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Мошенничество как имущественное нарушение

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?aoa?ao

IIOAIIE*ANOAI EAE EIOUANOAAIIIA IA?OOAIEA

Oaieiaiia i?aainoaeea ainoaea?noaa iai?aaeaii i?ioea aeiiaiiai aeaenoaey
/aeiaaea, iinyaathuaai ia io?aiyaiua oaieiaiui caeiiii ioiioaiey.
TH?eaee/aneay aeiiaiinoue eeoea e anoue i?aaeiao oaieiaiiai i?aainoaeey,
a oa ioiioaiey, ia eioi?ua iia iinyaaao, ia?acotho i?aaeiao
i?anooieaiey. Yoe oneiaey acaeiii i?iieeatho iaeii a ae?oaia; aeey
i?eiaiaiey ea?aoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaoiaeeia aeiiaiinoue eeoea, ii
iia ia eiaao th?eaee/aneiai cia/aiey (a ?acaa oieueei ii?aeueiia), anee
ia iai?aaeyaony i?ioea ioiioaiee, noiyueo e iiaoueo noiyoue iiae
io?aiith th?eaee/aneiai caeiia.

I?aaeiao ia?ooaiey anoue oaeei ia?acii nouanoaaiiue yeaiaio
i?anooieaiey; io aieueoae eee iaiueoae aaaeiinoe aai aeey ainoaea?noaa
caaeneo e ii?aaeaeaiea ia?u a?aaea, iaiineiiai i?anooieaieai, o. a.
i?anooiiinoue aeaenoaey. Ionthaea neaaeoao: a) /oi iaoneiaeeaaoue
iaeacoaiinoue aeayiey eneeth/eoaeueii niiniaii aai auiieiaiey cia/eo
ia?ooaoue aa?iiieth oaieiaiiai i?aainoaeey « ae?oaeie noa?aie i?aaa,
eiathueie ana iaeio iauoth caaea/o— io?aiaiea i?aaiioiioaiee; a) /oi
i?aaeiaoii i?anooieaiey iiaoo auoue oieueei oaeea ioiioaiey, io?aiaiea
eioi?uo aaaeii aeey ainoaea?noaa, eae i?aaiecia th?eaee/aneiai. Ana
eaaeauaa aia yoie noa?u, anyeia aoi?aeaiea a i?aanoaaiiinoue e ?aeeaeth,
iineieueeo iii ia cao?aaeaaao caaea/e ainoaea?noaa neoaeeoue
oii?yaei/aieth aiaoiaio, aeieaeii auoue auaeaeaii ec ea?aoaeueiie
iaeanoe. Caauaay yoi ia/aei, i?aaeaea n/eoaee aiciiaeiui iaeacuaaoue
anyeee eaeeaue iinooiie, oioy au niaa?oathuee aai ia iinyaae ie ia eaeea
i?aaiioiioaiey. Iaeiiaoe, oae eae i?aaiioiioaiey ii naiae ioiineoaeueiie
aaaeiinoe iiaoo auoue /?acau/aeii ?acee/iu, a oi/iia ii?aaeaeaiea aa
iaiaoiaeeii aeey ?ac?aoaiey aii?ina, eae aeieaeai ioiineoueny caeii e
oiio eee ae?oaiio aeaenoaeth, oi a) iaiaoiaeeii ecaaaaoue, /oia
oeacuaaaiue caeiiii i?aaeiao i?anooieaiey iaieiae ?acee/iua ii naiae
aaaeiinoe i?aaiioiioaiey e noa?aoueny aeey eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai
i?anooieaiey ioaanoe iniaia i?aaiioiioaiea. Oieueei i?e yoii oneiaee
iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeie a?aae i?eiineo i?anooieaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiio
i?aaininoiyieth. — Yoi iaiaoiaeeii e aeey oiai, /oia iauanoai eiaei
aiciiaeiinoue noaoue a iaeaieaa i?aaeeueiia ioiioaiea e iaeacaiiiio ca
ecaanoiia i?anooieaiea; iacaaa oi eee ae?oaia eeoei ai?ii ii noaeaaiiio
i?eaiai?o, ainoaea?noai aeaao aiciiaeiinoue caeeth/eoue ionthaea, eaeay
noi?iia aai aeayoaeueiinoe caneoaeeea ii?eoeaiea e a /ai aai neaaeoao
iianaoueny; anee aea i?anooieaiea aoaeao iaieiaoue ianno ?aciiia?aciuo
ia?ooaiee, oi noaeaaiia iacaaiea aai ia aeano iauanoao ieeaeeo iieaciuo
oeacaiee ioiineoaeueii ii?aaeaeaiiie ee/iinoe e aeaaea iiaeao
iineoaeeoue ai a?aae iaaeiaiiiio— oae eae ca iei ii iaoi/iinoe iacaaiey
iiaoo i?aaeiieaaaoue aieueoaa i?anooieaiea, /ai ia naiii aeaea
niaa?oaiiia, — eee iauanoao i?e i?ioeaiiieiaeiii i?aaeiieiaeaiee.

Aio i?e/eiu, ii/aio ia?ooaiey iaiaiii /oaeeo eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa
ninoaaeee naiinoiyoaeueioth a?oiio i?anooieaiee, iinoaaeaiioth ?yaeii n
e?aaeae, ianeeuenoaaiiui acyoeai eiouanoaa e i?anooiiui oaea?aeaieai
aai, iaaeaeo oai eae i?aaeaea ai iiiaeo no?aiao ?ani?ino?aiyee i?aaeiao
aai e ia ae?oaea ia?ooaiey. I?e /ai (iacaaeneii io i?aaa ia enoeio)
iaueiiaaiii iie?aeenue ia oa niia?aaeaiey, /oi aianoa n eiouanoaaiiuie
ainoaea?noai aeieaeii io?aiyoue e ae?oaea i?aaiioiioaiey;
caia/aiea—aiieia aa?iia, ii ec iaai aiana ia neaaeoao, aoaeoi ec iaiaia
aeieaeii nicaeaoue i?anooieaiea, iaieiathuaa ana aiciiaeiua ia?ooaiey;
ainoaea?noaaiiay iaycaiiinoue, iai?ioea, aoaeao auiieiaia ai?acaei
oeaeaniia?aciaa, anee caeiiiaeaoaeue ?aciaueao iaiai ia ianeieueei
ioaeaeueiuo i?anooieaiee n iniaui i?aaeiaoii aeey eaaeaeiai ec ieo e
oaeei ia?acii onoaiiaeo iioaiie/anoai eae ia?ooaiea eiouanoaa
iin?aaenoaii iaiaia.

A aii?ina i iioaiie/anoaa ?onneia i?aai ennoa?e aea?aeaeinue yoeo ia/ae.
I?aaeiaoii aai iii i?eciaaaei oieueei /oaeia eiouanoai. Ii a XVIII no.,
aneaaenoaea ?acaeoey nenoaiu i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iiaee e iiae aeeyieai
aa?iaineie aeieo?eiu, a eioi?ie ea?aei aaaeioth ?ieue oi?iaeueiia
i?anooieaiea falsum, a iaoai i?aaa ia?aeeaeueii n iioaiie/anoaii
ia/eiatho iiyaeyoueny eaeeaua iinooiee, iaeacoaiinoue eioi?uo
ii?aaeaeyeanue oa?aeoa?ii niiniaa aeaenoaey iacaaeneii io aieueoae eee
iaiueoae aaaeiinoe ia?ooaaiuo ioiioaiee. Aiai?y ycueii iaiaoeeeo
e?eieiaeenoia, i?aaeiaoii i?anooieaiey caeanue noaei i?aai ia enoeio, a
ia oa eiie?aoiua ioiioaiey, eioi?ua aaaeiu aeey ainoaea?noaa eae
i?aaiecia th?eaee/aneiai. Eaeeaua iinooiee auee eneeth/eoaeueii
i?anooieaieai eeoe i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo ninoiyiee. Ii caeii, eae au
niciaaay iaoianoiinoue «eaeeauo iinooieia» a eiaeaena, aeaaea ia
ii?aaeaeee ca ieo iaeacaiey, a a 1845 a. e niaa?oaiii ioeacaeny io yoie
aani?aaeiaoiie ?oa?eee.

I?aai ia enoeio eae i?aaeiao iaeacoaiiai iaiaia.

Aua aeoaieay ae?aaiinoue caieiaeanue aii?inii, iaycai ee iaeei /aeiaae
aiai?eoue ae?oaiio enoeio eee ia iaycai. Aioeiao?, o/aiee noieea
Aeeiaaia, yaeyaony ai?y/ei caueoieeii yoie iaycaiiinoe, iieaaay, /oi
eniieiaiea aa iiaeao auoue aeaaea auioaeaeaaii caeiiii iieiaeeoaeueiui.
I?e?iaea nicaeaea anao ethaeae aeey iauanoaa, aiai?eo ii, e iioiio
eaaeaeia eeoea iaycaii aeaeaoue aeey ae?oaiai ana iieaciia, a ia oieueei
aicaea?aeeaaoueny io ia?ooaiee. Auaiaeu, aeaeaaiua ei ec yoiai
iieiaeaiey, niaa?oaiii iineaaeiaaoaeueiu: ia oieueei iaiai eae eiaeiia
cayaeaiea eee nie?uoea enoeiu, ii e oiie/aiea i iae anoue ia?ooaiea yoie
iaycaiiinoe, iicaieythuaa i?eiaiyoue e aeiiaiiio oa eee ae?oaea ia?u
?ai?annee. Ii oaea a naiai o/eoaea Aioeiao? ano?aoee ai?y/aai
i?ioeaieea. Oio i?eciaaae eeoue iaycaiiinoue aicaea?aeeaaoueny io
ia?ooaiee /oaeiai i?aaa, a ia iaycaiiinoue i?eiineoue iieueco ae?oaei
ethaeyi. Iiyoiio ia oiie/aiea ia enoeia i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeee ii
niio?ae eae ia aeaenoaea aac?acee/iia e niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueiia, ioee/ay
io iaai nie?uoea enoeiu.— TH?enou ?eia i?eiueaee aieaa e iiaieth
Aioeiao?a; Oeeoea?ii [1] iniiauaaao yoi iai?aaeaiea ia caeiiao no?iaie
ii?aee e ia a?aaeaeaineie enii?/aiiinoe oao eeoe, eioi?ua iiaoo n/eoaoue
iicaieaiiui e auaiaeiui aeey naay ia niiauaiea enoeiu; Aae [2] nnueaaony
ia oi, /oi i?e iaiieiioa ciaiee noi?ii ioiineoaeueii naeaeee ia iiaeao
aeoue ?a/e i aeaenoaeoaeueii naiaiaeiii niaeaoaiee. Ii iiaiey yoe, eae
iie ie eaaeoony e?aeieie, oia?ythony eiie?aoiui i?aai – nica?oeaieai
oiaaeaoieo th?enoia; i i?aaa ia enoeio iie aiai?yo oieueei a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea aeey ae?oaie noi?iiu iieacii ciaoue enoeio, o. a. eiaaea aa
th?eaee/aneee eioa?an iiaeao iino?aaeaoue aneaaenoaea ia?ooaiee
i?aanoaaiiie iaycaiiinoe auoue /anoiui, i?aaaeeaui; aea e?iia oiai, yoio
aii?in ai ana a?aiy aa?oaeny eneeth/eoaeueii ia ioiioaieyo, aicieeathueo
ec eoiee—i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa [3].

Iaua aa?iaineia i?aai, eioi?ia n/eoatho eiiaaea ?iaeiia/aeueieeii
i?eciaiey iaycaiiinoe aiai?eoue enoeio iaycaiiinoueth th?eaee/aneith, ia
naiii aeaea anaaaea i?eaea?aeeaaeinue eiie?aoiiai iiieiaiey i?aaeiaoa
?anniao?eaaaiiai i?anooieaiey. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue neacaiiia i
Ea?ieeia e oio oaeo, /oi ioeoeeaeueii i?aao iaua aa?iaineiio ia ecaanoii
aeaaea iauaa iacaaiea Betrug. Aio aei ia/aea XIX no. no?iai neaaeiaaea e
iaiaoeeay aeieo?eia. I?aaaea, n XVI no. iia ?anoe?eea iiiyoea falsum ca
i?aaeaeu eiouanoaaiiuo ia?ooaiee; ii falsum, falsitas a aa aeacao auei
ia ioaeaeueiia naiinoiyoaeueiia i?anooieaiea, iaeacoaiia eeoue a aeaeo
iaiai/eaiai niiniaa aeaenoaey, a oieueei caaeaaea, eioi?ui iaicia/aeanue
ianna iaeii?iaeiuo i?anooieaiee, noiaeiuo iaaeaeo niaith ii niiniao
aeaenoaey; iii iiiaaeiaeeinue aeieo?eia aeey nenoaiaoece?iaaiey
iaoa?eaea, ii ioithaeue ia iiaei neoaeeoue aeey ainiieiaiey aai i?iaaeia
[4]. Oaeei ia?acii oioy falsitas iaieiaei ia?ooaiea ?acee/iuo ioiioaiee,
ii ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi iii i?aaenoaaeyei niaith ?iae, iauoth
a?oiio i?anooieaiee, a ia ioaeaeueiia i?anooieaiea.

Oeeinioey Eaioa noaaeo yoio aii?in ia niaa?oaiii eioth ii/ao.
I?iaicaeaoay ii?aeueioth iaycaiiinoue auoue ni?aaaaeeeaui, ia
oeeiiyoueny io enoeiu, iia ?anniao?eaaao eiaeue eae i?anooieaiea i?ioea
naiiai naay, i?ioea naiae ee/iinoe; eaeaoe iiyoiio ia anoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiue, a oieueei eaaeoueeny, iieiue /aeiaae. Eiaeue ia iiaeao
auoue aeicaieaia ie i?e eaeeo ioiioaieyo: aa ia ii?aaaeuaaao aeaaea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Anee y, aeaeay nianoe eeoea, iiaeaa?aoaany iaiaaeaieth
?acaieieea, e aeaey, /oi iii oaaaeaei ia iai?iae, aiai?th
i?aneaaeothuaio aai ?acaieieeo, /oi iii iiaaaeaei ia oeeoeo, oi iaiy
oaieiaiia i?aainoaeea iiaeao i?eaea/ue e ioaaonoaaiiinoe eae o/anoieea a
?acaia, anee ?acaieiee ii iiaio oeacaieth iiaaaeae ia oeeoeo e caeanue
ianoea naith aea?oao, eioi?ay a yoi a?aiy, aac anyeiai i oii n iiae
noi?iiu ciaiey, inoaaeea iai?iae. Iaee/iinoue ia?ooaiey i?aaa ia
o?aaoaony, iioiio /oi oiaaea eiaeue ec ii?aeueiiai i?anooieaiey
ia?aoiaeeo a i?anooieaiea th?eaee/aneia. Ii, eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiiai
i?eia?a, iia noaiiaeony th?eaee/aneei i?anooieaieai aeaaea a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea i?aaiia?ooaiea yaeyaony neo/aeiui ?acoeueoaoii eaee,
iai?aaeaeaeaiiui aeayoaeai. Eiaeue iici?eo /aeiaaea aeaaea a oaeii
neo/aa, eiaaea iia aeaeaaony a oooeo, aac anyeiai ceiai oiunea. Iia
?aniaaeaaony ia eiaeue aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth, au?aaeaiioth; aeaeaaony
ee iia ia neiaao eee eia/a—aac?acee/ii; iaia?aiiia iaeniieiaiea aeaiiiai
iaauaiey Eaio ia ioee/aao io iaiaia. Oa aea no?iaea acaeyaeu n oi/ee
c?aiey ii?aeueiie ioeaiee /aeiaaea i?iaiaeyo Oeooa, Aaaaeue e aiaineiau
XIX no. [5]— I?ioea ieo ainnoae oaea ?onni; iniiaaiea aaci?aanoaaiiinoe
aeaenoaey ii aeaeae a oua?aa, ai a?aaea, iaiineiii ei ae?oaei eeoeai e
iauanoao, a ia a niiniaa aeaenoaey; iiyoiio ca eiaeueth ii niaeaoaaony
i?eciaaaoue cia/aiea i?inooiea i?ioea ii?aee oieueei a oaeii neo/aa,
eiaaea iia ninoieo a oiuoeaiiii iaieueuaiee aeey i?e/eiaiey a?aaea
ae?oaiio, e ?acee/aao eiaeue aac?acee/ioth io nouanoaaiiie [6]. Yoa
?iciue iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia a iaeanoe ii?aee i?iaeieaeaaony aei iaoeo
aeiae; io ii?aeenoia iia ia?aoea e e iaiaoeeei e?eieiaeenoai. Iaeie ec
ieo (Aa?ia?, Oaiia) aneaae ca Eaioii i?eciatho aaci?aanoaaiiith anyeoth
eiaeue, anyeee iaiai, i?e eaeeo au oneiaeyo iie ie niaa?oaeenue; ii aeey
th?eaee/aneie ioeaiee aai oeacuaatho ?acee/iua ia?aie/aiey. Ae?oaea
(Yoa?, Ieooa?iaea?, O?eae?aeo, O?aeiae) aeaaea n ii?aeueiie noi?iiu
?acee/atho iaiai iioaaeueiue, aac?acee/iue e aaci?aanoaaiiue, niio?y ii
oai oneiaeyi e i?e/eiai, eioi?ua aai aucaaee.

Iaeiaei yoio no?iaee acaeyae ia eiaeue naio ii naaa ieeiaaea ia
i?iaiaeeeny a iaeanoe th?eaee/aneie. Oaea i?aaenoaaeoaee oeieu
anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa, aia?aua oeacaaoea iao/iui ia?acii iaiaoiaeeiinoue
?aca?aie/aiey i?aaa e ii?aee, io?eoeatho eee cia/eoaeueii noaeeaatho
i?aai ia enoeio e niioaaonoaothuoth ae iauoth iaycaiiinoue i?aaaeeainoe.
Oae aua Aoai A?ioeee, oeeinioneay nenoaia eioi?iai iaeiaiaa oeeiiyaony
io acaeyaeia ii?aeenoia, oae eae ainoaea?noaaiiue nithc ii no?ieo ia
ii?aeueiii iiiaioa—anoanoaaiiii iiaoaeaeaiee /aeiaaea e iauaaeeoeth,
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ieeoi ia iaycai niiauaoue ae?oaiio naieo ciaiee e
iaia?aiee; iiyoiio ne?uaay io ae?oaeo enoeio, ii ia niaa?oaao ieeaeiai
ia?ooaiey. Eiaeue A?ioeeai ii?aaeaeyaony ai?acaei oaniaa, /ai
ii?aeenoaie, eiaiii eae ia?ooaiea i?aaa ae?oaiai eeoea ia naiaiaeo
noaeaeaiey; a yoi i?aai nouanoaoao a neeo niaeaoaiey i?eaeaaaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiue niune oai eee ae?oaei ciaeai eee caoeai: aac oaeiai
acaeiiiai niaeaoaiey e neiaa e ciaee ia iiaee au nouanoaiaaoue. Neaae.
i?aaeiaoii ia?ooaiey yaeyaony ia i?aai ia enoeio, a i?aai ia naiaiaeo
noaeaeaiey, iniiaaiiia ia niaeaoaiee i?eaeaaaoue ecaanoiui ciaeai
ii?aaeaeaiiue niune. Yoo iuneue, eae iu aeaeaee, aiineaaenoaee ?acaee
Eoeoion. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ec oiai, /oi i?aaeiaoii ia?ooaiey yaeyaony
caeanue naiaiaea noaeaeaiey, neaaeoao, /oi eneaaeaiea enoeiu i?aae
eeoeaie ia niiniaiuie e noaeaeaieth (aeaoe, aacoiiua) e ioiineoaeueii
eeoea, eioi?ia ia iiaa?eei ia?auaiiie e iaio eiaiii eaee, ia anoue
eiaeue a no?iaii niunea. I eaee iaeuecy aiai?eoue oaeaea, eiaaea iia
i?eiaiyaony aeey nianaiey aeecie eee eiaaea iiaeii i?eciaoue aa?iyoiui,
/oi enoeia eneaaeaia n aeia?ui iaia?aieai aeey oiai eeoea, e eioi?iio
ia?auaia eiaeue. — Nieiica, noaaeaoee aeaaea eniieiaiea iniai i?eiyoie
iaycaiiinoe a caaeneiinoue io oiai, n/eoaao ee yoi iaycaaoeeny ?acoiiui
e iieaciui aeey naay eee iao, i/aaeaeii, ia iia i?eciaaaoue i?aaa ia
enoeio; eiaeue o iaai ninoaaeyao oaeia aea caeiiiia n?aaenoai
nouanoaiaaiey, eae e o?oae; «eeoei, inoaaeaoaa ae?oaia a aeo?aeao
aneaaenoaea i?aiaeaaeaiey iaae iei a oinoaaiiii ioiioaiee, iinooiaao
niaeanii anoanoaaiiiio i?aao; e /ai aieaa iii i?aeoeeoao naie oi, oai
ni?aaaaeeeaaa aai aeaenoaey» [7]. Iooaiaei?o, io?eoeay iauoth
iaycaiiinoue i?aaaeeainoe a neeo anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea
aiai?eoue eee iie/aoue, i?eciaao aa, iaeiaei, a iaeioi?uo iniaaiiuo
ioiioaieyo; i?e /ai iia auoaeaao eee ec iniaiai aeiaiai?a, eee ec
anoanoaaiiiai caeiia, eee ec nouanoaa aeaiiiai aeaea. Ai anao ae?oaeo
neo/ayo iia ia nouanoaoao eae th?eaee/aneay iaycaiiinoue.— Eaio oieueei
ca oith eiaeueth i?eciaao th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea, eioi?ay
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?ooaao i?aaa ae?oaiai; ii ec i?eaiaeeiiai ei i?eia?a
i ?acaieieea i/aaeaeii, /oi a?aieoea iaaeaeo eiaeueth, eae ii?aeueiui e
th?eaee/aneei i?inooieii, o iaai aua i/aiue ?uoea. Oeooa, eioi?ue oae
no?iai ioiineony e eneaaeaieth enoeiu n ii?aeueiie noi?iiu, noaiiaynue
ia ii/ao i?aaa ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi «ainoaea?noai ia eiaao ie aiciiaeiinoe,
ie i?aaa o?aaiaaoue acaeiiia aeiaa?ea iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie, oae eae iii
naii iniiaaeinue ia iauai acaeiiii iaaeiaa?ee»; iii iiaeao oie/oiaeaoue
oieueei ?acoeueoaou iaiaia, ia neieueei yoi io iaai caaeneo;
ea?aoaeueioth ?ai?anneth eaee aeey onoaiiaeaiey iauaai aeiaa?ey ii
iacuaaao «iiae/eiaieai eeoea iinoi?iiiae neea, iaeiaeaieai ia iaai eaa,
/aai ieeoi aeaeaoue ia a i?aaa (Grundl. d. Naturrechts a aa?e. ecae.
1845 i. nia?. ni/. III, 139, 244 e 245). — Aaaaeue oaea a neeo naiaai
ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaa eae «iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai inouanoaeaiey ai aia
naiaiaeiie aiaee, ia?aie/eaaaiie oieueei i?aaaie ae?oaeo, iia i?eaeaoue
iaiaio th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea eeoue ia noieueei, ia neieueei ei
ia?ooaeenue /oaeea eiie?aoiua i?aaa [8].

Aeaaea Ooaeue i?eciaao, /oi i?aai a ioee/ea io, i?aanoaaiiinoe iiaeao
eiaoue aeaei oieueei n aiaoieie ioiioaieyie, e iioiio eiaeue iieo/aao
th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea eeoue iiae oneiaeai ia?ooaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aaiioiioaiee [9].—?iooae [10] ?acee/aao i?aai aiai?eoue e iaycaiiinoue
aiai?eoue enoeio, ie oi, ie ae?oaia ia aaconeiaiu. Ia?aia
?anniao?eaaaony ei eae niinia inouanoaeaiey ae?oaeo i?aa, iaoiaeyuee
naaa anoanoaaiiua a?aieoeu a iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe /oaeie th?eaee/aneie
noa?u. Aoi?ay a iauai i?aaeea oaeaea ia eiaao th?eaee/aneiai cia/aiey; a
naiii, aeaea, aiai?eo ii, ieeoi ia noaiao io?eoeaoue, /oi a?aae
noaiiaeony i?aaiia?ooaieai ia aneaaenoaea ioeaee iioa?iaaoaai, a
aneaaenoaea caaaaeiiiai eneaaeaiey enoeiu, eaee ae?oaie noi?iiu. Ii
eiaeue a yoii niunea aieueoath /anoueth ia iiaeao auoue aeieacaia eee ia
iaeaeaaony ai aiaoiea oi?iu e iioiio a aeacao i?aaa eae au ia
nouanoaoao. Aeaaea eiaeue inycaaiay, iiaouay auoue oi/ii aeieacaiiith,
naia ii naaa eiaao eeoue ii?aeueiia cia/aiea, oae eae iia ieneieueei ia
oie/oiaeaao aiaoithth naiaiaeo eeoea. Yoi iineaaeiaa iiaeao eiaoue ianoi
oieueei a oii neo/aa, eiaaea aeiiaiue, oioy au iie/aeeai, iaycuaaaony
niiauaoue enoeio e iaaeaeo oai aiai?eo eiaeue, ciay, /oi a neeo
ninoiyaoaainy niaeaoaiey ae?oaay noi?iia i?eiao aa ca enoeio. Oaeei
ia?acii, o ?iooaea i?aaeiaoii ia?ooaiey yaeyaony ia i?aai ia enoeio — ii
eaoaai?e/anee cayaeyao iaoianoiinoue aai, oeacuaay, /oi a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo eiaeue iiaeao auoue aeaaea i?aanoaaiiith iaycaiiinoueth,— a
naiaiaea ?anii?yaeaiey iioa?iaaoaai naieie i?aaaie.— Oyniaieai yoiai
caiooaiiiai aii?ina iaoea ai iiiaii iaycaia ni/eiaieth Y?aeiaia «i
noieeiiaaiee iaycaiiinoae» [11]; i?eciaaaoue, aiai?eo ii, iaycaiiinoue
aiai?eoue enoeio eae aaconeiaioth iaaiciiaeii oaea iioiio, /oi
iauanoaaiiinoue (iai?. i?eee/ea, yoeeao) iaeaaaao ia ian ia?aaeei
ae?oaea aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiua iaycaiiinoe; eae ia?aua, oae e
iineaaeiea aeieaeiu auoue i?eiyou caeiiii a oaaaeaiea; a ?acoeueoaoa
ieaaeaony, /oi aai aaaeaieth aeieaeia iiaeeaaeaoue eeoue oa eiaeue,
eioi?ay iinyaaao ia /oaeea i?aaiioiioaiey ia?aoiaeee e e?eieiaeenoai. E
o aa?iaineeo eacoenoia, e o ?iaeiia/aeueieeia oeeinioneiai iai?aaeaiey
oaieiaiiai i?aaa (Oaea?aao e ae?.) a ii?aaeaeaiee iaeacoaiuo iaiaiia iu
oaea ano?a/aai ia?ooaiea enoeiu a ninoaaa yoiai i?anooieaiey; ii iii
neoaeeei eeoue aeey iaicia/aiey niiniaa aeaenoaey, a ia i?aaeiaoa
iaiaia; aeaei oieueei a oii, /oi yoio niinia aue auaeaeioo eie eae
iniiaaiea aeey iiaeaaaeaiey ia?ooaiee ?acee/iuo i?aaiioiioaiee iiae
iauoth ?oa?eeo; neaae. i?aaeiao i?anooieaiey caeanue ia aue oi/ii
ii?aaeaeai, iaieiay ianno ?acee/iuo i?aaiioiioaiee. Eeei io?eoeaao i?aai
ia enoeio eae aaee/aeoee aano?ae e i?eciaao eaeeaua aeaenoaey
iaeacoaiuie eeoue iiae oneiaeai, /oiau aianoa n oai aeiiaiue ia?ooae
iniaia ?anii?yaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe (iieeoeaeneee oa?aeoa?
iaiaia) [12]. Eia/a iinoaaeai aii?in Eoeoionii a aai ciaiaieoie
»i?ia?aiia iaeacoaiiai iaiaia [13]; caiaoea, /oi iaiai eae
naiinoiyoaeueiia i?anooieaiea aeieaeii ioee/aoue io iaiaia eae niiniaa
ia?ooaiey ae?oaeo i?aa, /oi iniiaiie oa?aeoa? oaieiaiie iai?aaaeu anoue
ianeeea, ii i?iaeieaeaao: «i i?anooieaiee iaiaia eae naiinoiyoaeueiii
iiaeao auoue ?a/ue oieueei a oaeii neo/aa, eiaaea anoue a iaee/iinoe
oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo i?inoia ia?ooaiea i?aaa ia enoeio ia?acoao
i?anooieaiea iacaaeneii io oie aeaee, eioi?oth ei no?aieony aeinoeaiooue
aeiiaiue. Oioneay yoi ec aeaeo, iaeuecy aiai?eoue i i?anooieaiee iaiaia,
a oieueei i i?anooiiii ia?ooaiee ae?oaeo i?aa iaiaiii. Ionthaea
caeeth/eee, /oi Eoeoion i?eciaao i?aaeiaoii iaeacoaiiai iaiaia i?aai ia
enoeio naii ii naaa; aai iauyaeee ?iaeiia/aeueieeii yoie oeieu, e
eioi?ie caoai i?eieioee I?aeoai, Ayooa?, Aaiea e ae?. Ii ia naiii aeaea
Eoe. aeaeae io yoiai oi?aea. I?aai ia enoeio ii i?eciaao i?aaeiaoii
i?anooieaiey ia aaconeiaii, a oieueei a oii neo/aa, eiaaea aeaenoaea
aeiiaiiai iineo oa?aeoa? ianeeey ?aniiciaaaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe
iioa?iaaoaai i?aaeuyaeaieai eiaeiuo iauaeoeaiuo ciaeia, eioi?ui ii
aeieaeai aa?eoue. Neaae. i?aaeiaoii ia?ooaiey yaeyaony o Eoe. ia i?aai
ia enoeio naii ii naaa, a naiaiaea ?aniiciaaaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe;
auoiaey ec yoie oi/ee c?aiey, ii niaa?oaiii iineaaeiaaoaeueii iia
ioaa?aaoue iaeacoaiinoue i?inoiai oiie/aiey. Iaycaiiinoue niiauaiey
enoeiu eae ia. th?eaee/aneoth ii n/eoaao aano?aeii. «Iaeuecy aeaaea
i?aaenoaaeo naaa aiciiaeiinoe i?eioaeeoue eiai eeai e niiauaieth oiai,
/oi ii n/eoaao enoeiith; ieeaeay caiiay neea ia a ninoiyiee aeinoeaiooue
yoiai. Yoi—aeaei niaanoe [14]. Aano?aeoeey io ioaeaeueiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo
i?aa aio iiiaaeiaeeanue oieueei aeey oiai, /oia, iauynieoue iao/iui
ia?acia iaeacoaiinoue iiaeeiaa: ecaanoii, eaeea niooiua iiiyoey
ainiiaenoaiaaee aei iaai a aeieo?eia ii yoiio aii?ino. Ia ?acaeaeyy
iaiaia e iiaeeiaa, iia oi o?aaiaaea aeey ninoaaa eoiai i?anooieaiey
damnum datum, oi oio/an iiae?uaaea naay, ia?aie/eaaynue «aeaenoaeai,
niiniaiui i?e/eieoue a?aae». I?iieoeaoaeueiue acaeyae E. ia iia ia
caiaoeoue yoie iooaieoeu e i?e/eiu aa, ninoiyuae a niaoaiee aeaoo
niaa?oaiii ?acee/iuo i?anooieaiee. Iiyoiio-oi ii o?aaoao ?aca?aie/aiea
eo e aeey iaeiiai— eioi?ia ii iacuaaao iaiaiii a nianoaaiiii niunea e
eioi?iio eneeth/eoaeueii iinayuaia aai «I?ia?aiia — aunoaaeyao
i?aaeiaoii ia?ooaiey naiaiaeo ?aniiciaaaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe, niaa?oaiii
aua?anuaay iaee/iinoue iaoa?eaeueiiai a?aaea; a aeey ae?oaiai— iaiai a
iauai?eiyoii niunea— inoaaeyao i?aaeiee i?aaeiao, ioaeaeueiua i?aaa
eeoea, noa?aynue eeoue oi/iaa oeacaoue, a eaeii neo/aa ia?ooaiea eo
iaiaiii iiaeao iiaeeaaeaoue oaieiaiiio i?aainoaeeth; caeanue oaeei
ia?acii caaea/a aai ninoiyea ia a ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaeiaoa ia?ooaiey, a a
?ac?aaioea niiniaa aeaenoaey. I?aaaea, E. ia ecaaaaao iaeioi?ie
iaoi/iinoe au?aaeaiee. Oae iai?. ii e caeanue aiai?eo i i?aaa ia enoeio»
[15]. «I?aai ia enoeio nouanoaoao oieueei, eae i?aai o?aaiaaoue, /oia
enoeiiia iieiaeaiea aauae ia auei eneaaeaii aeiiaiui aeoeaiui niiniaii
aeaenoaey. Iai?ioea, i?aai o?aaiaaoue niiauaiea enoeiu iiaeii i?eciaoue
eeoue iiae oneiaeai, anee ia ae?oaie noi?iia caeiiiaeaoaeueiui iooai
aoaeao onoaiiaeaia iaycaiiinoue niiauaiey enoeiu— e oieueei enoeiu;
i?eoii, yoa iaycaiiinoue aeieaeia auoue onoaiiaeaia ia a aeaea iauaai
i?aaeea, a eiie?aoii aeey ioaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee; eia/a aii?in,
nouanoaoao eee ia nouanoaoao i?aai ia enoeio a th?eaee/aneii niunea,
iaieioaii auciaao ianno iaaei?acoiaiee e ?iciue a noaeaaiie i?aeoeea.»
Neiaii, aiai?eo ii a ae?oaii ianoa [16], noaeuey aeieaeai ?ac?aoaoue ia
oai?aoe/aneee aii?in, ia?ooaii ee i?aai, iiaeeaaeauaa ainoaea?noaaiiie
io?aia, a i?aeoe/aneee — ia?ooaii ee i?aai, aeaenoaeoaeueii io?aiyaiia
ainoaea?noaii.» ssnii, iaeiaei, /oi a yoeo neiaao aaoi? aiai?eo i
?acee/iuo niiniaao iaiaia — eneaaeaiea, «nie?uoea enoeiu e oiie/aiea ia
iae, — oiio?aaeyy eeoue aeey yoiai iiaeiia a oi a?aiy, ii /?acau/aeii
niooiia neiaoei «i?aai ia enoeio». I?aaeiaoii aea ia?ooaiey ii n/eoaao
ia aai, a ae?oaea, oae neacaoue, inycaaiua i?aaa.

«I i?aaa ia enoeio a th?eaee/aneii niunea iiaeao auoue ?a/ue eeoue ia
noieueei, ia neieueei iii ninoaaeyao oneiaea iaia?ooeiinoe ae?oaeo i?aa—
aeecie, caei?iauey, /anoe, naiaiaeu, eiouanoaa e o. iiae.» (ibid. 564).

Oeiea i?aaa ia enoeio ?aooao eeoue i?ioea aunoaaeaiiiai E. ia?aie/aiey
iaeacoaiinoe ii niiniao aeaenoaey [17]; ii e iia i?eaeaao i?aao ia
enoeio th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea eeoue eae oneiaeth iaia?ooeiinoe ae?oaeo
eiie?aoiuo i?aa. ssnii, /oi Eoeoion e ?anniao?eaaaiay oeiaea— aea e
aieaa iicaeiea ienaoaee, iai?. Ieooa?iaea?—oaeaeeenue aeaienoaaiiinoueth
i?aaeiaoa ia?ooaiey a oao i?anooieaieyo, eioi?ua iai?aaeythony i?ioea
eaeiai eeai i?aaa i?e iin?aaenoaa aicaeaenoaey ia ee/iinoue
iioa?iaaoaai; ooo eae au ia?ooaaony e oi i?aai, eioi?ia ninoaaeyao
oeaeue i?anooiiiai aeaenoaey, e oi, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio io?aiyaony yoi
eiie?aoiia i?aai. Aicueieoa iai?. ?acaie, iai?aaeyaiue i?ioea ee/iinoe
(ianeeea) e eiouanoaa, aaea oaeei ia?acii iiaeii ?acee/aoue aeaa
i?aaeiaoa ia?ooaiey: i?aai ee/iie iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe eae oneiaea
ae?oaiai— i?aaa eiouanoaaiiiai. Aeaa aiea ioaea/aiiinoe, yoo
aeaienoaaiiinoue iiaeii ioe?uoue ii/oe ai anao i?anooieaieyo. A yoii
niunea, eiia/ii, iiaeii aiai?eoue e i i?aaa ia iiaeaa?aaoueny
oece/aneiio ianeeeth, eae oneiaeth iaia?ooeiinoe aeecie, caei?iauey,
naiaiaeu e eiouanoaa; i i?aaa ia iiaeaa?aaoueny iniayieth eae oneiaeth
iaia?ooeiinoe /anoe, neoaeaaiiai aeinoieinoaa e oiio iiaeiaiuo
aano?aeoeeyo, eioi?ua, iaeiaei, ia iiaoo aeaathoe?iaaoue a ea/anoaa
i?aaeiaoa i?anooieaiey, oae eae oaieiaiia i?aainoaeea io?aiyao ioiioaiey
eiie?aoiay, aeaenoaoao a aeecie e ia?o naiae no?iainoe aeieaeii
ii?aaeaeyoue aaaeiinoueth eiie?aoii ia?ooaaiiai ioiioaiey aeey
i?aaininoiyiey. Ia neaaeoao caauaaoue oaeaea, /oi eaaaeueiia iacaaiea
i?anooieaiey a aeacao iauanoaa ea?aao aanueia aaaeioth ?ieue; e /ai
oi/iaa ioia/aao iii niinia aeaenoaey e i?aaeiao i?anooieaiey, oai
neeueiaa aeaenoaoao ia aeiiaiiai ca eeaeiaiea aai caeiiiui i?icaeuai,
oai ii?aaeaeaiiaa niciaao iauanoai, a eaeia ioiioaiea e inoaeaeaiiiio
iii aeieaeii iinoaaeoue naay; a anee iaeii e oi aea eaaaeueiia i?icaaiea
aoaeao aeaaaoueny iioaiieeo e eeaaaoieeo, iaieuenoeoaeth iacaioaeiae e
i?iaacoaio eonie oaeea aac i?aaeuyaeaiey aai a oaiiaeia, oi iaeacaiea
iioa?yao iaeei ec /?acau/aeii aaaeiuo aeey iaai yeaiaioia —
iauanoaaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo. Aeey iaa ia aoaeao i?i/iuo iniia.

Ni?aaaaeeeainoue yoeo acaeyaeia auea niciaia e aa?iaineith eeoa?aoo?ith.
Iia ainnoaea i?ioea i?aaa ia enoeio, aiai?y, /oi ia?ooaiea enoeiu anoue
eiae/aneay iaeaiinoue; ainnoaea e i?ioea ?aaeaeoeee Eoeoiona, oeacuaay,
/oi ?aniiciaaaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue ia iiaeao auoue i?eioaeaeaaia— eia/a
neaaeiaaei au aeiionoeoue /a?u, aieoaanoai. Iaei ii iaeo e?oa
i?aaeiaoia, noiyueo iiae io?aiith i?aaa ia enoeio, ia/ae nie?auaoueny,
oae /oi ia?ooaiea iiiaeo ec ieo ioioei e ae?oaei i?anooieaieyi;
iaeiiaoe, a iineaaeiaa a?aiy eeoa?aoo?a ana aieaa e aieaa niaeaoaaony,
/oi, eae naiinoiyoaeueiia i?anooieaiea, iaiai aeieaeai auoue ia?aie/ai
oieueei ia?ooaieyie eiouanoaaiiuie, oioy e ae?oaea ia?ooaiey
iin?aaenoaii iaiaia iiaoo iiaeeaaeaoue iaeacaieth, i?aaeoniao?eaaynue a
iniauo ?oa?eeao.

Yoio acaeyae, iaeiaei, i?eciai ia anaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaaie. Oeiaeaiey
Aano?ee, Ath?oaiaa?aa e Aannaia n Iannaonii aei neo ii? i?eciatho
aiciiaeiui i?aaeiaoii iaeacoaiiai iaiaia anyeia i?aai. — Ia Aiaeee,
O?aioeee, Aaeueaee, Na?aeeiee, eniaineii e aia?eeaineii i?aaa,
ia?aie/eaathueo cheat, escroquerie eee tromperie, truffa—iaeanoueth
eiouanoaaiiuo ia?ooaiee, ni. /. I ae. IV e V.

Aeaenoaothuaa ?onneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia?aie/eaaao iioaiie/anoai
iaeanoueth eiouanoaaiiuo ia?ooaiee. Iaeiaei, iiae aeeyieai Naiaea
Caeiiia noaeaaiay i?aeoeea iuoaeanue ainnoaiiaeoue oi?iaeueiia
i?anooieaiea iaiaia e, ca ionoonoaeai eaeeauo iinooieia, i?eaeaoue yoio
oa?aeoa? iioaiie/anoao. Oae I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao i?eciae
iioaiie/anoaii auaea/o oeooey?. niaaoi. Aiae?aai ?iaiaui aeiaa?aiiinoe
ia i?iaeaaeo naiaai ?iaeiiai nuia eae e?aiinoiiai «a oii niia?aaeaiee,
/oi icia/aiiia i?anooieaiea ia iiaeoiaeeo ie iiae eaeoth ae?oaoth
noaoueth caeiia» e a aeaeo oiai, /oi ?iaia niaa?oee iaiai, eiaeii iacaaa
naiaai nuia e?aiinoiui. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao ioaa?a yoio acaeyae a oii
niia?aaeaiee, /oi aeaenoaea ?iaiaa ai?acaei aaaeiaa iioaiie/anoaa a
i?aanoaaiiii ioiioaiee, e i?eiaiee e iaio ocaeiiaiey i iiaeeiaa a i?aaao
ninoiyiey [18].

Yoi aea ia/aei i?eciaii e oaie. e. ?. ii aeaeo Eiecaeiaa (II, 885).
Iineianeee ie?oaeiie noae iinoaiiaee i?enyaeiui i aeaenoaee aai
neaaeothuee aii?in: «aeiiaai ee iiaenoaeeiue a oii, /oi ia i?aaeeiaeaiea
iieeiaieea Ee?ei?a i?eia?anoe aeey aeaiu aai ia?o eioaaeae aeey
ai?iaeneie acaeu, i?iaeae a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeaia Ee?ei?a, a ieoya?a
1867 aiaea, ia?o eioaaeae, aeey ai?iaeneie acaeu iaaiaeiuo, a aeey oiai,
/oiau oniaoue i?iaeaoue icia/aiiuo eioaaeae, niiauae Ee?ei?o eiaeiua
naaaeaiey, i ea/anoaa i?iaeaiiuo eioaaeae, ne?ua i?e yoii ia eiathueony
o oao eioaaeae iaaeinoaoeao, /a?ac /oi e iioeoee o Ee?ei?a au?o/aiioth
io i?iaeaaee noiio, 365 ?oa.? I?enyaeiua ioaa/aee: «aea, aeiiaai a
iaiaia, ii ia a iioeuaiee», o. a. ia i?eciaee, /oi aeaenoaea Eiecaeiaa
ninoaaeyao ia?ooaiea /oaeiai eiouanoaa. Ianiio?y ia yoi, iineianeee
ie?oaeiie noae n/ae aiciiaeiui i?eiaieoue e iaio ii aiaeiaee no. 1665,
1666 Oeiae. e 173 Ono. i iaeac., aeiaieuenoaoynue oaeei ia?acii aeey
iioaiie/anoaa iaiaiiui niiniaii aeaenoaey. Ii eannaoe. naiao ioiaiee aai
?aoaiea, eiay a aeaeo, /oi ii caeiio a iioaiie/anoaa iaiai eiaao
th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea eeoue eae n?aaenoai ia?ooaiey /oaeiai eiouanoaa,
/oi aac yoiai i?eciaea ii eee aiana ia ninoaaeyao i?anooieaiey, eee
ioiineony e ae?oaei i?anooieaieyi e /oi, neaae., aeey ninoaaa
iioaiie/anoaa iaiaoiaeei ia oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiue niinia aeaenoaey, ii e
ii?aaeaeaiiue i?aaeiao ia?ooaiey,

Eiicaiiua oeiaeaiey a a?iiaaeiii aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oaeaea nicaeatho
ec eiouanoaaiiiai iaiaia niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueiia i?anooieaiea.
Oaeiau: eseroquerie e tromperie o?aioeocneiai i?aaa, truffa
na?aeeineiai, cheat aiaeiaia?eeaineiai, [19] Betrug iaiaoeeeo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoa. Oieueei a iineaaeieo anoue iaiiiaea oeeiiaiey; nthaea
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eiaaeeaaeao eiaeaenu aano?eeneee, Ath?oaiaa?aneee,
Aannaineee e Aeueoaiao?aneee.

Eae i?anooieaiea i?ioea /oaeiai eiouanoaa, iioaiie/anoai aeieaeii
i?aaenoaaeyoue niaith i?anooiiia aoi?aeaiea a /oaeoth eiouanoaaiioth
noa?o, ia?ooaiea /oaeiai eiouanoaa. Iiyoiio anee eaeia eeai eeoei
iin?aaenoaii naiiai eiaeiai iaiaia noiaei i?eia?anoe naaa eiouanoaaiioth
i?eaueue, ia ia?ooea yoei iaiaiii /oaeiai eiouanoaa, oi aeaenoaea aai ia
i?aaenoaaeyao oneiaee iioaiie/anoaa. Caeii ea?aao ia iaiai eae n?aaenoai
iaiaauaiey aiiaua, a iaiai eae n?aaenoai ia?ooaiey /oaeeo i?aa aeey
i?eia?aoaiey ia i?eiaaeeaaeauaai. Yoa iuneue aanueia ynii auneacaia
iaoei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, eioi?ia noaaeo iioaiie/anoai a ?yaeo
i?anooieaiee i?ioea nianoaaiiinoe /anoiuo eeoe (?acae. XII Oeiae.) e
ii?aaeaeyao aai eae «iioeuaiea /oaeeo aauae, aeaiaa eee eiiai
aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa» (no. 1665). Iniaaiiua aeaeu eiouanoaaiiiai iaiaia
oaeaea iiaeaa?aathony iaeacaieth eeoue i?e ia?ooaiee /oaeiai eiouanoaa;
oae neo/ae, i?aaeoniio?aiiua no. 1688, 1699,1700,1705

Oeiae., o?aaotho ia noi?iia iioa?iaaoaai eiouanoaaiiue a?aae, oauoie;
neo/ae, i?aaeoniio?aiiua Onoaaii i iaeac. oaeaea o?aaotho yoio i?eciae;
eneeth/aiey iu oeaaeai ieaea.

A aeaeo aai i?eia?ao?iea eaeie au oi ie auei eiouanoaaiiie auaiaeu aac
ia?ooaiey /oaeiai eiouanoaa ia iiaeao auoue i?eciaii iioaiie/anoaii,
oioy au ii ae?oaei i?eciaeai aeaenoaea aeiiaiiai aiieia iaieiaeinue
ii?aaeaeaieai no. 1665 Oeiae.— Oae: A.; aeaeathuee aeaieoueny ia aei/a?e
A., aeey iiaoaeaeaiey aai niaeaneoueny ia yoio a?ae, oaiaa?eaaao A.
Niiaueoue A. eiaeiua i naiai caaiee naaaeaiey e A. ca yoio iaiai
iieo/aao eiouanoaaiioth auaiaeo; eee: A. iin?aaenoaii iaiaia iieo/ee aai
aeae ia aeeoaeuenoai, ec eioi?iai e ecaeae oo i?ioeaicaeiiioth auaiaeo,
/oi i?iaeeaay ii iaio ia eno?a/eaaynue ia i?eia?aoaiea nianoaaiiiai
ianii?oa; iaa yoe neo/ae, aueacuaay a aeayoaea ia?acai?/eainoue n?aaenoa
iaiaauaiey, oai ia iaiaa iaeiaei ia i?aaenoaaeytho niaith
i?ioeaicaeiiiiai ia?ooaiey /oaeiai eiouanoaa e iioiio ia iiaoo auoue
iinoaaeaiu a ?yaeo eiouanoaaiiuo i?anooieaiee [20].

Iaaeaeo oai a aa?iaineeo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaao iioaiie/anoai ia?aaeei
ii?aaeaeyeinue eae ia?ooaiea /oaeiai i?aaa eee i?eia?aoaiea auaiaeu
iaiaiii, i?e/ai eiiaaea auaiaea oi/iaa ii?aaeaeyeanue i?eciaeaie
i?ioeaicaeiiiie, iaaeicaieaiiie e o.ae.; ii oae eae, caeiiiaeaoaeue ia
inoaiaaeeaaeny ia oneiaeyo i?ioeaicaeiiiinoe e iaaeicaieaiiinoe, oi aeey
i?eciaiey eo i?aeoeea a. /. aeiaieuenoaiaaeanue oai, /oia auaiaea auea
i?eia?aoaia iooai iaiaia. Yoa ?aaeaeoeey, ei?aiyuayny a i?onneii
Landrecht’e, aeiaieuenoaiaaaoeiny aeey i?eciaiey ca iaiaiii oa?aeoa?a
eiouanoaaiiiai ia?ooaiey ei?unoiui iaia?aieai, ano?aoeea ?aceiai e?eoeea
aua a eeoea iieieiiai Ieooa?iaea?a, nouiinoue caia/aiee eioi?iai ninoieo
a oii, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aainoaeea ia iiaeao aiaoeaaoueny a
/anoioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?e ionoonoaee ia?ooaiey ath ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aaiioiioaiee [21]. Oai ia iaiaa, iaeiaei, Oeiaeaiey Aeueoaiao?aa (art.
245), Aannaia (art. 3 91), Ath?oaiaa?aa (art. 351), A?aoioaaeaa (§ 224)
e aeaaea Ethaaea, iaueiiaaiii aac eciaiaiee ia?aienuaathuaai i?onneia
Oeiaeaiea (§ 206), neaaeotho noa?ie ?aaeaeoeee, noaay i?aaeiaoii
iioaiie/anoaa eee ia?ooaiea i?aaa, eee iieo/aiea auaiaeu [22].
Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ae?oaeo no?ai, iai?ioea, anee ia o?aaotho iaieo; yoeo
i?eciaeia niaieoiii, oi ai anyeii neo/aa i?eciatho iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
iioaiie/anoaa ia?ooaiea /oaeiai eiouanoaaiiiai i?aaa.

Nouanoaiaaiea oiai aea acaeyaea a ?onneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?eciaii
oaea th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?ie [23] e e. ?. V, 298 ii aeaeo Oeiioaaaie:
«Iiiyoea i i?ioeaicaeiiiii i?eia?aoaiee i?aaa ia eiouanoai ian?aaiaiii
oaniaa iiiyoey i aeinoaaeaiee naaa eaeie eeai i?ioeaicaeiiiie auaiaeu»,
ni?aaaaeeeai aiai?eo naiao, ioeacuaaynue i?eciaaaoue iineaaeiaa
i?aaeiaoii eiouanoaaiiuo i?anooieaiee aac iniaiai i oii oeacaiey caeiia
(iai?. a no. 1657 Oeiae.)

Aoi?aeaiea a /oaeoth eiouanoaaiioth noa?o iiaeao eiaoue aeaiyeee
oa?aeoa?: eee yoi aoaeao ia?ooaiea eiouanoaaiiiai, i?aaa, anee caeii
aa?aioe?oao aeey iioa?iaaoaai i?e aeaiiuo-oneiaeyo iaeaaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiui eiouanoaii a oao ?acia?ao, a eioi?uo iii iiaeaa?aaaony
ia?ooaieth; eee, i?e ionoonoaee oaeie aa?aioee, iii i?aaenoaaeyaony
eeoue ia?ooaieai /oaeiai eiouanoaaiiiai eioa?ana. Ii iaiaoiaeeii ee aeey
iiiyoey iioaiie/anoaa ia?ooaiea eiouanoaaiiiai i?aaa, eee aeinoaoi/ai
eiouanoaaiiue eioa?an? |

Oaieiaiia i?aainoaeea, eae /anoue i?aainoaeey aiiaua, eiaao iauea n iei
caaea/e—io?aiaiea oiai, ia /oi caeii, i?aai ?ani?ino?aiyao naith
aa?aioeth. Yeaiaioia aac?acee/iuo eee aeaaea ia niaeaniuo n i?aaii iii
ia io?aiyao. Ni?aaaaeeeaia aiiaua, yoi i?aaeei aeieaeii eiaoue ianoi e a
eiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo, a oae eae oneiaea e iauai eo ii?aaeaeyaony.
a?aaeaeaineeie caeiiaie, oi iinoaiiaeaiea iineaaeieo iaycaoaeueiuo e
aeey noaeia oaieiaiuo; iiyoiio iiea aeaiiia aeaenoaea ia eiaao iaueo
oneiaee eiouanoaaiiiai i?aaiia?ooaiey, aei oao ii? iii ia iiaeao auoue
aeeth/aaii e a a?oiio eiouanoaaiiuo i?anooieaiee. ?acieoea oaieiaiiai
i?aainoaeey n?aaieoaeueii n a?aaeaeaineei a noa?a eiouanoaaiiuo
ia?ooaiee ninoieo ia a iauai io?aiyaiuo ioiioaiee [24], a a oii, /oi
ia?aia io?aiyao naieie ia?aie oaeea i?aaiioiioaiey oieueei iiae
oneiaeai, /oia iie ia?ooaeenue aeaenoaeai eeoea, a?aaeiui aeey
iauanoaaiiiai i?aaininoiyiey e oaeiaeaoai?ythuei ae?oaei i?eciaeai
i?anooieaiey. Ionthaea, oa ioiioaiey, i?ioea eioi?uo iai?aaeaii
i?anooieaiea — i?aaeiao aai—ia iiaoo auoue eiuie e?iia ioiioaiee
th?eaee/aneeo, noiyueo iiae io?aiith i?aaa.

A aeaeo neacaiiiai ia iiaeao iiaeeaaeaoue ie iaeaeoaio niiiaieth, /oi
i?aaeiao iioaiie/anoaa anoue eiouanoaaiiia i?aai, a ia eiouanoaaiiue
eioa?an, eeoaiiue th?eaee/aneie io?aiu. O ian a iiaea ia ia?auaoue
aieiaiey ia ia/aea a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa i?e aiaeeca
oaieiaii-th?eaee/aneeo aii?inia, eiathueo n ieie naioth oanioth naycue;
yoe ia/aea nauniea iacuaatho «oii» einoyie», oioneay ec aeaeo, /oi
a?aaeaeaineea e oaieiaiua iinoaiiaeaiey ienaiu iaeiei e oa aea
caeiiiaeaoaeai e iiaoo eiaoue naiath caaea/ath oieueei io?aiaiea iaeieo
e oao aea ioiioaiee. Aaaeue iaeuecy aeiionoeoue, a naiii aeaea, /oi ii
iunee caeiia iaeii e oiaea yaeaiea aucuaaao e ia aucuaaao
ainoaea?noaaiioth io?aio aaeaeo oieueei oiai, e eioi?iio ec ioaeaeaiee
noaea ia?aoeeny iioa?iaaoee, iaeuecy aeoiaoue /oi iai?aaia, ii caeiio a
aeacao iaeiiai noaea yaeyaony i?aaui a aeacao ae?oaiai. Oaeia
eaii?e?iaaiea ia/ae a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa a aunoae noaiaie a?aaeii
iocuaaaony ia i?i/iinoe oaieiaii-th?eaee/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
ainoaea?noaa; oa?yy iiae iiaaie ii/ao i?aaa e i?aaiioiioaiee, iia iiaeao
ooaaoeoueny oieueei ca niia?aaeaiey i?aanoaaiiinoe eee aaci?aanoaaiiinoe
aeaenoaey, eioi?ua a eciee?iaaiiii aeaea e aeia?o ia i?eaaaeoo [25].

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aaiaiai yeaiaioa a i?aaeiaoa iioaiie/anoaa oeacuaaaony
e iaoei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii; iii aiai?eo i iioaiie/anoaa a ?acaeaea
i?anooieaiee i?ioea nianoaaiiinoe /anoiuo eeoe — a yoi oa?iei,
au?aaeathuee th?eaee/aneia ainiiaenoai iaae aauueth; iii o?aaoao, /oia
eiouanoai auei /oaeia, o. a. ia i?eiaaeeaaeauaa aeiiaiiio, oaeia, ia
eioi?ia ii ia eiaao i?aaa, e a i?ioeaiii neo/aa, niaeanii acaeyaeo ean.
naiaoa—iiaeao auoue ?a/ue ?acaa i naiioi?aanoaa. Iiyoiio iioeuaiea naiae
aaue, caeiaeaiiie eee ioaeaiiie ia nio?aiaiea, ia ninoaaeyao ie e?aaee,
ie iioaiie/anoaa.

Ii ia neaaeoao oaeaea oioneaoue ec aeaeo, /oi a iaeanoe oaieiaiiai
i?aainoaeey aii?in i iaee/iinoe i?aaa noaaeony eia/a, /ai a iaeanoe
i?aainoaeey a?aaeaeaineiai. A iineaaeiai ni noi?iiu enooea o?aaoaony,
/oia ii aeieacae naia i?aai ia oi eee ae?oaia eiouanoai, iiaeaa?aoaany
ia?ooaieth; a ia?aii ionoonoaea ia noi?iia ioaao/eea (iiaenoaeeiiai)
i?aaa ia ii?aaeaeaiiia eiouanoai, oi aeieacaiiia ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
aeaiiay aauue anoue aeey iaai aauue /oaeay, eiinoaoe?oao aianoa n oai e
iaee/iinoue i?aaa ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noi?iia, oioy au yaeaoeeny a
i?ioeanna oece/aneee i?aaenoaaeoaeue aai ia oniae aeieacaoue eiaiii
naiaai i?aaa ia aauue, auaooth i?aaeiaoii i?anooieaiey. Yoei
iauyniyaony, ii/aio a aeaeao ia eiouanoaaiiuo i?anooieaieyo, iai?. i
e?aaea, aiciiaeii inoaeaeaiea iiaenoaeeiiai ?yaeii n ioeacii
a?aaeaeaineiio enooeo a aai enea, oioy au neaae. i?aai enea ia
i?eiaaeeaaeaei oiio eeoeo eioi?ia ia?aoeeinue n iei e noaeo oaieiaiiio.

Iiyoiio anee A. auiaiee eiouanoai o A. i?eia?aooaai aai e?aaeae, oi oioy
A. iiaeeaaeeo iaeacaieth ca e?aaeo, ii e A. aeiiaai a iioaiie/anoaa, oae
eae auiaiaiiay ei aauue aeey iaai anoue aauue /oaeay e ia iaa ii ia
eiaao i?aaa. Aai aeaenoaea iaeuecy iacaaoue ni?aaaaeeeaui, caeiiiui,
neaae. inoaaony i?eciaoue iani?aaaaeeeaui, i?ioeaicaeiiiui, oae eae
na?aaeeiu iaaeaeo oai e ae?oaei auoue ia iiaeao.

Oieueei ianiciaieai yoiai ?acee/ey a iinoaiiaea aii?ina i i?aaa iiaeii
iauynieoue iaaei?acoiaiey, ano?a/aaiua eiaeaenaie a ?aaeaeoeee i?aaeiaoa
iioaiie/anoaa. Caeiiiaeaoaeue iaueiiaaiii iianaaony, /oiau noaeuey ia
ia?aian ia oaieiaiue ene; ia/aea enea a?aaeaeaineiai e ia iio?aaiaae au
io iaaeieoaey oi/iuo aeieacaoaeuenoa aai i?aaa ia aauue, noaaooth
i?aaeiaoii i?anooieaiey, anee aeaaea ianiiiaiii e aiieia aeieacaii, /oi
aeey iiaenoaeeiiai yoa aauue auea /oaeay. Aio ii/aio ii—ia?aaeei
auneacuaay nai yoio iioea [26]—ecaaaaao ii?aaeaeyoue i?aaeiao
iioaiie/anoaa eae /oaeia eiouanoaaiiia i?aai, i?aaeii/eoay yoie
?aaeaeoeee aieaa oe?ieoth—/oaeia eiouanoai». Iineaaeiyy oaeei ia?acii
aiana ia eiaao oiai niunea, aoaeoi au i?aaeiaoii iaeacoaiiai iaiaia
iiaeao auoue eiouanoaaiiue eioa?an, ia noiyuee iiae th?eaee/aneie
io?aiie.

I?aaeeaaaaiia iiaiea ?acaeaeyaony e oaieiaiui eannaoeeii.
aeaia?oaiaioii, eioi?ue ia ?ac i?eciaaae, /oi acyoea iaiaiii /oaeiai
eiouanoaa o eeoea, ia eiathuaai ia iaai i?aaa enea, anoue iioaiie/anoai.
Oae a e. ?. IV,, 380 i?eciaii, /oi i?aaeiaoii iioaiie/anoaa iiaeao auoue
e iaoiaeea; nai?u ia iieii iiai?aaoeo (e. ?. IV, 117) e i?ioaiea
ieeinouie i?e ecaanoiuo oneiaeyo (e. ?. IV, 67) oaeaea ioianaiu e
iioaiie/anoao, ia niio?y ia i?yiia ii?aaeaeaiea iaoaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (no. 50 Ono. i iae.), ii eioi?iio eeoea, aeaaaaoea
ieeinouith, eeoaiu i?aaa eneaoue aa ia?aoii e ana iiaeayiey iinooiatho a
iieueco ianoiuo aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee [27].

Aunoaaeaiiui ia/aeii ynii e i?inoi ?ac?aoathony neo/ae, a eioi?uo eeoea
aneaaenoaea iaiaia oa?yao eiouanoai, i?aaeiacia/aiiia neoaeeoue
yeaeaaeaioii ca niaa?oaiiia aoaeoi au i?ioeaicaeiiiia aeaenoaea.
I?eaaaeo i?eia?u.

Aiae?ae e Iao? oaiai?eeenue iaaeaeo niaith, /oi iineaaeiee aeinoaaeo
ia?aiio eiio?aaaiaeiua oiaa?u ca ii?aaeaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea; Iao?
iieo/aao aai, eiaeii niiauea Aiae?ath, /oi oiaa? oaea aeinoaaeai.
I/aaeaeii, Aiae?ae ia eiaao e Iao?o a?aaeaeaineiai enea, oae eae
iineaaeiee iiaeao i?aaeuyaeoue aio condictio ex injusta causa (no. 1529,
1530 o. X /. I cae. a?aaeae.); iaeiaei, aei iiiaioa auaea/e eiouanoaa
Aiae?ae eiae ia iaai i?aai, oae /oi Iao? auiaiee iaiaiii /oaeia
eiouanoai e iioiio aeieaeai auoue iaeacai ii 1665 no. Oeiae. i iae.

Iao?, eiaeii niiauea Aiae?ath, /oi ii oaea niaa?oee oaeenoai, e eioi?iio
iineaaeiee iiaeeoiee aai, auiaieaaao oaeei iaiaiii ieaoo ca niaa?oaiea
yoiai i?anooieaiey. Ioaao oio aea, eae e a ia?aii neo/aa [28].

Ii ai anyeii neo/aa, oioy aeey iiiyoey iioaiie/anoaa ia o?aaoaony
iaee/iinoue a i?ioeanna ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeoea, eiathuaai i?aai enea ca
auiaiaiiia eiouanoai, iii iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/iinoue e
aeieacaiiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiouanoaaiiiai i?aaa, ia?ooaiiiai
aeiiaiiai. Anee iiyoiio, aneaaenoaea eaeeo eeai th?eaee/aneeo eee
oaeoe/aneeo iniiaaiee i?aaeiao iioaiie/anoaa eeoaaony cia/aiey
eiouanoaa, io?aiyaiiai caeiiii, oi i i?anooiiii ia?ooaiee aai ia iiaeao
auoue ?a/e. A aeaeo yoiai iu iieaaaai, /oi oaie. eannaoe. aeaia?oaiaio
caoiaeeo oaea neeoeii aeaeaei a ?aoaiee ii aeaeo ?iiaiiaa (VI, 10).
Ianiaa?oaiiieaoiee e?anoueyiei Aaneeee ?iiaiia auaeae ia naay aeieaiaoth
?anieneo; nionoy ianeieueei a?aiaie ii iiae aeaeii oieaou aeieaa,
auiaiee yoo ?anieneo o e?aaeeoi?a e ?aci?aae aa; naiao oaeaeae caeanue
iaiai a ?an/aoa ieaoaaea e i?eciae i?aaeeueiui i?eiaiaiea e oaeiio
iinooieo no. 173 Ono. i iaeacaieyo. Ii ii oionoee ec aeaeo neaaeothuea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa: a) i?aaeiaoii iioaiie/anoaa ii caeiio iiaeao auoue
oieueei /oaeia eiouanoai; a) ?anienea auaeaia ?iiaiiaui a ia?eiae
ianiaa?oaiiieaoey, neaae. aeey iaai iia ia auea iaycaoaeueia; a) a a
aeaeo yoiai e aeey e?aaeeoi?a auaeaiiay ?iiaiiaui ?anienea ia
onoaiaaeeaaea ieeaeiai eiouanoaaiiiai i?aaa, oae eae th?eaee/aneia
cia/aiea aa iaoneiaeeaaaony i?eciaieai aa ?iiaiiaui ii aeinoeaeaiee
niaa?oaiiieaoey; oie/oiaeaiea aea ei ?anienee ioithaeue ia iaoaei
aiineaaenoaee. i?e aeinoeaeaiee niaa?oaiiieaoey, i?eciaoue yoio
aeiea.—Ia oii aea iniiaaiee auiaieaaiea iaiaiii aeieaiaie ?anienee, ii
eioi?ie oaea enoae aeaaiinoiue n?ie, eee aeaiiie eeoeai
iai?aainiiniaiui, ia?aie/aiiui a i?aaa auaea/e aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa,
a oaeaea aeaiiie a oieaoo ca caa?aiiua a aeiea ieouey e o. iiae. ia
iiaeao auoue i?eciaii iioaiie/anoaii, oae eae iiaeiaiua ?anienee ii
caeiio ia ninoaaeytho oaeinoiaa?aiey eiouanoaaiiiai i?aaa. Oiaea i?aaeei
eiaao ianoi ioiineoaeueii neo/aaa, a eioi?uo eiouanoaaiiia ioiioaiea,
auaoaa i?aaeiaoii ia?ooaiey, aei iaai iioa?yei oa?aeoa? i?aaa
aneaaenoaea eaeeo eeai Oece/aneeo i?e/ei, iai?. iiaea?a e i?.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?e th?eaee/aneii aiaeeca neo/aaa, a eioi?uo
iioa?iaaoee ia eiaao e ia?ooeoaeth aai eiouanoaaiiie noa?u
a?aaeaeaineiai enea, aeieaeii ia?auaoue no?iaia aieiaiea ia niinia
aeaenoaey aeiiaiiai e i?eciaaaoue iioaiie/anoai ?acaa oieueei a oao
neo/ayo, aaea ia?ooaiea i?iecaaaeaii iaiaiii. Ieaea iu oaeaeei, /oi
iaiai e eaeeaua iaauaiey, eniieiaiea eioi?uo i?eiyoi ia naay iaeiith
noi?iiith n iaia?aieai, iaeiaei, ia eniieieoue eo, aeaa aaue niaa?oaiii
?acee/iua. Iiyoiio: Aiae?ae ca i?iaic oiaa?ia eiio?aaaiaeie aeaao
caaeaoie Iao?o, eioi?ue, iaauay aeinoaaeoue eo Aiae?ath, ia eiaao,
iaeiaei, iaia?aiey eniieieoue naia iaauaiea. Caeanue iao iaiaia eae
n?aaenoaa iieo/aiey /oaeiai eiouanoaa, iaeniieiaiea aea iaycaoaeuenoaa
iiaeao aucaaoue eeoue a?aaeaeaineee ene; a oae eae iniiaa aai
i?ioeaicaeiiia e ainoaea?noai ia iaycaii noaaeoue iaauaiaeiua
iineaaenoaey aeey eeoea, ioeacaaoaainy io niaa?oaiey i?ioeaicaeiiiiai
aeaenoaey, oi ene Aiae?ay e Iao?o inoaiaony aac anyeeo iineaaenoaee.

I?aaenoaaeyy niaith ia?ooaiea eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa, aeaenoaea
iioaiie/anoaa iiaeao, iaeiaei, auae?aoue n?aaenoaii aeey aeinoeaeaiey
yoie oeaee e ae?oaea ia?ooaiey—i?aa a?a/iuo, naiaenoaaiiuo, ninoiyiee e
o. iiae. Anee caeii ia niaaeeiyao yoe ia?ooaiey n eiouanoaaiiui a iaeii
i?anooieaiea, o. a. ia aeeth/aao a ninoaa eo ei?unoiue oiunae e ae?oaea
i?eciaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iioaiie/anoai, oi e oaeei neo/ayi aeieaeiu
auoue i?eiaiyaiu iinoaiiaeaiey i niaieoiiinoe i?anooieaiee; a i?ioeaiii
neo/aa ioaeaeueiay iaeacoaiinoue ca iioaiie/anoai ia eiaao ianoa, iai?.
iiaeaeia cano?aoiaaiiiai.

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