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I*A?E ENOI?EE NIAAONEIAI AAOI?NEIAI I?AAA

Oi, /oi a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee eiaiiaaeanue «aaoi?neei i?aaii»,
auei ia naiii aeaea i?aaii, io?aiyaoei eioa?anu i?aaei?eieiaoaeae,
caieiaaoeony ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth, io i?eoycaiee aaoi?ia,
nicaeaaaaoeo i?iecaaaeaiey eeoa?aoo?u, eneonnoaa, iaoee.

Aei?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aai aiana ia noaaeei naiae caaea/ae naeaeaoue
oai?/anoai ioaeaeueiuo aaoi?ia aeinoiyieai oe?ieeo iann ia?iaea,
niinianoaiaaoue eoeueoo?iiio iauaieth iiiai/eneaiiuo ia?iaeiinoae,
ianaeyaoeo oea?neoth ?inneth, «oth?ueio ia?iaeia», ii au?aaeaieth
Eaieia.

Aei?aaiethoeeiiiua «ii?yaeee», ianeaicue ?aaeoeeiiiua, ia n/eoaaoeany. n
eoeueoo?iuie eioa?anaie iauanoaa, i?eieaeaaoea ee/iinoue aaoi?a,
eeoaaoea aaoi?a ieiaeia aai oai?/aneiai o?oaea, auee oie/oiaeaiu
Ieoya?ueneie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeeae, oi?acaeiaiu Niaaoneei
nioeeaeenoe/aneei ainoaea?noaai.

Ia ianoa ioiaiaiiiai ?ao?ia?aaeiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai, ?oeiaiaeeiia
Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oeae, nicaeaei naiia i?ia?anneaiia a ie?a iiaeeeiiia
aaoi?neia i?aai, eioi?ia noieo ia no?aaea eoeueoo?iuo eioa?ania
iiiaiieeeeiiiuo iann Niaaoneiai iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, a
aianoa n oai aeaenoaaiii io?aiyao eae eiouanoaaiiua, oae e ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua eioa?anu aaoi?ia. Niaaoneia aaoi?neia i?aai — yoi
nioeeaeenoe/aneia i?aai.

?aoeoaeueiua caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa a
iaeanoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa noaee aiciiaeiuie iinea ei?aiiiai eciaiaiey a
yeiiiieea no?aiu, eciaiaiey, iineaaeiaaaoaai a ?acoeueoaoa iiaaaeu
Ieoya?ueneie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, neiieaoae eaieoaeenoe/aneee
no?ie. Caeiiu Niaaoneie aeanoe ia ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa iie?aeenue ia iiaoth nioeeaeenoe/aneoth yeiiiieeo e
ieacuaaee aeaaioai?iia aeeyiea ia oaiiu eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey no?aiu a
iiauo oneiaeyo.

I?ineaaeeoue niioiioaiey iaaeaeo oiaeii i?aaioai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa a iaeanoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa e oiaeii
no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia a iaoae no?aia — yoi caaea/a ianoiyuaai
i/a?ea enoi?ee niaaoneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Iaeiaei aeey i?aaeeueiiai iiieiaiey i?ioeanna nicaeaiey niaaoneiai
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa, oi anoue nenoaiu i?eioeeieaeueii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiie oae iacuaaaiiio «aaoi?neiio i?aao» yenieoaoaoi?neeo
ainoaea?noa, iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue a iniiaiuo /a?oao oo nenoaio ii?i
«aaoi?neiai i?aaa», eioi?ay aeaenoaiaaea i?e naa?aiooii ?aaiethoeeae
yenieoaoaoi?neii ?aaeeia oea?neiai e a?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoa.

Yoi iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ?ane?uoue i?eioeeieaeueioth
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?aao
yenieoaoaoi?neiio, ii e aeey oiai, /oiau oynieoue naaa yoaiu, ii eioi?ui
?acaa?ouaaeanue i?aaioai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa
a iaeanoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

1. Iauea caia/aiey

Oi, /oi a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee eiaiiaaeanue «aaoi?neei i?aaii»,
auei ia naiii aeaea i?aaii, io?aiyaoei eioa?anu i?aaei?eieiaoaeae,
caieiaaoeony ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth, io i?eoycaiee aaoi?ia,
nicaeaaaaoeo i?iecaaaeaiey eeoa?aoo?u, eneonnoaa, iaoee.

Aei?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aai aiana ia noaaeei naiae caaea/ae naeaeaoue
oai?/anoai ioaeaeueiuo aaoi?ia aeinoiyieai oe?ieeo iann ia?iaea,
niinianoaiaaoue eoeueoo?iiio iauaieth iiiai/eneaiiuo ia?iaeiinoae,
ianaeyaoeo oea?neoth ?inneth, «oth?ueio ia?iaeia», ii au?aaeaieth
Eaieia.

Aei?aaiethoeeiiiua «ii?yaeee», ianeaicue ?aaeoeeiiiua, ia n/eoaaoeany. n
eoeueoo?iuie eioa?anaie iauanoaa, i?eieaeaaoea ee/iinoue aaoi?a,
eeoaaoea aaoi?a ieiaeia aai oai?/aneiai o?oaea, auee oie/oiaeaiu
Ieoya?ueneie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeeae, oi?acaeiaiu Niaaoneei
nioeeaeenoe/aneei ainoaea?noaai.

Ia ianoa ioiaiaiiiai ?ao?ia?aaeiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai, ?oeiaiaeeiia
Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oeae, nicaeaei naiia i?ia?anneaiia a ie?a iiaeeeiiia
aaoi?neia i?aai, eioi?ia noieo ia no?aaea eoeueoo?iuo eioa?ania
iiiaiieeeeiiiuo iann Niaaoneiai iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, a
aianoa n oai aeaenoaaiii io?aiyao eae eiouanoaaiiua, oae e ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua eioa?anu aaoi?ia. Niaaoneia aaoi?neia i?aai — yoi
nioeeaeenoe/aneia i?aai.

?aoeoaeueiua caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa a
iaeanoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa noaee aiciiaeiuie iinea ei?aiiiai eciaiaiey a
yeiiiieea no?aiu, eciaiaiey, iineaaeiaaaoaai a ?acoeueoaoa iiaaaeu
Ieoya?ueneie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, neiieaoae eaieoaeenoe/aneee
no?ie. Caeiiu Niaaoneie aeanoe ia ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa iie?aeenue ia iiaoth nioeeaeenoe/aneoth yeiiiieeo e
ieacuaaee aeaaioai?iia aeeyiea ia oaiiu eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey no?aiu a
iiauo oneiaeyo.

I?ineaaeeoue niioiioaiey iaaeaeo oiaeii i?aaioai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa a iaeanoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa e oiaeii
no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia a iaoae no?aia — yoi caaea/a ianoiyuaai
i/a?ea enoi?ee niaaoneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Iaeiaei aeey i?aaeeueiiai iiieiaiey i?ioeanna nicaeaiey niaaoneiai
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa, oi anoue nenoaiu i?eioeeieaeueii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiie oae iacuaaaiiio «aaoi?neiio i?aao» yenieoaoaoi?neeo
ainoaea?noa, iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue a iniiaiuo /a?oao oo nenoaio ii?i
«aaoi?neiai i?aaa», eioi?ay aeaenoaiaaea i?e naa?aiooii ?aaiethoeeae
yenieoaoaoi?neii ?aaeeia oea?neiai e a?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoa.

Yoi iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ?ane?uoue i?eioeeieaeueioth
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?aao
yenieoaoaoi?neiio, ii e aeey oiai, /oiau oynieoue naaa yoaiu, ii eioi?ui
?acaa?ouaaeanue i?aaioai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa
a iaeanoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

2. Aaoi?neia i?aai aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee

Aaoi?neia i?aai aicieeei a ?innee oieueei a ia/aea XIX aaea, i?eoii a
iaiau/aeii o?acaiiii aeaea 1. Ia neo/aeii oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai
aia?aua i?eciaei ca aaoi?ii eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai aini?iecaaaeaiey
naieo ni/eiaiee iooai ia/aoe… a Onoaaa Oeaico?iii, ecaeaiiii 22 ai?aey
1828 a. Oaea a caeiia 8 yiaa?y 1830 a. aei?aaiethoeeiiiia ?onneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, neaaeoy caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneei ia?acoeai, ia/eiaao
o?aeoiaaoue i?aai aaoi?a ia nicaeaiiia ei i?iecaaaeaiea eae i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ui iiaeii oi?aiaaoue. I?iecaaaeaiea ?anniao?eaaaony
eae «eiouanoai aeaaii?eia?aoaiiia», e ni/eieoaeth (eee ia?aaiae/eeo)
iiaeeciaiii i?aaeinoaaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ecaeaiey e i?iaeaaee
aai i?iecaaaeaiee. Ianeaaeieee ni/eieoaeae iieuecothony yoei i?aaii a
oa/aiea 25 eao. Aiineaaenoaee (1857 a.) yoio n?ie aue i?iaeeai aei 50
eao. A 1887 aiaeo i?e i/a?aaeiii ecaeaiee O oiia Naiaea caeiiia
aaoi?neia i?aai aia?aua auaeaeyaony ec iaae? Onoaaa Oeaico?iiai e
iieo/aao iniaia ianoi — a i?eeiaeaiee e no. 420, O oiia, /. 1, E caeanue
aaoi?neia i?aai ii-i?aaeiaio ?anniao?eaaaony eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue i?aaa
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe2. Yoa oi/ea c?aiey i?yii e aiieia ioe?iaaiii
niioaaonoaoao nouiinoe ie?inica?oeaiey ao?aeoacee. Aeey ao?aeoacee
ee/iia aeinoieinoai /aeiaaea, aai oai?/anoai — yoi oiaa?u. Ao?aeoacey
«…i?aa?aoeea ee/iia aeinoieinoai /aeiaaea a iaiiaoth noieiinoue e
iinoaaeea ia ianoi aan- /eneaiiuo iiaeaeiaaiiuo e aeaaii?eia?aoaiiuo
naiaiae iaeio aanniaanoioth naiaiaeo oi?aiaee» 1.

Naiia auaiaeiia aeey yenieoaoaoi?ia a oai?ee «eeoa?aoo?iie
nianoaaiiinoe» — yoi eiae/aneee aacen, iiaeaiaeeiue yoie oai?eae iiae
io?eoeaiea eaeiai-eeai i?aaa ca aaoi?ii, anee aaoi? i?iaeae naia
i?iecaaaeaiea ecaeaoaeth. Ecaeaoaeue-eiiia?naio, eoieaoee /oaeia
i?iecaaaeaiea, noaiiaeony aai iieiui «nianoaaiieeii», iiaeiaii oiio eae
iieoiaoaeue aeiia eee aaaiia ca?ia, noaiiaeony iaia?aie/aiiui, iieiui
nianoaaiieeai yoeo iauaeoia oi?aiaiai iai?ioa. N ?acaeoeai eaieoaeecia a
?innee aaoi?neia i?aai i?eia?aoaao aeey ao?aeoacee aieueoee eioa?an,
iineieueeo ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth ia/eiatho caieiaoueny iiiaea
i?aaei?eieiaoaee. Eciaieaoayny yeiiiieea canoaaeyao aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaey ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia aaoi?neia i?aai: yoiai o?aaotho
eioa?anu ecaeaoaeuenoa a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue. A ?acoeueoaoa iiyaeyaony
caeii ia aaoi?neii i?aaa 20 ia?oa 1911 a.2, eioi?ue aeiaieueii iiae?iaii
ii?aaeaeyao aaoi?neea ioiioaiey.

Oaiaeaioeey io?aieoue eioa?anu i?eia?aoaoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa a oua?a
eioa?anai naiiai aaoi?a niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeia e a oea?neii caeiia ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa io 20 ia?oa 1911 a. I?aaeaea anaai aaoi?o i?aaeinoaaeaii
i?aai ia oieueei onooiaoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeth i?aaiii/ea ia ecaeaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey, ii e aiiaua io/oaeaeaoue iieiinoueth naia aaoi?neia i?aai
(no. 6958). Yoi «i?aai» aaoi?a nicaeaao i?i/ioth th?eaee/aneoth aaco
aeey caeaaaeaiey aaoi?a ecaeaoaeai. «I?iaeaa» naia i?aai, aaoi? ia aue
aa?aioe?iaai aeaaea io eneaaeaiey ecaeaoaeai i?iaeaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey.
I?aaaea, oea?neee caeii oi?iaeueii cai?auae ecaeaoaeth aeiiieiyoue,
eciaiyoue, nie?auaoue i?iecaaaeaiea aac niaeaney aaoi?a. Ii cai?auaiea
yoi ii nouanoao naiaeeeinue ia iao niaoeeaeueiie iaiai?eie: aiineoue
eciaiaiey a i?iecaaaeaiea iaeuecy, ii.., e?iia oaeeo, «aucuaaaiuo yaiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eciaiaiee, a niaeanee ia eioi?ua aaoi? ia iia au ii
aeia?ie niaanoe ioeacaoue». Oae, i?e aeecie aaoi?a aai i?iecaaaeaiea
iiaei iiyaeoueny a naao a eco?iaeiaaiiii aeaea, anee «aeia?ay
ao?aeoaciay niaanoue» ecaeaoaey ieacuaaeanue a niaeanee n iiaeiaiui
ianeeeai iaae aieae aaoi?a.

Oea?neee caeii iicaieye i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi ia oieueei «iieoiaoue»
aaoi?neia i?aai iaanaaaea, ii i?eciaaae aiciiaeiie cai?iaeaaeo ia iyoue
eao aia?aae anao aoaeoueo i?iecaaaeaiee aaoi?a (no. 6959). Oieaoea
iaeiaaeaeu «iieoiioth oeaio», ecaeaoaeue ia iyoue eao noaiiaeeny
oicyeiii anae oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aaoi?a.

Eoiea ca a?ioe o ia/eiathuaai aaoi?a ana aai aoaeouea i?iecaaaeaiey,
ecaeaoaeue ai?aaa aue ca oa aea a?ioe, aac anyeeo aeaeueiaeoeo aeiieao,
ecaeaaaoue i?iecaaaeaiey yoiai aaoi?a, oaea caaiaaaaoaai naaa
ecaanoiinoue. Caeii 20 ia?oa 1911 o. a no. 6959 yaii no?aieeny
cae?aieoue caeaaaeaiea aaoi?a ecaeaoaeai-eaieoaeenoii.

Ia caaue oea?neee caeii e i ooaeiaeieeao. Noaouey 69551 aiai?eea, /oi
io/oaeaeaiea ooaeiaeieeii ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey ia ia?aiineo
ia i?eia?aoaoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia yoi i?iecaaaeaiea, «anee a
aeiaiai?a ia oiiiyiooi ia yoi i». Aieaa neeueiue yeiiiie/anee caeac/ee
anaaaea iia ia oi/iii iniiaaiee no. 69551 caeiia naycaoue ooaeiaeieea ii
?oeai e iiaai, «eoiea» ia oieueei aauue, ii e naiia i?aai aaoi?a, eeoea
oai naiui aaoi?a e i?aaa ecaeaiey naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey, e i?aaa
iieacaoue naia i?iecaaaeaiea ioaee/ii, iai?eia? ia aunoaaea. ?a/ue oea
caeanue i anyeii ooaeiaeanoaaiiii i?iecaaaeaiee, a /anoiinoe i
iaecaaeao, iaoth?ii?oao. I?aai aea iiaoi?youe, aunoaaeyoue e ecaeaaaoue
ii?o?aou e athnou, naeaeaiiua n caeac/eea, anaaaea i?aaeinoaaeaii
oieueei caeac/eeo, aai ianeaaeieeai, ii ieeiaaea ia ooaeiaeieeo, ia
neoeueioi?o (no. 69552).

Caeii ia aiai?ee, i?aaaea, /oi n caeeth/aieai ecaeaoaeueneiai aeiaiai?a
aaoi? eeoaeny a iieueco ecaeaoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa a iieiii aai iauaia.
Yoei ecaeaoaeueneee aeiaiai? ioee/aeny io i?iaeaaee eee cai?iaeaaee
aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iaeiaei ecaeaoaeth i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai e aac
niaeaney aaoi?a eciaiyoue i?iecaaaeaiea ii «aeia?ie niaanoe», iineieueeo
oaeia eciaiaiea aucuaaeinue «yaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth».

Eiiia?/aneay iaiaoiaeeiinoue, ?acoiaaony, iiaea auoue oaeaea yaiie. Anee
ia?aaeaeea eieae noeeea aieaa oniaoioth ?ani?iaeaaeo oe?aaea, oi iiaeii
auei «caeiiii» nineaoueny ia «yaioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue eciaiaiey».

Oaeei ia?acii, e a yoii neo/aa caeii, aeaaii?eyonoaiaaaoee
ecaeaoaeth-i?aaei?eieiaoaeth, cae?aieye aai i?aai eneaceoue ii naiaio
oniio?aieth ?acoeueoao oai?/anoaa aaoi?a.

3. Niaaoneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ii aaoi?neiio i?aao a ia?eiae 1918—1925
aa.

Iiea iieiaeia Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai auioaeaeaii auei iai?aaeyoue ana
naie neeu ia iiaeaaeaiea nii?ioeaeaiey naa?aioouo eeannia aioo?e no?aiu,
ia iai?iio no?aiu io iaiaaeaiey aiaoieo a?aaia, ia ai?ueao n
oicyenoaaiiie ?ac?ooie, ia auei aiciiaeiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe noaaeoue
ai anae oe?ioa aii?in i nicaeaiee iiaiai, nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aaoi?neiai
i?aaa.

Oai ia iaiaa e a naiii ?acaa?a ai?ueau n eiio??aaiethoeeae e
eioa?aaioeeae, a iineaaeiaaaoee caoai ia?eiae iai?yaeaiiaeoae ?aaiou ii
ainnoaiiaeaieth ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa no?aiu e oe?aieaiey
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aacena niaaoneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iaiaei naeaeaei a
iaeanoe eoeueoo?iiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, a iaeanoe io?aiu ia?iaeaeaaoaeny
nioeeaeenoe/aneie eoeueoo?u, caueou eioa?ania aaoi?ia, aeaeaaoeo ia?aua
aeeaaeu a nie?iaeuieoeo yoie iiaie eoeueoo?u.

Aeae?ao Oeaio?aeueiiai Eniieieoaeueiiai Eiieoaoa Niaaoia ?aai/eo,
nieaeaoneeo e e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia 29 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. «I
ainoaea?noaaiiii ecaeaoaeuenoaa» 1 — ia?aue niaaoneee caeii ii
aaoi?neiio i?aao, aeae nioeeaeenoe/aneia ?aaoee?iaaiea aaoi?neeo
ioiioaiee. Iaiaaeeaiiay i?aaiecaoeey e ?acaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiie
ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe — yoi iniiaiay oeaeue aeae?aoa. «A ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue aeieaeii i?e yoii auoue .iinoaaeaii aeaoaaia ia?iaeiia
ecaeaiea ?onneeo eeanneeia»,— aiai?eeinue a aeae?aoa. Niaaoneay aeanoue
?aoeea aianoa n oai ni/eiaiey iaeioi?uo aaoi?ia, n?ie aaoi?neiai i?aaa
eioi?uo oaea enoae2, ia?aaanoe «ec iaeanoe /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe a
iaeanoue iauanoaaiiinoe». Aeey yoiai aeae?ao i?aaeinoaaee
Ainoaea?noaaiiie eiiennee ii i?inaauaieth i?aai iauyaeyoue oaeea
ni/eiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieeae, iaeiaei ia aeieueoa, eae ia iyoue
eao3. Eiiennee i?aaeeaaaeinue ainiieueciaaoueny yoei i?aaii «ii
ioiioaieth e ei?eoayi eeoa?aoo?u, oai?aiey eioi?uo ia?aeaeoo, niaeanii
ianoiyuaio caeiio, a nianoaaiiinoue ia?iaea». Oaeei ia?acii, aeae?ao io
29 aeaeaa?y 1917 a., ai-ia?auo, enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi i?aaa aaoi?ia,
aicieeoea aei Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee, iieiinoueth nio?aiythony. Eiaiii
iiyoiio aeae?ao i?aaeeaaae iiiiiieece?iaaoue e ia?aecaeaoue ni/eiaiey
oieueei oao eeanneeia, «n?ie aaoi?neiai i?aaa eioi?uo enoae»; ai-aoi?uo,
aeae?ao ecuiae ec noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe /anoiuo ecaeaoaeuenoa aia
iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiua Niaaoneie aeanoueth ni/eiaiey ?onneeo ienaoaeae 4.

Iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiua aaeeao?enoe/aneea ni/eiaiey aaoi?ia, oia?oeo ia
iicaeiaa 31 aeaeaa?y 1917 a., iiaee ecaeaaaoueny «eaaeaeui a?aaeaeaieiii
Niaaoneie ?anioaeeee ?innee aac anyeiai ia oi ?ac?aoaiey ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa»5. Oai naiui ioaa?aaeinue ianeaaeiaaiea aaoi?neiai i?aaa
iinea eeoe, oia?oeo 1 yiaa?y 1918 a. e iicaeiaa, e, e?iia oiai, ia
aeiioneaeenue /anoiua iinia?oiua ecaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiee yoeo aaoi?ia.

?anniio?aiiua aeou 1917 e 1918 aa. ia aeaaaee, eiia/ii, ioaaoa ia iiiaea
aii?inu aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Oae, ia?ac?aaioaiiui inoaeny aii?in i i?aaa ia
i?iecaaaeaiey noeaie/aneea, ia i?iecaaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiuo eneonnoa,
ia aaoi?neii o?aaa ia?aaiae/eea 1, i caueoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa io
i?aaiia?ooaiee e o. ae.

Aii?inu yoe iieo/eee naia ?ac?aoaiea ianeieueei iicaeiaa — a aeae?aoa
Niaaoa Ia?iaeiuo Eiienna?ia ?NON? io 26 iiya?y 1918 a. «I i?eciaiee
iao/iuo, eeoa?aoo?iuo, iocueaeueiuo e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiui aeinoiyieai»2. E yoio aeae?ao eanaaony i?aaeaea anaai
aii?ina i iaoeeiiaeecaoeee aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iauaeoaie iaoeeiiaeecaoeee
ii aeae?aoo io 26 iiya?y 1918 a. iiaoo auoue ia oieueei i?iecaaaeaiey
oia?oeo aaoi?ia-aaeeao?enoia, eae auei onoaiiaeaii ?aiaa, ii «anyeia eae
iioaeeeiaaiiia, oae e iaiioaeeeiaaiiia iao/iia, eeoa?aoo?iia,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea, a /ueeo au ?oeao iii ie iaoiaeeeinue…»
(no. 1 aeae?aoa). Aeinoiyieai ?NON? iiaee oaia?ue iauyaeyoueny oaeaea
«ana i?iecaaaeaiey ethaiai oia?oaai aaoi?a».

Aeae?ao NIE ?NON? io 26 iiya?y 1918 a. aia?aua, aac anyeie ionueee e
aei?aaiethoeeiiiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, onoaiiaee i?aai aaoi?a ia
nicaeaiiia ei i?iecaaaeaiea, cai?aoee anyeia ia?ooaiea aaoi?neiai i?aaa
(eiio?aoaeoeeth), o?aaoee?iaae aii?in i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee aaoi?ia e a
niioaaonoaee n aeae?aoii «Ia ioiaia ianeaaeiaaiey» io 27 ai?aey 1918a.
io?eoeaoaeueii ?aoee aii?in i ia?aoiaea aaoi?neiai i?aaa ii ianeaaenoao.

A no. 3 aeae?aoa io 26 iiya?y 1918 a. auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi «ia
iauyaeaiiua ainoaea?noaaiiui aeinoiyieai i?iecaaaeaiey ia iiaoo auoue
i?e aeecie aaoi?a ?aciiiaeaaiu e ?ani?ino?aiyaiu eia/a, eae ii
niaeaoaieth n aaoi?ii».

Iineieueeo a no. 5 oiai aea aeae?aoa aaoi?o i?iecaaaeaiey, iauyaeaiiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiui aeinoiyieai, iaania/eaaeny aiii?a? ii noaaeai,
ii?aaeaeyaiui Ia?iaeiuie eiienna?eaoaie i?inaauaiey e o?oaea, i/aaeaeii,
/oi ecaeaiea eaeiai-eeai ia iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey aac
niaeaoaiey n aaoi?ii aeaeei iaycaiiinoue ecaeaoaey oieaoeoue aaoi?o
aiii?a? eiaiii ii yoei ainoaea?noaaiiui noaaeai.

E?iia oiai, a no. 11 aeae?aoa io 26 iiya?y 1918 a. onoaiaaeeaaeinue, /oi
naiinoiyoaeueiia ecaeaiea, ?aciiiaeaiea, ?ani?ino?aiaiea

1 Iinoaiiaeaieai Ia?iaeiiai eiienna?eaoa ii i?inaauaieth io 9 ia?oa 1918
a. auei onoaiiaeaii oieueei i?aai ainoaea?noaa ?aeaece?iaaoue ethaie
ia?aaiae i?iecaaaeaiee, iiiiiieece?iaaiiuo ainoaea?noaii (i?e/ai ca
ia?aaiae/eeii nio?aiyeinue i?aai ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca naie o?oae).

e ioaee/iia eniieiaiea i?iecaaaeaiee, aii?aee iinoaiiaeaieth ianoiyuaai
aeae?aoa, «aea/ao ca niaie ioaaonoaaiiinoue, eae ca ia?ooaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieee». Eeoe, ia?ooeaoeo i?aai aaoi?a ia
iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, aeae?ao n/eoae eeoeaie, iianiuie
aeey niaaoneiai i?aaiii?yaeea, e i?aaeeaaae iaeacuaaoue eo «eae ca
ia?ooaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieee». Yoi aiieia iiiyoii. ?a/ue aaaeue
oea i i?ana/aiee iiiuoie /anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae iaiaaoeoueny ca n/ao
ia?ooaiey io?aiyaiiai Niaaoneei ainoaea?noaii aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Aii?in i ianeaaeiaaiee aaoi?neiai i?aaa a aeae?aoa io 26 iiya?y 1918 a.
aue ?aoai, eae iu ioiaoeee, a niioaaonoaee n aeae?aoai io 27 ai?aey 1918
a.1: ioaeaeathueany e iao?oaeiniiniaiua ?iaenoaaiieee oia?oaai aaoi?a
iieo/aee niaea?aeaiea io ainoaea?noaa a i?aaeaeao eiouanoaa oia?oaai
aaoi?a; a yoi eiouanoai aoiaeee e aaoi?neee aiii?a?, noaiiaeaoeeny iinea
nia?oe aaoi?a ainoaea?noaaiiui aeinoiyieai (no. 7 aeae?aoa io 26 iiya?y
1918 a.). Yoio ii?yaeie ?ani?ino?aiyeny eae ia ianeaaeieeia aaoi?ia,
i?iecaaaeaiey eioi?uo auee iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiu, oae e ia ianeaaeieeia
aaoi?ia, i?iecaaaeaiey eioi?uo ia auee iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiu.

Oaeia i?aaeei iiaei iinoaaeoue a oyaeaeia iieiaeaiea ecaeaoaey, anee
nia?oue aaoi?a ianooiaea aei auionea iaiaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey a naao. Ianeaaeieee aaoi?a ii aeaenoaiaaaoei oiaaea
i?aaeeai ia iiaee i?iaeieaeaoue aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey n ecaeaoaeai.
Iiyoiio aeae?ao 26 iiya?y 1918 a. iniai iaiaa?eaae, /oi ecaeaoaeue
iaiaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey ai?aaa aue auioneaoue yoi
i?iecaaaeaiea aua a oa/aiea oanoe ianyoeaa iinea nia?oe aaoi?a 2.

Ecaeaoaeue i?iecaaaeaiey oia?oaai aaoi?a, i?iecaaaeaiey eioi?iai ia auee
i?eciaiu aeinoiyieai ?anioaeeee, iaycai aue (no. 9 aeae?aoa) aiineoue a
ia?iaeiue aaie «noiiu, ?aaiua aiii?a?o, eioi?ue i?e/eoaeny au aaoi?o».
Ec yoeo noii e i?iecaiaeeeenue auieaou ia niaea?aeaiea ioaeaeathueony e
iao?oaeiniiniaiuo ?iaenoaaiieeia eee noi?oaa oia?oaai aaoi?a.

I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an ?aoaiea aii?ina ia ecaeaiee /anoiie ia?aienee,
aeiaaieeia e oiio iiaeiaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee oia?oeo aaoi?ia, oi anoue
oaeeo i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua ia i?aaeiacia/aeenue e iaia/aoaieth.

Aei?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aai noaaeei aii?in ia ecaeaiee oaeiai ?iaea
aeieoiaioia a iieioth caaeneiinoue io aiee ianeaaeieeia — eae
ianeaaeieeia aaoi?a i?iecaaaeaiey, oae e ianeaaeieeia aae?anaoa,
eioi?iio i?iecaaaeaiea, iai?eia? ienueii, auei ia?aaeaii. Caeanue
eiaeenue a aeaeo anyeea ianeaaeieee—aeaaea naiua ioaeaeaiiua
?iaenoaaiieee eee aeaaea aiana iinoi?iiiea oia?oaio eeoea,
ianeaaeiaaaoea ii caaauaieth. Oaeie ?aaeei aeieaeai aue aeeeoueny 50 eao
(no. no. 69528 e 69529, o. X, /. 1 Naiaea caeiiia). Ii enoa/aiee 50 eao
?aoaiea aii?ina ia ecaeaiee ia?aienee oia?oaai eeoea noaaeeinue a
caaeneiinoue io aiee eae ia?aaeeaoaai noi?oaa e aeaoae aaoi?a
aeieoiaioa, oae e ia?aaeeaoaai noi?oaa e aeaoae aae?anaoa yoiai
aeieoiaioa. Oaeie ii?yaeie iaaeooi cae?uaae ia?iaeo aeinooi ei iiiaei
aeieoiaioai, eiaaoei, iiaeao auoue, aieueoia enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea:
eioa?anu iauanoaa i?eiineeenue a aea?oao i?iecaieo aeaaea ni noi?iiu
eeoe, ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e aaoi?o ia eiaaoeo. Ianeaaeiee noaiiaeeny
/anoiui nianoaaiieeii aeieoiaioia, a i?aai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe aeey
ao?aeoaciiai caeiiiaeaoaey iai?eeiniiaaiii, anee ia n/eoaoue oao
neo/aaa, eiaaea eioa?anu iaeeiai nianoaaiieea ioaeii i?eianoe a aea?oao
eioa?anai e?oiiiai eaieoaea.

A niaaoneii aeae?aoa io 26 iiya?y 1918 a. (a no. 4) i?aoaicee eeoe,
iinoi?iiieo oia?oaio aaoi?o, auee aiana ono?aiaiu. Aeey ecaeaiey /anoiie
ia?aienee, aeiaaieeia e oiio iiaeiaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, ia
i?aaeiacia/aaoeony e iaia/aoaieth, o?aaiaaeinue niaeanea oieueei noi?oaa
oia?oaai aaoi?a e aai aeeceeo ?iaenoaaiieeia. Ii e yoi niaeanea a
iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo iiaei auoue caiaiaii ?ac?aoaieai i?aaia Niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaa — Ia?iaeiiai eiienna?eaoa ii i?inaauaieth.

Nioeeaeenoe/aneay eaeay i?aaeii/oaiey iauanoaaiiiai eioa?ana eioa?anai
ioaeaeueiiai eeoea iieo/eea naia iiaia au?aaeaiea a aeae?aoa io 29 ethey
1919 a.1. Aeae?ao ioiaiee ana ia?aie/eoaeueiua oneiaey, ia eioi?uo
auaoea aeaaeaeueoeu ia?aaeaaaee naie a?oeau a ioaee/iua aeaeeioaee e
iocae. A?oeau noaee aeinooiiu niaaoneei enneaaeiaaoaeyi, e ca Ia?iaeiui
eiienna?eaoii ii i?inaauaieth auei cae?aieaii i?aai ia?aiai ecaeaiey
anyeeo ioaeeeaoeee ec yoeo a?oeaia.

Eaaaeueiua aeiaiai?u, eioi?ua ecaeaoaee caeeth/aee n aaoi?aie,
iieuecoynue «aeicaieaieai» aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai caeiia, auee i?eciaiu
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie. ?ane?aiiuaieth aaoi?ia aue iinayuai niaoeeaeueiue
aeae?ao io 10 ieoya?y 1919 a.2 Ii aia?aua i?eciae iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie
naeaeee, ii eioi?ui ecaeaoaeue iaanaaaea noaiiaeeny iieiui nianoaaiieeii
«eoieaiiiai» o aaoi?a i?iecaaaeaiey. Ecaeaoaeue oaia?ue iia i?eia?anoe o
aaoi?a oieueei i?aai ia ecaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey; yoi i?aai anaaaea auei
ia?aie/aii n?ieii. Oai?ey «eeoa?aoo?iie nianoaaiiinoe», ei?iyie
ooiaeeaoay a noa?ia iauanoai, aeiioneaaoay «i?iaeaaeo» aaoi?neiai i?aaa,
auea ?aoeoaeueii e iaanaaaea ioaa?aiooa Niaaoneei nioeeaeenoe/aneei
ainoaea?noaii. ?aeaeceoaie anyeiai ecaeaoaeueneiai aeiaiai?a ioiuia
i?eciaaaeenue: ienueiaiiay oi?ia, /enei yecaiiey?ia ia/aoaaiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, ?acia? iieenoiie iieaou e n?ie, «a eioi?ue ecaeaoaeai
iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii i?eia?aoaiiia i?aai».

Yoio i?eioeei inoaaony iaeciaiiui i?eioeeiii niaaoneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa
e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Iaeciaiiui inoaeny e ae?oaie i?eioeei, onoaiiaeaiiue aeae?aoii 10
ieoya?y 1919 a.: «Anee iieenoiay ieaoa, oneiaeaiiay a aeiaiai?a, ieaea
ii?iu oa?eoa, oi oaeie aeiaiai? n/eoaaony
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui»,—aiai?eeinue a no. 2 aeae?aoa io 10 ieoya?y 1919 a.
Oaeay oi?ioee?iaea ia niaea?aeaea a naaa i?yiiai oeacaiey ia oi, /oi a
iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo aeiaiai? noaiiaeeny iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui oieueei a /anoe
niaeaoaiey i ?acia?a iieaou aaoi?a (no. 37 AE), /oi aianoi
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie /anoe niaeaoaiey aeieaeai i?eiaiyoueny oa?eo,
onoaiiaeaiiue ainoaea?noaii. Ii e i?e yoie iaaeiaiai?aiiinoe eioa?anu
aaoi?a aeinoaoi/ii io?aiyeenue, oae eae ecaeaoaeue, eeoaynue aeiaiai?iie
iniiau ecaeaiey, auioaeaeai aue aeiaeaaoueny iiaiai niaeaoaiey n
aaoi?ii, aeey oiai /oiau ?aaeeciaaoue, iai?eia?, caaioiaeaiiue aeey
?ani?ino?aiaiey oe?aae ecaeaiey.

Oaeiau a iniiaiii /a?ou niaaoneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eae iie neiaeeeenue
e 1925 aiaeo, eiaaea aia?aua ?aaoee?iaaiea aaoi?neiai i?aaa auei aeaii a
nithciii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

4. «Iniiau aaoi?neiai i?aaa» 1925 e 1928 aa.

Iinoaiiaeaiea OeEE e NIE NNN? io 30 yiaa?y 1925 a. «Ia iniiaao
aaoi?neiai i?aaa»1 aeaei ?aaoee?iaaiea nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aaoi?neiai
i?aaa a iauanithciii ianooaaa a oneiaeyo no?ieaoaainy nioeeaeecia a
ia?eiae iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

Iinoaiiaeaiea 1925 aiaea iiaeaeei ca niaie ia?ano?ieeo ?anioaeeeaineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii aaoi?neiio i?aao. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai nithciuo
?anioaeee ia noaei ia iooue aeeth/aiey ii?i aaoi?neiai i?aaa a naie
a?aaeaeaineea eiaeaenu. Caeiiu ia aaoi?neii i?aaa, ecaeaiiua a nithciuo
?anioaeeeao, ca iaeiei eeoue eneeth/aieai, auee i?eiyou eae ioaeaeueiua
aeou, ia aoiaeyuea a nenoaio AE.

Aieueoeinoai iieiaeaiee, onoaiiaeaiiuo a Iniiaao aaoi?neiai i?aaa 1925
aiaea, ia?aoei a iineaaeothuaa niaaoneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa, a /anoiinoe a Iniiau aaoi?neiai i?aaa 1928 aiaea, e nio?aiyao
naith neeo e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Iniiaiia iieiaeaiea iinoaiiaeaiey io 30 yiaa?y 1925 a.: «Aaoi?neia i?aai
ia i?iecaaaeaiea eae iiyaeaoaany a naao… ia oa??eoi?ee Nithca NCP, oae
e iaoiaeyuaany ia oa??eoi?ee Nithca NN? a aeaea ?oeiiene, yneeca eee a
eiie iauaeoeaiie oi?ia, i?eciaaony ca aaoi?ii e aai i?aaii?aaiieeaie,
iacaaeneii io eo a?aaeaeainoaa», aeineiaii aini?iecaaaeaii a
aeaenoaothuai Caeiia 1928 aiaea.

Oaea a 1925 aiaeo niaaoneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aeiioneaei ethaoth oi?io
iauaeoeaecaoeee aaoi?neiai i?aaa, oeacuaay ia ?oeiieniia eee yneeciia
ioi?ieaiea aaoi?neiai caiunea oieueei eae ia i?eia?, eae ia /anoiua,
oioy e i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiua neo/ae iauaeoeaecaoeee oai?/anoaa.

Aaoi?neia i?aai oaea a 1925 aiaeo auei ?ani?ino?aiaii «ia anyeia
i?iecaaaeaiea eeoa?aoo?u, iaoee e eneonnoaa, eaeiau au ie auee niinia e
oi?iu aai aini?iecaaaeaiey, a ?aaii aeinoieinoai e iacia/aiea…» (no. 2
Iniia aaoi?neiai i?aaa 1925 a.). Yoa oe?ieay oi?ioee?iaea aac eciaiaiee
aioea a aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

Ia?aaiae /oaeiai i?iecaaaeaiey ia ae?oaie ycue a Iniiaao 1925 aiaea aue
i?eciai naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Iai?ioea, oieueei a?aiaiiia cia/aiea a iinoaiiaeaiee «Ia iniiaao
aaoi?neiai i?aaa» 1925 aiaea eiaei onoaiiaeaiea n?iea nouanoaiaaiey
aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?e aeecie aaoi?a ia i?iecaaaeaiey a iaeanoe iaoee,
eeoa?aoo?u, ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa. A no. 6 iinoaiiaeaiey «Ia
iniiaao aaoi?neiai i?aaa» 1925 aiaea i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue, /oi «aaoi?neia
i?aai, ca iaeioi?uie ecuyoeyie, i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaoi?o a oa/aiea 25 eao ni
a?aiaie iiyaeaiey aai i?iecaaaeaiey»1. Ii?ia, onoaiaaeeaaaoay n?i/iinoue
aaoi?neiai i?aaa aeey aaoi?a, au?aaeaea iauoth oaiaeaioeeth
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia?aiai ia?eiaea iyia aeiioneaoue /anoiua
eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa oieueei n ii?aaeaeaiiuie ia?aie/aieyie. A iaeieo
neo/ayo ia?aie/eaaeny iauai i?aaiii/ee, a ae?oaeo — n?ie eo
nouanoaiaaiey. Oae, iai?eia?, ianeaaeiaaiea aeiioneaeinue niaeanii no.
416 AE (a ?aaeaeoeee 31 ieoya?y 1922 a.) ia noiio ia nauoa 10000 ?oaeae.
Aeiia a?aaeaeai, eae i?aaeei, iiaee aicaiaeeoueny oieueei ia n?i/iii
i?aaa cano?ieee (no.no. 71—81-a AE).

Onoaiiaeaiea n?iea nouanoaiaaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa auei iai?aaeaii a
iniiaiii i?ioea /?acia?iiai ?anoe?aiey i?aa ecaeaoaeae, i?ioea
yenieoaoaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe /anoiuo ecaeaoaeueneeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iinea en/aciiaaiey a iaoae no?aia /anoiuo ecaeaoaeuenoa ii?iu,
ia?aie/eaathuea n?ieii aaoi?neia i?aai ia i?iecaaaeaiea eeoa?aoo?u,
eneonnoaa eee iaoee, oo?aoeee naie niune 2. Iiyoiio a Iniiaao aaoi?neiai
i?aaa NNN? 1928 aiaea iu ia iaoiaeei oaea iiaeiaiie ii?iu: aianoi iaa
onoaiaaeeaaaony i?eioeei aann?i/iinoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?e aeecie
aaoi?a.

A iinoaiiaeaiee OeEE e NIE NNN? io 30 yiaa?y 1925 a. «Ia iniiaao
aaoi?neiai i?aaa» (a no. 12) onoaiaaeeaaeinue, /oi «aaoi?neia i?aai a
/anoe eee a oeaeii iiaeao auoue io/oaeaeaii ii ecaeaoaeueneiio aeiaiai?o
eee eiui caeiiiui niiniaii, i?e/ai oa?aeoa? eniieueciaaiey aaoi?neiai
i?aaa aeieaeai auoue ii?aaeaeai a oi/iinoe aeiaiai?ii».

A /ai iiaee ninoiyoue eiua niiniau io/oaeaeaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa, e?iia
ecaeaoaeueneiai aeiaiai?a, a Iniiaao ia oiiieiaeinue, anee ia n/eoaoue
iniaiai neo/ay i?eioaeeoaeueiiai aueoia i?iecaaaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaii
NNN? eee i?aaeoaeuenoaii oie nithciie ?anioaeeee, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?ie
aeaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea aia?aua auiouaii a naao eee iaoiaeeony a aeaea
?oeiiene (no. 15 Iniia aaoi?neiai i?aaa 1925 aiaea). O?aaiaaiea
nithciiai caeiia i oi/iii ii?aaeaeaiee i?aa ecaeaoaey, iieo/aaiuo ii
aeiaiai?o io aaoi?a, auei ?aaeeciaaii a ?anioaeeeaineii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Aann?i/iay onooiea aaoi?ii eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa ia ecaeaiea naiaai
i?iecaaaeaiey auea aeiiouaia Caeiiii ia aaoi?neii i?aaa ?NON? io 11
ieoya?y 1926 a. oieueei nioeeaeenoe/aneei i?aaiecaoeeyi:
ainoaea?noaaiiui, i?ioanneiiaeueiui, ia?oeeiui e eiiia?aoeaiui
ecaeaoaeuenoaai (no. 14).

Onooiea aaoi?neiai i?aaa ae?oaei ecaeaoaeuenoaai (oi anoue /anoiui
ecaeaoaeuenoaai) aeiioneaeanue ia n?ie ia nauoa 5 eao «eeoue ii
ecaeaoaeueneiio aeiaiai?o».

Ecaeaoaeueneee aeiaiai? n /anoiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie ia i?iecaaaeaiey
iocueaeueiua e iocueaeueii-ae?aiaoe/aneea ia aue ia?aie/ai eaeei-eeai
n?ieii.

Eioa?ania noaeueaa ii?iu Iniia aaoi?neiai i?aaa 1925 aiaea, aeiioneaaoae
aann?i/ioth onooieo aaoi?ii naiaai aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Oaeay onooiea auea
?ac?aoaia, eae iu aeaeaee, oieueei a iieueco nioeeaeenoe/aneeo
ecaeaoaeuenoa. A no. 15 Iniia aaoi?neiai i?aaa NNN? 1928 aiaea iu
iaoiaeei oi?ioee?iaeo, aeeceoth e oi?ioee?iaea Iniia 1925 aiaea:
«Aaoi?neia i?aai a /anoe eee a oeaeii iiaeao auoue io/oaeaeaaii ii
ecaeaoaeueneiio aeiaiai?o, caaauaieth eee eiui caeiiiui niiniaii».

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai nithciuo ?anioaeee 1928—1929 aa., eae e
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai nithciuo ?anioaeee 1926—1928 aa., ia ciaao aeiaiai?a
ia onooiea eee aann?i/iii io/oaeaeaiee aaoi?neiai i?aaa ecaeaoaeuenoaai,
ioee/iiai io ecaeaoaeueneiai aeiaiai?a. A no. 17 iinoaiiaeaiey AOeEE e
NIE ?NON? io 8 ieoya?y 1928 a.1 «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa» i?yii auei neacaii:
«Io/oaeaeaiea ecaeaoaeuenoaai i?aaiii/ee, auoaeathueo ec aaoi?neiai
i?aaa, aeiioneaaony ia eia/a, eae ii ecaeaoaeueneiio aeiaiai?o
(?ac?yaeea iaoa.—A. A. e A. O.)». Ii/oe oi aea naiia neacaii a yoii
Caeiia e ia io/oaeaeaiee aaoi?neiai i?aaa «ia iinoaiiaeo e ioaee/iia
eniieiaiea iaecaeaiiiai ae?aiaoe/aneiai, iocueaeueiiai, iaioiieiiiai,
oi?aia?aoe/aneiai eee eeiaiaoia?aoe/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiey» 2. Iaaeaeo oai
n?ie ecaeaoaeueneiai aeiaiai?a, ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?NON?, eae
ecaanoii, n 1928 aiaea ia?aie/ai /aou?ueiy aiaeaie, a n?ie
iinoaiiai/iiai aeiaiai?a o?aiy aiaeaie.

Caeii Oe?aeineie NN? io 6 oaa?aey 1929 a. ia aaoi?neii i?aaa4 a no. 16
aini?iecaiaeeo no. 16 Iniia aaoi?neiai i?aaa NNN? io 16 iay 1928 a.,
oiiieiay ia oieueei ia io/oaeaeaiee aaoi?neiai i?aaa a oeaeii eee a
/anoe ii ecaeaoaeueneiio aeiaiai?o eee ii caaauaieth, ii e ia
io/oaeaeaiee aaoi?neiai i?aaa «eiui caeiiiui niiniaii». Aieaa oiai, a
no. 18 oe?aeineiai Caeiia io 6 oaa?aey 1929 a. aini?iecaiaeeony
oi?ioee?iaea Iniia aaoi?neiai i?aaa NNN? 1925 aiaea: ?ac?aoaaony
aann?i/ii io/oaeaeaoue aaoi?neia i?aai ii ecaeaoaeueneiio aeiaiai?o n
nioeeaeenoe/aneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie, ecaeaoaeueneea aeiaiai?u n
ecaeaoaeuenoaaie, eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeao /anoiui eeoeai, iiaoo
caeeth/aoueny ia aieaa /ai ia n?ie a 5 eao»5. Yoa ii?ia, nio?aieaoayny
aei neo ii? a oe?aeineii Caeiia, aeaaii yaeyaony aiao?iieciii,
iineieueeo a ONN? /anoiuo ecaeaoaeuenoa ia nouanoaoao. Aii?in aea i
n?iea a ecaeaoaeueneii aeiaiai?a ?aoaaony iuia a ONN? ia iniiaaiee
Oeiiaiai ecaeaoaeueneiai aeiaiai?a, ooaa?aeaeaiiiai NIE ONN? 6 ieoya?y
1944a. ? 13336.

Yoio Oeiiaie ecaeaoaeueneee aeiaiai? ia?aie/eaaao aeaenoaea anyeiai
eiie?aoiiai ecaeaoaeueneiai aeiaiai?a, caeeth/aaiiai a ONN?, n?ieii a 3
aiaea.

Ionthaea neaaeotho aeaa auaiaea: 1) i?aaeaeueiue iyoeeaoiee n?ie
aeiaiai?a, i?aaeoniio?aiiue aeey iaeioi?uo neo/aaa a oe?aeineii Caeiia
ia aaoi?neii i?aaa io 6 oaa?aey 1929 a., caiaiai o?aoeaoiei n?ieii,
iaycaoaeueiui aeey anao ecaeaoaeueneeo aeiaiai?ia7,

2) caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ONN?, oae aea eae e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?NON?, ia
ciaao ieeaeiai ae?oaiai oeia aeiaiai?a, e?iia ecaeaoaeueneiai, ii
eioi?iio aaoi?neia i?aai iiaei au io/oaeaeaoueny a iieueco
ecaeaoaeuenoaa.

Iiyoiio ioaeii n/eoaoue, /oi aann?i/iia io/oaeaeaiea aaoi?neiai i?aaa,
oiiieiaaiia a Iniiaao aaoi?neiai i?aaa NNN? 1925 aiaea (no. 12), a
iicaeiaa — a no. 16 Iniia aaoi?neiai i?aaa NNN? 1926 a., aiciiaeii a
nouiinoe oieueei i?e i?eioaeeoaeueiii aueoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa
ainoaea?noaii (no. 15 Iniia 1925 aiaea e no. 20 Iniia 1928 aiaea).
Ioaeii caiaoeoue, /oi naiei i?aaii i?eioaeeoaeueiiai aueoia aaoi?neiai
i?aaa Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai ia iieueciaaeinue.

A caeeth/aiea ioiaoei, /oi Iniiau 1925 aiaea (eae e Iniiau 1928 aiaea)
nio?aiyee ca aaoi?ii i?aai ia iieioth iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey
(no. 13 Iniia 1925 aiaea, no. 18 Iniia 1928 aiaea). Ecaeaoaeue, eae e
c?aeeuiia i?aaei?eyoea, eeoai i?aaa ii naiaio oniio?aieth, aac niaeaney
aaoi?a, aiineoue eaeea-eeai eciaiaiey eee aeiiieiaiey a i?iecaaaeaiea, a
caaeaaea aai e a iaicia/aiea a iai eiaie aaoi?a. Ecaeaoaeue aac niaeaney
aaoi?a eee aai ianeaaeieea ia oi?aaiii/ai oaeaea niaaaeaoue
i?iecaaaeaiea eeethno?aoeeyie.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaaoneia nioeeaeenoe/aneia i?aai aia?aua aeaei aaoi?o
iieioth e aeaenoaeoaeueioth caueoo ?acoeueoaoa aai oai?/aneiai o?oaea —
aa?aioe?iaaei io?aio iaiaoa?eaeueiiai eioa?ana aaoi?a1.

5. Oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey niaaoneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa a ia?eiae caaa?oaiey
no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia e iinoaiaiiiai ia?aoiaea e eiiioiecio

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iaeieaeatho aeaenoaiaaoue caeiiu ia aaoi?neii i?aaa,
iiyaeaoeany a oneiaeyo no?iyuaainy nioeeaeecia. Nio?aiytho naith neeo e
Iniiau aaoi?neiai i?aaa, ooaa?aeaeaiiua iinoaiiaeaieai OeEE e NIE NNN?
io 16 iay 1928 a.2, e caeiiu ia aaoi?neii i?aaa nithciuo ?anioaeee: a
?NON? — caeii io 8 ieoya?y 1928 a.3, a Oe?aeineie NN? — caeii io 6
oaa?aey 1929 a.4, a Aaei?onneie NN? — caeii io 14 yiaa?y 1929 a.6, a
A?oceineie NN? — caeii io 30 aaaonoa 1929 a., a A?iyineie NN?—caeii io
10 oaa?aey 1930 a., a Oo?eiaineie NI?—caeii io 26 naioya?y 1928 a., a
Ocaaeneie NN?—caeii io 14 ieoya?y 1936 a., a Aca?aaeaeaeaineie NN? ii?iu
aaoi?neiai i?aaa ninoaaeytho no.no. 461—486 AE.

Ii yoi aiana ia icia/aao, /oi iinea 1928—1929 aa. iaeuecy ioiaoeoue
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey niaaoneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iii auei
iaiaoiaeeii, iineieueeo iaoa no?aia oea a iai?aaeaiee caaa?oaiey
no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia e iinoaiaiiiai ia?aoiaea e eiiioiecio. Iiaeii
oeacaoue ?yae ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, eioi?ua io/anoe aeiiieiyee i?aaeiaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ii aaoi?neiio i?aao, a io/anoe e eciaieee niune ii?i,
aicieeoeo ?aiaa.

A aeaeueiaeoeo aeaaao yoiai oiia eo?na eco/athony iiae?iaii ia oieueei
Iniiau aaoi?neiai i?aaa NNN? 1928 aiaea e ?anioaeeeaineea caeiiu ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa nithciuo ?anioaeee, ii oaeaea e ae?oaea ii?iaoeaiua
aeou, ecaeaiiua iicaeiaa, a ?aaii e i?aeoeea eo i?eiaiaiey,
aaeieieno?aoeaiay e noaeaaiay.

Ii ia iaeioi?uo ec yoeo iicaeiaeoeo iinoaiiaeaiee iaiaoiaeeii, oioy au
ae?aooea, inoaiiaeoueny oaea nae/an, a enoi?e/aneii i/a?ea. Yoi
iaiaoiaeeii aeey oiai, /oiau ane?uoue oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iaoaai
aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

I?aaeaea anaai, ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai 1928— 1929 aa.
no?ieei aaoi?neia i?aaiioiioaiea iacaaeneii io o?oaeiaiai
i?aaiioiioaiey. Oioy Iniiau aaoi?neiai i?aaa NNN? e caeiiu nithciuo
?anioaeee ia aaoi?neii i?aaa ?anniao?eaatho aaoi?neia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea,
aiii?a?, eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue iieaou o?oaea, iaeiaei i?aai ia iieaoo
o?oaea ii o?oaeiaiio aeiaiai?o e i?aai ia iieaoo o?oaea ii
ecaeaoaeueneiio aeiaiai?o noiyo ia?aeeaeueii, ia caaeny iaeii io
ae?oaiai. Iicaeiaeoaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e noaeaaiay i?aeoeea
nouanoaaiii naeeceee i?aai eeoea, ?aaioathuaai ii o?oaeiaiio aeiaiai?o,
e i?aai aaoi?a ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.

A noaeaaiie i?aeoeea yoi iai?aaeaiea iiaeii ioiaoeoue oaea a eiioea
aeaaaeoeaouo e a ia/aea o?eaeoeaouo aiaeia. Oae, A?aaeaeaineay
eannaoeeiiiay eieeaaey Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?NON? a 1929 aiaeo ioeacaeanue
i?eciaoue i?aai ia aaoi?neia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca eeoeii, ninoaaeaoei a.
ii?yaeea eniieiaiey neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey iao/ii-iiioey?ioth eino?oeoeeth
(ni?aai/iee) ii ai?ueaa n a?aaeeoaeyie ca?ia e i?iaeoeoia aai
ia?a?aaioee 1.

Ii ae?oaiio aeaeo, oaeaea 1929 aiaea. A?aaeaeaineay eannaoeeiiiay
eieeaaey Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?NON? ienaea, iaaeaeo i?i/ei:

«Ninoaaeoaeue A. yaeyeny oi?aaaeaeaie caaiaea, ia iaycaiiinoe eioi?iai
eaaeaei ninoaaeaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo io/aoia, …nii?iue o?oae
i?eiaaeeaaeeo eieeaeoeao aaeieieno?aoeee caaiaea, i?e/ai aeey
iauaaeeiaiey ?aaiou e ninoaaeaiey i/a?ea a?-io A. I?aaeinoaaeaii auei
neoaeaaiia a?aiy…». Enoiaey ec iunee i oii, /oi iaeei e oio aea o?oae,
ninoaaeaiea i/a?ea-io/aoa i ?aaioa caaiaea, ia iiaeao iiea/eaaoueny
aeaaaeaeu — aaoi?neei aiii?a?ii e ca?aaioiie ieaoie, A?aaeaeaineay
eannaoeeiiiay eieeaaey Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?NON? ioiaieea ?aoaiea noaea i
acuneaiee a iieueco A. aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca ninoaaeaiea
i/a?ea-io/aoa1.

Niaa?oaiii oaeoth aea iiceoeeth A?aaeaeaineay eannaoeeiiiay eieeaaey
Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?NON? caiyea e ii aeaeo I. (1928 a.). Oaeoe/aneea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa neiaeeeenue ii yoiio aeaeo eia/a, /ai ii aeaoi
i?eaaaeaiiui auoa aeaeai, ii i?eioeeieaeueiay iiceoeey Aa?oiaiiai Noaea
?NON? inoaeanue iaeciaiiie: «Noaeo i?e ia?aniio?a aeaea,— ienaea a naiai
ii?aaeaeaiee A?aaeaeaineay eannaoeeiiiay eieeaaey,— iaaeeaaeeo
i?iaa?eoue, a eaeeo oneiaeyo i?ioaeaea ?aaioa ioaao/eea ii ninoaaeaieth
aoeana e a eaeeo acaeiiioiioaieyo ai a?aiy yoie ?aaiou ioaao/ee
iaoiaeeeny n ae?oaeie ?aaioieeaie eaaeiaoa oieaa?neoaoa. Noae aeieaeai
ianoaeeoue aino?ia ia oneiaeyo ?aaiou ioaao/eea iaae ninoaaeaieai aoeana
a nayce n § 10 Iieiaeaiey i eaaeiaoa, aaea (eeo. «a») aiai?eony i oii,
/oi eaaeiao ninoaaeyao eeethno?e?iaaiiue iaoa?eae ii yeiiiieea e enoi?ee
e o. ae.» 2.

Oaeoth aea iiceoeeth caiyea aiineaaenoaee Noaeaaiay eieeaaey ii
a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN?. Oae, ii aeaeo E. (1940 a.)
eieeaaey oeacuaaea, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, «…ii aeieao neoaeau E. eae
caaaaeothuee ioaeaeii ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u, iaycai aue
io?aaeaeoe?iaaoue eiaaoeeny a ii?ooaea ecaeaoaeuenoaa nai?iee,
ninoaaeaiiue A., i?iecaanoe naa?eo oaenoia e aianoe iaiaoiaeeiua
eciaiaiey, ia o?aaoy ca yoi niaoeeaeueiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey a oi?ia
aaoi?neiai aiii?a?a» 8.

Oaeia ?aoaiea aii?ina i niioiioaiee aaoi?neiai e o?oaeiaiai i?aaiii/ey
neoaeauaai iieo/eei naia au?aaeaiea e a ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao. Oae, 15
yiaa?y ,1929 a. NIE ?NON? ecaeae iinoaiiaeaiea «I noaaeao
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca eniieueciaaiea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?iecaaaeaiee
ecia?aceoaeueiuo eneonnoa». Noaouey 2 yoiai iinoaiiaeaiey i?eciaea ca
ooaeiaeieeaie, ninoiyueie ia neoaeaa a i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
aaoi?neia .i?aai ia i?iecaaaeaiey, nicaeaiiua eie a neeo o?oaeiaiai
aeiaiai?a. Oi/ii oae aea ia iniiaaiee iinoaiiaeaiey NIE NNN? io 1 iiya?y
1929 a. Ia?iaeiue eiienna?eao o?oaea NNN? ecaeae iinoaiiaeaiea io 11
iiya?y 1929 a. ? 356 «Ia oneiaeyo o?oaea ?aaioieeia eneonnoa, ia/aoe e
i?inaauaiey, ianeoaeeaathueo iaieiaoaeae ii ioaeaeueiui caaeaieyi». A
no. 1 yoiai iinoaiiaeaiey IEO NNN? oeacuaaaony, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, /oi
oneiaey o?oaea ?aaioieeia ia/aoe, ianeoaeeaathueo ii ioaeaeueiui
caaeaieyi ii naiae niaoeeaeueiinoe iaeii eee ianeieueei i?aaei?eyoee eee
o/?aaeaeaiee, «?aaoee?othony iauei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i o?oaea n
ecuyoeyie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuie ianoiyuei iinoaiiaeaieai». Oi aea naiia
ioiineony e e ?aaioieeai ecia?aceoaeueiuo eneonnoa. Oaeei ia?acii,
?aaioieee ia/aoe, ei??aniiiaeaiou, o?iieea?u-?aii?oa?u, eioa?auetha?u,
?aoa?aiou, noaoueaaeee-oaeueaoiienou, ea?eeaoo?enou-eeethno?aoi?u,
?aoeaicaiou, i/a?eenou, oioi?aii?oa?u, auioneathuea ooaeiaeieee,
ei??aeoi?u, ?aaeaeoi?u yioeeeeiiaaeee, aiaoiea ?aaeaeoi?u ecaeaoaeuenoa
(i. «a» no. 2 iinoaiiaeaiey IEO NNN? io 11 iiya?y 1929 a.), a ?aaii
?aaioieee ecia?aceoaeueiuo eneonnoa: ooaeiaeieee-aeeaiienoeu,
neoeueioi?u, a?oeoaeoi?u, eiiiiceoi?u, ieaeaoenou, iocaeiua
niaoeeaeenou, iocaeiua yenia?ou, a?aoeee-eeethno?aoi?u,
yenia?ou-oa?eoeeaoi?u, ooaeiaeieee-a?aoeee (i. «a» no. 2 oiai aea
iinoaiiaeaiey) ?anniao?eaathony ia eae noauaeou aaoi?neiai
i?aaiioiioaiey, a eae noauaeou o?oaeiaiai i?aaiioiioaiey. Yoi
iiae/a?eeaaaony a no. 3 iinoaiiaeaiey IEO NNN? io 11 iiya?y 1929 a.,
aaea neacaii, /oi iinoaiiaeaiea ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony «ia eeoe,
o?aaoee?iaaaoeo naie ioiioaiey n ecaeaoaeuenoaaie a aeiaiai?ao,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia aaoi?neii i?aaa». Caeanue,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaiaeeony oa aea naiay eaeay, eioi?oth iu ioia/aee a
noaeaaiie i?aeoeea: i?aai ?aaioieea ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca aaoi?neee
o?oae ii?aaeaeyaony eeai ii?iaie a?aaeaeaineiai (aaoi?neiai) i?aaa, eeai
ii ii?iai i?aaa o?oaeiaiai, ii ia ii?aaeaeyaony oaie e ae?oaeie ii?iaie
iaeii- a?aiaiii.

Iaeiaei ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa aaoi?a anaaaea oxpa-/ythony caeiiii
ia aaoi?neii i?aaa, aeaaea eiaaea o?oae aaoi?a iiea/eaaaony ii ii?iai
o?oaeiaiai i?aaa, a ia ii ii?iai aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Oa aea oaiaeaioeey naeeaeaiey o?oaeiaiai e aaoi?neiai
(a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai) i?aaiioiioaiey i?iyaeyaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
aii?ina iieaou o?oaea iao/iuo ?aaioieeia. Ieaiiaua ?aaiou ?aaioieeia
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee e o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee n/eoathony,
eae i?aaeei, iiea/aiiuie oie ca?aaioiie ieaoie, eioi?oth iieo/aao
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee ia?niiae enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo einoeoooia e
i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneee ia?niiae aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.
?acoiaaony, ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa aaoi?ia a iieiie ia?a io?aiaiu
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia aaoi?neii i?aaa. Aeaei eaeao oieueei i oii, /oi
caeii ?anniao?eaaao ca?aaioioth ieaoo e aaoi?neee aiii?a? eae yaeaiey
iaeiiai ii?yaeea, ia aeiioneay, eae i?aaeei, oaeaiaiey iieaou o?oaea. Ii
a oaeii neo/aa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaiciiaeii i?iaiaeeoue
i?eioeeieaeueiia ?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo oai e ae?oaei aeaeii iieaou
o?oaea 1.

A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iieo/aiea i?aiiaeaaaoaeai aunoaai o/aaiiai
caaaaeaiey eee nio?oaeieeii iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai einoeoooa eo
ooaoiuo ieeaaeia ia ieacuaaao aeeyiey ia eo i?aai iieo/eoue ca
ecaeaaaaiua o?oaeu aaoi?neia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. A yoeo neo/ayo ca?aaioiay
ieaoa ia ca/eouaaaony a n/ao aaoi?neiai aiii?a?a. Oae ianoieo aeaei n
iieaoie aaoi?ia o/aaieeia aeey aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. Ii yoio iniaue
ii?yaeie (ono?aiaiea ca/aoa iaeiiai aeaea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca o?oae a
n/ao ae?oaiai aeaea) ia eieaaeao ?acoeueoaoia iiae/a?eeaaaiiai iaie
iieiaeaiey: aaoi?neia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, aiii?a?, anoue ?aciiaeaeiinoue
iieaou o?oaea.

Yoa iineaaeiyy iuneue iaoiaeeo naaa au?aaeaiea e a iacaaiiie auoa no. 2
iinoaiiaeaiey NIE ?NON? io 15 yiaa?y 1929 a. «I noaaeao aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
ca eniieueciaaiea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiuo
eneonnoa» 2.

I/aaeaeii oaeaea, /oi yoa ii?ia eiaao a aeaeo eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey — iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa — aeey ioaeae i?aaiecaoeee ca
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, i?aaeoniio?aiiia a o?oaeiaii aeiaiai?a, oieueei a
i?aaeaeao, oeacaiiuo oai aea aeiaiai?ii. Ca yoeie i?aaeaeaie aeaenoaea
o?oaeiaiai i?aaa i?ae?auaaony, aeaenoaoao oieueei a?aaeaeaineia
aaoi?neia i?aai.

No?aieoaeueiue ?ino nioeeaeenoe/aneie eoeueoo?u iaiaeiie?aoii o?aaiaae
niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i o/?aaeaeaiee, ?oeiaiaeyueo
aeayoaeueiinoueth ecaeaoaeuenoa, oaao?ia, eeii, a oaeaea i?aaiaie
no?oeoo?u ecaeaoaeueneeo, eeiaiaoia?aoe/aneeo e c?aeeuiuo i?aaei?eyoee.
N ia?aciaaieai nithcii-?anioaeeeaineiai Ieienoa?noaa eoeueoo?u NNN? a
yoii ieienoa?noaa nin?aaeioi/aii ?oeiaiaenoai, aeayoaeueiinoueth
ecaeaoaeuenoa, oaao?ia, i?aaiecaoeee, aeaenoaothueo a iaeanoe eeii,
iaoaie/aneie caiene iocueaeueiuo, ae?aiaoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo
i?iecaaaeaiee.

Ieienoa?noai eoeueoo?u NNN? iai?aaeyao oaeaea aeayoaeueiinoue nithcia
?aaioieeia oai?/aneeo i?ioannee: Nithca niaaoneeo ienaoaeae NNN?, Nithca
niaaoneeo eiiiiceoi?ia NNN?, I?aeiieoaoa Nithca niaaoneeo ooaeiaeieeia
NNN?.

Nithc niaaoneeo ienaoaeae aue ia?aciaai a inouanoaeaiea iinoaiiaeaiey
OeE AEI(a) io 23 ai?aey 1932 a. «I ia?ano?ieea
eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee»3. Onoaa Nithca,
ooaa?aeaeaiiue NIE NNN? 17 oaa?aey 1935 a.4, i?eciae oeaeueth Nithca
«aeoeaiia o/anoea niaaoneeo ienaoaeae naiei ooaeiaeanoaaiiui oai?/anoaii
a nioeeaeenoe/aneii no?ieoaeuenoaa, caueoo eioa?ania ?aai/aai eeanna e
oe?aieaiea Niaaoneiai Nithca iooai i?aaaeeaiai ecia?aaeaiey enoi?ee
eeanniaie ai?ueau i?ieaoa?eaoa, eeanniaie ai?ueau e no?ieoaeuenoaa
nioeeaeecia a iaoae no?aia, iooai ainieoaiey oe?ieeo o?oaeyueony iann a
nioeeaeenoe/aneii aeooa».

Ia?aniio? Onoaaa aoi?ui Ananithciui nuacaeii ienaoaeae a 1954 aiaeo eiae
caaea/ae ?anoe?eoue e?oa aeayoaeueiinoe Nithca, i?aaeaea anaai iooai
aiaea/aiey a iaai iaeaieaa oe?ieeo e?oaia niaaoneeo ienaoaeae, oeo/oeoue
aai i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o, i?eaeeceoue Nithc e aeaeo ai?ueau
eaaeaeiai ienaoaey ca iaoeeiiiia iiauoaiea naiaai ianoa?noaa. Ii
iniiaiay oeaeue Nithca inoaaony iaeciaiiie.

Eae e ae?oaea nithcu ?aaioieeia oai?/aneeo i?ioannee, Nithc ienaoaeae
i?ecaai inouanoaeyoue e i?aaiaoth caueoo eioa?ania naieo /eaiia. Ii
i?aaiecoao th?eaee/aneoth iiiiuue /eaiai Nithca, i?aaeaea anaai a
aii?inao aaoi?neeo ioiioaiee, i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaoao io eo eiaie a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo, i?iecaiaeeo yenia?oecu a
nii?ao, naycaiiuo n aaoi?neeie ioiioaieyie.

Iinoaiiaeaieai NIE NNN? io 28 ethiy 1934 a.1 i?e Nithca niaaoneeo
ienaoaeae aue ia?aciaai Eeoa?aoo?iue oiiae Nithca NN?, iniiaiie caaea/ae
eioi?iai yaeyaony «niaeaenoaea /eaiai Nithca niaaoneeo ienaoaeae NNN?
iooai oeo/oaiey eo eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey e iaoa?eaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey, a oaeaea ieacaiea iiiiue ?anoouei ienaoaeueneei eaae?ai
iooai nicaeaiey aeey ieo iaiaoiaeeiuo iaoa?eaeueii-auoiauo oneiaee» (no.
2 iacaaiiiai iinoaiiaeaiey NIE NNN?).

Eeoa?aoo?iue oiiae inouanoaeyao naith aeayoaeueiinoue, iiaeaea?aeeaay
oanioth naycue n ?aaioie ecaeaoaeuenoa e c?aeeuiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Aeey ia?aciaaiey n?aaenoa eeoa?aoo?iiai oiiaea ecaeaoaeuenoaa e
?aaeaeoeee aeo?iaeia, auioneathuea ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eeoa?aoo?iua
i?iecaaaeaiey, oaao?u ae?aiaoe/aneea, aeaoneea, eieoicii-niaoiciua e
oaao?u ieieaoth?, a oaeaea eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey e
i?aaiecaoeee, ono?aeaathuea niaeoaeee e eeoa?aoo?iua aa/a?a, i?iecaiaeyo
aeaiaaeiua aciinu. Yoe aciinu en/eneythony a i?ioeaioiii ioiioaiee e
noiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, auiea/eaaaiui aaoi?ai; anee ?a/ue eaeao i
niaeoaeeyo eee i eeoa?aoo?iuo aa/a?ao, oi i?ioeaio en/eneyaony io noiiu
aaeiaiai nai?a.

I?e Nithca niaaoneeo eiiiiceoi?ia, nicaeaiiii a neeo iinoaiiaeaiey NIE
NNN? io 4 iay 1939 a., iinoaiiaeaieai NIE NNN? io 20 naioya?y 1939 a.
i?aaieciaai Iocueaeueiue oiiae NNN? «a oeaeyo niaeaenoaey oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe niaaoneeo eiiiiceoi?ia e iocueiaaaeia, a oaeaea oeo/oaiey
eo iaoa?eaeueii-auoiaiai iieiaeaiey». N?aaenoaa iocueaeueiiai oiiaea
ia?acothony ca n/ao aciinia, i?iecaiaeeiuo ecaeaoaeuenoaaie,
auiea/eaathueie aiciaa?aaeaeaiea aaoi?ai iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, a
oaeaea io/eneaiee io nai?ia oaao?ia, noaayueo iocueaeueiua niaeoaeee,
iia?a, iia?aooa, aaeao eee yno?aaeiua eiioea?ou) 1. Ia iaeii?iaeiuo
ia/aeao i?aaieciaaiu Ooaeiaeanoaaiiue oiiae NNN? e A?oeoaeoo?iue oiiae.

A 1932 aiaeo auei i?aaieciaaii Oi?aaeaiea ii io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa
?NON?2, i?aia?aciaaiiia a 1938 aiaeo ai Ananithciia oi?aaeaiea ii io?aia
aaoi?neeo i?aa (AOIAI). Iuia Ananithciia oi?aaeaiea ii io?aia aaoi?neeo
i?aa aeaenoaoao ia iniiaaiee Iieiaeaiey i iai, ooaa?aeaeaiiiai
nae?aoa?eaoii Nithca ienaoaeae NNN? 8 oaa?aey 1956 a.

Niaeanii Iieiaeaieth, Oi?aaeaiea ninoieo a aaaeaiee Nithca ienaoaeae
NNN? e eiaao iniiaiie caaea/ae io?aio i?aa aaoi?ia i?e ecaeaiee e
ioaee/iii eniieiaiee eeoa?aoo?iuo (ii ia iao/iuo), ae?aiaoe/aneeo e
iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, aeeth/ay eeii-, ?aaeei- e oaeaaeceiiiua
ia?aaea/e e iaoaie/aneoth caienue.

Ia Ananithciia oi?aaeaiea ii io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa aiceaaaaony oaeaea
nai? n ecaeaoaeuenoa e c?aeeuiuo i?aaei?eyoee onoaiiaeaiiuo io/eneaiee a
eeoa?aoo?iue e iocueaeueiue oiiaeu NNN?. Oi?aaeaiea a ea/anoaa
i?aaenoaaeoaey aaoi?ia aceiaao ni c?aeeuiuo i?aaei?eyoee,
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, a a iiaeeaaeaueo neo/ayo n
ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee aaoi?neee aiii?a? ca ioaee/iia eniieiaiea
i?iecaaaeaiee, a oaeaea eieanne?oao aaoi?neee aiii?a?, ia auiea/aiiue
ecaeaoaeuenoaaie aaoi?ai i?e ecaeaiee eo i?iecaaaeaiee, a ?aaii e
iioe?aaeiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea aaoi?ia ca noeaia?ee e iaienaiea iocuee e
eeiiea?oeiai e aaoi?neia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiee a iaoaie/aneie caiene.

Oi?aaeaiea aaaeao o/ao aaoi?ia, eiathueo i?aai ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca
ioaee/iia eniieiaiea eo i?iecaaaeaiee, e ia?a/aiue eniieiyaiuo ioaee/ii
i?iecaaaeaiee, aaoi?neia i?aai ia eioi?ua io?aiyaony aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Ii cayaeaieth aaoi?ia, Oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaeeo ?aaeno?aoeeth
i?iecaaaeaiee, ?ac?aoaiiuo e ecaeaieth eee ioaee/iiio eniieiaieth

Iaeiie ec ooieoeee Ananithciiai oi?aaeaiey ii io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa
yaeyaony ieacaiea aaoi?ai th?eaee/aneie iiiiue ii aii?inai, naycaiiui n
ecaeaieai e ioaee/iui eniieiaieai i?iecaaaeaiee. Iiiiuue ieacuaaaony
iooai eiinoeueoaoeee, ia?aienee, a eiaaea yoi ieacuaaaony iaiaoiaeeiui,
iooai caueou eioa?ania aaoi?ia a noaeaaiuo i?aaiao.

A neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe Oi?aaeaiea i?eieiaao ia?u aeey onoaiiaeaiey
aaoi?neeo i?aa ioaeaeueiuo aaoi?ia ia oi eee eiia i?iecaaaeaiea e
ieacuaaao aaoi?ai niaeaenoaea a o?aaoee?iaaiee eo acaeiiioiioaiee e
?an/aoia, a /anoiinoe iooai i?iaaaeaiey yenia?oec. Ii cayaeaieth
niaaoi?ia, Oi?aaeaiea ?aaeno?e?oao niaeaoaiey i niaaoi?noaa.

N inouanoaeaieai caaea/ Oi?aaeaiey ii ieacaieth aaoi?ai th?eaee/aneie
iiiiue naycaiu e niae?aiea e nenoaiaoecaoeey ei ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia,
naycaiiuo n aaoi?neei i?aaii NNN?.

Ananithciia oi?aaeaiea ii io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa ?ani?ino?aiyao naith
aeayoaeueiinoue ia anth oa??eoi?eth NNN?. A nithciuo ?anioaeeeao iii
i?aaiecoao ia iniiaaiee ?aoaiee i?aaeaiey Nithca ienaoaeae NNN?
?anioaeeeaineea oi?aaeaiey iee ioaeaeaiey; a e?ayo, iaeanoyo, aaoiiiiiuo
?anioaeeeao, ai?iaeao e e?oiiuo ianaeaiiuo ioieoao nicaeaaony naoue
oiieiiii/aiiuo. A neo/aa iaaeiaiinoe nicaeathony iaaeiaeanoiua
ioaeaeaiey.

Iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai aeayoaeueiinoueth Ananithciiai oi?aaeaiey ii io?aia
aaoi?neeo i?aa inouanoaeyao i?aaeaiea Nithca ienaoaeae NNN?, ii
niaeaniaaieth i iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo n Nithcii niaaoneeo eiiiiceoi?ia.
Ai aeaaa Oi?aaeaiey noiyo aee?aeoi? e aai caianoeoaeue. N?aaenoaa
Oi?aaeaiey ia?acothony ec onoaiiaeaiiuo io/eneaiee io eieanne?oaiuo
Oi?aaeaieai noii aaoi?neiai aiii?a?a e i?ioeaioia ii oaeouei n/aoai a
Ainaaiea, ia eioi?uo o?aiyony eieanne?iaaiiua Oi?aaeaieai noiiu aei eo
ia?aaea/e ii iacia/aieth.

Nai? aaoi?neiai aiii?a?a e io/eneaiee a eeoa?aoo?iue e iocueaeueiue
oiiaeu i?iecaiaeeony oiieiiii/aiiuie Oi?aaeaiey e aai ?anioaeeeaineeo e
iaaeiaeanoiuo oi?aaeaiee e ioaeaeaiee. Oiieiiii/aiiua iaycaiu ia?yaeo ni
nai?ii aiii?a?a e io/eneaiee ieacuaaoue aaoi?ai niaeaenoaea a caueoa eo
aaoi?neeo i?aa i?e ecaeaiee e ioaee/iii eniieiaiee i?iecaaaeaiee.

A aaaeaiee Oi?aaeaiey ninoieo ioaeae ?ani?ino?aiaiey ae?aiaoe/aneeo
i?iecaaaeaiee aeey oaao?ia e yno?aaeu, aeaenoaothuee ia iniiaaiee
iniaiai Iieiaeaiey, ooaa?aeaeaaiiai Oi?aaeaieai.

Ni a?aiaie ecaeaiey Iniia aaoi?neiai i?aaa e caeiiia nithciuo ?anioaeee
ia aaoi?neii i?aaa ia ?ac aicieeaea iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieiaiee e
oniaa?oainoaiaaiee niaaoneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Auno?ia ?acaeoea a NNN? eeiaiaoia?aoee iio?aaiaaei iiiai/eneaiiuo
aeiiieiaiee e ii?iai caeiiia ia aaoi?neii i?aaa, ?aaoee?othuei ioiioaiey
aaoi?ia noeaia?eaa n eeiaiaoia?aoe/aneeie i?aaei?eyoeyie. Oeiiaua
eeiinoeaia?iua aeiaiai?u, au?aaioaiiua, a caoai ia?a?aaioaiiua
Ieienoa?noaii eeiaiaoia?aoee NNN? a 1940, 1943, 1951—1952aa., y,
iaeiiaoe. Oeiiaie noeaia?iue aeiaiai? aeey ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo oeeueiia,
ooaa?aeaeaiiue Ieienoa?noaii eoeueoo?u NNN? 22 oaa?aey 1956 a., oae aea
eae aaeeiia Iieiaeaiea i nuaii/iie a?oiia (ni. ieaea), ooaa?aeaeaiiia
oai aea ieienoa?noaii a 1947 aiaeo (e iuia ia?a?aaaouaaaiia), e ae?oaea
aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeou, ioiinyueany e yoie iaeanoe ioiioaiee, iai?aaeaiu
ia oe?aieaiea oai?/aneiai niae?oaeanoaa aaoi?ia eeiinoeaia?eaa,
eeii?aaeenna?ia e eniieieoaeueneeo eieeaeoeaia eeiinooaeee a oeaeyo
nicaeaiey eaeaieiae/anee e ooaeiaeanoaaiii iieiioeaiiuo eeiioeeueiia.

Iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN? io 16 ethiy 1948 a. onoaiiaeaiu
noaaee aaoi?neiai aiii?a?a i?e ?aaeeiia?aaea/ao. I?aeoeea ?ani?ino?aieea
eo e ia aaoi?neea aiii?a?u a oaeaaeaeaiee.

Aia?aua ooaa?aeaeai 24 ia?oa 1956 a. Oeiiaie iinoaiiai/iue aeiaiai?.

A oi aea a?aiy ana aua aeaeoo e ianoie/eai o?aaotho onoie/eaiai
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a nayce n caienueth
i?iecaaaeaiee ia a?aiiioiiiua ieanoeiee e oaeaaeaeaieai (ni. ieaea).

Ii/oe iao?aaoee?iaaiiui inoaaony ?yae ioiioaiee aaoi?ia i?iecaaaeaiee
ecia?aceoaeueiuo eneonnoa, ana oe?a eniieuecoaiuo ecaeaoaeuenoaaie,
iao/iuie, ooaeiaeanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, a oaeaea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
a auoo.

?acia? aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiuo
eneonnoa ana aua ia aeinoaoi/ii ii?aaeaeai ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie.

Iaeiiaoe, iiiaea iieiaeaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa eae a noa?a eiouanoaaiiuo,
oae e a iaeanoe iaeiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee aaoi?ia onoa?aee.

Iaiaoiaeeii i?eciaoue, /oi, iaace?ay ia iaonoaiiia ?acaeoea niaaoneiai
aaoi?neiai i?aaa, ?ino niaaoneie eoeueoo?u e niaaoneiai ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa iaiaiae yoi ?acaeoea. Niaaoneia aaoi?neia i?aai, i?iaeieaeay
au?aaeaoue iacuaeaiue nioeeaeenoe/aneee i?eioeei io?aiu oai?/aneie
ee/iinoe e eiouanoaaiiuo eioa?ania aaoi?a a ni/aoaiee n eioa?anaie
iauanoaa, o?aaoao nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a ?yaea naieo
eiie?aoiuo ii?i.

Enoi?ey aaoi?neiai i?aaa

N?aaeiea aaea

A N?aaeiea aaea i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa auee oae iacuaaaiua
«i?eaeeaaee». I?eaeeaaee auaeaaaeenue iiia?oii ee/ii aaoi?o ii i?inueaa
iineaaeiaai. Eae i?aaeei, i?eaeeaaee auaeaaaeenue ia ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
eeoa?aoo?iua i?iecaaaeaiey, e oaeay i?aeoeea auea ?aaeeie. Iiiaea o/?iua
e ethaee eneonnoaa i?eaea?aeeaaeenue oie oi/ee c?aiey, /oi eo
i?iecaaaeaiey yaeythony ia aeoii oai?aiey; iie yaeythony eeoue
«i?iaiaeieeaie» aiaeanoaaiiiai ciaiey, eioi?ia au?aaeatho iineeueiui
niiniaii. Niioaaonoaaiii, cayaeyoue i?aaa ia naie i?iecaaaeaiey auei
aanniuneaiii e a?aoiaii.

Iiaia a?aiy

1710 aiae. Aia?aua i?eiyo caeii — Noaooo ei?ieaau Aiiu, aaiaeyuee
aaoi?neia i?aai. Caeii, i?eiyoue a?eoaineei ia?eaiaioii, caueuaao
aaoi?ia eiea, ea?o e /a?oaaeae. Aaoi? i?iecaaaeaiey iaeaaeaao i?aaaie ia
nai? oai?aiea ia i?ioyaeaiee 14-oe eao e iinea enoa/aiey yoiai n?iea
eiaao i?aai i?iaeeeoue aai au? ia 14 eao. ?aaeno?aoeey i?iecaiaeeony a
noaeao. A oii aea aiaeo eeoa?aoi? Aeaeii Ay??e ec Oeeaaeaeueoee caueoee
naith eieao «Eieaa Oeeaaeaeueoeeneiai I?ieciioaiey».

1802 aiae. Aaoi?neei i?aaii ?ac?aoaii caueuaoue ethaua ecaeaiey,
auoaaeoea ec oeiia?aoee.

1831 aiae. I?aai ia aaoi?neia i?aai iieo/atho eiiiiceoi?u. Iioiua caiene
eo i?iecaaaeaiee cai?auaii ia?aia/aouaaoue e i?iaeaaaoue aac ?ac?aoaiey.
N?ie aeaenoaey eiie?aeoa i?iaeeai aei 28 eao n i?aaii i?ieiiaaoeee au?
ia 14 eao.

1841 aiae. Ia?aue a?iieee noaeaaiue i?ioeann ia aaoi?neii i?aaa. Noae
i?eciae aeiiaiui a ia?ooaiee a?oeaenoa, eioi?ue iioaeeeiaae ienueia
ia?aiai i?aceaeaioa NOA Aeaei?aeaea Aaoeiaoiia a nai?i aeo?iaea.

1853 aiae. Ecaanoiay ienaoaeueieoea Aa??eao Ae/a?-Noio ia?aoeeanue a
noae n eneii i?ioea ecaeaoaey, eioi?ue naiiaieueii ia?aaae a? eieao
«Oeaeeia aeyaee Oiia» ia iaiaoeeee ycue e ia/ae i?iaeaaaoue eieao a NOA
n?aaee iaiaoeeeo eiiea?aioia. Noae ii?aaaeae ecaeaoaey, iinoaiiaea, /oi
ia?aaiae — yoi ia i?inoi eiie?iaaiea.

1856 aiae. Aaoi?neei i?aaii ?ac?aoaii caueuaoue ae?aiaoe/aneea
i?iecaaaeaiey.

1865 aiae. Aaoi?neia i?aai ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia oioia?aoee.

1870 aiae. Ana ?aaiou ii ?aaeno?aoeee aaoi?neeo i?aa i?eieiaao ia naay
Aeaeeioaea Eiia?anna NOA. Eiie?aeo ?ani?ino?ai?i ia ooaeiaeieeia e
neoeueioi?ia. Ioaeaeueii ioia/aii, /oi i?aai ia cai?auaao ia?aaiaeeoue
eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea ia eiino?aiiue ycue eee nicaeaaaoue
noeaie/aneea einoeaie?iaee ia aai iniiaa.

1886 aiae. Iiaeienaii ia?aia iieiiianooaaiia iaaeaeoia?iaeiia niaeaoaiea
i caueoa aaoi?neeo i?aa — Aa?ineay eiiaaioeey. Oeaeueth eiiaaioeee auei
iaania/eoue acaeiiia i?eciaiea aaoi?neeo i?aa ?acee/iuie ainoaea?noaaie
e onoaiiaeaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ii?i aeey eo caueou. Aa?iiaeneea no?aiu
aeiaiai?eeenue nicaeaoue aaeeioth i?ioeaaeo?o ?aaeno?aoeee aaoi?neeo
i?aa, a ia ?aaeno?e?iaaoue eiie?aeo a eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii ainoaea?noaa.
Aa?ineay Eiiaaioeey iaiaeiie?aoii ia?aniao?eaaeanue e aeiiieiyeanue. E
i?eia?o, a 1908 aiaeo auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea onoaiiaeoue n?ie aeaenoaey
i?aaa a n?ie aeecie aaoi?a iethn 50 eao. NOA i?eniaaeeieeenue e Aa?ineie
Eiiaaioeee oieueei aae nionoy — a 1988 aiaeo.

1891 aiae. NOA caeeth/eee ia?aia niaeaoaiea i iaaeaeoia?iaeiie caueoa
aaoi?neeo i?aa. I?eiyoea yoiai caeiia eieoeee?iaaee aia?eeaineea
ienaoaee. Oae eae NOA ia i?eniaaeeieeenue e Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee,
«ie?aou» ia/aee aeoeaii ecaeaaaoue a NOA eieae aa?iiaeneeo ienaoaeae ii
i/aiue ieceie oeaia. I?iaeoeoeey aia?eeaineeo ienaoaeae ii yoie aea
i?e/eia noaea i?iaeaaaoueny ieioi.

1897 aiae. Iocueaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey cai?auaii eniieiyoue aac
?ac?aoaiey aaoi?a.

XX aae

1909 aiae. I?eiyoi i?aaeei, niaeanii eioi?iio aaoi?neea i?aaa
i?eia?aoathony iinea ia?aie ioaeeeaoeee (iaia?iaeiaaiey) i?iecaaaeaiey.
N?ie aeaenoaey i?aaa oaaee/ai — ?ac?aoaii i?iaeeaaaoue ia 28 eao.

1912 aiae. Aaoi?neei i?aaii ?ac?aoaii caueuaoue eeiioeeueiu. ?aiaa iie
n/eoaeenue io?aneueth oioia?aoee. I?aaa ia oeeuei i?eiaaeeaaeao
?aaeenn??o, noeaia?enoo e eiiiiceoi?o.

1952 aiae. A AEaiaaa, iiae iao?iiaaeai THIANEI, iiaeienaia Anaie?iay
eiiaaioeey ia aaoi?neii i?aaa (AEAI).

1953 aiae. Aaoi?neei i?aaii ?ac?aoaii caueuaoue aaniethoii ana
eeoa?aoo?iua i?iecaaaeaiey.

1967 aiae. A Noieaieueia ainoaea?noaa-/eaiu AE?IE iiaeienaee
eiiaaioeeth, o/?aaeaeathuoth nicaeaiea Anaie?iie i?aaiecaoeee ii
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe (World Intellectual Property
Organization, WIPO).

1971 aiae. A Ia?eaea i?iecioae iineaaeiee ia?aniio? Aa?ineie eiiaaioeee
i caueoa aaoi?neeo i?aa.

1978 aiae. N?ie aeaenoaey eiie?aeoa aiiaue i?iaee?i. Oaia?ue ii
aeaenoaoao aei nia?oe aaoi?a e inoa?ony a neea au? 50 eao.

1980 aiae. Eiie?aeoii ?ac?aoaii caueuaoue eiiiuethoa?iua i?ia?aiiu.

1982 aiae. A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai NOA aiinyony aeiiieiaiey, eioi?ua
iicaieytho i?eaiai?eoue ia?ooeoaeae caeiia ia aaoi?neeo i?aaao e e?oiiui
oo?aoai e oth?aiiiio caeeth/aieth.

1983 aiae. Ciaeiaue noaeaaiue i?ioeann. A?eoaineay yioeeeeiiaaeey
iiaeaea a noae ia i?aaiu oeieueiiai ia?aciaaiey NOA, iaaeiea eo a oii,
/oi iie ecaioaaeeaatho aeey oeie o/aaiua oaeaia?aaea/e, a eioi?uo
aeoeaii eniieuecotho eioi?iaoeeth yioeeeeiiaaeee. Yoe ia?aaea/e
o?ainee?othony ii iiiaei oeieai, e?iia oiai, aeinooi e caienyi eiatho
ana aeaeathuea oeieueieee e eo ?iaeeoaee. Noae anoae ia noi?iio
A?eoaineie Yioeeeeiiaaeee, iin/eoaa, /oi iaaeaaiae ia?ooeee caeii ia
aaoi?neeo i?aaao.

1987 aiae. Ecaanoiue ienaoaeue Aeaea?ii Nyeeiaeaea? iiaeae a noae ia
ienaoaey Eaia Oyieeoiia, eioi?ue iiaeaioiaee aai eeoa?aoo?ioth
aeia?aoeth. Nyeeiaeaea? iaaeiee Oyieeoiia a iacaeiiiii eniieueciaaiee
ienai, iieo/aiiuo Oyieeoiiii io aae?anaoia Nyeeiaeaea?a. Noae cai?aoee
ioaeeeaoeeth aeia?aoee.

1990 aiae. Eiie?aeoii ?ac?aoaii caueuaoue a?oeoaeoo?iua i?iaeou,
eiiiuethoa?ioth a?aoeeo, ooaeiaeanoaaiiua einoaeeyoeee e ia?oi?iainu.

1991 aiae. Iauaeoii noaeaaiiai nii?a noaee oaeaoiiiua eieae. Iaeia
eiiiaiey-ecaeaoaeue iiaeaea a noae ia ae?oaoth, iaaeiea a? a oii, /oi
iia iaia/aoaea aiaeiae/ioth eioi?iaoeeth. Noae iinoaiiaee, /oi aae?ana e
oaeaoiiu aeeoaeae oiai eee eiiai ai?iaea ia iiaoo caueuaoueny
eiie?aeoii, iioiio /oi yaeythony «eieeaeoeeae oaeoia», eioi?oth eaaeaeue
ai?aaa niae?aoue e ioaeeeiaaoue.

1992 aiae. Cai?auaii ia?aienuaaoue e aini?iecaiaeeoue iocueaeueiua
caiene aac ?ac?aoaiey aeaaeaeueoeaa i?aa ia ieo. *anoiay caoeicaienue
?ac?aoaia eneeth/eoaeueii aeey aeiiaoiaai iieueciaaiey.

1993 aiae. Ia?aue i?ioeann i ia?ooaiee i?aa eiie?aeoa a Eioa?iaoa.
AEo?iae Playboy canoaeee aeaaeaeueoea eioa?iao-naeoa, eioi?ue auaanee ia
i?i ioneaie?iaaiiua oioia?aoee aeaaooae ec aeo?iaea.

1994 aiae. Cai?auaia iaeaaaeueiay caienue aunooieaiee iocueaioia e
ia?acaienue aeaeaieeeiia. A oii aea aiaeo ecaanoiue iocueaio ?ie I?aenii
iiaeae a noae ia a?oiio 2 Live Crew, eioi?ay nia?iaee?iaaea iaeei ec aai
oeoia. Noae anoae ia noi?iio 2 Live Crew.

1995 aiae. I?aoeaaeaioiue noaeaaiue i?ioeann i ia?ooaiee aaoi?neeo i?aa
a Eioa?iaoa. Iaeei ec iieueciaaoaeae na?aa?a auaanee ia i?i iaoa?eaeu,
caueu?iiua eiie?aeoii. Aeaaeaeaoe aaoi?neeo i?aa iiaeae a noae ia
aeaaeaeueoea na?aa?a. Noae ii?aaaeae ioaao/eea.

1998 aiae. N?ie aeaenoaey aaoi?neeo i?aa i?iaeeai. Ii aeaenoaoao aei
nia?oe aaoi?a e iethn 70 eao iinea yoiai.

Iiaue caeii ia?aie/ee aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey eiiiuethoa?ia aeey
eiie?iaaiey e aini?iecaiaenoaa i?iecaaaeaiee, caueuaaiuo aaoi?neei
i?aaii. Eiie?aeoii ?ac?aoaii caueuaoue oi?io ei?iona noaeia.

XXI aae

2001 aiae. AEo?iaeeno, aiaooaoiue nio?oaeiee aacaou Iueth-Ei?e Oaein,
auea?ae i?ioeann i?ioea yoiai ecaeaiey. I?e/eiie enea noaei oi, /oi
ecaeaoaeuenoai aueiaeeei ?yae aai iaoa?eaeia a aaco aeaiiuo,
i?aaeeaaaaioth aeey eiiia?/aneiai eniieueciaaiey.

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