieii-yeeoa?iie eiioeaioeee, auno?ieee au
aeueoa?iaoeaioth ae eiioeaioeeth, eioi?oth eoeueoo?a iauanoaa ii naiaio
?acaeoeth iiaeao i?eiyoue.

CAEIIIAeAOAEUeIAss AEANOUe iiaeaiaeeo iiae eiioeaioeeth oi?aaeaiey
no?iaea th?eaee/aneea oi?iu, iaiaoiaeeiua a ea/anoaa eiae/aneie iniiau
aaeeiiia?aciuo aeaenoaee oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa i?e i?iaaaeaiee
eiioeaioeee a aeeciue.

ENIIEIEOAEUeIAss AEANOUe i?iaiaeeo eiioeaioeeth a aeeciue no?oeoo?iui e
aanno?oeoo?iui niiniaaie, iie?aynue ia iauanoaaiiua o?aaeeoeee e
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue aeieaeia no?ieoueny ia
iniiaa i?eioeeia oaiaeaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e iiae?acoiaaaoue aiciiaeiinoue
auno?aeaaiey eniieieoaeueiie aa?oeeaee a aa ia?aieaoaiee n aa?oeeaeueth
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaiia. Aiciiaeii, enoiaey ec yoiai, neaaeoao
?anniio?aoue aiciiaeiinoue ioeaca io nenoaiu aaeeiiee/iiai oi?aaeaiey
i?aceaeaioii e niaiie yoiai oi?aaeaiey ia oaiaeaiiia oi?aaeaiea
I?aiuea?-ieieno?a e I?aaenaaeaoaey caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai nia?aiey.

NEAAeNOAAIII-NOAeAAIAss AEANOUe neaaeeo ca eniieiaieai caeiiiinoe, i?e
iiiiue eioi?ie i?aanoaaiiue i?iecaie iaeiie eiioeaiooaeueiie aeanoe
caueuaao oi?aaeaiea ii naiae eiioeaioeee io i?aanoaaiii iaoneiaeaiiiai
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai i?iecaiea ianiaeaniie n aeaiiie eiioeaioeeae eiie
eiioeaiooaeueiie aeanoe eee noeoeeiiai i?ioeaiai?noaa eiioeaioeee ni
noi?iiu aaccaaioii-aaciaaonoaaiiie oieiu.

Aaeeinoai aeanoe aeinoeaaaony i?e oi?ie?iaaiee neaaeothueo o?iaiae
oi?aaeaiey (aeanoe) e naiioi?aaeaiey:

•ianoiia (iaueiiia) naiioi?aaeaiea;

•noauaeou oaaea?aoeee;

•oe?oiiaiiua yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiu;

•oaaea?aoeey a oeaeii.

Aa?oeeaeue eniieieoaeueiie e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoae no?ieony ia
i?eioeeiao /aoeiai ?aca?aie/aiey ooieoeee, iieiiii/ee, i?aa,
iaycaiiinoae e ioaaonoaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai o?iaiy oi?aaeaiey.

N oeaeueth iioeiecaoeee aeanoiuo no?oeoo? oeaeaniia?acii i?iaanoe
ei??aeoe?iaeo i?eioeeiia eo oi?ie?iaaiey (anee ai aeaao iinoaaeoue ia
ieciaiiinoue Eiinoeoooeee, oi iiaeii iiaeno?ieoue ieaea neaaeothuea
i?eioeeiu iiae aeaenoaothuee Iniiaiie Caeii ?O):

•ianaeaiea ianoiinoe (iaueiu) auae?aao Niaao ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey;
•Niaaou ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey auae?atho ec naieo ?yaeia aeaiooaoia
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo Nia?aiee noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee e eiatho i?aai ia
?ioaoeeth naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae;

•Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua Nia?aiey noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee auae?atho ec naieo
?yaeia aeaiooaoia Niaaoia yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia e Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai
Nia?aiey ?innee e oae aea eiatho i?aai ?ioaoeee naieo auaeaeaeaioeaa;

•Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia Nia?aiea ?innee auae?aao Aeaao Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai
Nia?aiey e iacia/aao Aeaao Eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe (I?aiuea?-ieieno?a);
•I?aiuea?-ieieno? iacia/aao aeaa eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe yeiiiie/aneeo
?aeiiia e noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee;

•Aeaau eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee iacia/atho
?oeiaiaeeoaeae eniieeiiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii inouanoaeyaony oaiaeaiiue i?eioeei a oi?ie?iaaiee anao
o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey.

5.3.Eaae?iaay iieeoeea.

N oeaeueth i?aiaeieaiey eaae?iaiai aieiaea a ?innee e oi?ie?iaaiey
aaeaeaaoiiai iiieiaiey ea/anoaa oi?aaeaiey ia anao o?iaiyo iaiaoiaeeii:

•Iaiieiaiea nouanoaothuae ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee e
ia?aiiaeaioiaee oi?aaeai/aneiai ei?iona ii Aeinoaoi/ii Iauae Oai?ee
Oi?aaeaiey (AeIOO);

•?anoe?aiea nioeeaeueiie aacu noa?u oi?aaeaiey aei a?aieoe anaai
iauanoaa iooai inouanoaeaiey ?aaeueii ?aaiiai, a ia i?iaicaeaoaaiiai, ii
ianauoi/iiai, aeinooia e neieue oaiaeii aunieiio o?iaith ia?aciaaiey
auoiaeoeai ec anao iauanoaaiiuo a?oii, anao naiae;

•Oi?ie?iaaiea Aunoaai aooanoaoeeiiiiai eiieoaoa;

•I?ae?auaiea i?aeoeee “aeaieiuo noaiaea?oia” ii iacia/aieth ia
ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao neaaeothueo eaoaai?ee ethaeae:

•a?aaeaeai eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa;

•eeoe, eiathueo aeaieiia a?aaeaeainoai;

/eaiia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee, eiae, oaeiuo iauanoa, naeoaioia,
ioeoeeaeueiuo (ieaoiuo e aanieaoiuo) eiinoeueoaioia
eiioeaiooaeueii-eaeaieiae/aneeo a?oii eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa;

•eeoe eiathueo noaeeiinoe ii oaieiaiui noaoueyi.

•Iaaeiiouaiea niaiauaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau n
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth, ia?aie/aiea ia eniieueciaaiea
neoaeaaiiai a?aiaie aeey /oaiey eaeoeee, ioaeeoeenoeee e i?.;

•Niaethaeaiea i?eioeeia iaoeeiiaeueii-i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e i?aiaeieaiea iaoeeiiaeueii-yoie/aneiai aeenaaeaina
a noa?ao oi?aaeaiey, ia?aciaaiey, iaoee, eneonnoaa, eoeueoo?u, NIE,
oeiainia, oi?aiaee, ae?oaeo ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe.
Eia/a iiaeii aiai?eoue i iaoeeiiaeueiii oaiaoaiee, /oi au?aaeaaony a
yoie/aneii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, i?e eioi?ii oaiaoathuay iaoeey (eee
inaaaeiyoie/aneay a?oiia) nicaeaao oneiaey aeey naiaai aieaa aunieiai
ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o?iaiy e caoaaouaaao noa?o oi?aaeaiey, iaoeo,
eneonnoaa, ia?aciaaiea, auoaniyy oaiaoaaiuo a noa?o iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia oyaeaeua e a?aaeiua aeey caei?iauey ?aaiou;

•Aaaaeaiea ia?aie/aiee ia oiiae iieaou o?oaea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?acee/iiai
o?iaiy, enoiaey ec aaee/eiu n?aaeiaai ca?aaioea a ?oeiaiaeeiii ei
?aaeiia, eee ia i?aaei?eyoee;

•I?ana/aiea oaeoia i?eaaoecaoeee auaeaeaiiuo /eiiaieeo neoaeaaiuo
eaa?oe?, iaoei, n?aaenoa nayce, i?aoaoieee e i?i/eo aeaa;

•Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia cae?aieaiea nenoaiu iaeacaiee, a oii /enea oaieiaiuo,
ca niaa?oaiiua ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie e /eiiaieeaie aeieaeiinoiua i?anooieaiey
e iineaaenoaey io i?eieiaaiuo iieeoe/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e eiuo
?aoaiee.

5.4.Iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe.

Iiae iaania/aieai eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe a ieaia i?aeoe/aneeo
ia?ii?eyoee iiieiaaony oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannaie oaiaeaioeeyie a
eioi?iaoeeiiiii ninoiyiee iauanoaa a eioa?anao oe?aieaiey iauiinoe
ia?iaeia ?innee, nio?aiaiey e ?acaeoey naiiauoiie eoeueoo?u e ?acaeoey
onoie/eaiai naiioi?aaeaiey, inouanoaeyaiia eiioeaiooaeueiie e
eaeaieiae/aneie aeanoyie a oeaeyo:

•Inouanoaeaiey ia iniiaa nianoaaiiiai ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai noaiaea?oa
iinoiyiiiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iauanoai a oeaeii;
•niaeaenoaey oi?ie?iaaieth a iauanoaa onoie/eaiai noa?aioeia
?aniiciaaaiey eaeaieiaee aeaceioaa?aoeee e oie/oiaeaiey ?innee;
•iai?aaeaiey naii?acaeoey anao o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey (naiioi?aaeaiey) ia
aeinoeaeaiea ioe?uoi i?iaicaeaoaiiuo oeaeae ?acaeoey no?aiu.

Ii?yaeie i?ei?eoaoia iaiauaiiuo n?aaenoa i?ioeaiaeaenoaey (ec eioi?uo
ia?aua o?e i?ei?eoaoa iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioiinyony e aii?inai iaania/aiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe) a ii?yaeea oauaaiey eo iiue, ii
aic?anoaiey auno?iaeaenoaey, auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1 I?ei?eoao.  Eioi?iaoeey ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, iaoiaeieiaey,
inaaeaay eioi?oth, ethaee no?iyo eiaeeaeaeoaeueii e iauanoaaiii naie
noaiaea?oiua aaoiiaoeciu ?aniiciaaaiey /anoiuo i?ioeannia a iieiioa e
oeaeinoiinoe Ie?icaeaiey e ii?aaeaeytho a naiai aini?eyoee
ea?a?oe/aneoth oii?yaei/aiiinoue eo ai acaeiiie aeiaeaiiinoe. Iia
yaeyaony iniiaie eoeueoo?u iuoeaiey e iieiiou oi?aaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aeeth/ay e aioo?eiauanoaaiiia iieiiaeanoea.

2 I?ei?eoao.  Eioi?iaoeey eaoiieniiai, o?iiieiae/aneiai, oa?aeoa?a anao
io?aneae Eoeueoo?u e anao io?aneae Ciaiey. Iia iicaieyao aeaeaoue
iai?aaeaiiinoue oa/aiey i?ioeannia e niioiineoue ae?oa n ae?oaii /anoiua
io?anee Eoeueoo?u a oeaeii e io?anee Ciaiey. I?e aeaaeaiee niia?aciui
Ie?icaeaieth ie?iaicc?aieai, ia iniiaa /oanoaa ia?u, iia iicaieyao
auaeaeeoue /anoiua i?ioeannu, aini?eieiay oaioe/iue iioie oaeoia e
yaeaiee a ie?iaicc?ai/aneia neoi /a?ac noauaeoeaioth /aeiaa/aneoth ia?o
?aniiciaaaiey.

3 I?ei?eoao. Eioi?iaoeey oaeoi-iienaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a: iienaiea
/anoiuo i?ioeannia e eo acaeiinaycae – nouanoai eioi?iaoeee o?aoueaai
i?ei?eoaoa, e eioi?iio ioiinyony aa?io/aiey ?aeeaeiciuo eoeueoia,
naaoneea eaeaieiaee, oaoiieiaee e oaeoieiaey anao io?aneae iaoee.

4 I?ei?eoao. Yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu, eae n?aaenoai ai?ueau, iiae/eiaiu
eioi?iaoeeiiiui aeaeai i?oaeey /a?ac aeaiueae, yaeythueany i?aaeaeueii
iaiauaiiui aeaeii eioi?iaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, aia caaeneiinoe
io iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey eioi?iaoeee. Auno?aeaaiea oeiainiauo noai
iicaieyao ecuiaoue nicaeaaaaiua a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
aiaaonoaa a iieueco cieioiai ieeeea?aea e ia?aceoe/aneeo oeiainiauo
no?oeoo?, iaania/eaathueo yoio inayuaiiue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie caeiiaie
a?aaaae iaoiaeii eoeueoo?iiai nio?oaeie/anoaa. Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi
yiioa e?ooaiey oeiainiauo ie?aieae, ia/aoay n III e i?iaeieaeaiiay
AEI-IOC, ia iaieae?o noi?iiie e aeiaaeueioth ie?aieaeo aeieea?a.

5 I?ei?eoao. N?aaenoaa aaiioeeaea ii?aaeatho ia oieueei aeeaoueo, ii e
iineaaeothuea iieieaiey, oie/oiaeatho aaiaoe/anee iaoneiaeaiiue
iioaioeeae inaiaiey e ?acaeoey eie eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey i?aaeeia:

•yaea?iue oaioaae (oa?ica i?eiaiaiey);

•aeeiaieueiue, oaaa/iue e i?i/ee ia?eioe/aneee aaiioeeae, ieuaaua
aeiaaaee, ana yeieiae/aneea caa?ycieoaee, iaeioi?ua iaaeeeaiaiou, iiiaea
einiaoe/aneea n?aaenoaa e ia?othia?ey, aacaeaeinoii oiio?aaeyaiua
aeaineie iieiaeiie ianaeaiey (?aaeueiia i?eiaiaiea);

•aaiiay eiaeaia?ey e aeioaoiieiaee (iioaioeeaeueiay iianiinoue).

6 I?ei?eoao. I?i/ea n?aaenoaa aicaeaenoaey, aeaaiui ia?acii neeiaiai, –
i?oaeea a o?aaeeoeeiiiii iiieiaiee yoiai neiaa, oaeaathuaa e eaea/auaa
ethaeae, ?ac?ooathuaa e oie/oiaeathuaa iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneea iauaeou
oeeaeeecaoeee, aauanoaaiiua iaiyoieee eoeueoo?u e iineoaee eo aeooa.

5.5.Ii?aaeaeaiea oeaeae ?acaeoey no?aiu.

Ii?aaeaeaiea e aeiaaaeaiea iai?yioth aei anao a?aaeaeai /aoei
au?aaeaiiuo eaene/anee e ia?acii oeaeae ?acaeoey no?aiu e iauanoaa ia
aeieain?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao, iai?eia?:

– Aeaaiay oeaeue (iaeei ec aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia) – nicaeaoue oneiaey
aeey naiaiaeiiai naii?acaeoey, naii?aaeecaoeee aieueoeinoaa /eaiia
iauanoaa e eo iioiieia.

•Ii?aaeaeaiea n?aaeian?i/iuo e oaeoueo oeaeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa, auno?iaiiuo a aeaea ea?a?oee aaeoi?a oeaeae oi?aaeaiey:
•N?aaeian?i/iie oeaeueth iiaeao noaoue: – iino?iaiea a no?aia
nioeeaeueii-ni?aaaaeeeaiai iauanoaa a eioa?anao aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey
?innee:

Iino?iaiea ni?aaaaeeeaiai, eiioeaiooaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiiai iauanoaa
o?aaoao aeaoo aauae:

•ai-ia?auo, iauanoai aeieaeii oioaoue aeeoue a oneiaeyo ni?aaaaeeeainoe,
•ai-aoi?uo, iii aeieaeii ciaoue, eae ia?aeoe io acaeiiiai oaiaoaiey
iaeieo ae?oaeie e ni?aaaaeeeaui ioiioaieyi iaaeaeo ethaeueie.

Yoi ana caaeneo io naiiai iauanoaa.

•Oiaiueoaiea /enea aac?aaioiuo e eeoe, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo
iai?aaeaia ia eaeaeeaaiea, yenieoaoaoeeth ae?oaeo /eaiia iauanoaa;

•Iaania/aiea ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy ia?aciaaiey,
aeooiaiiai e oece/aneiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey ia caaeneii io aic?anoa,
nioeeaeueiie eee iaoeeiiaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe;

•I?ana/aiea ethauo oi?i oaiaoaiey – ia oieueei oece/aneiai, ii e
yeiiiie/aneiai, oeiainiaiai, ineoieiae/aneiai, ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai.
•Oaeouea oeaee ?acaeoey (ainnoaiiaeaiey) no?aiu ia?a/eneaiu ieaea aianoa
ni noaiie ia?ii?eyoee ii iaania/aieth yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe.

5.6.Iaania/aiea yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe.

Oeaee i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia?ii?eyoee:

Iaania/aiea yeiiiie/aneie naiiaeinoaoi/iinoe ia?iaeii oicyenoaaiiiai
eiiieaena, iiauoaiea onoie/eainoe yeiiiieee e e?eceniui yaeaieyi,
iaania/aiea i?aaeneacoaiinoe i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee, nieaeaiea caaeneiinoe
io aiaoieo oaeoi?ia.

Ainnoaiiaeaiea ieaiiaiai oa?aeoa?a oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiui
eiiieaenii n ainnicaeaieai no?oeoo? Ainieaia ia i?eioeeieaeueii eiie
iniiaa – i?iaiicii-aiaeeoe/aneii naoaaii ieaie?iaaiee.

Iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaea?aeee i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee n
nicaeaieai aaeeiie iauaainoaea?noaaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe.

Auaanoe ioa/anoaaiioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue ec e?ecena aiciiaeii oieueei
ni?eaioe?iaaa ia yoo caaea/o nenoaio oi?aaeaiey aeaiueaaie no?aiu. Anee
aeaiaaeiay nenoaia ia iaoiaeeony a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa, oi ethaua
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua eieoeeaoeau aaniieaciu. Yoi i/aiue iaoei
ioa?aeoa?eciaae i?aaenoaaeoaeue aaaeiaeoaai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
aaieianeiai eeaia I. ?iooeeueae: ”Aeaeoa iia oi?aaeyoue aeaiueaaie
no?aiu, e iia iao aeaea, eoi nicaeaao a? caeiiu. ”Noi?ie?iaaeenue oaeea
oneiaey, /oi iu eiaai ana iaiaoiaeeiia, aeeth/ay o?aaoaioth ia?o
iiieiaiey, /oiau aunooieoue n caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeaie ii
eciaiaieth noaiu oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie no?aiu, ia iieaaaynue aeaeaa ia
IAO e aai oicyaa.

Iaoa i?aaeoaeuenoai ieacaeinue a ?aaeeia aeanoeiai oeiainiaiai
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeoaoa, a iioiio iiaeiaiua eieoeeaoeau n aai
noi?iiu a?yae ee aeiionoeiu. Naaiaeiy n iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai o?iaiy
oi?aaeaiey ni?iaioee?iaaoue aieiae eee ia/oi iiaeiaiia e iiaeiyoue
i?aaeoaeuenoai ia aeeu ?oeaie ia?iaea ia ninoaaeyao o?oaea. Oae /oi
aeaaaeoa aicueiai eieoeeaoeao ii i?aaeeiaeaieyi iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai
o?iaiy cia/eiinoe ia naay.

?aeiaie iiooieueth iaoae yeiiiieee yaeyaony noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey OeA,
eioi?ay n iiiaioa ia/aea oae iacuaaaiuo ?aaeeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i a n?aaeiai
i?aainoiaeeea ?aioaaaeueiinoue iai?ioa eaieoaea a nenoaia
niceaeaoaeueiiai, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea, eae ieieioi ia ii?yaeie,
aeioiaey aei 200 % aiaeiauo. Oaeeo i?iii?oeee ia ioia/aeinue ca anth
enoi?eth nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaa/anoaa. Eae ecaanoii, ssiiiey oieueei /oi
nieceea noaaeo ?aoeiaine?iaaiey n 0,25% aei 0,15% aiaeiauo. I?aeoe/anee
ia inoaeinue no?ai a Aa?iia aaea au iia i?aainoiaeeea 3%. Ethaeaea
Y?oa?ae ia/eiae a naia a?aiy iiaeuai Aa?iaiee ni nieaeaiey noaaee aei 4%
aiaeiauo..

Noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey OeA, eae ia?aiao? iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey, onoaiaaeeaaaony ii i?iecaieo. Ec ia? n iaecaaaeiinoueth e
iaeiicia/iinoueth auoaeatho aaniethoii iai?eaieaiua ii iauaiai auieaou
i?ioeaioia ii e?aaeeoai ni noi?iiu o/anoieeia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea
e naiii?iecaieueii e noieue aea iaioa?aoeii aicieeathuea aeioiaeu aioo?e
naiie EON, aac nicaeaiey /aai au oi ie auei iauanoaaiii iieaciiai. Ii
yoio ie/ai ia iaania/aiiue aeioiae ec ie?aieae e i?ioeaioiuo aeioiaeia
auieaneeaaaony ia oiaa?iue ?uiie.

A ?aaioa ”E?aoeee eo?n..” iaoaiaoe/anee no?iai aeieacaii, /oi i?e
iiaeiaiuo acaeiiioiioaieyo e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaie nenoaiu (EON) e
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-iio?aaeoaeueneie nenoaiu (IIN) iineaaeiyy ia?a/aia ia
iieiia oie/oiaeaiea, anee iia aoaeao a iieiie ia?a caeiiiiineooia.
I?iaeieaeaiea ?aaiou nenoaiu a oeaeii, iineieueeo ana aa caaiuey
caaeneiu e acaeiioaycaiu, iaania/eaaaony eeoue oaa?oeaie, ion?i/eaie,
iaieaoaaeaie, ooiaeaie io e?aaeeoi?ia eee io iaeiaiauo i?aaiia. Eiaiii n
yoeie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie naycai oio ia?aaeien, /oi /anoue IIN a iuiaoiae
nenoaia oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie ana aua ?aaioaao, /oi auei au a?yae ee
aiciiaeii a eaeie-oi ae?oaie no?aia. Eaaaeueiie nenoaiu auoiaea ec e?aoa
aac ioeaca io iuiaoiaai nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa ia nouanoaoao aeaaea
oai?aoe/anee.

Ana inoaeueiua i?iaeaiu IIN yaeythony i?inoui neaaenoaeai, aoi?e/iu ii
ioiioaieth e ia?aea/ea ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina ec IIN a EON /a?ac
nnoaeiue i?ioeaio. Caeanue enoiee iaycaoaeueiiai iaecaaaeiiai auiuaaiey
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee. Aaniieacii iaaeayoueny, /oi i?e
nio?aiaiee iuiaoiae noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey a 60%, iiiieiaiea iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa /oi-oi eciaieo no?aoaae/anee, iie, oae aea eae e aei yoiai,
ia?aoaeoo a EON.

Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio eaaeiiia?acii oi?ie?oao e eioeyoeeth, o.e. ii anaaaea
ioiineony ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii aai
iiea/eaatho ana, a ia oieueei e?aaeeoothueany. Eoeaaeo oio, eoi iuoaaony
eioeyoeeae iauynieoue aunieee nnoaeiue i?ioeaio, yoi oiuoeaiiay iiaeiaia
i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey. A oeaia ia yia?aaoeeo, ean, nu?uea, aiaeo,
o?ainii?o e o.i. oaea i?aaenoaaeai yoio iianaianoiue ia?ie. E i?eia?o,
a ioiineoaeueii aeaaiiieo/iie a yoii ioiioaiee O?A, aeiey auieao ii
i?ioeaioai ia eaieoae ninoaaeyao, ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai eiiioiaeueiuo
ieaoaaeae, aei 70% io eo iauae noieiinoe.

I?e/eiu ieceie oeaiiaie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe iaoeo ea/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia
naycaiu ia n cao?aoaie i?iecaiaenoaa, a n eieinnaeueiie iae?ooeie ia
oeaio ai aiai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a. I?e yoii iano?aciue iauai iaeiaiauo
ieaoaaeae e neiaeiaeoay nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey oaeaea yaeythony
neaaenoaeai nnoaeiith i?ioeaioa.

Iaoa Ainoaea?noai auno?iaii oae, /oi e?aaeeoothony e I?aaeoaeuenoai e
ana noauaeou Oaaea?aoeee. Iiniio?eoa eo athaeaeaou – iaeiaiaua
iinooieaiey eaeoo o?aiceoii ia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoia e i?ioeaioia ii iei.
Eiaiii iiyoiio oae ia/aony i iaeiaao IAO. Anee oa?aoue ec athaeaeaoa yoo
ninoaaeythuoth, oi iaeiaiaoth nenoaio iiaeii eciaieoue aei
iaociaaaaiinoe. I?e yoii inoaiaony 2-3 iaeiaa, iiiyoiuo eaaeaeiio aac
i?eaea/aiey iuia caaeaenoaiaaiiuo aunieiiiea/eaaaiuo niaoeeaeenoia,
iiaen/eouaathueo e eiio?iee?othueo iaeiae.

Aoi?ay i?iaeaia eiioeaiooaeueiie, iaoiaeieiae/aneie cia/eiinoe, aac
eioi?ie eneeth/aiu i?eioeeieaeueiua iiceoeaiua ia?aiaiu a no?aia –
ionoonoaea i?eaieaiiai, onoie/eaiai eiaa?eaioa i?aeneo?aioa oeai ia ana
aeaeu oiaa?a. O.a. oaeiai iniaiai oiaa?a, a eioi?ii au?aaeaiu oeaiu ia
ana i?i/ea i?iaeoeou, ecia?eoaey eo noieiinoe. Eae ecaanoii, aei
iaaeaaieo ii? ie?iaay e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaay nenoaia aace?iaaeanue ia
cieioii noaiaea?oa, a a ea/anoaa oiaa?a – eiaa?eaioa aunooiaei cieioi.
15 ethiy 1971 aiaea, iinea i?ae?auaiey iaiaia aeieea?a ia cieioi, yoa
nenoaia auea oi?acaeiaia, /oi iieo/eei th?eaee/aneia cae?aieaiea a 1976
aiaeo.

Aia?aua a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa aio oaea ii/oe 30 eao a ea/anoaa
eiaa?eaioa aunooiatho i?aeoe/anee oeia?u a aeaea oae iacuaaaiuo oeaiiuo
aoiaa. Aoaeue oi aeieea?, ia?ea eee ?oaeue. Ie iaeia ec ieo ia eiaao
aaniethoiiai cia/aiey, ecaanoiu eeoue ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie. I?e yoii
au ieeiaaea ia iaeaeaoa oie oi?ioeu a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie aeieea?
?aaai 30 ?oaeyi. A/eoaeoanue a iaaeienue ia iuiaoieo aeaiueaao: ”aeeao
aaiea ?innee”. A /oi aeaeueoa? A aeaeueoa ie/aai. Yoe aeeaou auiouaiu
th?eaee/anee naiinoiyoaeueiie no?oeoo?ie n onoaaiui eaieoaeii 3 ie?ae.
?oaeae. A /aio aea iu oiaaea oaeeaeyainy, anee o ian oeaiu ia iaeei e
oio aea oiaa? iaeiiiiiaioii nea/oo a 2-3 ?aca. Aaaeue iie i?eaycaiu e
aoiaaa, oeaia ia eioi?oth ii?aaeaeyaony, eae e ia aeeao III, ?aeeaiie ia
oaeaaeaeaiee.

A oai a?aiaiai a aeecie ii oaeoo a ea/anoaa eiaa?eaioa oeai aunooiatho
yia?ai?ano?nu, eaaeauea a iniiaa i?iecaaaeaia ethaiai oiaa?a. Eiaiii
eie, a ia ?oaeyie naaiaeiy e?aaeeooaony IIN. Yoi naa?oeaoeeny oaeo aia
caaeneiinoe io oiai, caoeene?iaaii ee yoi a eaeeo-oi aeieoiaioao eee
iao, iiieiaaony iaie eee ia iiieiaaony. Yoi oae aea aa?ii, eae e oi, /oi
caeii anaie?iiai oyaioaiey aeaenoaiaae e aei oiai, eae ii aue ioe?uo
Iuethoiiii. Eiee/anoai i?iecaaaeaiiiai oiaa?a /a?ac onoie/eaue
eiyooeoeeaio i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe e naycaii n aaiaeeiui a IIN
eiee/anoaii yia?aee. Aac?annoaeii aeaeaoue noaaeo ia aia?eeaineee
aeieea?, aacioaaonoaaiii yieoe?oaiue Oaaea?aeueiie ?aca?aiie nenoaiie
NOA aac eaeie au oi ie auei nayce n ie?iaui yia?aiiioaioeeaeii. Enoiaey
ec auoaeceiaeaiiiai, oeaeaniia?acii iinoaaeoue aii?in i
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii cae?aieaiee eeeiaaoo /ana a ea/anoaa eiaa?eaioa a
i?aeneo?aioa oeai ia oiaa?u. Auionoeoue iinea yoiai a ia?auaiea aeaiueae
oaa?aei iaania/aiiua yia?ai?ano?naie, oiiiaie oneiaiiai oiieeaa.
Aeaiaaeiay ianna aeieaeia auoue i?e yoii aeanoei i?eaycaia e
yia?aiiioaioeeaeo, eioi?ui ?aniieaaaao i?iecaiaenoaaiii-iio?aaeoaeueneay
nenoaia, e eiyooeoeeaioo iieaciiai aeaenoaey i?e eniieueciaaiee yoiai
yia?aiiioaioeeaea. Aio oiaaea oeaia ia ethaua oiaa?u, caoeene?iaaiiay a
eeeiaaoo /anao, aoaeao aa?aioe?iaaiii noaaeeueiui ia?aiao?ii, a
auiouaiiua ia iniiaa yoiai eiaa?eaioa n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea, aoaeoo
iaania/aiu yia?ai?ano?naie e i?inoui i?iaeoeoii. I?e yoii iu aeieaeiu
i?ae?aoeoue i?aeoeeo i?iaeaaee ethauo yia?aiiineoaeae ca ?oaaae ca
ethaua oaioeee n ethauie ii?o?aoaie, a i?iaeaaaoue eo eneeth/eoaeueii ca
?inneeneee yia?aaoe/aneee ?oaeue. Ia yia?aaoe/aneii eee aaciaii ?oaea
naaiaeiy aiai?yo oaea e a nenoaia Aaci?iia.

Aeaaaeoa ia caauaaoue, /oi iu iinoaaeyai ia ie?iaie ?uiie aieaa 30 %
aaca, aieaa 20 % iaooe, 40% eana. Oae /oi o ian anoue iiae /oi ia/aoaoue
i?eioeeieaeueii eiua aa?aioe?iaaiiua onoie/eaua n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea.

Eiaiii a ?innee oaeay iinoaiiaea aii?ina aiieia oianoia, o.e. naaiaeiy
n?aaenoa ieaoaaea a naeoi?a i?iecaiaenoaa i?aeoe/anee iao. Iu eiaai
aa?oa?, ca/aou, ?anienee, aaenaey, eae a yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Aeeaou
aaiea ?innee auiieiytho niaa?oaiii eiua ooieoeee, ia auoiaeyuea ca ?aiee
EON e niaeoeyoeaiiai ?uiea. Iaeuecy aea n/eoaoue 10-15-oe i?ioeaioiia
nii?iaiaeaeaiea oiaa?iiaiaia aeeaoaie Aaiea ?innee ca ?aoaiea aii?ina i
nicaeaiee n?aaenoa ieaoaaea aeey noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa.

Naaiaeiy ai iiiaeo oaoiieiae/aneeo oeaii/eao anoue nu?uea,
iai?oaeiaaiea, ia?niiae, ?uiie iio?aaeaiey, ii iao iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa –
yeaiaioa?iie aoiaae n ia?eniaaiiuie oeeo?aie. Ii aaaeue yoa aoiaaa, iiae
iacaaieai aeaiueae, yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiie oaoiieiae/aneie n?aaeie a
ethaii i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, oaeie aea, eae aaicei, eiiaeei?ia,
oeaiaio e i?. Eo aeieaeii auoue noieueei, neieueei o?aaoaony ii
oaoiieiaee – ia aieueoa, ii e ia iaiueoa. A yoii e oieueei a yoii
ninoieo ooieoeey oi?aaeaiey aeaiueaaie no?aiu, anee iu oioei ia?aeoe io
eo?na ?aci?aiey e eo?no aeinoaoea. Aeaiueae aeieaeiu anoaoue ia neoaeao
IIN, niaeanoynue ii ianna /a?ac yia?aieiaa?eaio n oaoiieiae/aneeie
iio?aaiinoyie, n /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey e i?iecaiaeeiie ei oiaa?iie
iannie.

Oaeei ia?acii, EIA i?aaeeaaaao iiaeaioiaeoue e Ia?eaiaioneei neooaieyi
aeaa aii?ina eiioeaiooaeueiie cia/eiinoe:

1. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia cae?aieaiea eeeiaaoo /ana a ea/anoaa eiaa?eaioa n
auioneii ia yoie iniiaa n?aaenoa ieaoaaea iaania/eaathueo i?iiuoeaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai. I?aaeinoaaeoue i?aai yiennee oaeeo n?aaenoa ieaoaaea
nicaeaaaaiiio Aaieo ?acaeoey.

2. Caeiiiaeaoaeueii ia?aie/eoue noaaeo ?aoeiaine?iaaiey a niioaaonoaee n
ieaeaneaaeothueie ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie.

5.6.1.E?aaeeoii- oeiainiaay nenoaia.

E?aaeeoii-oeiainiaay nenoaia ?innee no?ieony ia i?eioeeia ia?aueaaiey
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe n?aaenoa ieaoaaea, iaania/eaaaiii:

-iia?aaeathuei ?inoii yia?aiiioaioeeaea ?innee ii ioiioaieth e
aeaiaaeiie ianna, iaoiaeyuaeny a ia?auaiee,

-e?aaeeoiaaieai ia aani?ioeaioiie iniiaa,

-ia?aie/aieai aeioiaeia e iaeiieaiee a naiueyo, o?iaiai caaaaeiii
aeinoaoi/iui aeey aeecie, ii ia iicaieythuei ia?aceoe?iaaoue ia /oaeii
o?oaea.

Caaea/a iano?ieee e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaie nenoaiu (EON) ninoieo a oii,
/oiau oeiainiai auaiaeii auei i?iecaiaeeoue oi, /oi iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeii e aaciianii (Oeiainiaay auaiaeiinoue e iauanoaaiiay
iieaciinoue ia anaaaea niaiaaeatho), aia caaeneiinoe io oeai, iaeioi?ui
ia?acii neeaaeuaathueony ia ?uiea.

A nayce n auoaeceiaeaiiui iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe neaaeothuea ia?ii?eyoey:

•ainnicaeaiea (a eioa?anao iioeiecaoeee ianeoaeeaaiey e iiaaoaiey
aiaoiaai aeieaa ?innee e caueou ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae)
iiiaieiioo?iie oeiainiaie nenoaiu n auaeaeaieai neaaeothueo eiioo?ia:

•iaee/iiai ia?auaiey (iaoeeiiaeecaoeey Naa?aaiea e Ii/oiaaiea, i?yiay
auieaoa eiinoeoooeeiiiuo ieaoaaeae a?aaeaeaiai ?innee: iainee, iiniaee,
ca?aaioiie ieaou);

•aaethoiiai ia?auaiey (caiueaiea eiioo?a ia OeA, Aiaoyeiiiiaaie n
iaeiia?aiaiiie iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae iineaaeiaai);

•aaciaee/iiai ia?auaiey (iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaai iooai nicaeaiey
”Ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaeiiia?/aneiai Aaiea ?acaeoey I?iiuoeaiiinoe” n
ia?aaiaeii a iaai n/aoia anao iauaeoia i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a? eio?ano?oeoo?
e i?iaaaeaiey acaeii?an/aoia aioo?e aaiea, eee iooai aaaaeaiey a
ia?auaiea niaoe. iaeeaaoeee);

Iniiaiie niune: – io?aaioea iaoaiecia oaycuaaiey iaee/iie aeaiaaeiie
iannu n oiaa?iie e iaania/aiea aa ?aaeueiiai iaiieiaiey. I?e i?eiaiaiee
iiaeiaiiai iaoaiecia iiaeii ecaaaeaoue iaaeinoaoeia iuiaoiae oeiainiaie
nenoaiu, iino?iaiiie ii i?eioeeio ie?aieaeu, eiaaea iauai iaycaoaeuenoa
a aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie noa?a a i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey auno?i
ia/eiaao i?aainoiaeeoue iauai ?aaeueiie oiaa?iie iannu, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
iaaaeai e e?ecenai. Ia aoi?ii yoaia, a neo/aa oniaoiiai i?eiaiaiey
aeaiiie iiaeaee i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiiue ia?aoiae io nouanoaothuae ie/ai
ia iaania/aiiie oeiainiaie nenoaiu e nenoaia, eiathuee ia?aie/aiey a
aeaea ?aaeueiie oiaa?iie iannu e ?aaeueiuo nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia;

– nicaeaoue athaeaeaou ?acaeoey ia naycaiiua n iniiaiuie athaeaeaoaie e
eiathueie nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa, /oi iicaieyao
?acaeaaoue i?iiuoeaiiinoue aeaaea a oneiaeyo aeanoeiai athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa.

•iocua eeoeaicee ia i?iaaaeaiea iia?aoeee n aaethoie o anao aaieia ca
eneeth/aieai AYA; – iiyoaiiay iiiiiieecaoeey ainoaea?noaii
E?aaeeoii-Oeiainiaie Nenoaiu;

•caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ia?aie/aiea ia aaee/eio auieaou i?ioeaioia ii
aeeaaeai, aeaiiceoai, e?aaeeoai /a?ac i?eayceo ?aaeueiuo noaaie
i?ioeaioia e iauaeoeaiui yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi, iai?eia? ia auoa
eiaeaena ?aaeueiiai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eee i?ioeaioa i?e?inoa
AAI, ii i?e yoii i?aauoaiea i?ioeaioa ii noaaeai e?aaeeoiaaiey aieaa
1.0% aiaeiauo yeiiiie/anee ia oeaeaniia?acii (a ssiiiee aeaenoaoao
caeiiiaeaoaeueiue cai?ao ia aceiaiea nauoa 1% aiaeiauo ii e?aaeeoai, /oi
yaeyaony iaeiie ec i?e/ei, oae iacuaaaiiai, ”ssiiineiai yeiiiie/aneiai
/oaea”)

– iaeiicia/iia iaania/aiea auiieiaiey eiinoeoooeeiiiiai iieiaeaiey i
acaeii?an/aoao ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee oieueei a ?oaeyo, ia?aaiae aaethoiuo
aeeaaeia a ?oaeaaua.

Oaeei ia?acii, e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaay nenoaia aeieaeia noaoue i?ic?a/iie n
oi/ee c?aiey eiee/anoaa oi?ie?othueo aa aaieia. Iaaeaaieianeea oceu
aeieaeiu oi?ie?iaaoueny a eioa?anao iaania/aiey ?an/aoia iaaeaeo
I?iiuoeaiii-Oeiainiauie A?oiiaie yeiiiie/aneeo ?aaeiiia. Nioeeaeueiua
auieaou e n/aoa ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu auoue auaaaeaiu
ec iiae/eiaiey yeaiaioai aieaa ieceeo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey, /ai
iauaoaaea?aeueiue.

5.6.2.Aiaoiee aeiea.

•caeiiiaeaoaeueiue cai?ao ia i?eaea/aiea eaeeo-eeai aiaoieo
caeinoaiaaiee, a o./. cai?ao ia i?eaea/aiea caeinoaiaaiee aeey iiaaoaiey
oaeouaai aiaoiaai aeieaa e i?ioeaioia ii iaio;

•ia?aniio? niaeaoaiee n Ia?eaeneei eeoaii ii aeoeaai NNN? e i?aeoe/aneia
caaeaenoaiaaiea aeieaiauo eino?oiaioia a ia?aaiai?ao eaaeaeie ec no?ai
aeieaeieeia NNN?;

•ieaaiia aaaeaiea ia?aaiai?ia n Eiiaeiineei eeoaii a iai?aaeaiee
nienaiey iniiaiiai aeieaa e ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee i?ioeaioia ia iniiaa
ion?i/ee auieao oioy au ia 4 aiaea (iiaeii noeioee?iaaoue iooai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ia?aie/aiey auieao ii aiaoiaio aeieao, iai?eia?,
/a?ac ii?aaeaeaiea noiiu ieieiaeueiie athaeaeaoiie iaania/aiiinoe, ieaea
eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeo ?ac?ooaiea yeiiiieee no?aiu e oiaiueoaiea ianaeaiey,
/oi iaeiia?aiaiii oiaiueoaao aiciiaeiinoe aoaeouaai aica?aoa aeieaia, e
aeaeaao aiciiaeiui i?aaeuyaeaiea noaeaaiuo eneia e IAO e ae?oaei
e?aaeeoi?ai, ca eniieueciaaiea e ceioiio?aaeaiea oyaeaeui iieiaeaieai
aeieaeieea, aeaenoaothuaai a ninoiyiee e?aeiae ioaeaeu);

•aeoeaecaoeey aeaenoaee ii ?icuneo e i?aaeuyaeaieth naieo i?aa ia
ca?oaaaeiua aeoeau Oea?neie ?innee e NNN?;

•eiaaioa?ecaoeey e ainnoaiiaeaiea iaaeeaaeauaai eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey
?inneeneie nianoaaiiinoueth ca ?oaaaeii;

•i?iaaaeaiea aeaenoaee iai?aaeaiiuo ia iniuneaiiia o/anoea ?innee a
aioiayueony iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?oiao i ia?aniio?a iniia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ie?iaie aaethoii-oeiainiaie nenoaiu, i?aaeeiaeaiea
yia?aieiaa?eaioa a ea/anoaa iniiau i?e ii?aaeaeaiee niioiioaiey aaetho;
•i?iaaaeaiea ia?aaiai?ia ssiiieae e no?ai THAA i ia?aaea/a ano?a/iuo
o?aaiaaiee e NOA e Caiaaeiie Aa?iia iiae ?ano?niua e yia?aaoe/aneea
aa?aioee ni noi?iiu ?innee;

•aueoi nianoaaiiuo aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa n aeeneiioii ia iaiaa 90%
/a?ac o?aouee no?aiu;

•eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaioiaea ia?aaiai?ia ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia i
i?eaea/aiee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe aaoi?ia e eniieieoaeae ”ieaia Ia?oaeea”,
”Aa?aa?aeneiai i?iaeoa” e i?. n iaeiia?aiaiiui ioeacii io aica?aoa
n?aaenoa i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai ii yoei i?iaeoai;

•iiaaoaiea oaeoueo ieaoaaeae ca n/ao aaethou naeaaaaiie ianaeaieai:

•caeiiiaeaoaeueiue cai?ao ia o?aiaiea iaee/iinoe, a oii /enea, aaethoiie
auoa iaeioi?iai eeieoa;

•iineaaeiaaoaeueiia iiauoaiea eo?na ?oaey ii ioiioaieth e aeieea?o (i?e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiii iiauoaiee eo?na ?oaey a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa
aei ca?aiaa iauyaeaiiiai o?iaiy na?in ianaeaieai iaee/iuo aeieea?ia
ia/iaony ia iicaeiaa ianyoea n ia/aea aeoeee);

•aeiaaaeaiea aei ianaeaiey /a?ac NIE aiciiaeiinoe ioeaca aaeieieno?aoeee
NOA io ”ca?oaaaeiuo aeieea?ia” a neo/aa noaaeeecaoeee iiaie aaethou
aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia a ”AA?I”. Anee aeieea? ?ooiao, ii
iia?aaao iiae niaie aanue ie?;

eeieoe?iaaiea iieoiee iaee/iie aaethou oieueei i?e auacaea ec no?aiu ii
oo?enoe/aneei iooaaeai eee neoaeaaiui eiiaiaee?iaeai (aei 1.000 $ ia 1
ac?ineiai /aeiaaea e aei 500 $ ia 1 ?aaaiea).

5.6.3.Iaeiaiaay, aeioaoeeiiiay e oaiiaeaiiay iieeoeea.

Oeaee i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia?ii?eyoee:

•oi?iuaiea nenoaiu nai?a e ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey i?aaeeueiinoe e
naiaa?aiaiiinoe oieaou iaeiaia;

•caoeoa nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey;

•eeeaeaeaoeey, eee nouanoaaiiia nie?auaiea iaeiaiauo i?aaiia;

•nie?auaiea /eneaiiinoe aooaaeoa?neiai ei?iona i?aaei?eyoee ca n/ao
oi?iuaiey aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe;

•noeioee?iaaiea ?acaeoey iauanoaaiii cia/eiuo i?iecaiaenoa.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey auoaia?a/eneaiiuo oeaeae iaiaoiaeeii:

1.?aoi?ie?iaaoue iaeiaiaia e oaiiaeaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai n caaea/ae
aai oi?iuaiey, eneeth/aiey aiciiaeiinoe aeaoniuneaiiiai oieeiaaiey,
eneeth/aiea i?aaeinoaaeaiey eaeeo-eeai eueaio, i?eiaiaiea nenoaiu
iaeacaiee ia iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo aeiiaieeia ia?ooaiee, a ia ia
i?aaei?eyoey n o/aoii neaaeothueo caia/aiee:

•Iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a i?eioeeia iaaeiionoeii ienaoue aac
i?aaeoanoaothuaai aiaeeca iaaeio?aneaauo aaeainia e aeeiaieee eo
eciaiaiey a iaoo?aeueiii e oeiainiaii o/?oa i?iaeoeoiiaiaia.

•Iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aeieaeii i?aaeinoaaeyoue eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaa ii eciaiaieth iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e
?ani?aaeaeaieth aeioaoeee e noaneaeee a caaeneiinoe io ?aaeueiie
aeeiaieee ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a io?aneyo, eioi?ua
iauaeoeaii enoi?e/anee ?acaeaathony ia?aaiiia?ii.

Anee yoe aeaa i?eioeeia ia?ooathony, oi iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiay
i?iaeoeoeey iiaeao ia i?iecaiaeeoueny a aeinoaoi/iii eiee/anoaa,
iineieueeo ia iiaeao auoue iiea/aia iioaioeeaeueiuie iio?aaeoaeyie i?e
neiaeeaoainy caeiia noieiinoe, a i?iecaiaenoai oeiainiai auaiaeiie
i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa iiaeao eiaoue aioeiauanoaaiiua, aioeaeinoa?iua
iineaaenoaey.

Iaiaoiaeeii nie?aoeoue eiee/anoai iaeiaia e aiceiaeeoue eiio?ieue eo
oieaou ia aaiee. Oi?aaeai/anee oeaeaniia?acia nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
anaai n aeaoiy aeaeaie iaeiaia:

•ia?aue – iaeia n iai?ioa, aaoiiaoe/anee aceiaaiue i?e ia?a/eneaieyo ni
n/aoa ia n/ao a aaieianeie nenoaia, niioaaonoaothuee o?aoueaio
neaaaaiiio; •aoi?ie- iaeia ia naa?oii?iaoeaiua aeioiaeu io?aneae,
ia?ooathuea oeiainiaoth onoie/eainoue ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ec-ca
io?aneaauo aeeni?iii?oeee ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, niioaaonoaothuee
/aoaa?oiio neaaaaiiio.

Oi?aaeaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoueth n?aaenoaaie iaeiaiai-aeioaoeeiiiie
iieeoeee iicaieyao oi?aaeyoue noaoenoe/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey aac aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aeeeoaoa, ia
iniiaa iiieiaiey, eae ec iiiaeanoaa iee?iyeiiiiee, ?aaioathueo a ?aciuo
io?aneyo e ?aaeiiao, neeaaeuaaaony onoie/eaay noaoenoeea oicyenoaaiiuo
naycae iae?iyeiiiieee, ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea oaeiaeaoai?ythuay
aeinoa?ii-aeiionoeiua iauanoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe e aeaao anao aeeaoueo
o?oaeii ii niaanoe.

3.Eciaieoue oaiiaeaiioth iieeoeeo ia neaaeothueo i?eioeeiao:

•i?ana/aiea, eee oiaiueoaiea iauaiia auaica ec no?aiu nu?uey iooai
aaaaeaiey aunieeo noaaie oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei ia auaic nu?uey e
i?iaeoeoeee ia?ae/iie ia?a?aaioee;

•noeioee?iaaiea auaica aunieioaoiieiae/iie i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e
iiauoaiea a? eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe iooai ioiaiu oaiiaeaiiuo ieaoaaeae;
•ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoae no?aiu a yenii?oa oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoia,
oaoiieiaee, nu?uey, eiiieaeoothueo e oneoa, ninoaaeaiea i?ei?eoaoiiai
nienea i?e yoii:

– ieieiaeueiuie iioeeiaie iaeaaathony, eee aiiaua ia iaeaaathony:

•oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea (n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa) ia
i?iecaiaeeiia a no?aia;

•iaiaoiaeeiia nu?uea e eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey;

•iaaeinoathuea i?iaeoeou ieoaiey;

– iaeneiaeueiuie iioeeiaie aeieaeiu iaeaaaoueny oiaa?u, oneoae,
i?iaeoeou, nu?uea i?iecaiaeeiua a ?innee a aeinoaoi/iii eiee/anoaa, a
oae aea i?aaeiaou ?ineioe;

•a?aaeaoeey inoaeueiuo eaoaai?ee oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei inouanoaeyaony a
niioaaonoaee n i?ei?eoaoiui nieneii;

3.Ainoaea?noai inouanoaeyao aeioaoeeth i?aaei?eyoee inouanoaeythueo
ieaiiai oauoi/ioth, ii iauanoaaiii cia/eioth aeayoaeueiinoue;

5.7.Naeueneia oicyenoai.

Oeaee i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia?ii?eyoee:

– eeeaeaeaoeey i?iaeoeoiaie caaeneiinoe io o?aoueeo no?ai;

– iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Iaania/aiea iiaeaioiaee e aeeaeaeoae iinaaiie:

•ainnoaiiaeaiea e iiaea?iecaoeey ia?ea naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oaoieee
iaania/aiea cai/anoyie, aic?iaeaeaiea nenoaiu ION

( iaoeiio?aeoi?iuo noaioeee);

•aiciiaeiue iaoiae ?aaeecaoeee:

•acuneaiea aeieaia no?ai NIA naeueoicoaoieeie e cai/anoyie; •aiaae?aiea
i?ia?aiiu ”aoi?iai eiiaaea?a”;

•ainnoaiiaeaiea iinaaiiai oiiaea;

•i?iaaaeaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii ainnoaiiaeaieth ieiaei?iaeiinoe iaoioiuo
oaiaeee aianaieai i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee (eniieueciaaiea eeenouo
ioeiaeaiee aiaeio?aieeeu, ia?aiieioiai ao?iai oaey, oi?oa);
•ainnoaiiaeaiea e iiaea?iecaoeey nenoaiu aeinoaaee, o?aiaiey e
ia?a?aaioee naeueoici?iaeoeoeee;

•aa?aioe?iaaiiue aueoi o i?iecaiaeeoaey o?iaeay ii oeene?iaaiiui
?anoeaieai;

•naiaa?aiaiiia iaania/aiea ai?th/a-niaci/iuie iaoa?eaeaie a iaiaoiaeeiii
iauaia.

N i?aaeinoaaeaieai anaai auoaia?a/eneaiiiai e?anoueyiai iiae i?ioeaio
aoaeouaai o?iaeay.

A aeaeueiaeoai:

– Iaiaoiaeeii i?aaieciauaaoue naoue oeaio?ia ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee naeueoici?iecaiaeeoaeae (OeAI), a caaea/e eioi?uo aoiaeeo:
– i?aaeinoaaeaiea naiaiiiai iaoa?eaea,

•iaania/aiea iaoiaee/aneie iiiiue,

•aaaeaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo aaieia aeaiiuo ii iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeai
au?aueaaiey n/o eoeueoo?, naiaiiiio iaoa?eaeo, noaoenoeea eeeiaoe/aneeo
oneiaee, o?iaeaaa/iao?iaeaaa, noaoenoeea ?aaiou ioaeaeueiuo oicyenoa e
o.ae.

Iaiaoiaeeii aiceiaeeoue ia OeAI ooieoeee aaaioa ainoaea?noaa ii caeoiea
naeueoici?iaeoeoeee, ?anii?yaeeoaey oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee
ainoaea?noaii n/o (a oii /enea e a n/ao aoaeoueo o?iaeaaa);

•ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e?anoueyineiai
oicyenoaa (iiaeai?uey) niiniaiiai yooaeoeaii ?aoeoue, ia?yaeo n e?oiiuie
n/o i?aaei?eyoeyie, i?iaeaiu iaania/aiey no?aiu o?oeoaie, iaiuaie, iynii
e i?i/.;

•aaaaeaiea ieieiaeueiuo caeoii/iuo oeai, ii eioi?ii ainoaea?noai iaycaii
aueoiaoue naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth;

1.-ainnoaiiaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee auioneathueo
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth oaoieeo e oeiaine?iaaiea auionea nia?aiaiiuo
iaoei ia iniiaa nenoaiu aincaeaca;

2.- ia?aoiae e aacioaaeueiui iaoiaeai ia?aaioee ii/au;

3.-oaaee/aiea ieiuaaee i?ioaaiuo caiaeue e oaiee/iiai oicyenoaa;

4.- ainnoaiiaeaiea iyniiiei/iiai aeeaioiiaiaenoaa:

– nicaeaiea ieaiaiiiai oiiaea;

– ainnoaiiaeaiea aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo e iiei/iuo oa?i.

5.8.I?iiuoeaiiinoue.

N oeaeueth ainnoaiiaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe
neaaeothuea ia?ii?eyoey:

a) Ia?aniio?aoue eoiae i?eaaoecaoeee. I?iaanoe iieioth eiaaioa?ecaoeeth
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia n eo aeaeueiaeoae a?aaeaoeeae a caaeneiinoe io
iniiaiiai iio?aaeoaey eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee ii o?iaiyi (oaaea?aeueiue,
?aeiiiue, ?aaeiiaeueiue, ioieoeeiaeueiue);

a) Ainnoaiiaeoue iiiiiieeth ainoaea?noaa ia io?anee, io eioi?uo caaeneo
iaania/aiea aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe a?aaeaeai ?innee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa:

1.-aeiau/o e ia?ae/ioth ia?a?aaioeo nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia;

2.- i?iecaiaenoai aii?oaeaiee;

3.- oyaeaeia iaoeiino?iaiea;

4.- noaieino?iaiea;

5.-aaoiiiaeeueioth, aaeaoeeiiioth e einie/aneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue; 6.-
/anoue eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

a) Nicaeaoue iauaainoaea?noaaiiue ?aano? n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e
eiio?iee?iaaoue eniieueciaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae ii
iacia/aieth;

a) Caueoeoue ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey a?aiioiie oaiiaeaiiie
iieeoeeie;

ae) Iaania/eoue caeioa?aniaaiiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaey i?iaeoiaiiie
iaeiaiai-aeioaoeeiiiie iieeoeeie;

a) Niaeaenoaiaaoue aa?oeeaeueiie eioaa?aoeee oaoiieiae/aneeo caaiueaa
i?iiuoeaiii-oeiainiauo a?oii e nicaeaiea ia eo aaca i?eioeeieaeueii eiuo
noai acaeiiaeaenoaey i?iiuoeaiiiai e oeiainiaiai eaieoaea. Oi?ie?iaaiea
ia aaca IOA noia?eiioea?iia, aeeth/athueo a naay ana iaiaoiaeeiia aeey
iieo/aiey eiia/iiai oiaa?iiai i?iaeoeoa, n eneeth/aieai noai
iiiaie?aoiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;

ae) Iaania/eoue oaoiieiae/aneoth caieiooinoue i?iecaiaenoa,
iaania/eaathueo ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea eiiieaenia
iniiaiiieaaathuaai yae?a yeiiiieee, ia iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey
I?iiuoeaiii-Oeiainiauo A?oii IOA (a ia Oeiainiai-I?iiuoeaiiuo, eiaaea
Aaiee i?inoi neoiaee ca aanoeaiie i?aaei?eyoey e naaeeaaee eo a iauee
eioae). Auoa oaea ioia/aeinue, /oi I?iiuoeaiii-oeiainiaua a?oiiu
nicaeathony ia aaca i?aaei?eyoee aaeeiie oaoiieiae/aneie oeaie, oi anoue
i?aaei?eyoey o/anoieee iieiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a, ia/eiay
io nu?uey e caeai/eaay eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee. Oeiainiaia ianeoaeeaaiea
oaeeo a?oii (iaania/aiea ?an/aoia, aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae) aeieaeiu
inouanoaeyoue ainoaea?noaaiiua aaiee niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy a
caaeneiinoe io oiai, e eaeiio o?iaith ioiineony IOA (?aaeiiaeueiiio,
?aeiiiiio eee oaaea?aeueiiio). I?aeiouanoaa yoie noaiu:

•eneeth/aaony aieueoia /enei iin?aaeieeia, ia o/anoaothueo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, /oi niinianoaoao
oiaiueoaieth oeaiu i?iaeoeoeee e iiauoaieth ?aioaaaeueiinoe;

•iaeiie ec iniiaiuo i?iaeai iaoae yeiiiieee yaeyaony aeenaaeain io?aneae
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, eiaaea ioaeaeueiua io?anee iieo/atho
cia/eoaeueioth i?eaueue a neeo iiiiiieueiiai iieiaeaiey, a ae?oaea
ieacuaathony a ciia onoie/eaie oauoi/iinoe. IOA au?aaieaatho
?aioaaaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo io?aneae, ca n/ao aa?oeeaeueiie
eioaa?aoeee, i?eauee e oauoee ?aneeaaeuaathony iaaeaeo anaie o/anoieeaie
oeaie, yooaeoeaiie aeueoa?iaoeaie ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu iiaei au auoue
oieueei io?aneaaia ?aaoee?iaaiea;

•nouanoaaiii oiaiueoathony ?anoiaeu ia i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia e
ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey – yoei caieiathony oieueei niaoeeaeueiay
aieiaiay i?aaiecaoeey, /anoue iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee i ni?ina
ia?aaeaaony ec nicaeaaaaiuo a eaaeaeii ?aaeiia e ?aeiia
i?iaiicii-aiaeeoe/aneeo oeaio?ia; iaeiiaoe, /anoue i?iaeoeoeee
aa?aioe?iaaii iaoiaeeo naie nauo i?e iaania/aiee ieieiaeueiuo
iio?aaiinoae ?aaeiia, anee niioaaonoaoao i?aaeuyaeyaiuo
i?iaiicii-aiaeeoe/aneeie oeaio?aie o?aaiaaieyi.

Eae aeaeei, i?iaeo ioaaouaaao ana noa?u iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie e
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie no?aiu e iicaieyao iieo/eoue iioeiaeueiua
?acoeueoaou a e?aoeea n?iee aeaaea a oneiaeyo aeoaieiai nenoaiiiai
e?ecena. Ia oaaoaao oieueei iaeiiai – iieeoe/aneie aiee I?aceaeaioa e
Ia?eaiaioa aeey i?iaaaeaiey aai a aeeciue.

6.Caeeth/aiea.

Ninoaaeoaee “Ia?oaie aiaeu”, a ioee/ea io anao nia?aiaiiuo ioaeeoeenoia,
ieeiio ie/aai ia iaaycuaatho e ieeaeeo iiauo eaeaieiaee ia nicaeatho. A
ia?o naiaai iiieiaiey iauaai oiaea aauae iie iienuaatho a aeinoaoi/ii
no?iaeo eaene/aneeo oi?iao nia?aiaiiiai ei ?onneiai ycuea oa
nioeeaeueiua i?ioeannu, eioi?ua oae eee eia/a cao?aaeaatho ana neie
nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa. Aiciiaeii ae?oaea iieooo oa aea naiua i?ioeannu
eae-oi eia/a, iaeiaei, naaiaeiy, iinea i?i/oaiey “Ia?oaie aiaeu”, iiaeii
n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue eeoue iaeii: iauanoai ia i?eiao ia?u iiieiaiey
ieaea, /ai aunoaaeaii a “?ACAA?IAOECAOeEE” (Enoi?eei-oeeinioneee i/a?e)
e “AIENAIEE” (Eiioeaioeey iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe).

NEEA ”Ia?oaie aiaeu”— A IOE?UOINOE AA IAOIAeIEIAE*ANEIE IEAOOI?IU E
IO?EOeAIEE IIIIIIEUeIUO I?AA IA AeINOOI E EIOI?IAOeEE EIAI AU OI IE
AUEI. IIA IO?EOeAAO AIOO?ENIOeEAEUeIOTH EA?A?OE*IINOUe EE*IINOIUO
IOIIOAIEE ETHAeAE, *OI IOE?UAAAO AICIIAEIINOE, IAAeINOOIIUA EA?A?OEssI
EE*IINOIUO IINAssUAIEE.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1.Aa?ao A.ss. Ianiiu e ?aaiethoeey. I., 1990.

2.Aeanoei O. Iaeanoeia a iaoea neiiecia. I., 1988.

3.Aiie?eou ae?aaieo o?enoeai. I., 1989.

4.Aa?aeyaa I.A. Niune enoi?ee. I., 1990.

5.Aa?aeyaaI.A. Enoiee e niune ?onneiai eiiioiecia. I., 1990.

6.Aeaeey.—ecae. Iineianeie iao?ea?oee ii aeaaineiaaieth iao?ea?oa
Iineianeiai e Anay ?one. I.,1994.

7.Aeiia? I. Eeaa?iaoeea. I., 1967.

8.Aieeia A. Ca eoeenaie aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. I.,1982.

9. AI NNN? “I??oaay aiaea”. Eeoaae, Aea?aeaaiue a?aae ?innee.
(Ioia/aoaii a NIa) 1998 a.

10.Aeoea? A. Iaei eaiio.I.,1997.

11.A?aaei A.A. I?oaeea iiaaaeu. I., 1989.

12.A?iiuei A.A. Aiaoiyy yeniainey eaieoaea. I., 1982.

13.Aei?iaaie ouny/aeaoee. I., 1991.

14.Caiieneee E. Ca oanaaeii ianiineiai o?aia. I., 1990.

15.Eaiaoia E.I. Eae noaoue Aoaeaeie. E., 1991.

16.Enoi?ey aiaoiae iieeoeee NNN?. 1917 — 1980. A 2-o oiiao. I., 1980.

17.Eaeoaei A. No?oiu ?ieaoaoo… I., 1989.

18.Ea?aicei I.I. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai. I.,1988.

19.Eiinoeoooeeiiiua eaeae Aiae?ay Naoa?iaa. I., 1990.

20.Eaiei A.E. ?acaeoea eaieoaeecia a ?innee. INN, o. 3.

21.Ia?en E. E aa?aeneiio aii?ino. Ni/., o. 1.

22.Ia?en E.Eaieoae. I.,1965.

23.Ea?ei Ae.TH. Aa?ae e aioenaieoeci a NNN?. I., E., 1929.

24. Ieeieueneee I.I. Enoi?ey ?onneie oea?eae. I., 1985.

25. “Iiaay no?aoaae/aneay eieoeeaoeaa: EIIOeAIOeEss IAUANOAAIIIE
AACIIANIINOE ?INNEE” — Iaoa?eaeu Ia?eaiaioneeo neooaiee AAe ?O 28 iiya?y
1995 aiaea. I. Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia Oaaea?aeueiiai Nia?aiey ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee 1996 a.

26.Iaeth aea ea Aa?uea?. Eo?n oai?ee aaoiiaoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey.
I.,1973.

27.?iiaiaiei A.C. I eeanniaie nouiinoe neiiecia, E., 1986.

28.Naeyieiia A. Oaeiay neea ianiinoaa. NIa., 1911.

29.Noaeei E.A. Ia?eneci e iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in. Ni/., o. 2, I., 1946.

30.Oaeei? Y.A. Ia?aiauoiay eoeueoo?a. I., 1989.

31.Oeaaee E. Eoaeaeneay aieia. NIa AI. o. 1, 1804 a.; o. 2, 1818.

32.Oeaaee E. Eoaeaeneea ae?aaiinoe. NIa AI.,1919.

33.Oeo?o N. Eiiaoe yiiineiai yeiiiie/aneiai /oaea. I.,1981.

34. Oth?a I. Aaeeeea iinayuaiiua. I., 1990.

35.Yiia?nii ?. Iaaeaeeiay ?oea. I., 1999.

36.sseiaeaa I.I. Oe?O i?ioea NNN?. I., 1985 a.

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