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История российского уголовного законодательства XX века

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Enoi?ey ?inneeneiai oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa XX a.

Oaieiaii-i?aaiaua ii?iu iainiaeythony a ioaeaeueiuo ?acaeaeao naiaeia
caeiiia.

No?iaua iaeacaiey, oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea i?inoie e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie
(niaa?oaaiie io/eoaeueiui niiniaii) nia?oiie eacie

Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea oieoeoee?iaaiiie oa?ieiieiaee (iiyaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiee
iiiyoee «i?anooieaiea», «iaeacaiea» e o.ae.), ii?iu iauaai oa?aeoa?a
?aniieaaathony a annioeeaoeaiii ii?yaeea, ii au? ia auaeaeythony a
ioaeaeueiue aeie.

Oiaiueoaaony eacoenoe/iinoue i?aaa, ii?iu i i?anooieaieyo i?eaiaeyony a
nenoaio, auaeaeaiea ?iaeiaiai iauaeoa eae e?eoa?ey nenoaiaoecaoeee.

Iieo/aao ?acaeoea o/aiea i noauaeoa i?anooieaiey (a oii /enea i
aiaiyaiinoe).

1. I?aaeiao e cia/aiea ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee ?inneeneiai oaieiaiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa

Enoi?eei-n?aaieoaeueiue iaoiae iiciaiey oaieiaiiai i?aaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
/eneo aaaeiaeoeo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo caeiiia. Eoi ia ciaao i?ioeiai
no?aiu, ieioi i?eaioe?oaony a ianoiyuai e neai ia?aae aoaeouei.

Eae ioia/aeinue, iiiyoeai oaieiaiiai i?aaa ioaaouaathony oaieiaiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e oaieiaii-i?aaiaua ioiioaiey. A aeaiiie aeaaa ?a/ue
iieaeao ia enoi?ee oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

A iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea enoi?ey a oeaeii e, a /anoiinoe, enoi?ey
oaieiaiiai i?aaa noaee i?aaeiaoii ino?aeoeo aeeneonnee. E niaeaeaieth,
nii?u iaoneiaeaiu ia?aaeei ia iauaeoeaiui aiaeecii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, a
iieeoece?iaaiiui eiiiaioe?iaaieai oaieiaii-i?aaiaie iieeoeee ia ii
caeiiai, a ii noaeaeaieyi i iae oiai eee eiiai aaoi?a. Aeey
eeethno?aoeee iiaeii i?eaea/ue niiinoaaeaiea aeaa ii enoi?ee oaieiaiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a o/aaieeao oaieiaiiai i?aaa (Iauay /anoue. I.:
Ecae-ai IAO, 1993 a.) e iaeiieiaiiiai o/aaieea ecaeaoaeuenoaa NIA?E 1996
e 1997 aa. Iie ?acee/athony ia oieueei o?aoe?aoiie ?acieoeae a iauaia
enoi?e/aneeo aeaa, ii e ioeaieie caeiiia. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi caeii –
yoi iieeoeea, /oi oaieiaiue caeii anaaaea e aacaea io?aiyao
ainiiaenoaothuee ?aaeei aeanoe, yeiiiie/aneea, nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey
aeaiiiai ainoaea?noaa, enoi?e/aneay enoeia o?aaoao ioeaca io
iieeoece?iaaiiinoe, noauaeoeaiuo i?eno?anoee eiiiaioaoi?a e oiio eee
eiiio enoi?e/aneiio ia?eiaeo.

Nouanoaotho iiiaiaaeiaua iaua/aeiaa/aneea i?eioeeiu caeiiiinoe,
aoiaiiinoe, ni?aaaaeeeainoe, eioi?uie e iaaeeaaeeo iieueciaaoueny eae
e?eoa?eyie a ioeaieao caeiiia. Iuia a ?innee aeanyoee iieeoe/aneeo
ia?oee e aua aieueoa ?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee. Aeoiaaony,
iaeiaei, /oi iaeuecy aianoi oaenoa caeiia i?eaiaeeoue aai noauaeoeaiia
oieeiaaiea. A aieueoeinoaa naiai oaieiaiua caeiiu eceiaeaiu aeinoaoi/ii
ynii e a iniauo eiiiaioa?eyo ia ioaeaeathony. Iaeuecy, iai?eia?,
aeeaiienaoue i “e?aniii oa??i?a”, caauaay i “aaeii oa??i?a”, e i?e yoii
ia i?eaiaeeoue oaeno Aeae?aoa “Ia ioiaia nia?oiie eacie”, eioi?ue aue
i?eiyo ia II Ana?inneeneii nuacaea Niaaoia a iaeei aeaiue n Aeae?aoii “I
caiea” 26 ieoya?y 1917 a. Iaiauaeoeaii iiaoi?youe ecaeoua naioaioeee i
“e?iaiaeaaeiinoe” aieueoaaeeia e ia i?eaiaeeoue nenoaio iaeacaiee,
eioi?ay ii?iaoeaii iiyaeeanue oaea a 1918-1919 aa., a iicaea a OE ?NON?
1922 a., ia aiai?eoue i oii, /oi aiienoee a ia/aea 20-o aa. neaaeiaaee
/ooue ee ia /a?ac iieaiaea. Iaiauaeoeaii eceaaaoue enoi?eth oaieiaiiai
i?aaa ?innee a XX a. oaeei ia?acii, /oi o nooaeaioa nicaeaaony
aia/aoeaiea, /oi e?iia Oaieiaiiai oeiaeaiey 1903 a. aiiaua ie iaeiiai
i?ia?anneaiiai oaieiaiiai caeiia ia nouanoaiaaei. Oaeie iiaeoiae,
aiciiaeii, aue au oianoai a aaoi?neie iiiia?aoee eee aeo?iaeueiie
noaouea, ii ia a o/aaieea aeey aocia.

Iiieii aaneoith?iiai oeeoe?iaaiey oaenoa caeiia aeey oyniaiey aai niunea
cia/eiu caeiiii?iaeoiua iaoa?eaeu. Aeaenoaaiiinoue oaieiaiiai caeiia
oa?aeoa?ecotho oaeaea i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiay i?aeoeea e oaieiaiay
noaoenoeea, ioeoeeaeueiay e iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay. Iineaaeiyy
iieacuaaao, ianeieueei yooaeoeaai caeii a i?ioeainoiyiee i?anooiiinoe.

Cia/aiea enoi?eei-n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
ninoieo a auyaeaiee noaaeeueiuo oaiaeaioeee aai yaiethoeee. Oaeea
oaiaeaioeee iicaieytho ioiineoaeueii aeinoiaa?ii i?iaiice?iaaoue
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Oaeie aiaeec
aanueia i?iaeoeoeaai e a niaa?oainoaiaaiee oaieiaiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Ecaanoii, /oi i?ioeann oniaa?oainoaiaaiey caeiia
iinoiyiai. Enoi?e/aneee iiuo iicaieeo “ia ecia?aoaoue aaeineiaae”, a a
iieiie ia?a eniieueciaaoue aai.

Ia?eiaeecaoeey enoi?ee ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a XX a.
iaiaeiicia/ii eceaaaaony a o/aaieeao ii enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.
?acee/ey ia oieueei ai a?aiaiiuo ia?aiao?ao aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, ii e a eo
ioeaiea, iaaeyaeiaa anaai au?aaeaiiie a icaaeaaeeaaiee yoaiia. Oae, a
eo?na eaeoeee “Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ?innee” ia?eiaeecaoeey
?oa?eoee?oaony ii oanoe yoaiai: I – ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e ao?aeoaciie
iiia?oee; II – ia?eiae ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee; III –
ia?eiae nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee e nicaeaiey Niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaa; IV – ia?eiae ia?aoiaea io eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecio; V –
ia?eiae ainoaea?noaaiii-ia?oeeiiai nioeeaeecia (1930 – ia/aei 60-o aa.);
VI – ia?eiae e?ecena nioeeaeecia.

Aaoi?u o/aaieea “Enoi?ey ioa/anoaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa” auaeaeytho
naiue ia?eiaeia ?acaeoey Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: I – nicaeaiea
niaaoneiai i?aaa (ieo. 1917-1918); II -i?aai a ia?eiae a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu e eioa?aaioeee (1918-1920); III – niaaoneia i?aai a ia?eiae iyia
(1921-1929); IV – niaaoneia i?aai a ia?eiae ei?aiiie eiiee iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee (1930-1941); V – niaaoneia i?aai a ia?eiae Aaeeeie
ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu (1941-1945); VI – niaaoneia i?aai a ia?eiae
iineaaiaiiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
(1945-1965); VII – niaaoneia i?aai a ia?eiae eeaa?aeecaoeee iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee (na?aaeeia 60-o aa.); VIII – niaaoneia i?aai a ia?eiae
caiaaeeaiey oaiiia ?inoa iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey (70 – 80-a aa.); IX –
i?aai a ia?eiae ?anoaa?aoeee eaieoaeecia (1991 a. – ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy).

A iiaaeoeo o/aaieeao oaieiaiiai i?aaa enoi?e/aneay ia?eiaeecaoeey ia
niaeanoaony n o/aaieeaie ii enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. Oioy iiiyoii,
/oi iia aeieaeia auoue anee ia oiaeaeanoaaiiie, oi, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
aeeceie e aaciaui o/aaieeai. Oae, aeaoa?eiao?aneea aaoi?u (aaoi? aeaau –
i?ioanni? E.ss.Eica/aiei) ?acaeaatho anth enoi?eth oaieiaiiai i?aaa
?innee ia o?e yoaia. Ia?aue – Ae?aaiyy ?onue. “Oeiaeaiea oiai ia?eiaea a
naieo aii?oiuo, ca/aoi/iuo i?iyaeaieyo auei i?aaii oaeoa e eiie?aoiiai
inoeoaey”. Ia aoi?ii yoaia oeiaeaiea i?aaenoaaeaii a iaienaiuo (iau/ae
oaieiaiiai i?aaa) e ienaiuo ii?iao. O?aoee yoai, eioi?ue i?iaeieaeaaony
iiiuia, – ia?eiae eneeth/eoaeueii ienaiiai oaieiaiiai i?aaa. Eae aeaeei,
e?eoa?eai ia?eiaeecaoeee iineoaeeei ienaiia eee iaienaiia i?aai (oioy
iaienaiia, eae iiiyoii, aiiaua e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ia eiaao ioiioaiey).
Oi/ea c?aiey i?eaeiaeueiay, ii aanueia nii?iay.

Ethaiiuoioth ia?eiaeecaoeeth i?aaeeaaaao i?ioanni? A.A.Iaoiia. Enoi?ey
aeaeeony ei ia o?e aanueia ia ?aaiuo ii a?aiaie /anoe: aeiniaaoneee
ia?eiae, niaaoneee e iinoniaaoneee. Ia?aue yoai ioaaouaaao aeanyoue
aaeia, aoi?ie – o?e /aoaa?oe aaea, o?aoee – naiue eao. Iniiaaiey
?oa?eeaoeee iayniu.

A aeaiiie aeaaa i?aaeeaaaaony neaaeothuay nenoaiaoecaoeey ?inneeneiai
oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa XX a. Iia enoiaeeo ec aeaoo e?eoa?eaa: a)
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu aeanoe; a)
enoi/ieeia oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa:

I – oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e ao?aeoaciie
iiia?oee e ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeea (1901 a. – ieoya?ue
1917 a.);

II – noaiiaeaiea niaaoneiai oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (ieoya?ue 1917
a. – 1922 a.);

III – ia?aua Oaieiaiua eiaeaenu ?NON? (1922 a. – 1926 a.);

IV – ia?aia iauanithciia oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. ?anioaeeeaineea
OE 1926-1940 aa.;

V – oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia?eiaea a?oauo ia?ooaiee caeiiiinoe
(1927-1941 aa.);

VI – aiaiiia e iineaaiaiiia oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai (1941-1953
aa.);

VII – oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia?eiaea eeaa?aeecaoeee iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee (1953-1960 aa.);

VIII – oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia?eiaea caiaaeeaiey ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee (1961-1985 aa.);

IX – oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia?eiaea ia?ano?ieee (1985-1990 aa.) e
iinoniaaoneiai ia?eiaea (1991-2000 aa.).

2. Oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia?eiaea ia?aoiaea e ao?aeoaciie
iiia?oee e ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeea (1901 a. – ieoya?ue
1917 a.)

Aeaaaeoeaoue aae ?inneeneay eiia?ey ia/aea n Oeiaeaieai i iaeacaieyo
oaieiaiuo e eni?aaeoaeueiuo 1845 a. a ?aaeaeoeee 1885 a. Oeiaeaiea
i?aaenoaaeyei niaie e ii oi?ia, e ii niaea?aeaieth eiina?aaoeaiue
i?aaiaie aeo oaiaeaeueii-iiia?oe/aneie nioeeaeueii-eeanniaie nouiinoe,
i?e yoii ia iieiinoueth eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue. Ii naiae ionoaeinoe iii yaii
i?ioeai?a/eei iiaui eiaeono?eaeueiui, aa?a?iui, noaeaaiui ?aoi?iai 70-o
aa. Iaeaieaa cia/eiui aeinoieinoaii Oeiaeaiey neaaeoao n/eoaoue oi, /oi
iii aia?aua a ?inneeneii oaieiaiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa nenoaiaoece?iaaei
oi?iu ia Iauoth e Iniaaiioth /anoe. Iaaei neacaoue, /oi noaeaaiay
?aoi?ia 1864 a. e iineaaeothueo eao niaa?oeea ianoiyuee i?i?ua a
?inneeneie i?aaiaie nenoaia a noi?iio oeeaeeecaoeee iaoa?eaeueiiai e
i?ioeannoaeueiiai oaieiaiiai i?aaa. A aa iniiao eaa i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae: noaeaaiay aeanoue ioaeaeyeanue io caeiiiaeaoaeueiie,
eniieieoaeueiie e aaeieieno?aoeaiie aeanoe, aeanoue iaaeieoaeueiay – io
noaeaaiie. I?iaicaeaoaeinue ?aaainoai anao ia?aae caeiiii. Ioiaiyeenue
aeey aeaiuei oaeaniua iaeacaiey aiiaua, aeey ioae/ei – ?icae e
oieoe?ooaiu. Aaiaeeeny noae i?enyaeiuo e ie?iaua noaeuee. Iineaaeiea
iiaee ?anniao?eaaoue aeaea i i?anooieaieyo n iaeneiaeueiie naieoeeae aei
aeaoo eao eeoaiey naiaiaeu.

Oeiaeaiea i iaeacaieyo oaieiaiuo e eni?aaeoaeueiuo ia auei iieiinoueth
eiaeeoeoee?iaaii. Nenoaiaoecaoeey, th?eaeeei-oaoie/aneee aniaeo oaeaea
ionoaaaee io o?aaiaaiee a?aiaie. Ninoaaeoaee Oeiaeaiey a iniiaiii naaee
aiaaeeii oaieiaii-i?aaiaua ii?iu ec Naiaea caeiiia ca aeaa
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo noieaoey. Iii aeeth/aei 2304 noaouee, /oi a/aoaa?i
i?aauoaei n?aaeiee iauai aeaenoaiaaaoeo oiaaea eiaeaenia. Iiieii
Oeiaeaiey oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaeoniao?eaaeanue a Onoaaa i
iaeacaieyo, iaeaaaaiuo ie?iauie noaeueyie (181 noaouey), a Aieineii
Onoaaa i iaeacaieyo (282 noaouee).

Iauay /anoue Oeiaeaiey (eieaa ia?aay), eae e Oeiaeaiea a oeaeii, eiaea
aanueia neiaeioth ?oa?eeaoeeth: /anoe, ?acaeaeu, aeaau, ioaeaeaiey.
I?anooieaiea e i?inooiie ii?aaeaeyeenue eae naii i?ioeaicaeiiiia
aeayiea, oae e iaeniieiaiea oiai, /oi “iiae no?aoii iaeacaiey caeiiii
i?aaeienaii”. TH?eaee/aneia (oi?iaeueiia), o.a. ii i?eciaeo
i?ioeaicaeiiiie iaeacoaiinoe, iiiyoea i?anooieaiey, iaeiaei, ia
eneeth/aei i?eiaiaiey ii?i ii aiaeiaee, i /ai niaoeeaeueii aiai?eeinue.
I?ioeai?a/eea iiiyoeth i?anooieaiey eae aeayiey e iaeacoaiinoue “aieiai
oiunea” (caiuoeaiey i?anooieaiey) e aai iaia?oaeaiea aiaia. Oae, a no. 6
aiai?eeinue, /oi “i?e noaeaeaiee i i?anooieaieyo oiuoeaiiuo i?eieiaaony
a oaaaeaiea ia.. iaeei eeoue /a?ac /aai-eeai iaia?oaeaiiue oiunae”.
I?eciaeii oiunea no. 7 i?eciaaaea “ecuyaeaiea ia neiaao eee ienueiaiii
eee eiui eaeei-eeai aeaenoaeai iaia?aiey o/eieoue i?anooieaiea”.
Nia?oiie eaciueth ea?aeinue ceioiuoeaiea iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia aeeciue,
caei?iauea, /anoue oea?y (no. 241).

*?acau/aeii neiaeiie e iaeiia?aiaiii no?iaie auea nenoaia (“eanoieoea”)
iaeacaiee: 11 ?iaeia e 37 noaiaiae, aeaeia iaeacaiey.

Eiina?aaoeaiinoue e iai?eaiaeiinoue Oeiaeaiey niciaaaee ana. Iiyoiio
oaea a 60-o aa. XIX a. i?e eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a II ia/aeenue
caeiiii?iaeoiua ?aaiou ii caiaia Oeiaeaiey. Iie caoyioeenue ia 22 aiaea
e ia?aaeeee o?ao eiia?aoi?ia. 22 ia?oa 1903 a. Ieeieae II ooaa?aeee
Oaieiaiia oeiaeaiea: “Auoue iinaio”.

Ia iao/iie eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie 90-eaoeth Oaieiaiiai oeiaeaiey,
ioia/aeenue aai aunieee iao/iue o?iaaiue e oaoie/aneia niaa?oainoai.
Iaeaieaa oaea/ii auea neiino?oe?iaaia Iauay /anoue,
aaoi?ii-?ac?aaio/eeii eioi?ie aue o/aiue ie?iaiai ianooaaa i?ioanni?
I.N.Oaaaioeaa.

Iiiaea iieiaeaiey Oaieiaiiai oeiaeaiey ia iioa?yee naiae aeooaeueiinoe
iiiuia e aiieia iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e aeaeueiaeoai
niaa?oainoaiaaiee OE ?O 1996 a.

Oaieiaiia oeiaeaiea nouanoaaiii ioee/aeinue io i?aaeoanoaothuaai
Oeiaeaiey. I?aaeaea anaai, naiae e?aoeinoueth – 687 noaoae, 72 ec
eioi?uo i?eoiaeeeenue ia Iauoth /anoue. Iii ninoiyei ec 8 ioaeaeaiee,
eioi?ua ?aaeaiaioe?iaaee iiiyoea i?anooieaiey, eaoaai?ecaoeeth oaieiaiuo
aeayiee, aeaeu iaeacaiee, aeaenoaea oaieiaiiai caeiia a i?ino?ainoaa,
nieaeaiea e caiaio iaeacaiey, ianoiyoaeuenoaa, oneeeaathuea e
ono?aiythuea iaeacoaiinoue.

I?anooieaiea ii?aaeaeyeinue eae aeayiea, “aini?auaiiia ai a?aiy aai
niaa?oaiey caeiiii iiae no?aoii iaeacaiey”. Aiaeiaey ioiaiyeanue.
Oaieiaiua aeayiey iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia o?e eaoaai?ee, enoiaey ec oi?iu
aeiu e naieoeee: oyaeeea i?anooieaiey, i?anooieaiey e i?inooiee. Oyaeeea
i?anooieaiey – eneeth/eoaeueii oiuoeaiiua. I?anooieaiey iaeacuaaeenue
oiaea i?e iaee/ee oiuoeaiiie aeiu. I?e iaee/ee aea aeiu iainoi?iaeiie –
oieueei a neo/ayo, iniai caeiiii oeacaiiuo. Oaeay ii?ia, ecaanoiay
aieueoeinoao OE ie?a, iiyaeeanue a OE ?O eeoue a 1996 a. Oeiaeaiea
aia?aua a ?inneeneii i?aaa noi?ioee?iaaei ii?io i aic?anoiie
iaaiaiyaiinoe, eioi?ay iiyoue-oaee iiyaeeanue o ian eeoue a OE 1996 a.

Aoiaiiie aeey iaeieioueo auea ii?ia i aiciiaeiinoe ion?i/ee oo?aoa ia
aiae. I?aaenoaaeyao ianiiiaiiue eioa?an onoaiiaeaiea 3 no. 24 i oii, /oi
“aeaiaaeiay iaiy, aeey eiae caeiiii ia onoaiiaeaii iniaia iacia/aiea,
ia?auaaony ia ono?ienoai iano caeeth/aiey”. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
aaaenoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey ?inneeneeo eniieieoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee
iiaeiaiay ii?ia iuia aanueia au i?eaiaeeeanue.

Iieooaiea iaeacuaaeinue eeoue i?eiaieoaeueii e oyaeeei i?anooieaieyi.
Iii iiaeeaaeaei iaycaoaeueiiio niya/aieth n?aaieoaeueii n naieoeeae,
i?aaeoniio?aiiie ca ieii/aiiia i?anooieaiea.

Aiieia iainiiaaiii iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai i?eaioiaeaiey e i?anooieaieyi
oaea 95 eao iacaae ?onneia oaieiaiia i?aai i?eciaaaei i?a?aaiiinoue
i?eaioiaeoaeueiuo aeaenoaee ii ianoiyoaeuenoaai, io aiee aeiiaiiai ia
caaenyuei.

Aoiaiii e yooaeoeaii a i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiii ieaia neiino?oe?iaaei
Oaieiaiia oeiaeaiea aeia?iaieueiue ioeac nio/anoieeia. Ana iie (a ia
oieueei iiniaieee, eae a OE 1996 a.) inaiaiaeaeaeenue io oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe eae aeia?iaieueii ioeacaaoeany, anee i?aaei?eiyee ana
caaenyuea io ieo ia?u aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey i?anooieaiee. Iaycaoaeueii
niya/aeinue iaeacaiea nio/anoieeo a neo/ayo, eiaaea aai niaeaenoaea
i?anooieaieth auei ianouanoaaiiui.

E ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei a aic?anoa aei 21 aiaea nia?oiay eaciue ia
i?eiaiyeanue (ii OE 1996 a. – aei 18 eao). Nia?oiay eaciue caiaiyeanue
nnueeie ia iinaeaiea, anee inoaeaeaiiue aeinoea 70-eaoiaai aic?anoa (ii
OE ?O nia?oiay eaciue ia i?eiaiyaony e ioae/eiai noa?oa 65 eao).

Caiaoii oi?iuaia auea nenoaia iaeacaiee. Iniiaiua aeaeu: nia?oiay
eaciue, eaoi?aa, nnueea ia iinaeaiea, caeeth/aiea a eni?aaeoaeueiii
aeiia, caeeth/aiea a oth?ueia, a?ano, aeaiaaeiay iaiy (oo?ao). A?ano
i?aaeoniio?ai aia?aua a OE 1996 a. Iiuo i?eiaiaiey a?anoa ii Oaieiaiiio
oeiaeaieth e Oeiaeaieth i iaeacaieyo oaieiaiuo e eni?aaeoaeueiuo iia au
iuia aanueia i?eaiaeeoueny.

Oaieiaiiio oeiaeaieth ia noaeaeaii auei anooieoue a neeo ia anae
oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Iieiinoueth iii aeaenoaiaaei a Eaoaee,
Eeoaa, Ynoiiee. Ia inoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee ?innee aeaenoaiaaee aeaa aeaau
Iniaaiiie /anoe e aua ianeieueei aeanyoeia ii?i. Aioee a caeiiioth neeo
naiua ?aaeoeeiiiua aeaau “I aoioa i?ioea aa?oiaiie aeanoe” e “I niooa”.
Aani?aoeaaeaioiay aeey o?aaeeoeeiiii iaiiai?ioeeaie iiia?oe/aneie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe iia?aoeaiinoue a aeaiiii neo/aa iauyniyeanue
no?aoii ia?aae a?yaeoueie ?aaiethoeeyie. Aacaeueoa?iaoeaii nia?oiie
eaciueth i?aneaaeiaaeenue iinyaaoaeuenoaa “aiiaua ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue
nayuaiiie iniau oea?noaothuaai eiia?aoi?a, eiia?ao?eoeu eee ianeaaeieea
i?anoiea” (no. 99). Nia?oiay eaciue i?aaeoniao?eaaeanue e ca iieooaiea,
e ca i?eaioiaeaiea e yoiio i?anooieaieth. Aeaaea inei?aeaiea iaiyoe
oniioeo oea?noaaiiuo inia iaeacuaaeinue caeeth/aieai a e?aiinoue (no.
107).

Oaeie aea ioe?uoie eeanniai-iieeoe/aneie auea iiceoeey Oaieiaiiai
oeiaeaiey a aeaaa “I niooa”. O/anoea a neiieua, nia?aaoainy aeey
au?aaeaiey iaoaaaeaiey e aa?oiaiie aeanoe, ii?eoeaiey ia?aca i?aaeaiey,
ni/oanoaey aoioo eee aoioiaueeai ea?aeinue caeeth/aieai a e?aiinoe eee
oth?ueia. Iaeacoaiu nnueeie i?iecianaiea ?a/e, ninoaaeaiea, o?aiaiea,
i?aaea ni/eiaiee, aicaoaeaeathueo e iaiiaeiiaaieth aeanoe (no. 129,
132).

Iao?oaeii aeaeaoue, /oi noieue iiniaoii aaaaeaiiua a aeaenoaea aeaau
aoiaeeee a i/aaeaeiia i?ioeai?a/ea n i?eioeeiii caeiiiinoe, cae?aieaiiui
a iiiyoee i?anooieaiey eae aeayiey, iaiaeacoaiinoe oaaaeaeaiee,
iaiaeacoaiinoe naiiai ii naaa oiunea eee aai iaia?oaeaiey aiaia.
Aiciiaeii iiyoiio iaeaieaa i?ia?anneaiay e aeaiie?aoe/iay Iauay /anoue
oae e ia noaea aeaenoaothuei caeiiii. Ionthaea iaaeyaeii aeaeii, /oi
e?eoeea “eeanniaiai iiaeoiaea” oieueei ia?auo OE ?NON? 1922 e 1926 aa.
aii?aee, yeiau, niaa?oaiiiio Oaieiaiiio oeiaeaieth 1903 a. enoi?e/anee
iaei??aeoia.

Iaeiaei ?ai?anneaiua oaieiaiua caeiiu ia niiaee oaa?a/ue oea?neee
?aaeei. Iiia?oey a ?innee iaea 27 oaa?aey 1917 a. Oiaaea aea a
Iao?ia?aaea ia?aciaaeny Niaao ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia (ia?aua
Niaaou iiyaeeenue a a. Eaaiiaa a 1905 a.). A ia?oa noi?ie?iaaeinue
A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai. A ethia 1917 a. 390 ianoiuo aeaiooaoia
i?eneaee ia Ia?aue Ana?inneeneee nuacae Niaaoia naieo aeaeaaaoia,
eioi?ua eca?aee eniieieoaeueioth aeanoue – Ana?inneeneee Oeaio?aeueiue
Eniieieoaeueiue Eiieoao (AOeEE). Aicieeei aeaiaaeanoea. 1 naioya?y
?inney auea i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeeie.

Iinea iiaeaaeaiey aii?oaeaiiiai ainnoaiey a ethea a Iao?ia?aaea
A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ecaeaao iinoaiiaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio
iaeacaieth iiaeeaaeaee i?ecuau e ianeeuenoaaiiui i?anooieaieyi.
Iinoaiiaeaiea “I ia/aoe” aaiaeeo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca “i?ecuau e
a?aaeaeaineie aieia”, naeaeaiiua a ia/aoe. I?ii?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay,
aioeia?iaeiay iai?aaeaiiinoue oaeeo oaieiaiuo caeiiia i/aaeaeia.
Iaeiia?aiaiii ioiaiyaony nia?oiay eaciue, eioi?ay anei?a
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony aeey aiaiiineoaeaueo.

Niaeanii iinoaiiaeaieth “I niaeaniaaiee Naiaea caeiiia n ecaeaaaaiuie
A?aiaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii iinoaiiaeaieyie” i?iaeieaeaee aeaenoaiaaoue
oaieiaiua caeiiu oea?neiai a?aiaie – Oeiaeaiea i iaeacaieyo oaieiaiuo e
eni?aaeoaeueiuo, Oaieiaiia oeiaeaiea a aeaoo aeaaao e ?yae noaoae aai
Iniaaiiie /anoe, Onoaa i iaeacaieyo, iaeaaaaiuo ie?iauie noaeueyie,
Aiaiiue onoaa i iaeacaieyo. Oai naiui ieiei 300 iaeaieaa ?ai?anneaiuo
ii?i ieacaeenue aeaenoaothueie. Iaeiaei A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai yoei ia
aeiaieuenoaiaaeinue e ecaeaaaei nianoaaiiua iinoaiiaeaiey, ia
niaeanothueany n i?eioeeiii caeiiiinoe. Iai?eia?, iinoaiiaeaiea io 16
ethey 1917 a. “I ii?yaeea ?anniio?aiey aeae i eeoeao, a?anoiaaiiuo a
ianoaeaaiii ii?yaeea” i?eciaaaei iaaeinoaoi/iui noaeaaiia aicaeaenoaea
ia eeoe, oaea niaa?oeaoeo i?anooieaiey “Aeiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa, –
aiai?eeinue a iai, – i?aaeioa?aoeoue aiciiaeiinoue i?anooiiui caiuneai
aeic?aaaoue aei ia/aea eo inouanoaeaiey, eai ai a?aiy aieiu aeaaea
e?aoeia ia?ooaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai niieienoaey oaeo a naaa aaeeeoth
iianiinoue”.

Aani?aoeaaeaioiue a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa oaeo: ca naiiaaeoeaoue eao
ia/aea XX a. a ?innee niaieeenue o?e no?iy: iiia?oey,
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?anioaeeea, ?anioaeeea Niaaoia ?aai/eo,
nieaeaoneeo e e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia. Oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
eaaeaeiai ec ieo io?aiyei eo a niioaaonoaee ni naiei
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneei i?aaeiacia/aieai.

26 ieoya?y 1917 a. (7 iiya?y ii iiaiio eaoien/eneaieth) a ?innee auea
i?iaicaeaoaia Niaaoneay aeanoue.

3. Noaiiaeaiea niaaoneiai oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (1917-1922 aa.)

?anniao?eaaaiue yoai n iiaaaeu Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee aei
i?eiyoey ia?aiai niaaoneiai OE 1922 a. i?aaenoaaeyao cia/eoaeueiue
eioa?an eae ia?eiae ?iaeaeaiey ia?aiai a ie?iaie enoi?ee
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai oaieiaiiai i?aaa, ia eiathuaai aiaeiaia a i?ioeii.

A ia?eiae i?iaaaeaiey Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee (1917-1919 aa.)
enoi/ieeaie oaieiaiiai i?aaa neoaeeee ia?auaiey e ianaeaieth
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iinoaiiaeaiey nuacaea Niaaoia, aeae?aou, iaeacu ianoiuo
Niaaoia ?aai/eo, e?anoueyineeo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia, eino?oeoeee
Ia?eiithnoa, a oaeaea noaeaaiay i?aeoeea. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?aaiauie
aeoaie ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeanue ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaeaieaa oyaeeea e
?ani?ino?aiaiiua i?anooieaiey – niaeoeyoeeth, acyoi/ie/anoai,
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua i?anooieaiey. A aeae?aoao i noaea e ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
o?eaoiaeao oaeaea ii?aaeaeyeenue iaeacaiey ca oeaeue ?yae i?anooieaiee.
Iaeiaei iaoiaeeeinue ianoi e aeey ii?i Iauae /anoe oaieiaiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Iai?eia?, ii?iu i nio/anoee, iieooaiee ia
i?anooieaiea niaea?aeaeenue a aeae?aoao 1918 a. i acyoi/ie/anoaa, i
niaeoeyoeee, i iaaaoiii caiia.

Ia?aue aea oaieiaii-i?aaiaie aeo, niaea?aeaueeny a Aeae?aoa i caiea,
i?eiyoue II Ana?inneeneei nuacaeii Niaaoia 26 ieoya?y 1917 a., ?ane?uaae
nioeeaeueiia iiiyoea i?anooieaiey: “Eaeay au oi ie auei ii?/a
eiioeneiaaiiiai eiouanoaa, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai ioiuia anaio ia?iaeo,
iauyaeyaony oyaeeei i?anooieaieai, ea?aaiui ?aaiethoeeiiiui noaeii”.
Auea inouanoaeaia e ia?aay eeanneoeeaoeey i?anooieaiee ia aeaa
eaoaai?ee: eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua, iniai oyaeeea e ana eiua. Ca ia?aoth
a?oiio i?anooieaiee onoaiaaeeaaeanue naieoeey ia ieaea niioaaonoaothuaai
n?iea eeoaiey naiaiaeu, ca aoi?oth – aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea.

O/eouaay aaaenoaaiiia nioeeaeueiia e yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea aeaoae e
iiae?inoeia a no?aia, iaee/ea aeaooieeeeiiiie a?iee aani?eci?iuo,
niaaoneia oaieiaiia i?aai onoaiiaeei aoiaiiue aic?ano ia/aea oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe – n 17 eao. Aeae?ao NIE io 14 yiaa?y 1918 a. “I
eiienneyo aeey ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo” oi?acaeiee noaeu e oth?ueio aeey
iaeieaoieo e ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo i?anooiieeia. Aeaea i i?anooieaieyo
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aei 17 eao ?anniao?eaaee eiiennee aeey
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo.

A oa/aiea ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa iinea ?aaiethoeee Aeae?aoaie i noaea N 1
io 24 iiya?y 1917 a. e N 2 io 7 ia?oa 1918 a. ?ac?aoaeinue i?eiaiaiea
noaeaie aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, anee iii ia
ioiaiyeinue ?aaiethoeeae e ia i?ioeai?a/eei ?aaiethoeeiiiie niaanoe.
oaeoe/anee aea ianoiua ia?iaeiua noaeu aei?aaiethoeeiiiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eae i?aaeei, ia i?eiaiyee. *aua ia iaai nnueaeenue
auoanoiyuea ie?oaeiua noaeu, aaea ?aaioaee i?ioanneiiaeueiua th?enou.
Ia?iaeiua noaeu ?acei io?eoeaoaeueii ioiineeenue e /oaeaeiio ei
oea?neiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao e iinoaiiaeaieyi A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
Aua aei Ieoya?ueneie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee a E?iiooaaeoa, a
Auai?aneii ?aeiia Iao?ia?aaea e ae?oaeo ianoao ia?iae aieeioe?iaae
noa?ue noae e nicaeaaae iiaua ?aaiethoeeiiiua noaeu. Aeaaa A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa A.O.Ea?aineee auioaeaeai aue naieoeeiie?iaaoue yoe noaeu.
?yaeii n noaeueae aeaea neooaee aeaa canaaeaoaey – ?aai/ee e nieaeao.

Aeae?ao i noaea N 3 io 3 iiya?y 1918 a. oaea ia niaea?aeae iieiaeaiey ia
eniieueciaaiee caeiiia naa?aioouo i?aaeoaeuenoa. Niaaoneia oaieiaiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai enoi?e/anee neeaaeuaaeinue iooai neiia oea?neiai
aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai ao?aeoacii-iiiaue/ueaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e
nicaeaiey iiaie nenoaiu i?aaa. Oea?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iaeuecy auei
eniieueciaaoue e ii th?eaeeei-oaoie/aneei iniiaaieyi: iii i?aaenoaaeyei
niaie ianoiyuea “oaieiaii-i?aaiaua aeaeoiaee”. I/aaeaeii, /oi oaeiai
?iaea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iaaiciiaeii auei iaoaie/anee eiei?ii?e?iaaoue a
niaaoneia oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Iiyoiio i?iaeo Oeiaeaiey i
iaeacaieyo 1918 a., ninoaaeaiiue oiaaeaoiei ia?eiiii e iaoaie/anee
aini?iecaiaeeaoee a nie?auaiiii aeaea Oaieiaiia oeiaeaiea 1903 a.
(nio?aiaii 380 noaoae) n aeiaaaeaieai iaeioi?uo aeae?aoia Niaaoneie
aeanoe, aue ioaa?aioo.

19 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. eino?oeoeeae Ia?eiithnoa, iaiaueaoaai ia?aue
iany/iue iiuo noaeaaiie i?aeoeee, noaeai aue i?aaeeiaeai oee?eoey? “I
?aaiethoeeiiiii o?eaoiaea, aai ninoaaa, aeaeao, iiaeeaaeaueo aai
aaaeaieth, iaeaaaaiuo ei iaeacaieyo e i ii?yaeea aaaeaiey aai
canaaeaiee”. A iai ?aeiiaiaeiaaeinue ainaiue aeaeia iaeacaiee ca oyaeeea
i?anooieaiey, aeaea i eioi?uo auee iiaenoaeiu o?eaoiaeai: aeaiaaeiue
oo?ao; eeoaiea naiaiaeu; oaeaeaiea ec noieeoeu, ec ioaeaeueiuo
ianoiinoae, ec i?aaeaeia ?inneeneie ?anioaeeee; iauyaeaiea iauanoaaiiiai
ii?eoeaiey; iauyaeaiea a?aaii ia?iaea; eeoaiea anao eee iaeioi?uo
iieeoe/aneeo i?aa; naeaano? eee eiioeneaoeey eiouanoaa; i?enoaeaeaiea e
iaycaoaeueiui iauanoaaiiui ?aaioai.

Nia?oiay eaciue a ia?aie ii?iaoeaii i?aaenoaaeaiiie nenoaia iaeacaiee
niaaoneiai oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ionoonoaiaaea, e ia neo/aeii. A
/enea aeae?aoia II Ana?inneeneiai nuacaea Niaaoia 26 ieoya?y 1917 a. aue
i?eiyo Aeae?ao “Ia ioiaia nia?oiie eacie”. Oae, Niaaoneay aeanoue n?aco
noi?ioee?iaaea naia i?eioeeieaeueiia ioiioaiea e yoie ia?a iaeacaiey.
Aei oaa?aey 1918 a. ?anno?aeu a Niaaoneii ainoaea?noaa ii noaeo ia
i?iecaiaeeeenue. Nia?oiay eaciue auea ainnoaiiaeaia a nayce n
/?acau/aeiui iieiaeaieai, noaaeaoei iiae oa?ico nouanoaiaaiea niaaoneiai
no?iy, iinoaiiaeaieai Niaia?eiia io 23 oaa?aey 1918 a.
“Nioeeaeenoe/aneia Ioa/anoai a iianiinoe”. A 1920 a. nia?oiay eaciue
niiaa ioiaiyaony e iicaea a nayce n oaie aea e?aeieie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie
aii?oaeaiiiai aoi?aeaiey e oa?icu iieiiai naa?aeaiey Niaaoneie aeanoe
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony. Aii?in “eoi-eiai” noiye oiaaea i?aaeaeueii ino?i.
Iiae aeanoueth Niaaoia a 1919 a. inoaaaeanue eeoue 1/4 /anoue oa??eoi?ee
?innee. Ia inoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee aeanoaiaaei “aaeia aeaeaeaiea”.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue aoiaieci oaieiaiie iieeoeee a ia?aua aiaeu iinea
?aaiethoeee, ia?aoiaeyuee /anoi a iaiainiiaaiiue eeaa?aeeci. Oae, ca
ia?aia iieoaiaeea nouanoaiaaiey A*E iia ?anno?aeyea ca
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua i?anooieaiey eeoue 222 /aeiaaea. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
1918 a. eiee/anoai ?anno?aeyiiuo ca eiio??aaiethoeeiiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue ninoaaeei anaai 2% io iauaai /enea inoaeaeaiiuo ca
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua i?anooieaiey.

Ia?iaeiua noaeu a. Iineau ca aoi?oth iieiaeio 1918 a. i?eaiai?eee e
aaconeiaiiio eeoaieth naiaiaeu 21,5%, e oo?aoo – 56,9% inoaeaeaiiuo. Ca
e?aaeo eaaeaeue aoi?ie aue inoaeaeai e oneiaiie ia?a iaeacaiey. NIE
Iao?ia?aaeneie eiiioiu a 1918 a. iauyaee aiienoeth a /anoue 1 iay,
niaeanii eioi?ie inaiaiaeaeaeenue io iaeacaiey “ana eeoea, inoaeaeaiiua
ca iieeoe/aneea i?anooieaiey”.

Ana yoi ii?iaa?aaao oaeueneoeeaoeee i aa?aa?noaa ?onneiai ia?iaea,
oa??i?ecia aieueoaaeeia. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe “e?aniue oa??i?” aue
ioaaoiie ia?ie ia “aaeue oa??i?”. Aio o?iiieiaey oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoia:
1 yiaa?y yna?u niaa?oeee iieooaiea ia A.E.Eaieia a Iao?ia?aaea, 20 ethiy
iie oaeee Aieiaea?neiai, 30 aaaonoa yna?ea Eaieai oyaeaei ?aieea
A.E.Eaieia a Iineaa, e a oio aea aeaiue aue oaeo i?aaenaaeaoaeue *E
I.N.O?eoeeee. A ethea aue oaeo iaiaoeeee iinie Ie?aao. Yna?u caoaaoeee
/anoue oa??eoi?ee Iineau, ?yae caeaiee, a oii /enea oaeaoiiioth
noaioeeth, a?anoiaaee O.Y.Aeca?aeeineiai, I.ss.Eaoeena, i?aaenaaeaoaey
iineianeiai Niaaoa I.A.Nieaeiae/a. Eae aea ioaaoee ia
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiue iyoaae e oa??i?enoe/aneea aeou o?eaoiae?
Aieueoeinoai iyoaaeieeia auee inoaeaeaiu e o?ai aiaeai eeoaiey naiaiaeu.
?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia?oee eaauo yna?ia Nie?eaeiiiao e Naaeeia noae
i?eaiai?ee e iauanoaaiiui ?aaioai e /a?ac aeaa aeiy ii aiienoee
inaiaiaeee.

Ioia/ay e?aeithth auioaeaeaiiinoue “e?aniiai oa??i?a”, A.E.Eaiei ienae:
“Iaoa aeaei – noaaeoue aii?in i?yii. *oi eo/oa? Aueiaeoue ee e
iinaaeeoue a oth?ueio, eiiaaea aeaaea ?anno?aeyoue nioie eciaiieeia ec
eaaeaoia, aania?oeeiuo, iaiueoaaeeia, yna?ia, aunooiathueo (eoi n
i?oaeeai, eoi n caaiai?ii, eoi n aaeoaoeeae i?ioea iiaeeecaoeee) i?ioea
Niaaoneie aeanoe, oi anoue ca Aeaieeeia? Eee aeiaanoe aeaei aei oiai,
/oiau iicaieeoue Eie/aeo e Aeaieeeio ia?aaeoue, ia?ano?aeyoue,
ia?aii?ioue aei nia?oe aeanyoee ouny/ ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi? Auai? ia
o?oaeai”.

Aaeie?ae Eie/ae iacuaae naay “Aa?oiaiui i?aaeoaeai ?innee”. Nithcieee
Aoeaiou i?eciaaaee aai oaeiaui e ieacuaaee aio uaae?oth aiaiioth
iiiiuue. Eiiaiaeothuee aia?eeaineeie aieneaie ienae i oii, eae aae naay
Eie/ae a Neae?e. “Niaa?oaeenue /oaeiaeuiua oaeenoaa, ii eo niaa?oaee ia
aieueoaaeee, eae aeoiaao ie?. ss ieneieueei ia iia?aoo i?ioea enoeiu,
cayaea, /oi ia eaaeaeiai oaeoiai aieueoaaeeaie i?eoiaeeeinue a Ainoi/iie
Neae?e noi /aeiaae, oaeouo i?ioeaieeaie aieueoaaeeia”.

A “Ienueia e aia?eeaineei ?aai/ei” A.E.Eaiei ienae, /oi “aiaeeeneea
ao?aeoa caauee naie 1649, o?aioeocu naie 1793 aiae. Oa??i? aue
ni?aaaaeeea e caeiiai, eiaaea ii i?eiaiyeny ao?aeoaceae a aa iieueco
i?ioea oaiaeaeia. Oa??i? noae /oaeiaeuai e i?anooiai, eiaaea aai
?eneioee i?eiaiyoue aaaeiaeoea ?aai/ea e e?anoueyia i?ioea ao?aeoacee!”.

E i?eaaaeaiiiio oianoii aeiaaaeoue, /oi nia?aiaiiua enoi?eee oaieiaiiai
i?aaa, aiaaii inoaeaeathuea e?aniue oa??i?, caauee i iiiaiaaeiaii aaeii
oa??i?a ?inneeneie iiia?oee i?ioea nianoaaiiiai ia?iaea. Noaoenoeeo
oea?aoaeenoa, oaeenoa i?aoaiaeaioia ia i?anoie oiaea iieacii iiiieoue.
Enoeia, eae ecaanoii, iiciaaony a n?aaiaiee.

Iinea i?eiyoey 5 naioya?y 1918 a. iinoaiiaeaiey NIE i e?aniii oa??i?a
/enei ?anno?aeyiiuo (eo /enei ioaeeeiaaeinue a ioeoeeaeueiuo ecaeaieyo)
ia i?aauneei 600 /aeiaae.

A ?acaa? a?aaeaeaineie aieiu niae?aaony *?acau/aeiue VI Ana?inneeneee
nuacae Niaaoia e auiineo 8 iiya?y 1918 a. iinoaiiaeaiea “I oi/iii
niaethaeaiee caeiiia”. A iai aiai?eeinue: “I?ecaaoue anao a?aaeaeai
?anioaeeee, ana i?aaiu e anao aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe Niaaoneie aeanoe e
no?iaeaeoaio niaethaeaieth caeiiia ?NON?”. Ionooieaiea io caeiiia
aeiioneaeinue oieueei i?e yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e
ai?ueau n eiio??aaiethoeeae. A eaaeaeii oaeii neo/aa o?aaiaaeinue oi/ii
onoaiiaeoue oneiaey, eioi?ua aucuaaee ionooieaiea io caeiia, i /ai
aeieaeii iiaeaaaoueny cayaeaiea a niioaaonoaothuee Niaao ?aai/eo e
e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia. Yoei aea iinoaiiaeaieai aiaiyeinue a
iaycaiiinoue anai aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai e o/?aaeaeaieyi ninoaaeyoue
i?ioieie ia aeaeiao ethaiai a?aaeaeaieia i iai?aaiia?iuo aeaenoaeyo yoeo
eeoe eee i?aaiia. Eiiey i?ioieiea auaeaaaeanue aeaeothuaiony
a?aaeaeaieio, a iiaeeeiiee iaiaaeeaiii iai?aaeyeny auoanoiyuaio
o/?aaeaeaieth. Ca iainiiaaoaeueiue ioeac a ninoaaeaiee i?ioieiea
aeiiaiua i?eaeaeaeenue e noaeaaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Yoi e?aoeia, ninoiyuaa ec iyoe noaoae iinoaiiaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao
aieueooth enoi?eei-i?aaiaoth oeaiiinoue. Iii ia oieueei i?ecuaaei e
oi/iiio niaethaeaieth caeiiia, ii e ianoiyoaeueii ?aaeaiaioe?iaaei
iaoaieci iaania/aiey aai eniieiaiey. Ii?ia i noaeaaiie caueoa i?aaa
a?aaeaeai aeaeiaaoueny ia iai?aaiia?iua aeaenoaey aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
i?aaiia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey ?iaeeeanue, eae aeaeii, oaea a 1918 a. E
niaeaeaieth, iio?aaiaaeenue aeanyoeeaoey aeey aa aic?iaeaeaiey a 1989 a.
a aeaea iinoaiiaeaiey Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? “I ii?yaeea iaaeaeiaaiey a
noae iai?aaiia?iuo aeaenoaee i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, ouaieythueo i?aaa a?aaeaeai”.

Aaaeiui niauoeai yaeeinue i?eiyoea a ia?oa 1919 a. I?ia?aiiu ?EI(a), a a
aeaeaa?a 1919 a. – ?oeiaiaeyueo ia/ae ii oaieiaiiio i?aao ?NON?.
Oaieiaiay iieeoeea a i?ia?aiia ii?aaeaeyeanue eae ei?aiiia eciaiaiea
iaeacaiey: oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea oneiaiiai inoaeaeaiey, aaaaeaiea oaeie
ia?u iaeacaiey, eae iauanoaaiiia ii?eoeaiea, caiaia eeoaiey naiaiaeu
iaycaoaeueiui o?oaeii n nio?aiaieai naiaiaeu (eni?aaeoaeueii-o?oaeiaua
?aaiou), caiaia oth?ai ainieoaoaeueiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie e aaaaeaiea
oiaa?euaneeo noaeia. I?aneiaooue “aieueoaaenoneee oa??i?” caeanue ieeae
ia i?iniao?eaaaony. ?oeiaiaeyuea ia/aea ii oaieiaiiio i?aao ?NON?,
ecaeaiiua Ia?eiithnoii, eiaee ii?iaoeaioth neeo eae naiaai ?iaea
i?ioioei Iauae /anoe aoaeouaai OE ?NON?. Iie ninoiyee ec ainueie
?acaeaeia e i?aaiaoeu. I ?acaeae – ia oaieiaiii i?aaa e aai caaea/ao; II
– i i?aainoaeee, III – i i?anooieaiee e iaeacaiee; IV – i noaaeeyo
inouanoaeaiey i?anooieaiey; V – i nio/anoee; VI – aeaeu iaeacaiey; VII –
ia oneiaiii inoaeaeaiee; VIII – i i?ino?ainoaa aeaenoaey oaieiaiiai
i?aaa.

?oeiaiaeyuea ia/aea no?ieeenue ii eoiaai iaiauaiey aeaooeaoiae i?aeoeee
ii?iioai?/anoaa ii oaieiaiiio i?aao. N 26 ieoya?y 1917 a. aei 1 ethiy
1922 a. auei i?eiyoi aieaa 400 oaieiaii-i?aaiauo ii?i. Yoi a ei?ia
ii?iaa?aaao ooaa?aeaeaiea, aoaeoi a ia?aua aiaeu Niaaoneie aeanoe
ieeaeiai i?aaa e i?aainoaeey ia nouanoaiaaei, noaeueao i?anooiieeia
?aoaea /ooue ee ia oieia. ?oeiaiaeyuea ia/aea caeiaeeee iniiau
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie nenoaiu oaieiaiiai i?aaa, ii?iu eioi?iai, i?aaeaea
anaai a niioaaonoaee n Eiinoeoooeeae 1918 a. ?ane?uaaee
nioeeaeueii-eeanniaoth nouiinoue i?aaiauo ii?i ai?ueau n i?anooiiinoueth
a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea io eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecio. Caaea/e oaieiaiiai
i?aaa ii?aaeaeyeenue eae io?aia ainoaea?noaa ?aai/eo, e?anoueyi,
nieaeao. Aeaaaeinue nioeeaeueiia (iaoa?eaeueiia) iiiyoea i?anooieaiey,
eioi?ia ni/aoaeinue n th?eaee/aneei i?eciaeii. Ioieo 5 aeanee:
“I?anooieaiea anoue ia?ooaiea ii?yaeea iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee,
io?aiyaiiai oaieiaiui caeiiii”, ioieo 6 ?acaeaae aeaoeieoeeth
i?anooieaiey: “I?anooieaiea eae aeaenoaea eee aacaeaenoaea, iianiia aeey
aeaiiie nenoaiu iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ai?ueau
ainoaea?noaa n niaa?oeaoeie oaeea aeaenoaey eee aeiionoeaoeie oaeia
aacaeaenoaea eeoeaie (i?anooiieeaie)”.

Eae aeaeei, oaea a ia?aii iaiauaiee ii?aaeaeaiey i?anooieaiey auee
iacaaiu aai iaiaoiaeeiua i?eciaee: iauanoaaiiay iianiinoue (aeey aeaiiie
nenoaiu iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee), i?ioeaicaeiiiinoue aeaenoaey
(aacaeaenoaey). I?anooiieeaie iacuaaeenue eeoue eeoea, niaa?oeaoea oaeea
aeaenoaey eee aeiionoeaoea oaeia aacaeaenoaea. Ia auei e iaiaea ia
eaeia-eeai iianiia ninoiyiea eeoea eae iniiaaiea aai ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

A ?oeiaiaeyueo ia/aeao ionoonoaiaaea ii?ia, i?yii ii?aaeaeyaoay aeio e
aa oi?iu. I?iecioei yoi iioiio, /oi i?e ninoaaeaiee ?oeiaiaeyueo ia/ae
aiciaeaaeaea oi/ea c?aiey ?ac?aaio/eeia, ioiaeaeanoaeyaoeo i?eioeei aeiu
n oai?eae aiciacaeey e aicaeayiey ca aeio eeanne/aneie oeieu oaieiaiiai
i?aaa. Iaeiaei a i. 3 no. 12 i niya/athueo e ioya/athueo iaeacaiea
ianoiyoaeuenoaao oeacaiea ia iainoi?iaeioth oi?io aeiu eiaeinue.
I?aaaea, a noaouea i iieooaiee iaaa?ii naycuaaeanue iaeacoaiinoue eeoea
ia n iianiinoueth niaeayiiiai, a n iianiinoueth iieooaaoaainy eeoea.
Oaeay iiceoeey aoiaeeea a yaiia i?ioeai?a/ea n iiiyoeai i?anooieaiey, a
oaeaea n eioa?aniie e aa?iie ii?iie ia eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee iaeacaiey.
Ioieo 11 ae. III ?oeiaiaeyueo ia/ae i?aaeeaaae noaeo i?e iacia/aiee
iaeacaiey ioeaieaaoue “noaiaiue e oa?aeoa?” (naienoai) iianiinoe aeey
iauaaeeoey eae naiiai i?anooiieea, oae e niaa?oaiiiai ei aeayiey. A yoeo
oeaeyo noae, ia ia?aie/eaaynue eco/aieai anae ianoaiiaee niaa?oaiey
i?anooieaiey, aeieaeai aue ii?aaeaeyoue iianiinoue i?anooiieea,
iineieueeo oaeiaay auyaeyeanue a niaa?oaiiii ei aeayiee e aai iioeaao e
iineieueeo aiciiaeii oynieoue aa ia iniiaaiee aai ia?aca aeecie e
i?ioeiai. Noieue ianoiyoaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea ee/iinoe i?anooiieea, e
niaeaeaieth, auei aiineaaenoaee caeiiiaeaoaeai oo?a/aii.

A ?acaeaea “I nio/anoee” ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea ?aaeaiaioaoeey oi?i
nio/anoey: a?oiiiaia niaa?oaiea i?anooieaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
iiniaie/anoai e iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoai – n ae?oaie. A i. 21 neacaii: “Ca
aeayiey, niaa?oaiiua niiaua a?oiiie eeoe (oaeeie, aaiaeie, oieiie),
iaeacuaathony eae eniieieoaee, oae e iiaeno?aeaoaee e iiniaieee”. Yoe
oi?iu a?oiiiaiai niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey ec Iauae /anoe ieacaeenue a
iineaaeothueo OE ia?aianaiiuie a Iniaaiioth /anoue a aeaea i?eciaeia
ninoaaia eiie?aoiuo i?anooieaiee, oo?aoea oai naiui naienoaa einoeoooa
nio/anoey. I?iaae caiieieei eeoue caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai 1993 aiaea.

?oeiaiaeyuea ia/aea i?aaeeaaaee noaeai aanueia ?acaa?ioooth nenoaio
iaeacaiee. Ia ana aeaeu oaeiauo ii nouanoao yaeyeenue oaieiaiuie ii
ea?aoaeueiiio niaea?aeaieth. Ii ?aciiia?acea, iicaieythuaa ouaoaeueii
eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaoue ioaaonoaaiiinoue, auei iaeeoei. Ca i?anooieaiey
noaeu iiaee auianoe: a) aiooaiea; a) au?aaeaiea iauanoaaiiiai
ii?eoeaiey; a) i?eioaeaeaiea e aeaenoaeth, ia i?aaenoaaeythuaio
oece/aneiai eeoaiey (iai?eia?, i?ieoe ecaanoiue eo?n iao/aiey); a)
iauyaeaiea iiae aieeioii; ae) eneeth/aiea ec iauaaeeiaiey ia a?aiy eee
iaanaaaea; a) ainnoaiiaeaiea, a i?e iaaiciiaeiinoe aai aiciauaiea
i?e/eiaiiiai oua?aa; ae) io?aoaiea io aeieaeiinoe; c) aini?auaiea
caieiaoue oo eee eioth aeieaeiinoue eee eniieiyoue oo eee eioth ?aaioo;
e) eiioeneaoeey anaai eee /anoe eiouanoaa; e) eeoaiea iieeoe/aneeo i?aa;
e) iauyaeaiea a?aaii ?aaiethoeee eee ia?iaea; i) i?eioaeeoaeueiua ?aaiou
aac iiiauaiey a ianoa eeoaiey naiaiaeu; i) eeoaiea naiaiaeu ia ei?ioeee
n?ie eee ia iaii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie aei ianooieaiey ecaanoiiai niauoey; i)
iauyaeaiea aia caeiia; i) ?anno?ae. Anaai iyoiaaeoeaoue aeaeia
iaeacaiey. Eiia/ii, iyoue ec ieo ia iineee oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a
(iai?eia?, aiooaiea, ii?eoeaiea, aieeio). Iaii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie eeoaiey
naiaiaeu aei eaeiai-eeai niauoey (a i?eaiai?ao ioaeaeueiuo noaeia eeoei
eeoaeinue naiaiaeu “aei iiaaaeu ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee”) oaeaea iaoaea/ai.
Ii naia eaeay iiiaiia?acey aeaeia iaeacaiey i?aaeeueii io?aaeaea
i?eioeei eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Aeoiaaony, /oi /?acia?ii
?ai?anneaiie oaeoth nenoaio iaeacaiee n/eoaoue iaaiciiaeii.

4. Ia?aue Oaieiaiue eiaeaen ?NON? 1922 a.

I?eiyoeth OE ?NON? 1922 a. i?aaeoanoaiaaea e?iiioeeaay caeiiii?iaeoiay
?aaioa. Oaea a ethia 1920 a. aii?in i ?ac?aaioea Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena
auiineony ia ?anniio?aiea III Ana?inneeneiai nuacaea aeayoaeae
thnoeoeee. Auei ?ac?aaioaii ianeieueei aa?eaioia ioeoeeaeueiuo i?iaeoia
OE. Ii i?eioeeieaeueiui aii?inai, iai?eia?, ia iniiaaieyo oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, iiiyoee i?anooieaiey, einoeoooa aiaeiaee, a ieo
niaea?aeaeenue i?ioeaiiieiaeiua ?aoaiey.

Iai?eia?, a i?iaeoa OE Iauaeiinoeueoaoeaiiai ioaeaea Iauynieoaeueiay
caienea aeaneea: “Aiaoiea oi?iu inouanoaeaiey aeayiey, noaiaiue
?aaeecaoeee aiee, oi?iu o/anoey a i?aaiia?ooaiee oa?ytho cia/aiey
a?aiae, n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ii?aaeaeythueo oyaeanoue iaeacaiey e aeaaea
naio iaeacoaiinoue: Iooaiee oiuoeaiiinoe e iainoi?iaeiinoe oo?a/eaatho
cia/aiea oaeoi?ia, iai?aaeythueo iaeacaiea ii ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiie
eeiee, nio?aiyy iaeioi?ia cia/aiea i?eciaeia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i
oa?aeoa?a ee/iinoe, iie ia?aaaoeaathony aiaeecii naienoa i?anooiiiai
ninoiyiey aeayoaey, iioeaaie i?aaiia?ooaiey e iniaaiii eca?aiiuo
n?aaenoa”. Iiaeiaiie aea oi/ee c?aiey i?eaea?aeeaaeny i?iaeo OE,
ninoaaeaiiue naeoeeae i?aaa e e?eieiieiaee Einoeoooa niaaoneiai i?aaa.
Aieueoea aeeneonnee ?acai?aeenue aie?oa ii?iu ia aiaeiaee,
eeanneoeeaoeee i?anooieaiee, nia?oiie eacie, nenoaiu iaeacaiee. I?iaeou
OE ianoaeaeaeenue a yiaa?a 1922 a. ia IV Ana?inneeneii nuacaea aeayoaeae
niaaoneie thnoeoeee, a eioi?ii i?eiyee o/anoea 5500 aeaeaaaoia.

Aeinoieii niaeaeaiey, /oi a iineaaeothuai ieeiaaea i?iaeou eiaeaenia ia
ianoaeaeaeenue ia noieue aunieii i?ioanneiiaeueiii o?iaia. Nicaeaiiay
nuacaeii eiienney ?ac?aaioaea iiaue aa?eaio i?iaeoa OE.

?anniio?aieai i?iaeoa OE caieiaeanue niaoeeaeueiay eiienney i?e Iaeii
Niaia?eiia a ia?oa 1922 a., aianoay a i?iaeo OE nauoa 100 iii?aaie.
I?iaeo Iaeiai Niaia?eiia ioeacaeny io nioeeaeueiiai (iaoa?eaeueiiai)
iiiyoey i?anooieaiey, caiaiea aai oi?iaeueiui (th?eaee/aneei):
“I?anooieaiea anoue aeayiea, aini?auaiiia ai a?aiy aai o/eiaiey
oaieiaiui caeiiii”. Niioaaonoaaiii ionoonoaiaaea ii?ia ia aiaeiaee.
Ieieiaeueiue aic?ano oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe a i?iaeoa onoaiaaeeaaeny
a 16 eao. Iaeneiaeueiue n?ie eeoaiey naiaiaeu iiauoai n iyoe aei oanoe
eao. A ?acoeueoaoa ouaoaeueiiai e aeaiie?aoe/iiai ianoaeaeaiey i?iaeoia
OE iineaaeiee aa?eaio i?iaeoa nouanoaaiii ioee/aeny io ia?aiai,
i?aaenoaaeaiiiai Ia?eiithnoii. Ia ianoaiiaea ?aaiou iaae i?iaeoii OE
iiaeii noaeeoue ii ienueio ia?eiia Ia?eiithnoa Ae.E.Eo?neiai io 23
oaa?aey 1922 a. A.E.Eaieio: “Ia?auath Aaoa aieiaiea oaeaea e ia oo,
iienoeia aaeiaoneoth ?aaioo, eioi?oth, eae, iai?eia?, a iaeanoe
oaieiaiiai i?aaa, naiinoiyoaeueii (aac i?aoeaaeaioia e aeoeaiiai o/anoey
niaoeia) i?eoeinue i?iaeaeaoue ca iineaaeiea 2-3 ianyoea, eiaaea
i?eoiaeeeinue caaaeaiiui eaioeaey?neie ?aaioie /eaiai eiiennee ?aaioaoue
iaae caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aoeaaeueii ii/aie”.

Ia iaeneie nannee AOeEE IX nicuaa i?iaeo OE ianoaeaeaeny ia /aou?ao
ieaia?iuo canaaeaieyo, a oaeaea ia o?ao canaaeaieyo eiiennee,
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiie nanneae aeey aei?aaioee OE. Ino?aeoea aeaaaou
?acaa?ioeenue aie?oa iiiyoey i?anooieaiey (aeieaeii iii auoue
oi?iaeueiui eeai iaoa?eaeueiui), ia aiaeiaee (ioaeia iia eee iao), ia
oneiaiii inoaeaeaiee, iniiaaieyo oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe e iiiaeo
ae?oaeo aii?inao.

Ia ieaia?iii canaaeaiee AOeEE 23 iay 1922 a. a ?acoeueoaoa iinoaoaeiiai
ianoaeaeaiey i?iaeoa auei iaeia?aii aieueoeinoai caia/aiee e iaio e
aianaiu iiaua iii?aaee, a /anoiinoe, oaaee/ai n?ie eeoaiey naiaiaeu aei
aeanyoe eao, aeae?eieiaeece?iaaiu iiiaea iaeeea i?anooieaiey (iai?eia?,
eo?aiea a ia?ac?aoaiiuo ianoao, i?aauoaiea nei?inoe acaeu, iueyinoai a
iauanoaaiiii ianoa).

Ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea iaiaueiiaaiiay iia?aoeaiinoue caeiiii?iaeoiie
?aaiou, e yoi a /?acau/aeii oyaeaeuo oneiaeyo aeecie no?aiu a ia/aea
20-o aa.: ianeieueei aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iaeoia OE, nioie iii?aaie ia
?acee/iuo yoaiao ianoaeaeaiey aai, iiaeeeiiay aeaiie?aoe/iinoue
ianoaeaeaiey, i?aaeaea anaai i?ioanneiiaeueiuie th?enoaie, ianeieueei
ieaia?iuo canaaeaiee AOeEE ii i?iaeoo OE, iaeiiaoe, iinoaoaeiia
ianoaeaeaiea OE. Iiuo noieue iniiaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna i?eiyoey
?anioaeeeaineiai OE, e niaeaeaieth, iicaea ie ?aco ia iiaoi?eeny.

1 ethiy 1922 a. OE ?NON? anooiee a neeo. Yoi aue naiue e?aoeee ec anao
ecaanoiuo ie?iaie enoi?ee eiaeaen: anaai 218 noaoae. Iaeio /aoaa?oue
caieiaee ii?iu Iauae /anoe. A yoi naiue aa?iue iieacaoaeue
niaea?aeaoaeueiinoe anyeiai OE; aai iao/iiai o?iaiy, eai eiaiii a ii?iao
Iauae /anoe au?aaeathony i?eioeeiu e iauea iieiaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
i?anooieaiey. Io eo nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaie oi/iinoe e iieiiou caaeneo
niaea?aeaoaeueiinoue eiaeaena a oeaeii. Iauay /anoue OE eiaea
neaaeothuoth nenoaio: ?acaeae I – i?aaeaeu aeaenoaey Oaieiaiiai
eiaeaena; II – iauea ia/aea i?eiaiaiey iaeacaiey; III – ii?aaeaeaiea
ia?u iaeacaiey; IV – ?iaeu e aeaeu iaeacaiee e ae?oaeo ia? nioeeaeueiie
caueou; V – ii?yaeie ioauaaiey iaeacaiee.

I?eioeeieaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth ia?aiai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai OE yaeeinue
?ane?uoea iaoa?eaeueiie, o.a. nioeeaeueiie, nouiinoe e iacia/aiey
einoeoooia e ii?i Iauae /anoe. Caueoa ?aai/a-e?anoueyineiai ainoaea?noaa
e iauanoaa io i?anooiiuo iinyaaoaeuenoa /aoei e ioe?uoi iauyaeyeanue
caaea/ae OE (no. 5 OE). I?anooieaiea ii?aaeaeyeinue eae iauanoaaiii
iianiia aeaenoaea eee aacaeaenoaea, iianiia ia aeey aano?aeoiie nenoaiu
aeaa, a aeey ?aai/a-e?anoueyineiai i?aaiii?yaeea. A aeaoeieoeee
i?anooieaiey, iiaeii neacaoue, i?enoonoaoao e i?aaiaie i?eciae –
i?ioeaii?aaiinoue, eai aiai?eony ia iianiinoe i?anooieaiee
i?aaiii?yaeeo, o.a. ii?yaeeo, io?aiyaiiio i?aaii. Iaeiaei cai?auaiiinoue
i?anooieaiee oaieiaiui caeiiii ia iiaea auoue aeeth/aia a iiiyoea
i?anooieaiey ec-ca ii?iu ia aiaeiaee. Noaouey 10 OE onoaiaaeeaaea: “A
neo/aa ionoonoaey a Oaieiaiii eiaeaena i?yiuo oeacaiee ia ioaeaeueiua
aeaeu i?anooieaiee, iaeacaiey eee ia?u nioeeaeueiie caueou i?eiaiythony
niaeanii noaoueyi Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena, i?aaeoniao?eaathuei iaeaieaa
aeeceea ii aaaeiinoe e ?iaeo i?anooieaiey, n niaethaeaieai i?aaee Iauae
/anoe naai eiaeaena”.

Ioiineoaeueii ii?iu ia aiaeiaee, eae ioia/aeinue, ninoiyeenue ao?iua
aeeneonnee. I?aaenaaeaoaeue Iaeiai Niaia?eiia, iai?eia?, eaoaai?e/anee
auneacaeny i?ioea iaa: aiaeiaey – ionooieaiea io i?eioeeia caeiiiinoe,
iooue e noaeaaiiio i?iecaieo, “ac?ua” Iniaaiiie /anoe OE. Iiaaaeeee
aeiaiaeu “ca”: aiaeiaey ioaeia, oae eae /aou?a aiaea Niaaoneie aeanoe,
iniaaiii n o/aoii niaoee i?eiyoey OE, – n?ie neeoeii iaeue aeey
i?aaeeueiiai i?iaiica aiciiaeiuo oi?i i?anooieaiee i?e ionoonoaee
enoi?e/aneeo aiaeiaia nioeeaeenoe/aneiai OE.

Oieeiaaiea o/aiuie aiaeiaee oaeaea ia auei iaeiicia/iui. Iaeie,
iai?eia?, I.I.Enaaa, n/eoaee, /oi aiaeiaey iineo /enoi oaoie/aneee, a ia
i?eioeeieaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ae?oaea, iai?eia?, A.A.Ieiioeianeee, iieaaaee
aiaeiaeth aeaeii ?anoe?eoaeueiiai oieeiaaiey oaieiaiiai caeiia. O?aouee,
iai?eia?, I.A.*aeueoeia-Aaaooia e I.A.E?ueaiei, i?eaeaaaee no. 10 OE
i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea a aeaea “?aaiethoeeiiece?iaaiiiai i?aaa”.

Ecaeaiiue 8 ethey 1922 a. oee?eoey? IETH i?aaeienuaae noaeai: “Ii iauaio
i?aaeeo iaeacaiey e ae?oaea ia?u nioeeaeueiie caueou iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny
noaeii eeoue a ioiioaiee aeayiee, oi/ii oeacaiiuo a OE. Ecuyoea ec yoiai
i?aaeea aeiioneaaony eeoue a oao eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo, eiaaea
aeayiea iiaenoaeeiiai, oioy oi/ii e ia i?aaeoniio?aii Oaieiaiui
eiaeaenii, ii noae i?eciaao aai yaii iianiui n oi/ee c?aiey iniia iiaiai
i?aaiii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiiai ?aai/a-e?anoueyineie aeanoueth, ii ia
caeiiii naa?aiooiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa”.

Aeaa aiaea aeaenoaey OE 1922 a. iieacaee, /oi ii?ia ia aiaeiaee noaeaie
i?eiaiyeanue ?aaeei, /aua a ii?yaeea ?anoe?eoaeueiiai oieeiaaiey ii?i OE
e e ?aaeueii iianiui i?anooieaieyi. Yoiio niinianoaiaaei e
oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Aieueoei aeinoeaeaieai OE
1922 a. yaeeanue ii?ia ia oiunea e iainoi?iaeiinoe. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay
oi?ioee?iaea aeiu ieacaeanue ianoieueei oaea/iie, /oi i?ioea eniuoaiea
a?aiaiai e n iaaieueoeie eciaiaieyie aioea a nia?aiaiiia ?inneeneia
oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

OE caiye iiceoeeth aaniethoiie iaiaeacoaiinoe i?eaioiaeaiey e
i?anooieaieth. A nio/anoee ooi/iaii n?aaieoaeueii n ?oeiaiaeyueie
ia/aeaie, /oi iaeacoaiinoue nio/anoieeia ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiueth
o/anoey eo a i?anooieaiee. ?anoe?aia ii n?aaiaieth n ?oeiaiaeyueie
ia/aeaie nenoaia ianoiyoaeuenoa, eneeth/athueo oaieiaioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue: iaiaoiaeeiay iai?iia aeiiieiaia e?aeiae
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.

Nenoaia iaeacaiee aeeth/aea: a) ecaiaiea ec i?aaeaeia ?NON? ia n?ie eee
aann?i/ii; a) eeoaiea naiaiaeu ni no?iaie ecieyoeeae eee aac oaeiaie; a)
i?eioaeeoaeueiua ?aaiou aac niaea?aeaiey iiae no?aaeae; a) oneiaiia
inoaeaeaiea; ae) eiioeneaoeeth eiouanoaa, iieioth eee /anoe/ioth; a)
oo?ao; ae) ii?aaeaiea i?aa; c) oaieueiaiea io aeieaeiinoe; e)
iauanoaaiiia ii?eoeaiea; e) aiceiaeaiea iaycaiiinoe caaeaaeeoue a?aae.
Nia?oiay eaciue ia aeeth/aeanue a nenoaio iaeacaiee, /oi iiae/a?eeaaei
aa eneeth/eoaeueiue e a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa? “aieioue aei ioiaiu
Ana?inneeneei Oeaio?aeueiui Eniieieoaeueiui Eiieoaoii”.

Iaeneiaeueiue n?ie eeoaiey naiaiaeu onoaiaaeeaaeny a aeanyoue eao, /oi
e?aeia aoiaiii aiiaua, a aeey ainoaea?noaa, aaea aua i?iaeieaeaeanue
a?aaeaeaineay aieia, nouanoaiaaea yeiiiie/aneay ?ac?ooa, i?anooiiinoue
inoaaaeanue ia aunieii o?iaia, iniaaiii.

OE caiye iiceoeeth i?eioeeieaeueiie iacaiaieiinoe oo?aoa eeoaieai
naiaiaeu. Oai naiui eneeth/aeanue aiciiaeiinoue iaeiouei inoaeaeaiiui
eeoaoueny naiaiaeu oieueei iioiio, /oi iie ia eiaee n?aaenoa aeey iieaou
oo?aoa, a eiouei ioeoieoueny aeaiueaaie io eeoaiey naiaiaeu. I?e
iaaiciiaeiinoe iieaoeoue oo?ao OE aiaiye oo?ao i?eioaeeoaeueiuie
?aaioaie aac niaea?aeaiey iiae no?aaeae.

Eeoaiea i?aa ninoiyei a eeoaiee aeoeaiiai e ianneaiiai ecae?aoaeueiiai
i?aaa, i?aaa caieiaoue ioaaonoaaiiua aeieaeiinoe, auoue ia?iaeiui
canaaeaoaeai, caueoieeii ia noaea, iiia/eoaeai e iiaeoiii. Iaaei
caiaoeoue, /oi niaaoneia oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a iineaaeothuai
ioeacaeinue io aeaiiiai aeaea iaeacaiey, /oi ia aannii?ii. Ca?oaaaeiua
OE, a oii /enea iiaaeoea – OE O?aioeee 1992 a. e OE Eniaiee 1995 a.,
oaeia iaeacaiea aeaaea a ?anoe?aiiii aa?eaioa ciatho e oniaoii
i?eiaiytho ia i?aeoeea.

Naiia eaaeia iaeacaiea – iauanoaaiiia ii?eoeaiea – caeeth/aeinue a
ioaee/iii (ia nia?aiee, naeueneii noiaea e o.ae.) iauyaeaiee auianaiiiai
noaeii inoaeaeaiey aeaiiiio eeoeo eee iioaeeeiaaiee i?eaiai?a a ia/aoe
ca n/ao inoaeaeaiiiai eeai aac iioaeeeiaaiey.

OE i?aaeoniao?eaae ia?u caueou aeaoo aeaeia: ca aeayiey, ia yaeythueany
i?anooieaieai, e eae aeiiieieoaeueiua iaeacaiey. E ia?aui ioiineeinue
iiiauaiea a o/?aaeaeaiea aeey oinoaaiii e ii?aeueii aeaoaeoeaiuo e
i?eioaeeoaeueiia ea/aiea, ei aoi?ui – aini?auaiea caieiaoue oo eee eioth
aeieaeiinoue eee caieiaoueny oie eee eiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, a oaeaea
oaeaeaiea ec ii?aaeaeaiiiai ianoa (aunueea). Oianoii ioiaoeoue, /oi
aeiiieieoaeueiua ii niaea?aeaieth ia?u iaeacaiey iaaa?ii auei
iauaaeeiyoue n ia?aie, iaeacaieyie ia yaeythueieny e i?eiaiyaiuie e
eeoeai, ia niaa?oaaoei i?anooieaiee.

Iayniuie ieacaeenue iniiaaiey i?eiaiaiey aunueee aei o?ao eao e eeoeo,
i?eciaiiiio noaeii ii naiae i?anooiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eee ii nayce n
i?anooiiie n?aaeie aeaiiie ianoiinoe nioeeaeueii iianiui. Anee eeoei
aeiiaii a “i?anooiiie aeayoaeueiinoe”, oi ca iaa iii e aeieaeii ianoe
iaeacaiea. “Naycue n i?anooiiie n?aaeie” iiaeao auoue nio/anoeai eeai
oe?uaaoaeuenoaii eee iaaeiiineoaeuenoaii. Eiaiii ca oaeoth
oaieiaii-i?aaiaoth naycue eeoei oieueei e aeieaeii ioaa/aoue.

Noaouey 49 OE i aunueea nioeeaeueii iianiuo eeoe nineoaeeea a
iineaaeothueo ?ai?anneyo e?aeia iaaaoeaioth neoaeao. Ia neo/aeii ii yoie
ii?ia i?e ianoaeaeaiee i?iaeoia OE oee ai?y/ea nii?u, iaaei ee aa
inoaaeyoue a OE eee ia?aaeaoue aaeieieno?aoeaiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao,
i?aaeeueii ee ia?yaeo n iaeacaieai eiaoue ia?u nioeeaeueiie caueou,
neaaeoao ee a no. 5 OE iiieii caaea/e i?aaiaie caueou ainoaea?noaa
o?oaeyueony io i?anooieaiee aeeth/aoue oeacaiea ia ai?ueao n iauanoaaiii
iianiuie yeaiaioaie. I?aaaea, a no. 7 aiai?eeinue, /oi “iianiinoue eeoea
iaia?oaeeaaaony niaa?oaieai aeaenoaee, a?aaeiuo aeey iauanoaa, eee
aeayoaeueiinoueth, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuae i na?ueaciie oa?ica
iauanoaaiiiio i?aaiii?yaeeo”. Iaeiaei aiciiaeiinoue iaeacaiey ii
aiaeiaee e aunueea aei o?ao eao ca naycue n i?anooiiie n?aaeie e i?ioeua
noaeeiinoe iiaee i?eaanoe (e i?eaiaeeee) ia i?aeoeea e ia?ooaieyi
caeiiiinoe.

Noieue na?ueaciua i?in/aou a OE, eae aeaienoaaiiinoue iniiaaiee
oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe: e i?anooieaiea, e nioeeaeueii iianiua
yeaiaiou; ?acaeaiaiea iineaaenoaee niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiee ia iaeacaiey
e ia?u nioeeaeueiie caueou n iaii?aaeaeaiiie i?e?iaeie aunueee ca
“naycue ni n?aaeie” e i?ioeua noaeeiinoe, nua?aee a iineaaeothuai
?ieiaoth ?ieue. E ia oieueei a 30-o aa., ii aua e aei anooieaiey OE a
neeo. Oae, a 1921 a. Oeaio?ioa?icune iauyaee “iaaeaeth ai?ia”.
A?anoiauaaeenue ana, eoi eiaaea-eeai eiae noaeeiinoue ca eiouanoaaiiua
i?anooieaiey. Eeoue n?i/iia aiaoaoaeuenoai Ia?eiithnoa ono?aieei
?acoeueoaou oaeie “iaaeaee”.

Aaaaeaiea a no. 49 iiiyoey “nioeeaeueii iianiua yeaiaiou” a aeaea eo
aunueee iaoiaeeeinue a e?e/auai i?ioeai?a/ee n niaaoneei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii 1917-1922 aa., n aeae?aoaie, aaea iiaeiaiua oa?ieiu
ia oiio?aaeyeenue, aiai?eeinue eneeth/eoaeueii i iaeacaiee e iaeciaiii
“ii noaiaie aeiu”.

Onoaiiaea ieieiaeueiue aic?ano oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe a 14 eao, OE
1922 a. a oii aea aiaeo i?aoa?iae aeaeueiaeoea eciaiaiey a noi?iio
aoiaiecaoeee. Iaeacaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei a aic?anoa io 14 aei 16 eao
noaeii niya/aeinue iaiieiaeio, io 16 aei 18 – ia iaeio o?aoue i?ioea
aunoaai ?acia?a naieoeee, onoaiiaeaiiie niioaaonoaothueie noaoueyie OE.
Nia?oiay eaciue e ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei ia i?eiaiyeanue, ?aaii eae e e
aa?aiaiiui aeaiueiai.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie iieiaeeoaeueiuie /a?oaie ia?aiai niaaoneiai
Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena yaeythony: a) yniia ?ane?uoea nioeeaeueiie i?e?iaeu
niaaoneiai oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, aai caaea/, iiiyoey
i?anooieaiey, ianoiyoaeuenoa, eneeth/athueo oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue,
oeaeae iaeacaiey; a) ?aaeecaoeey i?eioeeia aeiu ainnoaiiaeaieai
(n?aaieoaeueii n ?oeiaiaeyueie ia/aeaie) ii?i ia oiunea e
iainoi?iaeiinoe; a) aoiaiiinoue e ni?aaaaeeeainoue nenoaiu iaeacaiey.

Io?eoeaoaeueiua /a?ou: a) ioeai/iia aaaaeaiea a OE iiiyoey “nioeeaeueii
iianiue yeaiaio” eae naiinoiyoaeueiiai iiieii i?anooieaiey iniiaaiey
oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe; a) aeeth/aiea aianoi aeiiieieoaeueiuo
iaeacaiee oa?ieiieiae/anee iayniuo “ia? nioeeaeueiie caueou” ca
i?anooieaiey; a) aaaaeaiea aunueee ii no. 49 n iaoaieiaii-i?aaiauie
iniiaaieyie aa i?eiaiaiey.

5. Ia?aia iauanithciia oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. ?anioaeeeaineea
eiaeaenu 1926-1940 aa.

Iinea ia?aciaaiey Nithca Niaaoneeo Nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ?anioaeee e
i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee NNN? ia/aeinue e nicaeaiea iauanithciiai
oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Auee i?eiyou Iniiaiua ia/aea oaieiaiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e nithciuo ?anioaeee 1924 a.

Iinea i?eiyoey Iniiaiuo ia/ae oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e
nithciuo ?anioaeee 1924 a. ?anioaeeeaineea OE iiaeeaaeaee i?eaaaeaieth a
niioaaonoaea n ieie. OE OcNN? anooiee a neeo 1 ethiy 1927 a., OE A?iNN?
– 1 iiya?y 1927 a., OE AcNN? – 15 yiaa?y 1928 a., OE ANN? – 1 iay 1928
a., OE Oo?eNN? – 1 oaa?aey 1928 a., OE ANN? – 15 iiya?y 1928 a. I?ioeann
i?eiyoey ?anioaeeeaineeo OE i?iaeieaeaeny aei 1940 a. Iai?eia?, OE
EacNN? e OE Ee?aNN? auee i?eiyou iinea 1936 a., eiaaea Eiinoeoooeey NNN?
cae?aieea eo noaoon nithciuo ?anioaeee.

Ia?aua ?anioaeeeaineea OE ia aini?iecaiaeeee iaoaie/anee Iniiaiua ia/aea
a naieo Iaueo /anoyo aaeaeo noaa?aiiinoe, a oaeaea aaeaeo
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe Iniiaiuo ia/ae, iaeioi?ua ii?iu eioi?uo
ieacaeenue iiiaicia/iuie.

Iiaue OE ?NON? i?eciae naay i?aaiieeii OE 1922 a., iiyoiio iacuaaeny
Oaieiaiue eiaeaen ?NON? a ?aaeaeoeee 1926 a. Ii ninoiye ec iyoe
?acaeaeia: 1 – i caaea/ao oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?NON?; 2 –
i?aaeaeu aeaenoaey Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena; 3 – iauea ia/aea oaieiaiie
iieeoeee ?NON?; 4 – i ia?ao nioeeaeueiie caueou, i?eiaiyaiuo ii
Oaieiaiiio eiaeaeno a ioiioaiee eeoe, niaa?oeaoeo i?anooieaiey; 5 – i
ii?yaeea i?eiaiaiey ia? nioeeaeueiie caueou noaeaaii-eni?aaeoaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a.

Iiaeiaii OE 1922 a. a no. 6 aeaaaeinue eeanniai-nioeeaeueiia iiiyoea
i?anooieaiey. Nio?aiyeanue ii?ia ia aiaeiaee. A ?acaeoea iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?eciaea i?anooieaiey e no. 6 auei aeaii aaaeiia i?eia/aiea: “Ia
yaeyaony i?anooieaieai aeaenoaea, eioi?ia oioy oi?iaeueii e iiaeiaaeaao
iiae i?eciaee eaeie-eeai noaouee Iniaaiiie /anoe ianoiyuaai eiaeaena, ii
a neeo yaiie iaeicia/eoaeueiinoe e ionoonoaey a?aaeiuo iineaaenoaee
eeoaii oa?aeoa?a iauanoaaiii iianiiai”.

OE ?NON? 1926 a. nio?aiee ii?io i eeoeao, “i?aaenoaaeythueo
iauanoaaiioth iianiinoue ii i?ioeie aeayoaeueiinoe e nayce n i?anooiiie
n?aaeie” (no. 7). A oaeie ii?ia oai aieaa ia nouanoaiaaei
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, /oi aeey iauanoaaiii iianiuo eeoe oaia?ue ia
i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue eaeeo-eeai niaoeeaeueiuo ia? nioeeaeueiie caueou.
Nnueea e aunueea a no. 35 OE ioeaieaaeenue eae iniiaiua eee
aeiiieieoaeueiua iaeacaiey niaa?oeaoeo i?anooieaiey eeoe. Oai naiui auea
nicaeaia eaaaeueiay iniiaa aeey a?yaeoueo ?ai?annee 30-o aa. a ioiioaiee
eeoe, i?anooieaiee ia niaa?oaaoeo, ii iauanoaaiii iianiuo ii ?acee/iui
i?iecaieueiui ioeaieai.

Ieieiaeueiue aic?ano oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ?anioaeeeaineea OE
onoaiiaeee a 13 e 14 eao.

Ia/aoeinoue eiino?oeoeee nio/anoey a Iniiaiuo ia/aeao i?eaaea e oiio,
/oi /anoue OE ioianea ca?aiaa ia iaauaiiia oe?uaaoaeuenoai e nio/anoeth,
a /anoue auaeaeeea a naiinoiyoaeueioth ii?io, nio/anoeai i?aaeeueii ia
i?eciaa.

Ii oie aea i?e/eia ?anioaeeeaineea OE iaiaeeiaeiai ?aoeee
i?eioeeieaeueiue aii?in i iaeacoaiinoe i?eaioiaeaiey e i?anooieaieth,
oioy aeey OE ?NON? 1926 a., eacaeinue au, ia auei i?iaeai eae i?aaiieea
OE 1922 a., eaoaai?e/anee ioeacaaoaainy io iaeacoaiinoe i?eaioiaeaiey e
i?anooieaieth. Iaii?aaeaeaiiay oi?ioea Iniiaiuo ia/ae “ia/aoiai
i?anooieaiey”, aea aua ia caaa?oaiiiai “ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai”, i?eaaea
e oiio, /oi iaeie OE, aa?ii enoieeiaaa ia/aoia i?anooieaiea eae
iieooaiea, inoaaeee aia i?aaeaeia oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe
i?eaioiaeaiea e i?anooieaieth (iai?eia?, OE ONN?). Ae?oaea
e?eieiaeece?iaaee e i?eaioiaeaiea (iai?eia?, OE ?NON?). A ?acuyniaiee
Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN? a iinoaiiaeaiee Ieaioia io 7 iay 1928 a. oeacaii,
/oi iauanithciia oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iiae ia/aoui, ii ia
ieii/aiiui i?anooieaieai iiieiaao eae iieooaiea, oae e i?eaioiaeaiea.
I?aceaeeoi AOeEE NNN?, niaeaneaoenue n oaeei ioeai/iui oieeiaaieai,
i?eaeae aio eaaaeueioth neeo. Aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai ?ac ca o?e n
eeoiei aeanyoeeaoey OE ?NON? e?eoeeiaaee ca e?aeithth ?ai?anneaiinoue
aaeaeo iauyaeaiey iaeacoaiui i?eaioiaeaiey e i?anooieaieth.

Naith ceiaauoth ?ieue a aeaeao “i i?eaioiaeaieyo e oa??i?enoe/aneei
aeoai” yoa ii?ia nua?aao a aiaeu ianniauo noaeeineeo ?ai?annee.

Nenoaia iaeacaiee a yoii OE a iniiaiii noiaeia n OE 1922 a. Iainiiaaiii
ec iaa eneeth/eee oneiaiia inoaeaeaiea, eai iii – ia aeae iaeacaiey.
Iai?ioea, iaoaea/ii aeeth/eee a nenoaio iaeacaiee i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea,
eioi?ia, eae e iauanoaaiiia ii?eoeaiea, ia iaeaaeaao ea?aoaeueiie neeie
oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey. Ia noaei iaeacaiey a aeaea aiceiaeaiey iaycaiiinoe
caaeaaeeoue a?aae. Iii aiiaue iiyaeony a OE ?NON? 1960 a.

Iaoaea/iui iiaoanoaii Iniiaiuo ia/ae yaeeanue caiaia oa?ieia “iaeacaiea”
oa?ieiii “ia?u nioeeaeueiie caueou”, eioi?ua iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia o?e
aeaea: 1) ia?u noaeaaii-eni?aaeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a (auaoaa iaeacaiea);
2) ia?u iaaeeoeeineiai oa?aeoa?a e 3) ia?u iaaeeei-iaaeaaiae/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a. Ia?aua i?eiaiyeenue ca i?anooieaiey, aoi?ua – e iaaiaiyaiui
eeoeai, o?aouee – e ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei a neo/ayo caiaiu iaeacaiey yoeie
ia?aie.

Iauyniaiea iiaaeea, aeaaaaiia Eiinoeoooeeiiiie eiienneae, naiaeeeinue,
yeiau, e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ioiaaeaaaiey io ao?aeoaciiai oaieiaiiai i?aaa n
aai iiieiaieai iaeacaiey eae ea?u e aiciacaeey. ?yae o/aiuo iauyniyee
oiaaea iiceoeeth Iniiaiuo ia/ae aeeyieai eoaeueyineie oeieu, i?aaeaea
anaai i?iaeoa eiaeaena Oa??e, noi?iiieea nioeeieiae/aneie oeieu. Ae?oaea
i?iaeoaiou, iai?eia?, I.A.E?ueaiei, naycuaaee caiaio iaeacaiey ia?aie
nioeeaeueiie caueou n aoeaaeueiie o?aeoiaeie auneacuaaiey E.Ia?ena i
oii, /oi “iaeacaiea anoue ia /oi eiia, eae n?aaenoai naiicaueou iauanoaa
i?ioea ia?ooaiee oneiaee aai nouanoaiaaiey”*(38). Aeiaiaoeci io
ia?enecia caeanue iaeeoei. Oi?ioi aua, /oi ioeac io oa?ieia “iaeacaiea”
ieeae ia neacaeny ia ae?oaeo einoeoooao e ii?iao Iniiaiuo ia/ae. N
na?aaeeiu 30-o aa. “iaeacaiea” auei ainnoaiiaeaii a naiai cia/aiee e
oa?ieiieiaee. Ecaeaaaaiua oaieiaii-i?aaiaua ii?iu a naieoeeyo
niaea?aeaee ia oi?ioee?iaeo “aea/ao i?eiaiaiea ia? nioeeaeueiie caueou”,
a “iaeacuaaaony” eee “ea?aaony”.

Eciaiaiey a nenoaia iaeacaiee a Iniiaiuo ia/aeao naiaeeeenue e
neaaeothuaio: oneiaiia inoaeaeaiea iainiiaaiii auei auaaaeaii ec /enea
aeaeia iaeacaiee, eai oaeiaui ia yaeyaony; iauyaeaiea a?aaii o?oaeyueony
nii?yaaeinue n ecaiaieai ec i?aaeaeia NNN?; i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea
auiineeinue noaeii i?e ii?aaaeaoaeueiii i?eaiai?a (/oi iaoaea/ii, eai
i?e ii?aaaeaoaeueiii i?eaiai?a iao ie i?anooieaiey, ie iaeacaiey, e
i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea ia aeieaeii iaoiaeeoueny a nenoaia iaeacaiee).

Oaaii iacaae neaaeoao i?eciaoue eiino?oeoeeth iaieii/aiiiai
i?anooieaiey. Iniiaiua ia/aea ii iayniie i?e/eia ioeacaeenue io /aoeeo
iiiyoee e oa?ieiia OE 1922 a. “i?eaioiaeaiea e i?anooieaieth” e
“iieooaiea ia i?anooieaiea”. A no. 11 aiai?eeinue i “ia/aoii
i?anooieaiee”, i?e/ai ia caaa?oaiiii ia ii caaenyuei io aiee eeoea
ianoiyoaeuenoaai, a “ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai”. Oaeeie i?e/eiaie iia auoue
e aeia?iaieueiue ioeac. Oiaaea ie i?eaioiaeaiey, ie iieooaiey iao. I?e
oaeie oi?ioee?iaea iauynieii ionoonoaea ii?iu i aeia?iaieueiii ioeaca,
ioaaouaaaiii “ia/aoui i?anooieaieai”.

Aaaeiia aeiaaaeaiea iineaaeiaaei a Iniiaiuo ia/aeao a ii?iao i
iaiaoiaeeiie iai?iia e e?aeiae iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iie iauyaeyeenue
i?aaiia?iuie ia oieueei i?e io?aia eioa?ania naieo e ae?oaeo eeoe, ii e
i?e caueoa Niaaoneie aeanoe e ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aaiii?yaeea.

Iniiaiua ia/aea aeeth/eee ?acaa?iooue ia?a/aiue niya/athueo e
ioya/athueo ianoiyoaeuenoa i?e iacia/aiee iaeacaiey.

E aieueoiio niaeaeaieth, Iniiaiua ia/aea ia oieueei nio?aieee ii?io i
nnueea e aunueea eeoe, ia niaa?oeaoeo i?anooieaiey, ii i?eciaiiuo noaeii
iauanoaaiii iianiuie ii naiae i?ioeie aeayoaeueiinoe eee nayce n
i?anooiiie n?aaeie, ii e onoaoaeee aa ioeai/iinoue, ?ani?ino?aiea ia
ii?aaaeaiiuo eeoe e oaaee/ea n?ie aunueee n o?ao aei iyoe eao (no. 22).
Yoa ii?ia oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e nithciuo ?anioaeee
aoiaeeea a yaiia i?ioeai?a/ea n i?aaiaoeie Iniiaiuo ia/ae, eioi?ay
iniiaaieai oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?eciaaaea eneeth/eoaeueii
niaa?oaiea i?anooieaiey.

6. Oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia?eiaea a?oauo ia?ooaiee caeiiiinoe
(1927-1941 aa.)

Oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai 30-o aa. i?eiaaeeaaeeo e iaeaieaa i?a/iui
ia?eiaeai aai enoi?ee. Eiaiii iii aoaeo/e iaeaieaa ?ai?anneaiui ec anao
i?aaiauo n?aaenoa noaei eniieueciaaoueny a ii?iioai?/aneie e
i?aaieniieieoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe eae i?oaeea ianniauo ?ai?annee a
ioiioaiee i?ioeaieeia ?aaeeia ee/iie aeanoe H.A.Noaeeia, noaiiaeaiey e
oi?i/aiey eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiii-ia?oeeiiai
nioeeaeecia. Oaieiaiay iieeoeea ia/aea aace?iaaoueny ia aeoaiei
ioeai/iie noaeeineie eiioeaioeee oneeaiey eeanniaie ai?ueau ii ia?a
no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia.

A.E.Eaiei iacuaae o?aiy aeaaiuie a?aaaie Niaaoneie aeanoe
acyoi/ie/anoai, aaca?aiioiinoue e eii/aainoai. E.A.Noaeei iauyaee o?aiy
a?aaaie ainoaea?noaa aa?oooeo ao?aeoaciie eioaeeeaaioeee a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eoea/anoai a aea?aaia e ath?ie?aoe/aneea yeaiaiou a
aiia?aoa.

N eiioea 20-o aa. ia/aeny aeaiiioaae eaieineie iiaeaee nioeeaeecia e aai
iiaenenoaiu – oaieiaiiai i?aaa. A yoi aea a?aiy i?ioea na?ey noaeaaiuo
i?ioeannia ni nia?oiuie i?eaiai?aie a ioiioaiee “a?aaia” a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A 1928 a. ii oae iacuaaaiiio Oaooeineiio aeaeo
inoaeaeaiu “a?aaeeoaee” a eaiaiiioaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aeiiaoeea. A
i?eaiai?a aiai?eeinue: “Neaaenoaeai onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aaioa yoie
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie i?aaiecaoeee, aeaenoaiaaaoae a oa/aiea ?yaea eao,
au?aceeanue a ceinoiii naaioaaea e ne?uoie aeaci?aaiecaoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a iiae?uaa eaiaiiioaieueiiai oicyenoaa iaoiaeaie
ia?aoeeiiaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, iaioaeiuo cao?ao eaieoaea, iiieaeaiey
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, iiauoaiey naaanoieiinoe, a oaeaea a i?yiii
?ac?ooaiee oaoo, ?oaeiuo caaiaeia e o.ae.”.

Eae iao?oaeii oaaaeeoueny ec i?eaaaeaiiie oeeoaou, oeie/iay
aanoicyenoaaiiinoue i?iecaieueii i?aa?auaeanue a eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua
i?anooieaiey. E oaeea “oaooeioeu”, ii oaa?aieth aeaau ia?oee e
ainoaea?noaa, “neaeaee” ai anao io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ii ae?oaiio aeaeo – “I?iiia?oee” – a 1930 a. aua iaeia aieueoay a?oiia
e?oiiuo niaoeeaeenoia iaaeiyeanue a eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
a aeaea a?aaeeoaeueneiai ieaie?iaaiey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, a nayce n
ca?oaaaeiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e iiaeaioiaea e aeeaa?neiiiui aeoai. A?iieee
i?ioeann ninoiyeny a 1931 a. Ii iaio auee inoaeaeaiu /eaiu
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua “a?aaeeoaeuenoaiaaee” a
Ainieaia, ANIO, Ainaaiea, Ia?eiiaoa o?oaea, Oeaio?inithca e o.ae. e o.i.
Oaeea i?ioeannu i?ieaoeeenue ii anae no?aia ni noa?aioeiiuie iaaeiaieyie
ai a?aaeeoaeuenoaa, nicaeaiee eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aaiecaoeee,
iiaeaioiaea oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoia, aioeniaaoneie aaeoaoeee e
i?iiaaaiaea.

Eoea/anoai, iiiyoea eioi?iai ieacaeinue ?anoyaeeiui, ii?iaoeaii ia
ii?aaeaeaiiui e iioiio /anoi ioaaouaathuei na?aaeiyoeeea neie
e?anoueyinoaa, ca eneeth/aieai aeaenoaeoaeueii iianiuo i?anooiieeia,
niaa?oathueo oa??i?enoe/aneea aeou, oie/oiaeaiea eieoiciiai eiouanoaa e
ae?oaea oyaeeea i?anooieaiey, i?aneaaeiaaeinue ii noaoueyi i
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo e iauaoaieiaiuo i?anooieaieyo. Aio eae ia yoii
ienae e?aoeee eo?n enoi?ee AEI(a): “A ioaao ia ioeac eoea/anoaa
i?iaeaaaoue eceeoee oeaaa ii oaa?aeui oeaiai ia?oey e i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?iaaee ?yae /?acau/aeiuo ia? i?ioea eoea/anoaa, i?eiaieee 107 noaoueth
Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena i eiioeneaoeee ii noaeo eceeoeia oeaaa o eoeaeia e
niaeoeyioia a neo/aa eo ioeaca i?iaeaaaoue yoe eceeoee ainoaea?noao ii
oaa?aeui oeaiai”.

Aeey ai?ueau n eoeaeaie, eee, eae eo aua eiaiiaaee,
“eoeaoeei-caaeeoi/iuie yeaiaioaie”, oe?iei i?eiaiyeenue noaouee OE ia
oeeiiaiee io oieaou iaeiaia, ?inoiaue/anoaa, ia?ooaiee i?aaee i
o?oaeiaii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee iieeoeee “eeeaeaeaoeee eoea/anoaa eae eeanna” oe?iei e
i?iecaieueii eniieueciaaeenue ii?iu i eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo
i?anooieaieyo. Iai?eia?, a Aeieeaaeiie caienea th?eaee/aneie /anoe
Eieoicoeaio?a ?NON? (ieoya?ue 1929 a.) eoeaoeeea aunooieaiey
?aeiiaiaeiaaeinue ioiineoue e i?anooieaieyi, i?aaeoniio?aiiui no.
58-58.14 OE. Iiae?ua eiiia?aoeee a aeaea n?uaa nia?aiee, i?aiyonoaey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiui ?aaioai – a?aaeeoaeuenoai (no. 58.14), ?ac?ooaiea
eee iia?aaeaeaiea eieoiciiai eiouanoaa ac?uaii, iiaeaeiaii – aeeaa?ney
(no. 588), i?iiaaaiaea e aaeoaoeey, iai?aaeaiiay ia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea
eieoiciiio aeaeaeaieth – aioeniaaoneay aaeoaoeey e i?iiaaaiaea (no.
58.10).

18-e Ieaioi Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN? io 2 yiaa?y 1928 a. aian naith eaioo a
aaccaeiiea. Ii ?acuyniee, /oi iiae eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuie aeaenoaeyie
iaaei iiieiaoue aeaenoaey e a oao neo/ayo, “eiaaea niaa?oeaoee eo oioy e
ia noaaee i?yii eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie oeaee, iaeiaei niciaoaeueii
aeiioneae eo ianooieaiea eee aeieaeai aue i?aae aeaeaoue iauanoaaiii
iianiue oa?aeoa? iineaaenoaee naieo aeaenoaee”. Aa?oiaiue Noae NNN?,
oaeei ia?acii, ia oieueei ?anoe?ee aeio eiio??aaiethoeeiiiiai
i?anooieaiey ca n/ao einaaiiiai oiunea, ii e i?eciae aiciiaeiui
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiia i?anooieaiea aeaaea ii iainoi?iaeiinoe.

A ?acoeueoaoa oaeeo “?aeiiaiaeaoeee” aunoaai noaeaaiiai i?aaia no?aiu
Oaieiaii-eannaoeeiiiay eieeaaey Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?NON? auioaeaeaia auea
a naiai io/aoa oiai a?aiaie ioiaoeoue iiiai/eneaiiua neo/ae iacaeiiiiai
inoaeaeaiey ca eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua i?anooieaiey ia “eeanniai
a?aaeaeaaiuo yeaiaioia”, a aaaeiyeia e na?aaeiyeia, niaa?oeaoeo auoiaua
i?anooieaiey, i?anooieaiey i?ioea ii?yaeea oi?aaeaiey e oicyenoaaiiua
i?anooieaiey.

Aieueoie no?iainoueth naieoeee a ni/aoaiee n ?anieua/aoinoueth
aeeniiceoeee, a?aie/auae n th?eaee/aneie aaca?aiioiinoueth, ioee/aeny
ia/aeueii ecaanoiue Caeii io 7 aaaonoa 1932 a. “Ia io?aia eiouanoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eieoicia e a eiiia?aoeee e oe?aieaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiie (nioeeaeenoe/aneie) nianoaaiiinoe” Oae, a Caeiia
“i?e?aaieaaeanue” ii i?eaio caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aiaeiaee eieoiciay
nianoaaiiinoue e ainoaea?noaaiiie. Aac eaeie-eeai aeeooa?aioeeaoeee
i?anooieaiee io iaeeeo aei e?oiiuo auea onoaiiaeaia ioaaonoaaiiinoue
aieioue aei ?anno?aea ca oeuaiea oaeie nianoaaiiinoe. Yoio caeii
i?eiaiyeny ai a?aiy Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu e iinea iaa ca nai? eieineia,
inoaaoeony a iiea iinea oai?ee oeaaa (oae iacuaaaiua “eieineiaua
aeaea”).

Oa?ica, eae neacaii a caeiia, “eoeaoeei-eaieoaeenoe/aneeo yeaiaioia”
eieoicieeai n oeaeueth canoaaeoue eo aueoe ec eieoica eee n oeaeueth
ianeeuenoaaiiiai ?ac?ooaiey eieoica i?e?aaieaaeanue e
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiui i?anooieaieyi n eeoaieai naiaiaeu io 5 aei 10 eao n
caeeth/aieai a eiioeaio?aoeeiiiua eaaa?y.

Iiieii oaieiaiiai aeey ianniauo ?ai?annee aeoeaii eniieueciaaeinue
aaeieieno?aoeaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a aeaea aunueee aei 10 eao n
eiioeneaoeeae eiouanoaa ii ?aoaieth ianoiuo eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia.
Oae, a iinoaiiaeaiee OeEE e NIE NNN? io 1 oaa?aey 1930 a. “I
ia?ii?eyoeyo ii oe?aieaieth nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ia?aono?ienoaa naeueneiai
oicyenoaa a ?aeiiao nieioiie eieeaeoeaecaoeee e ii ai?ueaa n
eoea/anoaii” eniieeiiai e?aaauo (iaeanoiuo) Niaaoia e i?aaeoaeuenoaai
aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee auei aeaii i?aai i?eieiaoue ana iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u
ii ai?ueaa n eoea/anoaii aieioue aei iieiie eiioeneaoeee eiouanoaa
eoeaeia e aunaeaiey eo ec i?aaeaeia ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiia e e?aaa
(iaeanoae). I?e yoii i?iaeaaaoue nianoaaiiia eiouanoai
“eoeaoeei-caaeeoi/iui yeaiaioai” cai?auaeinue, i?iaeaaaoue i?iaeoeou
naeueneiai oicyenoaa – oiaea. I?e naiiaieueiie ?ani?iaeaaea eiouanoaa
“eoeaoeeeo oicyenoa” ?aeniaaou eiaee i?aai ia “iaiaaeeaiioth
eiioeneaoeeth eiouanoaa”.

Naie iiiyoey “eoeae”, “eoeaoeei-caaeeoi/iue yeaiaio”, “eoeaoeeia
oicyenoai” ii?iaoeaii ia ii?aaeaeyeenue e ia ianoao o?aeoiaaeenue
aanueia oe?iei e i?iecaieueii. A ?acoeueoaoa ?ai?anneaiia
“?aneoea/eaaiea”, naii ii naaa aioeeiinoeoooeeiiiia, ioaaoeei ia oieueei
4,2% eoeaeia ii ioeoeeaeueiie noaoenoeea, ii e 15% eiiai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai ianaeaiey, aeaaiui ia?acii, na?aaeiyeia.
“Aioeeoeaoeeia” oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai enoiaeeei ec ai?ei?iie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e?anoueyi e “eoeaeai” e “caaeeoi/iui” yeaiaioai, /aio
niinianoaiaaei e oiaaeaoiaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i nioeeaeueii-iianiuo
yeaiaioao, i?anooieaiee ia niaa?oeaoeo, ii aunueea iiaeeaaeaueo.

A 1935 a. ioiaiyaony no. 8 Iniiaiuo ia/ae, i?aaeinoaaeyaoay nithciui
?anioaeeeai i?aai ii?aaeaeyoue ieieiaeueiue aic?ano oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Ii Caeiio io 7 ai?aey 1935 a. “I ia?ao ai?ueau n
i?anooiiinoueth ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo” ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea i?eaeaeaeenue e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca e?aaee, ianeeuenoaaiiua i?anooieaiey e oaeenoaa
ia/eiay n 12 eao, eae auei neacaii a caeiia, “n i?eiaiaieai anao ia?
oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey”. Iineieueeo n 30-o aa. oaieiaiua caeiiu
ecaeaaaeenue aeaaiui ia?acii Nithcii NN?, a ia ?anioaeeeaie, oi
inoaaaeinue iayniui, ioiaiyee ee aieaa iicaeiea iauanithciua caeiiu
Iniiaiua ia/aea 1924 a., n eo cai?aoii i?eiaiyoue e ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei
nia?oioth eaciue, nnueeo, aunueeo e ae?oaea iaeacaiey.

Oaeanoi/aiea oaieiaiuo ?ai?annee inouanoaeyeinue e aaaaeaieai
iinoaiiaeaieai OeEE e NIE NNN? io 8 aaaonoa 1936 a. oth?aiiiai
caeeth/aiey ia?yaeo n i?aaeiei ianoii ioauaaiey eeoaiey naiaiaeu a
eni?aaeoaeueii-o?oaeiauo eaaa?yo aeaoo ?aaeeiia.

Iinoaiiaeaieai OeEE NNN? io 2 ieoya?y 1937 a. aue iiauoai iaeneioi
eeoaiey naiaiaeu n 10 aei 25 eao. A 1939 a. auei ioiaiaii
oneiaii-aein?i/iia inaiaiaeaeaiea caeeth/aiiuo io aeaeueiaeoaai ioauoey
iaeacaiey.

Aaeeinoaaiiui eneeth/aieai ec naa?o?ai?anneaiiai oaieiaiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa 30-o aa. ieacaeanue iiaay iauanithciay ii?ia i
iiaaoaiee noaeeiinoe ni nieaeaiiui ii n?aaiaieth n ?anioaeeeaineeie
ii?iaie n?ieii iiaaoaiey. Aiciiaeii, iia auea auioaeaeaiiie ec-ca
a?iiaaeiiai /enea noaeeiuo a?aaeaeai.

A 1936 a. i?eieiaaony iiaay (noaeeineay) Eiinoeoooeey NNN?.
Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca i?anooieaiey ia?aaeaaony a
eneeth/eoaeueiia aaaeaiea NNN?. Noaa?aiiua nithciua ?anioaeeee auee
eeoaiu i?aaa ia nianoaaiiua oaieiaiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia naiae
oa??eoi?ee. A naiie Eiinoeoooeee iu iaoiaeei oeaeue ?yae i?ia?anneaiuo
ii?iaoeaiuo onoaiiaeaiee, a oii /enea e ii oaieiaiiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao. Ai eniieiaiea eo a 1938 a. i?eieiaaony Caeii i
noaeiono?ienoaa. Iineaaeiee ioiaiee no. 22 Iniiaiuo ia/ae, iicaieythuoth
nnueaoue e aunueaoue eeoe, ia niaa?oeaoeo i?anooieaiee eeai ii?aaaeaiiuo
ca ieo. Ii Caeii i noaeiono?ienoaa ia ioiaiee i?eaea/aiea e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeiiaiuo. Oae, niaeanii /. II no. 1 (3) iinoaiiaeaiey
OeEE NNN? io 8 ethey 1934 a. “I aeiiieiaiee Iieiaeaiey i i?anooieaieyo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iniai aeey Nithca NN? iianiuo i?anooieaieyo i?ioea
ii?yaeea oi?aaeaiey” ii noaoueyi ia eciaia ?iaeeia niaa?oaiiieaoiea
/eaiu naiuee eciaiieea ?iaeeiu, niaianoii n iei i?iaeeaathuea eee
iaoiaeyueany ia aai eaeaeeaaiee, oieueei ia yoii iniiaaiee iiaeeaaeaee
aunueea a ioaeaeaiiua ?aeiiu Neae?e ia iyoue eao. Aaniethoii
ii?aaeaeaiiay naieoeey – 10 eao eeoaiey naiaiaeu – auea onoaiiaeaia ca
iaaeiianaiea ni noi?iiu aiaiiineoaeauaai i aioiayuaeny eee niaa?oaiiie
eciaia. A oeaeii Eiinoeoooeey NNN? e Caeii i noaeiono?ienoaa ia iiiaoaee
i?aeoeea aaccaeiiiuo ?ai?annee. Eiee/anoai inoaeaeaiiuo n 1936 ii 1937
a. ca eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua i?anooieaiey au?inei a 10 ?ac. Oaeanoi/aiea
ea?aoaeueiie iieeoeee neacaeinue e ia iauae noaeeiinoe. Oae, anee a 1937
a. oaeaeueiue aan caeeth/aiiuo a NNN? a ?an/aoa ia 100 oun. ianaeaiey
ninoaaeye 469 /aeiaae, oi a 1939 a. ii oaeaieeny aei 859 /ae.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 30-o aa. i?ioea na?ey noaeaaiuo i?ioeannia iaae
aunoeie ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie ia?oee e ainoaea?noaa. 16 yiaa?y 1935 a. Aiaiiie
eieeaaeae Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN? auianai i?eaiai? ii aeaeo i oae
iacuaaaiii “Iineianeii oeaio?a”, ii eioi?iio auee inoaeaeaiu
A.A.Ceiiaueaa, E.A.Eaiaiaa, A.A.Aaaeieeiia e ae?. 27 yiaa?y 1935 a.
E.A.Eaiaiaa aoi?e/ii inoaeaeaaony ii “E?aieaaneiio aeaeo”. 13 ia?oa 1938
a. ii oae iacuaaaiiio aeaeo “aioeniaaoneiai i?aaio?ioeeenoneiai aeiea”
inoaeaeaiu I.E.Aooa?ei, A.I.?ueia e ae?.

?oeiaiaeeoaeyi yeiau eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo a?oii, eae i?aaeei,
i?aaeuyaeyeenue iaaeiaiey a eciaia ?iaeeia, oa??i?enoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, oieiiaaea, a?aaeeoaeuenoaa, aeeaa?nee, nicaeaiee
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie i?aaiecaoeee. ?yaeiaui /eaiai a?oiiu
eie?eieie?iaaeanue i?aeiouanoaaiii “iiaeaioiaea oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoia”,
ca /oi iie i?eaiaa?eaaeenue e ?anno?aeo n eniieiaieai i?eaiai?ia a
aeaiue eo auianaiey.

Naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui auei iaaeiaiea a aioeniaaoneie aaeoaoeee e
i?iiaaaiaea, eioi?ay au?aaeaeanue a “eeaaaoa ia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia?oee e
ainoaea?noaa”, auneacuaaiee iaaeiaieuenoaa oneiaeyie aeecie o?oaeyueony,
“ainoaaeaiee” aeecie a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noaao. Aioeniaaoneie
aaeoaoeeae e i?iiaaaiaeie n/eoaeinue ethaia aunooieaiea a caueoo “a?aaia
ia?iaea”, aeeth/ay auneacuaaiey i?inoiai /aeiaa/aneiai ni/oanoaey ei.
Iniaaiii ?ueyii i?aneaaeiaaeinue ii no. 58.10 OE “iaii/oeoaeueiia
oiiieiaiea eiaie Noaeeia”.

Ec 139 /eaiia e eaiaeeaeaoia a /eaiu OeE ia?oee, eca?aiiuo ia XVII
nuacaea ia?oee, 70% eo auee a?anoiaaiu e ?anno?aeyiu a 1937-1938 aa. eae
“a?aae ia?iaea”. Ec 1966 aeaeaaaoia oiai aea nuacaea n ?aoathuei e
niaauaoaeueiui aieinii auei inoaeaeaii ca eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua
aunooieaiey aieaa iieiaeiu – 1108 /aeiaae.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai 30-o aa. ieacaeinue iienoeia
e?iaaaui, ioa?ineaoei i?eioeeiu caeiiiinoe, aoiaiecia e ni?aaaaeeeainoe
a n?aaeiaaaeiaoth aacaeio. Ai-ia?auo, aii?aee i?eioeeio aeaiie?aoecia e
noaa?aiiinoe nithciuo ?anioaeee, iie auee eeoaiu i?aaa ia ecaeaiea
nianoaaiiuo oaieiaiuo eiaeaenia. Ai-aoi?uo, a i?ioeaiaan i?eioeeio
caeiiiinoe, enoiaeyuaio ec oiai, /oi iniiaaieai oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe iiaeao auoue eneeth/eoaeueii niaa?oaiea i?anooieaiey, a
ia iianiay ee/iinoue a aeaea “a?aaia ia?iaea”, “eoeaoeei-caaeeoi/iuo
yeaiaioia” e i?i/., aeoeaio a oaieiaiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yoiai
ia?eiaea aue naeaeai eiaiii ia “iianioth ee/iinoue”, ia niaa?oeaooth
eiie?aoiiai i?anooieaiey. A-o?aoueeo, a?oai ia?ooaeny i?eioeei ee/iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e aeiu, eiaaea oaieiaiie (ia aiai?y oaea i aeanyoeeaoiae
aaeieieno?aoeaiie) aunueea iiaeaa?aaeenue eeoea, ia aeiiaiua a
niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiee ae?oaeo eeoe (oae iacuaaaiua “*NE?” – /eaiu
naiuee eciaiieea ?iaeeiu). A-/aoaa?ouo, a i?ioeai?a/ea i?eioeeio
aoiaiecia auea onoaiiaeaia oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue n 12-eaoiaai
aic?anoa, eeoaiea naiaiaeu iiauoaii aei 25 eao, aaaaeaii oth?aiiia
caeeth/aiea, ioiaiaii oneiaii-aein?i/iia inaiaiaeaeaiea. A-iyouo, a
ionooieaiea io i?eioeeia eaoaai?ecaoeee i?anooieaiee e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee
ioaaonoaaiiinoe iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia ainoaea?noaaiioth nianoaaiiinoue
i?aneaaeiaaeenue aac o/aoa oyaeanoe oua?aa. I?anooieaiey i?ioea
ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, i?ioea i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeanoe ea?aeenue
ianiiinoaaeii no?iaea, /ai i?anooieaiey i?ioea aeecie e caei?iauey
a?aaeaeai. Ca oeuaiea nioeeaeenoe/aneie nianoaaiiinoe noae iia
i?eaiai?eoue e ?anno?aeo, a ca oiuoeaiiia oaeenoai – oieueei e 10 aiaeai
eeoaiey naiaiaeu.

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