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Методика расследования дорожно-транспортных происшествий в России

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Iaoiaeeea ?anneaaeiaaiey aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee a ?innee

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aaoiiiaeeueiiai o?ainii?oa a no?aia i?eaaei e
cia/eoaeueiiio ?inoo aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee. Aeinoaoi/ii
ioiaoeoue, iai?eia?, /oi ca iineaaeiea iyoue eao a ieo iiaeaei ieiei 220
oun. /aeiaae e ?aiaii ieiei 1,2 iei. Aaeaaiaeii iioa?e ?aai/aai a?aiaie
ec-ca yoiai ninoaaeytho 350—400 iei. /ae.//an, /oi niioaaonoaoao
nie?auaieth aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa ia 15—17 ie?ae. ?oa.

Eiia/ii, aeaeaei ia ana aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiua i?ienoanoaey yaeythony
i?anooiiuie, ii a iauae no?oeoo?a i?anooiiinoe a no?aia eo eiee/anoai
ninoaaeyao 6,5%.

Iaeiaei ea/anoai ?anneaaeiaaiey oaieiaiuo aeae i aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo
i?anooieaieyo, eae iieacaei eco/aiea ?anniio?aiiuo noaeaie oaieiaiuo
aeae, aua ia ioaa/aao nia?aiaiiui o?aaiaaieyi. Aeinoaoi/ii ioiaoeoue,
/oi oieueei ieiei iieiaeiu iniio?ia iano i?ienoanoaee inouanoaeyaony
neaaeiaaoaeai. I?e yoii iaaeinoaoi/ii eniieuecothony niaoeeaeueiua
iiciaiey a i?iaaaeaiee yoiai neaaenoaaiiiai aeaenoaey. Auai?i/iua
enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi niaoeeaeeno-e?eieiaeeno i?eaeaeaeny aeey
iniio?a AeOI eeoue a 19,3%, niaoeeaeeno a iaeanoe noaeaaiie
iaaeeoeeiu—8%, niaoeeaeeno-aaoioaoiee— 1,6%

Iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa ?anneaaeiaaiey naaaeaiey (?acoeueoaou iniio?a
ianoa i?ienoanoaey, neaaenoaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa, yenia?oec) ii/oe ia
eniieuecothony a oaeii aaaeiii neaaenoaaiiii aeaenoaee, eae aeii?in
iaaeiyaiiai.

Neiaeeaoaany iieiaeaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a iauyniyaony oai, /oi
iaoiaeeea ?anneaaeiaaiey aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee,
?ac?aaioaiiay a ia/aea 60-o aiaeia, aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie inoaaony
iaeciaiiie e ia o/eouaaao nia?aiaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee e?eieiaeenoeee.

Iiyoiio a e?eieiaeenoeea ana aeoeaiaa enneaaeothony i?iaeaiu
neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee, ioe?uaathuea oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey
?ac?aaioee oeiiauo i?ia?aii, niinianoaothueo iioeiecaoeee ?anneaaeiaaiey
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?anooieaiee.

§ 1. Iniaaiiinoe aicaoaeaeaiey oaieiaiiai aeaea

A aicaoaeaeaiee oaieiaiuo aeae i aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?anooieaieyo,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo no. 211 OE ?NON? e aiaeiae/iuie noaoueyie OE nithciuo
?anioaeee, eiaaony ?yae iniaaiiinoae, i?enoueo oieueei yoiio aeaeo
i?anooieaiee. N?aaee ieo neaaeoao iacaaoue neaaeothuea.

Ca ?aaeeei eneeth/aieai oaieiaiia aeaei aicaoaeaeaaony ia a ioiioaiee
eiie?aoiiai eeoea (aiaeeoaey), a ii oaeoo aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai
i?ienoanoaey (noieeiiaaiea o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, iaacae ia iaoaoiaea,
ii?ieeaeuaaiea). A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaoaieci yoiai aeaea i?ienoanoaee
ianoieueei iai/aaeaeai e neiaeai, /oi a ia/aea ?anneaaeiaaiey ia
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui auneacaoue iiaiea i iaee/ee eee ionoonoaee a
aeaenoaeyo aiaeeoaey i?anooiiuo ia?ooaiee i?aaee aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey
e yenieoaoaoeee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. Yoi oaeaaony naeaeaoue iicaeiaa,
eae i?aaeei, ia neaaeothuai yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey, eiaaea aoaeoo nia?aiu
e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu ana naaaeaiey i i?ioeannao, eioi?ua ia iiaeaeathony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth a ioeaiea neaaeiaaoaey. Eaeiaa, iai?eia?,
auea nei?inoue o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, anee iaia?oaeaiu neaaeu
oi?iiaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiie aeeeiu, iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae, oieueei eniieuecoy iiiiuue niaoeeaeenoa-aaoioaoieea.

Ia ia?aiia/aeueiii yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey aiaeeoaeue iau/ii aeii?aoeaaaony
a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaey. Aai i?ioeannoaeueiia iieiaeaiea (naeaeaoaeue,
iioa?iaaoee) ii?aaeaeyaony, eae i?aaeei, iicaeiaa.

I?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i aicaoaeaeaiee oaieiaiiai aeaea iau/ii eiaaony
oeie/iay eioi?iaoeey i aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiii i?ienoanoaee, eioi?ay
aeeth/aao a naay naaaeaiey i neaaeao, ianoaiiaea ianoa i?ienoanoaey,
o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa e aiaeeoaea. Yoa eioi?iaoeey niaea?aeeony a
ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioao, ninoaaeaiiuo a nayce n iniio?ii ianoa
i?ienoanoaey: i?ioieiea iniio?a ianoa i?ienoanoaey;

oaeaoiiia?aiia ec ea/aaiiai o/?aaeaeaiey, eoaea aeinoaaeai
iino?aaeaaoee; ?aii?oa nio?oaeieea ieeeoeee, ia?aui i?eauaoei ia ianoi
i?ienoanoaey; ni?aaea, ninoaaeaiiie nio?oaeieeii AAE, auacaeaaoei ia
ianoi i?ienoanoaey naiinoiyoaeueii eee aianoa ni neaaeiaaoaeai; aeoa
iaaeeoeeineiai inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey aiaeeoaey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
ninoiyiey iiueyiaiey.

A i?ioieiea iniio?a niaea?aeeony eioi?iaoeey, iicaieythuay ?aoeoue
aii?in i nei?inoe o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, iai?aaeaiee e oa?aeoa?a
aeaeaeaiey, ianoa noieeiiaaiey (iaacaea), eni?aaiinoe ioaeaeueiuo nenoai
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e ia?aciaaaoeony ia iai neaaeao, a oaeaea i
ianoa aei?iaeii-o?aiiii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey.

Iino?aaeaaoea i?e aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaeyo iai?aaeythony a
ea/aaiua o/?aaeaeaiey, ioeoaea a oa??eoi?eaeueiia iiae?acaeaeaiea AAE
iai?aaeythony oaeaoiiia?aiiu n oeacaieai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aeeaaiica,
/oi iicaieyao i?eiyoue iainiiaaiiia ?aoaiea i aicaoaeaeaiee aeaea.

Anee ia iino?aaeaee ethaee, a i?e/eiai oieueei iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a, oi,
i?aaeaea anaai, neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue, iiaeii ee a?aae, i?e/eiaiiue
iia?aaeaeaieai o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, aei?iaeiuo nii?oaeaiee, a?oca eee
eiiai eiouanoaa, ioianoe e ?ac?yaeo nouanoaaiiiai. A caeiia (no. 211 OE
?NON? e aiaeiae/iua noaouee OE ae?oaeo nithciuo ?anioaeee) ia oeacaii,
eaeie oua?a neaaeoao n/eoaoue nouanoaaiiui. Yoi iiiyoea ioeaii/iia.
Eiie?aoecaoeey e ?ane?uoea yoiai iiiyoey i?iecaiaeeony noaeii,
i?ieo?i?ii, neaaeiaaoaeai ia iniiaa e?eoa?eaa, neiaeeaoeony a
neaaenoaaiiie e noaeaaiie i?aeoeea. A neaaenoaaiiie e noaeaaiie i?aeoeea
oua?a i?eciaaony nouanoaaiiui, anee ii ninoaaeyao 450—500 ?oa. (a
?NON?). E?eoa?eyie, a neeo eioi?uo ii i?eciaaony oaeiaui, iiaoo auoue
noieiinoue, oeaiiinoue iia?aaeaeaiiiai eiouanoaa, eiouanoaaiiia
iieiaeaiea iioa?iaaoaai e ae?oaea ianoiyoaeuenoaa.

A ?aii?oa nio?oaeieea ieeeoeee, ia?aui i?eauaoei ia ianoi i?ienoanoaey,
e ni?aaea i aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiii i?ienoanoaee niaea?aeaony naaaeaiey i
aiaeeoaea, o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa, iioa?iaaoai, naeaeaoaeyo. Iineieueeo
yoe aeieoiaiou ninoaaeythony ia iniiaa aiaeeca eioi?iaoeee, iieo/aiiie
iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?e eco/aiee ianoa i?ienoanoaey e aanaae n aiaeeoaeai,
iioa?iaaoei, naeaeaoaeyie, oi iie niaea?aeao oeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth i
a?aiaie i?ienoanoaey, inaauaiiinoe, aeaeeiinoe, ninoiyiee iiaiaeu e
i?iacaeae /anoe. Anoanoaaiii, oaeea naaaeaiey aeieaeiu auoue i?iaa?aiu a
i?ioeanna ?anneaaeiaaiey.

I?eieiay ?aoaiea i aicaoaeaeaiee oaieiaiiai aeaea, aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue,
ia iaoiaeeeny ee aiaeeoaeue a iiiaio niaa?oaiey i?ienoanoaey a ninoiyiee
aeeiaieueiiai iiueyiaiey? Onoaiiaeaiea yoiai oaeoa, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
iaiaoiaeeii aeey i?aaiaie ioeaiee aai aeaenoaee—ia?ooaiea i?aaiaiai
cai?aoa oi?aaeyoue o?ainii?oii a ninoiyiee iiueyiaiey yaeyaony
ioya/athuei aeio ianoiyoaeuenoaii. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,—aeey i?aaeeueiie
ioeaiee aeaenoaee aiaeeoaey a eiie?aoiie aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaea.

Ii iauaio i?aaeeo ana aiaeeoaee — o/anoieee aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai
i?ienoanoaey, i?e eioi?ii ianooieee oaieiaii-i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey
(eiathony iino?aaeaaoea eee i?e/eiai nouanoaaiiue iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a),
iiaeeaaeao iaaeeoeeineiio inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaieth aeey onoaiiaeaiey
ninoiyiey iiueyiaiey.

Ia?aaeei inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea aiaeeoaey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ninoiyiey
aeeiaieueiiai iiueyiaiey i?iaiaeeony n i?eiaiaieai eiaeeeaoi?iie o?oaee
“Eiio?ieue o?acainoe”. Oaeae i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ia?a iaiaoiaeeia aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey aiciiaeiinoe o/anoey aiaeeoaey a iniio?a ianoa i?ienoanoaey
e ae?oaeo i?iaiaeeiuo ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee.
Anee aoaeao onoaiiaeaii, /oi aiaeeoaeue iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee
aeeiaieueiiai iiueyiaiey, aai ia neaaeoao i?eaeaeaoue e o/anoeth a
neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaeyo, a iinea onoiie aanaaeu ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao
i?ienoaaeoaai iai?aaeoue a iaaeeoeeineia o/?aaeaeaiea aeey i?iaaaeaiey
inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey.

I?eiaiyaiue a i?aeoeea i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae i?eai? i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie noaeeyiioth o?oaeo ni niaoeeaeueiui iaiieieoaeai. Ia iaeei eiiaoe
o?oaee iaaeaaaaony yeanoe/iue iieeia?iue iaeao, (naeaeaoaeuenoaoaiue
aiaeeoaeue ?oii auaeuoaao /a?ac o?oaeo aei iieiiai caiieiaiey aicaeooii
yoiai aaeeiia. Iiae aeaenoaeai niaea?aeaueony a auaeuoaaiii aicaeooa
ia?ia aeeiaiey iaiieieoaeue a oa/aiea 1—2 iei eciaieo ie?aneo n aeaeoie
ia caeaioth. Ia o?oaea eiaaony niaoeeaeueiay ?enea e?aniiai oeaaoa,
eioi?ay neoaeeo i?eaioe?ii iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey iiueyiaiey. Anee
eciaiaiea ie?anee ia aeinoeaaao yoie ?enee, oi yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia
ionoonoaee iiueyiaiey. Anee aunioa eciaieaoaai oeaao ?aaaaioa aeinoeaaao
?enee eee i?aauoaao aa, yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaee/ee iiueyiaiey.

Inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea n i?eiaiaieai eiaeeeaoi?iie o?oaee i?iaiaeeony a
i?enoonoaee aeaoo a?aaeaeai, e ii aai ?acoeueoaoai ninoaaeyaony i?ioieie
inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey aiaeeoaey n eniieueciaaieai eiaeeeaoi?iie o?oaee
“Eiio?ieue o?acainoe” onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu, eioi?ue iiaeienuaatho
o/anoieee inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey iaaeeoeeineiai inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey aiaeeoaeue ia
iicaeiaa aeaoo /ania n iiiaioa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey
aeieaeai auoue aeinoaaeai a iaaeeoeeineia o/?aaeaeaiea, a eioi?ii ia
iniiaaiee ienueiaiiiai iai?aaeaiey i?aaia aioo?aiieo aeae inouanoaeyaony
inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea.

Iaaeeoeeineia inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea i?iaiaeeony a ethaia a?aiy nooie a
niaoeeaeueiuo eaaeiaoao ia?eieiae/aneeo aeeniaina?ia, a ia?aaeaeaeiuo
aaoieaai?aoi?eyo eee a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiaie cae?aaiio?aiaiey
ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo o/?aaeaeaieyo a?a/aie (ineoeao?,
ineoeao?-ia?eieia, iaa?iiaoieia), a oaeaea niaoeeaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiuie
iaaeeoeeineeie ?aaioieeaie ae?oaeo niaoeeaeueiinoae.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai iaaeeoeeineiai inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey ninoaaeyaony aeo a
aeaoo yecaiiey?ao, iaeei yecaiiey? eioi?iai ia?aaeaaony ?aaioieeo i?aaia
aioo?aiieo aeae, aeinoaaeaoaio aiaeeoaey, a ae?oaie o?aieony a
iaaeeoeeineii o/?aaeaeaiee.

Ae?oaie iooue onoaiiaeaiey ninoiyiey iiueyiaiey — iacia/aiea
noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu iinea aicaoaeaeaiey oaieiaiiai aeaea.
A yoeo oeaeyo iia iacia/aaony a neo/aa nia?oe aiaeeoaey eee i?e/eiaiey
aio a ?acoeueoaoa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey oaeaniuo
iia?aaeaeaiee, ii iiaiaeo eioi?uo ii iai?aaeyaony aeey ieacaiey
iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue a ea/aaiia o/?aaeaeaiea. Auaiae ia iiueyiaiee
aeaeaaony ii iaee/eth a e?iae, ii/a eee nethia aeeiaiey.

Anee aiaeeoaeue n ianoa i?ienoanoaey ne?ueny e iiaeaa?aiooue aai
iaaeeoeeineiio inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaieth ia i?aaenoaaeeinue aiciiaeiui,
oaeo iaoiaeaeaiey aiaeeoaey a ninoiyiee iiueyiaiey iiaeao auoue
onoaiiaeai iooai aeii?ina naeaeaoaeae ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao oiio?aaeaiey
ei nie?oiuo iaieoeia.

§ 2. Enoiaeiua neaaenoaaiiua neooaoeee e eo ?ac?aoaiea

Iiene ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iooae ?anneaaeiaaiey aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo
i?anooieaiee iicaieee auyaeoue caaeneiinoue aai io neeaaeuaathuaeny
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee. Iniaaiii ieiaeioai?ii inouanoaeyeanue
?ac?aaioea aeaiiie i?iaeaiu a 70-o aiaeao. Iiyaeaiea ?yaea i?eaeiaeueiuo
?aaio iicaieeei noi?ioee?iaaoue /aoeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee, ii?aaeaeeoue aa ?ieue a ?anneaaeiaaiee i?anooieaiee.

Neiaeeaoaany a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiyoea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee
i?aaenoaaeyaony eae niaieoiiinoue oneiaee, a eioi?uo a aeaiiue iiiaio
inouanoaeyaony ?anneaaeiaaiea. Yoe oneiaey iiaoo neeaaeuaaoueny iiae
aicaeaenoaeai ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia: ionoonoaea aeaiiuo ia ioaeaeueiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao niaa?oaiiiai i?anooieaiey (iai?eia?, i ee/iinoe
niaa?oeaoaai i?anooieaiea eeoea); i?ioeaiaeaenoaea iiaeic?aaaaiuo
neaaeiaaoaeth a onoaiiaeaiee ?acee/iuo ianoiyoaeuenoa i?anooieaiey;
iaaeinoaoie iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ea/anoaaiiiai ?anneaaeiaaiey nee, n?aaenoa
e o. ae.

Iniiao eeanneoeeaoeee neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee ninoaaeytho yoaiu
?anneaaeiaaiey. Iie iiae?acaeaeythony ia enoiaeiua, oa?aeoa?iua aeey
ia?aiia/aeueiiai yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey; i?iiaaeooi/iua, aicieeathuea ia
iineaaeothuai yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey; e eiia/iua, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
caaa?oathuee yoai ?anneaaeiaaiey, niioaaonoaothuee ieii/aieth
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ?anneaaeiaaiey.

Eaaeaeay neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey a caaeneiinoe io iieo/aiiie
eioi?iaoeee, ioiioaiee iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie ?anneaaeiaaiey e ae?oaeo
ianoiyoaeuenoa iiaeao auoue oeie/iie eee niaoeeoe/aneie, i?inoie eee
neiaeiie.

Iaiauaiea i?aeoeee ?anneaaeiaaiey aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee
iicaieyao auaeaeeoue /aou?a a?oiiu oeie/iuo enoiaeiuo neaaenoaaiiuo
neooaoeee.

Ia?aay a?oiia oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi aiaeeoaeue, o?ainii?oiia
n?aaenoai e iioa?iaaoee iaoiaeyony ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey, eeai, anee eo
ii eaeei-oi i?e/eiai (iai?eia?, aeinoaaeaiea aiaeeoaeai iioa?iaaoaai a
ea/aaiia o/?aaeaeaiea) ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey iao, ii i ieo eiathony
aeinoiaa?iua naaaeaiey.

Aoi?ay a?oiia neooaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey
iaoiaeeony iioa?iaaoee, a aiaeeoaeue, o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai
ionoonoaotho e aeinoiaa?iuo naaaeaiee i ieo ia eiaaony.

O?aouey a?oiia neooaoeee oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaee/eai ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey
iioa?iaaoaai e o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, i?e ionoonoaee aiaeeoaey
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.

E /aoaa?oie a?oiia neooaoeee neaaeoao ioianoe neo/ae ionoonoaey ia ianoa
i?ienoanoaey aiaeeoaey, o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e iioa?iaaoaai.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiey ?ac?aoaiey enoiaeiuo neaaenoaaiiuo
neooaoeee ia?aii/a?aaeiia cia/aiea eiatho naaaeaiey i ianoa e a?aiaie
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey, aai iineaaenoaeyo.

Eae iieacuaaao eco/aiea neaaenoaaiiie i?aeoeee, iniiaiay ianna
i?ienoanoaee niaa?oaaony a ai?iaeao (55%). A ae?oaeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoao
eo /enei cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa: a iinaeeao ai?iaeneiai oeia—6%, a
naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoao—8%. Aieaa o?aoe i?ienoanoaee (13%)
niaa?oaaony aia ianaeaiiuo ioieoia.

Io /enea anao niaa?oaaiuo a ianaeaiiuo ioieoao i?ienoanoaee 85,4%
i?ienoiaeeo ia oeeoeao. Iiyoiio ia neo/aeii, /oi /enei naeaeaoaeae a
yoeo neo/ayo ninoaaeyao 3—4 /aeiaaea.

Ciaiea a?aiaie e ianoa niaa?oaiey i?ienoanoaey iicaieyao i?aaeiieiaeeoue
iaee/ea iaauyaeaiiuo naeaeaoaeae, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e oa?aeoa?
e?eieiaeenoe/anee cia/eiie eioi?iaoeee.

Iineaaenoaey, ianooieaoea a ?acoeueoaoa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo
i?ienoanoaee, iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu.

E ia?aie a?oiia neaaeoao ioianoe i?ienoanoaey, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo
ianooieea nia?oue iaeiiai (28% io anao eco/aiiuo oaieiaiuo aeae) eee
ianeieueeeo /aeiaae (2%). Ei aoi?ie a?oiia—a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo
iioa?iaaoei i?e/eiaiu oyaeeea (22%), iaiaa oyaeeea (30%) eee eaaeea
(20%) oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey. E o?aoueae a?oiia — i?anooieaiey,
iiaeaeoea i?e/eiaiea nouanoaaiiiai iaoa?eaeueiiai oua?aa.

Aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey e?eieiaeenoe/anee cia/eiie eioi?iaoeee
iaiaeeiaeiau. Oae, i?e iineaaenoaeyo ia?aie a?oiiu iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee
io iaeiiai ec o/anoieeia niauoey eneeth/aaony e iiyoiio iaiaoiaeei
ananoi?iiiee aiaeec eioi?iaoeee, iieo/aiiie io ae?oaeo o/anoieeia
niauoey. I?e iineaaenoaeyo aoi?ie a?oiiu iioa?iaaoee iiaeao aeaaaoue
iieacaiey, iaeiaei a neeo aiacaiiinoe e auno?ioa/iinoe niauoey, a oaeaea
iaiai?aaeaiiinoe aieiaiey iie iiaoo niaea?aeaoue cia/eoaeueiua
eneaaeaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa i?ienoaaeoaai. Aneaaenoaea yoiai iieacaiey
iioa?iaaoeo neaaeoao ouaoaeueii i?iaa?youe. I?e iineaaenoaeyo o?aoueae
a?oiiu ia?acoaony aieueoia /enei iaoa?eaeueiuo neaaeia, aiaeec eioi?uo,
a iniiaiii, iicaieyao ?ac?aoeoue aaaeiua aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey
ianoiyoaeuenoaa.

Aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiua i?ienoanoaey niaa?oathony, a iniiaiii, eeoeaie a
aic?anoa io 24 aei 40 eao (62,9%). Eeoea iieiaea yoie a?oiiu (io 18 aei
24 eao) niaa?oatho 25,8%, a noa?oa 40 eao— 11,8% i?ienoanoaee. A
iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa ana iie eiatho n?aaeiaa ia?aciaaiea (66,1%).
Aeiey eeoe, eiathueo n?aaeiaoaoie/aneia e aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, ninoaaeyao
niioaaonoaaiii 12,2% e 8%. Inoaeueiua 13,7% eiatho iaiieiia n?aaeiaa
ia?aciaaiea. A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe 77,4%
i?ienoanoaee niaa?oatho ?aai/ea, 19,3%—neoaeauea, 3,3% — iaineiia?u,
nooaeaiou e ae?. O?iaaiue i?aaeiae noaeeiinoe iaaunie e ninoaaeyao 6,4%.
Aianoa n oai aaeeei /enei i?ienoanoaee, niaa?oaaiuo a ninoiyiee
iiueyiaiey. Iii ninoaaeyao 29%.

Ia?aay a?oiia neooaoeee yaeyaony naiie ?ani?ino?aiaiiie e aicieeaao, a
iniiaiii, i?e noieeiiaaieyo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. Iia niaea?aeeo
aanueia iaoe?ioth eioi?iaoeeth ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi o/anoieee
niauoey iaoiaeyony ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey. E?iia oiai, i naiii
i?ienoanoaee auno?i noaiiaeony ecaanoii i?aaiai aioo?aiieo aeae, iiyoiio
ieiei 50% iano i?ienoanoaee iniao?eaaaony a n?ie aei 1 /ana n iiiaioa eo
niaa?oaiey. Yoi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ii?aaeaeyao oa?aeoa? e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee ii ?ac?aoaieth neooaoeee.
A?naiae neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee ii ?ac?aoaieth iiaeiaiie neooaoeee
iaaaeee: iniio? ianoa i?ienoanoaey, aeii?in naeaeaoaeae, iacia/aiea
noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu, aeii?in iioa?iaaoaai, aeii?in
aiaeeoaey a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaey eee iiaeic?aaaaiiai.

Aoi?ay a?oiia neooaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony naaaeaieyie i a?aiaie, ianoa
niaa?oaiey i?ienoanoaey, aai iineaaenoaeyo, ii ionoonoaeai eioi?iaoeee i
aiaeeoaea e o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa.

Oa?aeoa? e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, iai?aaeaiiuo
ia ?ac?aoaiea neooaoeee, eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinea
iniio?a ianoa i?ienoanoaey oeaeaniia?acii aeii?ineoue iioa?iaaoaai, a
caoai naeaeaoaeae. Iaeiia?aiaiii oeaeaniia?acii iacia/eoue yenia?oecu
(noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineoth, e?eieiaeenoe/aneoth). Iinea aeii?ina
onoaiiaeaiiiai aiaeeoaey iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeuyaeoue aai aeey iiiciaiey
iioa?iaaoaio, naeaeaoaeyi-i/aaeaeoeai e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaanoe
i/iua noaaee.

Oae, Ae., oi?aaeyy aaoiiiaeeai ia?ee AAC-24, ii/ueth ia iaeiie ec oeeoe
Iineau niaa?oee iaacae ia N., i?e/eiea aio oyaeeea oaeaniua
iia?aaeaeaiey, e n ianoa i?ienoanoaey ne?ueny. E ia/aeo ?anneaaeiaaiey
neaaeiaaoaeue ?aniieaaae naaaeaieyie, iieo/aiiuie i?e iniio?a ianoa
i?ienoanoaey, i ianoa niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, oeia aaoiiiaeey. Ii
oa?aeoa?o yoa neooaoeey ieacaeanue neiaeiie, oae eae iaecaanoii auei
niaa?oeaoaa i?anooieaiea eeoei, a oaeaea o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai. Iaeiaei
eioi?ie?iaaiiinoue neaaeiaaoaey ia yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iieo/eea
ii?aaeaeaiioth iai?aaeaiiinoue iinea aeii?ina iioa?iaaoaai, eioi?ue
iacaae ia?eo aaoiiiaeey e aai oeaao.

Aeii?in naeaeaoaeae aua aieaa eiie?aoece?iaae yoo eioi?iaoeeth—auee
onoaiiaeaiu aeaa oeeo?u e na?ey ainoaea?noaaiiiai iiia?a aaoiiiaeey, a
oaeaea iaeioi?ua i?eiaou aiaeeoaey. A i?ioeanna ?icuneiuo ia?ii?eyoee,
iniiaaiiuo ia iieo/aiiie i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee eioi?iaoeee, A. aue
onoaiiaeai e iiiciai naeaeaoaeyie. E?iia oiai, oaeo iaoiaeaeaiey
aaoiiiaeey ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey aue iiaeoaa?aeaeai e?eieiaeenoe/aneeie
enneaaeiaaieyie neaaeia eiean aaoiiiaeey, iaia?oaeaiiuo ia ianoa
i?anooieaiey.

A neooaoeee o?aoueae a?oiiu ecaanoiu a?aiy, ianoi niaa?oaiiiai
i?ienoanoaey, iineaaenoaey, o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai, ii ia eiaaony
naaaeaiee i eeoea, aai niaa?oeaoai. A oaeeo neooaoeeyo iioa?iaaoee e
naeaeaoaee iiaoo iaaethaeaoue aiaeeoaey, ne?uaathuaainy n ianoa
i?ienoanoaey. Iiyoiio oaea a oiaea iniio?a ianoa i?ienoanoaey
iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoue ia?u ii ?icuneo aeaaeaeueoea o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa, a iinea ieii/aiey iniio?a aeii?ineoue aai (eee eeoei, ei
iacaaiiia, oi?aaeythuaa o?ainii?oiui n?aaenoaii) ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao
niaa?oaiey i?ienoanoaey. Caoai aeii?ineoue iioa?iaaoaai, naeaeaoaeae,
i?aaeuyaeoue onoaiiaeaiiiai aiaeeoaey aeey iiiciaiey. I?e iacia/aiee
noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo (iai?eia?, i?e noieeiiaaiee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa) iia
iiaeao auoue iacia/aia a ioiioaiee iiaeic?aaaaiiai aiaeeoaey n oeaeueth
onoaiiaeaiey oa?aeoa?a oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee, aicieeathueo i?e oaea?a
ia ioaeaeueiua /anoe aaoiiiaeey, e ii?aaeaeaiey eiie?aoiiai eeoea,
oi?aaeyaoaai o?ainii?oiui n?aaenoaii.

A oaeeo neo/ayo /anoi einoeaie?oaony oaii o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa n
oeaeueth nicaeaiey eiaeiiai aeeae. Iai?eia?, E., oi?aaeyy aaoiiiaeeai
ia?ee “Iineae/”, niaa?oee noieeiiaaiea ni neaaeiaaaoei aia?aaee eaaeiaui
aaoiiiaeeai, a caoai n ianoa AeOI ne?ueny, inoaaea aaoiiiaeeue ia ianoa
i?ienoanoaey. A ?acoeueoaoa aeaaeaeueoeo aaoiiiaeey, n eioi?ui E.
niaa?oee noieeiiaaiea, aue i?e/eiai nouanoaaiiue iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a. Ia
ae?oaie aeaiue ?aii oo?ii E. cayaee a i?aaiu ieeeoeee ia oaiia
aaoiiiaeey. Ai a?aiy aeii?ina E. io?eoeae naith i?e/anoiinoue e
niaa?oaieth i?anooieaiey, nnueaynue ia oi, /oi aaoiiiaeeue aa/a?ii
inoaaee ieiei aeiia, ioeoaea ii aue oaiai iaecaanoiui eeoeii. Oaii
aaoiiiaeey ei aue iaia?oaeai oo?ii neaaeothuaai aeiy. A yoeo oneiaeyo
neaaeiaaoaeue iainiiaaiii n?aco aea iinea aeii?ina E., iioa?iaaoaai e
naeaeaoaeae i?aaeuyaee aai yoei eeoeai aeey iiiciaiey. Iinea iiiciaiey
E. aeae i?aaaeeaua iieacaiey e iiyniee, /oi naeaeaiiia ei cayaeaiea ia
oaiia aaoiiaoeiu yaeyaony eiaeiui.

Iniaaiiinoueth /aoaa?oie a?oiiu neooaoeee yaeyaony oi, /oi a ia/aea
?anneaaeiaaiey neaaeiaaoaeue ?aniieaaaao aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeeae eeoue
i iineaaenoaeyo i?ienoanoaey. I?e yoii, eae i?aaeei, iaecaanoiu a?aiy,
ianoi niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey e eeoei, aai niaa?oeaoaa. Iooe iieo/aiey
eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?aoaiey yoie neooaoeee, niaoeeoe/iu. Yoa
neooaoeey oa?aeoa?ia aeey iaacaea o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa ia /aeiaaea e
aicieeaao, a iniiaiii, a nayce n iaia?oaeaieai o?oia. N?aco aea iinea
iniio?a ianoa iaia?oaeaiey o?oia e aeii?ina eeoe, iaia?oaeeaoeo o?oi,
iacia/aaony noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineay yenia?oeca, ii ?acoeueoaoai eioi?ie
oaeaaony onoaiiaeoue i?e/eio nia?oe (aaoio?aaia), iineaaeothuaa ca
iaacaeii ia?aiauaiea oaea. Iaeiia?aiaiii neaaeoao ?acaa?iooue eiiieaen
iieneiauo ia?ii?eyoee.

Iinea onoaiiaeaiey e aeii?ina iiaeic?aaaaiiai iaiaoiaeeii iniio?aoue
ianoi aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey, i?iecaanoe iaune ,ii ianoo
aeeoaeuenoaa e ?aaiou caaea?aeaiiiai aeey iaia?oaeaiey i?aaeiaoia,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiey e aai nie?uoee, i?iaa?eo
e ooi/iaiea iieacaiee iiaeic?aaaaiiai aeey oyniaiey oa?aeoa?a aeaenoaee
ii nie?uoeth i?anooieaiey. Oae, I. 8 aeaeaa?y 1984 a. o?aeoi?ii a
aacethaeiii ianoa niaa?oee iaacae ia A., i?e/eiea aio nia?oaeueiua
oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey . Ioiaiaa o?aeoi? e ianoo noiyiee, I. acye eiiaoo
e, aa?ioaoenue e ianoo iaacaea, caa?ae o A. ia?o/iua /anu, ianii?o,
iinea /aai iooauee o?oi a ia?aa e caeiiae aai. Aiineaaenoaee I. i?iaeae
iioeuaiiua /anu, a ianii?o ni?yoae ai aeai?a naiaai aeiia.

14 aeaeaa?y o?oi aue neo/aeii iaia?oaeai. Iineieueeo oa?aeoa? e i?e/eia
nia?oe A. auee iayniu, neaaeiaaoaeue iacia/ee noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineoth
yenia?oeco, ec caeeth/aiey eioi?ie neaaeiaaei, /oi ia o?oia eiaeenue
oa?aeoa?iua aeey iaacaea o?ainii?oiui n?aaenoaii oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey.
Neiaeiinoue neooaoeee caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi ia auei ecaanoii a?aiy e
ianoi niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai e eeoei, aai
niaa?oeaoaa.

Ai a?aiy iieneiauo ia?ii?eyoee auee iaia?oaeaiu i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea
iiaeaoaio /anu, a caoai I., eioi?ue i?e aeii?ina io?eoeae oaeo
niaa?oaiey ei aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?anooieaiey. A yoeo oneiaeyo
neaaeiaaoaeue i?eiye ?aoaiea i i?iaaaeaiee ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa
iiaeic?aaaaiiai iaunea, a oiaea eioi?iai aue iaia?oaeai ianii?o
iiaeaoaai. Iieo/aiiay eioi?iaoeey iaania/eea eciaee/aiea I. a niaa?oaiee
i?anooieaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, ciaiea enoiaeiuo neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee e oiaiea eo
aiaeece?iaaoue iicaieytho ?anoe?eoue e eiie?aoece?iaaoue oaeoe/aneee e
iaoiaee/aneee a?naiae neaaeiaaoaey, iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue
?anneaaeiaaiey aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee.

§ 3. ?icune aiaeeoaey, ne?uaoaainy n ianoa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai
i?ienoanoaey

Enoiaeiua neaaenoaaiiua neooaoeee iicaieytho i?aaeeueii ioeaieoue
iieo/aiioth a oiaea ?anneaaeiaaiey eioi?iaoeeth e iai?aaeoue aa ia
?aoaiea iniiaiie caaea/e—onoaiiaeaiea ne?uaoaainy n ianoa i?ienoanoaey
aiaeeoaey. A yoeo oeaeyo inouanoaeyaony eiiieaen neaaeothueo iieneiauo
ia?ii?eyoee: i?aneaaeiaaiea ne?uaoaainy o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa,
caa?aaeeoaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey, iieneiaay aeayoaeueiinoue neoaea ieeeoeee.
Yoe ia?ii?eyoey inouanoaeythony iaeiia?aiaiii n iniio?ii ianoa
i?ienoanoaey.

Anee aiaeeoaeue ne?ueny n ianoa i?ienoanoaey ia o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa,
oi i?e iniio?a neaaeoao a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue auyaeoue ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
eioi?ua iiaoo oeacaoue ia iniaaiiinoe aaoiiioio?ainii?oa.

Aaaeioth eioi?iaoeeth ia yoii iiaeii iieo/eoue i?e onoiie aanaaea ni
naeaeaoaeyie ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey. E oaeei naaaeaieyi ioiinyony:
oa?aeoa?iua i?eiaou o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa; iia?aaeaeaiey
aaoiiioio?ainii?oa, eo iniaaiiinoe, neaaeu aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai
i?ienoanoaey; i?eiaou aiaeeoaey e iannaaee?ia. Iinea auyniaiey
iaiaoiaeeiuo naaaeaiee neaaeoao ii?o/eoue o/anoieeai
neaaenoaaiii-iia?aoeaiie a?oiiu (iia?oiieiiii/aiiiio oaieiaiiai ?icunea,
o/anoeiaiio einiaeoi?o ieeeoeee, einiaeoi?o aei?iaeii-iao?oeueiie
neoaeau AAE) i?aneaaeiaaiea a iai?aaeaiee i?aaeiieaaaaiiai aeaeaeaiey
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa. Anee iai?aaeaiea, a eioi?ii iii ne?ueinue,
iaecaanoii, oi i?aneaaeiaaiea oeaeaniia?acii i?aaieciaaoue a aeaoo
iai?aaeaieyo aei?iae iaeiia?aiaiii.

I?e ieaie?iaaiee ia?ii?eyoee ii ?icuneo aiaeeoaey, ne?uaoaainy n ianoa
i?ienoanoaey, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaeaeaoue aai i?ioeaiaeaenoaea, eioi?ia
caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: ai-ia?auo, ii no?aieony auno?i ne?uoueny n
ianoa i?ienoanoaey; ai-aoi?uo, iinea i?ienoanoaey aiaeeoaeue i?iaa?yao
ninoiyiea aiaoiaai aeaea o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e oie/oiaeaao ia iai
neaaeu; a-o?aoueeo, iaania/eaaao naaa aeeae. A yoeo oeaeyo ii aiineo
eciaiaiea a o?ainii?oiua aeieoiaiou, aioiaeo eaeanaeaeaoaeae, aeaeaao
cayaeaiea a i?aaiu ieeeoeee ia oaiia o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e o. ae.

I?e i?aneaaeiaaiee eco/athony iai/eiu aei?iae, ia eioi?uo iiaoo auoue
neaaeu nuacaea aaoiiioio?ainii?oa n i?iacaeae /anoe, aai inoaiiaee. A
yoeo ianoao iiaoo auoue iaia?oaeaiu iauaeou, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea ia
ono?aiaiee iineaaenoaee i?ienoanoaey: ineieee naaoineaiaeueiuo i?eai?ia,
eiaiaiai noaeea, iia?aaeaeaiiua iaeeea aeaoaee, neaaeu e?anee e inuiue
a?yce ni neaaeaie ei??icee iaoaeea, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i iiiuoeao
aui?aaeoue iia?aaeaeaiey aeaoaeae eociaa. E?iia oiai, iiaoo auoue
iaia?oaeaiu aoiaaa, o?yiee, eniieuecoaiua aeey oie/oiaeaiey ia
o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa neaaeia e?iae e ae?oaeo iauaeoia, ia?aciaaaoeony
a ?acoeueoaoa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey. N?aaee ae?oaeo,
eiathueo e?eieiaeenoe/aneia cia/aiea iauaeoia, iiaoo auoue neaaeu
ai?th/a-niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia (ANI), eaeie?ani/iuo iie?uoee (EEI) a aeaea
/anoeoe ioneieaoaeny e?anee, neaaeu iaoae aiaeeoaey eee iaoiaeeaoeony a
o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa iannaaee?ia.

Anee ai a?aiy i?aneaaeiaaiey oaeaeinue caaea?aeaoue aiaeeoaey, oi iinea
aeii?ina aai n?aco aea neaaeoao i?aaeuyaeoue aeey iiiciaiey naeaeaoaeyi.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n i?aneaaeiaaieai iaiaoiaeeii i?aaieciaaoue
caa?aaeeoaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey n i?eaea/aieai iao?oeueii-iinoiaie neoaeau
ieeeoeee e AAE. A oiaea yoeo ia?ii?eyoee aeiee?othony oeeoeu (aei?iae)
?aeiia. Aianoa n yoei i?iaiaeeony eiiieaen ae?oaeo ia? iieneiaiai
oa?aeoa?a.

Anee a ?acoeueoaoa ?anneaaeiaaiey “ii ai?y/ei neaaeai” iaia?oaeaii
o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai, oi i?eieiathony ia?u e iaia?oaeaieth neaaeia
eeoea, oi?aaeyaoaai yoei aaoiiioio?ainii?oii. Yoi iiaoo auoue neaaeu
iaeueoeaa ?oe, /anoeoeu ii/au ia eia?eea iieeea eaaeiu, iee?i/anoeoeu
aieieii iaeaaeaeu, neaaeu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea (nethia, ii/a e
o. ae.).

Aei ia/aea iniio?a aaoiiioio?ainii?oa /a?ac i?aaiu AAE iaiaoiaeeii
onoaiiaeoue aeaaeaeueoea o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e iaiaaeeaiii
aeii?ineoue aai. Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ia?aaeei aeaaeaeueoeu
aaoiiioio?ainii?oa, ne?uaoeany n ianoa i?ienoanoaey, a?inatho aai a
aacethaeiuo ianoao e aeaeatho cayaeaiea a i?aaiu ieeeoeee ia eo oaiia.
Oaeea cayaeaiey iiaeeaaeao ouaoaeueiie i?iaa?ea, a i?ioeanna eioi?ie n
o/anoeai niaoeeaeenoa (iaaeeea, e?eieiaeenoa) iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe
inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea aiaeeoaey n oeaeueth iaia?oaeaiey ia aai oaea
oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee, aicieeoeo io oaea?ia ia aeaoaee eaaeiu, ineieeia
noaeea. Anee a o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa iia?aaeaeaii eiaiaia eee ae?oaea
noaeea eociaa, oi i?e i?iaaaeaiee inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey aiaeeoaey
aieiaoaeueii iniao?eaathony aieinenoay /anoue aieiau, ooiua e iiniaua
ioaa?noey, iaeaaeaea aeey iaia?oaeaiey iaeeeo ineieeia noaeea. Iaeaaeaeo
aiaeeoaey iinea yoiai oeaeaniia?acii enneaaeiaaoue n oie aea oeaeueth a
eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo.

A ?acoeueoaoa iieneiauo ia?ii?eyoee i?e iaia?oaeaiee aiaeeoaey e
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeey, iieo/aiiay a oiaea ia?aiia/aeueiuo
neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, eniieuecoaony aeey iaia?oaeaiey aa?aaeae,
aaoii?aaei?eyoee, aeai?ia e ae?oaeo iano o?aiaiey o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

A aaoii?aaei?eyoeyo ?aaioieee i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae eco/atho
aeieoiaiou, io?aaeathuea ia?o?oou aeaeaeaiey e a?aiy yenieoaoaoeee
aaoiiioio?ainii?oa, ?aiiio o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa (cayaee, iooaaua eenou,
iaeeaaeiua).

A ianoao noiyiee aaoiiioio?ainii?oa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa
auyaeythony eeoea, i?iecaiaeeaoea iaeaioia ?aiiio o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa,
iiaeuneeaaaoea caianiua /anoe e eaeie?ani/iua iaoa?eaeu.

I?e ?icunea aiaeeoaey o?ainii?oiiiai n?aaenoaa aanueia yooaeoeaia
iiiiuue iauanoaaiiinoe. Iaeiia?aiaiii n eioi?ie?iaaieai ianaeaiey i
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiii i?ienoanoaee a ianoiie ia/aoe, ii ?aaeei e
oaeaaeaeaieth ?aaioieeaie i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae i?iaiaeeony ii?in
a?aaeaeai, i?iaeeaathueo e ?aaioathueo a ?aeiia ianoa i?ienoanoaey.

§ 4. Aeii?in iioa?iaaoaai e naeaeaoaeae-i/aaeaeoeaa

Aeii?in iioa?iaaoaai iicaieyao auynieoue ?yae ianoiyoaeuenoa. I?aaeaea
anaai iioa?iaaoaai neaaeoao aeii?ineoue i aai caei?iauea, o. a.
auynieoue neaaeothuea aii?inu: ninoiyiea c?aiey e neooa iioa?iaaoaai; ia
eiaeinue ee oece/aneeo iaaeinoaoeia, eioi?ua ia?aie/eaaee aiciiaeiinoue
aai ia?aaeaeaeaiey, ia iaoiaeeeny ee ii a ninoiyiee iiueyiaiey. E?iia
oiai, o iaai neaaeoao auynieoue eioi?iaoeeth i aeaeeiinoe, ninoiyiee
i?iacaeae /anoe e iiaiaeiuo oneiaeyo.

Anee iioa?iaaoee ia?aoiaeee i?iacaeoth /anoue aei?iae, oi neaaeoao
ooi/ieoue, ia?anaeae ee ii i?iacaeoth /anoue ii iaoaoiaeiiio ia?aoiaeo,
ia eaeii ?annoiyiee io iaeiie ec a?aieoe ?aciaoee ia?aoiaea ii aeaeaaeny
e eaeie neaiae naaoioi?a aue aeeth/ai, eiaaea ii ia/ae aeaeaeaiea. I?e
aeaeaeaiee iioa?iaaoaai aaeece iaoaoiaeiiai ia?aoiaea ioaeii auynieoue,
ia eaeii ?annoiyiee io iaoaoiaeiiai ia?aoiaea ii iaoiaeeeny.

Ia?yaeo n yoeie aii?inaie iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue: aeaeae ee ii
o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai e neuoae ee ooi aai aeaeaaoaey; ia eaeii
?annoiyiee iaoiaeeeinue o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai io iaai a iiiaio ia/aea
aeaeaeaiey ii i?iacaeae /anoe e eaeiaa auea nei?inoue aai aeaeaeaiey; a
eaeii oaiia ii aeaeaaeny (iaaeeaiii, niieieii eee auno?ue aaa,
iaaeeaiiue, niieieiue eee auno?ue oaa); anee iaiye oaii aeaeaeaiey, oi
eaeea io?acee aei?iae e eaeei oaiiii i?aiaeieae; eaeia ?annoiyiea ii
i?aiaeieae io o?iooa?a (iai/eiu) aei ianoa iaacaea; oaie ia?ana/aiey
i?iacaeae /anoe; eaeiai auei ?aniieiaeaiea ae?oaeo o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa. Anee ia i?iacaeae /anoe noiyei o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai eee
iaoiaeeeinue ae?oaia i?aiyonoaea, ia?aie/eaathuaa iaci? i?iacaeae /anoe,
oi iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue ?aniieiaeaiea eo e ?annoiyiea, ia eioi?ii
ia?aae o?ainii?oiui n?aaenoaii ii aeaeaaeny.

O iioa?iaaoaai auyniythony oaeaea ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ioiinyueany e
iaoaiecio niauoey: a eaeoth /anoue oaea aue iaianai ia?aiia/aeueiue
oaea? e eaeea oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey aio auee iaianaiu; eaeiaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aai ia?aiauaiey iinea oaea?a; a eaeie iaeaaeaea ii
iaoiaeeeny, eiathony ee ia iae neaaeu e aaea iaeaaeaea iaoiaeeony a
aeaiiue iiiaio (i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaeaaeaea ecuiaaony e iiaeaa?aaaony
enneaaeiaaieth).

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aiaeeoaeue ia o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa n ianoa
i?ienoanoaey ne?ueny, iioa?iaaoee aeii?aoeaaaony oaeaea i oii,
inoaiaaeeaaeinue ee o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai e iiaeoiaeee ee aiaeeoaeue e
iioa?iaaoaio; eaeea aeaenoaey i?iecaiaeee ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey; a eaeii
iai?aaeaiee oaoae; ia caiiiiee ee i?eiao aiaeeoaey e ioee/eoaeueiuo
i?eciaeia o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.

Auyniaiea yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoa aaaeii e iioiio, /oi a iiaeiaiuo
neooaoeeyo ia?aaeei aiaeeoaeue, iiae aeaeii ioi?aaeaiey iioa?iaaoaai a
ea/aaiia o/?aaeaeaiea, oaiceo aai n ianoa i?ienoanoaey e inoaaeyao aac
iiiiue a iaeiethaeiuo ianoao (no?ieoaeueiuo ieiuaaeeao, ionou?yo, eaniuo
ianneaao).

O iioa?iaaoeo, iaoiaeeaoeony a o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoaao, i?e
noieeiiaaieyo, ii?ieeaeuaaieyo e ae?oaeo aeaeao aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo
i?ienoanoaee, iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea auynieoue: eoi iaoiaeeeny ca ?oeai
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa; ia eaeii ianoa iaoiaeeeny iioa?iaaoee; n eaeie
nei?inoueth aae aiaeeoaeue o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai e eae iii
?aniieaaaeinue ia i?iacaeae /anoe; a?aiy e ianoi i?ienoanoaey; eaeie
neaiae aeeth/aeny ia naaoioi?a e ia eaeii ?annoiyiee io naaoioi?a a yoio
iiiaio iaoiaeeeinue o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai; aaea iaoiaeeeinue ae?oaia
o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai, eaeiaa auea nei?inoue aai aeaeaeaiey e ia eaeii
?annoiyiee iii iaoiaeeeinue; a eaeii ianoa i?iecioei noieeiiaaiea
(ii?ieeaeuaaiea); eaeea aeaenoaey auiieiee aiaeeoaeue aeey
i?aaeioa?auaiey aicieeiiaaiey noieeiiaaiey; eaeea neaaeu ia?aciaaeenue
ia i?iacaeae /anoe, o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa; eae ?aniieaaaeenue
o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa iinea noieeiiaaiey.

E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue naaaeaiey, ioiinyueany e iaoaiecio
oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee: a eaeii iai?aaeaiee e eaeei ia?acii oaei
iioa?iaaoaai ia?aianoeeinue a iiiaio noieeiiaaiey; io nii?eeiniiaaiey n
eaeeie /anoyie e eaeea aicieeee oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey e ae?.

Aeey iaania/aiey onoaiiaeaiey oa?aeoa?a e ?acia?a iineaaenoaee
i?ienoanoaey iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue: eaeea oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey auee
i?e/eiaiu iioa?iaaoaio; a eaeii ea/aaiii o/?aaeaeaiee e eae aeieai ii
ea/eeny; eaeea aaue (ii?ooaeue, ciioee e o. ae.) e i?aaeiaou iaeaaeaeu
iia?aaeaeaiu; eaeiaa eo ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue.

E?iia oiai, neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue a?oiio aii?inia, ioiinyueony e
aeaenoaeyi aiaeeoaey iinea niaa?oaiey i?ienoanoaey. Yoe aii?inu
iai?aaeaiu ia auyniaiea iiaaaeaiey aiaeeoaey: eae ii iauyniye
ianoiyoaeuenoaa neo/eaoaainy; n eaeeie i?inueaaie ia?auaeny e
iioa?iaaoaio; ia eciaiye ee ianoaiiaeo ianoa i?ienoanoaey; eaeoth
iaaeeoeeineoth iiiiuue ii ieacuaae.

I?e aeii?ina iioa?iaaoaai, eae i?aaeei, n naiiai aai ia/aea noaiiaeony
i/aaeaeiui, iiae aeeyieai eaeeo oaeoi?ia oi?ie?iaaeenue aai iieacaiey.
Oaeeie oaeoi?aie yaeythony ioeaiea iioa?iaaoei naiaai iiaaaeaiey ia?aae
i?ienoanoaeai, a oaeaea aiaeec iiaaaeaiey aiaeeoaey. Anee iiaaaeaiea
iioa?iaaoaai auei iai?aaiia?iui (iai?eia?, ia?aoiae oeeoeu i?e
cai?auathuei neaiaea naaoioi?a), oi a aai iieacaieyo i?aiaeaaeatho
naaaeaiey i a?oaii ia?ooaiee aiaeeoaeai i?aaee aaciianiinoe, eioi?ia
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeinoaoi/iui ?annoiyieai aeey inoaiiaee o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa, aiciiaeiinoueth aeaeaoue iaoaoiaea e o. ae. A oaeeo neo/ayo
neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue oaeoe/aneea i?eaiu, eniieuecoaiua aeey aeii?ina
eeoe, aeathueo iieacaiey. E, iaiai?io, eiaaea iioa?iaaoee ia oniao?eaaao
a naieo aeaenoaeyo ia?ooaiee I?aaee aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, oi aai
iieacaiey, eae i?aaeei, ioee/athony i?aaaeeainoueth. Yoe naaaeaiey
neaaeoao o/eouaaoue i?e eca?aiee oaeoeee aeii?ina a oeaeyo iieo/aiey
iieiuo e iauaeoeaiuo iieacaiee ioiineoaeueii ianoiyoaeuenoa
i?ienoanoaey.

Ia oi?ie?iaaiea iieacaiee naeaeaoaeae cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ieacuaaao eo
noauaeoeaiay ioeaiea neo/eaoaainy, /oi iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee oaeoeee aeii?ina. Oneiaii eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e
a?oiiu.

Naeaeaoaee ia?aie a?oiiu nio?aiytho “iaeo?aeueiia” ioiioaiea e
aiaeeoaeth e iioa?iaaoaio, ia inoaeaeay ia?aiai e ia auneacuaay
niaeaeaiey iineaaeiaio. A iniiaa eo oaeiai ioiioaiey eaaeeo oaa?aiiinoue
a oii, /oi eiiiaoaioiua aeieaeiinoiua eeoea i?aaeeueii ioeaiyo
i?ienoaaeoaa e i?eioo ni?aaaaeeeaia ?aoaiea. Oaeea naeaeaoaee ioioii
aeatho iieacaiey e ioaa/atho ia ooi/iythuea aii?inu.

Naeaeaoaee aoi?ie a?oiiu i?aoaaee/eaatho ?ieue e cia/aiea aeaenoaee
aiaeeoaey ii i?aaeioa?auaieth a?aaeiuo iineaaenoaee, n/eoay
aicieeiiaaiea aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey ?acoeueoaoii
i?ioeaii?aaiuo aeaenoaee iioa?iaaoaai. Iiae/a?eeaay naiaa?aiaiiinoue
i?eiyouo aiaeeoaeai ia?, iie /anoi oeacuaatho ia oaeea aeaoaee
i?ienoanoaey, i eioi?uo ia iiaee ciaoue. Ia?aaeei enoi/ieeii eo
inaaaeiieaiiinoe yaeyaony ?anneac aiaeeoaey ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao
neo/eaoaainy.

Naeaeaoaee o?aoueae a?oiiu naycuaatho i?e/eio aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai
i?ienoanoaey oieueei n aeaenoaeyie aiaeeoaey. Iie eceeoia iiae?iaii
iauyniytho inoi?iaeiinoue e iniio?eoaeueiinoue iioa?iaaoaai,
ae?aiaoece?oy ianoiyoaeuenoaa naiiai i?ienoanoaey. Oaeea neooaoeee
oa?aeoa?iu aeey iaacaeia ia iaoaoiaeia.

E?oa ianoiyoaeuenoa, auyniyaiuo i?e aeii?ina naeaeaoaeae, iiaeii
iiae?acaeaeeoue ia /aou?a a?oiiu: ia oneiaeyo aini?eyoey niauoey; i
aei?iaeiuo oneiaeyo e aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaea; ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey; i aeaenoaeyo aiaeeoaey e ae?oaeo eeoe iinea
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey.

Ia aini?eyoea naeaeaoaeai ianoiyoaeuenoa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai
i?ienoanoaey nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ieacuaatho oaeea iauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u,
Eae oaeaeaiea io ianoa i?ienoanoaey, oneiaey inaauaiiinoe,
nei?ioa/iinoue i?ioeannia aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey, a oaeaea
noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeyaiua ninoiyieai caei?iauey naeaeaoaey
(aeaoaeou c?aiey, neooa), i?ioanneiiaeueiuie iaaueaie, aic?anoii e o.
ae.

Iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou aeii?ina naeaeaoaeae aeaao i?aaeuyaeaiea ei
ieaia (noaiu) ianoa i?ienoanoaey. Iii niinianoaoao /aoeiio ii?aaeaeaieth
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey naeaeaoaey, oyniaieth, eaeea eiaiii ianoiyoaeuenoaa
i?ienoaaeoaai ii iia aeaeaoue. E?iia oiai ieai niinianoaoao
aini?iecaaaeaieth iaeioi?uo caauouo naeaeaoaeai ianoiyoaeuenoa. Ii
yaeyaony oaeaea naiaai ?iaea “eiio?ieueiui caaiii”. Niiinoaaeaieai
iieacaiee naeaeaoaey n aeaiiuie ieaia ia iaeieo e oao aea
ianoiyoaeuenoaao iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue inaaaeiieaiiinoue naeaeaoaey ia
ianoiyoaeuenoaao neo/eaoaainy. N oaeoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey i?aaeaea /ai
i?aaeuyaeoue naeaeaoaeth ieai ianoa i?ienoanoaey oeaeaniia?acii aei
ia/aea oeenaoeee iieacaiee a naiaiaeiie aanaaea auynieoue, /oi eiaiii
iiaeao iieacaoue naeaeaoaeue i i?ienoaaeoai. Neaaeoao inoaiiaeoueny
eeoue ia iniiaiuo iiiaioao aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey,
ioaeaeueiuo “oceao”.

AEaeaoaeueii i?e yoii i?aaenoaaeoue a ?anii?yaeaiea naeaeaoaey
ianooaaiua iaeaou o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, iaoaoiaeia e ae?oaeo iauaeoia,
?aciauaiea eioi?uo ia ieaia iicaieyao aaanoe a aeii?in yeaiaiou
iiaeaee?iaaiey, niinianoaothuea eiie?aoecaoeee iieacaiee.

I?aaeiao aeii?ina naeaeaoaey ii?aaeaeyaony iniaaiiinoyie enoiaeiie
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee. A neooaoeee, eiaaea ecaanoiu aiaeeoaeue,
o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai e iioa?iaaoee, iniiaiia aieiaiea i?e aeii?ina
oaeaeyaony auyniaieth aei?iaeiuo oneiaee, aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaee e
ianoiyoaeuenoa i?ienoanoaey.

Anee aiaeeoaeue n ianoa i?ienoanoaey ne?uaaeny, inoaaea o?ainii?oiia
n?aaenoai, a iioa?iaaoee ecaanoai, oi i?e aeii?ina naeaeaoaeae i?aaeaea
anaai neaaeoao aeii?ineoue i i?eiaoao aiaeeoaey, iiaaaeaiee ia ianoa
i?ienoanoaey, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey onoaiiaeaiey aai ee/iinoe.

Eiaaea aiaeeoaeue ia o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa ne?uaaaony n ianoa
i?ienoanoaey, oi ia?aii/a?aaeiie caaea/ae aeii?ina yaeyaony iieo/aiea
naaaeaiee i o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa, aiaeeoaea e ae?oaeo eeoeao,
iaoiaeeaoeony a iai.

N yoie oeaeueth neaaeoao iieo/eoue iiae?iaioth eioi?iaoeeth i ia?ea,
iiaeaee, oeaaoa o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa. Anee naeaeaoaeue ieioi
i?eaioe?oaony a o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoaao, oi eo/oa anaai eniieueciaaoue
ni?aai/iua iiniaey , n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iiaeii ooi/ieoue ia?eo,
iiaeaeue, oeaao o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa. I?e yoii neaaeoao o/eouaaoue
iaeioi?ua ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou oi?ie?iaaiey aini?eyoey, iaoneiaeaiiua
auno?ioa/iinoueth aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey. A /anoiinoe, i?e
aeaeaeaiee n iaeeiaeiaie nei?inoueth eaaeiaiai e a?ociaiai aaoiiiaeeae
nei?inoue iaiueoaai ec ieo (eaaeiaiai) iiaeao aini?eieiaoueny aieueoae,
/ai a?ociaiai e, iaiai?io, nei?inoue a?ociaiai aaoiiiaeey a yoeo
oneiaeyo iiaeao caieaeaoueny.

Onoaiiaeaieth ee/iinoe aiaeeoaey niinianoaoao iiae?iaiue aeii?in i
i?eiaoao iannaaee?ia o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, eo iiaaaeaiey iinea
i?ienoanoaey.

Anee naeaeaoaeue aeaeae ainoaea?noaaiiue iiia?iie ciae, neaaeoao
ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia aai oeaao e eiaeaenu. Ia?aaeei a oaeeo neo/ayo
oaeaaony iieo/eoue ioaeaeueiua oeeo?u e aoeau iiia?iiai ciaea, /oi a
niaieoiiinoe n ia?eie, iiaeaeueth o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa iicaieyao
/a?ac i?aaiu Ainaaoieiniaeoeee onoaiiaeoue eiie?aoiia o?ainii?oiia
n?aaenoai.

*?acau/aeii aaaeiia cia/aiea eiatho iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae a neooaoeeyo,
eiaaea aiaeeoaeue ia o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa ne?uaaaony n ianoa
i?ienoanoaey e oaiceo iioa?iaaoaai. A /enea ae?oaeo aii?inia, i eioi?uo
oea ?a/ue ?aiaa, neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue, iiaeao ee naeaeaoaeue iiiciaoue
o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai, aiaeeoaey e ii eaeei eiaiii i?eciaeai.

§ 5. Aeii?in aiaeeoaey

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee i aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiii i?ienoanoaee ia
ia?aiia/aeueiii yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony aeii?in aiaeeoaey.

Iacaaeneii io aeaea aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey e enoiaeiie
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee naaaeaiey, iieo/aaiua i?e aeii?ina aiaeeoaey,
iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia /aou?a a?oiiu:

— i ee/iinoe aiaeeoaey e iniaaiiinoyo o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa;

— i aei?iaeiuo oneiaeyo e aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaea;

— ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao niaa?oaiey i?ienoanoaey;

— i aeaenoaeyo aiaeeoaey iinea aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey.

I?e eco/aiee ee/iinoe aiaeeoaey, e?iia aeia?aoe/aneeo aeaiiuo,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aaiaeiie /anoueth i?ioieiea aeii?ina, iaiaoiaeeii
auynieoue neaaeothuea aii?inu: noaae ?aaiou a ea/anoaa aiaeeoaey, aai
eaaeeoeeaoeeth, iaee/ea i?aaeieo ia?ooaiee I?aaee aei?iaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey, ca eioi?ua ii aue i?eaea/ai e aaeieieno?aoeaiie eee eiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea noaeeiinoe ca niaa?oaiiua i?anooieaiey. Yoa
eioi?iaoeey iiiiaeao i?aaeeueii aua?aoue oaeoeeo aeii?ina,
noi?ioee?iaaoue ooi/iythuea aii?inu e ii?aaeaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue
i?iaaaeaiey eiuo i?ioeannoaeueiuo aeaenoaee.

O?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai yaeyaony aaaeiui yeaiaioii nenoaiu iaania/aiey
aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey. Iiyoiio eioi?iaoeey i aai
oaoie/aneii ninoiyiee eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey. Anee i?e iniio?a ianoa
i?ienoanoaey iaia?oaeaia iaeni?aaiinoue o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, oi
neaaeoao auynieoue neaaeothuea aii?inu: auei ee iii eni?aaii ia?aae
auacaeii ia eeieth; eiaaea aicieeea iaeni?aaiinoue. I?e aeii?ina
aiaeeoaey iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea onoaiiaeoue oa?aeoa? yoie iaeni?aaiinoe, aa
eiie?aoiia i?iyaeaiea e onoaiiaeoue i?e/eio i?iaeieaeaiey aiaeeoaeai
aeaeaeaiey ia iaeni?aaiii o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii
onoaiaaeeaathony eeoea, ioaaonoaaiiua ca oaoie/aneia ninoiyiea
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

Eioi?iaoeey i aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaea e aei?iaeiuo oneiaeyo naycaia n
onoaiiaeaieai neaaeothueo aii?inia: aeaeeiinoue, o. a. aiciiaeiinoue
?acee/aoue aiaeeoaeai eiie?aoiue iauaeo (iaoaoiaea, o?ainii?oiia
n?aaenoai, iiai?io aei?iae) n ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?annoiyiey; inaauaiiinoue
i?iacaeae /anoe a oneiaeyo anoanoaaiiiai eee eneonnoaaiiiai (oiia?e
oee/iiai inaauaiey, aeeaeiee eee aeaeueiee naao oa?) inaauaiey; i?ioeeue
i?iacaeae /anoe, oei e ninoiyiea aei?iaeiiai iie?uoey.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iieacaiey aiaeeoaey ioiineoaeueii yoeo
ianoiyoaeuenoa iiaoo ia niaiaaeaoue n oaie naaaeaieyie, eioi?ua
io?aaeaiu a i?ioieiea iniio?a ianoa i?ienoanoaey, eai ia?aaeei io
iiiaioa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey aei aai iniio?a i?ioiaeeo
ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, a oa/aiea eioi?iai a ianoaiiaea ianoa i?ienoanoaey
i?ienoiaeyo ?acee/iua eciaiaiey. Iiyoiio ai a?aiy aeii?ina aiaeeoaey
iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue neaaeothuea aii?inu: ninoiyiea i?iacaeae /anoe a
iiiaio i?ienoanoaey; eiaaea e eaeea i?iecioee a iai eciaiaiey; eaeiai
auei ninoiyiea i?iacaeae /anoe a iiiaio iniio?a; eaeia a?aiy i?ioei io
iiiaioa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey aei ia/aea iniio?a. Aaaeii
oaeaea onoaiiaeoue, ii eaeei i?eciaeai aiaeeoaeue naeaeae auaiae i
ninoiyiee i?iacaeae /anoe (ii oeaaoo iie?uoey, aeaeaeaieth o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa ai a?aiy oi?iiaeaiey e o. ae.).

E ae?oaei naaaeaieyi, oa?aeoa?ecothuei aei?iaeiua oneiaey, neaaeoao
ioianoe iaono?ienoai aei?iae e n?aaenoaa ?aaoee?iaaiey oee/iiai
aeaeaeaiey. Caeanue neaaeoao auynieoue oe?eio i?iacaeae /anoe,
eiee/anoai iiein aeey aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa e niiniau
?acaeaeaiey eo, iaee/ea aei?iaeiuo ciaeia, ‘naaoioi?ia e eo
?aniieiaeaiea.

Aei?iaeiay ianoaiiaea — iiiyoea, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony nei?inoueth
aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, oa?aeoa?ii e eioaineaiinoueth
aeaeaeaiey, ?aniieiaeaieai eo ia i?iacaeae /anoe ioiineoaeueii ae?oa
ae?oaa, iniaaiiinoyie ie?oaeathuae i?iacaeoth /anoue ianoiinoe
(aea?aauey, ionou?ue, no?iaiey e o. ae.). Iniaaiii aaaeii i?e aeii?ina
aiaeeoaey eiaoue a aeaeo aeeyiea aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaee ia iaci?iinoue,
o. a. aiciiaeiinoue n ?aai/aai ianoa aiaeeoaey iaic?aaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia
i?ino?ainoai i?iacaeae /anoe. Iia ia inoaaony iinoiyiiie, a iaiyaony a
caaeneiinoe io aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaee. A neeo yoiai ai a?aiy aeii?ina
aaaeii onoaiiaeoue, eaeiio ninoiyieth aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaee
niioaaonoaiaaea iaci?iinoue.

Iaeaieaa neiaeiie yaeyaony /anoue aeii?ina aiaeeoaey ioiineoaeueii
ianoiyoaeuenoa niaa?oaiey i?ienoanoaey e ?acaeoey iaoaiecia
i?ienoanoaey. I?e yoii, iniiaiia aieiaiea i?e aeii?ina oaeaeyaony
iaoaiecio, eanathuaiony i?ioeanna aeaeaeaiey iauaeoia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ia?aae noieeiiaaieai eee iaacaeii. Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi oieueei
ia iniiaa ?acoeueoaoia aeii?ina aiaeeoaey oaeea i?ioeannu iiciaoue
iaaiciiaeii, o. e. iaiaoiaeei niaieoiiue aiaeec naaaeaiee, iieo/aiiuo
i?e aeii?ina aiaeeoaey, ae?oaeo eeoe e caeeth/aiee yenia?oia
(aaoioaoieea, o?anieiaa, iaaeeea e ae?.).

I?e auyaeaiee ianoiyoaeuenoa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey
aicieeaao caaea/a, iieo/eoue oi/iua aeaiiua i ?acee/iuo i?ioeannao
(nei?inoe o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, oaiia aeaeaeaiey iaoaoiaeia, acaeiiii
?aniieiaeaiee aeaeaeoueony o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa), a oaeaea i
?aniieiaeaiee ?acee/iuo iauaeoia ianoaiiaee ianoa i?ienoanoaey.
Iineieueeo ?a/ue eaeao i eiee/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeyo, noaeaeaiey ethaeae
i eioi?uo yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii eo noauaeoeaiie ioeaiee, oi caaea/a ia
anaaaea iiaeao auoue ?aoaia a oiaea aeii?ina.

Niaea?aeaiea aeii?ina ?acee/aaony a caaeneiinoe io aeaea
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey. I?e iaacaeao o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa
ia iaoaoiaeia iniiaiia aieiaiea i?e aeii?ina aiaeeoaey neaaeoao
oaeaeyoue auyniaieth oa?aeoa?a aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e
iaoaoiaea—a eaoii iai?aaeaiee, ioiineoaeueii ae?oa ae?oaa, iie
ia?aaeaeaaeenue, n eaeie nei?inoueth (a eaeii oaiia), a oaeaea oneiaee,
a eioi?uo ?acaeaaeinue aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiia i?ienoanoaea.

Ioeaieo iieacaiee aiaeeoaey neaaeoao inouanoaeyoue ia iniiaa
niiinoaaeaiey iieacaiee naeaeaoaeae e aeaiiuo eo i?ioieiea iniio?a ianoa
i?ienoanoaey, a eioi?ii eiathony naaaeaiey i aeeeia neaaeia oi?iiaeaiey.
Anee aea neaaeu oi?iiaeaiey i?e iniio?a ia iaia?oaeaiu, oi neaaeoao
eniieueciaaoue a oao aea oeaeyo naaaeaiey ec i?ioieieia aeii?ina
naeaeaoaeae (i/aaeaeoeaa). E iieacaieyi aiaeeoaey ioiineoaeueii nei?inoe
aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa neaaeoao ioiineoueny e?eoe/anee, eai
i?e ionoonoaee neaaeia oi?iiaeaiey aeaaea iiuoiua aiaeeoaee neeiiiu a
naieo iieacaieyo caieaeaoue aaee/eio nei?inoe, ioeai/ii iieaaay, /oi yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?iyaeaiiie eie inoi?iaeiinoe.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao auyniaiea o aiaeeoaey ?aniieiaeaiey oi?aaeyaiiai
ei o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae i?ienoanoaeai.
Ecaanoii, /oi aeaeaei ia anaaaea ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey iaia?oaeeaathony
neaaeu, i?e aiaeeca eioi?uo iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ianoi iaacaea
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa ia iaoaoiaea. Auyniaiea ?aniieiaeaiey ia
i?iacaeae /anoe aei?iae o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue
ianoi iaacaea.

A /enea ae?oaeo aii?inia i?e aeii?ina aiaeeoaey iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue
nei?inoue o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, nicaeaaoaai iiiaoo, aai
?aniieiaeaiea, oa?aeoa? iineaaeothuaai aeaeaeaiey.

Auyniaiea aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaee iaiaoiaeeii naycuaaoue n aeaeaeaieai
iaoaoiaea. Iai?eia?, n ia/aeii aai aeaeaeaiey io o?iooa?a, iiyaeaieai
ec-ca aeaeaeouaainy aaoiiiaeey e o. ae. Ioiineoaeueii oa?aeoa?a
aeaeaeaiey iaoaoiaea iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue: n eaeie noi?iiu ii
iai?aaeaieth aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa iiyaeeny iaoaoiae e ia
eaeii ?annoiyiee ia?aae iei; iiae eaeei oaeii ii ia?anaeae i?iacaeoth
/anoue e eaeia aue oaii aai aeaeaeaiey (iaaeeaiiue, niieieiue eee
auno?ue oaa, niieieiue eee auno?ue aaa); ia inoaiaaeeaaeny ee ii e ia
iaiye ee oaii aeaeaeaiey; a eaeii ianoa i?iecioae iaacae ia iaai.

Anee iaoaoiae iiyaeeny ec-ca iaiiaeaeaeiiai eee aeaeaeouaainy
i?aiyonoaey, eioi?ia iiaei ia?aie/eaaoue iaci?iinoue aiaeeoaeth, oi
neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue aai ?acia?u, ?aniieiaeaiea, a oaeaea iieiaeaiea
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa ii ioiioaieth e iaio i?e iiyaeaiee iaoaoiaea
ec-ca i?aiyonoaey.

I?e aiaeeca iaoaiecia iaacaea neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue: eaeea aeaenoaey
i?aaei?eieiae aiaeeoaeue aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey iaacaea (oi?iiaeaiea,
iauacae, iiaea/a caoeiaiai eee naaoiaiai neaiaeia) e ia eaeii ?annoiyiee
io iaoaoiaea. E?iia oiai, aaaeii onoaiiaeoue e iiaaaeaiea iioa?iaaoaai
ia i?iacaeae /anoe: niio?ae ee ii a noi?iio i?eaeeaeaaoaainy
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa; eae ?aaae?iaae ia neaiaeu aiaeeoaey. Ia?aaeei
oaeie aiaeec aeaenoaee aiaeeoaey e iioa?iaaoaai iaania/eaaao i?aaeeueiia
i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ii aeaeo.

Oae, aiaeeoaeue O. neaaeiaae ii oeeoea, ii na?aaeeia eioi?ie i?ioiaeeee
o?aiaaeiua iooe. I?eaeeaeaynue e inoaiiaea, ia eioi?ie inoaiiaeeny
o?aiaae, aiaeeoaeue caoi?iicee. Eiaaea o?aiaae ia/ae aeaeaeaiea, oi
auoaaeoee ec iaai iannaaee? I. iiniio?ae ia aiaeeoaey e ciaeaie iieacae,
/oi ii i?iioneaao aaoiiiaeeue. Eae oieueei aaoiiiaeeue ia/ae aeaeaeaiea,
oi E. ia aeeceii ?annoiyiee io iaai iiaaaeae e o?iooa?o e aue naeo
aaoiiaoeiie, iieo/ea i?e yoii oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey. I?e aeii?ina
iioa?iaaoee iiyniee, /oi ii aeaenoaeoaeueii ciaeaie iieacae aiaeeoaeth,
/oi i?iioneaao aaoiiiaeeue, ii iioii ia?aaeoiae e ?aoee ia?aaaaeaoue
oeeoeo. I?e yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao oaieiaiia aeaei a ioiioaiee aiaeeoaey
auei i?ae?auaii ec-ca ionoonoaey a aai aeaenoaeyo ninoaaa i?anooieaiey.

I?e aeii?ina aiaeeoaey aiciiaeii onoaiiaeoue iaoaieci i?e/eiaiey
oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee, o. a. auynieoue: iiiaio ia?aiia/aeueiiai
eiioaeoa o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e oaea /aeiaaea; a eaeoth /anoue oaea e
eaeeie aeaoaeyie aaoiiioio?ainii?oa aue iaianai oaea?; a eaeoth noi?iio
oiae iioa?iaaoee; ia?aiauaeinue ee oaei iino?aaeaaoaai iinea oaea?a.
Anee o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai ia?aaoaei /a?ac oaei iino?aaeaaoaai, oi
neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue, eaeeie eieanaie e ii eaeie /anoe ooeiaeua
i?iecioae iaacae.

Ia?aaeee neo/ae iaacaeia a oaiiia a?aiy nooie ia ethaeae, eaaeaueo ia
i?iacaeae /anoe aei?iae a ninoiyiee iiueyiaiey. Iniiaiui i?e aeii?ina
aiaeeoaey yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea ^aiciiaeiinoe iaia?oaeaiey ei eaaeauaai
/aeiaaea. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue ia oieueei ?annoiyiea, n
eioi?iai aiaeeoaeue iia aeaeaoue eaaeauaai /aeiaaea, ii e aai
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea (a eieaa, ia iai/eia), oa?aeoa? inaauaiiinoe, oeaao
iaeaaeaeu iioa?iaaoaai e o. ae.

I?e noieeiiaaieyo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia ia?aiia/aeueiii yoaia
?anneaaeiaaiey, eae i?aaeei, ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiu;”:aeaaea
i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii auneacaoueny, eoi ec aiaeeoaeae aeiionoee i?anooiiia
ia?ooaiea i?aaee aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey e yenieoaoaoeee o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa. Iiyoiio e?oa aii?inia, iiaeeaaeaueo auyniaieth i?e aeii?ina
eaaeaeiai aiaeeoaey—o/anoieea niauoey aiaeiae/ai. Ii ii?aaeaeyaony
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie eiie?aoiuo i?ienoanoaee. Oae, i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee
iiiooiuo noieeiiaaiee neaaeoao ciaoue nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey
aaoiiioio?ainii?oa, aeenoaioeeth iaaeaeo o?ainii?oiuie n?aaenoaaie, eo
?aniieiaeaiea ia i?iacaeae /anoe. O aiaeeoaey ia?aaeiaai o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa neaaeoao auynieoue :eaeea aai aeaenoaey i?aaeoanoaiaaee
noieeiiaaieth e /ai iie auee aucaaiu. O aiaeeoaey caaeiaai—eae ii
aini?eieiae aeaenoaey aiaeeoaey ia?aaeiaai o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e ia
iniiaa eaeeo i?eciaeia naeaeae auaiae i oa?aeoa?a aai aeaenoaee. Anee ii
oi?iicee, oi aeeth/aeny ee noii-neaiae, caaeiee?iaaeenue ee eieana.

I?e auyniaiee ianoiyoaeuenoa niaa?oaiey noieeiiaaiey o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iie aicieeatho ia ia?ana/aiee
aei?ia aneaaenoaea i?anooiiie iaa?aaeiinoe eee naiiiaaeayiiinoe iaeiiai
ec aiaeeoaeae. A i?ioeanna aeii?ina aiaeeoaeae iiaoo neiaeeoueny
neaaeothuea neooaoeee:

— iaa aiaeeoaey aeatho i?aaaeeaua iieacaiey;

— iaeei ec aiaeeoaeae aeaao i?aaaeeaua iieacaiey, a ae?oaie— eiaeiua;

— iaa aiaeeoaey aeatho eiaeiua iieacaiey (iaeei oiuoeaiii eneaaeaao
ianoiyoaeuenoaa niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, ae?oaie—aeia?iniaanoii
caaeoaeaeaaony).

Anee iaa aiaeeoaey aeatho i?aaaeeaua iieacaiey, oi a caaeneiinoe io
neiaeeaoaeny aei?iaeiie ianoaiiaee neaaeoao auynieoue: nei?inoue e
?aniieiaeaiea o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia?aae noieeiiaaieai, a oaeaea
?annoiyiea, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeeenue o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa io
eaeiai-eeai i?eaioe?a (a?aieoe i?iacaeae /anoe, ia/ou oee/iiai
inaauaiey, naaoioi?a); eiaaea aiaeeoaee iaia?oaeeee ia?anaeathuaa iooue
eo neaaeiaaiey o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai; eaeea iauaeou ia?aie/eaaee
aiciiaeiinoue naiaa?aiaiiiai iaia?oaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.
Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao oaeaea auyniaiea iiiaioa i?eiyoey ia? ii
i?aaeioa?auaieth noieeiiaaiey. I?e yoii neaaeoao auynieoue, i?eiaiyeinue
ee oi?iiaeaiea e ia eaeii ?annoiyiee io ianoa noieeiiaaiey yoe aeaenoaey
auee auiieiaiu.

I?e auyniaiee ianoa noieeiiaaiey neaaeoao auynieoue eii?aeeiaou ianoa
noieeiiaaiey, iaee/ea e oa?aeoa? naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo ia yoii neaaeia, a
oaeaea ?annoiyiea, ia eioi?ia ia?aianoeeinue eaaeaeia o?ainii?oiia
n?aaenoai iinea noieeiiaaiey, ?aniieiaeaiea eo iinea inoaiiaee, eaeie
neaiae aue aeeth/ai a naaoioi?a a iiiaio iaacaea, noieeiiaaiey. Aianoa n
oai onoaiaaeeaathony iaee/ea, oa?aeoa? e ?aniieiaeaiea iia?aaeaeaiee ia
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoaao, eiathony ee iino?aaeaaoea e eaeea iie iieo/eee
oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey.

Iineieueeo aiaeeoaee aeii?aoeaathony /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy iinea
i?ienoanoaey, oi iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue—’i?iecaiaeeeny ee ?aiiio
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. Eiaaea ii ianoiyoaeuenoaai aeaea iaiaoiaeei eo
aeiiieieoaeueiue iniio? eee iacia/aiea aaoioaoie/aneie yenia?oecu, oi
oeaeaniia?acii i?eiyoue ia?u e nio?aiiinoe iaio?aiiioe?iaaiiuo
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

I?e aeii?ina aiaeeoaeae a ae?oaeo neooaoeeyo aaaeii onoaiiaeoue, eoi ec
aeii?ioaiiuo aeaao iieacaiey (aeia?iniaanoii caaeoaeaeaaony). Ia yoi
iiaoo oeacuaaoue oaeea ianoiyoaeuenoaa: ianiioaaonoaea iieacaiee
aiaeeoaey oa?aeoa?o e ?aniieiaeaieth neaaeia ia i?iacaeae /anoe,
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoaao e ianoaiiaee ianoa i?ienoanoaey; i?ioeai?a/ey a
iieacaieyo ioiineoaeueii oi/ii onoaiiaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa; ionoonoaea
iiae?iaiiai iauyniaiey i i?ienoaaeoai niauoee.

Aiaeiae/iue e?oa aii?inia auyniyaony i?e aeii?ina aiaeeoaeae ii iiaiaeo
ano?a/iuo (eiaiauo) noieeiiaaiee. Iaeiaei neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi
ia?aaeei aiaeeoaeue o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, a naeiia eee eaaeia
eioi?iai iiaea iannaaee?, ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi noieeiiaaiea i?iecioei a
?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaee iiaeaoaai, eioi?ue, enioaaaoenue i?eaeeaeathuaainy
aaoiiioio?aiiii?oa, neaaeothuaai iaano?a/o, iaiaeeaeaiii ?acei iiaa?ioe
?oeaaia eieani a aai noi?iio. Oaeea iieacaiey iiaeeaaeao aeaoaeueiiio
auyniaieth e ouaoaeueiie ioeaiea.

Iniiaiay neiaeiinoue i?e aeii?ina aiaeeoaeae ii oaeoo eanaoaeueiiai
noieeiiaaiey caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiee, eaeie ec aaoiiiaeeae
ioeeiieeny io eeiee ia?aiia/aeueiiai aeaeaeaiey. Onoaiiaeaieth yoiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue i?ioieie iniio?a ianoa
i?ienoanoaey, a eioi?ii caoeene?iaaiu neaaeu ia i?iacaeae /anoe
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa e iieiaeaiea eo iinea noieeiiaaiey.

Aiaeeoaey neaaeoao aeii?ineoue oaeaea i oii, eaeea aeaenoaey ii
i?aaei?eieiae iinea niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey. Yoi iiaeao ioiineoueny e
aeaenoaeyi ii ieacaieth iiiiue iino?aaeaaoei, nio?aiaieth neaaeia
i?anooieaiey, n eai aeaeeeny aia/aoeaieyie ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao
niaa?oaiiiai i?anooieaiey.

I?e caaea?aeaiee aiaeeoaey, ne?uaoaainy iinea niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey,
iiieii ia?a/eneaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue: i?e/eio
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey; eiio e /oi eiaiii ii ?anneacae ia
ianoiyoaeuenoaao niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey; eaeea ia?u i?aaei?eieiae ii
aeey nie?uoey neaaeia i?anooieaiey.

§ 6. Iacia/aiea noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu

I?e ?anneaaeiaaiee aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee
noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineay yenia?oeca iacia/aaony ia ia?aiia/aeueiii yoaia.
Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi ia?yaeo ni naaaeaieyie, ioiinyueieny e
iaoaiecio aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey (iieiaeaiea iaoaoiaea a
iiiaio iaacaea, eoi ec iino?aaeaaoeo iaoiaeeeny ca ?oeai o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa e o. ae.), aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue auyniaiey e ae?oaeo
naaaeaiee. Iai?eia?, aeey onoaiiaeaiey ninoiyiey iiueyiaiey aiaeeoaey
eee iaoaoiaea. Oaeea naaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiu, a /anoiinoe, aeey
i?iaaaeaiey ae?oaeo neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee (iacia/aiea aaoioaoie/aneie
yenia?oecu, i?iaaaeaiea neaaenoaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa). E?iia oiai,
aeaiiua noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineiai enneaaeiaaiey neaaeia ia oaea
iioa?iaaoaai iiaoo niaea?aeaoue eioi?iaoeeth, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey ?icunea
aiaeeoaey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, ne?uaoaainy n ianoa i?ienoanoaey
,.iai?eia?, i?e iaacaeao ia iaoaoiaeia. Noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineay
yenia?oeca iacia/aaony ai anao-neo/ayo, eiaaea i?e
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaeyo eiathony ?aiaiua eee iiaeaoea.

I?e iacia/aiee noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu aaaeii i?eaioe?iaaoueny
a eeanneoeeaoeee oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee, yaeythueony ?acoeueoaoii
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiie o?aaiu. Yoi iicaieyao i?aaeeueii noi?ioee?iaaoue
aii?inu yenia?oo, ii?aaeaeeoue e?oa e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eo
iinoaiiaee.

I?e/eiyaiua a ?acoeueoaoa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee oaeaniua
iia?aaeaeaiey iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia niaoeeoe/aneea, oa?aeoa?iua,
iaoa?aeoa?iua.

Niaoeeoe/aneea oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey aicieeatho i?e aeaenoaee ia oaei
aeaoaeae o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa. Iai?eia?, ioia/aoee i?ioaeoi?a oeiu,
aaiia?a, iaiaeea oa?u e o. ae.

Oa?aeoa?iua oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey aicieeatho oieueei a oneiaeyo
eiie?aoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?anooieaiey (iaacaea
ia /aeiaaea, noieeiiaaiee, auiaaeaiee ec o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e o.
i.).

Iaoa?aeoa?iua oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey iiaoo ano?a/aoueny i?e
iia?aaeaeaiee oaea /aeiaaea ethaui ooiui, ooiia?aiiui eee ino?ui
i?aaeiaoii.

Aiciiaeiinoe noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu iicaieytho auynieoue
ianoiyoaeuenoaa eae ioiinyueany e iaoaiecio ia?aciaaiey oaeaniuo
iia?aaeaeaiee, oae e iaoaiecio aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey a
oeaeii.

I?e auyniaiee iaoaiecia ia?aciaaiey oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee ?aoathony
aii?inu i oa?aeoa?a, noaiaie, oyaeanoe, ?aniieiaeaiee oaeaniuo
iia?aaeaeaiee, a?aiaie e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eo ia?aciaaiey, i?e/eia
nia?oe. E?iia oiai, noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineay yenia?oeca iiaeao ioaaoeoue
ia aii?inu: i i?ioeannao i?e/eiaiey oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee (yaeythony ee
iie ?acoeueoaoii oaea?a, naeaaeaiey, o?aiey); i iieiaeaiee iioa?iaaoaai
a iiiaio oaea?a (iica iioa?iaaoaai, a eaeoth /anoue oaea aue iaianai
ia?aiia/aeueiue oaea?); i iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?e/eiaiey oaeaniuo
iia?aaeaeaiee (eaeea aicieeee io oaea?a o?ainii?oiui n?aaenoaii, a eaeea
io neieueaeaiey oaea ii i?iacaeae /anoe iinea iaaeaiey iino?aaeaaoaai).

Yenia?ou oaeaea iiaoo onoaiiaeoue ninoiyiea iioa?iaaoaai a iiiaio
i?ienoaaeoaai niauoey. Iai?eia?, ninoiyiea iiueyiaiey, iaee/ea
oece/aneeo iaaeinoaoeia.

I?e iaacaea o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa ia iioa?iaaoaai onoaiaaeeaaaony
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue i?e/eiaiey oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee. Anee iaacae
i?iecioae ia eaaeaaoaai ia i?iacaeae /anoe /aeiaaea, oi yenia?o iiaeao
onoaiiaeoue iaee/ea neaaeia ia?aacaea oaea eieanaie (iaeiiai eee aeaoo)
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aiaeeoaeue o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa n ianoa
i?ienoanoaey ne?ueny, noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineay yenia?oeca onoaiaaeeaaao
iaee/ea oa?aeoa?iuo oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee, iai?eia?, aicieeoeo io
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaoaeae o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa (aaiia?a, iaiaeea oa?u e
o. i.). Yoe naaaeaiey iicaieytho onoaiiaeoue oei (a?ociaie, eaaeiaie),
ia?eo o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.

N iiiiuueth noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu iiaeii oaeaea onoaiiaeoue,
eoi eiie?aoii oi?aaeye o?ainii?oiui n?aaenoaii. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoaiey
oaeeo aii?inia aicieeaao a neo/aa aeaaee aiaeeoaey e iannaaee?a
aaoiiiaeey i?e noieeiiaaieyo, ii?ieeaeuaaieyo, iaacaeao ia i?aiyonoaey,
a oaeaea i?e caaea?aeaiee aiaeeoaey, ne?uaoaainy n ianoa i?ienoanoaey e
io?eoeathuaai oaeo oi?aaeaiey ei o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.

§ 7. Aeii?in naeaeaoaeae

Ia neaaeothuai yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey aeii?in naeaeaoaeae i?iecaiaeeony
aeey iieo/aiey naaaeaiee i ee/iinoe iiaeic?aaaaiiai aiaeeoaey,
onoaiiaeaiea ?acee/iuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, naycaiiuo n
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiui i?anooieaieai. A ea/anoaa naeaeaoaeae aunooiatho
eeoea, eioi?ua a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a iiaoo auoue caeioa?aniaaiu a enoiaea
?anneaaeiaaiey, o. a. ?iaenoaaiieee, nineoaeeaoeu, ciaeiiua aiaeeoaey.

I?e auyniaiee naaaeaiee i ee/iinoe aiaeeoaey onoaiaaeeaathony
nioeeaeueiua (o?oaeiaie noaae, ioiioaiea e o?oaeo, o/anoea a
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeeeeuiua oneiaey e o. i.),
ineoieiae/aneea naienoaa (ii?aeueiua /a?ou ee/iinoe, ciaiey, iaauee,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe e /a?ou oa?aeoa?a). E?iia oiai, neaaeoao
onoaiiaeoue naaaeaiey i ninoiyiee caei?iauey aiaeeoaey. I?e yoii aaaeii
onoaiiaeoue, aue ee aiaeeoaeue caei?ia ia?aae iiacaeeie, eiaaea caeii/ee
?aaioo a i?aaeuaeouee aeaiue, eaeia ?aaeei ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey.

A i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee e aeii?ino ia yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao
oeaeaniia?acii iciaeiieoueny n ?anii?yaeeii ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, ?aai/ai
aeia aiaeeoaeae. Iineaaeiaa iauaeoeaii iiaeii onoaiiaeoue i?e eco/aiee
iooaauo eenoia aiaeeoaeae, ia eioi?uo eiathony a?aiy auacaea e i?eauoey
ia i?aaei?eyoea, ia?o?oou neaaeiaaiey, oa?aeoa? ia?aaiceiiai a?oca e o.
ae. Eioi?iaoeeth i ninoiyiee aiaeeoaey iiaeii oaeaea iieo/eoue i?e
eco/aiee aeieoiaioia a iaaeeoeeineii ioieoa i?aaei?eyoey. Iieo/aiiua
naaaeaiey iicaieytho iieo/eoue aieaa iieiua e iauaeoeaiua naaaeaiey.

Aaaeiui yeaiaioii ?anneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony iieo/aiea naaaeaiee i
oaoie/aneii ninoiyiee o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa aei auacaea ia eeieth.
Oaeay caaea/a aicieeaao anyeee ?ac, anee a iiiaio iniio?a o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey auee onoaiiaeaiu iaeni?aaiinoe ?acee/iuo
nenoai e oceia aaoiiioio?ainii?oa. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue neaaeoao
aeii?ineoue eeoe, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca oaoie/aneia ninoiyiea o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa e ?ac?aoathueo aai yenieoaoaoeeth.

A /enea iiaeeaaeaueo auyniaieth ianoiyoaeuenoa neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue
ii?yaeie auionea o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia eeieth a aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee;
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue yenieoaoaoeee o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa;
niaethaeaiea ia?eiaee/iinoe oaeoueo ?aiiioia; eni?aaiinoue o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa ia?aae auacaeii ia eeieth e niiniau inouanoaeaiey i?iaa?ee
oaoie/aneiai ninoiyiey o?ainii?oiiai ninoiyiey; eaeei eiaiii niiniaii
iniao?eaaeanue nenoaia, a eioi?ie iaia?oaeaia iaeni?aaiinoue; eoi e
eaeie ?aiiio inouanoaeye iineaaeiee ?ac. Neaaeoao oaeaea auynieoue
iiaiea yoeo eeoe i aiciiaeiuo i?e/eiao iaeni?aaiinoe, aiciiaeiinoe
iaia?oaeaiey aa aiaeeoaeai a iooe neaaeiaaiey. Iaeiia?aiaiii n aeii?inii
iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaanoe auaieo aeieoiaioia, niaea?aeaueo naaaeaiey i
oaoie/aneii ninoiyiee o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa (eieae auionea
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, cayai/iiai ?aiiioa, ea?oi/ae ioionea aeaoaeae eee
oceia e o. ae.).

Anee aiaeeoaeue n ianoa i?ienoanoaey ne?ueny, oi iinea aai iaia?oaeaiey
neaaeoao aeii?ineoue eeoe, n eioi?uie ii iauaeny n?aco aea iinea
niaa?oaiey aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey, a oaeaea eeoe,
i?eieiaaoeo o/anoea a ?aiiioa iia?aaeaeaiiiai o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa. O
eeoe, n eioi?uie aiaeeoaeue iauaeny iinea niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey,
neaaeoao auynieoue: aaea, eiaaea e i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao i?iecioea
ano?a/a; a eaeii ninoiyiee iaoiaeeeny aiaeeoaeue e eaeiai auei aai
iiaaaeaiea; eaeea neaaeu auee ia oaea, iaeaaeaea aiaeeoaey •e
o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa; eae aiaeeoaeue iauyniye i?ienoiaeaeaiea yoeo
neaaeia; /oi ?anneacuaae aiaeeoaeue i niaa?oaiiii i?ienoanoaee.

Anee onoaiiaeaiu eeoea, i?iecaiaeeaoea ?aiiio o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa,
oi e?iia ia?a/eneaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa aaaeii onoaiiaeoue:aaea, eiaaea e
eaeie ?aiiio i?iecaaaeai; eaeea eino?oiaiou e iaoa?eaeu eniieueciaaeenue
aeey ?aiiioa; eaeiaa noaeueaa iia?aaeaeaiiuo aeaoaeae.

§ 8. Neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio

I?e ?anneaaeiaaiee aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee iiaoo aicieeaoue
?acee/iua caaea/e, eioi?ua o?aaotho yenia?eiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee. *aua
anaai iie naycaiu n ?aeiino?oeoeeae ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey, enneaaeiaaieai aeaenoaee
o/anoieeia niauoey, iaaethaeaieai eee aini?eyoeai ioaeaeueiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa.

Ia?aaeei neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeony i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
iaci?iinoe o/anoea aei?iae ec eaaeiu aaoiiiaeey. Iai?eia?, ainnicaeaiea
?aniieiaeaiey ae?oaeo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ii ioiioaieth e oi?aaeyaiiio
aiaeeoaeai o?ainii?oiiio n?aaenoao.

Iaeaieaa /anoi neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio i?iecaiaeeony aeey onoaiiaeaiey
?acee/iuo yeaiaioia aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey, iai?eia?,
nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey yenia?eiaioaeueiui iooai nei?inoe
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa aicieeaao a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ionoonoaotho
neaaeu oi?iiaeaiey, ia iniiaa eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue auaiae i
nei?inoe. A yoeo neo/ayo a caaeneiinoe io oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe
i?aaia aioo?aiieo aeae i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea niiniau: aeaeaeaiea
aaoiiiaeey ii ecia?aiiiio io?aceo aei?iae; oeenaoeey nei?inoe
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa n iiiiuueth nei?inoaia?ia oeia “Nieaeaai”,
“Aa?uea?”.

A ia?aii neo/aa ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey auae?aaony o/anoie aei?iae (eae
i?aaeei, i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 50 eee 100 i) e aiaeeoaeth i?aaeeaaaaony
i?iaoaoue aai ni nei?inoueth, n eioi?ie ii aae o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai.
I?aaeaa?eoaeueii nieaeiiao? cae?uaaaony iai?ic?a/iui iaoa?eaeii.
Aeaeaeaiea o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa oeene?oaony n iiiiuueth naeoiaeiia?a
eee nei?inoaia?a, eiathueony a /aiiaeaia Ainaaoieiniaeoi?a.

Ai aoi?ii neo/aa nei?inoue o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa oeene?oaony n
iiiiuueth nei?inoaia?ia oeia “Nieaeaai” eee “Aa?uea?”, eioi?uie iniauaiu
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiae?acaeaeaiey Ainaaoieiniaeoeee. Iiuou iiaoi?ythony
ianeieueei ?ac, a aiaeeoaeth (naeaeaoaeth, iioa?iaaoaio) i?aaeeaaaaony
ioeaieoue, a eaeie ec iiiuoie nei?inoue o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa
niioaaonoaiaaea oa?aeoa?o aeaeaeaiey a oneiaeyo i?ienoanoaey.

§ 9. Iacia/aiea yenia?oec

I?e ?anneaaeiaaiee oaieiaiuo aeae i aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaeyo
/anoi eniieuecotho niaoeeaeueiua iiciaiey aeey onoaiiaeaiey iaoaiecia
i?ienoaaeoaai niauoey e aai ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia.

Aeey enneaaeiaaiey niauoey i?ienoanoaey iaiaoiaeeii iacia/aiea noaeaaiie
aaoioaoie/aneie yenia?oecu. Iauaeoaie aa yaeyaony niauoea
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey (-iaoaieci aai ?acaeoey)
,o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai.

Iauay ea?oeia i?anooieaiey neeaaeuaaaony ia iniiaa iiiaeanoaa oaeoia,
iaoiaeyueony iaaeaeo niaie a ii?aaeaeaiiuo naycyo. Iai?eia?, aeeeia
neaaeia oi?iiaeaiey caaeneo ia oieueei io nei?inoe o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa, ii e io ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia, a oii /enea, ninoiyiey iie?uoey
i?iacaeae /anoe. I?e iaeeiaeiaie nei?inoe o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa neaaeu
oi?iiaeaiey ia iie?ie i?iacaeae /anoe aoaeoo aieueoae i?ioyaeaiiinoe,
/ai ia nooie. Iaoaieci acaeiiaeaenoaey oaeoi?ia, naycaiiuo n
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiui i?ienoanoaeai, ?ac?aoaao aaoioaoie/aneay
yenia?oeca ia iniiaa enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo. Yoe enoiaeiua aeaiiua
onoaiaaeeaathony neaaeiaaoaeai a i?ioeanna i?iaaaeaiey neaaenoaaiiuo
aeaenoaee e ia?aaeathony a ?anii?yaeaiea yenia?oa. Iie eniieuecothony
yenia?oii i?e i?iaaaeaiee yenia?oecu, a oaeaea neaaeiaaoaeai (noaeii)
i?e ioeaiea caeeth/aiey yenia?oa. Aeinoiaa?iinoue enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo
?acee/ia: anee /anoue ec ieo onoaiaaeeaaaony a i?ioeanna i?iaaaeaiey
iaeiiai neaaenoaaiiiai aeaenoaey e ia ii?iaa?aaaony ?acoeueoaoaie eiuo,
ae?oaea aea o?aaotho niiinoaaeaiey, n?aaiaiey e eiia/iie ioeaiee eo
?acoeueoaoia.

Caaea/a neaaeiaaoaey, auae?athuaai enoiaeiua aeaiiua,—onoaiiaeaiea
niaeaniaaiiinoe iaaeaeo aua?aiiuie ia?aiao?aie e iaoa?eaeaie aeaea, ia
eioi?uo iie iniiaaiu, o. a. i?iaa?ea eo aeinoiaa?iinoe. Yoi aeinoeaaaony
iooai enneaaeiaaiey e ioeaiee onoaiiaeaiiuo oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo. Oae,
aeeeia neaaeia oi?iiaeaiey aaoiiiaeey, caoeene?iaaiiay ia oioinieiea
noa?aia?aiiao?e/aneei niiniaii, ia aucuaaao niiiaiey e iiaeao auoue
ioeaiaia iaiin?aaenoaaiii neaaeiaaoaeai. Iauaecaanoii, /oi yoio niinia
oioinuaiee iicaieyao n aieueoie oi/iinoueth caoeene?iaaoue neaaeu
?anneaaeoaiiai niauoey. Naaaeaiey aea ia yoii oaeoa iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu
e ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia, iai?eia?, ec i?ioieieia aeii?ina naeaeaoaeae.
Iaeiaei iieacaiey i aeeeia oao aea neaaeia oi?iiaeaiey i?eaeeceoaeueiu,
oae eae aini?eyoea ?annoiyiey ?aciuie ethaeueie iaiaeeiaeiai e caaeneo
io ?yaea noauaeoeaiuo e iauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia. A ea/anoaa enoiaeiuo
aeaiiuo oaeea naaaeaiey iiaoo auoue i?eiyou eeoue i?e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee
eo ae?oaeie oaeoaie.

E enoi/ieeai enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo neaaeoao ioianoe: iaoa?eaeu oaieiaiiai
aeaea; niaoeeaeueioth eeoa?aoo?o ii aii?inai aaoioaoie/aneie yenia?oecu,
aaoiaeaea, no?ieoaeuenoaa e o. ae.

E iaoa?eaeai oaieiaiiai aeaea, niaea?aeauei naaaeaiey ia enoiaeiuo
aeaiiuo, neaaeoao ioianoe: i?ioieieu iniio?a (ianoa i?ienoanoaey,
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa); i?ioieieu
aeii?inia iiaeic?aaaaiiai (iaaeiyaiiai), iioa?iaaoaai, naeaeaoaeae;
i?ioieieu i/iie noaaee, neaaenoaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa; caeeth/aiea
noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie, e?eieiaeenoe/aneie e ae?oaeo yenia?oec.

A i?ioieieao iniio?a iau/ii niaea?aeaony ?acee/iua oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua i
neaaeao, eioi?ua neoaeao n?aaenoaii onoaiiaeaiey iaeioi?uo
ianoiyoaeuenoa. Oae, ?acia?u neaaeia oi?iiaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa
iiaoo io?aaeaoue aai nei?inoue ia?aae oi?iiaeaieai, oeacuaaoue ia
oa?aeoa? aeaeaeaiey. Neaaeu neieueaeaiey ia iiaeioaao iaoae iioa?iaaoaai
aeatho aiciiaeiinoue onoaiiaeoue aai iieiaeaiea a iiiaio iaacaea
ioiineoaeueii o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa (nieiie, aieii), o. a. ioaaoeoue
ia aii?in, noiye eee aeaeaaeny iioa?iaaoee a iiiaio oaea?a. Oa?aeoa?
aeaoi?iaoeee iaoaeea e neaaeu e?anee i?e noieeiiaaieyo o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa iiaoo neoaeeoue ioi?aaiui iiiaioii aeey onoaiiaeaiey iieiaeaiey
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa a iiiaio noieeiiaaiey, ‘iai?aaeaiey eo aeaeaeaiey,
nii?eeanaaoeony aeaoaeae. Eoni/ee e?anee e a?yce, ioneieaoeany io
aaoiiiaeey e oiaaoea ia aei?iao, oeacuaatho ia ianoi iaacaea ia
iaoaoiaea, noieeiiaaiey o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo onoaiaaeeaaaony iooai aeii?ina.
Oioy niaea?aeaiea eaaeaeiai aeii?ina ca?aiaa iaeuecy ii?aaeaeeoue,
oeaeaniia?acii iaiaoeoue iaeioi?ua ec ieo, o. a. aeaiiua i aeaeeiinoe e
iaci?iinoe, oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iacaeae /anoe, ianoa i?ienoanoaey.

I?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iieacaiey i eiie?aoiuo oaeoao
aoaeoo ?acee/iu. Yoi caaeneo io iiiaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Oae, iioa?iaaoee,
naeaeaoaee iiaoo aeaoue ?aciua iieacaiey i aeaeeiinoe e iaci?iinoe.
Iieacaiey aea aiaeeoaey ii yoiio aii?ino aoaeoo, aiciiaeii, ae?oaeie.
Ianiaiaaeaiea iieacaiee i aeaeeiinoe, iaci?a iauyniyaony oai, /oi aeey
aiaeeoaey iie ia?aie/aiu ia oieueei iaaeinoaoi/iie inaauaiiinoueth, ii e
eiino?oeoeaiuie iniaaiiinoyie aaoiiiaeey, ?acee/iuie iauaeoaie,
oiaiueoathueie iaci?iinoue (o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, nii?oaeaiey,
aea?aauey).

I?e auai?a enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao ioeaiea naaaeaiee,
iieo/aiiuo ai a?aiy i/iuo noaaie. Iaeiaei i/iay noaaea ia anaaaea
iicaieyao ono?aieoue i?ioeai?a/ea, aicieeoaa i?e aeii?ina.
Iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou i/iie noaaee iiaoo auoue aeinoeaioou i?e
auyniaiee oa?aeoa?a, ninoiyiey e ?aniieiaeaiey iauaeoia ianoaiiaee ianoa
i?ienoanoaey. I/iay noaaea iaeiyooaeoeaia e aa ?acoeueoaou
iaoaaaeeoaeueiu i?e iiiuoea ono?aieoue i?ioeai?a/ey i aeaeeiinoe e
iaci?iinoe, nei?inoe o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, ?annoiyiee iaaeaeo
aeaeaeoueieny o?ainii?oiuie n?aaenoaaie, iaoaoiaeaie. Oaeea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeieaeiu onoaiaaeeaaoueny iooai i?iaaaeaiey
neaaenoaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa.

Neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo
i?ienoanoaee eniieuecoaony, eae i?aaeei, aeey onoaiiaeaiey nei?inoe
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, oaiia aeaeaeaiey iioa?iaaoaai, aeaeeiinoe e
iaci?iinoe aeey aiaeeoaey. Iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey iaania/aiey
aeinoiaa?iinoe ?acoeueoaoia yaeythony: ieieiaeueiue ?ac?ua ai a?aiaie
iaaeaeo niaa?oaieai i?anooieaiey e i?iaaaeaieai neaaenoaaiiiai
yenia?eiaioa; noiaenoai oneiaee i?iaaaeaiey yenia?eiaioa n oneiaeyie,
i?e eioi?ii auei niaa?oaii i?anooieaiea; iiiaie?aoiia iiaoi?aiea iiuoa.

Enoiaeiua aeaiiua oaeaea niaea?aeaony e a caeeth/aiee
noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu. E iei neaaeoao ioianoe naaaeaiey i
oece/aneii ninoiyiee iioa?iaaoaai, iaoaiecia ia?aciaaiey oaeaniuo
iia?aaeaeaiee e eo eieaeecaoeee.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai ae?oaeo yenia?oec, iai?eia?,
o?ainii?oii-o?anieiae/aneie, iiaeii noaeeoue i acaeiiii ?aniieiaeaiee
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia?aae noieeiiaaieai.

Ii?aaeaeaiiay /anoue enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo iiaeao auoue iieo/aia ec
oaoie/aneie eeoa?aoo?u (iienaiea ono?ienoaa aaoiiiaeey, ?aaiou
ioaeaeueiuo oceia, i?aeoeee aiaeaeaiey); aaoioaoie/aneie yenia?oecu
(naaaeaiey i a?aiaie ?aaeoeee aiaeeoaey, eiyooeoeeaioao noeaieaiey oei n
aei?iaeiui iie?uoeai, yooaeoeaiinoe oi?iiaeaiey, a?aiaie n?aaaouaaiey
oi?iiciiai i?eaiaea e ae?.).

Aii?inu, ?aoaaiua aaoioaoie/aneie yenia?oecie, iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e
a?oiiu.

A ia?aoth a?oiio aoiaeyo aii?inu, ?aoaiea eioi?uo iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue
.iaoaieci i?ienoanoaey. E iei neaaeoao ioianoe, iai?eia?, ?aoaiea
aii?inia i nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa e iaoaoiaeia e
iiiaioo i?ienoanoaey; i acaeiiii oaeaeaiee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa,
aaoiiioio?ainii?oa e iaoaoiaea ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao ?acaeoey niauoey; i
oaoie/aneii ninoiyiee o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa; oa?aeoa?a iaeni?aaiinoe;
a?aiaie e i?e/eia aa aicieeiiaaiey e o. i.

Ai aoi?oth a?oiio aoiaeyo aii?inu, ioiinyueany e ioeaiea aeaenoaee
aiaeeoaey ii iaania/aieth o?aaiaaiee aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey. Iai?eia?, eae neaaeiaaei aeaenoaiaaoue aiaeeoaeth a
eiie?aoiie neooaoeee, eaeeie o?aaiaaieyie I?aaee aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey
ioaeii auei ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny i?e i?iacaea eiie?aoiiai io?acea aei?iae
e ae?.

E o?aoueae a?oiia neaaeoao ioianoe aii?inu, iai?aaeaiiua ia onoaiiaeaiea
i?e/eiiuo naycae iaaeaeo aeaenoaeyie o/anoieeia i?ienoaaeoaai niauoey e
ianooieaoeie iineaaenoaeyie. Ia ?ac?aoaiea yenia?oa iiaeao auoue
iinoaaeai aii?in i oii, iaoiaeyony ee a i?e/eiiie nayce n iineaaenoaeyie
i?ienoanoaey ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaenoaey aiaeeoaey, iaoaoiaea, ioeaieaaaiua
n oi/ee c?aiey eo ianiioaaonoaey n o?aaiaaieyie aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey.

Aeey ioaaoa ia aii?inu neaaeiaaoaey yenia?oo aeieaeiu auoue
i?aaeinoaaeaiu iaiaoiaeeiua enoiaeiua aeaiiua. Yoe enoiaeiua aeaiiua
ioiinyony e oneiaeyi, a eioi?uo niaa?oaii i?ienoanoaea, oa?aeoa?enoeea
aei?iae n oeacaieai aa oe?eiu, oa?aeoa?a ?aciaoee iiein aeaeaeaiey; oeio
iie?uoey (oeaiaioiaaoii, aoeuaeiee, uaaaiea); ninoiyieth iie?uoey
(nooia, iie?ia, caniaaeaiiia, aieieaae e o. ae., iniai ioia/athony
caa?yciaiey e eo oa?aeoa?); i?ioeeth aei?iae (ai?eciioaeueiue, iiaeuai,
nione—a a?aaeonao); ii?yaeeo aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oa (iaeiinoi?iiiaa,
aeaonoi?iiiaa); ia?ea, oeio, iiaeaee, oaoie/aneiio ninoiyieth, noaiaie
caa?oaeaiiinoe o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa; a?aiaie ?aaeoeee aiaeeoaey ia
oi?iiaeaiea; eiyooeoeeaioo noeaieaiey oei n aei?iaie eee aeaiiui
neaaenoaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa ii onoaiiaeaieth, caiaaeeaiey o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa; ?annoiyieth aeaeeiinoe aeey aiaeeoaey.

Enoiaeiua aeaiiua, ioiinyueany e iaoaiecio i?anooieaiey, niaea?aeao
naaaeaiey i nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa’ (a ei//an),
anee ionoonoaotho neaaeu oi?iiaeaiey; oa?aeoa?a neaaeia (oi?iiaeaiey,
aieiaiai neieueaeaiey e o. i.) n oeacaieai aeeeiu aei ia?aaeieo
(caaeieo) eiean o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, i?ioyaeaiiinoe neaaeia
neieueaeaiey a ioia/aoeia, eo eiioeao?aoeee; oaiia aeaeaeaiey
iioa?iaaoaai n oeacaieai nei?inoe (a ei//an). I?e yenia?eiaioaeueiii
onoaiiaeaiee nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey iioa?iaaoaai—a?aiy i?ioiaeaeaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai o/anoea; oa?aeoa? aeaeaeaiey iioa?iaaoaai (neaaa iai?aai,
ni?aaa iaeaai) ii oiaeo aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa; iooue
iaoaoiaea aei ianoa iaacaea a iiea c?aiey aiaeeoaey; eii?aeeiaou ianoa
iaacaea; ia eaeii iao?a oi?iiaeaiey (aac oi?iiaeaiey) niaa?oai iaacae;
eaeie /anoueth o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa iaianai oaea? iaoaoiaeo (n
oeacaieai aai eii?aeeiao).

A caaeneiinoe io neiaeiinoe neooaoeee i?aaenoaaeythony aeiiieieoaeueiua
enoiaeiua aeaiiua. Oae, i?e iaacaeao ia iioa?iaaoaai, aicieeoeo ieiei
i?aiyonoaey, ia?aie/eaathuaai iaci?iinoue aiaeeoaeth, onoaiaaeeaathony:
aaaa?eou i?aiyonoaey (aunioa, oe?eia, aeeeia); ?aciauaiea i?aiyonoaey ia
i?iacaeae /anoe; aeey aeaeaeouaainy i?aiyonoaey (aaoiaona, o?aiaay,
o?ieeaeaona)—nei?inoue aai aeaeaeaiey; ?annoiyiea, ia eioi?ii ia?aae
i?aiyonoaeai aeaeaaeny iioa?iaaoee.

I?e iaacaeao ia eaaeaaoaai /aeiaaea ioaeiu aeaiiua neaaenoaaiiiai
yenia?eiaioa i ?annoiyiee, n eioi?iai aiaeeoaeue iia aeaeaoue /aeiaaea.

Aeey enneaaeiaaiey noieeiiaaiee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia?aae yenia?oii
iiaoo auoue iinoaaeaiu aii?inu i nei?inoe o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia?aae
oi?iiaeaieai (ia iiiaio noieeiiaaiey); inoaiiai/iii iooe, o. a.
?annoiyiee, eioi?ia i?aiaeieaaaao aaoiiiaeeue n iiiaioa ia/aea
?aaae?iaaiey aiaeeoaey ia oi?iiaeaiea aei inoaiiaee o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa; oaeaeaiee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa io ianoa noieeiiaaiey n
o/aoii nei?inoe eo aeaeaeaiey; oaoie/aneie aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeioa?auaiey
noieeiiaaiey.

Yenia?oo iiieii aeaiiuo, oa?aeoa?ecothueo oneiaey, a eioi?uo aicieeei
i?ienoanoaea iaiaoiaeeii i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuea naaaeaiey: nei?inoue
aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa aei noieeiiaaiey; aeeeia neaaeia
oi?iiaeaiey e eo ?aniieiaeaiea ia i?iacaeae /anoe; eii?aeeiaou ianoa
noieeiiaaiey; ?annoiyiea, ia eioi?ii io ia/aea neaaeia oi?iiaeaiey
iaeiiai ec aaoiiiaeeae i?iecioei noieeiiaaiea.

A ?anneaaeiaaiee ii?ieeaeuaaiee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa n iiiiuueth
yenia?oecu iiaeii onoaiiaeoue: /oi yaeeinue i?e/eiie ii?ieeaeuaaiey; ia
yaeeinue ee i?e/eiie ii?ieeaeuaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiia ninoiyiea oei eiean,
niinia ?aciauaiey a?oca, ?aceia oi?iiaeaiea ,eaeay nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey
iicaieyea ecaaaeaoue ii?ieeaeuaaiey; eae aeieaeai aue aeaenoaiaaoue
aiaeeoaeue, /oiau ecaaaeaoue ii?ieeaeuaaiey.

Aeey onoaiiaeaiey iaoaiecia i?ienoanoaey i?iaiaeeony
o?ainii?oii-o?anieiae/aneay yenia?oeca, iauaeoaie eioi?ie yaeythony:
neaaeu o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, neaaeu acaeiiaeaenoaey ioaeaeueiuo
aeaoaeae o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ae?oa n ae?oaii, neaaeu ia iaeaaeaea e
iaoae iioa?iaaoaai.

O?ainii?oii-o?anieiae/aneay yenia?oeca ?aoaao caaea/e: onoaiiaeaiea
aeaea, ia?ee eiie?aoiiai o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa; ii?aaeaeaiea ii
neaaeai acaeiiiai ?aniieiaeaiey o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, iaoaiecia
ia?aciaaiey neaaeia, iai?aaeaiey aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa;
onoaiiaeaiea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia iaeiiio oeaeiio.

A neo/ayo, eiaaea aiaeeoaeue o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa n ianoa
i?ienoanoaey ne?ueny, a ia o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa iaia?oaeaiu neaaeu
iaeueoeaa ?oe, iacia/aaony aeaeoeeineiie/aneay yenia?oeca.

A ?anneaaeiaaiee aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee oe?iei
eniieuecoaony noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineay yenia?oeca aauanoaaiiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aa iacia/aiey aicieeaao a neo/aa
iaia?oaeaiey ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey eee o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa iauaeoia
aeieiae/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey: e?iae, i?iaeoeoia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea, /anoeoe einoiuo e iuoa/iuo oeaiae. Yenia?oeca, eae i?aaeei,
iacia/aaony aeey ii?aaeaeaiey: eoi ec iioa?iaaoeo oi?aaeye o?ainii?oiui
n?aaenoaii i?e noieeiiaaieyo, ii?ieeaeuaaieyo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa,
iaacaeao ia i?aa?aaeo; niaa?oai ee iaacae ia /aeiaaea eee aeeaioiia.

§ 10. Aeii?in iaaeiyaiiai

Aeii?in iaaeiyaiiai ii aeaeai i aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaeyo
o?aaoao ouaoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee. Eae i?aaeei, aiaeeoaeue aeii?aoeaaaony
ia?aiia/aeueii a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaey. Iineieueeo n iiiaioa aicaoaeaeaiey
oaieiaiiai aeaea aei i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i i?aaeuyaeaiee iaaeiaiey
i?ioiaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, oi neaaeiaaoaeue eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
oi?ioi eco/eoue ee/iinoue aiaeeoaey. Yoiio niinianoaoao oaeaea oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ia?a i?ana/aiey (niaea?aeaiea iiae no?aaeae)
i?eiaiyaony ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii neaaenoaee oieueei a ioiioaiee
eaaeaeiai iyoiai iaaeiyaiiai, o. a. eiaaony aiciiaeiinoue eco/aoue aai
ee/iinoue aac ia?ooaiey nioeeaeueiuo naycae.

E?iia oiai, e iiiaioo i?aaeuyaeaiey iaaeiaiey neaaeiaaoaeth oaea
ecaanoii aai ioiioaiea e ioaeaeueiui aeieacaoaeuenoaai, o. e. aiaeeoaeue
iaiaeiie?aoii o/anoaoao a i?iaaaeaiee neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee
(aeiiieieoaeueiue iniio? ianoa i?ienoanoaey, neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio,
i/iay noaaea, iacia/aiea yenia?oec). Iiyoiio i?e iiaeaioiaea e aeii?ino
neaaeoao ouaoaeueii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue nia?aiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa e
ii?aaeaeeoue neaaeothuea ia?ii?eyoey: eaeea ec ieo e a eaeii iauaia
eniieueciaaoue; eaeea oaeoe/aneea i?eaiu neaaeoao ?aaeeciaaoue. A naith
i/a?aaeue yoe ia?ii?eyoey ii?aaeaeythony oa?aeoa?ii neiaeeaoaeny
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee. Iia iiaeao auoue i?inoie, o. a.
oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny iaoe?iie aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie aacie, ionoonoaeai
eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo neaaeiaaoaeai e iaaeiyaiui, i?eciaieai iaaeiyaiui
naiae aeiu e o. ae.

Ii iia iiaeao auoue e neiaeiie, o. a. oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny iaoiaieai
neaaeiaaoaey iia?e?iaaoue eiathueieny a aai ?anii?yaeaiee
aeieacaoaeuenoaaie, ia?ooaieai yoeee neaaenoaey, a eiiaaea e ouaieaieai
caeiiiuo i?aa iaaeiyaiiai. Aneaaenoaea yoiai neooaoeey i?eia?aoaao
eiioeeeoiue oa?aeoa?, aeaeouee iai?eciaiea (/anoe/iia i?eciaiea)
iaaeiyaiui noi?ioee?iaaiiiai iaaeiaiey.

Aeey i?aaeeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey oaeoeee aeii?ina iaaeiyaiiai aaaeii
ciaoue, a eaeeo oneiaeyo aicieeatho ia?a/eneaiiua neooaoeee, a oaeaea
aiciiaeiua iooe eo ?aoaiey.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi neooaoeey, a eioi?ie iaaeiyaiue i?eciaao naay
aeiiaiui, /aua anaai ano?a/aaony i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee oaieiaiuo aeae i
noieeiiaaieyo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. Ianeieueei ?aaea oaeay neooaoeey
aicieeaao ii aeaeai i iaacaeao o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. Enneaaeiaaiey
iieacaee, /oi ii aeaeai ia ii?ieeaeuaaieyo iaaeiyaiua i?eciatho naay
aeiiaiuie a o?e ?aca, a ii aeaeai i iaacaeao ia i?aiyonoaea (noiyuaa
o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai, ia?aaeaeaiea aei?ia e o. i.) a /aou?a ?aca
?aaea, /ai ii aeaeai i noieeiiaaiee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

Neooaoeey, a eioi?ie iaaeiyaiue ia i?eciaao naay aeiiaiui, neeaaeuaaaony
a aieueoeinoaa naiai i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee iaacaeia ia iaoaoiaeia e
noieeiiaaiee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

I?e ?anneaaeiaaiee aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee, naycaiiuo n
ii?ieeaeuaaieai, iaacaeii o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia i?aiyonoaey, oaeea
neooaoeee ano?a/athony a aaeeie/iuo neo/ayo.

Aeey neooaoeee, a eioi?ie iaaeiyaiue i?eciaao naay aeiiaiui /anoe/ii,
oa?aeoa?ii oi, /oi iie aicieeatho, a iniiaiii, a ?anneaaeiaaiee iaacaeia
ia iaoaoiaeia, noieeiiaaieyo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, iaeiaei ia
aicieeatho i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee ii?ieeaeuaaiee e i/aiue ?aaeei aicieeatho
a ?anneaaeiaaiee iaacaeia ia i?aiyonoaey. Eae i?aaeei, oaeay neooaoeey
yaeyaony aaneiioeeeoiie, ii, ianiio?y ia i?eciaiea iaaeiyaiui naiae
aeiu, neaaeoao ouaoaeueii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aeaaaaiua ei iieacaiey, o.
e. iie eiatho iaeeiaeiaia cia/aiea n ae?oaeie onoaiiaeaiiuie
aeieacaoaeuenoaaie e iiaeeaaeao i?iaa?ea ia?yaeo n ieie. A yoeo oeaeyo
iaaeiyaiiai iaiaoiaeeii aeaoaeueii aeii?ineoue i nooe i?aaeuyaeaiiiai
aio iaaeiaiey. I?aaeaa?eoaeueii neaaeoao ?acuynieoue aio nouanoai
auaeaeiooiai iaaeiaiey. N yoie oeaeueth i?aaeaea anaai iaaeiyaiiio
iaiaoiaeeii iieacaoue eiie?aoii, eaeea ioieou I?aaee aei?iaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey eee eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia ia?ooaiu, ?acuynieoue eo
niaea?aeaiea e iauynieoue, a ?acoeueoaoa eaeeo aeaenoaee iie ia?ooaiu.
Aianoa n yoei oeaeaniia?acii ?anneacaoue iaaeiyaiiio, eae a aeaiiie
eiie?aoiie aei?iaeiie neooaoeee neaaeiaaei iinooieoue. Yoei
iiae/a?eeaaaony na oieueei eiiiaoaioiinoue neaaeiaaoaey a aii?inao
iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, /oi eiaao aaaeiia
cia/aiea aeey onoaiiaeaiey aaneiioeeeoiie neooaoeee.

Caoai neaaeoao iieacaoue, /oi eiaiii a ?acoeueoaoa iai?aaeeueiuo
aeaenoaee iaaeiyaiiai ianooieee a?aaeiua iineaaenoaey, a oaeaea
oaieiaii-i?aaiaoth eaaeeoeeaoeeth aai aeaenoaee.

Aeii?in neaaeoao iino?ieoue oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ii ia naiaeeeny e
iiaoi?aieth oaea ?aiaa, aei i?aaeuyaeaiey iaaeiaiey, aeaiiuo iieacaiee.
Ii no?ieony ia iineaaeiaaoaeueiii ?acaeoee niauoee, ioeaiea iaaeiyaiui
i?aaeuyaeaiiiai iaaeiaiey. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia oionoeoue aaaeiua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea n?aaieoue iieacaiey iaaeiyaiiai n
eioi?iaoeeae, aeaiiie ei aei i?aaeuyaeaiey iaaeiaiey. I?e onoaiiaeaiee
ianiioaaonoaey iieacaiee neaaeoao iinoaaeoue ooi/iythuea aii?inu.

Aeey aeii?ina iaaeiyaiiai, i?eciathuaai naith aeio, iaoa?aeoa?ai
oaeoe/aneee i?eai — iiaoi?iue aeii?in. Ana i?ioeai?a/ey, a neo/aa eo
aicieeiiaaiey, oaeaaony ?aoeoue iinoaiiaeie ooi/iythueo aii?inia iee
i?aaeuyaeaieai aeieacaoaeuenoa ii iiaiaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa, iaoneiaeaoeo
i?ioeai?a/ea.

Aanueia neiaeiui yaeyaony aeii?in iaaeiyaiiai, ia i?eciathuaai naay
aeiiaiui. Yoa neooaoeey oa?aeoa?ia iaee/eai eiioeeeoa, aicieeathuaai
iaaeaeo neaaeiaaoaeai e iaaeiyaiui. A oaeie neooaoeee iaaeiyaiue aeaao
eiaeiua iieacaiey, i?aaenoaaeyy eo oaeei ia?acii, /oiau o neaaeiaaoaey
neiaeeeinue iiaiea i aicieeiiaaiee a?aaeiuo iineaaenoaee
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey, iacaaeneii io aeaenoaee
iaaeiyaiiai. Iai?eia?, ooaa?aeaeaiea i nicaeaiee ae?oaei o/anoieeii
aeaeaeaiey iiiaoe, auioaeeaoae iaaeiyaiiai aeaenoaiaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui
ia?acii, aiacaiiii caiina o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa e o. ae. Neaaeoao
o/eouaaoue, /oi eiaeiua iieacaiey, eae i?aaeei, ioiinyony oieueei e
/anoe i?aaeiaoa aeii?ina e ?aaeei ei anai aai ioieoai.

Iai?eciaiea iaaeiyaiui aeiu ia yaeyaony aeey neaaeiaaoaey iaiaeeaeaiiui.
Iii auoaeaao ec niaea?aeaiey aeii?inia, i?iaiaeeaoeony aei i?aaeuyaeaiey
iaaeiaiey. Iiyoiio neaaeiaaoaeth oeaeaniia?acii iiaeaioiaeoueny e
aeii?ino. Iiaeaioiaea e aeii?ino i?aneaaeoao oeaeue iieo/aiey i?aaaeeauo
iieacaiee. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii eco/eoue iniaaiiinoe ee/iinoe
aeii?aoeaaaiiai e aai oa?aeoa?a, i?eau/ee, e?oa eioa?ania, iiaaaeaiea ia
?aaioa e a auoo, i?aaeithth noaeeiinoue e ae?oaea. E?iia oiai, neaaeoao
ii?aaeaeeoue, a eaeie /anoe iieacaiey yaeythony eiaeiuie, eaeea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa e a eaeie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe neaaeoao i?aaeuyaeoue
iaaeiyaiiio.

Aaaeii, /oiau oaea a naiii ia/aea aeii?ina iaaeiyaiue ii/oanoaiaae
aaniieaciinoue eca?aiiie eeiee iiaaaeaiey, /oi ?anneaaeiaaieai
caieiaaony /aeiaae, aeoaiei ?acae?athueeny a oaoieea e i?ioeannao
aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey. Yoi niinianoaoao onoaiiaeaieth eiioaeoa iaaeaeo
iaaeiyaiui e neaaeiaaoaeai. Iiyoiio aeii?in ia neaaeoao n?aco ia/eiaoue
n auyniaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa niaa?oaiey i?ienoanoaey. Iaaeiyaiiai
iaiaoiaeeii ioaea/ue aanaaeie ia iniaaiiinoyo e neiaeiinoe o?oaea
aiaeeoaey, ?anni?ineoue i ?aaioa, acaeiiioiioaieyo n /eaiaie eieeaeoeaa,
auoiauo oneiaeyo, a caoai ia?aeoe e auyniaieth ianoiyoaeuenoa niaa?oaiey
i?ienoanoaey, i?aaeinoaaea iaaeiyaiiio iieiinoueth auneacaoueny i
i?ienoaaeoai. Anee oeaee ia oaeaeinue aeinoeaiooue, neaaeoao
i?aaeuyaeoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eciaee/athuea ai eaee. Iaeiaei iaeuecy
iaaeayoueny, /oi ai anao neo/ayo oaeanony iieo/eoue i?aaaeeaua
iieacaiey. Anee iie e ia aoaeoo iieo/aiu, a oiaea oaeiai aeii?ina iiaeii
iieacaoue ianinoiyoaeueiinoue iieacaiee iaaeiyaiiai. .

Iai?eia?, A. a ninoiyiee aeeiaieueiiai iiueyiaiey oi?aaeye aaoiiiaeeai
“AEeaoee”, niaa?oee iaacae ia E., e n ianoa i?ienoanoaey ne?ueny. Anei?a
ii aue caaea?aeai. Io i?e/eiaiiuo oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee iioa?iaaoee E.
neii/aeny a aieueieoea. Ia io?eoeay oaeo iaacaea ia iioa?iaaoaai, A.
aeiiaiui naay a niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiey ia i?eciae. Ii iiyniee, /oi ii
aae aaoiiiaeeue ni nei?inoueth ieiei 50 ei//an, eiaaea ec-ca ia?aaeiae
/anoe neaaeiaaaoaai ni?aaa io iaai o?ieeaeaona ia iooue neaaeiaaiey
oi?aaeyaiiai ei aaoiiiaeey ia aeeceii ?annoiyiee iaiaeeaeaiii auaaaeae
E. eioi?ue e aue naeo aai aaoiiiaeeai. I?e yoii iiyniee, /oi ii nie?oiuo
iaieoeia ia oiio?aaeye e n ianoa i?ienoanoaey ia ne?uaaeny.

Eciaee/ay iaaeiyaiiai ai eaee, neaaeiaaoaeue eca?ae i?eai i?aaeuyaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa a ii?yaeea ia?anoaiey eciaee/athuae neeu, eniieuecoy
i?aaeaea anaai oa ec ieo, aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?uo inia?eaaoue o?oaeii.
?acoeueoaou iaaeeoeeineiai inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey A., eioi?ua
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee i iaee/ee o iaai iinea niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey
n?aaeiae noaiaie iiueyiaiey; iieacaiey o?ao naeaeaoaeae i iiiuoea
iaaeiyaiiai ne?uoueny n ianoa i?ienoanoaey e ianoiyoaeuenoaao
caaea?aeaiey; iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae i iiiuoea iaaeiyaiiai neeiieoue eo e
aea/a auaiaeiuo aeey iaai iauyniaiee; iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae i
ia?ana/aiee iioa?iaaoei i?iacaeae /anoe oaaii, a ia aaaii; iieacaiey
naeaeaoaeae ia ionoonoaee ia i?iacaeae /anoe o?ieeaeaona e, iaeiiaoe,
caeeth/aiea aaoioaoie/aneie yenia?oecu i oii, /oi i?e iiyaeaiee
iioa?iaaoaai a iiea c?aiey iaaeiyaiiai ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo oi?aaeyaiui ei
aaoiiiaeeai e iioa?iaaoei auei aiieia aeinoaoi/iui aeey inoaiiaee
aaoiiiaeey e iaaeiiouaiee iaacaea ia /aeiaaea

Anee iaaeiyaiue ia eiaao oaeie noieeie onoaiiaee ia eiaeue, oi
oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaieoue ae?oaie i?eai: i?aaeuyaeaiea a ia/aea aeii?ina
naiiai aaneiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Neooaoeey /anoe/iiai i?eciaiey iaaeiyaiui naiae aeiu, eae e
i?aaeuaeouay, eiaao eiioeeeoiue oa?aeoa?, iaeiaei aeoaeia eiioeeeoa ia
noieue y?ei au?aaeaia.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi iieacaiey oaeiai iaaeiyaiiai ia?yaeo n
i?aaaeeauie eiatho yeaiaiou eaee. Iiyoiio aai aeii?in i?iecaiaeeony
oaeaea, eae aeii?in iaaeiyaiiai, aeathuaai eiaeiua iieacaiey, eniieuecoy
i?e yoii i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo aai iieacaieyie e eiathueieny
aeieacaoaeuenoaaie.

Eae iieacuaaao eco/aiea i?aeoeee ?anneaaeiaaiey oaieiaiuo aeae i
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaeyo, oniao aeii?ina ai iiiaii caaeneo
io i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ?anneaaeiaaiey e ea/anoaa neaaenoaaiiuo
aeaenoaee. Iai?eia?, neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio ii eco/aiiui aeaeai
i?iaiaeeeny eeoue a 7%, oioy iaiaoiaeeiinoue aai i?iaaaeaiey
o?aaiaaeanue a 33% oaieiaiuo aeae. Aaoioaoie/aneay yenia?oeca
iacia/aaony i?eia?ii a 18%, a iaiaoiaeeiinoue aa i?iaaaeaiey aicieeaea a
26,%. Iieo/aiiua a oiaea ?anneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaa neaai
eniieuecothony i?e aeii?ina iaaeiyaiuo. Oae, ?acoeueoaou iniio?a,
yenia?oec, neaaenoaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa eniieuecothony e?aeia ?aaeei (a
niioiioaiee i?eia?ii 1 :4 io /enea yoeo aeaenoaee).

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