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История прокуратуры Самарской области

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?aoa?ao

Ia oaio

Enoi?ey i?ieo?aoo?u Naia?neie iaeanoe

Aaaaeaiea

I?ieo?aoo?a Naia?neie aoaa?iee – yoi i?aaeaea anaai ethaee – i?ieo?i?u e
neaaeiaaoaee, eioi?ua neoaeeee Caeiio a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu aa
aeayoaeueiinoe.

N iiiaioa ia?aciaaiey i?ieo?aoo?u Naia?neie aoaa?iee e ia i?ioyaeaiee
iineaaeieo ainueieaeanyoe iyoe eao ai aeaaa aa noiyee auaeathueany
ee/iinoe. E ?yaeii n ieie o?oaeeeenue i?ieo?i?u, neaaeiaaoaee a aiia?aoa
e ia ianoao n iacaiyoiaiiie ?aiooaoeeae e i?aainoiaeiui iineoaeiui
nieneii. Iu ia ioaeaeyai yoio ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey i?ieo?aoo?u io aieaa
?aiiaai. Iai?ioea, n/eoaai, /oi anae naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth Naia?neay
aoaa?ineay i?ieo?aoo?a aeieacaea i?aainoaaiiinoue iieieaiee. Caueoa
eioa?ania ainoaea?noaa e eaaeaeiai a?aaeaeaieia – aio aeaa
iniiaiiieaaathueo i?eioeeia, eioi?uo i?eaea?aeeaaeenue aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?u
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee e eioi?ui iaoeinieoaeueii neaaeotho i?ieo?i?u
iaoeo aeiae.

1. Ia?aua i?ieo?i?u Naia?neie aoaa?iee 1922-1926 aiaeu

Ia?aui i?ieo?i?ii Naia?neie aoaa?iee a ieoya?a 1922 aiaea aue iacia/ai
EA?IIA AEEOI? CEIIAUeAAE*, ?aaioaaoee i?aaenaaeaoaeai eieeaaee
aoaa?ineiai ?aao?eaoiaea.

Ea?iia A.C. ?iaeeeny a 1895 aiaeo a naiuea ?aai/aai. Ia?aciaaiea –
iecoaa. A 1914 aiaeo ii anooiaao a /eaiu ?NAe?I e aeoeaii o/anoaoao a
iiaeiieueiie ?aaioa, a caoai a ?aaiethoeeiiiuo niauoeyo. N ieoya?y 1917
aiaea ii oaa?aeue 1918 aiaea Ea?iia yaeyeny i?aaenaaeaoaeai ?aaeiia
Ia?aneiai ?aeiia, n oaa?aey ii ethiue 1918 aiaea – i?aaenaaeaoaeai
eieeaaee eiienna?eaoa aioo?aiieo aeae Ia?aneiai ?aeiia, n ethiy ii
naioya?ue 1918 aiaea -eiienna?ii ooaaa Iineianeie canoaau ai?iaea
Iao?ia?aaea. N naioya?y 1918 aiaea ii ieoya?ue 1922 aiaea Ea?iia
?aaioaao a aeieaeiinoe oiaa?eua i?aaenaaeaoaey Iaicaineiai aoa/aea. A
oaa?aea 1922 aiaea ii ia?aaiaeeony ia ?aaioo a Naia?neoth aoaa?ieth e
iacia/aaony ia aeieaeiinoue i?aaenaaeaoaey eieeaaee aoaa?ineiai
?aao?eaoiaea.

N ieoya?y 1922 aiaea ii naioya?ue 1926 aiaea Ea?iia A.C. – i?ieo?i?
aoaa?iee.

1.1 Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 50-o aiaeia XIX aaea ia ieiuaaee iaoiaeeeny ee?ie/iue
aeii, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoee aiaaoiio eoioeo Naaoiao. Iinea aai ?aci?aiey yoio
aeii eoieei aoaa?ineia i?aaeaiea, e ia aai ianoa a 1870 aiaeo auei
iino?iaii aeaooyoaaeiia caeaiea Naia?neiai ie?oaeiiai noaea.

A 1892-1893 aiaeao a iai ?aaioae A.E. Oeueyiia-Eaiei.

N 30 yiaa?y 1892 aiaea, iinea oniaoiie naea/e yenoa?iii yecaiaiia ca
eo?n th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa, Aeaaeeie?
Oeueyiia noae iiiiuieeii i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai Oa?aeeia A.I. a
Naia?neii ie?oaeiii noaea. 5 ia?oa 1892 aiaea ii aia?aua caiye ianoi ca
aaeaieaoneei noieii. A ea/anoaa caueoieea A.E. Oeueyiia i?eiye o/anoea a
18 oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo aeaeao. Eaeeo-oi cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia ii
iei ii ia aeiaeeny. Ia caeaiee Naia?neiai iaeanoiiai noaea onoaiiaeaia
iaii?eaeueiay aeinea, iinayuaiiay yoiio ia?eiaeo aeayoaeueiinoe aiaeaey.

Yoi iauaecaanoiue enoi?e/aneee oaeo. Iaeiaei caeaiea i?eia/aoaeueii
noaeueaaie e ae?oaeo eioa?aniuo ethaeae. Oae, a 80-90-o aiaeao XIX aaea
i?aaenaaeaoaeai Naia?neiai ie?oaeiiai noaea aue Aeaaeeie? Eaaiiae/
Aiiaieia – nui aeaeaa?enoa Eaaia Aiiaieiaa e Iieeiu Aaae, o?aioeoaeaiee
ec iaaaceia iiae ia Eociaoeeii iinoo a Iineaa, aanno?aoii ?acaeaeeaoae
noaeueao ?onneeo aeaiuei, ioi?aaeaoeony aneaae ca ioaeueyie a no?iaoth
Neae?ue. ?iaeeeny Aiiaieia a Iao?ianeii caaiaea Oiaieueneie aoaa?iee.
Enoi?ey ethaae aai ?iaeeoaeae iineoaeeea nthaeaoii aeey ?iiaia A.
Aethia-noa?oaai «O/eoaeue oaooiaaiey».

Ainieouaaeny Aiiaieia a naiuea E.E. Ioueia – ae?oaa A.N. Iooeeia.
Iai?inoi neeaaeuaaeanue noaeueaa nuia eaoi?aeaieia. Ia i?ioaiee
Aeaaeeie?a Aiiaieiaa ?ac?aoeoue aio iinooieoue a aunoaa o/aaiia
caaaaeaiea Ieeieae I a 1849 aiaeo nianoaaiii?o/ii ia/a?oae, /oi oaeei,
eae ii, iaaeeaaeeo «aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny aeiiace/aneei ia?aciaaieai».
Eeoue i?e eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a II auea niyoa iiaea. Iinea iaieoanoa
1856 aiaea Aiiaieia ?aaioae oacaeiui noaeueae a Ieaeiai Iiaai?iaea,
caoai noaeueae Oa?ueeianeiai ie?oaeiiai noaea. A 1871 aiaeo ii anooiaao
a aeieaeiinoue i?aaenaaeaoaey ie?oaeiiai noaea a Naia?a. Nai Aiiaieia
i/aiue ai?aeeeny naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai. A aai eaaeiaoa eaaeae aeueaii n
ii?o?aoaie e aaoia?aoaie aeaeaa?enoia, a ia noaia aenaee eaiaeaeu,
niyoua n aai iooea-eaoi?aeaieia.

Nia?aiaiieee auniei oeaieee i?ioanneiiaeeci e /anoiinoue i?aaenaaeaoaey
Naia?neiai ie?oaeiiai noaea. Ai?ueeee iacaae Aiiaieiaa «aaeeeei oiieeii
e aeaeaioeueiaiii».

N?aaee ainueie i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo oiai a?aiaie, i?eienaiiuo e
ie?oaeiiio noaeo, iniaaiii auaeaeyeenue Iica?i E.E. e Oa?aeei A.I Iica?i
E.E. aue iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo aaeaieaoia Iiaieaeuey oiai a?aiaie.
Auioneiee Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, ii oaaaeaeaieth ia?iaeiee, ii aue
auioaeaeai iieeiooue Iineao. Iica?i E.E. – auaeathuayny ee/iinoue,
cayaeeue oaao?ae, ethaeoaeue eeoa?aoo?u, ae?oa iieiaeiai Ai?ueeiai.

Ia?eiae ia?aciaaiey e ia?aua aiaeu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia aoaa?ineie
i?ieo?aoo?u niaiaee n aaaaeaieai e ?acaeoeai iiaie yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee (IYI). A Naia?neie aoaa?iee a aaaonoa 1923 aiaea auei ioiaiaii
aiaiiia iieiaeaiea, aaaaeaiiia a nayce n ieiaeii e ?ac?ooie. Auea
i?iaaaeaia ia?aay ia?aienue ianaeaiey.

Iaeeaeeanue aeayoaeueiinoue /anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, eaai/ieeia,
eoeaeia. Ia?yaeo n ?acaeoeai ainoaea?noaaiiie e naeueneie eiiia?aoeee a
aieueoii eiee/anoaa aicieeaee ?acee/iua eaeaeiiia?aoeau, oeeoeaiua
aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa, oiaa?euanoaa. Ia?aaeei aeiioneaeinue iacaeiiiia
eniieueciaaiea iaaiiiai o?oaea. Iai?eia?, Aiaaeaiia e AEaieia,
aicaeaaeyaoea a 1923 aiaeo E?aniiy?neoth iio?aaeoaeueneoth eiiia?aoeeth,
eeoue ca 2 ianyoea i?enaieee 550 ?oaeae cieioii iauanoaaiiuo aeaiaa e
iieiaeio eiaaioa?y. A eiiia?aoeaiuo eaaeao i?iaeaaaeenue a iniiaiii eo
nianoaaiiua oiaa?u, anth au?o/eo io i?iaeaaee eioi?uo iie neeaaeuaaee
naaa a ea?iai.

?ani?ino?aiaiiuie i?anooieaieyie a yoe aiaeu yaeyeenue e?aaee, a?aaaaee
e oaeenoaa, eiiie?aaenoai, naiiaiiiaa?aiea.

A 1923-1924 aa. ii Naia?neie aoaa?iee auee aicaoaeaeaiu aieaa 17 ouny/
aeae i naiiaiiiaa?aiee, o?ao ouny/ – i eiiie?aaenoaa, 1200 – i a?aaaaeao
e oaeenoaao. Aicaoaeaeaeinue iiiai aeae i nie?uoee eoeaeaie oeaaa,
oeeiiaiee iyiiaiia io iaeiaa e ae?oaea.

Iaaacuioa?anii ia?aia ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie
aoai?ieo?aoo?u, eioi?ia ia oieueei aeaao iai i?aaenoaaeaiea i
iai?aaeaieyo i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a, ii e aeaaiia – iu ociaee eiaia
iaoeo ia?auo ?aaioieeia.

1.2 Iaycaiiinoe aoai?ieo?i?a

Naia?neee aoaa?ineee i?ieo?i? – Ea?iia A.C. Ia aoaa?ineiai i?ieo?i?a
aiceiaeaii:

Iaaethaeaiea ca niaethaeaieai caeiiia anaie aoaa?ineeie i?aaiaie aeanoe,
iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e /anoiuie eeoeaie.

I?aeiouanoaaiiia iaaethaeaiea ca i?iecaiaenoaii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
neaaenoaey.

I?iaa?ea e ooaa?aeaeaiea iaaeieoaeueiuo caeeth/aiee ii anai caeii/aiiui
neaaenoaaiiui aeaeai, iai?aaeaiiui a Oa. Ioae. Aoanoaea.

Iaaethaeaiea ca aeayoaeueiinoueth naieo iiiiuieeia e ?oeiaiaenoai.

Caiaia naieo iiiiuieeia a aeaeao auaeathuaeny aaaeiinoe.

O/anoea a canaaeaieyo Aoaeniieeiia.

?aaecey iiiiuieeia i?ieo?i?a.

I?enoonoaea ia canaaeaieyo ieaioia Aoanoaea.

Nicua ia?eiaee/aneeo niaauaiee ii ai?ueaa n i?anooiiinoueth e o. ae.

Caianoeoaeue aoaa?ineiai i?ieo?i?a – Aonaa E.E. Ia iaai aiceaaathony
neaaeothuea iaycaiiinoe:

Iaaethaeaiea ca i?aaiaie A. I. O.

O/anoea a ?anii?yaeeoaeueiii canaaeaiee Oa. Ioae. Aoanoaea.

I?iecaiaenoai ?aaecee ii caaeaieyi aoai?ieo?i?a i?ieo?i?neeo o/anoeia.

?ac?aaioea anaai io/aoiiai iaoa?eaea iiii?ieo?i?a e aea/a
niioaaonoaothueo ?oeiaiaeyueo oeacaiee ii oaeiaui.

Iiiiuieee aoai?ieo?i?a:

1-e iiiiuiee aoai?ieo?i?a – Aai?ia N.A.

Ia aai iaycaiiinoe eaaeao iiaeaioiaea e i?iaaaeaiea /a?ac aoai?ieo?i?a
anae ?aaiou, naycaiiie n inouanoaeaieai iauaai iaaeci?a ca caeiiiinoueth
aeaenoaee anao i?aaiia aeanoe, oicyenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, iauanoaaiiuo,
/anoiuo i?aaiecaoeee e /anoiuo eeoe, iooai aicaoaeaeaiey oaieiaiiai
i?aneaaeiaaiey i?ioea aeiiaiuo e ii?ioanoiaaiey iinoaiiaeaiee e
?anii?yaeaiee.

2-e iiiiuiee aoai?ieo?i?a – Ieoioiiia E.I.

Ia iaai aiceiaeaiu iaycaiiinoe ii A?aaeaeaineiio Ioae. Aoanoaea
(noaeaaiay, eannaoeeiiiay e iaaeci?iay einoaioeee) e iaaethaeaiea ca
iai?aaeaieai e ?ac?aoaieai aeae a Caiaeueiuo Eiienneyo.

3-e iiiiuiee aoai?ieo?i?a – A?eai?ia N.O.

3-e iiiiuiee auiieiyao inouanoaeaiea iaaeci?a ca aeayoaeueiinoueth anao
i?aaiia neaaenoaey a aoaa?iee e i?iaa?eo iaaeieoaeueiuo caeeth/aiee ii
aeaeai, iiaenoaeiui Aoanoaeo, eae iinooiathueo io no. neaaeiaaoaeae
/a?ac iaaethaeathuaai iii. i?ieo?i?a, oae e io o/anoeiauo iii.
i?ieo?i?ia, ii i?iecaiaenoaai ia?iaeiuo neaaeiaaoaeae aeey ia?aaea/e eo
ia ooaa?aeaeaiea aoai?ieo?i?a. Iaaethaeaiea ca no. neaaeiaaoaeyie,
ianoaie caeeth/aiey, ?ani?aaeeiiii e Eiienneae Ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo.

4-e iiiiuiee – Naa?thaei A.I.

Auiieiyao neaaeothuea iaycaiiinoe:

Aea/a caeeth/aiee ii aeaeai a Oa. Eann. Ioae. Aoanoaea.

Ninoaaeaiea i?ioanoia e a ii?yaeea iaaeci?a caeeth/aiee.

5-e iiiiuiee – Eiiai A.A.

Aai iaycaiiinoe: iaaethaeaiea ca ia?iaeiuie neaaeiaaoaeyie ai?. Naia?u e
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue i?iniio? neaaenoaaiiuo aeae, iinooiathueo io oacaeiuo
iiiiuieeia i?ieo?i?a aoaa?iee.

6-e iiiiuiee – Nieieia A.E.

Auiieiyao: iaaethaeaiea e iaaeci? ca i?aaiaie aeiciaiey (ieeeoeey,
Oa?icune, i?aaiu Iiaeaoiie, Naieoa?iie, Oaoie/aneie, Oi?aiaie
Einiaeoeee, Einiaeoeee O?oaea e ae?., ii aeaeai, ioianaiiui e eo
aaaeaieth) e ca O?oaenanneae. I?eai e ?anniio?aiea aeaeia, eneeth/ay
aeaeiau ia aoaa?ineea i?aaiu, eaeiaua ?anniao?eaathony 1-i iiiiuieeii
i?ieo?i?a.

A eaaeaeii oacaeiii ai?iaea ninoiyo iiiiuieee naia?neiai aoai?ieo?i?a,
eioi?ua inouanoaeytho ooieoeee i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a ii
niioaaonoaothuaio oacaeo.

Iiiiuiee aoai?ieo?i?a ii Naia?neiio oacaeo – Ea?oeaa A.E.

I?aaiii, auiieiythuei oaoie/anee ?aaioo aoai?ieo?i?. iaaeci?a, yaeyaony
Oi?aaeaiea I?ieo?aoo?u, ai aeaaa eioi?iai noieo nae?aoa?ue e 4 iiiiuieea
aai.

Nae?aoa?ue Oi?aaeaiey Aoai?ieo?i?a – AEoeia O.A.

N ia?auo aeiae naiaai nouanoaiaaiey Naia?neay aoaa?ineay i?ieo?aoo?a
ioe?uoa aeey n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Oae, 15 iay 1923 aiaea a
aacaoa «Eiiioia» iioaeeeiaaii eioa?aueth Aoai?ieo?i?a Ea?iiaa A.C. –
naiaai ?iaea io/ao ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ia?eiaea Naia?neie i?ieo?aoo?u.

1.3 I?ieo?aoo?a a ai?ueaa n i?anooiiinoueth

Aoai?ieo?i? oia. Ea?iia a aanaaea n iaoei nio?oaeieeii niiauaao, /oi a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aaiou ii i?aaiecaoeee i?ieo?aoo?u ii Naia?neie Aoaa?iee
iiaeii n/eoaoue caeii/aiiuie; noi?ie?iaai aoaa?ineee aiia?ao. A eaaeaeii
oacaea i?ieo?i?neee iaaeci? inouanoaeyaony ia ianoa oacaeiui iiiiuieeii
i?ieo?i?a. Eae ecaanoii, a e?oa iaycaiiinoae i?ieo?aoo?u aoiaeyo
iaaethaeaiea ca caeiiiinoueth aeaenoaee anao i?aaiia aeanoe,
iauanoaaiiuo e /anoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, /anoiuo eeoe, ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
?icuneiuo e noaeaaii-neaaenoaaiiuo i?aaiia, ca i?aaeeueiinoueth
niaea?aeaiey caeeth/aiiuo iiae no?aaeae.

?aaioa i?ieo?aoo?u n eaaeaeui aeiai ?acaa?ouaaaony ana oe?a, e aeeciue
i?aaeuyaeyao naie o?aaiaaiey, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao aieueoia
eiee/anoai naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo aeaeia e cayaeaiee io ioaeaeueiuo
a?aaeaeai, o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee. Yoei aeaeiaai iaiaaeeaiii
aeaaony iaaeeaaeauaa iai?aaeaiea

1.4 Iauee iaaeci?

Iaeia ec iniiaiuo ooieoeee i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a – iauee e
nenoaiaoe/aneee iaaeci? ca caeiiiinoueth aeaenoaee anao i?aaiia aeanoe,
ca naiaa?aiaiiui e i?aaeeueiui i?iaaaeaieai a aeeciue anao iinoaiiaeaiee
e aeae?aoia oeaio?a – aua iaaeinoaoi/ii aeoaiei inouanoaeyaony
i?ieo?aoo?ie aaeaeo iiaeciu oaeie ?aaiou. I?ieo?aoo?a, ioaaouaay yoo
iaeanoue, iinoaiaiii aeeth/aao a noa?o naiaai iaaethaeaiey ana iiaua e
iiaua o/?aaeaeaiey. I?eyoii ioiaoeoue, /oi ca aeaayoue ianyoeaa
nouanoaiaaiey i?ieo?aoo?u a Naia?neie aoaa?iee ia auei ieeaeeo iaei/iuo
noieeiiaaiee n aini?aaiaie. I?ieo?aoo?a oaeaeinue onoaiiaeoue ni anaie
o/?aaeaeaieyie iieiue aeaeiaie eiioaeo, /aio iaiaei niaeaenoaiaae
i?aceaeeoi Aoaeniieeiia naiei /ooeei e aieiaoaeueiui ioiioaieai e
cayaeaieyi i?ieo?aoo?u e iauei naiei no?aieaieai e oaa?aeiio
i?iaaaeaieth a aeeciue ia/ae ?aaiethoeeiiiie caeiiiinoe.

Ca iineaaeiea ianyoeu i?e o/anoee i?ieo?aoo?u auee i?iaaaeaiu a
Naia?neie aoaa?iee eaiiaiee ii ai?ueaa ni acyoi/ie/anoaii, naiiaiieie e
oaieiaiui aaiaeeoeciii.

1.5 Acyoi/ie/anoai

A ai?ueaa ni acyoi/ie/anoaii, yaeythueiny aeey iieiaeiai niaaoneiai
i?aaiecia ceii ia?iiiie aaaeiinoe, i?eiyee o/anoea ana ianoiua i?aaiu
aeanoe, aeaaiaea?y /aio iiiaea e?oiiua acyoi/ieee auee auyaeaiu e
iiianee caneoaeaiioth ea?o. Iaeeia acyoi/ie/anoai iniaaiii i?ioeaaoaei a
Eiioica, aaea iii noath eaeei-oi auoiaui yaeaieai, aioei a iaeoiae
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Oai iaeii a?aiy nicaeaeanue oaeooeeaay,
?aceaaathuay aoiinoa?a i?iaeaaeiinoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii/oe aanue
ninoaa Eiioica iaiiaeai. I?aaeiea aai «aeaeueoeu» aianoa ni anaie naieie
eeeaioaie a ethia i?aaenoaioo ia?aae noaeii. Anaai a?aaoeo e aeaaaaoeo
acyoee ii aeaeo Eiioica aoaeao i?eaea/aii e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia iaiaa
oanoeaeanyoe /aeiaae. E?iia acyoi/ie/anoaa a ?aaioa Eiioica
iaaethaeaeanue iieiay ?anoeyaaiiinoue e oaeaoiinoue.

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a?ano e i?eaea/aiea e noaeo «aeaeueoeia» Eiioica
nua?aee ?ieue inaaaeathuae a?icu. Iiaua ?aaioieee Eiioica iai?aaeytho
ana oneeey e oiio, /oiau au?iaiyoue ?aaioo Eiioica e iiaeiyoue aeiaa?ea
ianaeaiey e yoiio i?aaio; ii-aeaeeiiio, yoi ei oaeanony; ia yoii aiai?eo
cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea iniiaaoaeueiuo aeaeia ia Eiioic.

*oi eanaaony acyoi/ie/anoaa aiiaua, oi oaia?ue iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue,
/oi cei cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeeinue, ooei a iiaeiieuea, ia?anoaei auoue
oaeei aaccanoai/eaui e ioe?iaaiiui, noaei ?aaea e iacaiaoiaa.
Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio e eciaiaia nenoaia ai?ueau n iei.

1.6 Naiiaiiea e oaieiaueia

Ae?oaia cei iaoae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – naiiaiiea. A ai?ueaa n iae
nua?aea aieueooth ?ieue eciaiaiiay 140 no. OE, ii eioi?ie ca naiiaiieo
noaeaie iiaoo iacia/aoueny naiua no?iaua iaeacaiey – eeoaiea naiaiaeu ia
n?ie ia iaiaa o?ao eao e eiioeneaoeey eiouanoaa, a oaeaea ioi?aaea
naiiaiiueeia a A?oaiaaeueneoth aoaa?ieth a aaeieieno?aoeaiii ii?yaeea.
Ai?ueaa n naiiaiieie aua aeaeaei ia caeii/aia.

1.7 Oaieiaiue i?ioanneiiaeueiue aaiaeeoeci

Ca 1923 aiae cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeeny e aeecie e iieiie eeeaeaeaoeee ?yae
no?iauo i?eaiai?ia noaea (aei aunoae ia?u iaeacaiey aeeth/eoaeueii) e
aunueea iianiiai oaieiaiiai yeaiaioa e ?aoeeaeeaenoia a A?oaiaaeueneoth
aoaa?ieth naeaeaee naia aeaei.

1.8 Aa?ie IYIa

Neaaeothuae i/a?aaeiie caaea/ae i?ieo?aoo?u, ?EE, oaieiaii-?icuneiuo e
noaeaaii-neaaenoaaiiuo i?aaiia yaeyaony ai?ueaa n iaeni?aaiuie
eiio?aaaioaie e iiae?yae/eeaie aini?aaiia. Iaeii a?aiy noaei eae-oi a
ii?yaeea aauae, /oiau IYIiai, caeeth/ea aeiaiai?, niaeoee?iaae ia
iieo/aiiua a n/ao yoiai aeiaiai?a aaainu e ii/oe ie/aai ia aeaaae aeey
auiieiaiey aeiaiai?a. Ii ieaoee iaonoieeo, /anoi i/aiue ieca?ioth, e
iaeaoe ia iaeaoe ia oaea?ye aeey auiieiaiey acyouo iaycaoaeuenoa.
Iaeioi?ua aeaaea ooeo?yeenue anyeeie i?aaaeaie e iai?aaaeaie
ioaeaeaoueny io iaonoieee, ?anoi?aioa eaeei-eeai ia?acii caeeth/aiiue
aeiaiai?.

Nei?i a Aoanoaea iieaeao oeaeue ?yae oaeeo i?ioeannia, i?e/ai i?eaea/aiu
e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia oieueei iiae?yae/eee, ii e oa i?aaenoaaeoaee
oici?aaiia, eioi?ua naiaa?aiaiii ia i?eieiaee ia? e iiioaeaeaieth
iiae?yae/eeia auiieiyoue aeiaiai?. Yoio aeae i?anooieaiee aoaeao
i?aneaaeiaaoueny n ?aaiethoeeiiiie aaniiuaaeiinoueth.

Ec oeaeiai ?yaea aeae, eiathueony a i?ieo?aoo?a, n i/aaeaeiinoueth
iiaeii oaaaeeoueny, /oi /anoiue eaieoae a iaoae aoaa?iee ?anoao e
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony nianai ia iioiio, /oi o iaai eo/oea i?aaiecaoeeiiiua
oi?iu, aieueoa aeaeiaie eieoeeaoeau, iaiueoa iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia e
o.ae. I?e/eiu aai ?inoa e?ithony a ?acaeeueaeyenoaa e oaeaoiinoe, a
ia?aaeei e yaiuo ceioiio?aaeaieyo iiiaeo iaoeo oicyenoaaiieeia. A
?acoeueoaoa ec iaoeo oici?aaiia oeaiiinoe ia?aea/eaathony a ea?iaiu
eiaeeo iyia/ae. Ia ai?ueao n yoei ceii i?ieo?aoo?a ia?auaao nae/an
na?ueaciia aieiaiea.

A caeeth/aiea neaaeo ianeieueei neia i iaoeo neaaenoaaiii-?icuneiuo
i?aaiao, AIO, oaie?icunea e ieeeoeee. A nayce n eciaiaieai oa?aeoa?a
aeaaiiai eiioeiaaioa i?anooieaiee, ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaiaia e
iinoaiiaea ?aaiou a yoeo i?aaiao. Aiia?ao anao ia?a/eneaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee noae cia/eoaeueii aea/a.

?aaioa anao yoeo i?aaiia aiieia oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueia. Aieueooth iiiiuue
i?ieo?aoo?a ieacuaaao ?EE, eioi?ay oaia?ue noaea aeaaaoue oeaiiua
nenoaiaoece?iaaiiua e ?ac?aaioaiiua iaoa?eaeu naieo ?aaecee».

12 aaaonoa 1923 aiaea a oie aea aacaoa “Eiiioia” a noaouea «E?aniay
i?ieo?aoo?a» Aeeoi? Ceiiaueaae/ Ea?iia ?anneacuaaao ia io?aneyo
i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a, aeinoeaeaieyo, eioi?ua i?ieo?aoo?ie naeaeaiu, e
caaea/ao, noiyueo ia?aae iae a ianoiyuee iiiaio.

1.9 Noaouey a aacaoa «Eiiioia» «E?aniay i?ieo?aoo?a»

Aio oaea aiae a iaoae aoaa?iee nouanoaoao, e?aiiao e ?acaeaaaony
niaaoneay i?ieo?aoo?a, ?aoay caaea/e, iinoaaeaiiua ia?aae iath. Aeaaiay
ec yoeo caaea/ – inouanoaeaiea e iaaethaeaiea ca aeaenoaeoaeueiui
i?iaaaeaieai a aeeciue i?eioeeia ?aaiethoeeiiiie caeiiiinoe,
iaoneiaeaiiie aeae?aoaie, ?anii?yaeaieyie e iinoaiiaeaieyie Niaaoneie
aeanoe.

Iaeiieaiea /anoiiai eaieoaea ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e
i?aaei?eyoee. Yoa e?oiiaeoay caaea/a a oneiaeyo IYIa i?eaeaeaao aneaae
ca iaeiaiaie iieeoeeie ia?ainoaiaiiia aieiaiea. Iaaeeaa ca n/ao
ainoaea?noaaiiie oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe – ii?iaeaeaiea IYIa, ycaa, n
eioi?ie ia/aoa e aoaeao iineaaeiaaoaeueii aei enei?aiaiey aanoenue
ai?ueaa. Oeie/iia yoi yaeaiea iau/ii neeaaeuaaaony oaeei ia?acii: aie?oa
niaaoneiai o/?aaeaeaiey eee i?aaei?eyoey i?aaiecothony /anoiua eioa?anu;
acyoi/ie/anoaii, eoiianoaii, any/aneeie eiiaeiaoeeyie iioaiie/aneay
eieoeeaoeaa ie?oaeaao ainoaea?noaaiiia aeaei e aunanuaaao ec iaai ana
aeey iaa iaiaoiaeeiia. Caaea/a i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a – yia?ae/iui
aiaoaoaeuenoaii a aeaea oicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiia iieii/eoue n yaeaieyie
iiaeiaiiai ?iaea. Ec iaeanoe oaeeo aeae iiaeii ioiaoeoue
iiaeaioaaeeaaaiua e neooaieth aeaea Aoayeaeo?iioaeaea, Aoio?anoa,
Iaeanoiie ?uaiie eiioi?u, Iinoi?aa, Eiioica e ae?., eioi?ua aoaeoo
i?iaaaeaiu iaeii ca ae?oaei a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiie eaiiaiee ai?ueau.

I?eaea/aiea o?oaeyueony iann e aeaeo i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a – ia?aaeoee
iiiaio oniaoa aai inouanoaeaiey.

Yoi iu noaaei ia aiieia eiie?aoioth ii/ao, ii ia?a oe?aieaiey aiia?aoa
i?ieo?aoo?u e ?acaeoey aa aeayoaeueiinoe e oeaeiio ?yaeo i?ioeannia
aoaeoo i?eaea/aiu ?aai/ea iauanoaaiiua iaaeieoaee n oaa?ee e caaiaeia.
Aunooieaiea ?aai/aai, aai ?a/ue aoaeao eiaoue ia?iiiia ainieoaoaeueiia
cia/aiea e i?eaeeceo aeaei thnoeoeee e ianna. ssnii, eiia/ii, /oi
?aai/aio ia iaeaaeaoue anae th?eaee/aneie noi?iiie aii?ina, ii caeanue
aaaeii i?ieaoa?neia /oouea, ?aaiethoeeiiiia niciaiea, iiaee?aieaiiia
naycueth n ?aai/ae iannie. Aneaae aea ca aunooieaieai ?aai/aai aunooieo
th?eno-iaaeieoaeue, eioi?ue aeano th?eaee/aneoth eaaeeoeeaoeeth aeaiiiai
i?anooieaiey. Oaeie iaoiae i?ieo?aoo?a ia/iao i?eiaiyoue a aeeaeaeoaa
a?aiy. A ia?iaeiuo noaeao aoaa?iee a ea/anoaa iaaeieoaeae oaea
i?eaeaeathony e?anoueyia. Iaeei ec niiniaia naycaoueny n iannie –
i?eaea/aiea aieiaiey i?ionithcia e i?ieo?i?neiio iaaeci?o iooai o/anoey
i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?ieo?aoo?u a ?aaioa i?ioi?aaiecaoeee. Iaoa?eaeu,
iiiaaeathuea a e?oa aeayoaeueiinoe i?ionithcia, ca/anooth eiatho
e?eieiaeueiue oa?aeoa? e aeieaeiu auoue auyaeaiu. A /anoiinoe, ii
iaeioi?ui aeaeai Nithca o?ainii?oiuo ?aai/eo aicaoaeaeaii i?ieo?i?neia
neaaenoaea. Aeeaeaeoae caaea/ae i?ieo?aoo?u aoaeao i?aaiecaoeey aeaea
th?eaee/aneie iiiiue o?oaeyueiny.

Noaeaaii-neaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa a a. Naia?a iinoaaeaia aeinoaoi/ii
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii. Ia aunioa noieo i?aai aeiciaiey, Oaieiaiue ?icune,
aeathuee i?ieo?aoo?a aiieia ?ac?aaioaiiua iaoa?eaeu, eioi?ua ii
ioi?ieaieth iai?aaeythony a noae. TH?eaee/anee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
?aaioieeia a oacaeao i/aiue iaei, a iioiio aeaei thnoeoeee oai aeaeaei
aua aei oiai, /oi o?aaoaony. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?eaiai?ia (aei 50%)
ia?iaeiuo noaeia a oacaeao ioiaiyaony aaeaeo iai?aaeeueiiai i?eiaiaiey
caeiiia. Caoi i?eaiai?u Naia?neiai Aoanoaea ii/oe ia ioiaiythony
oeaio?ii, /oi yaeyaony iieacaoaeai oie auniou, ia eioi?ie noiyo Aoanoae
e i?ieo?aoo?a, n iei ia?ac?uaii naycaiiay a ?aaioa. Oniaoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe Ooanoaea iiiiaaao oi?ioee ninoaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
th?eaee/aneeo ?aaioieeia, i?aaeaiiuo aeaeo niaaoneie thnoeoeee.
Ae?oaeiay ?aaioa eiiioienoia-?oeiaiaeeoaeae e niaoeeaeenoia – caeia
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aeaea thnoeoeee a aoaa?iee. I?e Aoanoaea aei
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie aaeanue enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa ii eco/aieth
niaaoneiai i?aaa a aeaoo e?oaeeao – eiiioienoe/aneii e niaoeeaeueiii,
eioi?ua, canaaeay aeaa ?aca a iaaeaeth, iaiaieaaeenue niaianoiuie
aeinoeaeaieyie.

?aaioa AIO, noiyuay oaeaea a iaeanoe i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a, a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy, io?aaeii ioiaoeoue, i?ioaeaao ii eeiee e?oiiuo aeae aoaa?ineiai
cia/aiey. AIO inaiaiaeaeaii io iannu aeae iaeeiai oa?aeoa?a,
caa?iiiaeaeathueo aieiaiea yoiai aaaeiiai i?aaia. Aii?inu yeiiiie/aneiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa e iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa – aio noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe
AIO.

Iaaethaeaiea ca oth?aiiui aeaeii oaeaea inouanoaeyaony aoaa?ineie
i?ieo?aoo?ie. Iaoa ea?aoaeueiay iieeoeea a neeo ?yaea i?e/ei – aieiaea,
?ac?ooe e i?i/. – ia aeinoeaaea naiae oeaee e iacia/aiey, eai
aieueoeinoai ec caeeth/aiiuo e no?iai inoaeaeaiiuo ?aiueoa eiaee
aiciiaeiinoue auoue i?ee?aieaiiuie ia aiaoiea ?aaiou n i?aaeinoaaeaieai
ecaanoiie naiaiaeu aeaenoaee. Oaia?ue yoi aeaei oii?yaei/aii.
I?ee?aieaiea ia aiaoiea ?aaiou caeeth/aiiuo ne?ioneiai aeiia eaeao iiae
eiio?ieai i?ieo?aoo?u e n aa iai?aiaiiiai niaeaney.

Aeaaiaea?y yia?aee e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiinoe noiyueo ai aeaaa yoiai aeaea
eeoe ainnoaiiaeaiu ii?yaeie e iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey niaea?aeaiey
a?anoaioia, eiee/anoai eioi?uo aeinoeaaao aeiaiaiiiai a?aiaie.

AEaeiaa. Ca a?aiy n 1 ai?aey ii 1 ethey /a?ac Aoai?ieo?aoo?o i?ioea 561
aeaeiaa, eioi?ui (anai) aeai oiae e iioeae?iaaiiia caeeth/aiea ii
eaaeaeie ec ieo. Ec iauaai eiee/anoaa aeaeia auaeaeythony aeaeiau ii
eaaaeueiui naeaeeai (200), ia eiouanoai e caieth a oneiaeyo aieiaea,
oiaeaoaenoaa i i?eiaiaiee aiienoee, aeaeiau ia Eiioic e i?i/.
I?ieo?i?neeo aunooieaiee a oaieiaiinoaeaaiuo einoaioeeyo auei ca yoi
a?aiy nauoa 200.

Aaoi?eoao e?aniie i?ieo?aoo?u e aoanoaea ?anoao e e?aiiao.

I?ieo?aoo?a a aeaeueiaeoai naiai ?acaeoee yaeony iiuiui aeaeaaoaeai
niaaoneiai no?ieoaeuenoaa».

Aeieaea aiaeu a i?ieo?aoo?a Naia?neie aoaa?iee ?aaioaee a? ia?aua
?aaioieee. Ia?yaeo n iieiaeuie, ia eiathueie i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa e
ia?aciaaiey, ?aaioieeaie /anoii o?oaeeeenue e th?enou, i?eoaaeoea ec
noa?iai aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai aiia?aoa – ?onneea eioaeeeaaiou.

A eo /enea – auaoee ai?iaeneie noaeuey EIINOAIOEI IEEIEAAAE* IEOIOIIIA.

Ieoioiiia E.I. ?iaeeeny a 1882 aiaeo a ai?iaea Naia?a a naiuea
neoaeauaai. A 1903 aiaeo, ieii/ea 1-th Naia?neoth aeiiaceth, ii
iinooiaao ia th?eaee/aneee oaeoeueoao Eacaineiai oieaa?neoaoa, eioi?ue
ieii/ee a 1908 aiaeo.

A yiaa?a 1909 aiaea Ieoioiiia E.I. ca/eneyaony ieaaeoei eaiaeeaeaoii ia
noaeaaioth aeieaeiinoue i?e Naia?neii ie?oaeiii noaea, a /a?ac aeaa
ianyoea iacia/aaony ia aeieaeiinoue iiiiuieea nae?aoa?y a?aaeaeaineiai
ioaeaeaiey.

Auaea?aeaa niaoeeaeueiue yecaiai, ii ca/eneyaony noa?oei eaiaeeaeaoii ia
noaeaaiua aeieaeiinoe e a 1912 a. ooaa?aeaeaaony ai?iaeneei noaeueae
3-ai o/anoea ai?iaea Naia?u, a aeieaeiinoe eioi?iai ?aaioaao aei 1918
aiaea.

N 1922 ii 1931 aiaeu Eiinoaioei Ieeieaaae/ ?aaioaao 2-i iiiiuieeii
Aoaa?ineiai i?ieo?i?a, a caoai – Naia?neiai e?ay.

A 20-a aiaeu Naia?neay aoaa?iey ninoiyea ec ?yaea
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aaeeieoe – oacaeia: Naia?neiai,
Aooo?oneaineiai, Aocoeoeneiai, Nuc?aineiai e ae?oaeo. I?ieo?i?neee
iaaeci? a ieo inouanoaeyee iiiiuieee aoaa?ineiai i?ieo?i?a. N?aaee
ia?auo oacaeiuo i?ieo?i?ia – noa?ua aieueoaaeee, aeoeaiua o/anoieee
?aaiethoeeiiiuo niauoee AANEEEE AEAENAIAe?IAE* IANOIA e AEAENAIAe?
EAAIIAE* EA?OeAA.

A.A. Ianoia ?iaeeeny a 1880 aiaeo a ss?ineaaneie aoaa?iee a naiuea
e?anoueyieia-aaaeiyea. Ieii/ea a 1892 aiaeo ia/aeueiia o/eeeua, Ianoia
A.A. a oa/aiea iineaaeothueo 3 eao ?aaioaao iaeue/eeii a io/iie eaaea,
caoai ?aai/ei a iaoaie/aneie ianoa?neie iaiooaeoo?iie oaa?eee ai?iaea
ss?ineaaey.

A 1905 aiaeo ii iinooiaao a ?inneeneoth Nioeeae-Aeaiie?aoe/aneoth
?aai/oth Ia?oeth, i?eieiaao aeoeaiia o/anoea a i?iiaaaiaeenoneie ?aaioa
n?aaee ?aai/eo oaa?eee, i?aaiecaoeee noa/ae e caaanoiaie.

Auneaiiue aeanoyie a Aeaoa?eii-neaaneoth aoaa?ieth, Ianoia A.A.
i?iaeieaeaao ?aaiethoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue e 8 yiaa?y 1906 aiaea
iiaeaa?aaaony a?anoo. I?ineaeaa aieaa oanoe ianyoeaa a Eoaaineie
oth?ueia, ii inaiaiaeaeaaony iiae aeaniue iaaeci? iieeoeee e aunueaaony
ii yoaio ia ?iaeeio.

A ia?eiae 1917 ii 1919 aiaeu Ianoia A.A. caieiaaony i?aaiecaoeeae
io?yaeia E?aniie aaa?aeee, o/anoaoao a aiyo n aaei/aoaie, eie/aeiaoeaie,
a ninoaaa a?eaaaeu 25-e *aiaaaneie aeeaecee (a ea/anoaa aiaieiia) – a
inaiaiaeaeaiee ai?iaeia Oou e O?aeuenea.

Iinea aeaiiaeeecaoeee ec a?iee aei 1923 aiaea ii iaoiaeeeny ia niaaoneie
?aaioa, a n ethey 1923 aiaea Ianoia A.A. ia?aaiaeeony a i?aaiu
i?ieo?aoo?u e aei naioya?y 1924 aiaea ?aaioaao iiiiuieeii i?ieo?i?a
aoaa?iee ii Aoao?oneaineiio oacaeo.

13 naioya?y 1924 aiaea Ianoia A.A. ooae ec aeecie ia o?oaeiaii iinoo.

A.E. Ea?oeaa piaeeeny a 1894 a. a ai?iaea Ooa a naiuea ?aai/aai. A
1907-1909 aiaeao o/eeny a aeaoo eeanniii aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o/eeeua,
ioeoaea aue io/eneai, oae eae oyaeaeia iaoa?eaeueiia iieiaeaiea naiuee
ia iicaieyei aiineoue aeiaieueii aunieoth ieaoo ca iao/aiea. A 1909-1911
aiaeao Ea?oeaa aue o/aieeii eonoa?iuo ianoa?neeo (noiey?iie e
oiea?ii-noaeieueiie).

A 1911 aiaeo naiuey ia?aacaeaao a ai?iae Naia?o, aaea ioaoe Ea?oeaaa
?aaioaao ia no?ieea O?oai/iiai caaiaea (caaiae ei. Ianeaiieeiaa), a
Ea?oeaa A.E. – o/aieeii a /anoiie noiey?iie ianoa?neie. A 1913 aiaeo aai
ca o/anoea a caaanoiaea oaieueiytho. A 1914 aiaeo Ea?oeaa anooiaao a
/eaiu ?NAe?I, i?eieiaao o/anoea a ?aaioa iiaeiieueiiai e?oaeea. Ca
?ani?ino?aiaiea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?ieeaiaoeee ii aeaaaeaeu a 1915 e 1916
aiaeao aue a?anoiaai e i?aaeai noaeo.

N oaa?aey 1917 aiaea ii i?ioiaeeo neoaeao a a?iee – a eiaeaia?iii
aaoaeueiia. Iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee Ea?oeaa ecae?aaony
i?aaenaaeaoaeai ?aaeiia ?iou, /eaiii ?aaeiia aeeaecee.

A 1918-1919 aiaeao ?aaioaao a iieeoioaeaea 4-e a?iee, o/anoaoao a aiyo n
Aeaieeeiui. N 1919 ii 1923 aiaeu Ea?oeaa A.E. ?aaioaao aiaiiui
neaaeiaaoaeai, /eaiii eieeaaee ?aao?eaoiaea a /anoyo E?aniie A?iee.

N ieoya?y 1923 aiaea Ea?oeaa A.E – ?aaioiee i?ieo?aoo?u aoaa?iee. A 1924
a. ii iacia/aaony iiiiuieeii aoai?ieo?i?a ii Naia?neiio oacaeo. A
1925-1927 aiaeao Ea?oeaa – i?ieo?i? A?oaiaaeueneie aoaa?iee. A 1928
aiaeo ii aica?aoeeny a ai?iae Naia?o e aei 1933 aiaea ?aaioae iiiiuieeii
i?ieo?i?a aoaa?iee ii Naia?neiio oacaeo, noa?oei iiiiuieeii i?ieo?i?a
N?aaeia-Aieaeneiai e?ay.

A ethia 1933 aiaea ii a nayce n aieaciueth inoaaeyao neoaeao, aianoa n
oai inoaaony aeoeaiui ei??aniiiaeaioii aacaou «Aieaeneay eiiioia».

Iaeuecy ia aniiiieoue i ia?auo neaaeiaaoaeyo Naia?neie aoaa?iee,
ethaeyo, eae i?aaeei, ia eiathueo niaoeeaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, aaccaaaoii
i?aaeaiiuo naiae i?ioannee, eioi?ua a oa aeaeaeea aiaeu, n iaeiie
?oeaoeie, eoieaiiie ia naie aeaiueae, ?anneaaeiaaee naiua neiaeiua
i?anooieaiey, i?iaiaeeee aieueooth ?aaioo ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth
i?anooieaiee.

A 20-a aiaeu ia/aee ?aaioaoue IEEIEAE AANEEUeAAE* A?AAeEOEI, EIINOAIOEI
IEEIEAAAE* EAEA*AA.

A?aaeeoei I.A. ?iaeeeny 13 ieoya?y 1892 aiaea a naea TH?eiaea Oa?neie
iaeanoe (Aeaaanoai) a naiuea e?anoueyieia. A 1916 aiaeo ii ieii/ee
th?eaee/aneee oaeoeueoao Iaoa?ao?aneiai oie-aa?neoaoa e aue i?ecaai a
yiaa?a 1917 aiaea a oea?neoth a?ieth. A ethia 1917 aiaea aai iai?aaeytho
a aiaiioth oeieo. N ieoya?y ii iiya?ue 1917 aiaea a /eia i?aii?ueea ii
i?iaeieaeaao neoaeao a a?iee. A 1918-1919 aiaeao A?aaeeoei I.A. yaeyaony
/eaiii neaaenoaaiiie eiiennee i?e Eecey?neii ?aao?eaoiaea.

N ethey 1923 aiaea ii ai?aeue 1926 aiaea A?aaeeoei ?aaioaao ia?iaeiui
neaaeiaaoaeai Naia?neiai oacaea, a n 1926 ii 1928 aiaeu – a aoaa?ineii
oaieiaiii ?icunea.

A 1928 aiaeo A?aaeeoei ia?aoiaeeo ia i?ieo?i?neoth ?aaioo, aei 1933
aiaea ?aaioaao i?ieo?i?ii i?e ia?eiithnoa EacNN?, caoai a aiia?aoa
i?ieo?aoo?u Eoeauoaaneiai e?ay e iaeanoe – iiiiuieeii e?aaaiai
i?ieo?i?a, i?ieo?i?ii neaaenoaaiiiai ioaeaea.

A 1948 aiaeo a nayce n aieaciueth A?aaeeoei inoaaeyao neoaeao a i?aaiao
i?ieo?aoo?u.

Nio?aieeenue ainiiieiaiey Ieeieay Aaneeueaae/a i neoaeaa e
nineoaeeaoeao.

Ainiiieiaiey ?aaioieea i?ieo?aoo?u niaaoieea thnoeoeee A?aaeeoeia
Ieeieay Aaneeueaae/a

?aoaieai I?aceaeeoia Naia?neiai Aoaeniieeiia io 14 ethey 1923 aiaea y
aue ooaa?aeaeai ia?iaeiui neaaeiaaoaeai 4-ai o/anoea Naia?neiai oacaea,
e n yoiai a?aiaie ia/aeanue iiy aeieaay ?aaioa a
neaaenoaaiii-i?ieo?i?neeo i?aaiao.

A iie o/anoie aoiaeeee 5 aieinoae: Noa?i-Aoyineay, Aeoianeay,
E?aniiy?neay, Aieueoa-Eaiaineay e O?inoyineay. Eaia?a
(eaaeiao)neaaeiaaoaey nia/aea iaoiaeeeanue a naea Noa?ue Aoyi, a n
yiaa?y 1924 aiaea auea ia?aaaaeaia a naei E?aniue ss?, aaea a oi a?aiy
?aniieaaaeinue ioaaouaathuaa oa aea aieinoe ?aeiiiia ioaeaeaiea
ieeeoeee.

I/aiue aaaeii aeey ian ciaoue e nio?aieoue a iaiyoe eiaia oao, eoi
iaooiieii e ieiaeioai?ii o?oaeeeny iaae i?aaiecaoeeae i?ieo?i?neiai
iaaeci?a a aoaa?iee.

I?ieo?aoo?a a oa aiaeu i?ioiaeeea ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey. Ai iiiaii
/oanoaiaaeinue ionoonoaea ciaiee, iiuoa, oiaiey e eaaeeoeeaoeee.
Ianiio?y ia yoi, i?ieo?i?u e neaaeiaaoaee n aieueoei yiooceaciii
inaaeaaee iiaoth e neiaeioth i?ioanneth. Eo ioee/aea oaaaeaeaiiinoue e
i?aaeaiiinoue naiaio aeaeo. Iie aaccaaaoii o?oaeeeenue, oe?aieyy
aaoi?eoao i?ieo?aoo?u e aiiny naith eaioo a noaiiaeaiea caeiiiinoe.

2. I?ieo?i?u i?aaeaiaiiuo eao 1926-1940 aiaeu

A naioya?a 1926 aiaea Ea?iia A.C. ia?aaiaeeony ia ae?oaoth ?aaioo, a
i?ieo?i?ii aoaa?iee ooaa?aeaeaaony AEAEIEI IEEIEAE IAO?IAE*,
i?i?aaioaaoee n ia?a?uaii aei 1937 aiaea. (A ia?eiae n 1932-1933 aa.
i?ieo?i?ii e?ay ?aaioae Ao?ieno?ia A.I.).

AEaeiei I.I. ?iaeeeny a 1899 aiaeo a naea Eaoee ?ocaaaneiai oacaea
Iaicaineie aoaa?iee a naiuea E?anoueyieia. A 1908-1914 aa. ieii/ee
i?eoiaeneia e aeaooeeanniia o/eeeua. Aaeaeo iaaiciiaeiinoe aeaeueiaeoae
o/aau (ec-ca ionoonoaey n?aaenoa e oyaeaeie o?aaiu ?oee) AEaeiei a 1914
aiaeo ?aaioaao noi?iaeai, a caoai eaioeaey?enoii aieinoiiai i?aaeaiey.
Iinea oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee ii ecae?aaony /eaiii aieinoiiai
eniieeiia, aaaeao aeoeaioth i?iiaaaiaeenoneoth ?aaioo n?aaee e?anoueyi.

A ieoya?a 1918 aiaea AEaeiei anooiaao a ?yaeu ?EI(a), ?aaioaao
i?aaenaaeaoaeai e ioaaonoaaiiui nae?aoa?ai eiiioienoe/aneeo naeueneeo
y/aae (Ia?oeyeneie e Eeth/a?ianeie), a caoai /eaiii Naia?neiai
?aao?eaoiaea. N 1923 ii 1926 aiaeu AEaeiei ?aaioaao i?aaenaaeaoaeai
aoaa?ineiai noaea, a n naioya?y 1926 aiaea – i?ieo?i?ii Naia?neie
aoaa?iee, caoai Eoeauoaaneiai e?ay.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 20-o aiaeia a Naia?a ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 60 e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, ia eioi?uo ?aaioaee oaea ii/oe 9 ouny/ /aeiaae.
?iaeaeaeenue ia?aua ?aai/ea ii/eiu — ca yeiiiieth, ca ?aoeeiiaeecaoeeth
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Cia/eoaeueiui niauoeai a Naia?a auei ieii/aiea a 1927 aiaeo
no?ieoaeuenoaa caeaiey Oi?aaeaiey Naia?i-Ceaoionoianeie aeaeaciie
aei?iae. Yoi auei ia?aia iauanoaaiiia caeaiea Naia?u niaaoneiai ia?eiaea
— i?aaenoaaeoaeueiia, e?oiiiianooaaiia ouaoaeueii ioaeaeaiiia.

A 30-a aiaeu ia?aae i?aaiaie i?ieo?aoo?u noiyee na?ueaciua caaea/e ii
eniieiaieth Iinoaiiaeaiey OeEE e NIE NNN? «I ?aaiethoeeiiiie
caeiiiinoe», caeiia io 7 aaaonoa 1932 aiaea «Ia io?aia eiouanoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eieoicia e eiiia?aoeee e oe?aieaiee
iauanoaaiiie (nioeeaeenoe/aneie nianoaaiiinoe) e io 22 aaaonoa 1932
aiaea «Ia oneeaiee ai?ueau ni niaeoeyoeeae». A nayce n yoei cia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eeny iauai iauaiaaeci?iie ?aaiou. E yoiio a?aiaie iieiinoueth aue
noi?ie?iaai neaaenoaaiiue aiia?ao. A 1928 aiaeo n oeaeueth oe?aieaiey e
iiiieiaiey eaae?iaiai ninoaaa a i?ieo?aoo?o E?aeeiiii ia?oee auee
iai?aaeaiu ia?aaeiaua ?aai/ea e ?aaioieoeu naia?neeo oaa?ee e caaiaeia,
eo/oea ?aaioieee ianoiiai aiia?aoa.

A i?ieo?aoo?o i?eoee Cei/aiei (?aaioieoea oaa?eee «E?aniay Caacaea»),
Ai?aeneia (?aaioieoea o?aiia?ea), Iieiiaoeeay (caa. aeaiioaeaeii ai?eiia
?EA (a) e ae?oaea. Yoi auee ia?aua aeaiueiu – i?ieo?i?neea ?aaioieee a
Naia?a.

2.1 Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea

Ai?u no?ieoaeueiiai ioni?a e ia?iiiue eioeiaai ia ianoa ?ac?ooaiiiai
o?aia aua aeieai au inoaaaeenue ia ieiuaaee, anee au ia ecaanoea: 25
yiaa?y 1935 aiaea a Iineaa nei?iiinoeaeii neii/aeny /eai Iieeoath?i OeE
AEE(a), caianoeoaeue i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaia?eiia NNN? A.A. Eoeauoaa.

A oeaeyo oaaeiaa/aiey iaiyoe A.A. Eoeauoaaa 27 yiaa?y 1935 aiaea
I?aceaeeoi AOeEE ia?aeiaiiaae N?aaeia-Aieaeneee e?ae a Eoeauoaaneee, a
ai?iae Naia?o – aaeieieno?aoeaiue oeaio? e?ay – a ai?iae Eoeauoaa.

25 ai?aey 1935 aiaea Eoeauoaaneee e?aeeniieeii iiaeaea?aeae
iinoaiiaeaiea ai?eniieeiia i iino?ieea a ai?iaea iaiyoieea A.A.
Eoeauoaao e i?aaieciaae eiieoao ii aai nii?oaeaieth. 5 iay eiieoao
iinoaiiaee:

Ianoii nii?oaeaiey iaiyoieea oia. Eoeauoaao ooaa?aeeoue Eiiioiaeueioth
ieiuaaeue (auaooth Niai?ioth).

I?eciaoue iaiaoiaeeiui nii?oaeaiea iaiyoieea, ninoiyuaai ec Aeiia
eoeueoo?u e oeao?u eee a?oiiu, neiiiiiiaaiiie ia Aeii eoeueoo?u.

A?iiciaay noaooy A.A. Eoeauoaaa auea onoaiiaeaia 5 iiya?y 1938 aiaea.
Iino?iaiiue a yoii aea aiaeo Aeii eoeueoo?u nua?ae aieueooth ?ieue ia
oieueei a eoeueoo?iie aeecie iaeanoe, ii e no?aiu. A aiaeu aieiu ii
i?ethoee Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeaaeaie/aneee oaao? Nithca NN?. Ia aai noeaia
aunooiaee oaeaea i?eauaoea yaaeiyoaeiiii a?oenou Eaieia?aaeneiai
aeaaeaie/aneiai ae?aioaao?a, neioiie/aneiai i?eano?a Ananithciiai
?aaeei. A oiea Aeai?oea eoeueoo?u i?ioiaeeee ?aiaoeoeee, a a c?eoaeueiii
caea 5 ia?oa 1942 aiaea ninoiyeinue ia?aia eniieiaiea eaaaiaea?iie 7-e
neioiiee.

Ia ia?oeoo?a neioiiee iaaeienue: «Iinayuaaony ai?iaeo Eaieia?aaeo.
Aeieo?ee Oinoaeiae/ 27.XII. 1941. Eoeauoaa». Aee?eaee?iaae i?eano?ii
Aieueoiai oaao?a Nithca NN? N.A. Naianoae.

Ionthaea, ec iaoaai Aeai?oea eoeueoo?u, ia/eiaaony o?eoioaeueiia oanoaea
neioiiee. 29 ia?oa 1942 aiaea eiioea?o ninoiyeny a Eieiiiii caea a
Iineaa, 19 ethey — a Iueth-Ei?ea.

A enoi?ee ai?iaea inoaaeea naie iaecaeaaeeiue neaae e naia ieiuaaeue ei.
A.A. Eoeauoaaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii ni ciaiaieoui ia?aaeii aiene 7 iiya?y 1941
aiaea ia E?aniie ieiuaaee a Iineaa ninoiyeny ia?aae e ia iaoae ieiuaaee,
eioi?ue i?eieiae Eeeiaio Ao?aiiae/ Ai?ioeeia. N?aco iinea ia?aaea aieoeu
ooiaeeee ia o?iio.

E naaiaeiy ana aieueoea i?acaeieee e niauoey — iieeoe/aneea e ia?iaeiua
– i?ioiaeyo ia iae, niae?ay ouny/e ethaeae.

Auaeaeaeaioeu e auaeaeaeaiee ii?aaaeaee ieacaiiia ei aeiaa?ea. Iiiaea ec
ieo aeia?iniaanoiui e aacoi?a/iui o?oaeii aianee iaiaeue aeeaae a aeaei
oe?aieaiey caeiiiinoe e i?aaiii?yaeea a iaoai e?aa.

Cei/aiei — eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue th?eno e oiaeue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, aeieaea
aiaeu ?aaioaea a i?aaiao i?ieo?aoo?u, auea caianoeoaeai i?ieo?i?a
ai?iaea Eoeauoaaa. Ai?aeneia a oa/aiea ?yaea eao ?aaioaea iiiiuieeii
e?aaaiai i?ieo?i?a. Iaeiie ec ia?auo aeaiuei a i?ieo?aoo?a aoaa?iee
ia/aea naith o?oaeiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue IssAEIA AEECAAAOA AAA?EEIAIA.

A.A. Iyaeia ?iaeeeanue a 1906 aiaeo a naea Ai?iaeeue Ae?iaeaeaiianeiai
?aeiia Oaoa?neie ANN? a naiuea e?anoueyieia, ii iaoeeiiaeueiinoe –
/oaaoea.

Ieii/ea a 1925 aiaeo ?aaoae Eacaineiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa,
iia a oa/aiea oanoe ianyoeaa ?aaioaea ecaa/ai Ai?iaeeuaineiai
aieeniieeiia. Iinea ieii/aiey a ethia 1926 aiaea th?eaee/aneeo eo?nia
Iyaeia aei 1930 aiaea ?aaioaao ia?iaeiui neaaeiaaoaeai naeueneeo
?aeiiia. Caoai ia i?ioyaeaiee 14 eao – ia?iaeiui noaeueae.

N 1946 aiaea Iyaeia aiiaue aica?auaaony a i?ieo?aoo?o i?ieo?i?ii
neaaenoaaiiiai ioaeaea Eoeauoaaneie ai?iaeneie i?ieo?aoo?u, caoai
iacia/aaony i?ieo?i?ii Eaieineiai ?aeiia ai?iaea Eoeauoaaa.

A 1961 aiaeo auoiaeeo ia iaineth.

14 iay 1928 aiaea AOeEE e NIE ?NON? i?eiyee iinoaiiaeaiea ia ia?aciaaiee
N?aaeia-Aieaeneie iaeanoe n oeaio?ii a ai?iaea Naia?a. A iiaoth iaeanoue
aioee Naia?neay (aac Aoaoeueieineiai e Ioaa/aaneiai oacaeia),
Iaicaineay, Oeueyiianeay, /anoue Na?aoianeie e I?aiao?aneie iaeanoae, a
oaeaea Ii?aeiaey. N?aaeia-Aieaeneay iaeanoue noaea a?aie/eoue n
O?aeueneie, *aeyaeineie, Eonoaiaeneie e Iineianeie iaeanoyie.

20 ieoya?y 1929 aiaea N?aaeia-Aieaeneay iaeanoue auea ia?aeiaiiaaia a
N?aaeia-Aieaeneee e?ae. Ii ninoiye ec Ii?aeianeie aaoiiiiiie iaeanoe,
naie ie?oaia e 114 ?aeiiia.

27 yiaa?y 1935 aiaea ai?iae Naia?a ia?aeiaiiaai a ai?iae Eoeauoaa.
N?aaeia-Aieaeneee e?ae — a Eoeauoaaneee. 25 ai?aey oiai aea ?iaea
E?aeeniieeii i?eiye ?aoaiea i nii?oaeaiee a Eoeauoaaa iaiyoieea A.A.
Eoeauoaao. 5 aeaeaa?y 1936 aiaea a niioaaonoaee n Eiinoeoooeeae NNN?
auea ia?aciaaia Eoeauoaaneay iaeanoue.

A yoio ia?eiae iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue iiaeaioiaea i?ieo?i?neeo
eaae?ia. Yoiio aii?ino auei iinayuaii niaauaiea, i?iaaaeaiiia a
Eoeauoaaa ia?eiiii thnoeoeee E?ueaiei.

A Eoeauoaaa nia/aea auee i?aaieciaaiu th?eaee/aneea eo?nu, caoai ioe?uoa
Eoeauoaaneay i?aaiaay oeiea. I?aeoe/aneea ?aaioieee i?ieo?aoo?u
Eoeauoaaneie iaeanoe i?eieiaee naiia aeayoaeueiia o/anoea a iiaeaioiaea
i?ieo?i?nei-neaaenoaaiiuo eaae?ia. Oaea a ia?aua aiaeu nouanoaiaaiey a
ai?iaea Eoeauoaaa i?aaiaie oeieu a iae i?aiiaeaaaee caianoeoaeue
i?ieo?i?a iaeanoe Eaaeae/ I.A., i?ieo?i? ai?iaea ?oaeaeia I.I,
ia/aeueiee neaaenoaaiiiai ioaeaea Eiiia I.I., ia/aeueiee ioaeaea iauaai
iaaeci?a Oaaeaaa E.O., i?ieo?i? neaaenoaaiiiai ioaeaea A?aaeeoei I.A.

Iiauoaieth i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?iaiy i?ieo?i?neeo ?aaioieeia oaeaeyea
aieueoia aieiaiea I?ieo?aoo?a NNN?. Nio?aieeenue ainiiieiaiey
neaaeiaaoaey Aa?ia?a ia o/anoee a ?aaioa 4-e o/aaiie eiioa?aioeee,
eioi?ua auee iioaeeeiaaiu a «Aanoieea iaoiaee/aneiai ath?i i?ieo?aoo?u
iaeanoe» ?1 ca 1937 aiae.

2.2 Ainiiieiaiey neaaeiaaoaey Aa?ia?a i ?aaioa eiioa?aioeee

N 15 ii 31 aeaeaa?y 1936 aiaea i?e I?ieo?aoo?a Nithca auea i?iaaaeaia
4-y o/aaiay eiioa?aioeey neaaeiaaoaeae. Iaee/ea yoeo eiioa?aioeee
iniaaiii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi aii?inai neaaenoaey I?ieo?aoo?a Nithca
oaeaeyao eieinnaeueiia aieiaiea, /oi aii?inu neaaenoaey auaeaeioou ia
ia?aia ianoi a ?aaioa I?ieo?aoo?u. Aac i?aoaaee/aiey iiaeii neacaoue,
/oi neaaenoaea i?eciaii iniiaiui caaiii ia oieueei a ?aaioa I?ieo?aoo?u,
ii e aiiaua a ?aaioa anao noaeaaiineaaenoaaiiuo i?aaiia. Ia
eiioa?aioeeth auee nicaaiu eo/oea neaaeiaaoaee Nithca. Nuaoaaoeany
oiaa?eue auee iaania/aiu i?ae?aniuie iiia?aie a iaeiie ec eo/oeo
ainoeieoe a. Iineau. Oi?ioi auei i?aaieciaaii ieoaiea a noieiaie
I?ieo?aoo?u. Ii naiia aeaaiia, naiia iniiaiia, ca /oi o/anoieee
eiioa?aioeee ia iiaoo ia iiaeaaiaea?eoue aa i?aaiecaoi?ia, – yoi
iaania/aiea eiioa?aioeee eaeoi?aie ec eo/oeo iao/iuo th?eaee/aneeo nee.
Eiioa?aiou eiaee aiciiaeiinoue ee/ii neooaoue i?ioanni?ia No?iaiae/a,
Aoeaoiaa, Iaiueeianeiai, Aieeiaa, o/aiiai-e?eieiaeenoa sseeiiaa,
aeioeaioa Aaeoineiai e ae?. Eiaia yoeo oiaa?euae anai iai oi?ioi
ecaanoiu ii eo o/aaieeai e noaoueyi a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a. Ii iaeii
aeaei – /eoaoue o/aaiee, ae?oaia aeaei – iaiin?aaenoaaiii naiiio
neooaoue eaeoeee e eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue ?acuyniaiea ec ono
naiiai i?ioanni?a. *?acau/aeii eioa?anai aue aeieeaae i einaaiiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoaao ia/aeueieea neaaenoaaiiiai ioaeaea I?ieo?aoo?u NNN?
Oaeieia. Iu oae /anoi, eiay aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai einaaiiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa, ia oiaai eie ainiieueciaaoueny, ia oiaai ec ieo
iino?ieoue o?ieioth nenoaio oeee. Iaienaoue a ei?ioeie noaouea ana oi
iiaia, /oi auei oneuoaii ia eaeoeeyo, eiia/ii, iaaiciiaeii. Aeey oiai
iaaei iaienaoue ?yae ioaeaeueiuo noaoae, /oi, aeaeeii, e aoaeao naeaeaii
iaoei Iaeanoiui iaoiaeath?i.

Eiaaea y aoae ia eiioa?aioeeth, o iaiy auea aieueoay naiioaa?aiiinoue
oii, /oi y aeinoaoi/ii oaea eiath ciaiee aeey oiai, /oiau ?aaioaoue
neaaeiaaoaeai.

Yoa naiioaa?aiiinoue iiaeia?aaaeanue aua oai, /oi y oaea oniae eia-/oi
noaaoeoue ca a?aiy cai/iie o/aau a th?eaee/aneii einoeoooa. Ii eiaaea y
aica?auaeny ec Iineau, io naiioaa?aiiinoe ia inoaeinue e neaaea.
Iaiai?io, oneuoaiiua eaeoeee aeaee iia ?acei ii/oanoaiaaoue, eae y aua
iaei ciath e eae aua iaaei iiiai ociaoue aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoueny
oi?ioei neaaeiaaoaeai. Oaeia /oanoai auei ia oieueei o iaiy, ii e o
eeoe, oaea eiathueo aunoaa th?eaee/aneia ia?aciaaiea. Aeaeeii, yoi
i?iecioei io oiai, /oi a i?ioeua aiaeu th?eaee/aneea aocu ia aeaaaee
oiai ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ia aeieaeai eiaoue niaaoneee th?eno.

Ia neo/aeii Auoeineee oeacae a naiae ?a/e ia cae?uoee eiioa?aioeee, /oi
iiiaea, eiathuea aunoaa th?eaee/aneia ia?aciaaiea, eiatho aai oieueei
th?eaee/anee. Ii aeaaea e n oaeei aunoei th?eaee/aneei ia?aciaaieai ia
eiioa?aioeee ieacaeinue oieueei 4 /aeiaaea, a inoaeueiua a aieueoeinoaa
auee i?aeoeee, n aieueoei i?iecaiaenoaaiiui noaaeai. Ii oaia?ue n iaeiie
i?aeoeeie aeaeaei ia oaaeaoue. I?aeoeea aac oai?ee aani?aaeiaoia. Aei
naai a?aiaie iu oai?aoe/aneea iiciaiey eiiiaine?iaaee i?aeoe/aneei
iiuoii e oie i?eau/eie, eioi?oth i?eia?aee ca iiiaea aiaeu iaoae ?aaiou.
Niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueii oeacae o. Auoeineee, eiaaea aiai?ee, /oi oa
i?eau/ea, oa i?aeoeea, eioi?ua aeaaaee iai aiciiaeiinoue eia-eae
?aaioaoue ?aiueoa, oaia?ue ia oieueei oaea iaaeinoaoi/iu, ii e a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeaaea a?aaeiu, oae eae ia aeatho aiciiaeiinoe
ii/oanoaiaaoue naaaeee aaoa?, eioi?ue i?iaao?eaaao niaaoneee aiia?ao.

Ec anaai yoiai auaiae iaeei – anai iai iaaei o/eoueny. Anai iai iaaei
iao i?aeoe/aneee iiuo aii?oaeeoue oai?eae, e oiaaea iu aoaeai eiaoue
aiciiaeiinoue auiieiyoue iaoo ?aaioo oae, eae yoiai o?aaoao io ian
Noaeeineay Eiinoeoooeey. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi e?iia aiciiaeiinoe
neuoaoue eo/oeo i?ioanni?ia-th?enoia, o/anoieee eiioa?aioeee eiaee
aiciiaeiinoue iciaeiieoueny n oaie eieinnaeueiuie eoeueoo?iuie
oeaiiinoyie, eioi?ua nin?aaeioi/aiu a a. Iineaa. Oaea iaeia
aiciiaeiinoue i?ieoenue ii iineianeei oeeoeai aeaao eioa?aniue
enoi?e/aneee iaoa?eae. Ii yoi, eiia/ii, ia ana. Iu eiaee aiciiaeiinoue
iiauaaoue a eo/oeo oaao?ao Nithca. Iu eiaee aiciiaeiinoue iiauaaoue a
?yaea iocaaa, e a oii /enea a ciaiaieoie O?aoueyeiaea. Iu aeaeaee
aunoaaeo ea?oei ?aia?aiaeoa, aeey eioi?ie ec ?aciuo no?ai ie?a
nuaoaeenue iiiai/eneaiiua oo?enou. Iu aaeaaeiaaii acaeeee ia eo/oai a
ie?a IAO?I. Iu auee a Iaacieaa Eaieia. Iu iinaoeee aai iocae.
Eiiaiaee?iaea ia eiioa?aioeeth – yoi aieueoay iaa?aaea.

A i?ieo?aoo?o iaeanoe i?eoiaeyo ia neoaeao oaea aieaa iiaeaioiaeaiiua
th?enou, eo ia?aciaaiea iicaieyao auno?aa iaeaaeaoue i?ioanneae. E eo
/eneo neaaeoao ioianoe Aa?o Aaeieueoiaio Oa?auaiei.

A.A. Oa?auaiei ?iaeeeanue 14 naioya?y 1897 aiaea a naea sseiaeaaneia
Iineianeie aoaa?iee a naiuea ?aai/aai. A 1916 aiaeo ieii/eea aeiiaceth.

A 1918-1920 aiaeao ?aaioaea aeaeii?iecaiaeeoaeai a ooaaao THaeiiai e
Eanieenei-Eaaeacneiai o?iioia XI a?iee. A ai?aea 1934 aiaea iia
caeai/eaaao th?eaee/aneea eo?nu, a 1936-i – cai/iue th?eaee/aneee
einoeooo. Oa?auaiei iacia/aaony ia aeieaeiinoue ia?iaeiiai neaaeiaaoaey
e a oa/aiea 10 eao ?aaioaao a i?ieo?aoo?ao Noaeeineiai e I?ieaoa?neiai
?aeiiia ai?iaea Eoeauoaaa.

N 1944 aiaea iia i?iaeieaeaao ?aaioaoue i?ieo?i?ii neaaenoaaiiiai
ioaeaea i?ieo?aoo?u iaeanoe.

A 1955 aiaeo Oa?auaiei ooiaeeo ia caneoaeaiiue ioaeuo.

I a? ?aaioa aue iioaeeeiaai i/a?e «Ia?iaeiue neaaeiaaoaeue» a aacaoa
«Aieaeneay eiiioia» a 1937 aiaeo.

2.3 Ia?iaeiue neaaeiaaoaeue

A ii/ue ia 31 yiaa?y 1936 aiaea a naiae eaa?oe?a a Eoeauoaaa auea oaeoa
o/eoaeueieoea Ineiiaa. Ianoiyoaeuenoaa oaeenoaa auee /?acau/aeii i?inou.
Ineiiaa iinauaea aooaaeoa?neea eo?nu Nithci?ao/aoa. Aianoa n iae o/eeny
e n/aoiaiae «Nithcia/aoe» Eiaaeue. Neaeaee iie oai ca iaeiei noieii.
Iaeaioia oaeenoaa Eiaaeue i?eoiaeee e Ineiiaie e aei aeaoo /ania ii/e
iie i?i?aaaouaaee i/a?aaeioth eaeoeeth. A aa/a? oaeenoaa ii niiaa i?eoae
e iae. Iinea 12 /ania ii/e ninaaee ii eaa?oe?a oneuoaee a eiiiaoa
Ineiiaie e?ee e a?ineeenue ooaea. Aeaa?ue auea caia?oa. Aucaaee
ieeeoeeth, aceiiaee caiie e oaeaeaee Ineiiao a eoaea e?iae. ?yaeii
aaeyeny neiiaiiue iiae – i?oaeea oaeenoaa. Oaeeoea Eiaaeue, e ia aeoiay
caie?aoueny, cayaee:

– ss oaee a? ec ?aaiinoe.

Eacaeinue au, ana ynii. I?anooiiee caaea?aeai ia ianoa i?anooieaiey e
niciaeny. Iiaeii ienaoue iaaeieoaeueiia caeeth/aiea e ia?aaeaaaoue aeaei
a noae.

Ii neaaeiaaoaeue Oa?auaiei, eioi?ie ai?iaeneie i?ieo?i? ii?o/ee
?anneaaeiaaoue aeaei, ia ethaeo iiniaoiuo auaiaeia. Ouaoaeueii,
aaeoi/eai ?anioouaaao iia neiaeiaeoea oceu i?anooieaiee, no?aiynue
i?aaenoaaeoue noaeo iaii?iaa?aeeiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Ia?aui aeaeii iia iciaeiieeanue n i?ioieieii iniio?a ianoa oaeenoaa.
Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oiau ?aaioieee ieeeoeee aeaee ae eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue
iaoa?eae. Ec i?ioieiea auei oieueei aeaeii, /oi oaeeoea iaian 11 ?ai
noieiaui iiaeii e /oi ia noiea auea iaia?oaeaia aa?aaea.

Ii/aio aa??aea? Eae iiaeii iaianoe noieiaui iiaeii 11 ?ai, o?e ec
eioi?uo, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu,
ieacaeenue nia?oaeueiuie? Neaaeiaaoaeue Oa?auaiei ia iiaa?eea yoiio
i?ioieieo, ninoaaeaiiiio, aeaeeii, oi?iieeaui e iaeia?aiioiui /aeiaaeii.
Iia ioi?aaeeanue naia ia eaa?oe?o Ineiiaie.

Ouaoaeueii iniio?aea iia eiiiaoo. E aa ianoie/eainoue oaai/aeinue
oniaoii. Ca aaoa?aae oeaio?aeueiiai ioiieaiey iia iaia?oaeeea ino?i
iooi/aiiue ie?iaaaeaiiue aano?eeneee ooue. Ia yueeao eiiiaea aaeaa
aeaeiaeenue neaaeu ie?iaaaeaiiuo iaeueoeaa. Ca/ai aea iiiaaeiaeeinue
?aaieaoeo eacoue a eiiiae? Yoio aii?in inoaaaeny iayniui. Ii ?aiueoa
anaai iaaei auei onoaiiaeoue, eiio i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeaeaiiue ooue.
Oa?auaiei iai?aaeyaony ia eaa?oe?o, aaea aeee Eiaaeue.

A eiiiaoa aianoa n Eiaaeai aeeea noa?ooea. Eiaaea Oa?auaiei iieacaea ae
naith iaoiaeeo, noa?ooea ociaea ooue. Ei neiaeeee iieu. Ii i?eiaaeeaaeae
Eiaaeth.

Eiiiaoa eiaea iau/ioth ianoaiiaeo. Ii ia iaeiii ieia aenaea aiaaoay
caiaaanea, auiaaeaaoay ec iauaai noeey eiiiaou. Eae iiiaea nthaea yoa
caiaaanea?

Neaaeiaaoaeth aae?oa aniiiieeanue iaeaiueeay aeanyoeno?i/iay caiaoea,
i?iiaeueeioaoay ca 2 ianyoea aei yoiai a ioaeaea i?ienoanoaee a
«Aieaeneie eiiioia»: «A/a?a ii/ueth a iiiauaiea o/aaii-n/?oiiai
eiiaeiaoa Nithci?ao/aoa (oaie Iae?anianeie e Aaeaeoeiiianeie oeeoe)
caa?aeenue a?aaeoaee. Iie oaeee aeaaeo?eaooth ii/ueth noi?iaeeoo
*aiceineoth, aceiiaee ianai?aaiue oeao (oeaiiinoae a i?i ia auei) e
oianee n niaie a?eoiiiao?, noeiiioth ianoieueioth neaoa?oue e aeaa
caiaaanee.

I?eiyou ia?u e ?icuneo a?aaeoaeae».

Caiaaanea caaeaaeaea oiii neaaeiaaoaey. Oia. Oa?auaiei i?eoea a
Nithci?ao/ao e iii?ineea ?anneacaoue, eaeeie auee oe?aaeaiiua caiaaanee.
Ieacaeinue, ianeieueei oaeeo aea caiaaanie aua inoaeinue a ae?oaeo
oeiao. Ae iieacaee eo, e iia onoaiiaeea, /oi caiaaanea a eaa?oe?a Eiaaey
i?eiaaeeaaeaea Nithci?ao/?oo.

Oiaaea neaaeiaaoaeue ?aoeea i?iecaanoe ia eaa?oe?a Eiaaey iaune. A
eiiiaoa, eacaeinue au, e ?uoueny iaaaea, ii oiiue neaaeiaaoaeue,
ouaoaeueii iniio?aa noaiu e ia/ue, iaoiaeeo a iaeiie ec uaeae oeao?iue
eeth/ io ianai?aaiiai oeaoa Nithci?ao/aoa. Caoai oia. Oa?auaiei
acia?aeanue ia /a?aeae. Iia oaeaeaea caeanue iau/iia /a?aea/iia
caionoaiea. Io iioieea aei ia?aeeaaeeiu nioneaeanue aonoay naoue
iaooeiu. Aeaeeii, ieeoi oaea aeaaii ia caaeyaeuaae nthaea. Ii iiuoiue
aeac oeaaeeaaao a iaeiii oaieea /?acau/aeii iaaieueoia ioaa?noea a
iaooeia. Neaaeiaaoaeue ia/eiaao ?uoueny a ioni?a e iaoiaeeo a?eoiiiao?.

Oae, oaa ca oaaii neaaeiaaoaeue onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi oaeenoai e ia?aaeaiea
a Nithci?ao/?oa auee niaa?oaiu oai aea Eiaaeai, eioi?ue oaee Ineiiao.
Ii/aio aea ii niaa?oee iineaaeiaa oaeenoai ? Ia ii/aa ?aaiinoe ? Ii
ca/ai aea ?aaieaoeo iiiaaeiaeeinue eacoue a eiiiae oaeoie? Iaeiiaoe,
ca/ai ioaeia auea aio aa??aea, iaia?oaeaiiay ieeeoeeae a iiiaio a?anoa?
ssnii: Eiaaeue oaee Ineiiao, /oiau ia?aaeoue aa, a aa??aea aio ioaeia
auea, /oiau naycaoue aaue.

Iiae oyaeanoueth yniuo e iaii?iaa?aeeiuo oeee Eiaaeue niciaeny a iaieo
i?anooieaieyo.

*anoi /eoay a aacaoa ei?ioaiueeea niiauaiey i ?ane?uoee i?anooieaiey,
/eoaoaeue ia aeiaaaeuaaaony i oie iai?yae?iiie e iiae/an aa?ie/aneie
?aaioa, eioi?oth ioaeii i?iaeaeaoue neaaeiaaoaeth, /oiau ?ane?uoue
i?anooieaiea, /oiau a ai?ueaa n oeo?uie a?aaaie ia?iaea aueoe
iiaaaeeoaeai.

?aaioa neaaeiaaoaey cao?aaeaaao eioa?anu e noaeueau aeeauo ethaeae.
Eaeoth aieueooth ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?eieiaao ia naay ia?iaeiue
neaaeiaaoaeue, i?aaeuyaeyy /aeiaaeo iaaeiaiea, iiaeienuaay iinoaiiaeaiea
ia a?anoa.

A naaoa iiaie Eiinoeoooeee ?aaioa neaaeiaaoaey i?eia?aoaao iniaia
cia/aiea. Ii aeieaeai auoue ia?aciaaiiui, eoeueoo?iui, /ooeei e
aieiaoaeueiui. A?ae a ?aaioa neaaeiaaoaey iiaeao iaaoaii io?aceoueny ia
niaa?oaiii iaaeiiii /aeiaaea. Yoi i/aiue oyaeaeay, iianiay e
ioaaonoaaiiay i?ioanney.

Ii oaeea ethaee, eae Oa?auaiei, aaneiia/ii i?aaeaiiua ?iaeeia, aethaeaiu
a naith i?ioanneth e ie ca /oi ia i?iiaiytho aa ia eaeoth-ieaoaeue
ae?oaoth».

O ian aua iiae/an iaaeiioeaieaatho ?ieue e cia/aiea neaaeiaaoaey.
?aaioieee Eoeauoaaneie i?ieo?aoo?u ia eiatho n?aaenoa ia?aaeaeaeaiey,
iie iiae/an ia eiatho iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey neaaeiaaoaey i?eai?ia,
cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/athueo o?oae. Auaatho neo/ae, eiaaea neaaeiaaoaeue
ioi?aaeyaony ia iaune a iianiia ianoi, eiay a ea?iaia oieueei… nie/ee.

Iao niiiaiey, /oi niaaoneea e iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu aieueoa
aieiaiey oaeaeyoue iaoei neaaeiaaoaeyi e nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey
aeey eo ?aaiou.

2.4 I. A?iiei

E eiioeo 30-o aiaeia auee aeinoeaioou ii?aaeaeaiiua oniaoe a
ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ieoaeuenoaa, noaiiaeaiee i?ieo?aoo?u. Oai ia iaiaa,
oyaeaeaeoea ainiiieiaiey, ioeiaeeaoeany a ia?iaeiie iaiyoe, naycaiu n
ianniauie ?ai?anneyie e aianoaeaaiuie ?ani?aaaie. Yoa ia?iaeiay
o?aaaaeey io?eoeaoaeueii neacaeanue e ia yeiiiie/aneii, eoeueoo?iii,
i?aanoaaiiii ?acaeoee anaai iauanoaa, aieueth ioaeaaony a na?aeoeao e
aeooao ieeeeiiia ethaeae e naaiaeiy. A iaeanoe auee ?ai?anne?iaaiu,
ia?anaeaiu, niyou n ?aaiou ouny/e /aeiaae.

Auee a?anoiaaiu e iiaeaee ?oeiaiaeeoaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee iaeanoe A.I. Ooa?eeia, A.O. Iieaeoeui, A.A. Eaaei, I.I.
Iinouoaa, I.I. Eethaa, I.I. Aethieei, eiiaiaeothuea I?eaieaeneei aiaiiui
ie?oaii I.A. Aeuaaiei, I.I. Oooa/aaneee, caianoeoaeue E.N. Eooyeia. A
Iineaa auee a?anoiaaiu e ?anno?aeyiu ia?aue i?aaenaaeaoaeue Naia?neiai
ai?niaaoa I.I. Oaieia. Iiaeaee ?oeiaiaeeoaee Eoeauoaaneie aeaeaciie
aei?iae, Ea?ath?aoi?iiai caaiaea A.O. Neeaa, Ae.I. Oaoa?ianeee, ?aeoi?u
iaaeaaiae/aneiai e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai einoeoooia I.?. Aeieeiei e
N.A. Nioaoeeee. Auee ?ai?anne?iaaiu ii/oe ana /eaiu naia?neie
i?aaiecaoeee Nithca ienaoaeae.

Nioie aeaiuei auee inoaeaeaiu e ioi?aaeaiu a aeaeaeee Aeiieeine, a
oeaio?aeueiue eaaa?ue, aaea niaea?aeaeenue /eaiu naiae «eciaiieeia
?iaeeiu».

Iiaeaa?aeenue a?anoo iiiaea ?oeiaiaeyuea ?aaioieee ai?iaeia e ?aeiiia
iaeanoe, i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, niaoicia e eieoicia, ION.

Ia ecaaaeaee yoie o/anoe e ia?aua iaoe i?ieo?i?u. A 1937 aiaeo a
?acoeueoaoa eiaaoeo ianoi ioeaie, ii?iaeaeaiiuo eoeueoii ee/iinoe, auee
iaiainiiaaiii ?ai?anne?iaaiu e ?anno?aeyiu i?ieo?i? Naia?neie aoaa?iee
Aeeoi? Ceiiaueaae/ Ea?iia e i?ieo?i? Eoeauoaaneie iaeanoe Ieeieae
Iao?iae/ AEaeiei.

2.5 Ec a?oeaa…

Aai a?anoiaaee ia a Eoeauoaaa. Aucaaee a Iineao, yeiau a ?aca?a
I?ieo?aoo?u NNN?, e aio oai… Auaoee i?ieo?i? Eoeauoaaneie iaeanoe
AEaeiei Ieeieae Iao?iae/ aue i?eciai aeiiaiui a oii, /oi n 1932 aiaea
yaeyeny o/anoieeii aioeniaaoneie oieiinei-a?aaeeoaeueneie
oa??i?enoe/aneie i?aai-o?ioeeenoneie i?aaiecaoeee, aeaenoaiaaaoae a
Eacaoneie NN?, noaayuae naiae oeaeueth naa?aeaiea nouanoaothuaai no?iy a
NNN?. Aiaiyeinue a aeio e oi, /oi, aoaeo/e i?ieo?i?ii Eoeauoaaneie
iaeanoe a 1933 aiaeo, ii caaeaieth ia?aiai nae?aoa?y iaeiia AEI(a) A.I.
Ooa?eeiaa nicaeae a iaei?ieo?aoo?a aioeniaaoneoth a?oiio, i?iaiaeee
iiae?uaioth aeayoaeueiinoue a iaeanoe ea?aoaeueiie iieeoeee: i?aaeaii
noaeo aieueoia eiee/anoai eieoiciiai aeoeaa. A 1936 aiaeo yeiau iieo/ee
caaeaiea Ooa?eeiaa niaa?oeoue oa??i?enoe/aneee aeo iaae naiei Auoeineei.

Naeaeaoaeae ia aeii?aoeaaee. Iaaeiyaiue a noaea aeio ia i?eciae. A
iineaaeiai neiaa neacae: «A?aaii ia?oee e Niaaoneie aeanoe ieeiaaea ia
aue. Iiy niaanoue /enoa». Inoaeaeai 10 ia?oa 1939aiaea aiaiiie eieeaaeae
Aa?oiaiiai noaea NNN? ii noaoueyi 58-7, 58-8, 58-11 OE ?NON? e
i?eaiai?ai e aunoae ia?a iaeacaiey. I?eaiai? i?eaaaeai a eniieiaiea a
Iineaa.

Yoi naaiaeiy iu, oioy e ia ana, ii iiiaia ociaee i oii iai?inoii
a?aiaie. A oiaaea IAEI eoi iia aeaaea i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ia/a?oaii aio
noaeueaie. Ia ciae yoiai e Ieeieae AEaeiei – nui e?anoueyieia-aaaeiyea.
?iaeeeny ii a 1899 aiaeo a naea Eaoee Noa?i-Oaeaianeiai ?aeiia, /oi a
Ii?aeiaee. Aio /oi ii nai i naaa ieoao a aaoiaeia?aoee:

«…Aei 1914 aiaea o/eeny a oeiea. Iinea – neoaeauee. Ia?aciaaiea
iecoaa, niaoeeaeueiiai ia eiath. AEaia aeiiioicyeea. Nui Aaea?eai
?iaeeeny a 1921 aiaeo, o/eony a aeaayoii eeanna. Nui Aeoaeee ?iaeeeny a
1925 aiaeo, o/aiee iyoiai eeanna. I?iaeeaae a Eoeauoaaa a caeaiee
iaeanoiie i?ieo?aoo?u».

Aio eiaiii «i?iaeeaae», iioiio /oi aaoiaeia?aoey yoa iaienaia ei oaea
iinea a?anoa. Eacaeinue, noaeueaa auea aeaaineeiiia e e?anoueyineiio
ia?ieoea. A 1918 aiaeo anooiee a ia?oeth aieueoaaeeia. Ioiaoei, ia
i?inoie yoi aue aiae aeey iiaie aeanoe. Iaea?aiiue i?e?iaeiui oiii,
noa?aoaeueiue, a aeaaiia – «iieeoe/anee a?aiioiue», iieiaeie /aeiaae ia
inoaeny iacaia/aiiui. A na?aaeeia 20-o aiaeia ii ?aaioaao a Eoeauoaaneie
e?aaaie i?ieo?aoo?a, a a 1932 aiaeo – oaea ia?iaeiui eiienna?ii
niaaaeaiey Eacaoneie NN?.

Oyaeaeia yoi auei a?aiy aeey no?aiu. Ia ia?iae ia?ooeeenue eeoaiey,
aieiae. Ia iaioee no?aaeaiey noi?iiie e Eacaonoai. Ethaee oeaeuie
naeaieyie nieiaeenue n aaeaie iaaeeouo iano, oee a iaecaanoiia a iieneao
eo/oae aeiee e oie?aee. Oie?aee oeaeuie naeaieyie i?yii aicea aei?ia io
aieiaea. Oi?iieoue eo auei iaeiio. E ana aea aaaeaioeu oee e oee e
oeaio?o ?innee, oae eae inoaaaoueny ia ianoa iaaa?iyea icia/aei
oia?aoue, a aia?aaee auea, oioy e i?ec?a/iay, ii iaaeaaeaea. Iao?iaeae,
iaauaaeue iaaeaae neioa – ana yoi noaei aaioeii i?aia?aciaaiee a
yeiiiieea, naeueneii oicyenoaa, eiaaea a?aaii, eoeaeii aue iacaai
enoeiiue naeueneee o?oaeaiee, eiaaea iianaianoii ianaaeaeaeinue
eieeaeoeaiia oicyenoaiaaiea. Noa?ua, ouny/aeaoeyie ii?iaiaaiiua
i?eaiaeiua ?aiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ia naea auee aacaeaeinoii
ec?acaiu e aua?ioaiu ia naaeeo. Ii ?acaoue e aua?anuaaoue eo iiaay
aeanoue ia niaoeea. E eae iieacaei a?aiy, ianeieueei iicaea iie
i?eaiaeeeenue. N eo iiiiuueth ca?aaioae iaoaieci, ia?aiaeuaathuee
ethaeneea aeecie e noaeueau. Oiaaea iiyaeeanue ?anoiaeay o?aca: «AEeoue
noaei eo/oa, aeeoue noaei aanaeae». A iiea a 32-i aieiae aua ia
ia?ooeeny ia Naia?neoth aoaa?ieth, ii oaea aac?acaeaeueii oea?noaiaae a
Eacaonoaia.

Oaeia iieiaeaiea aauae, eiia/ii, ia iiaei inoaaeoue ?aaiiaeooiuie
aeoiathueo ethaeae. Iie eneaee i?e/eiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaaea e
iaoiaeeee eo a iai?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaeyo aunoaai iieeoe/aneiai
?oeiaiaenoaa. Aue oaeei /aeiaaeii e I.I. AEaeiei. A oii oyaeaeii aeey
Eacaonoaia 1932 aiaeo ii ai a?aiy ioionea a aeiia ioaeuoa aeiaieueii
aeecei nioaeny n auaoei oiaaea ia?aui nae?aoa?ai Eacaonoaineiai iaeiia
ia?oee N.O. Aiethaeiaui. Ano?a/aynue, iie iiaeieao aanaaeiaaee i iiiaii
e, eiia/ii, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i ianeuoaiiuo aaaenoaeyo, naaeeaoeony ia
?anioaeeeo e no?aio. Ni?aoeaaee naay, iiaeii ee no?ieoue nioeeaeeci i?e
oaeeo oneiaeyo, eioi?ua aaaeoo e eno?aaeaieth ethaeae e iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae? Ioaao aue iaeiicia/iui – iaeuecy. Iaa n/eoaee, /oi iieeoeea,
eioi?ay aaaeao e oaeei iineaaenoaeyi, – iai?aaeeueiay iieeoeea.

Ioione caeii/eeny, a anei?a I. AEaeiei aue nia/aea ioicaai ec Eacaonoaia
a Iineao, a caoai iacia/ai i?ieo?i?ii Eoeauoaaneie iaeanoe. A 1933 aiaeo
ii i?eaue a Eoeauoaa a iiaie aeieaeiinoe. Ia?aui nae?aoa?ai iaeiia
AEI(a) aue a oi a?aiy A.I. Ooa?eeia. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao AEaeieia,
nia/aea o iaai neiaeeeenue aeiaieueii-oaee no?aiiua ioiioaiey n
Ooa?eeiaui. Aio oaea aiae eae AEaeiei ?aaioae i?ieo?i?ii iaeanoe, a oae
aei neo ii? e ia ano?a/aeny n Ooa?eeiaui. Oi/iaa neacaoue, neo/aeiua
ano?a/e auee – ia ia?oeiioa?aioeeyo, ia?oaeoeaao… Ii ana yoi ia oi,
n/eoae AEaeiei. Ii-oi iieaaae, /oi ia?aue /aeiaae a iaeanoe aeieaeai aue
i?eaeaneoue e naaa iiaiai i?ieo?i?a aeey niaanaaeiaaiey.

Naaiaeiy iu iiaeai oieueei i?aaeiieaaaoue, /ai auea aucaaia oaeay
iiceoeey Ooa?eeiaa ii ioiioaieth e i?ieo?i?o iaeanoe. Oi/ii iiaeii
neacaoue oieueei oi, /oi a eiioea eiioeia eo ano?a/a ninoiyeanue. Iinea
yoiai iaaeaeo ieie onoaiiaeeenue ii?iaeueiua aeaeiaua ioiioaiey.

Aeaeeii, yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai e aeaei aiineaaenoaee iiaiae ?aaioieeai
IEAAe caienaoue iaieo a ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aai-o?ioeeenoneie
oa??i?enoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee, yeiau aeaenoaiaaaoae ia oa??eoi?ee
Eoeauoaaneie iaeanoe. A iaaeieoaeueiii caeeth/aiee ia AEaeieia i/aiue
?aciuoie auaeyaeeo oi?ioee?iaea i iiae?uaiie aeayoaeueiinoe a iaeanoe
ea?aoaeueiie iieeoeee. Aeaneaoue, i?aaeaii noaeo aieueoia eiee/anoai
eieoiciiai aeoeaa. Aea, e noaeo, eiia/ii, i?eoiaeeeinue i?eaeaeaoue e
oae iacuaaaiuo /eaiia eieoiciiai aeoeaa. Oieueei ia auei a yoii
i?aaeiieaaaaiiai e?eieiaea, iioiio /oi e noaeo i?eaeaeaeenue ethaee ca
aanoicyenoaaiiinoue, ?ano?aoo, ioe?iaaiiia ai?ianoai. Aaaeue /aai a?aoa
oaeoue, ia aacaea e aeanoe ia ianoao i?eoee /anoiua ethaee. Auee e
oaeea, eoi, eiaei iieuecoynue naiei nioeeaeueiui i?ienoiaeaeaieai,
i?ieacae e aeieaeiinoyi, /oiau iaaeoue nianoaaiiue ea?iai. E neiao,
oaeea e nae/an eiathony. Aio n oaeeie-oi ethaeueie e ai?ieanue
i?ieo?aoo?a. A oi, /oi auei iiaeiaiuo ia oae iaei, eae oioaeinue au, oae
a yoii aeiiaao aue ia iaeanoiie i?ieo?i?, a iaoiaeay eaae?iaay e
nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea.

Iaaeiaiea a ea?aoaeueiie iieeoeea a ioiioaiee AEaeieia auaeyaeeo
ianinoiyoaeueiui e iioiio, /oi ia?aaeei eiaiii ii i?ae?auae oaieiaiua
aeaea a ioiioaiee oicyenoaaiiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae. Nu?ie, i?eieoeaii
neiei/aiiue oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci oi e aeaei aeaaae naie a ?aaioa. Yoi
iaeciaiii neacuaaeinue ia iaoa?eaeueiii iieiaeaiee iann o?oaeyueony, a
cia/eo, e ia eo oiiiano?iaieyo. Neacuaaeinue yoi e ia aiaeoeeyo aunoaai
iieeoe/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiu. Iaaei auei eae-oi iauynieoue ia?iaeo
i?e/eio iinoiyiiuo iaoaea/ a yeiiiieea. (Ia naay aea, a naiii aeaea,
i?eciaaaoue aeiiaiui?!) E oaeay i?e/eia auea iaeaeaia – a?aaeeoaee. Aio
eoi ai anai aeiiaao! Ii no?aia oiaaea i?ieaoeeanue aieia a?iieeo
noaeaaiuo i?ioeannia iaae «a?aaeeoaeyie». E eiaiii a yoi a?aiy AEaeiei
i?ae?auae oaieiaiua aeaea a ioiioaiee ?yaea oicyenoaaiiuo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, eioi?uo ia aieia ooiiie iieeoe/aneie eaiiaiee oae eaaei
auei ie?anoeoue ai a?aaeeoaeae, ni?aaa i?e yoii iaiaeua iieeoe/aneea
aeeaeaeaiaeu.

Oae, iai?eia?, ia n/ae AEaeiei oeaeaniia?aciui i?eaeaeaoue e oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaeioi?uo oicyenoaaiiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ca oi, /oi ia
auaeaee iie aia?aiy ca?ieaoo naiei ?aai/ei. Oioy aio e aeaaaee iiiyoue,
aeaneaoue, yoi aea naaioaaeieee, /aai ou n ieie ?annonieeaaaoue, ii ana
aea nia/aea nai oaaaeeeny, a iioii e ae?oaei aeieacae, /oi yoe ethaee ie
i?e /ai. Aea, ?aai/ea eo i?aaei?eyoee ia iieo/eee ca?ieaoo, ii oieueei
iioiio eeoue, /oi a Ainaaiea ia auei aeaiaa, ieaoeoue auei ia/ai. A
aeiiaao a yoii aue, neaaeai, ia aee?aeoi? o?anoa, a ianaaeaine?iaaiiue
oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci, a iniiaa eioi?iai, n iiceoeee naaiaeiyoiaai
aeiy, iu iiaeai aeiaaaeoue, aei neo ii? eaaeao ia yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu,
a eaeaieiae/aneea iinooeaou.

Iaaei neacaoue, /oi a i?aaiao i?ieo?aoo?u ia iaeei AEaeiei iinooiae a
niioaaonoaee ni naiae niaanoueth. Auei oiio iaiaei i?eia?ia. I?e yoii
noieo iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aieueoeinoai yoeo i?eioeeieaeueiuo ethaeae a
aiaeu ?ai?annee auee eeai oie/oiaeaiu, eeai oi?yoaiu ca eieth/oth
i?iaieieo. Aio iaeioi?ua ec ieo.

Aaneeee Eaaiiae/ Iaaeia, 1900 aiaea ?iaeaeaiey. I?ieo?i?
Aieueoa/a?ieaianeiai ?aeiia. A?anoiaai 19 ieoya?y 1937 aiaea ii no.
58-7, 58-11 ca iai?eiyoea ia? e ?aciaea/aieth eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaenaaeaoaey ?aeeniieeiia, caaaaeothuaai caiaeueiui
ioaeaeii; ca inaiaiaeaeaiea io ioaaonoaaiiinoe auaoaai i?aaenaaeaoaey
eieoica ?uaeeia. Ca iaaeaeth aei a?anoa, aoaeo/e ia ath?i ?aeeiia
ia?oee, ii «inei?aee» i?aaiu IEAAe, cayaea, /oi iie /aeaiyo aeaea ia
eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ia. Aue inoaeaeai ia aeanyoue eao eiioeeaaa?ae. Ec
aaaeiyeia. Ia?aciaaiea – o?e eeanna. ?aaioae ia?iaeiui neaaeiaaoaeai,
ia/aeueieeii ieeeoeee, iineaaeiea aeaa n iieiaeiie aiaea – i?ieo?i?ii.

Iao? Ieeieaaae/ ?oaeaeia, 1898 aiaea ?iaeaeaiey, ec e?anoueyi. I?ieo?i?
a. Eoeauoaaa. *eai AEI(a) n 1 ieoya?y 1917 aiaea. N 1917ii 1919 aiaeu
neoaeee a E?aniie A?iee. A?anoiaai 27 aeaeaa?y 1937 aiaea. E oieueei
/a?ac o?e aiaea inoaeaeai iniaui niaauaieai i?e IEAAe NNN? ii no. 17,
58-8, 58-11 e iyoe aiaeai eni?aaeoaeueii-o?oaeiauo eaaa?ae. Iaaae
Ai?eniae/ Eaaeae/, 1895 aiaea ?iaeaeaiey. Nui eonoa?y. Cai. i?ieo?i?a
AEoeauoaaneie iaeanoe. A?anoiaai 23 ieoya?y 1937 aiaea. Iaaeiai a
o/anoee a aioeniaaoneie i?aai-o?ioeeenoneie i?aaiecaoeee. Inoaeaeai
iniaui niaauaieai i?e IEAAe NNN? 19 iiya?y 1940 aiaea e ainueie aiaeai
eni?aaeoaeueii-o?oaeiauo eaaa?ae. N 1937 aiaea neaeae aac i?eaiai?a.

Ieoaee Iioaiiae/ Aaaeoeeee, 1898 aiaea ?iaeaeaiey. Nio?oaeiee
Eoeauoaaneie iaeanoiie i?ieo?aoo?u. Iniaui niaauaieai i?e IEAAe NNN?
i?eaiai?ai e aunoae ia?a iaeacaiey.

Aoaianee Eaaiiae/ *oaeaaa, 1898 aiaea ?iaeaeaiey. I?ieo?i? Aiaaoianeiai
?aeiia. Inoaeaeai Aiaiiie eieeaaeae Aa?oiaiiai noaea NNN? e aunoae ia?a
iaeacaiey.

Ia?aaeienaeueii, ii oaeo – aeou aaccaeiiey niaa?oaeenue e a ioiioaiee
oao ethaeae, eioi?ua ii aeieao neoaeau ioaa/aee ca eniieiaiea caeiia.
Oaea nai a?ano a ioiioaiee AEaeieia aue aaccaeiieai. A aeaeueoa –
aieueoa. A oth?ueia ii eniuoae ia naaa, /oi oaeia «aaeiaua ?oeaaeoeu».
Auee e 400 a?aiiia oeaaa a aeaiue, e oa?icu, e «eiiaaea?», e noieee, e
iiaie. Io n iiaiyie, oa?icaie e neoaeiie oth?aiiie iaeeie ana ynii. A
aio «eiiaaea?» – yoi oaea niaoeeaeueiue oa?iei oiai a?aiaie. I?eiaiyee
aai e ianaiai?/eaui iiaeneaaenoaaiiui, eioi?ua ia oioaee a?aoue ia naay
ieoe/aneoth aeio, iaiaa?eaaoue naay e ae?oaeo. N oaeei «oi?yioeai»
iai?a?uaii ?aaioaee ianeieueei neaaeiaaoaeae. Iie iaiyeenue, ooiaeeee
ioaeuoaoue, aica?auaeenue niiaa. Oae iiaei i?iaeieaeaoueny ianeieueei
nooie. Ana caaenaei io caei?iauey, e?aiinoe ia?aia iiaeneaaenoaaiiiai.
Aaaeue aio ana yoi a?aiy ia aeaaaee niaoue.

«Noieea» – oiaea oa?aeoa?iue oa?iei oiai a?aiaie. Iiaeneaaenoaaiiiai ia
auetho. Aio i?inoi ia aeatho aeaaea i?enanoue, ia aiai?y oaea i oii,
/oiau ea/ue. Noiyee ethaee oaeaea ii ianeieueeo nooie. «?acoeueoaou»
aeey neaaenoaey yoio iaoiae aeaaae iaieioea. Oioy auee e i?ieieu. Aio
/oi aniiieiaao ii yoiio iiaiaeo auaoee ia/aeueiee ?aeiiiiai ioaeaea
IEAAe Naiaeeaaaneiai ?aeiia – aue oaeie a Eoeauoaaneie iaeanoe –
Iaea?ia:

– A ethea 1938 aiaea y aeieeaaeuaae caiia/aeueieea iaeanoiiai oi?aaeaiey
IEAAe Aeaoeeio aeaei ii iaaeiaieth aaoa?a/a Eoae?yaoeaaa. ss i?aaeeaaae
aai ec-iiae no?aaee inaiaiaeeoue, oae eae aai a?aaeeoaeueneay
aeayoaeueiinoue ia auea onoaiiaeaia. Eoae?yaoeaa ie a /ai naay aeiiaiui
ia i?eciaaae. Aeaoeei iaiy ca yoi ia?oaae e i?aaeeiaeee iinoaaeoue
Eoae?yaoeaaa ia «noieeo», /oiau ii noiye aei oao ii?, iiea ia
niciaaony… Eoae?yaoeaa noiye ieiei iyoe aeiae. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia
«noieeo», iieacaiey ia aeae. Ec-iiae no?aaee aue inaiaiaeaeai. AEaeiei
iieacaiey aeae. I?aaaea, ia n?aco. *a?ac ianeieueei aeiae iinea a?anoa e
iinea niioaaonoaothuae ia?aaioee ii iaienae nianoaaiii?o/iia
«i?eciaiea». Aea, aeaneaoue, y oaeie-nyeie o?ioeeeno e ianinoiyaoeeny
oa??i?eno. Cayaeaiea yoi auei iaienaii ia eiy anaiiaouaai a oi a?aiy
Aaeiaa e ioee/aeinue io i?i/eo cayaeaiee iaeiie iniaaiiinoueth –
iaeioi?ua neiaa a iai auee iiae/a?eioou neiei ea?aiaeaoii. Iaecaanoii,
ia?aoeee ee ia yoi aieiaiea neaaeiaaoaee, «?aaioaaoea» n AEaeieiui, ii
eiaaea iu neiaeeee neiaa, iiae/a?eiooua neiei ea?aiaeaoii a iaeio o?aco,
oi i?i/eoaee: «IIEACAIEA EIAEII».

Iiaeii aeiionoeoue, /oi eiaiii oae auaoee i?ieo?i? Eoeauoaaneie iaeanoe
oioae ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ?oeiaiaenoaa IEAAe ia naith noaeueao. Eeoue
iiiai eao nionoy noaei ecaanoii, /oi a?anou naieoeeiie?iaaeenue ie eai
eiui, eae yoei naiui ?oeiaiaenoaii, eioi?ia, a naith i/a?aaeue, auei
eeoue eniieieoaeai /oaeie ceie aiee. Ii yoi iu ciaai oaia?ue, a oiaaea
yoiai ia ciaee iiiaea, ia ciae yoiai e auaoee i?ieo?i? Eoeauoaaneie
iaeanoe Ieeieae AEaeiei.

Eaeia-oi a?aiy iinea a?anoa ii aua ia aa?ee, ia iia iiaa?eoue, /oi ia
iai iinoaaeai e?ano, /oi aai oaea au/a?eioee ec nieneia aeeaoueo. E
oiaaea ii ieoao aio oaeia cayaeaiea, eioi?ia iaiiieiaao iineaaeiee e?ee
i iiiiue: «ss aioia e iiao aua ?aaioaoue ia naiuo iianiuo o/anoeao, e
iiao i?eianoe aieueooth e na?ueacioth iieueco ?iaeeia. Iia oieueei 38
eao. ss i?ioo aeaoue iia aiciiaeiinoue naeaeaoue iaeneioi iieuecu,
ioaeaoue ana iie neeu aeaeo iino?iaiey eiiioiecia».

A aio aai i?ioaiea, eiaaea ii iiieiaao, /oi ana eii/aii, ia?aoiie
aei?iae iao, aia?aaee oieueei nia?oue: «ss i?ioo ia ?ai?anne?iaaoue iith
naiueth. O iaiy inoaeenue aeaia e aeaa nuia – 16 e 12 eao – iaeei
eiiniiieaoe e iaeei ieiia?. AEaia e aeaoe – i?ae?aniua ethaee,
i?aaeaiiua nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?iaeeia. Aeaoe aeeee ia/oaie i E?aniie
A?iee, i caueoa niaaoneeo ?oaaaeae. Iie ia ciaee, /oi eo ioaoe ninoieo a
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie i?aaiecaoeee, e, anee au y ei nae/an neacae ia
yoii, iie au ie ca /oi yoiio ia iiaa?eee. Iioiio /oi ainieouaaeenue iie
eneeth/eoaeueii a eiiioienoe/aneii aeooa. Ionoue iie ?anooo ianoiyueie
aieueoaaeeaie. Iie iaiiaeiiu e ca iaiy ioaa/aoue ia iiaoo e ia
aeieaeiu».

Naiueth ana aea ?ai?anne?iaaee. AEaio – a eiioeeaaa?ue. Aeaoae – a
aeaoaeii. Iaeei ec nuiiaae iioii iiaeaiao ia aieia, ae?oaie aa?iaony a
Eoeauoaa.

AEaeieia i?eaiai?eee e aunoae ia?a iaeacaiey e ?anno?aeyee anei?a iinea
auianaiey i?eaiai?a. Ii, ciaeiiynue n iaoa?eaeaie aeaea AEaeieia, iu
iaoieeioeenue ia iaeei oaeo, eioi?ue oeacuaae, /oi noae iaae iei, aeaaea
oaeie nei?ue e iai?aaue, aue ionoie oi?iaeueiinoueth. Ieacuaaaony, aua
aei noaea auee oie/oiaeaiu, niaeaeaiu oaeinoiaa?aiey ee/iinoe
iiaeneaaenoaaiiiai, aai i?ionithciue aeeao ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi iie
yaeythony onoa?aaoeie aeieoiaioaie. Aei?iae iacaae ia auei. Aeaei
inoaaaeinue ca iaeui – oie/oiaeeoue eo auaoaai aeaaeaeueoea…

Naaiaeiy iiiaia anoaei ia naie ianoa. Iaea/e iacaaiu iaea/aie. Aeia?ia
eiy aica?auaii iiiaei aacaeiiui aea?oaai noaeeineeo ?ai?annee. I?aaaea,
aua ia anai, ii iiiaei. Iaeanoiay aacaoa «Aieaeneay eiiioia», iai?eia?,
?aaoey?ii ia/aoaao nienee aacaeiii iino?aaeaaoeo iaoeo niaaoneeo
a?aaeaeai. Eoi-oi aue ?aaaeeeoe?iaai n i?eoiaeii «iooaiaee» a 56-i,
eoi-oi iicaea. Ieeieae Iao?iae/ AEaeiei aue ?aaaeeeoe?iaai /a?ac aiae
iinea naiae aeaaee, a 40-i. Aio no?iee ec aeieoiaioa:

«Aiaiiay eieeaaey Aa?oiaiiai noaea NNN?, ?anniio?aa iaoa?eaeu aeaea e
niaeaoaynue n caeeth/aieai i?ieo?i?a, ii?aaeaeeea: i?eaiai? Aiaiiie
eieeaaee Aa?oiaiiai noaea NNN? io 10 ia?oa 1939 aiaea a ioiioaiee
AEaeieia Ieeieay Iao?iae/a ioiaieoue ii aiiaue ioe?uaoeiny
ianoiyoaeuenoaai e aeaei i iai i?iecaiaenoaii i?ae?aoeoue ca ionoonoaeai
ninoaaa i?anooieaiey».

Ni?aaaaeeeainoue ainoi?aeanoaiaaea. E, iiaeao auoue, a aeaiiii neo/aa
neiaiee/ii oi, /oi naeaeaii yoi auei a ioiioaiee i?ieo?i?a ii
i?aaenoaaeaieth i?ieo?i?a.

Ia iooeie iaiea n aeaeii AEaeieia ?aaeoo aeaca neiaa – «O?AIEOUe AA*II».
Yoe aeaa neiaa auee ia iaieao, a eioi?uo oianoeeanue aeeciue ieeeeiiia
iaoeo niioa/anoaaiieeia. Eaeie niune aeeaaeuaaee a yoe neiaa oa, eoi
aa?oee iai?aaia aeaei? Aiciiaeii, oae oioaee iiae/a?eiooue cia/eiinoue
oai?eiuo eie aeayiee, eioi?ua naaiaeiy iacaaiu i?anooieaieai i?ioea
nianoaaiiiai ia?iaea. Iu aea aeaeei a yoeo neiaao – «O?AIEOUe AA*II» –
eiie niune. Iu, naaiaeiy aeeaouea, e iaoe iioiiee aeieaeiu aa/ii
o?aieoue iaiyoue i aacaeiiuo aea?oaao, i o?aaaaeee iaoaai ia?iaea.
O?aieoue iaiyoue ai eiy oiai, /oia iiaeiaiia ieeiaaea aieueoa ia
iiaoi?eeinue.

Ana i?ieo?i?neea ?aaioieee, oae aea eae e 28 ouny/ aeeoaeae iaoae
iaeanoe, aiineaaenoaee auee ?aaaeeeoe?iaaiu — iiiaea iinia?oii.

Ouny/e eceiiaiiuo noaeaa… Iie ia aeieaeiu auoue caauou.

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