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Компетентностный подход как основа обновления содержания правового образования

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O????? ????i ? ?????th

A??????? ???????a ?????

???i ????????i ?????y

A????e ???????e ??????? ?????o ei. I. A?o?u

E???o ??????i e ????i ?????y

E??? ??a e ??????ey

N?????? “TH?????ey” n ??????? ??????ueth “E??ey”

A???ay ???????ay ???

E???????e ??? ?e ??? ????ey ????ey ????i ?????y

OOA 2010

NIAeA?AEAIEA

AAAAeAIEA

AEAAA I. OAI?AOE*ANEEA INIIAU ENNEAAeIAAIEss I?AAIAIAI IA?ACIAAIEss

1.1 N???ue e ??? ????i ????iey

1.2 E?????ey ???a ????i ????iey

1.3 I?y?a e ??y ??????? ????????i ???a a ?????e

AEAAA II. IIAeA?IECAOeEss NIAeA?AEAIEss I?AAIAIAI IA?ACIAAIEss A
NIA?AIAIIIE AUNOAE OEIEA

2.1 N????? ?????e ???? ???y ??a: ???? ?????y e ??????e

2.2 I??a ??iy ???????? ???? ?????e ????

CAEETH*AIEA

AEAEEIA?AOEss

AAAAeAIEA

I?y?a ????????i ???a ???? ???????a ?????? ???i a ?y? n ????y? i ????o e
?oyo ?????? ?????i ?????y. Oe?ue ?????? ???o a ???? ????a ??e??? ???ey
???u ?????y, ?????y ? ?????ey ???i XXI ??, ????? e y?????? ?????yi ???,
???? ????, ????, ?????a. I???? e ????????o ???o ?y?? ? ????e? ii????
?????a ????y a ???? ?????e, ??????a ????y?, ????y?? a ????. I?????????,
?e ????, ?e e ???? ????i? ????i ?????y, ?i ??????ueth, ???????th ?
?????? ????, i???yth??y ?????? ???y? ??e.

E???????e ??? ?e ??? ????ey ????i ?????y ???iy? a ?? ???????oth e ????th
???eyth?a ?????y. Y? ???eyth?a ???atho ???oth a ??y??? ??, ??a ??ey
???th?y a ??? ? ? ????ey a ?????? ???eyo. A ?iy?a ??????? ???? ??y ????y
??????e ?????y ?????y, ?????? ? ?????.

N?? ????ey ????????i ???a a ???? ?????e, a ?i ??u ??????? ???eth ??????
???i??i ????, n ?????? ??o ????? y??? ?e ???? ???? e ??????.

O??? ???ny ?th??e ???e a i?????. E??i a ?i ?????oth?y ?a ???? e ?a
????ey ?????e ??????? ????, ??? ? y?y?ny ???? ?????i ????????i ???a a
???e ???n. A??y? a ??ue e???? a ???? ?????e ????o ?e?eyi ??a. A?ue ???
?e ??o ???i?? o ????th?? ????y ???oth ???? ????y, ???th ???????n?, ????
? e ?????o ????th e ?????th ??? ???e e ????eth ??o ?y????e a ?????? ??e
??ae???. O ???y ??a ??? ?? ?????? ?????a ?????e, ???yth?a ?o ???
???????? ??? ?a??? ?????y.

E??yth?y ????ey e ??????-???????. A??ay ???? ????th?e ???u ?????y
??th??ny a ? ?y??????. A??iy????ay ???a ?????y y?y?ny i?? ? ???? ????
?????y ?????i ??a e ???ey y???? e ???? eth?e ???.

I????a ???? ????y e ??o ???i, ???a ??? ????u: ?iyth?y ????i-y?????? ???
????, ???atho ??a ????ey e ????? ?ae??ath?? ????y e y? ?????? ???i
????ny ? ??y?o ? ???o ???????? ????? ???????.

I?????? ?????e O???? e A?i??? ???? ????? ??oth ???? ??????ey ???u ????i
?????y – ????a ?i ????. ???? ???e??o ??/ ?y???ny n ?????e ?? ????????i
???a. I? y?i ????ey e ????e ????th?y a ??? ?? ??? ?????e, ?e ?e ? ??a
??a ???ath?y ? ?? ? ?? ??ey, a ??ia??ue ???y? ?????? ???e.

O??? ??a, ??? ?? ???i ?o???y? ???? ???? e ????? ??ath??y n ??? ????e
??????? ?a??a, ?y y?? o ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?????a ?????e.

I?????y ?i????ay ??a ???????? ????a ???i ????????i ?????y – ?????y –
???y? ????ue ????? ?????y n ??? ???a?? ????? e ???? ????? ???i?a e
y?y?ny ??e ???????e, ???y ?? ?c???? ???? ?????o y????i ?????ue ????????
?????e.

O ???y ??a ????? ?????? ???????oth ??????? ? ???, e??? ???? ???? ?????
???a i??????o ??/ a ???e ????i ?????y a ????o ???eyo.

N????? ?????e y?yth?y ?????i ?????i, ??????i ????ey ???? ????, ?i ???
??????? ?????a??e ???????e. I? ? ??o ????e??ny ?e ????o ??????i ????y a
???? ???? ??????o ???o ?????e, ??? ??i ???????? c??e.

N??iy ????a ????? ?????o, ?????o, ?????? n ??????e ?ey? e ????, ?????
??? ???? ???????? ???? ?i????.

I??a ???? ?????i ?????y i? ???????? ???a ??th??ny ? a ??? ??? ?????
????y ???, a a ??? ??iy ???????? ?y???? ??? ?????e. A???? ????????i ???a
a ?????a ? ??o ?? ???? ?c ????? ???e e ?????? ?? a ???e ????ey ??iy
???????? ?????e.

A?????ue ?????ey – ???ey?ny a ???? e ?????i ???????i ?????i ???i
????????i ?????y o???i ????y, ??????i ? ??aa ????????i ???a e ??oth?i
??????e ????ey ????i ?????y, ??o ???a ????i ?????y, ????? ??e??? ????
?????e ???y ??a e ????a ??? ? ?????ii??.

Oe?ue ?????ey – ???????? ???o ????i ?????y, ????? ?????y i?????e ????i
?????y ?e ???? e ?????i ???????i ???????i ????? ???i ????????i ?????y
???? ????y, ??????i ? ??? ????????i ???a, ???? ?????a ?????e ???y ??a e
????? ???? ??? ??iy ???????? ???? ?????e ????.

C??e ?????ey:

– ???????? ???? e ??? ?a??? i????ey;

– ???????? ????th?a ??????e ???a ????i ?????y;

– ???ue ??th ??????? ??????o?? ???a a ?????e;

– ????? ?????a ?????e ???ai ???y ??a;

– ?????? ???? ??? ?i?y ???????? ???? ?????e ????.

I??o ?????ey – ???a ???????e ????a ???????i ???? a ???yo ????ey ????ey
????i ?????y a ?????i ????? ????.

I??? ?????ey – e????i??ay ??? ???? ???y i??.

I??u ?????ey: ???, ???, ???ey, ???ey, ???ey, ????a, ??????ey, ????a,
???? ?????, ??????a.

N??? ???????e ??: ??ay ?? ?????a e ?????? e ???/?? ? ????? ???. A ???e
?????a ???? ???? ??ytho ?th??i ?????yi, ?? ??? ??? i ?????o ?????yo.
O????u ?????a ??????i? ????u ???i ????????i ????iey ???? ????y, ?ia?
?????o ????y ?????o ?????e ???y ??a e ???? ??? ???????? ???? ?????e
????.

N???? ??? ????e ??? ???o ? ???ey, ?? ??, ??th??y e a?????e.

AEAAA I. OAI?AOE*ANEEA INIIAU ENNEAAeIAAIEss I?AAIAIAI IA?ACIAAIEss

1.1 N???ue e ??? ????i ????iey

I? ?????? a ??iy?i ????ny ???????? ???n ????ey e ???ey a ????o ????,
????, ?????a, ?????th??y ?????? ????ey ??ae??? (??ath??y) ??????o
?????ii ???????o ???e (???????o ???) [3]. Y? ????a ?????a ?????y a
?????? n O????? ???i “Ia ?????e” ? 10.07.1992 ? 3266-1 (??a – O????? ??i
“Ia ?????e”).

I?y?a ?????a ?eth?? a ?ay ae? ???a: n ??e ???u – y? ???n ???? ?????i ??a
????i ????th?i ????yi, ? ?? ???n ???ey, e n ??? – y? ???ue ????y ???e?
?????i ??a, ???e a ??? n??a ?eth?? a ?ay ???n ???/e ?????o ??? i ???a,
???? e ????, ???? ????ey y?o ??? a ?????? ?y????e, ???? ????y ??o ??? e
????a ????e e ???th?e ???????? ? ??? ?????o ??? e ??a. A ???? ???? ????i
??a ????th?i ????yi o ?o ?????y e ?????a ????a e ???th?e ????????.

Iu ??i ???i, ?i XX ???? – y? ?e ???????o ????? ?????a?e e ???-?????ai
????a, ???? ????? ???a ????? a ???, ?oy ??? ???????, ??a. I??i a? ?o
?????? ????e, ???a ????e a ???? ?????e, ????? ?? ? ? ???-?????e ????, ?
???? ????ey a ?c??e ???e y????, ? ? ???????a ????, a ???a ?????y ?? ???a
??i ??i e ???a ??. Iiy?? XX ???? ???o ? ??o ???? e ??i ???a?ey. I??ay
???oth ????? ?????y a ??e ????, III a ??ena, ?????oth?i ???ue ????? ???,
??y? n ???i ????i, ??????? ? ?? ????y, e ???e ????????ueth ??e ????y,
????o ?eth a ?e ????o eth?e e ???a ????? ?o ???ey ? ???i a ???o ????yo
[18, n. 64]. Ia ????o y??o y?ethoe? ???? ????e e ?????oth?a ?? ?????y,
?????a e ?????? ???o ???ey? ????? e ???o ????iey ? ??? y?? ??????i
???ey.

N???otho ??? ???u e ?????th ???? ?????y.

A ?????, ???????e ? ????eth ???????i ???????o ???e, ?????a ?????y
???ey?ny ?e ?????? ?????????o ???, ??? e ???a, ??y?a e ????e, a ??a
?????? ???ue ???ey ??????? ?e e ?????? ?????, ?????a a ????? ???-???????
???. Y? ????-i??????? ??? e ?????th ???? ????ey ?????y.

I? ??i ???a a ??? ???ey ??aey?y ??ey ?e ??a?a ????i ??????, ?????a a
???? ???a e ????ey ??????i ??a. C??y – y? ??? ????? ????, ?y??
????-???????a ????? ?????y ??o ???a ????. I? ?????? ?????? ????, ao???th
???? a ???. N y?e ??e ??ey ??a ?????a ?????y y?y?ny ???????ath?e n???e.
I? ????-???????i ???a e ????eth ?????y ??ey ???y?y ??eth?? ????th e
???ytho ??e ??? ????.

A ?n??? ?ny???a a ??a ?? ?????e ?????y ?? ??a ?a????y ????i-???????e ???
e ?ya??th ???? ????ey ?????y. I? ????i-???????i ???a e ?????th ?u??e
????ey ?????y ??eth?? ?ii??th y?yth?y ? ?????? ? ???? ??ey, a ?i ???e.
I????? ??i ??????ue ?e ???n e ????o ???ey ???? ?????i ??? ???????i ???ey
e ????ey. O?? ??? ?????? ???o ??? ????ey i??ia?ey n ??th ??????ey
???????o, ????, ????? e ???i? ?????? ????, ???? ????a e ???ath??y ????,
?????a ? ???????? e ?????a ?????e ????e??e a ????i-???????i ????n?a.

A ???? ???????? ???? ?????a ????ey? ?e ???n ?????y, ???ey ????, ?e ??a
?????? ?a??e, ?e ???????ay ???a (??????i? ????ey e ?????e ????ey ?e), ?e
???o ?????? ???? ???ey. I??????a ?????y ????i ????i ????ey ???? ???????e
?????th ? ??? ????o ????i-y?????? ????, ? e ????ny ???i ????? ??????e
??????o ????e e ?????ie ????.

Ae???? ??? ???e a ?????i ?? ?????? ??? ??y ???a ?????ey, ???y ??o
?????ue ???th n????y e ???????a ???????o ???? ??????e e ???e ????, ???a
??ay, ???ay, ???iay e ?????eth, ?????y n ????e ??ey? e ???ath?y ?? ????
????????, ?a?ath?y ???? ?????yi ??????e [43, n. 4].

E????a y?i ????ey ?????y ??? ???ey? ??????a ????????, i????i??? e ??????
????, ????a e ???o ???ny ??aey ? ???y?y ?i ?e ????e, ????e ???oe, ????e
? ?? ??? ???ey e ???iy???? ??? ????e, ???????th a ?? ???? e ?????
?????a?e. Ia????? ?e y?i ? i?y??? ? ?e ?? ????, a ?? ???o ???y ? ????y,
????y e ???, ?????o y?o ??? e ???oth?th ????thth ??? ???a ??? ???ey? e
????? [41, n. 216].

I????? ?e ????? y??? ???? ? ??????? ?????e eth?e a ??eyo, ???a ?? ?????
?y ?????y ? ???ay????e.

I?????i ????i ??i ???ue ???, ???e ???o ??? ?ay?, ????? e ????, ???eyth??
??e ??? e ?????eth ??????o ??? e ya??e, ?????o ???i ???i ???? n?????e,
???i ???y? ????a e ???? ???? ??o ???o ???a. A i?y?a ?????y ?eth?? ? ???
??ey, ??? e ??ey ?e ????o ?????y, ? e ?aiey ????? ???ue, ???ue, ????ue n
?????? ???e ?a ????y?a ??? ?e ???n ????? ?????th??y a ?y????e e ???e
???? n ???e eth??.

I??a ???? ??i ???ue ????o ?????th. I????? eth?a ????i? ?y????e ???o ?
????? ??ey ???a e ??? ?????o ???? ??a a ?????oth?e ???e [46, n. 75].

N????a ?????y ???? ??iy?a ????, ???ae ? ??? ?i ??iy?y e ???o. A ??iy?a
??y – y? ???ae ? ???????i ???? e ?????????o ?e ???????o.

A ??i ?????i ??a, ?????a, ????ey? ??e ????e ???n, ?????oth??y ??? ?i
????e, ?e ???? ??a, ????? ???a ????y, ????? e ????? ????.

????a e ???????? ?????y i????? ??e ????e e ???y? ??????y ????: y??????e,
??????e, ?????e, ?????e e ???e. Nay? ?????y e ???? y?y?ny ???? ???.

N????a ?????y ??o ?????? ????, ????o ?i ???ey?ny ?ey? e ???? ?????y ? ?i
?e ?? y?? ???ey ????. Y? ????, ?i ?i ??iy?ny ?ae ?ey?? ????? ??e, ??????
e ??iy ???ey i???i ??ey.

??ue ?????y ? ?????i y?? ???ey ???e ???ey?ny ???? ? ???? e ???????? e
????o ?????o, e ???? y????, ??????ueth ?????y ????e ????ey ??? ? ???o
????e y??????i e ????i?ai ???ey [4]. A ?????o ???yo ??i ? ????o ?????a
????ey ????ey ?????y y?y?ny ?????ey e ???? ????i ?????y. A 90-a ?? ???ay
???a ???e ????? ??e???a ????y. A ??? ???? ???u ? ????o ?????? ??a e ???
????i ???????a ????? ????????, ??a e ???u ???? e ????? ????th?y ?e ??ay
??i?ue a ????, ?????y ?? ??, ?e ?????? ???a ??th??y ?? ???ea. A ????
?????ny ?????ee ???n e ??o e ???? ?????, ???y?ny ????a e ??o ?e ????o
??????? ????? ??o ????a. Ia ??? ????i ???ey y? ????ny a ??? ????e ??? ?
th????oth ?????o, ??i ?????e ????a eth?e e ???? ??eyi, ???? ?o???e.

A?e ???? i ??a, ? a ???? ????i-y?????? ???yo ??? ?i ?????o ?a ??a ???oth
????th c????ue. C??a ????i ?????y – ???? ???a ????a ?? ??ey?, ???a ???o
?o ? ???? a ???? ????e ??e. A ?????i ???? ?e????? ?????e ?y ?????y ????
???y?y ??? ????? ?? ??a, ??? ??????th?o ???? ?? e ??ea ???c??ue ?????e
???? ???u ?????a. I???a ?????a – ?????ay ??ue ??e ???? ?????, o???
?????ey ????i ?????a e a?????i ????.

Ia ???y?? ?? ????? ???? ????i ?????y. N???iey ????i ?????y ? ???? ?????i
??i??yi. A??? ??a ????? ???? ?e??????e – ??? ???????? ???ie ????. ???y n
???a ??? ??????y ?e ?????a e ??e ? ?o ?? ?? ???e ?????eie, e ?? ??
???????? y?y? ??e ?? ?????a ????y ?? ?????a. A????, – ?i ??u I?? I, ?i
???y E?? IV A???i, ? e ?? ??? ??o ?????a ?? ??i ?????? ?? ia ? ??. Nth?
? ??i ???e ??ai?? “?o ???o ??i, ??i ?n ????”. Ae??? ???e, ?? ? i???o
???a ?????i ??????y – ??i ??ue ??????y ?e ?ey ?????i ?? ?e ??? ?oe, a ?
?e ????a ??????i ??a [29, n. 141].

Oe????? ??i ae??i ????ny ???? e ? ????i, ? ???y, e???, e ? ????o ???? a
??i, ? ??eyy ????a ??? ????a. A ???? ??? ?? ????? ????a e ??????eyi,
eth? a ???? ???????? ??? ????ue, ?e ?a?a ???? ? ???? ? ????y e ????i
?????i e ?????? ????ieyi.

I?????e ???e ??? ???? ???i ???i ???? ????. I???y ??o?a, y?, ??? ??i ????
???? (i?? ????, ?ay ?????e, ?ay th????? ??????? ???? ae.?.), ???a
?????tho ??? e ????? ??e; ??u, ???a ???tho ??? ????? ??i?a, ???a ??????y
????? ??e. I??a ?e ???y y? ??a ???? ??u? I???i, ?i ? ???th?y n ??, ?e
??? ?? ?????u ??? eth??, ? ?????y?. A???? ????o ?? e ?? ????e ???????o
(????, ?? ?????e e ??e ?????e) ??????otho ? y?eth?e ???? ???? a ??????
????. I?y?i, ?i ?? ???? ????e a y?i ????i? ???, ??? ???, ???i ?? ?i?a ?
???ue ??-??? a y?i ?????e ???ny. E y? ?? ? ????o ?????e y?eth?e ????
???? (????a, ?????? ???? ????e e ??i) [48, n. 11].

A?e ???? i ?????e ???? a ???e, ? e ???? ??th?i ????a ???? ??iy ???? ????
????y ? ??th??a ???a, ???a ??????eo ?? ??o ?????-???? ??a, ???? a
??????e ????i ????y, a ??a ???? ???? ???? NNN?.

O?????a ???? ???? – ???e ae????e ???n, ????ath?e ?a ???u ?????? ??e.
N????e ?????ey y?yth?y ????? ??a, ???? o ???i th????? ???, ??o???a ?????
?????, ???a ???e th????? ??e, ????????a ???u ???? ??a, ???a ?????y ????y
???th a ?????? ???????e, y????? ?????e e ???? ????o e ???i-th?????o
??n?o ca??a e ?????o ??a. I??? ??????e, ?????o ?oe ???????? ????,
???oth?o a ???????e e ?????????e ?y????e ????o ???a ?ey?a a ???? ?????ey
???? ???? ????.

I???y ???? – i????? ???a ??????i ??????y ?????i ??? ??a ??ae ????i, ?i
?????ao ?????th ???? ??y?a, ???yth??ny ????y eth?e, ??????eth ???a ???i?
e ???y ?ae ????th. I??i ???a??a ???? ??????y ???i y?yth?y ??????e ????ey
????? e ????y?a, ?c ?? ????? ????ue ?????a ???? e ???? ?????i [34, n.
184].

Aeey ????y a ????? ???? i???e ???? a ??i e ????i ?????i??e ??? ?e ???
????ey ????ey ????i ?????y.

????tho ??a e ?????a ?????a. I?? ?????a ?????? ???o ???? ??a ??ey, ??ey,
???, ???a ????? ?o ?y ??????i ???ey e y?yth?y ??a?e ?y ????y a ?????
?????? – ????????i i?????. Ii ??ith e ??? ????ey ?e ??a, ?e e ?????a
?????a i?? ?? ????i, ???i, ???.

A O????? ??? “? ?????e” ??ny ?????a ????ey i????ey.

I?? ????ey e ????eth ?????y

1. N????a ?????y y?y?ny ??i ? ???? y??????i e ?????i ????a ???? e ??? ??
??????i ?:

– ?????a ???????y ????;

– ???? ???e ?y ? ?i?a????;

– ???? ????;

– ????? e ????????a ????i ?????a.

2. N????a ?????y ??? ?????oue:

– ????? ???? ???ue ??e e ???????? ???? ????;

– ?????? o ??ath??ny ????? ?????? ??ith ??? e ??ith ???????e ????u ???u
??;

– ????eth ???? a ?????oth e ???th ????;

– ?????? ???? e ?????, ?o??????i a ?????a ?o ???? e ?????i ? ????????a
y?? ????;

– ?????? ???i-?????? ????;

– ???????i e ???? ????i i????a ????.

3. I???????a ?????a eth?? ??iy ??? ?????? ????a ??ath??y i???? e
?????oth?e ??????.

4. N????a ?????y ??? ??????ue ???????th e ??????? ??o eth??, ???? ?????
? ???e, ??????, y????e, ?????e e ????? ???????, ????ue ?????? ?????i???
????, ??????? ????? ??a ??ath??y ? ????e ??? ??? e ????e.

5. N????a ?????y a ????? ???????i ????? ???ey?ny ???????e ?????, ??????
e ?????e y?i ???????i ?????i ???iy???. I?i?ay ???a???ay ????a a ?ath?i
???????th ?????eth ???????i ????? ???????y ? ??? ?????othu? ????o ????
???????o ???? e ??? ?????? ????? ??ath??ny ?????a ???ey ???? ????o???
????, ??????o ?????oth?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????e.

A ??? ??? ????ey ?????y ??? ??? ???u e ???e ???ey e ?y????e, ????a,
?????a, ????????, ??????a. E??e ????? ???e ??? ?? ???i a ???o o???????
?????? ?e ???? ???i?i ????. A??i ????? ??? ????????o ????a ???? ????,
???a ?????th?y ???????e ???????e ??aie e ????-????????e ?y????ueth, ?i
???????o ?????a, ? ????o ??e ???????i e ???????i [28, n. 19].

N????e ???? ??o ????i ??i ??????i ????, ????? ??oth??y ?????? ???? ?y ?i
??????? e ?????i ???ey, e ????? ????, ?????? ????i, ????ath?i ????th
?????e ??e a ?????? n ????? ????? ????e, – y??? ? ??a. I? ???? ?????
????? ???o ???e: ?????y ???? a ??i e ?????y ???? y?o ??e?o ???ey? ????a
eth?e a ??a ?????y, ?iy?y? ????? ????e ???iey. Oe???ue ?????y ???ey?ny
??y i???? ??iy?????.

Ai-???, ???????i ? i???ey ?, ?y??? n ???? ?? ethaeyi ????i eth???????.

Ai-???, ?????a ??o ?????oth ???????oth ????, ???th?th a ????ee ???, ??a
???? ????e:

– ?i ????o a ???? ????a ????ey ?????? ??iy?y – i???ey ??? ???, ??a ???o
???o?a, ??a ???? ??iy ??e;

– ?i ???? ???? ???, a ?i ??a ??th ? ??????ue, ?e “y????ay ???” (?oy,
???i, ? y?y?ny ? ??????, ? ?y????i ???? y??) [10, n. 5].

O? ?e ???ay ???? ?????? ?????a ??? ????i?e ??? e ????? th????? ??, ?
???oth ?????ue, ?a?a ?????ny ???? a ?????? ??e, ???th ???ue ???ey ?????
??a, ?i ?????e ???, a ?e ? ???ue ???ey th????? ??e a ???a, ? ??i ???ue
??ae, ?i ?a ????????a ????? ?????ue ?c ??ee ??a, ???a ?? ???? ?????a,
y?yth??y ?????i y???? ???? ????.

I??a? ?????a ?e ????y ??ue ???u ?????y ????ey?ny a ?????? n ??iy?
?????y.

A ?????? n O????? ???i “? ?????e” a ?????e O???? ?????ath?y ??oth?a
???????a ???:

– ???? ??a ??????;

– ???a (???) ??a ?????a;

– ????a ???????? ?????a;

– ???a ???????? ?????a;

– ??? ???????? ?????a – ??e???;

– ??? ???????? ?????a – ??i??a ?????a ?e ??????;

– ??????? ???????? ?????a.

I???a ?????a ?eth?? a ?ay ?e ???e, ?????oth?a ??iyi ???????o ????: ????a
??a, ???? ??a, ???a ??a ?????a.

I???a ?????a ??e a ???????o ????eyo, ???oth?o ????u ????? ??? ?????y,
????ny n ?n???y ?e ???? ??e ?o ??e ?ny?a ?e ????? ???????? ? ??iy?th
???uey, ? ? ??a ????ey ?e ???? ??? ?o. I? ??? ????ny n ????????i y??.
Oe?ue – ?????? ???a ?????e ????. I??e ?a e ?????eth ???? ????, ?th?y ???
?u ?????? ????ey. I???y ?ay a ?i, ?i ???e ??? ?e?i ????ue ??ue ? ????.
I?????e o???ue ?i ?? – ????a ???o ???? ???. O???y ???tho ??????a i ?????
??a e ??i?i ??????a. I???ny ???a ??e ???u. Y? ??ey ???ytho ???????y a
?????? ????yo ??????? ????? ?eyi e ???e ?eth???? a ???oth ??ue ????.
I????e ???ue ???y? ???th ????i ???a ??????. O???y ???y?y n y?eth?? ???uo
??y?a, ???a, ???? ????e. E??a?y ???oth?a ????????, ???????a ? ???????a
?????e. A??? ????? ????i ?????ue a ???ie ??a ? ??? th????? ??, a ??????
n ??????y? i ????? oe???e ??a ?e ??????i ??ey??. I???? ???????? ?????a
?atho oea?th ????? ????? ????????? ??a ? ?? ???? ?????yi ?????i ????
?y????e ? ?? ????i ??? e ???? (???i) ??? ?????y.

N??? ???????? ?????a ??o ??th ????? ?????? ???? ??a, ??????? ?????? ????
a ????? e ????? ?????y ? a?a ????i ???, ???? (???i) ??? ?e ?????
????????i ?????y. Ia y?i ??? ????tho ?e ?????? ??u, ?e ???i, ??uaath?a
????o ??????e e ???yth?a ???? ??ey, ?e ??????i ????a, ?e e ?????a ????i
??????y ???????? ?y????e. Ia y?i ??? ???tho e ???????? th????? ?????a ii
??? ?????yi.

Oeaey? ???i ????????i ?????y y?yth?y ????? e ??????? ?????? ?????oth??
??iy, ??????? ?????? ???? a ????? e ?n???e ?????y. I????a ?????a n ???
?????a, ????? ? ?i?y ?????o, ?????o ?e ????o ? ??o ???? ?c ????i ??a. Ia
y?i ??? ????tho ?e ?????? ??u, ???ath?a ????o ??????e e ???yth?a ????
??ey ?e ??????i ????a, ?e e ?????a ???i ?a????? ???????? ?y????e.
I??atho ???????? th????? ?????a ? ??? ?????eyi. I??????a i???????a
th????? ?????a ?????? ?? ??a ???th ???ue ????y ????e ??ey? ? ?????
i??a??yi. N????? ???? ?????a ??? ?????ny ? ? ?????? ?????e ???? ?? e ???
???a, a ? ???? ??????e a ???? ??? i??. I? ?????? ???????e ?i ?????y e
???ey, ????? ia??? ???? ? ????y? ??????o ???? ??a n ?i ?????? ?e????.
E??i ??e ??? ?? ?????ue ????y ????? ???? ??a, ?e ??????i ??ey?? e ??????
???e ???ue ???? ???? a ????. O???a ???????? ?????a a ?????o ???yo ? ???
???o ? ??iy?y ???? ???? e ????i ???ey ????, ????? ???ey? ?ae?? ???e.

1.2 E?????ey ???a ????i ????iey

A ????? ???i ?????y ??y? ???? ??? ????y??? ?y??i?? ??????y e ???ny,
?????? ia ????a ????y ??ey?, ???? e ??ey?, ? ? ????? e ????.

I??u ????i ?????y y?yth?y e ??????, e ????? ?????, ?e ?e ?e ?iyth?y a
?????e ? ?????? e ????? ???e. ?????th?y ???a ????ey, ?iy?ny ?????
?????y, ??ae ? y?i ?iyth?y e ???u ?y????e ??ath?o e ??ath??y. I?? ??????
??tho ??a ???, i?y?ny ????? ?????y, a ??? e ??iyth?y ??? ?????y. Aeey
y?ai ????th?y ??a ???? ?e ?????aoth?y ??????.

O?? ???i, ??? ????i ????iey – y? e ???u ???? ??? ???ny a ???i ??, e ???u
????? ?y????e ???? e ???ny ?e ???? ?? ????o y???, e ???u ?????e
???iy???e ?????? e i??????e ?y????e ???ny e ?????? – ???u ??????ey y?e
?y????e.

*?? y????? ?????? ??? ????i ?????y, ????? ?????ue ? a ?????? ???a, ?????
a ?????oth?e ??????e. I?? ?????y – ?iy?a ???????.

E??y ??? ???a, ??? ??ae ???otho ?????oth ???th a ???? ?????ey, ?c ???e
????? ????? ?i ?????a ??????a. A eth?i ?? ???????e ?y????e ??? ???a?y
????i ???a, ?e ?e ? ??????atho ?? a ??a, ?????oy n ??uo ??? ?? e ? ?
??????? ?aea??a e ???ny. O?? ??? e ?????eth ???e e ??a ???a a ????
?????y y?y?ny ??i ? ????o ???e ???y ???a ? ? ???.

A??i ????i y?????? ??? ?o?? ?????y y?y?ny ?????e ?? ????a ? ??????
????y. I??i ? ??o ????a y?y?ny ?????? i??? ??????i ????i ???ey. ????oeey
y?? ????ey ???? ??? ???a a ?????? n ????e ??????oy? y????i ?????? ????
?????y, ec ???o ???tho ?? ????.

O??? ????i ??? ???a y?y?ny ? ?????? ????a ????ey ???a?ey. I?i ????? ??o
?? ??a ?n??i n ???th ??????, ??? – ?????? ???, ?? ??o ????ue ????a ?o??a
?i, ??? ???ny ????i? ?y ????ey ??? ??? e o.ae. I????a ?????y ??? ??????
??e?? ???a a ????e ?????i ????ey.

O??i ?????a ???o ??????ue a ?? ????: ?e ???o e ?e ?i??. N??? ?????y
?????ny ? ?????o ??a, ??????th?o ?e ??y?e ?????ey e ???????ey ???????o
?????, ?e e ???eyth?o ???? i????ey ???????e ????, ???????o ?????, ????e
a ??a i????ey. I??? ?????y ????ey? ??e ???a ????a, a ??? ???? ?ie ????
?????ytho ???????a ???, ????y ????a ??? ?????y, a ??? ?e ???th?y.

I?y?a ??? ?????y y?y?ny ??? ??iui. I??i, ????y ? ????a ?????y, ???a
?th?y y?? ?iy?th, ??i ???? e ??i ??a, ?i ???? yoe ??e ??ey. A????? ???a
???u ???ue ??ae ?????y ???? ?????e ???-??????? ?y????e ???ny. Acya a
???? ????i y? ????a, ????ny ??a ???? ?????ue ??? ?iy?a e ???e e ?i ???e
????a.

N?? ??ae a ???? n ????? ???? ??????, ???, ?? e ????eth ??. Y????y y??
??a ?????y e ? ?i ????a ?e ???e ????e. I?? – a ??i ??i ???? – ??? ????ey
??, ?????? ???i ??y???ay ?y????ue. I???i, ?i e a ???? ?????ey ??ae ????o
?e ??y???? ??? ????y??? ?y????e ??a?a e ???ny ? ????eth ??????
???-??????? ??e. Ia ??a ???i e ???th?i ????e y?y?ny ??? i ??????e ???a
???ey.

A ???e ????i ?????y ????e?ue ?iy ???a ???a, ???yth?y ??? ?i??a ??? ????i
?????y e ????ey ???i ???. I??????y ??a e ???? ????tho ???e ???e ???a
????i ?????y. O????y aeay????ue ???? ???o a ?i, ??u ?????i ?????? a ???i
???? i?i?, ?????th?a ????a ??e??a ?????? ??.

??????a ???a ???o o ???ny ???n e ??e ???-??????? ?y?e???, ?i ?????i ??i
?y ????e ???????i ????y e ???i ?iy?yi.

E???????ue ??? – y? ??? ??????, ? ? ??i-? ??i ????i. Aei ?o ?? ?o ???i
???y ???o? ???a ????i ?????y. Y? ?? ????y ?a ?c ????ny e ???? ???a ????i
?????y, ? ??????e e ????a.

Ae?????? ?????ey, ????tho, ?i ??????y ???a ?????y ???????y ???i ??????i
a ?????e ? ??, ??e ??? ????ny ?e ? ?????.

N????o ????a ??????e ???a ????i ?????y.

Aeey ????i ?????y ???? ??? ??????y ???a a ?????e ? ??iy ??????? ?y????e
???ny.

I????? I.I. N???a:

E???? ???o ???: ??????i-?????e, ???????.

I?????a ???, ?????? ? ???iy???th ?e??oth ?y????ue: ????ia ????a,
y??????, ????????e.

I????? E.ss. E???:

E???? ???o ???: ?uy????i-?eth?????, ???????.

I?????a ???, ?????? ? ???iy???th ????th ?y????ue: ????ia ????a, ????
????e, ????????e.

I???a ??? ???????o i ???e??? ?y ?? ???a ???ey e ?????e ???ey ???? ????a.

I?y????i-?eth????? ??ae ??i ?????ny ?y ?????e ???????i ???ey ???. Y? ???
???ey ??e e ???e ?????. Ii ???o a ??? ????e th????? ?????, a ??????
??y?? ???e.

???????e ??ae ?????? ???? ???? ?y????e. E????oth?y ???y ia ???e????
????. I??????a, ?uy???, ???? ????? ????a ?????-????i ?? ??a ?i ????y,
?a??ue ? ???, ? ??oth?e ???.

N???ue ????????? ??? ???o a ??????? ???? ??a ????? ?y????e, ????? ???? e
?e???e ???.

N???ue y??????i (????-?????) i??a ???o a ?i, ?i ???? ????, ???th ?y
???iy???? ???y, ???a ??o ? ? ?????u, a ??i ???e ????y??? ???? ???? ?a??y
e ? ???th. O???y ???iy??i ?? ? ????o y??o ???? ?????ey. E???????? e
y?????? ??? ??y? n ???i ?????i ????y, ?a? ???ny ???? e ??th ?????e
?????ny ? ???a, ???a??y ?e y?i ???????? e ????ue ???? ???ey, ???eytho
??? ?????i ??? [35, n. 69].

A ?????e ????a ?a ?????? ???a ???i a ?e ???? ???:

– ??? ?????e ???-??????? aeay????e. E ?i ??nyo ????a, ?aey?? e ??????,
??????? e ??e??-????a, ?????a e ?????a;

– ??? ??????ey e ????e ???e ??????? ?y????e, ??????? e?u, ???a ????e;

– ??? ???ey (???, ?????, ??????) e ?????ey a ???? ???ey [42, n. 298].

A ?y? n ?i, ?i a ???? ???? ????ue ???a ?????? ???a ????i ?????y, ?????u
????? ???????? ? ? ????i ????yi. Y?o ??i ???ai e ??e th??/??e ??a: ?e,
????, ??u ??a ?a? ?? ???????? ? ??aey?? ????, ??? ????i ??????y ?e ?
?????o ????.

Ia ????e ????a ??????? ?y????e a ???? ?????e ??eytho ?o?u:

1. I?y????i-?eth?????. A? ???? ???o a ?i, ?i

????ny ???y ????ey ???e ?a???e, a ???ny ?????tho, ???tho e ???otho a
?iy? ???oth ????eth.

2. ???????e ??ae. N???e ????e ????y??? ???? ???a ????ao ?y????ue ???ny ?
??????? ?n?????eth ????? ? ??? e ????uo ???? ?y????e.

I???y ? ??????oth ???o ?????? ?????? ??????y y?? ??? a ???? ?????e, ??o?
???oue ?i ???? a ??a ?????ey o ???ny ???e ??? ???, ?????o ?y ????? ???.

3. I?? ?????i ????y. I? ??i??? ???? ?iy?e ???ny ?????ay ????, ?a ???ny e
?????ny ?? ???y, ????th?y ???u ???? ???ey ???? y???.

4. *???i-????e, ?e y?????? ??ae. I????a y?? ??? ?????o ? a????a ????o
??a ??? ??? ? ????? ??? ?e ???a.

5. E???????? ??ae. Ii ?????? ????? ????? ???, ?????? ????th ???? ????
???ey. ????? ???n e ????.

A ?????i ???? ?????e ????? ???? ???? ? ?????th ???iy???e ?y????e ???ny.
Y? ??o ?o???y?ny ?e: ???e ?????? ?ae?, ??? n th?????e ?????e, ???a?e
?????? ?????ey ? ?????? ?? ?ae ?????? ????. A??i ???i ?????y ???, ????e
???, ???a y?yth?y ????ey

O.A. E??a ???a?o ?????? ??? ????y ??o ???: ?uy???, ????, ??ey; ???
?????ey ??o ???: y???ey, ???iy???y ??? n ???, ????ey; ??? ??? n ??????
?????; ???iy???th ???.

E?????ey ???a ? ????? ????y ???e ????? ???y? ???oue ???? ???? ? ????a,
??y?? e ?????? ??? [39, n. 79].

E?????ey ? ??? ????u ???oe:

– ??? ?????ey ???ey (???c, ???, ?????, ??c, ?eth??????);

– ??? ?????ey ????y (????ey, ?????, ??, ????a);

– ??? ?????ey ??? (??????ey, ????a, ???a, ????a, ????, ??e???ue).

E?????ey ???a ? ?? ?y????e:

– ??? ???? e ???ey ?a?e ?e ????a (????y, ??? n ?e??);

– ?????? ??? (?????? ???y, ?????? ???, y?????);

– ??? ???ey e ??? ?????a ???ey (???iy???a e ?????a ???, ???? ???y, ??? e
y???u, ??? ????).

I.A. Ae??? e A.I. A??a ?????e ??????th ???a ? ??????e ???:

– ??? ???ey ???;

– ??? ????????y ???;

– ??? ???ey ???a;

– ??? ????? ?y????e;

– ??? ???? ???, ??? e ???a [27, n. 188].

A???th?y ??????e ? ??? ??a?eth: ?? a ???? ????-??????? ????o ???? ??ey
(I.I. A???i), ? ??eytho ??y??, ????a e ?????? ???; ?? a ????a ??????e
???u?th?y ??????a ?? (I.A. Ae???, I.I. E??a), ? ??? ????th?y a ?????e ?
????a ??/ ?????y; a?e ??????y ????ny ? ????a ?a?? ?y????e (TH.E. A????),
? ??eytho ??? ??????ey e ????e ?aiey, ?????e e ??????y o??? ???? e ????,
???ey e ?i????y.

Ii ?? ????yi ?????e ??????th A.A. ???a (a ???? ????a-???????a ?????e
???? ???y?y (????a, ??y?? e ????) e ???e??n? ?????i ???? (?eth????? e
?n???????), A.I. A??? (?????? ??? a ?????? n ??? ?y????e ??aey e ???a e
???? ?????yi ????a ??????? ?y????e ????o), A.E. N???a a ????a ??????e
???e ?????e ?????i ?? (????i?, ?????e) e ???ue ??????? ????? ????o
(???????, y??????, ????????e).

I?????a ??? a ?????? ??a ?y??, ??? ??i, n ???e ????i e ??????? ???ey,
???a ??? ????ny n ??????e.

I? ??????e ???? ???????y ??????? ?? ???o ?iy?e (??ey, ???), ???a a ????
???? ??o ?? ?????? a ???? ??o. A??a n ?i, i?????e ? ?????? ?????e ???e
???? ?? ??a ??a ??i ??? ?? ?????? ? e?????? ???? e ??????o ????? (???,
????). E??i ?e ?????tho ?????eth ? ??? ???o ??? e ???a, ? e ???a ?????o.
E?? ?? ???? e ??????a ???? ???tho ????? ?????yi, ???? ?????yi ???ny [37,
n. 107].

E?????ey ???a ? ???? ???/e ?????:

1. A????a ???. E????y ?????? a ???. E y?e ??? ??ny?y ?a ?? ????a, ??ae,
?uy???, ??ee.

2. A????a ???. E????y ?????? a ?? ?????y. E y?e ??? ?i?y?y ???,
?????th?a ??? ? ??e ??? ????? ?????.

3. E??????? ???. I???a e ???y?a ????? ?????? n ???th ???? ??. Aeey
?????????e ??u e ?? a ??? ?? ??? ??? ? ???u, ??? ???? ??i-??? ??e ????
??? ?????i y?o ???a.

4. I?????? ???. E????y i????y, ????y ????i ???a ???y?y.

4.1. A??-????? – ?????ey ??????, ????o ??? e y??????. I??u ????? ?
??????th ????oth e ????oth ???eth ?????.

4.2. A????-???????a – ???, ?eth?th?a ????? ?????o e ????? ??o ?c ???i
?uy??ey: ???, ?????th?a ??? n ??ueth??i, ? ?ath?i ???? ??u. E y?e ???
?????o e ???? ??? ?????y ??? ??e. I? ??????e y?o ??aeia ????ey ???? ? ??
???i, ?i ?a ??o?o y?????? ? ???ey.

4.3. A????-???????a – ??????a n ???oth?i ????i. ss?yth?y ???? ?e ????
??? ??e.

4.4. A??-????i-???????a – ????? ?u?a e y??????, ?????ey ???o ???a, ??? n
??ueth???e ??ath?? ?????e. I? ??????e ??? ???a ????ey ?????y ? ?? ???i
???ey?y.

E? ??????e ??ae ????i ???a?ey ????ny ??ae ??????? ???a. N?????? ???
????ey? ??e ????i ????y ????, ???a ???ath?y e ???oth?y ???i ? ??? ????.
N?????? ????, ???a ??? ???e ?? ????e (?e ??? ????y), ?n?? a ?i, ?i ?e, ?
y?yy? ??aey?? (?????th?? e ?????o ???), ?i ? ??a, ??? ????? ???th?? e
???th ?e ????, ???y ????? ????ny a ??i ??? ???a.

I?????? e th?????o ?????th ???? ??????? ??? ???o ?? e a ?i, ?i ? ???o
???eth ?????i ???ey e ???? ?????? ?? e ????e, ???? e ?????o ???o ???, a
??a ????? ???a, ?i e ???ey? ??? th?????i ?i??????a [15, n. 97].

A ??iy?a ??y ?o ??? ??e ??ey ? ??? ??????e ???a ?????y. I?????y ??o
????th?? e?????ey? ???atho ???, ?i ? ?? ? ?o ? ??o ??? ?? ?????? e
??????e ???????? ????.

A ????a ?ny???y ???a ?n?????? ???? ?e ????? ???? ??? ?????y, ???ath?a
??ath??y e ???iy???? ????th ???, ?????th?a ? ??????oth ?y????ue, ????
???ey, ?????? ?????? ??? e ???a. I?ay ia??????y ????a ??????a, ??? ??i,
? ???? ????, ????a ? ????? e ????eo ??????, a ??????i, e ? ????? ??????y
???a ???iy???e ?a?u ???ny, ?????ey, ??????y ???? ?? e ???a ????y ?????y.
A???a ???? ?????? ??????a ??e ???u ???a, ???y ????? ???i ???i ? ? ????a
????i ???o ???, ? ?????a e ???????a, a ? ???iy???a ????a ??ey? e oi?ey?
a ???? ?o??e ??????? e ?????? ?y????e. Y? ?e ?c e ???? ????????o ???o a
???? ?????e. A ???a ? ?????? ??? “??ey-??ey-???” e???????e ??? ??????
?????? ??ii?e ?????? ?? y???ia ???????? ?y????e. O???? – y? ?????,
?????????ue ????, ????aath?y ?????, ????????, ???????? ???? ????ey
?y????e a ????ii ??iyth??y ???eyo [47, n. 92].

Iiy??? e ???? ???? ???a ?????i ???ath?? ??ae ????i ??i?? ?????y ???
????, ??iy?? a ?i, ??u ? ??? ?? ???ny c??y, ? e ????? ?????? e ????
??????? ????a e ????n?e, ?????i ???ey, ??? e ???a ???iy???? ?????i ??a.
A?????? ??o ??/ ?????i ??? ????i ?????.

I? ??????? ???iy????ueth ??yoi ???? ????? e ??? ???iy??? ???ue, ???i??
???????y a ??e ????, ???? ?? ??? e ???th ???, ???a ?iy? ? ??? o????oth
???th ????eth, ? e ???u ? ????y, ?????e ??? e ???eyi ???, ??????ue
?????o ????.

A ?????e ? ??????? ia ?????? ???u ??? ?e ????a ??ey? e ???? ???? ???
?????y ?eyo ? ??????? e ?????ua.

E?????a ?????tho: ?????a ???????? ??eyi e ???i e ?y?? n ???????
????i???e ?y????e.

I??????a: ????ay ??ey, y?????ay ???, ???y ????y, ????y ?????ay ???,
????????e ??ae, ???iy???y ??? n ??ath?e ?????, ???iy???y ??? n ???.

E?????a ?ey?y ia:

1) I????: ??? ????? ??????i?o ????, ???a ?????? ???????? ??/, ????ey –
???ey ? ?????.

2) E???: ?????? ??e, ???y ??.

A ???? ?????a ??? ? ??? ????, ? e ?????. I???a ????? – y? ???????ay
?y????ue ?????a, ?????? ?????e, ????o a??? ? ???? th?????i ??a; ???????a
?????a ? ???? e ????a ???? a ?eyo ?????ey ?????? ????? ?aae????e, ??y?a,
????? ?????, ????e, ?????th?o ??th??a, ????? e ??????a th???n?o ??.

Oe?ueth ????i ????ey, y?y?ny ????????a ???? ???? e ??????y ???i. I???e
???e ????i ????ey y?y?ny ???? ???? ???i?? ????ey e ?????? ????th.

E??e ??ae ????i ????ey ???nay?i n ??? ???i, ?????y ?e ????? ??? ???a,
????? ??????i???.

I???? ???? ????i ????ey y?yth?y: 1) ????a; 2) ???????; 3) ????a; 4)
?????a; 5) ????a.

I?? ???i ???? ??? ???a ?y?? e ????? ???????i ?ey?y.

I??u ?y?? ???????i ?ey?y ?????tho ?????th ?e ?????th ???th ????y e ?i
?????oth?a ???ey, ?????? ? ???????.

I??u ????? ???????i ?ey?y ?????tho ???? ??e ???? a ?a???? ?y????e, a
???e o ???a ?????y ?????oth?y ????a ? ??????????a, ? ????o ?????? ???e a
???a ?i ????e n ???y?, ?????, ????i.

Ii ????o ?????y ? ????y ??? ????ey ?eyo ? ????a, ??ae??y, ????a e ????a
(I.E. A???a, I.E. A???a, O.O. E??? e ?.) E y?e ??????e ??i ????o ??ay
???a ??o ???a ????ey, ???y ?a??o ???? ???a ??a ????i (O.A. E??a, E.O.
I?????). I? ?eth?? a ?ay ??? ????y, ?????e ?y????e, ??????ey ????y
?????. A ??????e E.I. I???i ???u ??a ??? ???a ????ey, ?e
?uy????i-???????, ????i-?????a, ??? ????y e ????ey, ??????ey, ????ey,
?e????, ??????ey.

A ?????e ? ??u ????, ? ???th ??ae ????o ????th?a ?????a ??eytho: ???
?????ey ???ey ???? (???c, ???, ??ey, ???, ?n?o, ??? ??????? ????), ???
?????e ???ay????e e ????y ??????a (????a, ?????, ???? ????ath?o ????),
??? ??????ey ?y????e e ????y ??????a (????ea, ??????, ????a, ????a), ???
n??????y (????y, ????o, ??????a, ??????a), ??? ????y e ?????ey (???????
??th??a, ???, ???, ??? ?????a ?y????e ?????e?, ???? ?????o ????).

A ??????? ???? ?e ???? ??? ???????i ?????y: ??ae ??ae?ey, ??ae ????ey,
??ae ???. ?????y, ???ey ???u, e ?i ????ny ???o ?e e ??????? ????,
???th?i ??? ???????? ??e, e ?e?y ????ue ? ?y?, ??????? ? ?????? ???eth.

I?? ????y ????o a ?? ??oth??: ?ae??a ????; ?????ey ????; ???, ?????a
????i, ????a i ??? ????e e ??????, ????a ? ????y?i a ????; ????a ?????i
???? ??? ????y??, ??????? ???; ??? ???? n ???; ae???ey, ????i, ?? ?????
?????ay ????i; ??i ?????e ? ???y?th ???????i ???; ??o, ?e????y ???? ?
??? ????e ????.

I?? ????ey – y? ??? ?? ?????a, ???a ?????? ???? ?????? ???ey ???a,
???ath?a ?i ????? ????a, ???a ?e ? i?????? ????a, ??y ?i ???i ?y ???i.

I?? ??????? ??? ??o ???e???: ???? ??????? ??? e ???e ??????? ???. A?u
???? ???: ????a, ????a. [40, n. 563].

I? ??? ??? ????i ?????y ???o, ??? ??i, ???????? ?????a ???? ????a e
?????? ??a?a ??? ?i, ?a ???? ????? ??o ?iy??ny ????? ??a?a ???ny, ?
??????? ?????e, ????e i?o, ??? ??????ny a ???? ?y????e.

I??? ????o ??????e ? ???? ????????ey ???a ?? ??o e ? y?y?ny ????? ?y
????????i ????ey ???-e?i ? ?o. I??u ??? ??????otho ?? n ???, ??e???y n
??? ??? ??????ey ????a e ???ny.

1.3 I?y?a e ??y ??????? ????????i ???a a ?????e

A ????a ?ny???a e ???? ??a ????? ??? “N???? ?????? ????ey ??? ?????y” e
“E???? ?????? ?????i ??c??ey ? ??? ? 2010 ??” a ???e ????? ??????ey ???
????? ?????y n ?iy?e “????????”, “???????”, “??y ?eue??”, “??????ue”, ia
?iy?y “?????y”, “???????” ??ath??y. Oi ?? ???ny ?????ay ??? ? ????????
???, ?e ?? ? ??e ??????ey ????i ?????y.

I??????y ? ????e ???????e ????u ia ?y?????th ???? ?? ???i ? A????i
????ey e ??o ?????e ????. A???a ???? a ??a ?????? ????tho ???oth
aeay????ue a ??????ue ???????i ??a. E???ey a ????a e ????? ??a ?????e
????? ??o, ????? ???? e ?????e ???????? ???? ? ????o ???yo. E?????y
????y “I ????e ??????, ??ny??y e ???o ?????th a ?????i ?a??” 1997 ??, e
???e ???y ??????? a 2000 ??, ??????? ????th ??o????i ????y ?????a ?????y
e ????a ????? e ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ???iy?? ???? ??? ????y. O?
???a, a ?? A????i ????, ??e ???i ???????ny ????a ??? ???? ????a, e y?
??y ?????y ???? ???? ????????i ???a [9, n. 3].

A ? ? ??y ??? ????? ii y?e ????, ???? ???e ? ??i??ey, ?????, ?th ????ue,
??????ue e ???????ue ????e ?e ??o ?iy?e ?????y, ???????, ?e e i????? ?
?o ???a e ???? e ????? ?????y.

I?y?y – “???????? ???” e “?th??a ???????” ???? ???????a ?????? ???i a
?y? n ????y? i ????o e ?oyo ?????? ?????i ?????y. I???? e y?i ?iyoeyi
?y?? ? ?????i ????? ???ae?? ????y a ???? ?????e, ??????a ????y?, ????y??
a ????.

I?? ? ??? ????ey ???a???? ????? e ????????o ???o y?y?ny ?????????ue, ?e
????, o? e ???? ?????i ????i ???ey, ?i ??????ueth, ???????th ? ??a???e
????, ???eyth??y ?????? ?e?ey? ?c? [38, n. 120].

A ?????? n ??ueth 1 ??? 43 E????? ?????e O???? ??? ??o ??i ? ?????a [1].
I?? ? ?????a ??cy ???ue ????th ?????i, ?? ?????a ? ???? ?????i ????eyi
i???a e ??????e.

E???????e ??? e ?????th ?e? e ????ey ??? ?????y ? y?y?ny ????? ??i.
I????y ? ???ea ??? e ???? ?y????e ??????a a ???o ??o ??????o ????a, ?e
I.I. N???, E.ss. E???, A.A. E????, A.A. Ae???. I??i ??ay ????ey ?????e ?
??????? ?e ????? ???o ????, ?????, ????o ??a??.

I???i ????i ????? ???i ?ae?? a ???? ?????e. C??y ???? ??? ????tho, a
???? ??ey a ???? ??a ??o ???? ????y ????????.

A??? ????a a ????, ?eyth?a ? ???eth a ??a ?????y – y? ????a ??? ???ey
????. A ????oa ?? ???? ???ny e ??e, a ???e ??? ??? ?iy?ny. E?? ??o ??,
??c ????i ?ny???e ??? ?? ?????ue. Iiy?? ?????a ??? ???? ??o ??????a e
????i, ?c??y o ?o ??a ????, ?e ?????ue, ????, ????????.

I????????ay ??a ? a ??iy?e ?????? ???ue ??????? ????, ?????e ?y y?????i
???y ???i ? ?? ??? ?y????e e ? ?? ????? ???eyo, ?i ??a a ?e?eyo ???
?iyth??ny ????, a ???i ?y?yth?y e ??a ??u ?y???n?, e ??a ????. Oe?ue ??u
– o?????a ?th??o ???????e.

I??? ????i ?????? ??? ?i??ey ?th??o ???????e, ?????o ???. Ai-???, ?? ??o
i ?????e y?a??? ?????ue ? ??? a ???e, ? e a ??? ??? ?y????e. Ai-???, ??
??o i ?????e ?????ue a ???eyo, ??a ??o ????? ??o???? a ???iy???i ?????e
???e ???, ????e ? ???e, ??? ???ia ???y, ???iy???e ??? ????? ??eue??a.
A-???o, ???y a a?o ???a ???i, ????? ?y ????ia.

A ??iy?a ??y a ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? e ?????eth ???? ?????i a
??? A??n?? ????, ???yy ????? ??y??ny ??e??? ????? ???i ?????y, n ??e
???u ??y?? ? ????th?a ????? ?????y, ??? e ???? ???ey.

N??iy a ???? ????y ?????ey ?????y, ?????a ?i ?????ey ???? e ?????yi
????.

E??i a ???????? ?????e ???u ???? ?????? ?? a ?????? ???? ?????i ?????
???a?ey. Y? ?y?? n ?i, ?i ??? ?i???? ?????ath?y, ?e ???e ?????a??e
??????.

N????o XX? ?? ??? ???ue ? ??? ??ey?, ??ey?, ????, ? e e?????e. Oi ?? ?
??? ?? ?????i, ? ??? ? ??? ??????i c????i ???a, ? e ? ????a ??a??????
???a.

I?y?a “???????”, ?e ?i a ?n?y?a ??y ????y?ny a ????a ?????y, ??????i ?
????i ???a???o ???? e ???????ue ? ??a ????? ????? ??a, ????? ????e e
?????a, ??i ?y??? ??o ??e. A ????i ???y?e ?iy?y “??a????ue”, “???????i”,
“?????ey” ??ue ??i ??ath?y e ????th?y ?e ????.

I?? ???? ????a ?????? ??? y?? ???a. E???????e ??? – y? ?????? ??o ????a
?????y ?e? ?????y, ??? ????ey ???a?ey, ?????e ???????? ???? e ???
???????o ?????a. E ??o o?? ????a ??ny?y ??oth?a ????y:

– N?? ?????y ??th??ny a ???? o ????o ?????e ???iy??? ?o?ue ???? a ????o
??? e ??o ?y????e ? ??? ??????y ?????i ??a, y???? ???? y?y?ny e ?????e
?? ???ny.

– N????a ?????y ????ey? ??e ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ???y ???????,
????????o, i?????o, ?????? e ?? ???i.

– N?? ?????e ???????? ???na ??th??ny a ???? ???e ?y ?????ey o ????o ??a
???iy???? ???ey ???????, ???????o, ???????o, ?????? e ?? ???i, ???eyth?o
????? ?????y.

– I??a ???????o ?????a ???a??y ? ???a ???e ???????, ?????o ????y ?
?????? y?? ??a?y [30, n. 3].

E???????e ??? ?e ??? ????ey ????i ?????y ???iy? a ?? ???????oth e ????th
???eyth?a ?????y. Y? ???eyth?a ???atho ???oth a ??y??? ??, ??a ??ey
???th?y a ??? ? ? ????ey a ?????e ???eyo. A ?iy?e ??????? ???? ??y ????y
e?????? ????ey ?????y, ?????? ? ????? [14, n. 31].

N?? ????ey ????????i ???a a ???? ?????e, a ?i ??u a ?? ???ey ?????ue
?????e ???iy??? ??? ???? a ????o ??? e ??o ?y????e ? ??? ?i????ey ?????i
??a, y???? ???? y?y?ny e ?????e ?? ????a. A ???yo ???e ????? ????? e
????i ???????ny a ????eyo ???i?e e ??e, a ???? ???? e ?a????o ??no? n
???? y????e. E??i th????? ?????a ??o ??????? ???eth ?????? ?????? ????,
n ?????? ??o ????? y??? ?e ???? ???? e ??????.

I?????i ????? ???ey ??? i????ey ?a???y ???? ??????ie ???????e ??u, a ??
???e ???e ???n ???o ???oth ?????ue ??a ??????, ????a, ?????e, ????uo
???a ???i ???ath??y ???? ????y ?e ???e ??????th?e ???oe ?????y.

O??i ??????? ??????o ??a ???th, ?i ?????ue ???o ????, a?th?th?th e ??ey,
e ??? ????? ???ey, ?????th?a ?????ue ????ue ????i ????? e ???????ue
????eyi ????.

A?e ?a????y ?????ey ?????a ??????a ??????? ?????? ??o ????ey? ?????ey e
?ey? ?????y, a ????? ????ue e ???eth ???ny ??a ?e ??a ?????? ??? ???,
??? e ???a, ? ?????y ??i???o ???? a ???ea ?????e ???????y a ?????? ???o
e ???????o ???o ????, e?? ??????y i ?????yo ??e ?y????e, a ??a ??e ? ?o
???????ue.

E???????e ??? ?????o ? ????ea ???? ???? ????i ????? ?????y: a ???th
????o ??/??i ????ath?y ????u ???ey ??, ?i ????e ??o ??ue e ??ue ??a
????y ???ey.

I???e ??th ?????y y?y?ny ??a???a ????i ?????i i??, ???????i ????i e
?????th?? ????a ???? a ???? a ???i ????e y?? ??a. I?????a ? ????a ??
??i-y?????? ????y ???eytho ?n ???y ???? ? i ????e “???i” ????, a i ????
ia????th ??o ?????? ??????e, ?????ue? ???th??y ? ?o, ???a ?????? ?oy ?
20 ?o ??ae [23, n. 37].

O?????a ?????e ????? ????? ????ey ?????y. O ????? ??e?th?y ?????e e
?y?yth?y a????? ??? a ?????? ??e ???? i???u – ? ???o, ? ???????? e
?????. I???i y? ????i a ???? ?????e, ?e ?e n ??????ueth ????ey ?o ?e ??
???? ??, ?????ny ??? ???e ??? ??.

I??????? ?????e ???ytho ??? ????, ???oth ?y ?????i ????iey, ???a ????a
???i ??????o c??e, ? ?????? ????e a ?y???n?, ??oth?e ??????y y?o ??? ?y
???y ????? ??/ ?e ?i???o ????. I??????ay ?????y ????a?o ???? ? ????o ??
? ??a ??? e ???, a ????a ?????i ???i, a ???i ?y ???i ?????y ???y
?????oth?y ?????? ???????o ?????a, ?ath?o ?/???-aeay?????e ????.

E???????e ??? ???? ??i ?????i ????ey ?e ?????a ?????ai ?????y. I???i
???i y??? ??a????e ??????? – ?????ue ???y ?th ??ue.

O???ey ???ey ? ?iy?y ?a????e e ?iy?th ?????e y?y?ny ???????e. Y? ????y
????ny a ?i, ?i ???? e ???????o ???? a ?????i ?????? ?????? ? ?a????y
?????? ?iy?? ???????? ?????? ?????a. A?aa ??a??i ????ny ?iy?a ???????.

I??? y???? ???e ? ???? ????y ?y?e ????, ?y??? n ??????i ????? ???u
?????y ??i ????i-y?????? ???yi. Y?:

– ??? ?iyth?yny ??th??? ??a; ?i ??????y ??????: ???o ??o ??????, ?e ???a
???;

– ?????? ??n ? ?????? ? ???u ??????;

– ????ey ???????? ??????y ??a ??a e ??????y ??a ??a e ??????y ?????a;

– ???? ?????e ????? ????ey ??a ????????o ??a e ????ey ???? ?????y a
???????o ??o;

– ??ay y?????? ???????o ??a?? ????? ??????y ????? ???e ???ey.

????? y? ???? ????, ?aeth?y ?? ? ????o ???e ????? ?????? – ?????a ????
?????y, ? ?i e ????? ?????ey ?????i ?????y [25, n. 65].

I??????? ????o – ???????, ??????o ??e ?? ?????y – ????? ?????, ????? e
???? ????? ????e, ???iy???? ????? ???, e ??? ???? ?y????e e ?????th
????????i ?????y, e ???????th e ??????????th.

E???????e ??? ???a?y? ??e ?? ? ??e ????y ???? ?????y. I???? ???????? ???
??y?th ?y?i n ??e ?????? ????? e ????ey ? ??? a ???? ?????a, ??????a, ?
e ?e ???? e ??a ???a, ? y?y?ny ???o??i a ??e ???. Oe?ueth ??????? ?????y
y?y?ny ? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ???, ??? e ???a a ?????? ??a, ? e ????
????a, ?????e e ??????i ???eyi, e ?????eth, a ??a ?????? a??????? ?????o
????e.

N????o a ???e ??a ??? ?a? ?i ????, ??a ?????a ?o ?a?y, ????i ? ????????
e ????ue ? ????. A ??? ?????a ??i ?????ue ??? ? ????e ????????i ???a a
?????e.

E????? ???th?y ?e ????o ???ey ??????th?o ??????, ???a a ???? ????ath?y
??i ?????? ? ??? ? ???? ?? ??????. E??i ?e ???ytho ????ue ethaeyi ????i
???? ?y ?o oe?? – ????? ? ???u y?o ??e e ????? n????, a ???e y? eth? ??o
e ???atho. Iiy?? ??? ?????e ?e ?th??a ?????e ??o ?????? ???thth e??eth e
????y?ny a ??iy?a ??y a ??o ??? ???yo, ? ??i????? a ???? e y?????? ??a.

Ae??a ????a a ????, ???a o?? ?????i ?ey? ? ???? ????uo ????? e ???a
????i ?????y, ??th??ny a ???? ????a ???????. I?i ? ????e ???ey y?o i????
– ???? ???e ?y ???????i ???a e ?????. N??iy ????ii ???? ? ???????
??????? a ???? ??o, ???? y? ????i n ???i ???????? ??c ?? E???o, a ??a
???u “A??o” e “E???o?o”. A ???yo ???????i ???a e ????? a ???? ??o ?
eth?, ?????e, ???, ???a ???? ????? ???? ?????th ????eth e ?????? ? ?y
???y ??o ???i, a y? ?? ? ??????th?o ??/ ????i ?????ey.

Oe??? ??????o e ???????o e?????e E???? ?? “N?? Ae?a”
(http://www.superjob.ru) ?e ???? ??n ? ?? “*? ??a ???a ?????a? I??y 1600
?????? ???e?? ??oth?i ???i: ????? ?c, ????ue ????o – 11,8%; ?????a, ???a
????o ???, ?th??a ?????e – 32,8%; ?????a, ???a ?? “????????ny” e ?????ue
??ey ???iy??? ?th ??ue – 52,7%, ??? – 2,7% [20, n. 181].

O?? ???i, ?????u ???e – ?????a, ???a ????o ???, ?th??a ?????e – 32,8% e
?????a, ???a o?o “????????ny” e ?????ue ??ey ???iy??? ?th ??ue – 52,7%.
Y? 2 ??? ??yo ?e ???? y???u a ???????? ???. A ??a ? ?e??i, ?i 85,5% ???a
?????u ??tho ? ????? ????????i ???a, ?i ?????o?? i ??????? ??????e ?i
??a??y a ??i ?????e.

N??iy ???ue ???????, ???? a ?????o ???yo, ? ???ey?ny ?u??i ???, ?
y????????th. N ???e ????????i ???a ???ue ??????? ???ey?ny ?????ueth ???
???? ????e ????e ? ??? ?ath??y ???. Ae??e ??? ? ???? ???ey ???, ? ?
?????o ???? ia ?????e ?????? ????? ??ey.

I??ath?y ??? ?????a ??????? ?????y, ? a ? ? ??y a i?yth??y ?? ???a
?????y ??? ?????? ??a ????, ?e ???????? ?????? – ?????ue ?iy? ??u e ???u
?y????e. A??i ???? ???y y?e ??? ???ey?? ????ey ?????y, ??e e ????, ???ae
e ??i ????i ? ??????ey. A y?e ?y? ??????? ?????th ????o ???ue
?a??????????? ???e ?yoa???e [9, n. 9]. O??? ??????? a ???? ??a ?i ??, ?i
?? ??a ?y??i?? e ?? ???ue ???????? ????, a ???o ???e ???? ?????ue
n???y???, ?i ??a ???i ???? ?c??? ???? ?y????e ? ??a?.

I????a a ???? ?????e ???e??o:

– ?????? ???u ???ey ??? o?a ?y ??????i ?????? ???ey e???e ??ath??ny n
??? ?i ?????ae, ???a, ????? ?????, ??????o ?????? ???o??y;

– ?????? ???o ???????? ??? e ???, ?????oth?o ????eyi A?o?????? ????????
????a e ???? ???ey?e – ????? ???e ??;

– ????eth ????ey ????????i ?????y, ????? ??????o ????ia;

– ?????a ????, ??????e e i?????? ???ey;

– ?y?????e ??? a ????? ???????? ????;

– ?????? ???e ???????? ??????? [8, n. 48].

A? ?? ???y a ???? ??a ?????eth ??a ? ?????ey, ?o?ay ???ey?ny ???i
?????ue ? ?e ?? ????, a ???????, a ???e ????ny e ?????? ??? ???a –
?????ey, ? e ?????ue ???? a ???, ???????, ??????, ??? ??ii?? ??ey ? ??e
i??? a ??oth.

I??? e ????????o ???o ?e ????? ???????o ???????o ????? ???i ????????i
?????y y?y?ny ??????i e ?????i, ?e ?e ??? ???? ????? ????? i?? ?? ????
??i ???? ?e?i ?e ?????e ?i ??????? a ????e ???e ???????? ?y????e;

N?? ????ey ????????i ???a a ???? ?????e, a ?i ??u ?e??ue ???? n ????
?????e ???ae, ???th?? ????oth ???? ??a e ?ath?? ????? ?? ??a.

AEAAA II. IIAeA?IECAOeEss NIAeA?AEAIEss I?AAIAIAI IA?ACIAAIEss A
NIA?AIAIIIE AUNOAE OEIEA

2.1 N????? ?????e ???? ???y ??a: ???? ?????y e ??????e

N????-y?????? ????y a ???e ???e e ??????e ?????? ??? ????? ?????, a
??oth ???ue ???u ?????y.

I?????y ???? ????a ????ey y???? ???u, ??? y???? ?e ?aea ??o ? ??? ???
???u. Oe?ue ?????? ???o a ???? ????a ?????i ???ey ???u ?????y, i????ey ?
?????ey ???i XXI ??, ?oe???i e y?????? ?????yi ???, ???? ????, ????,
?????a. N?? ? ??/ ???o ?ae??ue ????? ?????e e ????a ???? ??ai e
????????i ?????y, ????a ?i y??????.

I?????y ???u ???i ?????y e ????a y?????? ??????? ???n? a ???-???????i
????a ???e ?a?tho ???i ???ey e ????i ?????? ????ey ????i ?????y.

N??? ?????y, ? ???th ????a ?y???? ????? ??o ????e e ??e a ??????i
??????? ??a, ????a ??????? ???????a ??? ????, ??y ???, ?????oth?a ??i
?????yi [12, n. 139].

E??yth?y ????ey e ??????-???????. A??ay ???? ????th?e ???u ?????y
??th??ny a ? ?y??????. A??iy????ay ???a ?????y y?y?ny ??i ? ???? ????
?????y ?????i ??a e ???ey y???? e ???? eth?e ???.

I????a ???? ????y e ??o ???i, ???a ??? ????u: ?iyth?y ????i-y?????? ???
????, ???atho ??a ????ey e ????? ????thu?i ????y e y? ?????? ???i ????ny
? ??y?o ? ???o ?????a??e ????? ???????.

I?i ?? ???i ??????, ?? a? ?? ???i ?????i. I?? ???????i e y?????i
???yth??ny ? ??? ?y???oy? ????? ?iye ??c ????? ??????i, ?ath?? ??ue ?
?ay ???????ue e ????ue ???y a ??????? ???eyo, ?ath?? y????i ???? a ??? ?
??e ????o, n???y??? ???y, ???iyy i????e ???????? ???, ?????o ?y ???y
????? ???? – ????a ??????i [22, n. 5].

O??????a ?????? ???? ???o ? ?????? ???? ???e ????, ???? ???????, ???????
???u ?i??? e ????e, ?????e ???e, ????????? ???? a ???? o????? ????? ??o
???ny, ?????e e ??????e ?y????e, ??????????th, ???????? ?????.

A ??? XXI a. ???? ????ey ??a?????-????? ?????e ??????y ????a ??u, ??a ?
? ??????. Ai-???, y? ?y?? n ????? ???ue?-???????? ?? ????, ??? ???? ???
?a ? ??????ny ????e n?? ???. O???y ????? ??i?? ????ey e ????? ??????
?a????, ??????ue ???y ??????y ? ???? ??o ???e ???????? ????, ???a ?
??????? ????th ?o???e ??????e ???iy???? ?????ey e ?????? c??e, ???e ???
? ?????eth e ??????????th.

I?????a a ???a ???????i ?????y ?????u ???? ??ue ???ey? ?? ????ey ? ???
????ey e ?????ey ??? ???? ??????? ?????y e ???ai ??a.

O?? ????? a ?????e O???? ?????? ?????y ? ??? ???o ? ????? ??????? ??? e
? ?????.

I???a ????y ??iy ???????? ??????? ???? ???y, ????? ?i??i e ???i ??e?,
?????? ??????i-???????e ???n, ???iy??? ?????? e ????ue ??a ?? e ?o???e
???ey e ????ey y?y?ny ????? a ?????o ????i-y?????? ???yo.

Oe?ueth ????????i ?????y y?y?ny i????a ????????? ????a ?????oth?? ??iy e
???y, ?????????? ? ??a ??a, ??????i, ???? ??ath?? ??e ????? e
????oth??ny a ???o ???yo ?y????e, ???? e ??iy??o ????????o ??o, ????? e
???????? ?????e.

A????, ???e ???ny ? ????i ????? ????ey (??? ????a ?????a e ?? ? ?????o
??), ??ae?o a ???o ??????i ????ey, ??a ? ??? ???? ?????y e oe?e ??o
?????ue, ? e ?? ?? ??o ????iy?ny a ?????e ? ???a? ???ey ?????e. I??
????? ?e? ???o e ???ey ??o ???????o ????, ????a, ????i, ??o ???e ?????ey
e ??? ???? ??/a?? ??? – y? ?a ? ??? ???, ??? e ???a ? ????i ????i, a
?????e [19, n. 191].

I?????? ?????e O???? e A?i??? ???? ????? ??oth ???? ??????ey ???u ???i
????????i i????ey – i???? ???? ???ey, o?????a ????? ?????a ??a e ?????
?y????e e ??e a ????. ???? ?????? ??/ ?y???ny n ?????e ?? ????????i
???a. I? y?i ????ey e ????e ????th?y a ??? ??a ??? ?????e, o? ?e ? ??a
??a ???ath?y ? ?? ? ?? ??ey, a ?????ue ???y? ?????? ???e.

Ii ?? ???u e ????????o i??? a ?????e a ??? ???o ?ciy?y. A NOA ?????e
y?yth?y a ???e ??a? ??????? ????????, a ???a ? ???????? e ????? ?e ??o
?? ?????? a ???? ???ey e ????ey. Ae??e ??? ????i ? ?y??? ??????o ??????e
?????e, ? ?????, ??a ????? /?ou ???eytho ???? ???ey n????a. A????e ???
y?y?ny ?????ue?i. Ae??e ??? ???ey? ?????e ?e ?????ue ???y? ??ey, ????a e
??? a ?????? n ????? ??????, ???a ???i e ?????? ??iythue?y ????eyi.

I??i y?o ?? ????? ???? ?????u a ???e ?????e ???tho ???a ?a ???, ??a
????????i – ?????? e ?????. N?ue ???i i??? e ?????th ?????e ?????a,
??ey??i ? O??? e A???e, ??th??ny a ?, ?i ???????? ?????e ???th?y ?e ??a
???a ?iy?a, ?eth?th?a a ?ay ??ey, ??????? e ??????a ?????e [17, n. 164].

I??? ? ???????i-???????a ?????a y?y?ny ?????ui y??i ?????? ???u ?????i
????????i ?????y, ???yth?i ????ue ?????ey i?? ????ey? e ?i ????,
??uy?y?? ??????, ????i, ??????i, a ??a ???oth??ny ???e ??a, e ?i ?????e
????????e ??????.

A?e ?e ?????? ???a ???ey ???ue ?e ???? e ???? ???????? ????? ???, ? ?e
??i ?ae?? a ?????y ???ue ????o ??? a ?? ?????? ???iy???e ???? ???????
aeay????e ???ny, ????????i ?????? e ????a.

A????, ????? ?????eth ???y ??a, ??? ?? ???i ????ey? ?o??a e ?????
??ath??y n ??? n???? ??????? ????; ??????? ??????, ?????eth ??e ????
????, ?????o ??? e ???oth?? ?a??th ???????? ???????o ????; ??????
??????a ???, ??? e n???a ???ey; ?????? ???ue ????? ??ath??y, ?????oth?e
???aieyi A???????i ???????? ????a; ????? ??????ue ??th??y ?? e ???
???ny, ???????o C??? ?i???? O???? “Ia ?????e”, E????e i ??? ???a,
??????? ???? n?e ???????? ????oe?, ?a???? a ?y????e ?????? ?????e e a
??? ??? ?????? ???, ????ey? ?y? n ???ey?, ???y? ???a e ??u ??? ??a, ???e
??????, ?????? ??? ??e e ???uey ???ny a ???????i i????. O??i ?????a ??i
?????ue, ??? ? ????e ????????i ???a.

A ??????e ???a ?????y ?e ???? e ????????o ???o ???a??i ????ny ???ey ?
???? ???i?? ??o ??ath??y. A? ?y?i ??i??ue ??ath??y ???oth ?????ue ????a?
a ?????? ??e ????u ???ey, ?eth?y ????th ????? ??????? ???????o ????
[49].

I?y?a “???????” y?y?ny ??a ???i, ?i ?????? COIu. N??iy ?u??i ??uy?y? e
????? ??a ????ey, ??a ???ey ??? ??ey? ??????. A????e ??? ?? ??? ?o??????
?ay a ????? ???ay????e, ?????e ??? ???ath?a ????a e ???????? ????.

I?y?a e??????e ?eth?? ? ??? ?????th e ???????-???????th ???eyth?a, ? e
??????th, y???oth, ????oth e ??????th.

I????? ?????e ???o a ?i, ?i ?e ? ??? ???tho ?????ue ???? ?????? ??/??a
??ey, ?ath??y ??ey, ????a ???u ?y???n?, ? e ??????otho i ? ?????e ????ue
??a ???, ????eth, ???u ???????? a ???? ?????? ??i??? ??????????y [26, n.
57]. E????? ????thony a ???? ?????y, e ? ??? a ???i ????e, ? e ?ae
?????? ??e, ???, ???, ????, ???e, ???? e ?. A ?y? n y?i ????ey ????????i
???a ???o ? ?? a ??i ???????-????? ????, a ?oi?e ??o e ?????y ??ath??y.

E???????e ??? ???? ?????th ??????eth ????th?e ???????e ????? n ???????i
???y?e ???, ia ?????? ???a ? ???? ???e ?y ????y ????? ?????e, i??ath?o
????e, ?????e ????? e ????th e ????? ???ay????e a o??eyo ?????? ???????i
????i-??????i, ???i-y??????i, ??????i e ???????i ?????i ??????.

I?y?a ?????y ?? ???y?ny ?y ?????y ???????? ?????, ???th??ny a ????????,
a ???? ???? ????, ????? ?y????e, a ?????e ????ny n ??????e ????. I?
???????th ?? ????ny ???a??a ???aa ????, ?iy?yth??y a ??e ?????e e ?????
? ?y????e, ????? ? ??eyo e ??a, ???a ?????u a ???? ???ey e ?????? e
??????u ? ???iy?e?? e ???? ???a a ?y????e.

E???????e ???, ????? ????? ?e ??? ?????? ?????y a ???e, y?y?ny ??i ?
??????? ????e ?????y ???i ???????? i?????a e ????ey ????ey ?????y.

A ??? ?????o ???????o ???????o ????? ???? ????y ???? ???????ay ???
???ey. I?ae???ay ??????y ??a ???????? ????a ???i ????????i ?????y –
?????y – ???y? ????ue ????ou ?????y n ??? ?????o ????ee e ???? ?????
????? e y?y?ny ??e ???????e, ???y ?? ?????ue ???? ?????o y??o?? ?????ue
???????? ?????e a ?????? ???yo ?????e ???? y????.

E?????? ???? ???????o:

– ???? ???a ???? a ???? ???ey a ????? ????? ???eth ???e ?????;

– ??????? ????? ???ey ? ?????? ??????o e ???????? ?????e ??ath??ny [32,
n. 24].

A O????? ???????o ???a???? ????? ???i ????????i ?????y ?????y ???ey?ny,
?e ????n? ???y? ??ey, ??ey e ????? e???a ?y ???? ?y????e a ????i?e ???e.
A y?i ? ????a ????iu ??oth?a ??iu ?????e: ??????a, e ???i ??ny?y ?????a,
????????, ????i-????? e ??????ua ?????e, e ????????, ?e ???o?-?????????,
???a ???eyth?y a ?????e ? ????? ??a ???????ie ?y????e ?????.

Aeey ????? ???????i ???y ???? ???????? ?y????e y?yth?y ??ath??y ???i
????, ???? a ????a ????a ??iy????, ???ath?a a ???o ???yo, ? a eth?i ???
???? ??a y?e ???????? ??? y?y?ny ?????ay ????????. E ????? ? ??iy
?????y, ???e ???e ????e, ? a ???? ??e ??????? ?y????e ??o ?? n ??????
e???ueth e ??? ??? ???????? ?ae?e a???i ??iy ????e.

Ia eth?e ?????e ???e ????????i ?????y o ???? ????? ??i???ue ???????oth
??????? ? ??ia, ???e ???? ???? ????? ??i? ??????? ??/ a ????o ???eyo
??i????y n ???????, ??th?o ????e ??? e ??? ??????? ???? ?????y ? ????th
e ??? ?oyi n ? ???????e ?????y?.

N????? ?????e y?y?ny ?????i ?????i, ??????i ????ey ???? i???a, ?i ???
??????? ?i??????e ???????e. I? ? ??o ???????ny ?e ????o ??????i ????ey a
???? ???? ??????o ???o ?????e, ??? ??i ???????? ???.

N????? ?????e ?oue ?? ?e ????? ??? ??e ???? ??a?a, a ???? ???e ???a,
??aey ??c ??????? ????, ???????ny e ?????y ath, ???ay ??e ??i ? ??????
??? a ????? ??????ie ???? ????ue ????oth ?ae?????th ????.

I???a ????y ??iy ???????? ?????e ???? ???y, ????? ???? e ???i ???ue,
?????? ??????i-???????e ???n, ???iy??? ?????? e ????ue ??a ?? e ?????
???ey e ????ey y?y?ny ???ue?e a ?????o ????i-y?????? ???yo. Ai-???,
???????i ?????? ???ue ????o ????? ?ey?a ? ?????? ????? ???ny a ????
???-??????? ???; ?-???, ?i?o ???ny ??? ?????a a ??e ????i???e ?y????e;
a-???o, ?????? ??e??e ?????o ???????? ??????.

I?? ??a ???ue, ?i ???????? ?????e ???? – y? ???????? a ?i ??a ????o ???
?????n?e ?y????e e ???????i ???y, a ???o ???????a ???? ???? ? ???,
?????th?i ????? ??????a ????? a ???? e ???? ???ny.

I??? ?????e ???, ?i ?e, a??e ????i i???y, ? ?y? ?o??o ? ??, a y?y?ny,
???, ????? ?????ey ????, ?i ? ???i o???????i, ???i ?????i ??a, ?????
???????e e ????y ?y?????? e ?????i ??a.

A ?y? n ?y???i ????o?n??i ???a ?iy?ny, ???, ? ??o i???y?ny ???a ???a
???ey. A ??aa ??? e ???????y ???a ???ey ??o ????a ?????oth?o ?????e e
???e, ???a ?e ???ytho a ???a??.

A ?? ?????ey e ?????n? ??a ???????? ?y????e ??? ?????? ????i a ???e
?y??ey ???????? ?????e ???? ?????a. Y? ?????e ???ny?y n ????ey? e
???????? ???????? ?????a, ???eytho ?i ??ia??ue ??n???? ?????ue a ??????
n ???a?y? e ???????? ???????? ?????a, ???eytho ?i ?????ue ??????i
?????ue a ?????? n ????ey? ??, ?????e ??????i e ???iy??? ??? ??/e e
????, a ??a ????ue ????? ??e ?y????e [33, n. 28].

N????ay ???????ay ??????? – ???ue e ?ae ???????? ????? ?????, ???a o ??
???????? ?????e (o.a. ????? e ????ey), ?????o ?y ????ey ?????? i???????e
?y????e [24, c. 29].

A ???????i ???? o ????a ???oth?y e ???ath?y ???????? ?i???? – ?????a
?????e, ???eyth?a ????? e ???? ?y????e, y?yth?any ???e ?y ?????
???????uo ??/;

A????i ?? ??? ?????o ?????e ?????a, ?????th?o ????o ??i????eth ???? a ??
??a, ?????io ?????y, ? ??a ???a – y? ?? ? ???? ???e ????a??? ???ey e
??????? ????. Iiy?? c??? ???i ?????y y?y?ny ?????? ?????o ?????e.

N????? ?????e – y? ????? e ?????ue ??????i ?????ue a ?????? n ????ey?
??, ?????e i?????? e ???iy??? ??? ??? e ????, a ??a ??????ue ????? ??e
?y????e.

N????? ?????e – ??a ???? ??a?a ?y????e, ?iy?yth??y a ?????e ????? ????ey
???, ???, ????? ????e e ???yth?a ???i ????ue ????a ?????ey, ????, ??????
??? a ???????? ????a.

I??? ?????y ??e ????????e ???e, ????? ????? e ?????y ???????e ?y????e
????o ??? ?????e ??? e ????a O????, ???ay ???a e ???? ???? c??u ?? e ???
???i, ???? y?a??? ???oth?e ???? y???? e ??o???? ??? ?????????a, ??? n
??????th ??otho ????? ?????ia a ???e ??a, ???th?o ? ?e? ???????, a ????o
e ????? ???eth, ???o e ?????o ??????eth e ???????, ?ath?o ????ue ???? e
??e ???????ue ? ????e ?a? e ??????? ???ey.

I???? ??e ??e ????y y?????? ????ey ??????o ??? a ?????? ?y????e ????
?????a i???e ??u ? ?? ?????ey ?????o ?????e.

I?????ath?e ???e ?????? th??/??? ?????y y?y?ny ???? ????? ???i – ?????
????i ?????a, ???th?o ???i ???i ???? ????.

I???y ???? ???? ????ey? n?? ??????ue ??e ???? e ???? ???oth ???????
????, ?eth?y ??????a, ??ey, ??? ?????? ?a??ey, ?????a a ???ay????e ????.

A??????? ???????a ????u ???? ????y ??otho ? ??? ??u ????????y ?????
?????a ??ath?? ????????e ?????y?.

I???u ??????, ????y?a e? ? ?? ??, ?e e a ???e, ??otho ????e e a ??a
??????? ???i ?????y. N??iy ????ey e ?????eth ??uy?yth?y n ???e ???????e
????u, ?? ???e – a ??????? ????e ???? ?e au?? ????.

E???????e ??? ?????? ? i??????oth, ????th ???o ?????. Ii ??i ?y?i n
????i-?y?????i ???ii, ?i ???ey?ny ????th ?????o ?a???? ?????e.

I???????y ??????? – ?c??ao th?????i ?????y, ??th?th??y a ae????e ????
??iy ????????i ?????ey, a ???e ???u ?????? – ?????? e ???????? ???????th
e ????? ??????? a ????-??????ue?o ???eyo [31, n. 129].

O?????a ?????o ?????e ???y ??a ????? a ???????i ????, ?????i ???? y?y?ny
? ???a e ??????, ???iy???a, ??????a ???ey ???? a ??????? ????.

O??? ??iy?i ???????o n ??????? ????e, ??a ????o ???? ???????? ?y????e,
?ay e ???oy a ?????? ????i-??????? ??a e y?yy? ????i e ???y??i ???????
????e; ?i ???o e ??e?? ?????a??th ???? ?e ???o ???????i ?????.

I? y?o ???yo, ????y ???????? ???u, ? ???o ? ???e “??i??ey”, ??? ????i
???e ???????? ???? [16, n. 211].

A???? ??????ue a ????? ???a ?????o ?????e, ?????yth?o ????eyi ??????e, e
?????o ? ?? y??o ????y ??????e. I????i???? ??th ????????i ?????y y?y?ny
???????ay ??? ?????. Ae??i ?? ?????i ????o?e a ??e ???????? ???e ?????.
N????o ? ???????e ??? ?????? ?????y?, ???a ?????ytho ? ??? ????eyi
???????? ???????? ????a, ? e ????eyi ???????? ??a ??a e ??ieytho ?c
ae??????? ???ey ?e ?e ?????e e?????? ?????o ?????e ?eth??ny a ???.

I????? ?y ??? e ???ey ?a???? ?????e, ???? ???o ???ey? ????? ????????
?y????e, ??? ??ue i???? ?????e ???????? ?y????e, ??? ??????e, ???
?ath??y ?????o ?????, a ??a a??c ?????i ??a ??? ?????e ????? e ?????a
???????o ????ee.

N????ay ???????i-??????ay ?y????ue ??o ?? ???????? ??c ???????? ???
????: ???ue ???????e ???n, ???????e ? ???a?a ??e ????? ???e ?????y,
?o????? ??????? n ???e ????? ???????? ????, ????ue e ?????? a ???????
?eyo ???????th ??o, ??????ue e ????ey? i???????a ???????a. Ia ????e
?a???e ????????i ???a ??i ???? ???e ?????? ???y ??a: ????? ?????th
??ath??ny, ??????ea ???????i ???????? ????, ????? ???????i ????i, ????e
e ???????y.

N????a ?????o ?????e ???y ??a ??? ??????y ?ae ?ey?? ??oth?o ????:

– ?????i ??? ??a ??a;

– ????? ???????? ???????? ????a;

– ????? ??????e e ?????i ?????yi ?????;

– ?y????e ??????y e ????.

E???e ??? ?????o ?????e o??ey ??a:

– ?????ue ??? ?????a ?n???y e ???????i ???? ?uy??ue ?? ? ????ey;

– ???e ???ue ??????o ??? a ???e ??a e ???? ?????ey ??a, ????? e ?????ue
????e n ?? ?ith ????, ???????? ??? ? ? ??? ?????oth ???;

– ?????ue ???????i ???? ??e???? ?? ?? e ?? ??o ???;

– ???????? ??????? ????e;

– ?????ue ??????? ???ny a ???? ??a;

– ?????ue ?????i ?e???y ???a ???ey;

– y?????? ?????? ???a ???i? ???ey e ????ey.

N????? ?????e ???y ??a ?e?u ????y, ?-???, n ??? ????u e ??? th????? ??e
a ??i e ????o ? ????i, ?-???, n ??? ????????i ?ey ?y????e – ???a?ey.

N????? ?????e ???y ??a ?e?u ?????ny ? ?????o ???????o ???????o ?????
???i ????????i ?????y.

O????? ???????a ???????a ????u ???i ????????i ?????y ??????u ?y ?????y:

1) ???? ???????? ?????? ?i???? O????;

2) ???? ???i ????????i ?????y;

3) ??? ?y ?????e ??? ?y??i?? ???????o ?????, ???oth?o ???????a ????u
???i ????????i ?????y;

4) ????y e ?????ey y??????? ????? ?????o ????? i ??? ???????? ?????e
[2].

I????ath?yny a ??????? ???i ?i???a ????y i ???????? ???a a ?????e ???a e
?????th ??????e ????e a ?????o ??ae????? ???????o ????? ???i ????????i
?????y. A ?o ????????y ???? ?????a ????ee a ?? ????? e ???o ?????e, ???a
??? ?? ?????? o ???i??.

Ia ????e ?????o ???????o ????? ???? ????y ?????? ??a?i I?????a ?????y e
??e ????e? O???? ??i ???? ?????a ?????e ???y ??a ?y ???? a??? ????????i
?????y ? ??? ?????? e ?????.

E?????ey ?????o ?????e ???y ??a ? ?????th ????? ?????oa:

a ???e ??????? ?y????e:

1) ???? ??????ue ???a ????? ????i ?????y ???o e y???i? ??? a ????o
???????o ???a?yo;

2) ??a ???y? ?????a ???? e ????? ?????ey ??a, a ?i ??a e ???????, ?y
?????y ??n?a ???-???????i ???? ? ????? ???????e ???e ?????i ????????i
????ey;

3) ???? ?????? ?????e ???a???? ??u, a ?i ??a ???????, ?y ?????y ????
???-???????i ??a?a a ?????? ??a;

4) ??a ?eth??ny ? ??????? n ???ey?, ????e, ?????e ?????, ????????e a
?????e ???? ??ii-???????i ????;

5) ???? ??????? ??????? ??ath??y e ??????a;

6) ??a e ?????th ??? ??e e ???uey ??ath??y a ???-??????? ???? e ?????
?y????e;

7) ???? ?????ue ??i ? ?????i ??????i e ?????? ???;

8) ???? ???y? ???iy???e ???e ??athu?ny;

9) ???? y????i ????ey? ???? ?????;

10) ???? ????ey? ???n ???ey ? ??? ????i ??????y, ????i ???ey e ????
????;

a ???e ????i-???????? ?y??i??:

1) ???? ??????ue e ????u?? ????i-???????? ????u ?y ?a??ey ??iy ???? ????
????y, a ?i ??a n ??????? ?????o e??????-???????? ?????;

2) ???? ???????i ????????ue n ?????e ?????-???????? ?y????e;

3) ???? e ??????th ??????? e ?????i ??a ?????e ????i-??a?????e ?y????e a
???e ????i ?????y ????y;

4) ???? ?y?y? e ?????? ??i??? ?????? ?e???e ??????i? ??u ?y ?????e
????i-???????? ?y????e;

a ???????e ?y????e:

1) ???? ?????ue a ????? ?????o ??a a ?????? n ???? n?? ???????? ?y????e;

a y????-???ue????e ?y????e:

1) ??a ????ue ???a a ????? th????? y????u ???? ?????o ???? ??a;

2) ???? ????ue ????a ???? ??;

3) ???? ??? ????????a th????? ??th??y e ?????? a ????? ??o th?????
?y????e;

4) ???? ???y? ?????a ???? ??, ??????ue ??u ??????i e i??????? ??a a
???????? ?y??i??;

5) ???? ???ue ??ue e ?????i ????, ??th?? e ???? ??a e ???u ???? e ?????;

6) ???o ???? ????? th????? ?????;

7) ???? ????i e ??i ???? ????? ???????? ?y????e a th????? e ?? ??????;

8) ???? ???????ue ? ???? a???i e ????ue th????? ???ey a ??? ?????? n
???i.

E?????ey ?????o ?????e ???y ??a ? ?????th ????? ????:

a ???e ??????? ?y????e:

1) ???? ???y? ?????a ???? e ????? ?????e e ?????e ????i ?????y ? ????o
????o??? ???yo a ????o ???????o o????yo;

2) ??a ?????? ?????a ????? ?????e e ????ey ???? ????i ???????? ????;

3) ???? ?????ue ??c????oth ??o e ?????? ?? ?????e a ????? ??/ ??????e
???????e ????;

4) ???? ????? ????????e ?a?? ??ath??y;

5) ???? ?????ue ??i ? ???i ??????i e ?????? ???;

6) ??i?i y????i ????ey? i???a ?????;

7) ???? ????ey? ???n ???ey ? ??? ????i ??????y, ????i ???ey e ???? ????;

a ???e ???-????????e ?y???n?:

1) ???? ??????ue ????? ???o ?????? a ???? ?????e e ???y? ? ?e ???e ?????
???????o e ????????o ??/;

2) ??a ?????? ??????? ???a?a ?????e ?y ??????i ???y ?n??????? ??/;

3) ??a ???iy??? ????ey? ???a ?????? n ??????? ?????o ???a ??e a ???e
??a;

4) ???? ???? e ????? ???a? ?????, ????? ??????? e ?????e ??????y? a ???e
????i ?????y, ?y?y? ??????a ???e?ey, ???ey? ????o ??????;

5) ???? ?????? ??????, ??????th e ?????oth ????? ????e o?u ????i ????
?????ey;

6) ???? ????ey? ????? ?????? ?????ey a ???e ?a?? i????ey ???? ????? a ??
??? ?e ???a;

a ???e ?????? ?y????e:

1) ??a e ????? e ????? ?????? ???e, ???e, ????? e ???a ???ey ??a, e ???o
?????a ???? ? ??????y a ??????i? ????yo ????o ??a;

2) ??a e ???????, ????th e ???????th ??????i ??a (??????ai e ?????i) a
?????? ??a;

a ???e ??????? ?y????e:

1) ??a ???ue ??iy?a e ????e ???ya?e ???u e ? ??i- e ??????ey ??i ??????y
????a i??? ???????i e ?????? ???a;

2) ??a ?????ue, ??????ue, ????a??ue e ????ue ????eth ???????i ???? a
???e ?????ey ??a n e??ue???? ??????o ????? ??ae???, ?????oth?o ??i e
??????i ??????oyi ???ey ???y?? ???u;

2) ??a ??????? ????th ??? ?y ???y ??/ ???ey ???????? o????y, ?????
???-y????i???e ???;

3) ??a ?????? ??????? e ????a ????? ??y?y ???e a ???a?e ???????i ?????i,
??ay? ? ??????e e ????? ??;

a ???e ????e ?y????e:

4) ??a e ??????th ???????i i??????y ???????e ??u, ???a???? ???? e
??????? ??????i? ????a;

5) ???? ??????ue ??u e ??? ???ey ???? ????i ?????y, a ??a ????a ??
?????-??????o i????a, a ?i ??a, ? ??? e??????o ????? e ? ??? ????ey
?????i ??a;

6) ??a ??????ue ??a ???a ?????, ????? e ????? ???? ???ey ??o;

7) ???? ????ue ?????a ??????? ???y;

8) ???? ??????ue, ??????ue e ??????ue ??????? ????e a ???e ????i ?????y;

a ???e ????i-???????? ?y??i??:

1) ???? ???ue e ?????ue ?????a ?????e e ???? ???ue ??????y ????o ??i
????y;

2) ??a ??????ue ????e ?????e??e ?y????e a ???e ??a;

3) ???? ??????ue e ??????ue ???????? ????u a ?eyo ??ey??oe? ???o ??? e
????? ????;

4) ??a e ??????th ?????o e??????-???????? ????? e NIE ?y ???y ??/ ?????y
a ???e ???? ???? ????y;

a ???????e ?y????e:

1) ???? ??????ue ?????a ???? ?? a ???????? ???e;

a y???? – ???????? ?y????e:

1) ???? ???????? ????ue ??i?a ??;

2) ???? ????ue ???a a ????ee th????? y????u ???? ?????o ???? ??a a
???????? ??a;

3) ???? ??? ????????a th????? ??th?iey e ?????? a ????? ??? th?????
?y????e;

4) ???? ???????? ???y? ??a??? ???? ?? a ????? ??? th????? ?y????e,
??????ue ??u ??????i e ???????i ??a a ???????? ?yo????.

2.2 I??a ??iy ???????? ???? ?????e ????

I?y?a ???? ?????e ???? ????o ???? ?i ??????e e ?????? ????? e ????????
?y????e.

A ?????o ???yo, ??ae ??? o??e ????? ??? ????? ???o ??????, ????o ????
???i ???? ???????oth, y?????oth, ???-???a?oth, ????oth e ???oth ??? ???
???? ? ?? ????y ???? ????iey, ???ey ?y? ???? ????iey n ???? ?????ey?,
????ey ???a ???????o ??a, ?????e n????e ?y????e ???????o ????? n
?????ey? [21, c. 26].

I?????y ???i ???????i ???a?ey, ?i ??a ?? e ??? ?????u ??e??? e ??????
????? ?ey ???????? ?y????e ???y, ?o?? ???o ??????ue ????y ???? e ????a
?????ey e ?????e ?i ????ey. A ?y? n y?i, ????a ????? ?????o, ?????o,
?????uo n ??????e ?ey? e ????, ????? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ?????e.

I ???? ?e ?e ?? ???u i????ey (???i ?e ???) ??i ??? ? ??, ?e e a ??e ???e
???ath?y ?? ?????y a ??? ???. N??????i e ??? ??tho ???e a ?????e ? ??,
??a ?? a ??? ??? ???? ??th??. Oe?e ?a????a, ??????o ?????e, ??e, ???ny
??a ??o ?????y. Ii ?y ?? ??i e ????a ??iy?? e ??a oe?e ?????ey ?eth?tho
??e ??? ?a y???a: 1) ????a ?????o ???a e 2) ?????? ??????o ???e, ?o??? e
????e, ?c ???o ??cy ?a? ???i ?????i e ????? ????a? a ??e ???? [36, n.
54].

A???? ????????i ???a a ?????a ???o ?????? ????? ?? ???????e ???u a ??i,
???y n ??e ???ey e ????ay ???e ?i ?????a. Oe?ueth ???ey ? ??? ?????e
y?y?ny ?????? ???ny ??????? ???a ?th??o e ?????o ?????e. I??a ????
?????i ?????y ?e ???????? ???a ?eeth??ny ? a ??? ??? ????? ????y ???, a
a ??? ??iy ???????? ?y???? ??? ?????e. E???o?? a ???e??o, ????-???????o
???? ?????y, ??? ????ey ???????o ?????a, ?e ???i, ??i???? ? ?y??? ???
??? e ?ae?aeyo ?y ?????y ??? ??e ? ?n??yth?o ?????e – ????e. A????
????oi???i ???a a ?????a ? ??o ?? ???? ?c ????? ???e e ?????? ?? a ???e
????ey ??iy ???????? ?????e.

E????? ??? e ??? ??????i?e ???? ?????e ????a ??? ?eeth??ny, ? ?e?i a
?????a ???????? ???a – ?????o ?????e, ? e ????o ?????a ???????? ?y????e,
???o ????ny ????? a ?y????e.

A y?i ??? ????? ??? ??a?? ???atho ? ??? ??????y, ? e ???e, ????? ??u,
?????? ??????i ?????y.

Aeey ????i ????ey ? ???? ????a ????????i ???a a ???? e ?????? ?????e
??oth?y ??? ???ey, ?????th?a ???iy???th ????oue ???ny (???i ????? a
??e??) e ???? ????? ?????e, ??y??? n ?????? ???e ?y????ueth; ???,
???ath?a e ?????th?a ??????? ???n ???ny ?????i ?y? ???ey n ??ueth, a ??a
– ????oth ?????ue a ???? ??? e ?a?e (?????a ???????y ?e ????) [44, n.
154].

E????? ?atho ???????????th ??????? e ?iy?y?ny ??c ??? ??i??o ?????? ???
a ???? ?y??i??. ????? ?? ???????? e ??????? ???e, ?????, ????? ????o e
???-????????o ??o ???ytho ??? a ?????? ???e ???ue ???????? ???? ?????e
???? ?ae??a. N????? ????ey ???e n ??a?e ???y? a ??c????? aeay????e ??o
????ue ??? ??o ?????i ?????y e ?????? ?????e ?????.

????a ???? a ???? ?y????e ???u ?????y ??o ???????o ?????a ???o a ??oth
???ue ?????ey ???a ??? ???e ? ????ey. E????ey ?iy?y?ny ??c ????? e ?????
?? a ?????i ??e ?o??e. E??????ue – ????o ?????y, ???th??y a i???? ???ny
?????? ???i ???? ?y????e ? ????th e ????a??o ???? ?????y. A? ???? ???o a
?i, ?i, ????y ??i ?? ???? ?y????e, ???ny ???? ?? i????y ?y????e, ?????y
?????? ????e ??o. I?? ?????o ???? aeay????e y?y?ny ???ue? ???????. E??i
??e ??? ?????o ???? ?y????e e y?y?ny ????i ???a ??????e, ???e ??o ??
???? ? ??y??e ??????i ???e, a ??i ??? ???????ny a ?y? n ?i???i
????i-y?????ie ????.

?????y ????????i ???a ??? ???????ue ???a ??????a a ???i ???? ???? e
??????o ?? ????ey ?iy?e a ????e n ????i?? ???e n ??th ?????ey e ??e?y
???????? ???a i??th??y. A ??? ???o ??? ??? ?? ??????u ???e n ??????y?
????? e ????? ???????o ?????, ???o ???????o e ?????? ?????e, ???-???
y???? e ?????? [5]. Iiy?? ??? ??i ??? ???o ??y? ???a ???? a ???i ????. N
y?e ? ??th ??????i ????ue ????? ?????a, ???a ?????ytho n???? ?????ue
???????ue ?? ?????e.

A ???e ??? ???????a ??? e ?????? ?????e ???yo ???th ??? ? ??????eth
???????, ? ???ay ?ey ???????e ? y? e??ny ? ?o, ?i ????o ???? ???a, ????
???n ???????i ????i ???ey e ????ey – ???? ??a. I?a????ea ??, ??ay?a ? e
???????? ?y????e, ??? ??? ???i ????i ?????? ???? ?????e. A?ue ??? ?e ??o
?????ue o ????th?? ????y ???oth ???? ????y, ???th ????????e, ?????ue ? e
?a???? ?????th ?????o ?? e ????eth ??o ?y????e a ?????? ??e ?????a.
A????a e ???? ???a ????, ???th?o ??i??yi ???????i ????, ??????e ye???e,
???i ????ey ???????? a?????? ???? ? ??? ??????e, ???a ???? e ???ey
??i??????i, ???????i e ??????????i ???a ?????i ???? [7]. O??? ??a ??? ??
???i ???i ????? o??i-???????, ???????o, ???? e ??????? ???ey?e, ?????? ?
?????? e ???? ??????y e ???? ???? ????th?? ????y ? ??? ????th??
????????.

Aeey ?? ??u ??y? ???a ? ??? ?????e ????? ??, ????? ??ue ???ey ? ????? a?
?y????e a ???????? ??a, n ???e ? ??e ? ?????y.

A??????? ??????? ???? ????u ???? ???a ? ??? ?????? ?????a ? ?????i ???
????o ??o e ?????? y???a, ?oy ?a ???tho ???????ue y?e ????u. ???? ???ue
??iy????ue ??????a ??o ??? ??????. Iiy?? ???????? ??? e ?????eth ???
????? – y? ?a a ???o ???o ????a ???, ??e ??o ??e ????y ???i ????.

O??? ???????? ??????? – ?? ? ???? ??????e ?????. A?e ???????? ??? ????ue
“? ??a”, ? ?e ???? ????? ????? ?????a y?? ??iy. Ii-????, n?????th?y ???
??? ?????? e a ????? e ???o.

N???oth?y ???? ????? e ??? ????o ??o a ?????? ?? ??????o ???????? ?????
e ???e ???????? ?y????e. I??i ?a ??? ? i???ueth ???? ???a a ?????e –
?????ue ???y ???? ?????? ??/, a ?i ??a e ???????. Iiy?? a ????? e ????e
?a?a, ?-????, ???o ??? e ??? i????e ???????? ??????? ?????. I????ey?ny,
?i a ???????i ??a ??? y?e ??????? ??o ?????y a ??? ???????? y??a? ?
??????e [13, c. 35]. Iay????? ????eth ?e y?i ???? ?????e, ???a ???eytho
???????oth ?????ue ?e?ey ??a, ? ?? ????a ???? ?a?? ???ue ???? ?????yi. A
?ith ???ue, ??????? ?????e ???? ??a ???atho ?ey?a ? ???n ????ey ????????
??/, ??? ?e ???eytho ??? ?????i ??y ??ou.

I? ????? ????o ???a ?y ???ey ???? ???ey ???e, ????i, ???e ??? ?????y ?a
?? ?y?e ??o ?eth???e a ?o ??ey?, ??ey?, ????, ???yth?a ????? ????
??????? o ??ath??y ?????e ? ??i ?y????e e ???ue ??e ???i?e ?????a e
???????? ?y????e [50].

I????a ?????e ??????i ???e? o ????a ???o ???.

N???a ????ey ??? ?y?y? ?e ???????, ?e e ?y?????e ??i??u ???????? ?????,
?i ?????? ?????eth ?????e ?e ? ????? a ????? ????. Ae??e ?? ???????o
??oth?a ????? ??? ??iy ???????? ???? ?????e:

1) ?????a ????i ????a;

2) ????? a ???i ???? ???????????o e ?????? ???e;

3) ?y????y ????y ??? ???? ??o;

4) ???? a ???? ??????? ?i??y ?????o y????;

5) ?eth??a a ???? ???????e y??? ???????o ??/ ???????ie ???????;

6) ????? ????? ?????a, ???yth?o ????i ???????ue ?? ???? ?????e;

7) ??????a ???????e.

I????a ??? ???a ??i ????ey? ? ??? ??oth?o ???o??:

1) ???o ??????o ??????a ??i?i e ???? ????a ?y ???y ?????? ???, ????
??????ue ??? e ??????a ?y? a ?????;

2) ???th?e ????? ??? ?? a ???? ?eth???e ?e ?????? ?o e? ?? ??????o
????e;

3) ??o ???? ?????a ??? ? ???o, ???o ???????i ????? ?ith ???th;

4) ???th?e ???? ???? ????a, ????ue ??e, ????ey? ?????;

5) ???o ??????o ????? e ?????o ???eth e ???eth.

A ???? ?????a ????y ???? ?????e ???? ??i ????? ???y ???????????e
???????. I? ?????th?y ?e ??????a ???, ????? ???o ???? ????, ???ath?a a
i???? ??e ?e a ???????? ?y????e.

A ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????ue ???e ????? ???ue ?????e n ???th
?????ey. N y?e ??th ???????ue ??u ????? ae????e ??????? ?i???? ???a????
????? (Minimum Competency Test). I???? ???y ??? ??? ??? ?? ???y? ?a
??n??e, ????? ???i ????? e ?????, ? ??? ???? i ?o ?e i ??? ?????? ????y
????? n ??ui ???i ????????. Oa?u ?????e ??????? ???y? ???e? ??iy?a
?????y a ???o ????yo e ???ue ?????ey ????? ??ath??y ?????? ??ith ???ey.
I??i ????? ??? ?????ey ? ???y? ??i??ue ???a ??? e ???, ?????o ?y ??????y
???????? ?y????e, ? ?y?y? ??????o ???i??e ???ey ???? ?????a.

A??a n ?i a ??????? ???ea ????? ???a ???????a ???? ?????e??a ??u,
???yth?a ???o?? ? ??? ??????? e ??????i?o. Y? ?e ????? mastery tests.
?????u a ae??i ??? ??????th?y n ???e ??a???i-???????? ???a. E??????
mastery tests ????? ? ? n????a ???o ????? ????a, ?e y? ???ny a ??? n
?????-???????e ??????? ?????a, a ? ??? ??iy ???i????e ???i ?????i a
?????? n ??i ???a ???? ????i, a ???? ???? ??o au???ue ?i???i ?????e
???ue ???????? ?i??????o ?????e. Ii ???ey?ny n ??? ????? A???????i
???????? ????a ???i ????????i ?????y.

A?? ???ue ??????oth ?????, ????? ????e ??ath??y. Y? ???? ????? ?y ???ey
????????i ?????. N y?e ??th ???eyth?y ???i???e a ?? ?????o ????? ??/, a
???o ???? ????tho ????ue ????th ?e ???????oth ???eth. I? eo ???e ? ???
?????? ?iy?y e ??? ? ??? ???o ?n???, ????? ????? ? ????e ???e a ??th
??o, ???ue ??? e ????ue ? ??????. A y?i ??? e????ny ???????ay ???ey.
N?????ue ??o ?oo???? ???e ???tho ???. I? ????? ??a ??i ??a?? ?????? ???y
??????? ?e ????? ??????? e ????? ????oue e ??????? ?????a ????y.
Oe?????? ????? ? ??? ????a ?e??a n???e, ? e ???? ???? e ?i. A????a ???y
?????? ?????eth ???? ???y ???. Y? ??o ?? ??? ???a, ????? y?????a, ?i ???
e ?. I??a ????ey ???y ??o ??????? ????.

N?ue ??????? ????e ?e ??? ???????? ?????e ??th??ny ? a ????e ???e ?????e
???i? ????a, a a ???? ????ey ???????i – ????i a ????a ??iy ?i??????e
?????e. Iiy?? ??o ??????ny ??a???i-???????a ??u. I? ??????u ?y ??? ?? ?
???i ??? ???? ????a, ???e ??? ?????. I??????y, ?i a ??e??a ???ey ???a
??? ????? ?????oth ??o ???, ??? e ???a, n?????thu? ??????o ??ith
n???????e ???? ?????e, y?yth??y ???ueth ????ey ??a, e ???i ?????y ? 100
%. O?? ???ue ???o ????? ???i ?????i ??i ???? a ??a?a ? ???i ??? ???e
????ey ??a. Ii y? ????y ?y???? ?? ???? n ?????? ???e ??i?????e ????
?????e, ???a ??o ?iy?y?ny a ?y????e ????.

A ?????i ?????e ?o ???i ???????y ??????y i ???? ??c??ey e ?i ?n??yth?o,
a ?i /??, i ???? ??? ???y.

O??? ???ny ?th??e ???e a i?????. E??i a ?i ?????oth?y ?a ???? e ?a
????ey ?????e ??????? ????, ??? ? y?y?ny ?i??i ?????i ????????i ???a a
???e ???n. N??iy ????y ??n ? ???????????th, ????e ???th?th, ????i ???oth
e ?????????th e???ue ????, ????th ?????ue ????e???oth ???? a ???
?iyth??y ??.

I???????-???????? y?y?ny ??e ?? ???y, a ???i ? ????? ???i ??? ????ey?ny
??????ay ?y????ue, ??????? ???a, ?????y ???? ???y, ???ath?y ???a ??e??u
a ???? e ????? ???ny.

????a ??i?o ?????e – y? ???? ????? ???????? ???y, o?????a ????? e ??y?th
???, ?c??a e ???????e e ??????? ????yi. E ??? ?????e ???y ??o ?? ?????
??????y ??u, ????, ???e, ???????? ??????? ?????.

A??????? ???????a ????u ???? ????y ??otho ? ??? ??u ????????y ?????
?????a, ??? ??e ???? ??? ?? ????? ?y ??? ???e ???????? ???? ?????e ????.
E??i ? y?o ?????e ???o ?????? ??????o ???ia e ?????eth ???? ????.

A ???? ????a ???????? ?a??e ???? ???y ??a ??i ?????:

1) ???????? ???u ???? ?????e ??????i-?????i ???a (???a???? ?? e ???;
???? ?????o ?????, ?????o ?y ??e; ??????, ??y?a e ??? th????? ??? ??o ??
e ????a, ???????i – ???e????i ????a, ???? ?????e, i????? ?y ??????y
???????? ?y????e.

2) ???????? ????i-???? ???a ?????? ????y e ?y????e: ???? ????e (??i e
?????, ???a ????, ????ey ??????, ?a??? ??ae ???i, ????????, ???????),
???a (???? e ??? e ??o, ??ey?a ????e ????y?a) e ????y (a ??????e ??th??y
???a ??e ????ie);

3) ?????ue ??????ue ??????a c??y e ?????a ???? ????y a ???????? ?y????e.

E???ue ???? th??a ???????y a ?i ????? ?????e, ?a ?????a??a e ????? “y”
??? ?? ??i ?y?? ???? ????e [45, n. 62].

E????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????e ???? ???? ???o? ???? ???, ? ???u, ?????
???? e ??????ue ????, ??? ?a?o ??? e y??eyi ???? ??u a ??e ????. A?th??
a ?ay ???? ???? ??????e e ?iy??? ?i???, ????? ??? a ????o ???eyo, ????o,
????yo.

I??i ?????i ?????? ???ey y?yth?y ???? ?????e ???y ??a, ? ?? ???????ue
??????? ????i??e, ?iy??? ???? e ?eth???? a ???? ??a a ???e e a ??a,
????? ????ey ???? ?? e i????a ????a e ?i.

I????y? ?y?????-??ey???i ???ey y?yth?y: ???ay ????? ????, ??i? ?????ue a
???????e ?y????e, ?iy?? ?ith ?????th ???th, ????? ????ue ??a ???;
y?????? ????a, ???a a ???? ???eyo, ?eth/?? a ?????i-?????oth ?y????ue.

N??? ???? ?? ????? e ???? ??? ????? ?? ??a a ?i?o ???, ???y?ae ??????
???a. I????i ???? ????o ?????-??????o ?????: ???o ??? ??? – i?? ???
?????y, ???o ??????, ??????? ??/ – ????? a ?? ??a?y.

I????a ??iy ???????? ???uo ?????e ????a ??? ?? oe???????i e ??????i e
?????y a ??? ?????a ???? ?????y. ??????e ??? ???ey ??? ?? ??????? ?y
???i ???? a ?? ????u ?e ???????u, ????th?a aei????e ? ???ue ???????oe
?????e. I??a ??iy ???????? ????? ?????e ??o ?????y a ???o ????e ?????,
?? ?????? ?????-??????a ????u ??????? n ??? ????e ???????i? ???a, ? ?
??i ????? ? ?????e ?????e ????? ???.

I?? ??? ????u ???ey ??? ??iy ???????? ???? ?????e i??? ??? ???? ????eth
i ?i, e??i ??iy ? ??? ? ?? ??????y ?i???eyi, ? ?? ??????oth ????o ???e
???????? ?????e. O?? ????u, ????? ? ??? ???yo ???ey, ??o ??? ??y?oth
??e? ????? ???????? ????? ???i ????, ???? ?i ???? ?i ?????ey.

Oe?????? ????ue ????ey ???-?n??????? ??o ?????, ??????a ???o, ???o,
?????? ?? a ????? ???iy???e ??? ????a.

I? ??????? ????o ???a ????? ???????ue ??? n????? ??ath??y e ?????
?y????e, ? a????e ??e ??e ???y ??o ??/, ?y??? n ???????ueth ????? ?????o
??? e ?????i ????y?o ?????a ????????i ????y.

I??i ??????? ??? ??? ??????ny ????a e ??????: ?oe?????a ????? ??o ??
??a; ??????a ????? ????a, ????, ????o, ????????o ??o; y????a ??? ????,
??iy?? ? ????a, ??????? e ??????e [6].

I?????y ?y????ue ????a a ?i??a ?????ey ???? ?????e – ?? ? ???? ???e
?????, ?????oth??y ??????i ????? ????? e ???????? ?????.

O????a ?? ?????a, ???e (a ?i ??a ? ???o ???) a ?eyo ????e ???ey ??????o
??? (???? ?? ?????ue ???ue ???????ue ?????e, ???, ???), ?????ey i??
?y????e, a ?i ??a a ????uo ???yo (?e ???? ??ey, ????a ???e ???, ??????e
????o ????a ???y, ??????i ???? ?????o ?????e) [11, n. 6].

O?????a ???? ?????e ???y ??a ???? ?e ???? ??????e ??????? ???a ? ???ey:
???a, ae??? ??, n???y???y ???, ??i?????, ???a ??? a ???i ????.

A???i ???? ????i ???e ??i?????e ?????o ???? ?????e ?e?ey ??a:

1) A??? ???ue ???????? ?????o ?????e y?y?ny ?????i ?????i e ???e ?y
?????i ????ey e ????ey ?????o ?????e.

2) I?????e ???ue ??oth?y ???ueth, ? ???? ???ey ?????o ?????e – ???e
???ue.

3) O????e ???ue – ???e ????? ???????? ?????o ?????e.

O??e ???????? ?????o ?????e ?????ath?y ???ey? ?y????e. O? ????i ????
??iy y?y?ny ????o??y ?y????ue ? ????o ????o, ??ath?yny ? ????a e
???????a ???????? ????. E???? ??????i ??iy – ????-????y ?y????ue,
i????ath?y ????? ???????? ???? ?e ???a ???????? ???. Aeey ?????i ??iy
????i ????o ????y ???, ?e y?i ????? i??a ???? ?e ???????? ??? e ???
????o ????a ???????? ????.

Aeay????ue, ?ny?y ??????? ????, ???th?y ?i, ?i ?e ? ????? ???? ???th?y
????? ????ey?, a ???o ???u: ?? ?a?u, ?y??ey, ???? e ??? ????ey ??????
??, ??y?e ?????.

Aeay????ue, ?ny?y ????-????e ??e??, ???th?y ?i, ?i ?e ? ????? ???? ?
???th?y ????? ????ey?, ? ? ?i ??y?e ????ey ?????o ????, e ??otho ? ????a
???iy???? ???a ???a e ???a ????ey ???? a ??????e e ????? ?????.

Aeay????ue, ?ny?y ????e ????, ???????y ?i, ?i ???? ??? ??? ??th ?y ?o
????, ??ay? ? ?ath??y o ?o ??????a ??ey. I???a ?????e ???y ??a ??? ??
?????? ? ?? ?? ??iyo ????y ?????y?.

I???? ???ue ???????? ???? ?????e ???? ??a ??i ?????a?? a ???? ???????
?y???n? – ? ??a ??a.

E???e ??? ???????? ???? ?????e ???y ??a:

1) ???? ????ue ?? ??a ? i??a ????a ????e e ????????;

2) ???? ???????ue e ???????? ? ?i??? e ??? ???e ????;

3) ???? ????e ???y? ??? ????i ???ey e ????ey;

4) ???? ?????? ???oth ?y? n ????y;

5) ???? ???????ue ???e ???ue ????ey ????o ???a e ???a i???? ???ey e
????ey;

6) ???? ???ey? ?? ??a e ae???? ?;

7) ???? ???? ??e ??a;

8) ???? ????ue ??? ????i ???ey e ????ey a ?????? n ??????e ?ey? e ????;

9) ???? ???ue ???y ?y ????ie ????? ???ny;

10) ???? ?????? ??????? ???ny ??o ??e;

11) ???? ??????ue ?? ??a e ???e ? ? ???ny;

12) ???? ??????? ???ny n ???th ??y?? ???a ???ey ??o, ??o ??????? ??i??e,
???? ?????y;

13) ???? ???? ???ny a ???? ??? ?? e ????y? ? ? ? ????? ????;

14) ???? ????ue ?? ????i ?o??y e ????ey ? ????th, ?e e ????? ???ny, ?e e
e ?????o ???o;

15) ???? ????i ???? ???e i???e, ????ey? ???a e ??????a ??????;

16) ???? ???? ??a ???y ??a????o ??/ a ???e ??a;

17) ???? ????i ???ue ??? e ???ny;

18) ???? ???y? ???e?? ??? ? ???eth o ???ny ???? e ????;

20) ???? ???e ? ???a ???th ??? e ???u ? ???y;

21) ???? ????ue ???a e ???? ????? ?y????e ???ny;

22) ???? ??????ue ???th ????o ? ??o, ???ue ???? e ???a ????u;

23) ???? ?????ue o ???ny ?th??a ?????e;

24) ???? ?????ue o ???ny ??i?a ?????e;

25) ???? ?????? ???????th ?a???oth ??? ? ??o.

CAEETH*AIEA

Ia ???y?? ?? a ????? ???a ?????y ????yo ?????? ????y, ?iyth?y ???????a
???????a ????u. I???i I?????a ?????y e ??e ?????e O???? o????u ?????a
???????a ???????a ????u ??a? ????????i ?????y ???? ????y, ??????a ? ???
????????i ???a. O?? ????i ?????e ???????e ???????e ???? ????? ??? ?????y
e ??ay?y e ?????th ?????e ???????e ???? ??? e ???? (???i) ?????y ???i
????y.

A ?????o ???yo ??i ? ??a?? ?????a ????ey ????ey ????iey y?y?ny ?????ey e
???? ????i ?????y. Ia ????e ?????? ??ae?????i ???????? ????a ???i
????????i ?????y ???? ????y, ??o ???? ???? ??a, ???a ??? ??o ????y? a
??ue ???? ??? ?????y ???i ????y. Y? ?a??? ??? ????ue a ??e ????y??ie
???a, ? ?????e ???????? ???????e ???? ????? ?u?i ?????y ? ????? ? ???
e???????? ???a. A???? ???: ??? ? ???? ????i-y??????i ?????y ? ???th
th?????ey ????a? ???? ??? ?????y ???i ????y? E???, a ?? ????? ??i ???
y????, ?e ?????u n ??ii ??????, ?????? e y??????o ?????? ???a ?????e
O????. I? ????? ? ????a ???? ??ci??y, ???? ? ????? ?????y ?e ??????oth?e
????o. N?ayo ??? ??e ???n ???ey ???? ?e ?? e ??e ?????y. A ????? ??i??u
??a ???u e ??????eth e ??? ???????o ?????a. I??a ??eue??a ? ????e ??????
???????? ???????? ????a ???i ????????i ?????y ????ny a e???????e ???
?????, ?????e ???????e ???? ????? ??? ???a?ey ???i ????y ???ai????i ???
? ????. N????? ???? ?????a ??? ?????ny ? ? ?????? ?????e ???? ?? e ???
???a, a ? ???? ??????e a ???? ??? ??a. N???i ??? ????????i ???a e
????eth ne??u ?????y a ??a ??? ???? ???o ??y? ?th??i ?????yi, e??? e ???
?????ue ?????????y ??a. N???o ??? ?????y ? ?a?????? ?th??o ?????e, ???
???i???? ???a ?????? ??iaa?y e ?????i ???ey ???????o ????. *?? ????
????i-y??????i ?????y ? ???th th?????ey ?? ??o? ?????ue y? ????ey ?????:

1) O???? ????? e ???? y????????e e ????e ?y??i?? ? ??? ??a;

2) N???ue ???u a ????o e ?o???yo ???????e ?y????e ? ??o a ???o ?????ey
?????o ???? ???iy???e ?y????e ???ny;

3) I????ue a ???o ???o ????n? ??? ???????o ????, ? a?ue ??????;

4) O???? ??y ? ???iy???th ?a?o ? ??o: ??????a, ???????, ye???????th
?y????ue;

5) I????ue ????? ??????? e ???????o ????? ? ??? ??a;

6) Ae???????ue ???n ???ey ??o ??i ???ey ?????o ???????o ????, ???????o ?
????a ?????u ??ath??y – ? ????? ???ny, ? ???ny n ??????e ?????y?;

7) O??? ????i-????????ue ????ey ??? ??a, ???oth?o ????????ue e ???oth
????;

8) O???? ????? ?????? ?iy?e, a ?i ??a ???a ???? ??/;

9) A???a ??????? ?iy?e ? ?e????o ???eth ????o ???? ???;

10) N???a ? ??? ??a ??e???? ????, a ???o ????th?y ?e??a ???? ???? ????;

11) E?????? ??????o ????? ?? ??? ? ??o, a ?i ??a ?????? y????;

12) N???a a ??a ???? ?????e?? ??u, ?????th?e ??o? a a???? ??? e ??,
????th?o ????y a ??a, ???? e ?y????ue ???a??o ?????e.

A ????e ??? ????? ?? ?????ey – ???????? ???a ????i ?????y, ????? ?????y
?????? ????i ?????y ?e ???? e ?????i ???????i ???????i ????? ???i
????????i ?????y ???? ????y, ??????i ? ??? ????????i ???a, ???? ?????a
?????e ???y ??a e ????? ??a?e ??? ??iy ???????? ???? ?????e ????.

Ae????u ??? ?????ey:

– ???????? ???? e ??? ?a??? ?????y;

– ???????? ????th?a ??????e ???a ????i ?????y;

– ???a ??y ??e????a ??a?????? ???a a ?????e;

– ????? ?????a ?????e ???ai ???y ??a;

– ?????? ???? ??? ??iy ???????? ???? ?????e ????.

AEAEEIA?AOEss

I??o??-???? ??

1. E????ey ?i???? O???? 12 ???y 1993 ?? (n ??? ????, ????o ???? ?????e
O???? i ????o e E????? ?????e O???? ? 30 ???y 2008 a. N 6-OEC e ? 30
???y 2008 a. N 7-OEC) // N???a ???????? ?O. – 26.01.2009. –

? 4. – No. 445.

2. O????? ??i “I ??? e ??a????i ???????? ?????e” ? 22???a1996?? N125-OC
(a ?ae. ? 27.12.2009 N 374-OC) // N???a ???????? ?O. – 26.08.1996. – ?
35. – No. 4135; ?????y ???. – 29 ???y 2009. – ? 252.

3. O????? ??i “Ia ?????e” ? 10.07.1992 ? 3266-1 (a ?ae. ? 17.12.2009 N
313-OC) // ?????y ?c?a. – 31 ethey 1992. – ? 172;

29 ???y 2009. – ? 252.

4. ????y??a I?????? ?O ? 29.12.2001 N 1756-? “I E???? ??????e ?????i
?????y ? ??? ? 2010 ??” // N???a ???????? ?O. – 07.01.2002. – ? 1 (/.
II). – No. 119.

5. I??c I????? ?O ? 22.12.2009 N 788 “Ia o????? e ???? a ???? ??????
???????? ???????? ????a ???i ????????i ?????y ? ?i???eth ????? 050100
I??????a ?????a (?????ey (???ue) “????”)” // Ath???ue ?????o ??a ?????o
???a ??????? ???. – 22.03.2010. – ? 12.

6. I??c Ie????e ?O ? 14.01.2010 N 35 “Ia ?????e e ???? a ???? ??????i
???????? ???????? ????a ???i ????????i ?????y ? ?i???eth ????? 050100
I??????a ?????a (?????ey (???ue) “??no?”)” // Ath?a?? ?????o ??a ?????o
???a ??????? ???. – 05.04.2010. – ? 14.

7. I??c I????? ?O ? 06.10.2009 N 373 “Ia o????? e ???? a ???? ??????
???????? ???????? ????a ?/???i ??? ?????y” // Ath???ue ?????? ??a ?????o
???a ??????ie ???. – 22.03.2010. – ?12.

E????a

8. A??i? A.I. I???u ????a?y ?????e ??? ????? ? ??? ?????e, ???ey??
?????e ????? AOCa / A.I. A???a, N.A. I???? // I?? e ?????a. – 2008. – ?
2. – N. 48-53.

9. A??e?i ?.I. I?? ????u ???ey ?i??????? ?????y. / ?.I. A????, E. E
A???a, A.A. E??a – O?, 2008. – 131 n.

10. A????ueyi I.A. Oe???ue i????ey a ?????oth??y ???? / I.A. A????yi //
I????a.- 2008. – ? 5 .- N. 3-9.

11. A???a I.O. I????? ????y ????????i ???a a ??????th ???o ??a?????
?????y / I.O. A??? // I?????? XXI ?e. – 2007. – ? 1.- N. 3-9.

12. A????e I. E??????y ??????oue / I. A????e // I???a ?????a. – 2009. –
? 4.- N. 139-144.

13. Aiy??e A.A. I????a ????? ?????e ?????a ??a / A.A. Aiy??e, N.I.
E???oe // A??a ?????a ???y. -2007. – ? 11. – N. 31-35.

14. A?eethe E.I. E ???? ?????ey ?th/?? ???????e a ???? ???ey / E.I.
A??the // I?? e ?????a. – 2008. – ? 5.-N. 31-46.

15. A?th?? TH.TH. E???????e ??? a ???? e ???a??e ??a: ??ae ?e?????i ???a
/ TH.TH. A?th??, A.E. I??? // I?? e ?????a. – 2008. – ? 7.- N. 97-104.

16. A????e A. Io ??????? ???y – e ???????? ???? ????? / A. A????e //
I???a ?????a. – 2009. – ? 4.-N. 209-212.

17. A?y?i?a I.A. I???????a ?????e ?o???? ?????o ???????o ????? / I.A.
A?y??? // N????-?????? ??ey. – 2009. – ? 3.- 159-165.

18. Ae?y??a N.A. E?? ??? ?? ?????a ?????a / N.A. Ae?y??a, A.E. E??a //
N????-?????? ??ey.- 2006. – ? 5. – N .64-77.

19. A????ay N. E???????e ??? ?e ????? ???o ???? / N. A????ay // I???a
?????a. – 2008. – ? 6. – N. 191-197.

20. A??? Ae. I??a e ?? ??o ???????? ???? / Ae. A??? // I???a ?????a. –
2008. – ? 7. – N. 181-187.

21. A????a I.A. E???????y ??? ????? ????a a ???yo ?????? ????????i
?????y / I.A. A????a // I??? e?????y a ?????e. – 2008. – ? 1. – N.
26-27.

22. E??a Ae.A. E????? e ???????? ??? a ?????i ?????e / Ae.A. E??a //
C??. – 2008. – ? 1. – N. 4-25.

23. E??aa A.I. E???????e ??? ?e ??e ??yae ? ???? ????? a??? ?????y /
A.I. E??? // I?? e ?????a. – 2007. – ? 10. – N. 36-43.

24. E?yc?a I.Ae. E??????ue, ?????y, ?????y – ???? ?????y ?????o e?????e
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25. E??a?/ I.E. I???????y ????? th?n?: ???????? ??? e ???y ??? ??????? /
I.E. E????, A.E. I??? // I?? e i?????. – 2008. – ? 10.- N. 65-71.

26. E??a O.A. E?????ey ???????i-????? ?????e ????? ??????y / O.A. En??
// I????a. – 2006. – ? 9.- N .55-60.

27. E?????a A.I. I????a / A.I. E?????a. – I.: A??n, 2003. – 351 n.

28. E??? TH. I?????y ?????y e ???? ??? / TH. E??? // I???a ?????a.-
2006. – ? 1. -N. 19-20.

29. E???a E.A. O?????a ???? ???? a ??? ?????y ?????? ???? a ???e / E.A.
E???a, I.A. I???a, A.A. O????i ?ae ?u. ?ae. A.A. O?????.- O?: AAANO,
2005 – 232 n.

30. E?a?a I.A. E???????e ??? a ?????e / I.A. E??? // O???a ?????.- 2004.
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31. E?e?i E.I. TH????ay ?????: ???e / E.I. E???. – I.: I??, 2008. – 432
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32. I???i I.I. I?????a?? ???u ????? ????u ???????? ??? a????a ??? ??u /
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33. I???i I.I. O?????a ???y ?????a??o ?????e ????? ??ae ??u / I.I.
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34. I?????y ??????y e ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???e / ?ae ?u. ??. A.A.
O?????: ?o. ????a O????i A.A., I???a I.A., E??oe? E.A., E????a A.?.– O?:
AAIO, 2007. – 284 n.

35. I???a N.A. I???a ?????ey ??a a ??a / N.A. I???a. – I.: I?? ???e,
2002.- 219 n.

36. I??i?a I.I. E???? ???? ?????y / I.I. I???? // I?? e ?????a. – 2006.
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37. I????y E.N. I???a ???u e ???? ?????ey e ???ey ??o a ?????e
?????????e ??a / E.N. I????y // I?? e ?????a. – 2008. – ? 7.- N.
104-112.

38. I???n?y E.I. E???????e ??? e ?????eth ????ey ??? ?????y / E.I.
I????ay // I?? e ?????a. – 2006. – ? 4.- N. 120-129.

39. I?oe?a A.A. O??y e ???? ???ey ??o / A.A. I???. -. I.: A??n, 2003. –
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40. I????a. O??? ???a ?y ?o??? ??????? ??a e ?????n?o ????e / I? ?ae.
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41. N???ay O.I. N????-??????? ?????e ????y ???? ?????? ?????y / O.I.
Ne???y // A??? ?????? ??. – 2005. – ? 14.- N. 216-217.

42. N??a?i A.A. I????a / ?o. ????a A.A. N????, E.O. E??, A.E. I???, A.I.
Oey?a A.I. – I.: O??-??n, 2000. -511 n.

43. N??a?i A.A. I????? ?e ???????e ???i / A.A. N???? // I??????a ?????a
e ??a.- 2005. – ? 16.- N. 4-14.

44. N??oe?a I.A. E??????? ??? e ?a???e ??? ???? a ???? ????? / I.A.
N???? // A??? O?????a ?????e ?a??e ?????y. – 2009. – ? 1. – N. 153-154.

45. Oa?a A.A. E???????e ??? a ???? ????? th??? / A.A. O?? // I??? ???iu
?????? ??????. – 2008. – ? 6.- N. 59-64.

46. O?th??i E.E. TH????ay ????? – ?????e ????o ???????i? ?????y ????a /
E. E O?th??i // I?? e ??????. – 2008. – ? 10. – N. 75-77.

47. O??e I.A. E???????e ??? a ?????i ???????? ?????e / I.A. O??e // I??
e ?????a. – 2006. – ? 6. – N. 90-98.

48. Y?eth?y i?????e e ???? ???? ???e. ??????a ?????e e ?ey?a ?????? ???a
/ I?. ?ae. E?a?a A.I., I???a A.A.: I?AO ??e ss???a I???. *. 1. ???y-C??:
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Y????? ???u

49. I??o I??? I????ee ???e ? ?????e e ???? a ???? ?????? ????????
??????i?i ????a ???i ????????i ?????y ? ?????th ????? 030900 TH?????ey
(?????ey (???ue) “????”) “) [Y????? ???]: N?o I?????a ?????y e ??e ?O. –
??? ???a: WWW. URL: http://mon.gov.ru/dok/npa/mon/6160/. – 25.03.2010. –
C?e. n y??a.

50. I??o I??? I????? ???e ? ?????e e ???? a ?e??a ?????? ????????
???????? ?a??? ???i ????????i ?????y ? ?????th ????? 030900 TH?????ey
(?????ey (???ue) “????”) [Y????? ???]: N?o I?????a ?????y e ??e ?O. –
?a?i ae???: WWW. URL: http://mon.gov.ru/dok/npa/mon/6161/. – 25.03.2010.
– C?e. n y??a

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