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История создания частных детективных агентств в мире

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Enoi?ey nicaeaiey /anoiuo aeaoaeoeaiuo aaaionoa a ie?a

*anoiua aeaoaeoeaiua aaaionoaa (neoaeau, oe?iu aaciianiinoe), aoiaeyuea
a no?oeoo?o iieeoeaeneeo nenoai iiiaeo yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo
ainoaea?noa, eiatho aeiaieueii aeieaoth enoi?eth.

Ia?aia aaaionoai iiaeiaiiai ?iaea aicieeei ai O?aioeee. Iii auei
i?aaieciaaii a 1834 aiaeo ciaiaieoui oaoii Nth?oy Yaeaiii O?ainoa
Aeaeieii, eioi?ue, aueaey a ionoaaeo, ?aoee nicaeaoue naith, /anoioth
iieeoeeth. E aio ia oeeoea Iaa-Naio-THnoao iiyaeeanue aai aeaoaeoeaiay
eiioi?a “Ath?i ?anneaaeiaaiee a eioa?anao oi?aiaee”. Caaea/ae iiaie
i?aaiecaoeee auea caueoa i?aaei?eieiaoaeae io eiiia?/aneeo i?anooieaiee
– ceinoiuo aaie?ionoa. Ca iaaieueooth aaiiaiaioioth ieaoo – 20 o?aieia a
aiae – ath?i a?aeinue iinoaaeyoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi naaaeaiey i
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe oao eee eiuo aeaeueoeia e aeaaeaeueoeaa iaaaceiia.

Nicaeaiiia Aeaeieii nuneiia ath?i i?eoeinue eae iaeuecy enoaoe, o.e.
aneaae i?ienoiaeeaoaio a yoe aiaeu i?iiuoeaiiiio iiaeuaio iuoiui oeaaoii
?anoeaaei eiiia?/aneia iioaiie/anoai. “ss inaiaiaeee Ia?eae io ai?ia,
oaia?ue inaiaiaeo oi?aiaeth io iioaiieeia”, – aeaeea?e?iaae Aeaeie a
eioa?aueth ia?eaeneei aacaoai. Oaea /a?ac aiae /enei aaiiaiaioia ath?i
aeinoeaei 4 ouny/. Eie auee eiiia?naiou, aaiee?u, i?iiuoeaiieee. Ii
“iiiooii” ath?i caiyeinue auiieiaieai ii?o/aiee, iaei naycaiiuo n
onoaiiaeaieai e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe: oi iii eneaei ai?ia, eioi?uo auea
aanneeueia ?acuneaoue iieeoeey, oi iaaethaeaei ca iiaaaeaieai /ueae-eeai
aeaiu, iiaeic?aaaaiie a noi?oaeaneie iaaa?iinoe. Aeey auiieiaiey
“nae?aoiuo” e “uaeioeeauo” ii?o/aiee Aeaeie nicaeae oeaeoth naoue
inaaaeiieoaeae, eioi?ua iiaeaecaeenue a ieienoa?noaao, aaieao, a a?iee,
iaaeno?aoao e aeaaea i?e aeai?a.

Aeaei yoi ieacaeinue aanueia aeioiaeiui. Ioaeaeaiey ath?i aicieeee a
i?iaeioeee e ca ?oaaaeii. Aeioiaeu nuneiiai ath?i Aeaeiea a oi a?aiy
en/eneyeenue ieeeeiiaie o?aieia a aiae.

Iiiyoii, /oi i?aaei?eei/eaua ethaee, iiaeiaiua Aeaeieo, ia iiaee ia
iineaaeiaaoue aai i?eia?o. *anoiua nuneiua ath?i e eiioi?u noaee
aicieeaoue ai iiiaeo ainoaea?noaao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Ii iniaaiii
aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea /anoiue nune iieo/ee a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao.
Caeanue /anoiua aeaoaeoeaiua aaaionoaa aicieeee a oio ia?eiae, eiaaea a
no?aia aua ia noi?ie?iaaeanue nenoaia iieeoeaeneeo i?aaiia, a /anoiinoe,
ionoonoaiaaee iieeoeaeneea neoaeau ai?iaeia, a oaeaea oaaea?aeueiay
iieeoeey. Aicieeoea ia yoii oiia nuneiua aaaionoaa caieiaeenue ii
ii?o/aieth /anoiuo eeoe ?ane?uoeai ?acee/iuo oaieiaiuo i?anooieaiee,
auiieiyee ii?o/aiey ioaeaeueiuo a?aaeaeai ii ?icuneo aauae e o.ae.

Ia?aia aia?eeaineia /anoiia nuneiia aaaionoai auei ioe?uoi a *eeaai a
1850 aiaeo, a a 1892 aiaeo eo caeanue ian/eouaaeinue oaea iyoiaaeoeaoue.
E 1929 aiaeo a NOA aeaenoaiaaei ieiei ouny/e aeaoaeoeaiuo aaaionoa,
eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo ?aniieaaaei aieueoie ia?eoa?eeiie naoueth.

Eaeay i?aaiecaoeee a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao Aia?eee /anoiiai nunea
i?eiaaeeaaeaea Aeeaio Iaoo Ieiea?oiio. Eiaiii ii ioe?ue ia?aia a NOA
/anoiia aeaoaeoeaiia aaaionoai, yiaeaiie eioi?iai noaei ecia?aaeaiea
oe?iei ioe?uoiai aeaca, a aeaaecii – au?aaeaiea “iu ieeiaaea ia niei”.
Yoi aaaionoai a na?aaeeia XIX aaea i?ineaaeeinue ia oieueei ia
oa??eoi?ee iaaeaeo Aoeaioe/aneei e Oeoei ieaaiaie, ii aeinoeaei ie?iaie
neaau. A aeacao aa?iiaeoeaa iii noaei neiiieiii aia?eeaineie oaieiaiie
iieeoeee.

*anoiia aeaoaeoeaiia aaaionoai, iniiaaiiia Ieiea?oiiii e oianeaaeiaaiiia
aai nuiiaueyie, i?ioeaaoaao e iiiuia. Naaiaeiy “Iaoeeiiaeueiia nuneiia
aaaionoai Ieiea?oiia” (“Ieiea?oiia iyeoie aeaoaeoea ye-aeaeaine”) –
iaeii ec e?oiiaeoeo a ie?a. Iii eiaao oeeeaeu a 48 ai?iaeao NOA e
Eaiaaeu.

Iaeaieueoaai ?anoeaaoa /anoiua aeaoaeoeaiua e io?aiiua aaaionoaa
aeinoeaee iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Yoi iaoneiaeaii ianeieueeeie
i?e/eiaie, a oii /enea yeiiiie/aneeie oneiaeyie a ?acaeouo ainoaea?noaao
e naycaiiiai n ieie oneeaiey i?iiuoeaiiiai oieiiaaea, iai?a?uaiui ?inoii
i?anooiiinoe, iaoaaoeie nee e n?aaenoa o iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee. Oiaaea
aea neiaeeeinue e ?acaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo e /anoiuo
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo ooieoeee: iieeoeaeneea i?aaiu caieiathony, a
iniiaiii, i?aaiia?ooaieyie, iiiaaeathueie a aaeeioth ainoaea?noaaiioth
io/aoiinoue. Noa?a /anoiuo aaaionoa – io?aia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe
(oe?i, i?aaei?eyoee, aaieianeeo e no?aoiauo eiiiaiee, oneoae ii nai?o e
i?aaenoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee /anoiiai oa?aeoa?a).

Iaeiie ec nouanoaaiiuo i?e/ei ?acaeoey /anoiuo aaaionoa ca ?oaaaeii
naaiaeiy yaeyaony iaaeaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia?auaoueny a
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua i?aaiu. 70% aia?eeaineeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
i?aaeii/eoatho oneoaai ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee /anoiia ?anneaaeiaaiea,
iineieueeo iianathony ca ?aiooaoeeth oe?iu e ooa/eo eiiia?/aneie
eioi?iaoeee. Iniiaiua caaea/e eiiia?/aneeo neoaea aaciianiinoe
nin?aaeioi/aiu eiaiii ia i?aaeioa?auaiee e i?ana/aiee ooa/ee
i?iiuoeaiii-eiiia?/aneie eioi?iaoeee, eiuo neoaeaaiuo i?anooieaiee.
Iauea eioa?anu nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe i?e yoii a
eaeie-oi noaiaie i?eiinyony a aea?oao eioa?anai nio?aiaiey ?aiooaoeee
oe?iu: caneoaeeaathuaai th?eaee/aneiai i?aneaaeiaaiey aeiiaieea iau/ii
i?inoi oaieueiytho. Aeey naaiaeiyoiae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oa?aeoa?ai
cia/eoaeueiue ?ino /eneaiiinoe /anoiuo nuneiuo aaaionoa. Oae, a Eaiaaea,
iiieii oeaeie a?iee /anoiuo aeaoaeoeaia-iaeeii/ae, ian/eouaaaony ieiei
aeaoonio /anoiuo oe?i, caieiathueony inaaaeiieoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth. Ai O?aioeee ioeoeeaeueii ca?aaeno?e?iaaii o?enoa
/anoiuo nuneiuo ath?i e nouanoaotho aua nioie “ia?ac?aoaiiuo” nuneiuo
eiioi?, eiaioaiuo “Neoaeaie iaaethaeaiey”, “Ath?i ii iaaeci?o” e o. ae.
Iniaaiii aaeeei /enei /anoiuo aeaoaeoeaiuo neoaea a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao.
Caeanue ian/eouaaaony aieaa 3500 nuneiuo aaaionoa, ath?i e eiiiaiee. A
iaeiii eeoue Iueth-Ei?ea eiaaony 713 ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo /anoiuo
aeaoaeoeaiuo aaaionoa e a aeaa ?aca aieueoa iaca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo.

Iaeaieueoee ?aciao a noa?a /anoiiai nunea i?eia?aea aeayoaeueiinoue
e?oiiuo nuneiuo aaaionoa. A NOA yoi, i?aaeaea anaai, /anoiua
aeaoaeoeaiua aaaionoaa Ieiea?oiia, Ay?ina, Oieaioaoa e Eeaeaea – oae
iacuaaaiay “Aieueoay /aoaa?ea”, ia aeieth eioi?uo i?eoiaeeony
i?eaeeceoaeueii iieiaeia iauaai aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa anao nuneiuo oe?i e
eiioi? no?aiu. Oae, iai?eia?, nuneiay ei?ii?aoeey “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
aeaoaeoeaiia aaaionoai Ay?ina” niaea?aeeo 15 ouny/ ieaoiuo
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo nio?oaeieeia, niaoeeaeece?othueony a naiuo
?acee/iuo iaeanoyo, aeeth/ay auneaaeeaaiea e caaea?aeaiea i?anooiieeia,
nai? anaaiciiaeiie eioi?iaoeee, ia?aaioeo aeaiiuo, aooaaeoa?neia aeaei,
yeaeo?iiiua nenoaiu e iaoeo i iiaaaeaiee. Aaaionoai eiaao 50 e?oiiuo
oeeeaeia a Iueth-Ei?ea, Aeao?ieoa. Ein-Aiaeaeaeana, Oi?iioi, ia Aaaaiao,
a Eiiaeiia e iiiaeo ae?oaeo ai?iaeao.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy /anoiua aeaoaeoeaiua aaaionoaa ooieoeeiie?otho eae
iau/iua eiiia?/aneea i?aaei?eyoey, caiyoua naiei aecianii.

Ia ana aeaeu oneoa, ieacuaaaiuo /anoiuie aaaionoaaie, onoaiaaeeaaaony
ii?aaeaeaiiay oaena, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay 3-4 o?iaiy ?anoeaiie a
caaeneiinoe io neiaeiinoe caaeaiey, eiie?aoiiai iauaia ?aaiou e
eaaeeoeeaoeee nio?oaeieeia aaaionoaa.

Nuneiua aaaionoaa ia?aaeatho eeeaioo ana auaiaeu i i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaioa a
oi?ia eiioeaeaioeeaeueiiai io/aoa.

Enoi?ey ia?oaeiiai iaaethaeaiey “io?aiiuo ioaeaeaiee” oea?neie ?innee

N 1880 aiaea a Iaoa?ao?aa e Iineaa noaee aeaenoaiaaoue ioaeaeaiey ii
io?aia ii?yaeea e iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe (io?aiiua ioaeaeaiey), a
eioi?uo eiaeanue niaoeeaeueiay nae?aoiay aaaioo?a.

Io?aiiua ioaeaeaiey a ?innee auyaeyee ?aaiethoeeiiiua i?aaiecaoeee, a
oaeaea iuoaeenue i?ana/ue aioiayueany eie aunooieaiey: oaeenoaa,
yeni?ii?eaoeee, aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth aaeoaoeeth.

A aeoea io?aiiuo ioaeaeaiee aoiaeeee aaaiou, oeea?u e nae?aoiua
nio?oaeieee. Oeea?u aeaeeeenue ia eaoaai?ee: i?inoie oeea?, ?acuacaeiie
oeea? e caa?aie/iue oeea?. ?aaioa oeea?a auea iaoaie/aneie: neaaeeoue ca
naiei iaaethaeaaiui iauaeoii e aeieeaaeuaaoue “io?aiea” aaeaaeiaaii a
oi?ia ienueiaiiiai ?aii?oa, aaea auaaao aai iiaeiia/iue e /oi aeaeaao.
Anee iaaethaeaaiue a?aeny iiae neaaeeo aia?aua, oeea? aeaaae aio eee/eo.

Inaaaeiieiu iaaethaeaaiuo aia?aua aaiaeeeenue oeea?ii, “e?anoiui
iooeii”. Iau/ii eee/ea aeaaaeanue ii ia?oaeiiio aeaeo iauaeoa, e?aoeay,
ec iaeiiai neiaa, e i?eoii oaeay, /oiau ii iae iiaeii auei noaeeoue,
ioiineony iia e ioae/eia eee e aeaiueia. Eee/ea oa?aeoa?eciaaea
aiaoiinoue iaaethaeaaiiai, aai einothi eee au?aaeaea niaith aia/aoeaiea,
i?iecaiaeeiia aeaiiui eeoeii.

Oeea? aeieaeai aue eae iiaeii iiae?iaiaa caiiiieoue e niiaueoue
“io?aiea” i?eiaou iaaethaeaaiiai, iaia?o oiaeeoue e aea?aeaoue naay,
ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou aai einothia. I?e iieo/aiee i?eeaca i?eiyoue a
iacia/aiiii ioieoa a oaeii-oi /ano iaaethaeaaiia eeoei oeea?o noaaeeanue
caaea/a ia oioneaoue aai ec aeaeo aei oao ii?, iiea ia naeano
iaaethaeaaiiai naiaio niaiueeo. I?e yoii aio i?aaeienuaaeinue aanoe naay
oae, /oiau iaaethaeaaiue ia caiaoee ca niaie neaaeee, a a e?aeia
cao?oaeieoaeueiii iieiaeaiee a?ineoue iaaethaeaiea, /oiau ia auaeaoue
naay.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iaaethaeaiea n/eoaeinue iniai eiinie?aoeaiui,
eiaaea o iaaethaeaaiiai ia aeieaeii auei ca?iaeeoueny e oaie niiiaiey a
naiae “/enoioa”, iaaethaeaiea ca iei iaeiiio oeea?o noaiiaeeinue ia iiae
neeo, e neaaeea aaeanue aeaoiy eee o?aiy oeea?aie ii ia?aeeaeueiui
oeeoeai. I?e yoii iaeei ec ieo neaaeiaae ca iaaethaeaaiui ia oaeii
?annoiyiee, /oi aaeaa aeaeae aai, a aoi?ie e o?aoee oeea?u oee
ia?aeeaeueiuie oeeoeaie. I?e yoii oee iie ia i?inoi, a n oaeei ?an/aoii,
/oiau eo oaae auee ia auno?aa e ia oeoa iaaethaeaaiiai e ia eaaeaeii
ia?ae?anoea iie iiaee aai aeaeaoue ia?aoiaeyuei oeeoeo.

Iiiai eiaeinoe e nii?iaee o?aaiaaeinue io oi?ioaai iaoa?iai oeea?a,
/oiau ia oionoeoue iaaethaeaaiiai. Iiiaea ?aaiethoeeiia?u auee
aeinoaoi/ii eiaee, ciaee oi?ioi Iineao e iiiai oe?iiiuo iano, aaea
iiaeii auei eaaei oeoe io “oainoa”. ?oeiaiaenoai “io?aiee” o?aaiaaei io
oeea?a, /oiau ii ciae iaeconoue ana aeiia a Iineaa, aaea anoue
i?ioiaeiua aeai?u. Iiaeoiaey e oaeiio aeiio, oeea? iiaeoyaeaaeny e
iaaethaeaaiiio, aea?aeae aai aeacaie eae ia i?eayce.

I?e ia?aii oaeiaiii neo/aa oeea? caienuaae a naith eieaeeo, eoaea
caoiaeee iaaethaeaaiue, neieueei oai i?iaue, a eioi?ii /ano auoae e
o.ae. Yoo eieaeeo ii aa?aaeii o?aiee e ii caiieiaiee naeaaae
caaaaeothuaio ia?oaeiui iaaethaeaieai. Niiauaiey oeea?a aeieaeiu auee
auoue i?aaeaeueii oi/iu. Io?aiea ethaeea i?aaaeo, noaaeea aa auoa anaai,
e ieioi aeiaiaeeeinue oeea?o, anee ii niiauae eiaeiua naaaeaiey. Anee
iaaethaeaaiue aue eiaie e oneieuecae io neaaeee, oeea? iaycai aue, ia
aiynue iioa?youe ?aiooaoeeth, aeiianoe ia yoii ii neoaeaa.

Onoaiiaea iaaethaeaiea ca iauaeoii, “io?aiea” /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy
iiaeaiaeeea eoia ?aaiou a oae iacuaaaiie naiaeea ia?oaeiiai
iaaethaeaiey, a eiioea eioi?ie eiaeanue ethaiiuoiay aeeaa?aiia,
a?aoe/aneay naiaeea iaaethaeaiey.

Caeanue, eae a ca?eaea, io?aaeaeenue ana nayce e e?oa ciaeiinoa aeaiiiai
eeoea. Onoaiiaea ia?ac aeecie e nayce iaaethaeaaiiai, “io?aiea”
aiaae?yea naieo nae?aoiuo nio?oaeieeia a aai ie?oaeaiea, /oi oaeaaaeinue
ae ii/oe anaaaea e aacaea.

Iaeuecy ia ia?aoeoue aieiaiey aua ia iaeio iaei/ue, oa?aeoa?ecothuoth
yoo i?aaiecaoeeth. Neo/aeinue, oeea?, noiy ia naiai iinoo, aeaeae
auoiaea ioaeiiai eeoea ec aai eaa?oe?u; yoi eeoei – Ieoiue; ii aianoa n
iei auoiaeeee aua o?ia, e ii aeaaae ei eee/ee: A?o, Ianea?ue, Ea?anue.
Yoa ?iaenoaaiiinoue eee/ae ia neo/aeia: oeea?o oaeei ia?acii eaa/a
caiiieiaeenue eee/ee oeaeie a?oiiu eeoe, ca eioi?uie ii aeieaeai aue
neaaeeoue. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio, eeoea, i?eiaaeeaaeauea e iaeiie a?oiia eee
i?ioanneiiaeueiiio nithco, iineee anaaaea ?iaenoaaiiua eee/ee. Oae,
iai?eia?, /eaiu i?ioanneiiaeueiiai nithca aoei/ieeia eiaee eee/ee
AEa?aiue, Ia?aiue, Nooa?ue e o.ae.

Auaaei, /oi aeaaeo?iue oeea? aeaaae eaeoth-ieaoaeue eee/eo eeoeo, oaea
ie?auaiiiio ae?oaei oeea?ii, ii iooaieoeu ec yoiai ioithaeue ia
auoiaeeei: ioaeaeaiea auno?i ?acae?aeinue a naieo aeeaa?aiiao e
onoaiaaeeaaei oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue aeaoo eee/ae, niiauay ia yoii oeea?ai.
Ii aieueoae /anoueth oaeea ioeaee ane?uaaee naie oeea?u i?e ia?aaea/a
acyoiai iiae iaaethaeaiea n ?oe ia ?oee eee ia aa/a?iai iauai nia?aiee
oeea?ia.

Eiiaaea iaiaoiaeeii auei acyoue iaaethaeaaiiai, aaeouaai a Iineao ec
ae?oaiai ai?iaea. E ioooaea oea oneiaiay oaeaa?aiia aac nianoaaiiuo eiai
e iaiaea ia io?aiiia ioaeaeaiea: i?inoi- Iineaa, Aiacaeeeianeee, 5,
Nie?iiao. Yoe oaeaa?aiiu ninoaaeyeenue a oi?ia oi?aiauo ioi?aaeaiee,
i?e/ai caaaaeothueo ?icuneii iacuaaee oicyaaaie, oeea?ia – i?eeac/eeaie,
a iaaethaeaaiuo – oiaa?ii. A Iineaa iieo/aeanue oaeaa?aiia: “Aeaaiaieeoa
i?eiyoue oiaa? eaoeineee aaeai Iao?ia?aaea Iineao ii/oiaui ? 7”. Ii
i?eauoee a Iineao iao?ia?aaeneea oeea?u oaeaa?aoe?iaaee naiaio
ia/aeuenoao a Iao?ia?aae: “Oiaa? eaoeineee naeai iineianeei
i?eeac/eeai”. Anee iaaethaeaaiue ne?uaaeny, oi oaeaa?aoe?iaaee: “Oiaa?
iiaeii/ai”. Anee iaaethaeaaiue aue a?anoiaai, oeea?u neaee ecaauaiea:
“Oiaa? Nie?iue oiaeiaai, oiaeiaea oi?ioa”.

Eaaeaeue oeea? eiae i?e naaa ea?iaiiue aeueaii n oioia?aoeyie ecaanoiuo
?aaiethoeeiia?ia. Yoi auea iaaieueoay eieaeea n eenoeaie ec iieioia, ia
eioi?ua iaeeaaiu ii?o?aou, a iiae ieie e?aoeee ia?a/aiue i?eiao. A
ethaie iiiaio oeea? iia nee/eoue, iioiaea ee iaaethaeaaiia eeoei ia
iaeii ec eiathueony a aai aeueaiia.

E?iia oiai, a “io?aiea” eiaeenue aieueoea en/a?iuaathuea aeueaiiu n
oioia?aoeyie yiea?aioia. A yoeo aeueaiiao auee nieiee, naeaeaiiua i?e
a?anoao, e aeiiaoiea, ec naiaeiiai e?oaa, e oaea ca a?aieoeae. Iiiaaeaee
iie a aeueaiiu ?aciuie iooyie, iieoiaeenue o i?eneoae, aue?aaeuaaeenue e
o.ae. A ?aaeno?aoo?a auee oeaeua oeaou n oioia?aoeyie a?anoiaaiiuo ii
aeoaaeoo, ioaeneea e aeaineea ioaeaeueii. Eaaeaeay oioia?aoey
ioia?iaaeanue, i?e iae a eiiaa?oa o?aieeny iaaaoea, a ia ia?aoiie
noi?iia – aeaeoeeineiie/aneea iooenee iaeueoeaa e ?aciua naaaeaiey.

Nouanoaiaaea iienue iiiaeo iineianeeo aeiiia, iniai iiaeic?eoaeueiuo,
ninoiyueo ia o/aoa. N iaeioi?uo aeiiia nieiaeenue ieaiu e oioia?aoee n
oeacaieai i?ioiaeiuo aeai?ia.

Oeea?ia i?eieiaee ia neoaeao n aieueoei ?acai?ii, i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iaeioi?ua ia?aa?aou eino?oeoeee ia/aeueieeai
ioaeaeaiey ii i?aaiecaoeee ia?oaeiiai iaaethaeaiey.

Oeea? aeieaeai auoue iieeoe/anee, i?aanoaaiii aeaaiiaaeaaeiui, oaa?aeui
a naieo oaaaeaeaieyo, /anoiue, o?acaue, niaeue, eiaeee, ?acaeoie,
niia?aceoaeueiue, auiineeaue, oa?iaeeaue, ianoie/eaue, inoi?iaeiue,
i?aaaeeaue, ioe?iaaiiue, ii ia aieooi, aeenoeeieeie?iaaiiue,
auaea?aeaiiue, oaeea/eaue, na?ueacii e niciaoaeueii ioiinyueeny e aeaeo
e i?eiyoui ia naay iaycaiiinoyi, e?aieiai caei?iauey, a iniaaiiinoe n
e?aieeie iiaaie, n oi?ioei c?aieai, neooii e iaiyoueth, oaeith
aiaoiinoueth, eioi?ay iicaieyea au aio aiciiaeiinoue ia auaeaeyoueny ec
oieiu e ono?aiyea au caiiieiaiea aai iaaethaeaaiui.

Aiiaue iinooiathuaio oeea?o aeieaeii auoue ?acuyniaii, /oi oaeia
ainoaea?noaaiiia i?anooieaiea, /oi oaeia ?aaiethoeeiia?, eae e eaeeie
n?aaenoaaie ?aaiethoeeiiiua aeayoaee aeinoeaatho naieo oeaeae,
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue o/aiee ?aaiethoeeiiiuo ia?oee. Iauyniythony caaea/e
oeea?a – iaaethaeaiea e naycue oeea?a n aioo?aiiae aaaioo?ie,
na?ueaciinoue i?eiyouo ia naay iaycaiiinoae e iaiaoiaeeiinoue aacoi?a/ii
i?aaaeeaiai ioiioaiey e neoaeaa aiiaua, e aeaaaaiui naaaeaieyi a
iniaaiiinoe, a?aae io ooaeee, i?aoaaee/aiey e eiaeiuo iieacaiee. I?e/ai
aio aeieaeii auoue oeacaii, /oi oieueei niaieoiiinoue, aaconeiaii, oi/ii
ia?aaeaaaaiuo naaaeaiee aaaeao e oniaoo iaaethaeaiey, oiaaea eae
eneaaeaiea enoeiu a aeieeaaeao e no?aieaiea ne?uoue iaoaea/e a ?aaioa
iaaiaeyo ia eiaeiue neaae e eeoatho oeea?a aiciiaeiinoe ioee/eoueny.

I?eieiaoue oeea?ia ioaeii n aieueoie inoi?iaeiinoueth; i?e niiiaiee
iiae/ea eniuoaoue, auaea?aeaa aai i?e ioaeaeaiee iaaeaee aeaa aac
ii?o/aiee ii iaaethaeaieth, noa?aynue ca yoi a?aiy eco/eoue aai oa?aeoa?
ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo iauaiey aai n ae?oaeie neoaeaueie. I?e anao
aeinoieinoaao /?acia?iay iaaeiinoue e naiuea eee neaainoue e aeaiueiai –
ea/anoaa, n oeea?neie neoaeaie ianiaianoeiua. Aio aea a ia?aue aeaiue
neoaeau aeieaeii auoue aiooaii: ana, /oi ii neuoae a ioaeaeaiee,
ninoaaeyao neoaeaaioth oaeio e ia iiaeao auoue ecaanoii, eiio au oi ie
auei. Ai a?aiy eniuoaiee iiae/ea ioaeii iinueaoue aeey aeaoaeueiiai
eco/aiey ai?iaea: ociaaaoue i?ioiaeiua aeai?u, o?aeoe?u, ieaiua, naaeu,
neaa?u n eo aoiaeaie, iooiae e i?eoiae iiacaeia, iooe o?aiaaaa, ianoa
noiyiee ecaic/eeia, oaeno eo, o/aaiua e ae?oaea caaaaeaiey, a?aiy
caiyoee, oaa?eee e caaiaeu, ia/aei e ieii/aiea ?aaiou, oi?iu /eiiaieeia
e o/aueony e i?.

Iieo/aiiua a yoie iaeanoe oeea?ii iiciaiey ii aeieaeai i?aaenoaaeyoue
aaeaaeiaaii a ienueiaiiii aeaea caaaaeothuaio iaaethaeaieai aeey
noaeaeaiey i noaiaie i?eaiaeiinoe aai e oeea?neie neoaeaa.

Iaeaaaoueny oeea? aeieaeai, niaeanoynue n oneiaeai neoaeau; iaueiiaaiii
aea oae, eae iaeaaathony a aeaiiie ianoiinoe aeeoaee n?aaeiaai
aeinoaoea, ia auaeaeyynue naiei einothiii aiiaua e ioaeaeueiuie aai
/anoyie (oaeaea aioeiee) ec iauae iannu aeeoaeae.

I?e auoiaea iaaethaeaaiiai oeea? aeieaeai aea?aeaoue naay niieieii, ia
oa?youeny, ia n?uaaoueny n ianoa. Anee iaaethaeaaiue aua ia aeaeae
neaaeyuaai ca iei oeea?a, oi iineaaeiaio eo/oa oe?uoueny, ii anee
iaaethaeaaiue caiaoee, oi eo/oa inoaoueny, ia eciaiyy iieiaeaiey, e
o?iaaoueny eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea iaaethaeaaiue aeaeaei ioieaeao eee
caaa?iao ca oaie.

Ia aeooeo oeeoeao e ia?aoeeao niaa?oaiii iaeuecy niio?aoue a eeoei
iaaethaeaaiiio.

Anee ano?a/a iaaethaeaaiiai n oeea?ii iaecaaaeia, oi ia neaaeoao ie a
eiai neo/aa ano?a/aoueny aci?aie (ia iieacuaaoue naieo aeac), oae eae
aeaca eaa/a anaai caiiieiathony.

A ianoiinoyo, iaaeinooiiuo aeey noiyiee iaoeo oeea?ia, a oaeaea e
iaeaieaa aaaeiui iaaethaeaaiui aeey oniaoiinoe iaaethaeaiey iacia/aaony
eiiiia iaaethaeaiea /a?ac oeea?a, ia?aiaeaoiai ecaic/eeii.

Iiyaeaiea ecaic/eea aia ianoa eo iau/iie noiyiee ia?auaao aieiaiea
aeai?ieeia e noi?iaeae, eioi?ua iaueiiaaiii aiiyo eo, /oiau ia aaaeeee
eioaaee. A yoii neo/aa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue noiyiee ecaic/eea-oeea?a ia
iaeiii ianoa caaeneo io iaoiae/eainoe oeea?a. Ii anaaaea aeieaeai auoue
aioiaui e ioaaoai e auno?i noaaouaaoue oei aeai?ieea. Noaey ii oeio
aeai?ieea, ecaic/ee iaeiiio aiai?eo, /oi iaeeaeaao aeieoi?a, i?eaoaaoaai
e aieueiiio, ae?oaiio ii nae?aoo niiauaao, /oi iaeeaeaao “aa?eia”,
iaoiaeyuaainy o /oaeie aeaiu, e aeey iiacaeie ii yoiio aeaeo anaaaea
aa?ao aai eee aea ?anneacuaaao aanith i?i oaeoth aea aa?uith; o?aoueaio
i?aaeeaaaao oainoeoue “ii-oi?ioaio”, /oiau ia aiae n auaiaeiiai ianoa e
o.i. Ia aii?in ioaeeee ioaa/aao: “Caiyo”.

Iaaethaeaiea ca ianoaie, aaea i?aaeiieaaathony eaai?aoi?ey, oeiia?aoey,
neeaae i?oaeey e o.i., aaaeaony n e?aeiae inoi?iaeiinoueth. A oaeeo
neo/ayo iaoaa iaaethaeaiea aaaeao /anoi e i?iaaeo, a iioiio iaaethaeaoue
ec eaa?oe?u (nieiaaony iai?ioea eee iiaeecinoe) eee noaaeoue eiiiia
iaaethaeaiea, anee anoue aeecei ecaic/ee; ia aieeie oeeoea – ia?aiaeaoui
oi?aiaoeai, iinueueiui, a iiiiuue eioi?ui aeathony iaoea oeea?u.
Iineaaeiea ia noaayony aeecei ieiei iaaethaeaaiiai aeiia, a
caai?aaeeaatho auoiaeu ec oeeoeu e aa?oo iaaethaeaaiuo ii iooe, aaaeoo
eo n aieueoie inoi?iaeiinoueth, inoa?aaaynue iaeaeoaai i?iaaea. I?e
aica?auaiee oaeeo iaaethaeaaiuo aeiiie iaaei eaeoe eae iiaeii aeaeueoa
io iaaethaeaaiuo. Aoiaeeoue ai aeai? eee aeii aeey onoaiiaee eaa?oe?u
iiaeii oieueei a aieeeo aeai?ao e i/aiue aieueoeo aeiiao.

A i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie eiiaiaee?iaea a iaeaiueeeo ai?iaeao oaeiaiaa aeeoue
n naiueae, oae eae iaiueoa oainia ia i?iaae, e, e?iia oiai, i?iaoeee n
aeaiie eee ?aaaieii /anoi iiaoo caianee?iaaoue iaaethaeaiea.

Ienueia ii iaaethaeaieth iinueathony caeaciuie a aeaoo eiiaa?oao n
no?ao/iie ia/aoueth, i?e/ai a aa?oiai eiiaa?oa ia ianoa ia/aoe aeaeaaony
i?i?ac, /oiau no?ao/ i?e caia/aouaaiee i?iiee aei aioo?aiiaai eiiaa?oa e
i?eia/aoae aai e ia?oaeiiio. Ienueia ?aeiiaiaeoaony naeaaaoue ia
aiecaeao eee aea iioneaoue a ii/oiaua yueee iiacaeia”.

Aeieaee iiuo “io?aiee” au?aaaouaae naie i?eaiu, a naia oaoieea eo
auiieiaiey auea eiie ?ac i?inoi aeanoyuae.

Enoi?ey nunea a ?innee

Ia?aie niaoeneoaeaie yaeeny ia ?one i?e oea?a Aeaenaa Ieoaeeiae/a I?eeac
oaeiuo aeae, caieiaaoeeny ?icuneii “eeoeo ethaeae”. A 1555 aiaeo aianoi
noa?ie a?aiaiiie Aiy?neie ecau, “eioi?ie ?acaieiua aeaea i?eeacaiu”,
nicaeaii iinoiyiiia o/?aaeaeaiea – ?acaieiay ecaa. A XVII aaea oaea auee
ecaanoiu iieeoe/aneea i?anooieaiey, au?aaeaaoeany a inei?aeaiee
aa?oiaiie aeanoe e a no?aieaiee e aa oiaeaieth. Yoe i?anooieaiey
?ane?uaaeenue iooai aeiiinia, auaoeo eae au iaycaoaeueiuie.

Ia aeaeao ia?aie iieiaeiu XVII aaea oaea ano?a/athony e?aoeea oeacaiey,
/oi aeii?in oae “i/e ia i/e”, eee “iaeei ia iaeei”. Yoi icia/aao, /oi
oaea e a oa a?aiaia iuoaeenue aanoe iaeioi?ua aeaea ne?uoii, ia
i?aaeaaay eo iaeanea.

Aei Iao?a I a ?innee aiiaua ia auei niaoeeaeueiuo iieeoeaeneeo
o/?aaeaeaiee, eo ?aaioo auiieiyee aiaiiua e noaeaaiua i?aaiu.

Ia/aeii ?onneie iieeoeee iiaeii n/eoaoue 1718 aiae. Eiaiii oiaaea, a
iaa, oea?ue Iao? ecaeae oeac ia o/?aaeaeaiee a noieeoea aeieaeiinoe
aaia?ae-iieeoeiaenoa?a.

A aeaeaa?a 1719 aiaea iiyaeyaony aeieoiaio, ai?yioth aiai?yuee i nunea.
Yoi eino?oeoeey eiiaiaee?ai aa?ieciiiuo io?yaeia, ioi?aaeyaiuo ia iiene
aaaeuo ae?aaoi, nieaeao e iao?inia. Nuneo ai iiiaii niinianoaiaaee
ii?iaoeaiua aeou i “iaoii?oao e i?iacaeeo ienueiao”.

Anee a Aa?iia iieeoeey auea ii naiei ooieoeeyi ia?acaeaeueia, oi a
?innee aicieeaao eae au iaeia aeaeaiea: iiyaeythony i?aaiu iauae
iieeoeee e iieeoe/aneie. Aia?aua a ?innee iieeoe/aneie iieeoeeae yaeeny
i?e Iao?a I I?aia?aaeaineee i?eeac a Iineaa, aicaeaaeyaiue eiycai O.TH.
?iiiaeaiianeei. I?eia?ii a yoi aea a?aiy a Iaoa?ao?aa aeaenoaiaaea
Oaeiay eaioeaey?ey iiae ia/aeii a?aoa I.A. Oienoiai. Iia auea nia/aea
iniiaaia aeey neaaenoaey ii aeaeo oea?aae/a Aeaenay, a iioii caieiaeanue
ae?oaeie aeaeaie.

A ai?ueaa n ianoiyueie e iieiuie a?aaaie Oaeiay eaioeaey?ey ia aaaeaea
onoaee: ethaeae oaaoaee ii iaeaeoaio iiaeic?aieth. Iainoi?iaeii
neacaiiua neiaa a aae?an oea?y eee aai naiuee noieee iiiaei aeecie. Eo
iuoaee, aeee eiooii, aea?aeaee ianyoeaie a eieiaeeao.

Iinea eii/eiu Iao?a I, i?e Aeaoa?eia I e iaeue/eea-oea?a Iao?a II,
no?aiie i?aeoe/anee oi?aaeye Aa?oiaiue oaeiue niaao, eioi?ue e eo?e?iaae
niaoeneoaeau. I?aia?aaeaineee i?eeac eeeaeaee?iaaee a 1729 aiaeo.
“Aa?oiaieee” aicianee ia i?anoie Aiio Eiaiiiaio. Iia ieaii oi?acaeieea
Aa?oiaiue niaao e aeey iieeoe/aneeo aeae ia?aciaaea iniaoth eaioeaey?eth
iiae ia/aeii auaoaai ?oeiaiaeeoaey iao?ianeie Oaeiie eaioeaey?ee
aaia?aea A.E. Ooaeiaa.

Aeai?oeiaua caaiai?u e ai?ueaa ca aeanoue iiaeiyee cia/aiea oaeiie
neoaeau. Eaioeaey?ey oaeiuo ?icuneiuo aeae i?e Aiia Eiaiiiaia e
Aeecaaaoa Iao?iaia naeaeaeanue i/aiue aeeyoaeueiui o/?aaeaeaieai. Ana
i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey aeieaeiu auee iaiaaeey eniieiyoue aa
?anii?yaeaiey, e iae aea ionueaeenue ana iiaeic?aaaaiua e naeaeaoaee.

A 1762 aiaeo eiia?aoi? Iao? III oi?acaeiee Oaeioth eaioeaey?eth.
Neaaenoaaiiuie iieeoe/aneeie aeaeaie noae caieiaoueny Naiao. Ii i?e
Naiaoa ana aea o/?aaeeee Oaeioth yeniaaeeoeeth, eioi?ay e aaaeaea
iieeoe/aneei nuneii. Ai aeaaa aa aue iinoaaeai iaeei ec ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
auaoae eaioeaey?ee N.A. Oaoeianeee.

Aeaoa?eia II ?aoeea naia iiaeaoue nune e iiae/eieea Oaeioth
yeniaaeeoeeth aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?o, a aa iineianeoth eiioi?o –
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o I.N. Naeoueiao.

A 1802 aiaeo aicieeaao Ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae, ?oeiaiaeeaoaa
aeayoaeueiinoueth aoaa?iaoi?ia, aaaeaaoaa ii/oie, i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuie
aeaeaie e i?. A 1811 aiaeo ec iaai auaeaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiia
Ieienoa?noai iieeoeee. Ii iii aua ia auei oeaio?aeeciaaii.
Iieeoeiaenoa?u e oacaeiua eni?aaieee iiae/eiyeenue aoaa?iaoi?ai, eioi?ua
a naith i/a?aaeue ii iaeiei aii?inai eiio?iee?iaaeenue Ieienoa?noaii
aioo?aiieo aeae, ii ae?oaei – Ieienoa?noaii iieeoeee. A 1819 aiaeo
ieienoa?noaa niaaeeiytho.

Eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? I oi?acaeiee Oaeioth yeniaaeeoeeth e cai?aoee
iuoee. A 1805 aiaeo nicaeaaony Iniaue nae?aoiue eiieoao aeey
iieeoe/aneiai nunea, a iaeioi?uo aeieoiaioao – Eiieoao aunoae iieeoeee.
A 1807 aiaeo ii i?aia?acoaony a Eiieoao aeey ?anniio?aiey aeae ii
i?anooieaieyi, ioiinyueiny e ia?ooaieth iauaai niieienoaey. Eiieoao
eeoue ?anniao?eaae aeaea, nune aaea iauay iieeoeey.

Iinea aeaeaa?ueneiai ainnoaiey oeacii io 3 ethey 1826 aiaea nicaeaaony
III Ioaeaeaiea “nianoaaiiie Aai Aaee/anoaa eaioeaey?ee”. Yoi oaea auea
iieeoe/aneay iieeoeey, iiae/eiyaoayny oea?th. Aiia?aoii III Ioaeaeaiey
aue ei?ion aeaiaea?iia, o/?aaeaeaiiue a 1827 aiaeo. Any ?inney
aeaeeeanue ia 7 aeaiaea?ineeo ie?oaia. A 1867 aiaeo auee nicaeaiu
aeaiaea?ineea oi?aaeaiey a eaaeaeie aoaa?iee. III Ioaeaeaiea ouaoaeueii
neaaeeei ca iano?iaieyie a iauanoaa, aai oao, A.O. Aaieaiaei?o, aioiaee
aaeaaiaeiua aeieeaaeu. A iaeiii ec ieo aiai?eeinue, /oi “iauanoaaiiia
iiaiea aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa – yoi ana ?aaii, /oi oiiia?aoe/aneay ea?oa
aeey eiiaiaeiaaiey a?iee a ia?eiae aiaiiuo aeaenoaee”. Oaieiaiue eiaeaen
1845 aiaea onoaiaaeeaae no?iaia iaeacaiea oai, eoi i?eciaaaeny aeiiaiui
“a iaienaiee eee ?ani?ino?aiaiee ?oeiieniuo eee ia/aoiuo ?aaio eee
cayaeaiee, oeaeueth eioi?uo yaeyaony aicaoaeaeaiea iaoaaaeaiey e
aea?aeaaiie aeanoe eee ee/iui ea/anoaai Naiiaea?aeoea eee aai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa”. Ii ec ii/oe o?aonio ouny/ inoaeaeaiiuo ia nnueeo a
Neae?ue eee ia eni?aaeoaeueiua ?aaiou n 1823 ii 1861 aiae eeoue 5%
i?eciaiu aeiiaiuie a iieeoe/aneeo i?anooieaieyo, a iniiaiii yoi auee
iieueneea iianoaioeu.

Aoi?ay iieiaeia XIX aaea – yoi ia/aei oa??i?ecia a ?innee. *eaiai
iaeaaaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee “Ia?iaeiay aiey” oaeaeinue niaa?oeoue
ianeieueei iieooaiee. I?aaeoaeuenoai iin/eoaei, /oi III Ioaeaeaiea ia
ni?aaeyaony ni naieie iaycaiiinoyie, e a 1880 aiaeo aai oi?acaeieee.
Iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai aeaiaea?ineei ei?ionii aiceaaaeinue ia ieieno?a
aioo?aiieo aeae. A nenoaia ieienoa?noaa noae ?aaioaoue Aeaia?oaiaio
iieeoeee, i?e eioi?ii aue nicaeai Iniaue ioaeae aeey ai?ueau n
iieeoe/aneeie i?anooieaieyie.

E?iia oiai, n 1880 aiaea a Iaoa?ao?aa e Iineaa noaee aeaenoaiaaoue
ioaeaeaiey ii io?aia ii?yaeea e iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe (io?aiiua
ioaeaeaiey). O ieo oaea eiaeanue niaoeeaeueiay nae?aoiay aaaioo?a.

A ia/aea XX aaea naoue io?aiiuo ioaeaeaiee nicaeaaony ii no?aia.

N eiioea XIX aaea aei 1917 aiaea a ?innee nouanoaiaae oaeoi?, ea?aaoee
caiaoioth ?ieue a ?onneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, a eiaiii: ai?ueaa
i?aaeoaeuenoaa n ?acee/iuie iiiiceoeeiiiuie e ?aaiethoeeiiiuie ia?oeyie
e a?oiiaie.

Io?aiiua ioaeaeaiey a ?innee auyaeyee ?aaiethoeeiiiua i?aaiecaoeee, a
oaeaea iuoaeenue i?ana/ue aioiayueany eie aunooieaiey: oaeenoaa,
yeni?ii?eaoeee, aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth aaeoaoeeth.

Aeoea io?aiiuo ioaeaeaiee – aaaiou, oeea?u e nae?aoiua nio?oaeieee.
Iineaaeiea aiaae?yeenue a no?oeoo?u ?aaiethoeeiiiuo ia?oee, iaeioi?ua
aeaaea oiaeeee a ?oeiaiaeeoaeyo.

Io?aiiua ioaeaeaiey i?inoe?aee naith aeayoaeueiinoue e ca ?oaaae: aaaeue
eiaiii ioooaea iai?aaeyeanue ca/anooth ?oea eniieieoaey n aiiaie eee
?aaieueaa?ii. A ia/aea aaea ?aaiethoeeiiiay yiea?aoeey ian/eouaaea ieiei
iyoe ouny/ /aeiaae. A?aiy auei aeiaieueii iai?yaeaiiui: oa??i?enou ca
ei?ioeee n?ie oaeee ieieno?ia Ieaaa, Neiyaeia, Aiaieaiiaa,
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a Iineau aaeeeiai eiycy Na?aay Aeaenaiae?iae/a,
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a Noieuieia. Io?aiiua ioaeaeaiey aeaeaee /oi iiaee. Ii
oaea aeeceeny 1917 aiae.

Iiaie aeanoe, anoanoaaiii, iiiaaeiaeeanue naiy iieeoeey, e iia auea
nicaeaia a aeaeaa?a 1917 aiaea – Ana?inneeneay /?acau/aeiay eiienney.

*E oniaoii ?ane?uea ?yae aioeaieueoaaenoneeo i?aaiecaoeee, caaiai?
Eieea?oa. Anaai aea n 1917 ii 1921 aiae ath auei a?anoiaaii aieaa 250
ouny/ /aeiaae.

N ieii/aieai a?aaeaeaineie aieiu A*E auea i?aia?aciaaia a Aeaaiia
iieeoe/aneia oi?aaeaiea (AIO) i?e Ia?eiiaoa aioo?aiieo aeae. Aaaeiinoai,
caaeoiaiiia eae a?aiaiiia, noaei iinoiyiiui e, aieaa oiai, eioaineaii
?aaioathuei. Eiaiii i?e iiiiue AIO Noaeeio oaeaeinue iino?ieoue
aaeeiiee/ioth aeanoue.

N nicaeaieai a 1934 aiaeo iauanithciiai Ia?eiiaoa aioo?aiieo aeae e
aeeth/aieai a iaai IAIO ai aeaaa n A.A. ssaiaeie iaoaieci ?ai?annee aue
caiouai a iieioth neeo. Noaeei i?eaeoiae oacen ia oneeaiee eeanniaie
ai?ueau ii ia?a i?iaeaeaeaiey no?aiu e nioeeaeecio, eioi?ue e eaa a
iniiao ?ai?anneaiie iieeoeee 30-o aiaeia. Ii aeae?aoai 1922 aiaea IAIO
iieo/eei i?aai ia aunueeo, oth?aiiia caeeth/aiea e aeaaea ?anno?ae
eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ia e oaieiaiiai yeaiaioa. Aieueooth ?aaioo aae
Eiino?aiiue ioaeae AIO, inouanoaeyaoee ?acaaaeuaaoaeueioth
aeayoaeueiinoue ca a?aieoeae e oanii naycaiiue n Eiieioa?iii. Nae?aoiue
Ioaeae iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo naycae Eiieioa?ia n iiiiuueth EII AIO
i?aaieciauaae iiaeiieueioth ?aaioo naiae aaaioo?u ai iiiaeo no?aiao.

Eaoii 1936 aiaea OeE ia?oee i?eiye nae?aoioth ?aciethoeeth, aeaaaaooth
IEAAe /?acau/aeiua iieiiii/ey ii ai?ueaa n “a?aaaie ia?iaea”. Ia/aeny
1937 aiae n aai iiaaeueiuie ?ai?anneyie.

Ii aieueooth iieiaeeoaeueioth ?aaioo i?iaeaeaee i?aaiu aaciianiinoe ai
a?aiy aieiu. A niaaoneee oue ianniai canueaeenue iaiaoeeea oieiiu,
aeeaa?naiou, eo iaiaoiaeeii auei ioeaaeeaaoue e iaaca?aaeeaaoue.

A ia?oa 1946 aiaea IEAA e IEAAe auee i?aia?aciaaiu ec eiienna?eaoia a
ieienoa?noaa, /oi icia/aei iiaeiyoea eo noaoona, e noaee iacuaaoueny
Ieienoa?noaii ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoe (IAA) e Ieienoa?noaii
aioo?aiieo aeae (IAAe).

A ia?oa 1954 aiaea niaaoneay nenoaia ainaaciianiinoe i?aoa?iaea e?oiioth
?ai?aaiecaoeeth. IAA i?aa?aoeeinue a Eiieoao ainoaea?noaaiiie
aaciianiinoe (EAA), eioi?ue aue i?ee?aieai e Niaaoo ieieno?ia NNN?.

A oeaeii EAA ii naiae no?oeoo?a, ooieoeeyi, eaae?iaiio ninoaao e,
aeaaiia, ianoo a nenoaia aineinoeoooia niioaaonoaiaae iaoaieciai
ainoaea?noaaiii – iieeoe/aneie aeanoe a Niaaoneii Nithca. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, yoi aue, eiia/ii, iiuiaeoee eino?oiaio, iaania/eaathuee
noaaeeecaoeeth ?aaeeia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii i?iaiaeee ?aaeueioth
?aaioo ii aaciianiinoe no?aiu, a cia/eo e aa a?aaeaeai.

A 1991aiaeo a nayce n ?acaeoeai aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee a NNN? e
aeaeueiaeoei aai ?acaaeii i?ienoiaeeo ?ai?aaiecaoeey e niaoeneoaea.
I?aaeiinueeie yaeeinue aunooieaiea a aaaonoa 1991 aiaea AE*I n o/anoeai
I?aaenaaeaoaey EAA NNN? E?th/eiaa.

3 aeaeaa?y 1991a. I?aceaeaio NNN? I.N.Ai?aa/aa iiaeienae Caeii “I
?ai?aaiecaoeee i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoe”. Ia iniiaaiee
yoiai caeiia EAA NNN? aue oi?acaeiai e ia ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae ia aai
aaca nicaeaiu Iaae?anioaeeeaineay neoaeaa aaciianiinoe e Oeaio?aeueiay
neoaeaa ?acaaaeee NNN? (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy – Neoaeaa aiaoiae ?acaaaeee
?O).

Ec ninoaaa EAA auea auaaaeaia aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay neoaeaa. Neoaeaa io?aiu
auea ia?aeiaiiaaia a Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea io?aiu ?O, eioi?ia iiae/eiyeinue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aceaeaioo no?aiu. Iaeiia?aiaiii a aai ee/iia
iiae/eiaiea ia?aoea e a?oiia “A” 7-ai Oi?aaeaiey – eae aa iacuaatho,
“Aeueoa”. A aeaeueiaeoai AOI ?O noaei naiinoiyoaeueiui oaaea?aeueiui
aaaeiinoaii, a a eiioea 1993 aiaea ec aai ninoaaa auaeaeeeny aua iaeei
i?aai – Neoaeaa aaciianiinoe i?aceaeaioa ?O.

Oi?aaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie nayce, 8-a e 16-a Aeaaiua oi?aaeaiey
oaeaea auee auaaaeaiu ec no?oeoo? EAA, a n aeaeaa?y 1991 iieo/eee
iacaaiea OAINE i?e i?aceaeaioa ?O. A naiinoiyoaeueiia aaaeiinoai auee
auaaaeaiu e iia?aiaienea, ioiineaoeany ?aiaa e EAA.

N 1991 ii 2003 aiaeu niaoeneoaeau ?innee iaiaeiie?aoii
?ai?aaieciauaaeenue. Iuiaoiaa iacaaiea i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie
aaciianiinoe ONA auei i?eiyoi a 1995 aiaeo e nouanoaoao aei ianoiyuaai
a?aiaie.

11 ia?oa 2003 aiaea I?aceaeaio ?O A.A. Iooei iiaeienae Oeac, niaeanii
eioi?iio oi?acaeiee ONII e OAINE, e ia?aaeae ooieoeee Iia?aie/iie
neoaeau niiaa a aaaeaiea ONA.

A iiya?a 2004 aiaea caaa?oeeanue no?oeoo?iay ?aoi?ia Oaaea?aeueiie
neoaeau aaciianiinoe.

Niaeanii caeiio “Ia i?aaiao oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau aaciianiinoe a ?O” ONA
yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth nee iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee e a i?aaeaeao i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo ei iieiiii/ee iaania/eaatho
aaciianiinoue ee/iinoe, iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa. ONA yaeyaony
oaaea?aeueiui i?aaiii eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiui
iaiin?aaenoaaiii I?aceaeaioo ?O.

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