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История отечественного государства и права (с 1917 г. по настоящее время)

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EIAI. *anoue II (n 1917a. ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy)

1. II Ana?inneeneee nuacae niaaoia. Oi?ie?iaaiea niaaoneeo i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey.

Aeey ?innee 1917a. oa?aeoa?ai ?yae aeoaieeo e ino?aeoeo i?ioeai?a/ee:
iaaeaeo o?oaeii e eaieoaeii, ?acaeaathuainy eaieoaeeciii e inoaoeaie
e?aiinoie/anoaa, aioaaiieciu a aea?aaia, iaoeeiiaeueiie noa?a e o.ae.
Iauaiaoeeiiaeueiue e?ecen a ?innee, iaino?eaoeeny inaiueth 1917a.,
nii?iaiaeaeaeny ?inoii iiioey?iinoe ia?oee aieueoaaeeia e iioa?ae
aaoi?eoaoa iaoiaeeaoeony o aeanoe yna?ia, iaiueoaaeeia, eaaeaoia. Ana
oneeey A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii noaaeeecaoeee ianoaiiaee ieacaeenue
ouaoiuie. E oiio aea ?aoaiea iiiaeo aii?inia, iac?aaoeo e aeooaeueiuo,
yoi i?aaeoaeuenoai aieueii eee iaaieueii caoyaeaaei e ioeeaaeuaaei.
?yaeii n ioeoeeaeueiui e aaniiiiuiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii aeaenoaiaaee e
iaae?aee neeo Niaaou. Iie i?aaenoaaeyee iiaue oei ainoaea?noaaiiinoe,
?iaeaeaiiue naiei ia?iaeii, aeeceei ia?iaeo eae oei niai?iie aeanoe e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeaiie?aoee. Aaoi?eoao e aeeyiea Niaaoia io?aaeaee
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue e iiioey?iinoue nioeeaeenoe/aneeo eaeae.

Ni/aoaiea iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo (iaee/ea i?aaieciaaiiie; e
oeaeaono?aieaiiie ?NAe?I, aaoi?eoaoiiai aiaeaey, iii?a ia aii?oaeaiiua
neeu e o.i.) iaania/eei iiaaaeo Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee. Oaea a oiaea
aii?oaeaiiiai ainnoaiey a Iao?ia?aaea ia/aeny neii noa?iai e nicaeaiea
iiaiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa. N a?anoii A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
aunoei i?aaiii aeanoe a no?aia noae Aiaiii-?aaiethoeeiiiue eiieoao
(A?E).

Yoa no?oeoo?a nicaeaaaeanue i?e Iao?ia?aaeneii niaaoa aeey
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey eiio??aaiethoeeiiiui ieaiai A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
N na?aaeeiu ieoya?y 1917 a. A?E noaiiaeony i?aaiii ii iiaeaioiaea e
i?iaaaeaieth aii?oaeaiiiai ainnoaiey. Ia?aui i?aaenaaeaoaeai A?E aue
eca?ai eaaue yna? (n 1918 a. – aieueoaaee) I.A. Eaceie?. A aeie
ainnoaiey i?aaenaaeaoaeai noae aieueoaaee I.E. Iiaeaieneee, nae?aoa?ai –
A.A. Aioiiia-Ianaaiei. N 10 /ania oo?a 25 ieoya?y e aei i?eiyoey a 5
/ania oo?a 26 ieoya?y [1]. II Ana?inneeneei nuacaeii Niaaoia ia?auaiey
“?aai/ei, nieaeaoai e e?anoueyiai!” aunoay aeanoue auea o A?E.

Oioy a oeacaiiii ia?auaiee nuacaea e aiai?eeinue, /oi “…nuacae aa?ao
aeanoue a naie ?oee…”, oaeoe/anee A?E oo?a/eaae naie iieiiii/ey
iinoaiaiii. Eiay iaeaaeaiiue aiia?ao e aaoi?eoao a a?iee, ia oeioa e a
E?aniie aaa?aeee, A?E aeaenoaiaae eae aaaeiaeoay aeanoiay no?oeoo?a e ai
naiae eiiiaoaioeee aei 5 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. aue anaiauaiethuei
/?acau/aeiui i?aaiii Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aea ooieoeee ecia/aeueii i?eia?ae II Ana?inneeneee
nuacae Niaaoia ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia. Yoio nuacae aaconeiaii
eiae ana?inneeneee noaoon, aai aeaeaaaou i?aaenoaaeyee eioa?anu
i?aeoe/anee anao nioeeaeueiuo a?oii e ?aaeiiia. Ia iao acaeyae, iao
ieeaeeo niiiaiee a eaaeoeiiinoe yoiai nuacaea (ni. ieaea).

II nuacae, ieceiaeea A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, ia/ae ?aaeeeaeueioth
eiieo noa?iai ainaiia?aoa, iaeiia?aiaiii oi?ie?oy iiaia ainoaea?noai.
Oaea a ia?aii naiai aeieoiaioa nuacae iinoaiiaee, /oi aeanoue ia ianoao
ia?aoiaeeo e Niaaoai ?aai/eo e e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia” o.a. nuacae
th?eaee/anee ioi?iee ?anioaeeeo Niaaoia, ?ac?aoea yoei naiui iaeio ec
caaea/, aiceaaaaiuo ia O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea” Aianoa n oai nuacae
iaauae naiaa?aiaiiue nicua iineaaeiaai.

A ia?auaiee nuacaea iauyaeyeanue oaeaea i?ia?aiia ia?aii/a?aaeiuo
ia?ii?eyoee Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa: onoaiiaeaiea ie?a aeey anao
ia?iaeia, aacaiciacaeiay ia?aaea/a caiee e?anoueyinoao, aeaiie?aoecaoeey
a?iee, ?aai/ee eiio?ieue iaae i?iecaiaenoaii e o.ae.

Aaaeiaeoei aeieoiaioii, i?eiyoui ia II nuacaea, noae “Aeae?ao i ie?a”, a
eioi?ii i?iaicaeaoaeenue iniiau aiaoiae iieeoeee Niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaa. Aeae?ao i?aaeeaaae iaiaaeeaiii ia/aoue ie?iua ia?aaiai?u n
iineaaeothuei caeeth/aieai ni?aaaaeeeaiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ie?a aac
aiiaenee e eiio?eaooeee. Iiae/a?eiai, /oi iiae aiiaeneae caeanue
iiieiaeinue ia oieueei caoaao, ii e ianeeuenoaaiiia oaea?aeaiea /oaeeo
caiaeue, i?iecaaaeaiiua eae ai a?aiy aieiu, oae e aei iaa. Ie? aac
aiiaenee niinianoaiaae au e ?aaeecaoeee i?aaa iaoeee ia
naiiii?aaeaeaiea. “Aeae?ao i ie?a” – ia i?iaeoeo iiioeecia Niaaoia.
Iaiiiiei, /oi n ia/aeii ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, aieueoaaeee
iineaaeiaaoaeueii e ?acei aunooiaee i?ioea iaa, iineieueeo aieia eiaea
caoaaoie/aneee, iani?aaaaeeeaue oa?aeoa? ni anao noi?ii. E i?eioeeiu
aeae?aoa auee ?aaeeciaaiu Niaaoaie (iiaeienaiea 2 aeaeaa?y 1917a.
aeiaiai?a i ia?aie?ee n Aa?iaieae e aa nithcieeaie, A?anoneee ie?iue
aeiaiai? e ae?.).

“Aeae?ao i caiea”, i?eiyoue ia aoi?ii canaaeaiee nuacaea, iauyaeye
caieth ia?iaeiui aeinoiyieai. Niioaaonoaaiii oi?acaeiyeanue /anoiay
nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth, /oi ono?aiyei yeiiiie/aneoth iniiao aeey
iieeoe/aneiai ainiiaenoaa iiiaueeia, eeoaei i?aaineaaioth oea?eiaue
iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo i?eaeeaaee. I?e yoii i?iaicaeaoaeny
i?eioeei o?aaieoaeueiiai caieaiieueciaaiey ii o?oaeiaie (ii eiee/anoao
?aaeueiuo ?aaioieeia) eee iio?aaeoaeueneie (ii aaeieai) ii?ia. Aeae?ao
i?aaeoniao?eaae ?acee/iua oi?iu caieaiieueciaaiey, auae?aaiua naieie
e?anoueyiaie aeia?iaieueii (iiaeai?iay, oooi?neay, a?oaeueiay e ae?.).
E?oiiua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oicyenoaa (eiiiua caaiaeu, ieaiaiiua
oicyenoaa e ae?.) ia?aoiaeeee a eneeth/eoaeueiia iieueciaaiea
ainoaea?noaa eee iaueiu. Ia?aaeaa caieth e?anoueyiai, aeanoue Niaaoia
oi?i/eea nithc ?aai/aai eeanna n e?anoueyinoaii.

Nuacae eca?ae Ana?inneeneee Oeaio?aeueiue. Eniieieoaeueiue Eiieoao
(AOeEE) – aunoee i?aai aeanoe a ia?eiae iaaeaeo nuacaeaie, a ninoaaa 101
/aeiaae. Ec ieo – 62 aieueoaaeea, 29 eaauo yna?ia, 6 iauaaeeiaiiuo
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoia eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoia, 3 oe?aeineeo nioeeaeenoa e 1
yna?-iaeneiaeeno. Ia?aui i?aaenaaeaoaeai AOeEE aue eca?ai aieueoaaee
E.A. Eaiaiaa (?icaioaeueae), n 8 iiya?y yoo aeieaeiinoue caiye ss.I.
Naa?aeeia. ?aai/ei i?aaiii AOeEE yaeyeny aai I?aceaeeoi. I?e AOeEE auee
nicaeaiu ioaeaeu: aaeoaoeeiiiue, eiiai?iaeiee, eaca/ee, yeiiiie/aneee,
ii nicuao O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey e ae?. Nuacae iinoaiiaee, /oi AOeEE
iiaeao auoue iiiieiai i?aaenoaaeoaeyie a?oii, ooaaeoeo ni nuacaea.

Aeey oi?aaeaiey no?aiie, aieioue aei nicuaa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey
nuacae ia?aciaae A?aiaiiia ?aai/a-e?anoueyineia i?aaeoaeuenoai,
eiaioaiia Niaaoii Ia?iaeiuo Eiienna?ia (NIE). Iineieueeo ia nuacaea
aaniethoii i?aiaeaaeaee aieueoaaeee, oi ii anai ia?eai aeaiie?aoee iie
eiaee i?aai ia nicaeaiea iaeiiia?oeeiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iaeiaei
aieueoaaeee i?aaeeiaeeee eaaui yna?ai aieoe a NIE, oa ioeacaeenue.
Ia?aue ninoaa NIE ieacaeny oieueei aieueoaaenoneei. I?aaeoaeuenoai
aicaeaaee Eaiei A.E. (Oeueyiia), ia?eiiii ii aioo?aiiei aeaeai noae
?ueia A.E., caieaaeaeey – Ieethoei A.I., ii aeaeai eiino?aiiui –
A?iiooaei E.Ae. (O?ioeeee) e o.ae. Ioiaoei, /oi iaeioi?ua aeayoaee,
ooaa?aeaeaiiua ia iino ia?eiia, ii ?aciui i?e/eiai ia i?eiyee iacia/aiey
eee ia o/anoaiaaee a canaaeaieyo NIE. Oae neo/eeinue n E.E.
Neai?oeiaui-Noaiaiiaui, iacia/aiiui ia iino ia?eiia oeiainia. Ia
i?eieiae o/anoey a ?aaioa NIE iacia/aiiue ia?eiiii thnoeoeee A.E. Eiiia
(Iiiieia). Oieueei iaeie nooee ia iinoo ia?eiia caieaaeaeey iaoiaeeeny
A.E. Eieaaaaa [2]. Yoe oaeou aiai?yo ia ia?iiiuo o?oaeiinoyo a
oi?ie?iaaiee aiia?aoa aeanoiuo no?oeoo?.

Ia nuacaea auee i?eiyou oaeaea neaaeothuea iinoaiiaeaiey: ia
inaiaiaeaeaiee /eaiia caiaeueiuo eiieoaoia; ia ioiaia nia?oiie eacie ia
o?iioa; i iaiaaeeaiiii a?anoa Ea?aineiai; i ai?ueaa n
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuie aunooieaieyie e ae?.

Oaeei ia?acii, II Ana?inneeneee nuacae Niaaoia ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo
aeaiooaoia iinee o/?aaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ii ia oieueei noae “ciaeiaui”
niauoeai a enoi?ee iaoae no?aiu, aai ?aoaiey eiaee aeoaiei
aeaiie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, ioaa/aee ei?aiiui eioa?anai aieueoeinoaa
ia?iaea e niinianoaiaaee i?aaeioa?auaieth iaoeeiiaeueiie eaoano?iou.

Oi?ie?iaaiea iniiaiuo caaiueaa niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa
i?ioiaeeei a neiaeiaeoeo oneiaeyo. Iiiaea iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua
oaeoi?u /?acau/aeii cao?oaeiyee yoio i?ioeann. Iaiiiiei, /oi ?inney
inaiueth 1917 a. ieacaeanue ia oieueei a aeoaieii iieeoe/aneii e?ecena,
ii e ia e?ath yeiiiie/aneie e oeiainiaie i?iianoe. I?iaeieaeaeanue aieia
e ia?iiiay /anoue oa??eoi?ee auaoae ?inneeneie eiia?ee ieacaeanue
ieeoie?iaaiiie no?aiaie O?ienoaaiiiai nithca. A no?aia ia oaaoaei naiiai
yeaiaioa?iiai oeaaa, niee, nie/ae e o.i. N ecauoeii aea auei naaioaaea,
aieiaea, aia?oee e i?anooieaiee.

Oai ia iaiaa ca n/eoaiiua iaaeaee iinea Ieoya?y caaa?oeeinue ioi?ieaiea
iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe. 15 iiya?y 1917 a.
i?iecioei neeyiea AOeEE, eca?aiiiai II Ana?inneeneei nuacaeii ?aai/eo e
nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia n Eniieieoaeueiui eiieoaoii (108 /ae.), eca?aiiii
ia *?acau/aeiii Ana?inneeneii e?anoueyineii nuacaea. Oaeia neeyiea
cia/eoaeueii oe?aieei iiceoeee iiaie aeanoe. I?aaeoaeuenoai ia?anoaei
auoue iaeiiia?oeeiui. Eaaua yna?u aioee a ninoaa NIE. Eieaaaaa caiye
iino ia?eiia caieaaeaeey, Ooa?iaa?a – ia?eiia thnoeoeee, O?ooianeee
ia?eiia ii ianoiiio naiioi?aaeaieth e o. ae. Ieii/aoaeueiia iauaaeeiaiea
Niaaoia i?iecioei a yiaa?a 1918 a. ia III Ana?inneeneii nuacaea Niaaoia.

Aaaeiui aeieoiaioii eiinoeoooeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a auea i?eiyoay AOeEE 3
yiaa?y 1918 a. “Aeaeea?aoeey i?aa o?oaeyuaainy e yenieoaoe?oaiiai
ia?iaea”. Iia ii?aaeaeeea aaia?aoe/aneea ?aiee e eiiiaoaioeee Niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaa (?inney) e oei ainoaea?noaa (Niaaoneay ?anioaeeea).

Iaeiia?aiaiii ?yaeii aeoia ?aaeeciauaaeny neii noa?iai ainoaea?noaa. A
iiya?a 1917 a. i?ae?aoeee naia nouanoaiaaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao e
Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia. N i?eiyoeai niaoeeaeueiiai aeae?aoa AOeEE e NIE
oie/oiaeaeinue aeaeaiea ianaeaiey ia nineiaey e a?aaeaeaineea /eiu. A
yiaa?a 1918a. aue i?eiyo aeae?ao NIE “Ia ioaeaeaiee oea?eae io
ainoaea?noaa e oeieu io oea?eae”. Oi?acaeiyeenue ?ai?anneaiua e
oi?aaeai/aneea no?oeoo?u noa?iai aiia?aoa. Ii oaoie/aneea e
noaoenoe/aneea i?aaiu iineaaeiaai iaeioi?ia a?aiy nio?aiyeenue.

Iinea oiai, eae AOeEE i?eiye 4 iiya?y 1918 a. ?aciethoeeth i i?aaa NIE
ecaeaaaoue iaioeiaeiua aeae?aou a ?aieao iauae i?ia?aiiu Ana?inneeneiai
nuacaea Niaaoia, caeiiiaeaoaeueiua iieiiii/ey, eiaee o?e i?aaia:
Ana?inneeneee nuacae Niaaoia, AOeEE e NIE.

A ninoaaa NIE auei ia?aciaaii 13 ia?iaeiuo eiienna?eaoia (IE);
aioo?aiieo aeae, ii/o e oaeaa?aoa, eiino?aiiuo aeae e ae?. E na?aaeeia
1918a, /enei IE oaaee/eeinue ca n/ao aiiaue ia?aciaaiiuo IE:
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey, i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee e ae?. Canaaeaiey
NIE i?ioiaeeee aaeaaeiaaii, a n aeaeaa?y 1917a. neiaeeeanue i?aeoeea
i?iaaaeaiey niaauaiee caiia?eiiia. Anei?a oaeea niaauaiey auee
i?aa?auaiu a iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuoth eiienneth NIE (Iaeue Niaia?eii).
Aa ?aoaiey ooaa?aeaeaeenue i?aaeoaeuenoaii aac iiaoi?iiai ?anniio?aiey.

Aeey ono?aiaiey aeoaee?iaaiey e ia?aeeaeecia a ?aaioa ?yae ioaeaeia
AOeEE auee neeou n niioaaonoaothueie IE: TH?eaee/aneee ioaeae AOeEE
aioae a Ia?eiithno, yeiiiie/aneee ioaeae – a ANIO, ioaeae ii
iaoeeiiaeueiiio aii?ino – a IE ii aeaeai iaoeeiiaeueiinoae e o.ae.
Iniiaa yoeo e iiaeiaiuo i?aia?aciaaiee iaoneiaeeaaeanue, e?iia i?i/aai,
eaeaae i iaoeaeaniia?aciinoe ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a ainaiia?aoa
“i?ieaoa?neie aeeeoaoo?u” e i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eo neeyiey a iaeiie
“?aaioathuae ei?ii?aoeee”.Oi?ie?iaaiea aiia?aoa ia?eiiaoia e ae?oaeo
aunoeo no?oeoo? ineiaeiyeinue ionoonoaeai iiaeaioiaeaiiuo eaae?ia,
naaioaaeai noa?uo /eiiaieeia. Aieueooth ?ieue a eiiieaeoiaaiee ooaoia
ainaiia?aoa nua?aei iai?aaeaiea ooaea ia?aaeiauo ?aai/eo, eioi?uo
ioae?aee e ianoaeaeaee oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneea eiieoaou, iauea nia?aiey.

Ia ianoao aeanoue ia?aoiaeeea e Niaaoai [3]. I?e yoii oi?acaeiyeenue
iinou eiienna?ia A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, nineiaiua i?aaiecaoeee
aeai?yi, iauai, iaeaieaa eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua i?aaiu ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey. Inoaeueiua ianoiua no?oeoo?u iaeioi?ia a?aiy
i?iaeieaeaee ?aaioaoue, ii oaia?ue oaea iiae eiio?ieai Niaaoia. Niaaou
iinoaiaiii noaiiaeeenue iieiiaeanoiuie i?aaiaie, ?aaoee?othueie anth
ianoioth aeeciue. Aeae?aoii AOeEE io 24 iiya?y 1917 a. onoaiaaeeaaeinue
i?aai ecae?aoaeyi iocuaaoue naieo aeaiooaoia. Niaaou iieo/eee i?aai
nicaeaaaoue naie aii?oaeaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey. Ana yoi oneeeaaei eo ?ieue.
E eaoo 1918 a. ai?iaeneea aeoiu e cainoaa auee oi?acaeiaiu ii/oe
iianaianoii.

Aieueooth ?ieue a oi?i/aiee Niaaoneie aeanoe a aea?aaia nua?aee
aieinoiua e naeueneea eiieoaou aaaeiiou, o/?aaeaeaiiua a iaa 1918 a. A
eo caaea/e aoiaeeei iaania/aiea e?anoueyinoaa i?aaeiaoaie ia?aie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe: ?ani?aaeaeaiea oeaaa, niaeaenoaea oi?ie?iaaieth E?aniie
A?iee e o. i.

A eiioea 1918 a. eiiaaaeu neeeenue n Niaaoaie. A oeaeii eo
aeayoaeueiinoue niinianoaiaaea oe?aieaieth iiaie aeanoe ia ianoao.

Aeanoiuie niaoeeoe/aneeie i?aaiaie oiai ia?eiaea auee
aiaiii-?aaiethoeeiiiua eiieoaou, ia?aciaaiiua i?e aoaa?ineeo,
ai?iaeneeo, oacaeiuo Niaaoao. A eo caaea/e aoiaeeei oi?i/aiea aeanoe
Niaaoia ia ianoao, iaania/aiea “?aaiethoeeiiiiai ii?yaeea”, iaioeiaeiua
oicyenoaaiiua aeaea e ae?. N oe?aieaieai iiceoeee Niaaoia ooieoeee A?E
ia?aoiaeeee e yoei i?aaiai.

N ?inioneii a yiaa?y 1918 a. O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey, iaeia?aiiui O
Ana?inneeneei nuacaeii Niaaoia, ono?aiyeenue ai anao iiauo ecaeaieyo
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia nnueee ia O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea. ?aoaieai nuacaea
oaeaea auei niyoi a iaeiaiiaaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa neiai: “a?aiaiiia”. N
iauaaeeiaieai aeaoo nuacaeia – Ana?inneeneiai nuacaea Niaaoia ?aai/eo e
nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia e Ana?inneeneiai nuacaea Niaaoia e?anoueyineeo
aeaiooaoia – a no?aia nicaeai aaeeiue aunoee i?aai aeanoe. Iniiau
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa e oaaea?aoeaiiai ono?ienoaa auee
cae?aieaiu a Eiinoeoooeee ?NON?, i?eiyoie a ethea 1918 a.

Yoio ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaeaea aeoeaiui oi?ie?iaaieai oaeeo
aaaeiaeoeo caaiueaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia eae aii?oaeaiiua neeu e
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua i?aaiu. Ecaanoii, /oi aieueoaaeee ia aac aeeyiey
?aaiethoeeiiiiai ?iiaioecia io?eoeaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue iinoiyiiie a?iee e
nicaeaiey niaoeeaeueiiai aiia?aoa i?eioaeaeaiey e caueuaee eaeath
“anaiauaai aii?oaeaiey ia?iaea”. Iaeiaei oaea e ia/aeo 1918 a. ino?i
anoae AII?IN i nicaeaiee E?aniie A?iee, o. e. auai?iinoue eiininoaaa,
anaaeanoea nieaeaoneeo eiieoaoia ia niinianoaiaaee oe?aieaieth a?iaeneeo
i?eioeeiia. E?iia oiai, noa?ay a?iey noeoeeii aeaiiaeeeciauaaeanue.

15 yiaa?y 1918 a. NIE i?eiye aeae?ao ia ia?aciaaiee a?iee. Aii?oaeaiiua
neeu noaee eiiieaeoiaaoueny ec “niciaoaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
o?oaeyueony”, aeinoeaoeo 18 eao, iacaaeneii io ?aniaie e iaoeeiiaeueiie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. A ai?aea 1918 a. aue aaaaeai i?eioeei aieineie
iiaeiiinoe. Auai?iinoue eiiaiaee?ia auea caiaiaia eo iacia/aieai.

Iinoaiiaeaieai IEAAe io 28 ieoya?y 1917 a. i?e Niaaoao o/?aaeaeaeanue
?aai/ay ieeeoeey. Iaiiiiei, /oi o A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa oiaea auea
ieeeoeey. Ii aii?ino i aa noaeueaa anoue ?acee/iua iiaiey [4]. I/aaeaeii
noa?ay ieeeoeey ai iiiaeo ianoao nio?aieeanue i?e oneiaee aa ia?aoiaea
ia noi?iio Niaaoia. Oeaio?aeueiue aiia?ao noa?ie ieeeoeee aue oi?acaeiai
i?eeacii IEAAe a ia/aea aeaeaa?y 1917 a. Ianoiua Niaaou iai?aaeyee a
i?aaiu ieeeoeee naieo eiienna?ia-eiiioienoia, eioi?ua e inouanoaeyee
?ai?aaiecaoeeth e /enoeo [5]. A ?yaea iano ia?yaeo ni noa?ie ieeeoeeae
aeaenoaiaaee io?yaeu E?aniie Aaa?aeee. Niaaoneay ieeeoeey inouanoaeyea
iiiaia?aiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ii io?aia iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, ai?ueaa
n i?anooiiinoueth, i?iaaaeaieth a aeeciue iiauo caeiiia.

A nicaeaiee iiaie nenoaiu noaeaaiuo i?aaiia oianoii auaeaeeoue
neaaeothuaa: iinea iiaaaeu Ieoya?y ai iiiaeo ianoao ianaeaiea naii, ia
aeiaeeaeaynue aee?aeoea naa?oo, i?enooieei e eeeaeaeaoeee noa?uo e
nicaeaieth iiauo noaeia. Oieueei 22 iiya?y 1917 a. NIE i?eiye “Aeae?ao i
noaea ? 1”, eioi?ui oi?acaeiyeenue i?aaeiea noaeu, eeeaeaee?iaaeanue
aaeaieaoo?a e i?ieo?aoo?a. Ia iniiaa auai?iinoe nicaeaaaeenue ianoiua
noaeu a ninoaaa noaeuee e aeaoo canaaeaoaeae. Aeey ai?ueau n
eiio??aaiethoeeae o/?aaeaeaeenue ?aaiethoeeiiiua o?eaoiaeu, ecae?aaiua
aoaa?ineeie eee ai?iaeneeie Niaaoaie. Oi?ie?iaaiea aeaoo nenoai noaeia –
iaueo e iniauo – i?ioiaeeei ia aeaaeei: eia-aaea i?ienoiaeee io?ua
noaeia io Niaaoia, eee aea aeiioneaeinue aiaoaoaeuenoai Niaaoia a aeaea
noaeia.

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iauae noaeaaiie nenoaiu ?aaeaiaioe?iaae “Aeae?ao i
noaea ? 2” (oaa?aeue 1918 a.). Ii yoiio aeae?aoo o/?aaeaeaeenue
ie?oaeiua ia?iaeiua noaeu, ioaaouaathuea ianeieueei oacaeia. Ie?oaeiie
noae eiae oaieiaiia e a?aaeaeaineia ioaeaeaiey.

Aaeeiue ia?iaeiue noae aue o/?aaeaeai n auoiaeii ooaa?aeaeaiiiai
AOeEE-ii 30 iiya?y 1918 a. “Iieiaeaiey AOeEE i ia?iaeiii noaea ?NON?”.
Oaia?ue ia?noae ?anniao?eaae ana oaieiaiua e a?aaeaeaineea aeaea ca
eneeth/aieai aeae, iiaenoaeiuo ?aao?eaoiaeo. Noaeuee ecae?aeenue
Niaaoaie e eniieeiiaie. I?e Niaaoao nicaeaaaeenue eieeaaee
i?aaicaueoieeia. I?eaiai?u e ?aoaiey noaea iiaee auoue iaaeaeiaaiu a
eannaoeeiiiii ii?yaeea a Niaao ia?iaeiuo noaeae. Eiinoeoooeey ?NON? 1918
a. ioianea aii?inu noaeiono?ienoaa e aaaeaieth Ana?inneeneiai nuacaea
Niaaoia e AOeEE, /oi ono?aiye” ianoiia i?aaioai?/anoai e i?eaeaaaei
/aoeinoue i?ioeanno nicaeaiey noaea.

Iiieii iau/iuo caaiueaa ainaiia?aoa 7 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. aue nicaeai
iniaue i?aai – Ana?inneeneay /?acau/aeiay eiienney ii ai?ueaa n
eiio??aaiethoeeae e naaioaaeai (A*E). Yoio i?aai aue nicaeai i?e NIE. Ai
aeaaa A*E noiye I?aceaeeoi a ninoaaa I?aaenaaeaoaey (O.Y. Aeca?aeeineee)
aeaoo aai caianoeoaeae e aeaoo nae?aoa?ae. Ia ianoao /?acau/aeiua
eiiennee nicaeaaaeenue i?e iaeanoiuo e aoaa?ineeo niaaoneeo i?aaiao, ia
oceiauo AE/Ae noaioeeyo, a e?oiiuo ii?oao, a iia?aie/iie iieina. Aiia?ao
A*E aue aanueia iaiiiai/eneaiiui. Aei etheueneiai (1918 a.) iyoaaea
eaaua yna?u aoiaeeee a ninoaa A*E, iaeei ea ieo (E.A. Aeaenaiae?iae/)
aue aeaaea caianoeoaeai i?aaenaaeaoaey.

I?aaiu A*E eiaee i?aai ia a?anou, iaunee, ?aeaeceoeee. A oaa?aea 1918 a.
a nayce n ianooieaieai iaiaoeeeo aiene NIE iinoaiiaeei iaaeaeeoue A*E
i?aaii i?iaiaeeoue neaaenoaea, auiineoue i?eaiai?u e aianoaeaaiua
?aoaiey aeae n i?eiaiaieai aunoae ia?u iaeacaiey – ?anno?aea. Iiaeiaia
neaaenoaaiiuo e noaeaaiuo i?aaiia i?eaiaeeea e ioeaeai a aeayoaeueiinoe
A*E. A oeaeii aea /?acau/aeiua eiiennee ?aaioaee a oaniii eiioaeoa n
ia?oeeiuie e niaaoneeie i?aaiaie ia ianoao e io/eouaaeenue ia?aae ieie.

Iaeiia?aiaiii a yoio ia?eiae oi?ie?iaaeenue i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui
oicyenoaii (?aai/ee eiio?ieue, ANIO), ?oeiaiaenoaa eoeueoo?iui
no?ieoaeuenoaii (Ia?eiii?in) e ae?. Oaeei ia?acii, ca n/eoaiiua ianyoeu
Niaaou au?aaioaee iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa e
nicaeaee iniiaiua no?oeoo?u iiaiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia.

2. O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea

3. Oi?ie?iaaiea a ?innee iiaiai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai i?aaa

Aeey i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey iniia iiaiai i?aaa oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea
/a?ou:

a) Niaaoneia i?aai aicieeaei ai acaeiinayce e iaeiia?aiaiii n nicaeaieai
iiaiai ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, /oi iaoneiaeaii i?aaie/aneei aaeeinoaii
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. Niaaoneia i?aai nicaeaaaeinue a oiaea neiia noa?uo
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.

a) Ia?yaeo n iiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aieaa aiaea aeaenoaiaaee
iaeioi?ua noa?ua caeiiu. Yoi i?aeiouanoaaiii oa aeou, eioi?ua
niaea?aeaee ia ocei eeanniaua, a iaua/aeiaa/aneea ii?iu.

a) I?e ?aaiethoeeiiiii ia?aono?ienoaa anao noa? aeecie iaecaaaeii
aicieeatho “i?iaaeu a i?aaa”, o.a. iaeioi?ua aii?inu inoathony ia
o?aaoee?iaaiiuie ieeaeeie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie. A neeo yoeo
ianoiyoaeuenoa ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae niaoeeoe/aneeie enoi/ieeii i?aaa
yaeyeinue ?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aainiciaiea o?oaeyueony. i?e yoii i?aai
i?eiaiythuea i?aaiu e eeoea auiineee ?aoaiea n iiceoeee “?aaiethoeeiiiie
oeaeaniia?aciinoe”, “iieuecu aeey ?aaiethoeee”, /oi ia iiaei ia
i?eaiaeeoue e e ?aciiaith, e e noauaeoeaecio.

a) I?aaioai?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a yoio ia?eiae inouanoaeye
aeiaieueii oe?ieee e?oa no?oeoo?: Ana?inneeneea nuacaeu Niaaoia, AOeEE,
NIE, ioaeaeueiua ia?eiiaou, ianoiua Niaaou, a a ?yaea neo/aaa e
iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee, a /anoiinoe, i?ionithcu aeoeaii o/anoaiaaee a
nicaeaiee ii?i o?oaeiaiai i?aaa. Yoi iaoneiaeeaaeinue eae iio?aaiinoyie,
oae e ia?aiia/aeueiie ia ?aca?aie/aiiinoueth eiiiaoaioeee oeaio?aeueiuo
e ianoiuo i?aaiia.

Nouanoaaiiuo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo caeiiii e aaaeiinoaaiiui ii?iaoeaiui aeoii
a oio ia?eiae ia i?iniao?eaaeinue. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou oiaaea
iacuaaeenue ii-?aciiio: aeae?aou, iinoaiiaeaiey, aeaeea?aoeee e o.i.
Iiiaea aeou aaiaeeeenue a aeaenoaea ii oaeaa?aoo.

Aeaeaa oeaeaniia?acii ?anniio?aoue i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey iniiaiuo
io?aneae niaaoneiai i?aaa. Iiiaea ii?iaoeaiua aeou a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa
th?eaee/anee ioi?ieyee iaoeeiiaeecaoeeth, o.a. ia?aoiae caiee e aa
iaae?, aaieia, i?aaei?eyoee e ae?. a nianoaaiiinoue ainoaea?noaa. A
?acoeueoaoa noa?a /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe a?aaeaeai e aeiaiai?iua
ioiioaiey nie?auaeenue. Caeiiu i?anaeaee oaeaea naeaeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia
?ani?iaeaaeo e ?acaeaeaiea e?oiiie nianoaaiiinoe n oeaeueth ecaaaeaoue
aa iaoeeiiaeecaoeee. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie, ia?aoaaeoeie a
nianoaaiiinoue ainoaea?noaa, no?ieeenue a iniiaiii ia aaeieieno?aoeaiii,
a ia ia a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa.

Aeae?ao AOeEE “Ia ioiaia ianeaaeiaaiey” io 27 ai?aey 1918 a. ioiaiee
ianeaaeiaaiea eiouanoaa noieiinoueth nauoa 10 oun. ?oaeae eae ii caeiio,
oae e ii caaauaieth. Eioa?anu iniiaiie /anoe ianaeaiey yoio aeae?ao ia
cao?aaeaae, iineieueeo noieiinoue aai eiouanoaa ia i?aauoaea yoie noiiu.
?aaeueii aea aeae?ao ioiaiee ianeaaeiaaiea ao?aeoaciie /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, ii ia o?oaeiaie. Ianeaaeieeai ia?aoiaeeei eiouanoai ia
aieaa 10 oun. ?oaeae. Inoaeueiia noaiiaeeinue iauanoaaiiui aeinoiyieai.

Iniaui aeae?aoii cai?auaeinue aea?aiea eee anyeay ia?aaea/a eiouanoaa ia
noiio aieaa 10 oun. ?oaeae. Aeey ni?aaee: i?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi oiaaea
ii?aaeaeyeny a 240 ?oa. a ianyoe. Iaeuecy auei ia?aaeaaaoue ii
ianeaaenoao e aaoi?neea i?aaa. A yoeo ia?aie/aieyo i?iyaeeenue iiiuoee
caeiiiaeaoaey eae-oi eneeth/eoue aiciiaeiinoue iao?oaeiaiai iaiaauaiey.

Eae naiinoiyoaeueiay e iiaay io?aneue oi?ie?oaony o?oaeiaia i?aai, a
ii?iao eioi?iai io?aaeaeenue ia?enenoneea aicc?aiey ia o?oaeiaua
ioiioaiey. Oaea 29 ieoya?y 1917 a. NIE i?eiye iinoaiiaeaiea “I
ainueie/aniaii ?aai/ai aeia, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe e ?ani?aaeaeaiee
?aai/aai a?aiaie”. Yoio aeo onoaiaaeeaae 8-/aniaie ?aai/ee aeaiue aeey
anao eeoe, caiyouo ?aaioie ii iaeio. ?aai/ay iaaeaey ia aeieaeia auea
i?aauoaoue 46 /ania. Cai?auaeny ii/iie o?oae aeaiuei e iiae?inoeia aei
16 eao. Naa?oo?i/iua ?aaiou iiea/eaaeenue a aeaieiii ?acia?a.

A aeaeaa?a oiai aea aiaea aeae?aoii AOeEE aaaaeaii nioeeaeueiia
no?aoiaaiea. A ai?aea 1918 a. NIE aaae iiea/eaaaiua ioionea. A oeaeyo
eeeaeaeaoeee ia?aceoe/aneeo neiaa e iaeeaeaiey yeiiiieee a yiaa?a 1918
a. auea aaaaeaia anaiauay o?oaeiaay iiaeiiinoue aeey eeoe io 16 aei 50
eao.

A aeaeaa?a 1918 a. i?eiyo ia?aue Eiaeaen caeiiia i o?oaea (ECIO). Ii
iiae?iaii ?aaoee?iaae o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey e naycaiiua n ieie
nioeeaeueiua i?aaa (ii?iu i o?oaeiaie iiaeiiinoe, i ia?aaiaea e
oaieueiaiee o?oaeyueony, i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ca o?oae, ia io?aia o?oaea e
o.ae.) ECIO aeaenoaiaae eae ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo, oae e ia /anoiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo. Eiaeaen caiaiye nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea nioeeaeueiui
iaania/aieai ec oiiaeia ainoaea?noaa. ?acoiaaony, ia/aaoayny
a?aaeaeaineay aieia ia?aie/eaaea ?aaeecaoeeth ii?i ECIO-a.

Naiaeiia i?aai oaeaea noaei oi?ie?iaaoueny eae naiinoiyoaeueiay
io?aneue. Aeae?aou AOeEE e NIE “I a?aaeaeaineii a?aea, i aeaoyo e
aaaeaiee eiea aeoia ninoiyiey” e “I ?anoi?aeaiee a?aea” (aeaeaa?ue 1917
a.) niaea?aeaee aaaeiua iiaua ii?iu, ?aaoee?othuea noa?o naiaeiuo
ioiioaiee. Ainoaea?noai i?eciaaaei eeoue a?aaeaeaineee a?ae, a
oea?eiaiue a?ae iauyaeyeny /anoiui i?aaii noi?oaia. Onoaiaaeeaaeenue
i?eioeeiu aeia?iaieueiinoe anooieaiey a a?ae e ?aaiii?aaey noi?oaia e
iiiiaaiiay oi?ia a?aea. Oaia?ue aeey anooieaiey a a?ae ia o?aaiaaeinue
niaeaney ?iaeeoaeae eee ia/aeuenoaa, ia eiaea cia/aiea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue
e nineiaeth, ?ana, ?aeeaee. Aeey ioae/ei a?a/iue aic?ano aue onoaiiaeai
– 18 eao, aeey aeaiuei – 16. Aiaa?a/iua aeaoe o?aaieaaeenue n a?a/iuie a
i?aaao e iaycaiiinoyo. Aaiaeeeny naiaiaeiue ?acaiae (/a?ac noae eee
caan).

16 naioya?y 1918 a. AOeEE i?eiye “Eiaeaen caeiiia ia aeoao
a?aaeaeaineiai ninoiyiey, a?a/iii, naiaeiii e iiaeoineii i?aaa”. Yoio
eiaeaen aue ia?aui a enoi?ee niaaoneiai i?aaa. Ii aieaa iiae?iaii
?aaoee?iaae naiaeii-a?a/iua ioiioaiey. A /anoiinoe, iiae?iaiae
?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe noi?oaia: a?ae ia nicaeaaae
iauiinoe eiouanoaa noi?oaia, ia?aiaia ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa noi?oaa ia
nicaeaaaea aeey ae?oaiai iaycaiiinoe neaaeiaaoue ca iei, noi?oae iiaee
anooiaoue iaaeaeo niaie ai ana eiouanoaaiii aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey e
o.ae.

Caeioa?aniaaiiui eeoeai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai aeieacuaaoue eee
inia?eaaoue iooeianoai noaeaaiui ii?yaeeii. Eiaeaen ia aeiioneae
onuiiaeaiey ie naieo, ie /oaeeo aeaoae, iianaynue eo yenieoaoaoeee ni
noi?iiu onuiiaeoaeae. Oaeei ia?acii, eiaeaen, oi?acaeiea ?yae
oaiaeaeueiuo i?aaee, onoaiiaee aieaa oeeaeeeciaaiiua ii?iu naiaeiuo
ioiioaiee. Aeaiiue eiaeaen oe?iei eniieueciaaeny ae?oaeie ?anioaeeeaie
i?e nicaeaiee naiaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a naiaeii-a?a/iie noa?a.

Oaieiaiia i?aai n iiaaaeie Ieoya?y ia iiaei ia iiaeaa?aaoueny ei?aiiui
eciaiaieyi. I?aaeaea anaai, eiiaeenue iniiaiua iiiyoey e einoeooou
noa?iai oaieiaiiai i?aaa. Anee aei ?aaiethoeee i?anooieaieai n/eoaeinue
i?inoi anyeia ia?ooaiea caeiia, oi oaia?ue a iiiyoea i?anooieaiey
aeeth/aeanue iauanoaaiiay iianiinoue aeayiey. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
i?anooiiui n/eoaeinue ana, /oi a?aaeeei eioa?anai ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi,
aeaeo ?aaiethoeee (caaiai?u, iyoaaee, naaioaae, iia?iiu, ia?iaea?noai e
i?.)

Ai acaeyaeao ia iaeacaiea noaea ioi?ieyoueny eaeay ni/aoaiey
i?eioaeaeaiey n oaaaeaeaieai. Niioaaonoaaiii eciaieeny ia?a/aiue
iaeacaiee. Oaia?ue i?eiaiyeenue e oaeea iaeacaiey, eae iauanoaaiiia
ii?eoeaiea, iauyaeaiea aeiiaiiai a?aaii ia?iaea, i?eioaeaeaiea e
iaycaoaeueiui iauanoaaiiui ?aaioai e ae?.

Nia?oiay eaciue eae aunoay ia?a iaeacaiey auea ainnoaiiaeaia eaoii 1918
a. ii aeaeai, i?ioiaeyuei /a?ac o?eaoiae. Ia i?aeoeea aunoae ia?ie auei
eeoaiea naiaiaeu, /aua anaai io naie aeiae aei iaeiiai aiaea. Oieueei
aaniie 1918 a. aue onoaiiaeai aunieee n?ie eeoaiey naiaiaeu – ia ieaea
10 eao.

Ecaanoiay iyaeinoue nenoaiu iaeacaiee auoaeaea ec i?aaenoaaeaiee (a
/ai-oi iaeaiuo), /oi n ono?aiaieai eaieoaeecia i?anooiiinoue eeoeony
naiae iaoa?eaeueiie iniiau – /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Oa?aeoa?ia aeey
yoiai ia?eiaea e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue naieoeee, eiaaea aianoi onoaiiaeaiey
eiie?aoiuo ia? iaeacaiey oeacuaaeinue ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue “ea?aoue
aeiiaiuo ii anae no?iainoe ?aaiethoeeiiiuo caeiiia”, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue
“aaeaieyie ?aaiethoeeiiiie niaanoe” e o.i.

Aianoa n oai yoio ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeoeaiui caeiiioai?/anoaii a
oaieiaii-i?aaiaie noa?a. E eiioeo ethey 1918 a. auei i?eiyoi 40
oaieiaii-i?aaiauo aeae?aoia e 69 aeoia ia ioaeaeueiuo i?anooieaieyo.
Auee naeaeaiu i?iaeoeoeaiua iiiuoee noi?ioee?iaaoue ninoaau
i?anooieaiee, ioianaiiuo e eiiiaoaioeee o?eaoiaeia, ?ane?uoue
niaea?aeaiea iiiyoea “eiio??aaiethoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue”.

Iniaaiiinoue aeaenoaey oaieiaiiai i?aaa yoiai ia?eiaea – aiciiaeiinoue
i?eaea/ue e noaeo ?aao?eaoiaea i?iaieaoi?ia, inaaaeiieoaeae eee eiuo
neoaeaueo noa?iai ?aaeeia, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo aei 1917 a. i?eiineea
a?aae ?aaiethoeeiiiiio aeaeaeaieth. Iaeiaei aeey yoiai o?aaiaaeinue
anyeee ?ac niaoeeaeueiia iinoaiiaeaiea ianoiiai Niaaoa. Oi?iaeueii a
yoie /anoe caeiio i?eaeaaaeanue ia?aoiay neea. Ii nooe yoi auea
i?aaaioeaiay ia?a n oeaeueth iaaca?aaeeoue iioaioeeaeueiiai i?ioeaieea.

Oaeei ia?acii a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae ia/aee neeaaeuaaoueny iniiaiua
io?anee niaaoneiai i?aaa, ninoaaeaoea a iineaaeothuai iiaoth i?aaiaoth
nenoaio. I?aaiaia no?ieoaeuenoai i?ioiaeeei iaeiia?aiaiii n eiieie
noa?iai ainaiia?aoa, n auoaniaieai i?aaeieo i?aaiauo ii?i.
Aani?aoeaaeaioiinoue caaea/ e ino?aeoay iieeoe/aneay e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey a no?aia iaoneiaeea eeanniaue
oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee a ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie noa?a. Iaeiaei yoi ia
eneeth/aei e aeoaieee aeaiie?aoeci i?aia?aciaaiee, e eo oai?/aneoth
nouiinoue, e iaeioi?oth iaeaiinoue, e ?aaiethoeeiiiue ?iiaioeci.

4. Nicaeaiea e ?acaeoea niaaoneie nenoaiu i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo e
?ai?anneaiuo i?aaiia (1917-1920 aa.).

Iiya?ueneee 1917 a. Aeae?ao NIE – Aeae?ao i noaea N1 oi?acaeiee ana
aei?aaiethoeeiiiua noaeaaiua i?aaiu, i?ieo?aoo?o, aaeaieaoo?o, einoeooo
noaeaaiuo neaaeiaaoaeae. Acaiai nicaeaaaeenue ianoiua eieeaaeaeueiua
noaeu, ninoiyuea ec iinoiyiiiai noaeuee e aeaoo i/a?aaeiuo ia?iaeiuo
canaaeaoaeae. Ninoaa noaea ecae?aeny ianoiuie niaaoaie. Iaaeieoaeyie,
caueoieeaie e iiaa?aiiuie a noaea iiaee auoue ethaua eeoea,
iieuecothueany a?aaeaeaineeie i?aaaie. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea
inouanoaeyee noaeuee aaeeiiee/ii. Eannaoeeiiiuie einoaioeeyie,
?anniao?eaaaoeie ia anooieaoea a caeiiioth neeo i?eaiai?u e ?aoaiey
ieaeanoiyueo ianoiuo noaeia, auee oacaeiua e noiee/iua nuacaeu ianoiuo
noaeae. Anee auoanoiyuee noae onoaiiaee iai?aaeeueiinoue i?iaaaeaiiiai
neaaenoaey, ia?ooaiey i?ioeannoaeueiuo ii?i, iani?aaaaeeeainoue
i?eaiai?a eee ionoonoaea ninoaaa i?anooieaiey a aeayiee inoaeaeaiiiai,
aeaei iiaei auoue aica?auaii ia iiaia ?anniio?aiea, a i?eaiai? ioiaiai
eee eciaiai a noi?iio niya/aiey iaeacaiey. A oaa?aea 1918a. AOeEE i?eiye
iiaue Aeae?ao i noaea N 2, ?anoe?eaoee iiaenoaeiinoue ianoiuo noaeia.
Iiaie einoaioeeae noaee ie?oaeiua noaeu. Aeae?ao ainnicaeaaae
neaaenoaaiiua eiiennee i?e ie?oaeiuo noaeao, ecae?aaiua ianoiuie
niaaoaie. Nicaeaaaeenue eieeaaee i?aaicanooiieeia, /eaiu eioi?uo
iiaeaea?aeeaaee iaaeiaiea e inouanoaeyee caueoo a noaea. Ec-ca ai?ueau n
eaauie yna?aie, eiaaoeie na?ueaciia aeeyiea a noaeaaiie noa?a, e
iaaeiaa?ey e noa?ui th?enoai inaiueth 1918a. auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu
ie?oaeiua noaeu. A ethea 1918a. NIE i?eiye Aeae?ao i noaea N 3, aeaeaa
?anoe?yaoee eiiiaoaioeeth ianoiuo noaeia (enee aei aeanyoe ouny/ ?oaeae,
iaeacaiey aei iyoe eao eeoaiey naiaiaeu). Neaaenoaaiiua eiiennee
ia?aiiae/eiyeenue ianoiui niaaoai. Eannaoeeiiiua aeaeiau ?anniao?eaaee
niaaou ianoiuo ia?iaeiuo noaeae, noi?ie?iaaiiua ec iinoiyiiuo noaeae
ieaeanoiyueo noaeia. A Iineaa nicaeaaaeny Eannaoeeiiiue noae. A eiioea
iiya?y 1918a. AOeEE ooaa?aeee Iieiaeaiea i ia?iaeiii noaea.
O/?aaeaeaeanue aaeeiay oi?ia noaea -ia?iaeiue noae, ninoiyaoee ec
iaeiiai ia?iaeiiai noaeuee e ianeieueeeo (aeaoo eee oanoe) canaaeaoaeae.
Caueoo e iaaeiaiea inouanoaeyee eieeaaee i?e oacaeiuo e aoaa?ineeo
eniieeiiao. *eaiu eieeaaee auee aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie. Aeae?ao i noaea
N 1 o/?aaeaeae ia?aeeaeueii n ianoiuie noaeaie iniaua noaeu “aeey
ai?ueau eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo nee” – ?aaiethoeeiiiua o?eaoiaeu. Aeae?ao i
?aaiethoeeiiiuo o?eaoiaeao aue i?eiyo NIE a iaa 1918a., i?aaeienuaae
nio?aiaiea ?aao?eaoiaeia oieueei a e?oiiuo oeaio?ao e eo oi?acaeiaiea a
eiuo ianoao. Eannaoeeiiiue ioaeae i?e AOeEE ?anniao?eaae aeaeiau e
i?ioanou ia i?eaiai?u ianoiuo o?eaoiaeia (ethiue 1918a). Iieiaeaiea i
?aao?eaoiaeao 1919a. cae?aieei ianeieueei io?aneaauo aeaeia yoeo
i?aaiia: aiaiii-iieaaua noaeu, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua o?eaoiaeu. Onei?aiiia
noaeii?iecaiaenoai, i?aai i?eiaiaiey aunoae ia?u iaeacaiey, naiaiaea a
auai?a ia? oaieiaiie ?ai?annee – ana yoi i?eaeaaaei oa?aeoa?
/?acau/aeiinoe yoei noaeaaiui i?aaiai.

E i?aaiai /?acau/aeiie thnoeoeee ioiineeenue oaeaea aianoaeaaiua i?aaiu
?ai?annee. 7 aeaeaa?y 1917a. NIE i?eiye iinoaiiaeaiea ia ia?aciaaiee
Ana?inneeneie *?acau/aeiie eiiennee i?e Niaia?eiia ii ai?ueaa n
eiio??aaiethoeeae e naaioaaeai. N ia?oa 1918a. ia/eiaaony oi?ie?iaaiea
ianoiuo /?acau/aeiuo eiiennee, iiae/eiaiiuo A*E. Ei i?aaeinoaaeyeinue
eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia i?iecaiaenoai a?anoia, iauneia, ?aeaeceoeee e
eiioeneaoeee. “Iieiaeaiea i A*E e ianoiuo *E”, ooaa?aeaeaii AOeEE a
ieoya?a 1918a. *eaiu *E iacia/aeenue e iocuaaeenue eniieeiiaie ianoiuo
niaaoia. Ii aa?oeeaee ianoiua *E iiae/eiyeenue A*E. A a?iee e oeioa a
eiioea 1918a. nicaeaaaeenue iniaua ioaeaeu A*E, a oaa?aea 1918a. AOeEE
i?eiye Iieiaeaiea ia iniauo ioaeaeao A*E. Ii ieii/aiee neaaenoaey *E ia
ia?aaeaaaee aeaea a o?eaoiaeu, a naie ?anniao?eaaee eo ii nouanoao e
ii?aaeaeyee ia?u iaeacaiey. Noieue oe?ieea iieiiii/ey A*E e ianoiua *E
iieo/eee a ia?eiae n naioya?y 1918a. aei oaa?aey 1919a., ecaanoiue eae
ia?eiae “e?aniiai oa??i?a”. A oaa?aea 1919a. i?aai auiineoue i?eaiai?u
ii aeaeai, i?iaiaeeiui *E, i?aaeinoaaeyeinue ?aao?eaoiaeai. Ia ieo aea
aiceaaaeanue iaycaiiinoue i?iaa?youe neaaenoaaiiua aeaenoaey *E. Aeey
ai?ueau n oeuaieyie, niaeoeyoeeae, iiaeeiaaie, ceioiio?aaeaieyie ii
aeieaeiinoe a oicyenoaaiiuo e ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo i?aaiao a ieoya?a
1919a. i?e A*E nicaeaaony Iniaue ?aaiethoeeiiiue O?eaoiae. A iaa 1920a.
a nayce n iaino?eaoaeny aiaiiie e iieeoe/aneie neooaoeeae AOeEE aiiaue
?anoe?yao i?aaa i?aaiia A*E. ?aai/ay ieeeoeey aicieeea a oiaea
i?iaaaeaiey aii?oaeaiiiai ainnoaiey a Iao?ia?aaea. Ianoiua oi?aaeaiey
ieeeoeee iaoiaeeeenue a aeaieiii iiae/eiaiee IEAAe e ianoiuo eniieeiiia
niaaoia. I?e Aeaaiii oi?aaeaiee ieeeoeee nicaeaaaeinue Oeaio?aeueiia
oi?aaeaiea oaieiaiiai ?icunea. Ieeeoeey eiaea noaoon /anoae iniaiai
iacia/aiey i?e eniieueciaaiee aa a aiaauo aeaenoaeyo. A ia?eiae
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu aeey “ecieyoeee a?aaeaeaaiuo yeaiaioia”
nicaeaaaeenue eaaa?y i?eioaeeoaeueiuo ?aaio IEAAe e A*E.

5. Oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea niaaoneie noaeaaiie nenoaiu (1917-1920 aa.)

1. Aeae?ao i noaea ? 1

2. Aeae?ao i noaea ? 2

3. Aeae?ao i noaea ? 3

4. ?aaiethoeeiiiua o?eaoiaeu

1. Oi?ie?iaaiea iiaie noaeaaiie nenoaiu ia/aeinue n Aeae?aoa i noaea ?
1, i?eiyoiai NIE 22 iiya?y 1917 a. Yoei aeae?aoii oi?acaeiyeenue ana
aei?aaiethoeeiiiua noaeaaiua i?aaiu, nicaeaiiua noaeaaiie ?aoi?iie
1864a.: ie?oaeiua e noaeaaiua iaeaou, i?aaeoaeuenoaothuee naiao,
aiaiiua, ii?neea e eiiia?/aneea noaeu. Eeeaeaee?iaaeenue i?ieo?aoo?a,
aaeaieaoo?a, einoeooo noaeaaiuo neaaeiaaoaeae.

Ia eo ianoa nicaeaaaeanue iiaay noaeaaiay nenoaia. Ia?aui caaiii yoie
nenoaiu auee ianoiua noaeu, ninoiyaoea ec iinoiyiiiai noaeuee e aeaoo
i/a?aaeiuo ia?iaeiuo canaaeaoaeae. Noaeu aeaenoaiaaee ia i?eioeeiao
auai?iinoe e o/anoey ianaeaiey a ioi?aaeaiee i?aainoaeey.. Ninoaa noaea
ecae?aeny ianoiuie Niaaoaie.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea inouanoaeyee aaeeiiee/ii noaeuee, oai naiui
ia?ooaeny i?eioeei ioaeaeaiey neaaenoaey io noaea.

Iaaeieoaeyie, caueoieeaie e iiaa?aiiuie a noaea iiaee auoue ethaua
eeoea, iieuecothueany a?aaeaeaineeie i?aaaie.

A ea/anoaa eannaoeeiiiuo einoaioeee, ?anniao?eaaaoeo ia anooieaoea a
caeiiioth neeo i?eaiai?u e ?aoaiey ieaeanoiyueo ianoiuo noaeia,
aunooiaee oacaeiua e noiee/iua nuacaeu ianoiuo noaeae.

Ianoiua noaeu ?aoaee aeaea eiaiai ?inneeneie ?anioaeeee, a naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe iie aeieaeiu auee ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny aeae?aoaie AOeEE,
NIE, iieiaeaieyie iieeoe/aneeo i?ia?aii ia?oee aieueoaaeeia e eaauo
yna?ia, a oaeaea caeiiaie naa?aioouo i?aaeoaeuenoa, anee oa ia
i?ioeai?a/ao onoaiiaeaiiui ii?iai e i?eioeeiai. A iiya?a 1918 a.
aeae?aoii NIE nnueee ia noa?ua caeiiu auee cai?auaiu.

2. 15 oaa?aey 1918a. aue i?eiyo Aeae?ao i noaea ? 2. Aeaaiua iieiaeaiey
yoiai aeieoiaioa naiaeeeenue e ?anoe?aieth iiaenoaeiinoe ianoiuo noaeia
e ia?aciaaieth iiaie noaeaaiie einoaioeee — ie?oaeiuo noaeia.

Ie?oaeiua noaeu auiineee ?aoaiey ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai a ninoaaa o?ao
iinoiyiiuo /eaiia e /aou?ao ia?iaeiuo canaaeaoaeae, i?eaiai?u ii
oaieiaiui aeaeai — a ninoaaa aeaaiaaeoeaoe canaaeaoaeae iiae
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii iinoiyiiiai /eaia noaea. Canaaeaoaee i?eieiaee
?aoaiea eae i oaeoa i?anooieaiey, oae e i ia?a iaeacaiey.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea i?iaiaeeee ninoiyaoea i?e ie?oaeiuo noaeao
neaaenoaaiiua eiiennee ec o?ao /aeiaae, ecae?aaiua ianoiuie Niaaoaie.

Nicaeaaaeenue eieeaaee i?aaicanooiieeia, /eaiu eioi?uo iiaeaea?aeeaaee
iaaeiaiea e inouanoaeyee caueoo a noaea.

A noaea aeiioneaeinue noaeiaiai?aiea ia ianoiuo ycueao.

I?aaeiieaaaeinue nicaeaiea iaeanoiuo noaeia, iaeiaei yoe i?aaiu ia auee
noi?ie?iaaiu a neeo iieeoe/aneeo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Ii oai aea i?e/eiai
inaiueth 1918 a. ie?oaeiua noaeu auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu.

Ioiaiyeny aiaeeyoeeiiiue ii?yaeie iaaeaeiaaiey, ii aeae?aoo aeiioneaeny
oieueei eannaoeeiiiue ii?yaeie.

3. 13ethey 1918 a. NIE aue i?eiyo Aeae?ao i noaea ?3. Yoei aeoii
cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yeanue eiiiaoaioeey ianoiuo noaeia. Neaaenoaaiiua
eiiennee ia?aaeaaaeenue a iiae/eiaiea ianoiui Niaaoai. Eannaoeeiiiua
aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey e i?eaiai?u ianoiuo ia?iaeiuo noaeia ?anniao?eaaee
Niaaou ianoiuo ia?iaeiuo noaeae, noi?ie?iaaiiua ec iinoiyiiuo noaeae
ieaeanoiyueo noaeia. AEaeiau ia ?aoaiey e i?eaiai?u ie?oaeiuo noaeia
?anniao?eaaeenue a eannaoeeiiiii noaea a Iineaa.

A iiya?a 1918a. AOeEE ooaa?aeee Iieiaeaiea i ia?iaeiii noaea ?NON?.
O/?aaeaeaeanue aaeeiay oi?ia noaea — ia?iaeiue noae, ninoiyaoee ec
iaeiiai ia?iaeiiai noaeuee e ianeieueeeo canaaeaoaeae.

Caueoa e iaaeiaiea auee aiceiaeaiu ia eieeaaee i?e oacaeiuo e aoaa?ineeo
eniieeiiao, ecae?aaiua Niaaoaie. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea
inouanoaeyee neaaenoaaiiua eiiennee, ieeeoeey eee naie noaeuee.

4. Aeae?aoii i noaea ? 1 ia?yaeo n ianoiuie noaeaie o/?aaeaeaeenue
?aaiethoeeiiiua o?eaoiaeu.

I?ioeann ia?aciaaiey ?aaiethoeeiiiuo o?eaoiaeia iia?aaeae i?ioeann
nicaeaiey ianoiuo noaeia. Iiyoiio ia ia?auo ii?ao ei i?eoeinue
?anniao?eaaoue ana oaieiaiua e aeaaea a?aaeaeaineea aeaea.
?aaiethoeeiiiua o?eaoiaeu ninoiyee ec i?aaenaaeaoaey e oanoe
canaaeaoaeae, ecae?aaiuo Niaaoaie. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea
inouanoaeyee iniaua neaaenoaaiiua eiiennee.

N nicaeaieai ianoiuo noaeia e a niioaaonoaee n Aeae?aoii NIE io 4 iay
1918 a. «I ?aaiethoeeiiiuo o?eaoiaeao» o?eaoiaeu inaiaiaeaeaeenue io
iiiaeo oaieiaiuo aeae e aeieaeiu auee iai?aaeoue naie oneeey ia ai?ueao
n eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuie i?anooieaieyie.

A ethia 1918 a. i?e AOeEE o/?aaeaeaaony Eannaoeeiiiue ioaeae, eioi?ue
?anniao?eaae eannaoeeiiiua aeaeiau e i?ioanou ia i?eaiai?u
?aaiethoeeiiiuo o?eaoiaeia. A 1922 a. ?aaiethoeeiiiua o?eaoiaeu auee
eeeaeaee?iaaiu.

6. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai e nenoaia i?aainoaeey ii Eiinoeoooeee
?NON? 1918 a.

No?oeoo?a Eiinoeoooeee ?NON?

2. Nioeeaeueiay e iieeoe/aneay iniiaa ainoaea?noaaiiinoe

3. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai ?NON?

4. I?aaiu aeanoe

5. Ecae?aoaeueiay nenoaia

1. 10 ethey 1918 a. ia V Ana?inneeneii nuacaea Niaaoia auea i?eiyoa
ia?aay niaaoneay Eiinoeoooeey e eca?ai iiaue ninoaa AOeEE. 19 ethey 1918
a. n iiiaioa iioaeeeiaaiey a «Ecaanoeyo

AOeEE» Eiinoeoooeey anooieea a aeaenoaea. Eiinoeoooeey ?NON? ninoiyea ec
oanoe ?acaeaeia:

I. Aeaeea?aoeey i?aa o?oaeyuaainy e yenieoaoe?oaiiai ia?iaea.

II. Iauea iieiaeaiey Eiinoeoooeee ?NON?.

III. Eiino?oeoeey Niaaoneie aeanoe.

IV. Aeoeaiia e ianneaiia ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai.

V. Athaeaeaoiia i?aai.

VI: I aa?aa e oeaaa ?NON?.

2. No. 1 e 9 Eiinoeoooeee ?NON? ii?aaeaeyee iieeoe/aneoth iniiao
ainoaea?noaa — nenoaia Niaaoia ?aai/eo, nieaeaoneeo e e?anoueyineeo
aeaiooaoia e nioeeaeueioth iniiao — aeeeoaoo?a i?ieaoa?eaoa a oi?ia
?anioaeeee Niaaoia.

A Iniiaiii caeiia iaoee io?aaeaiea aaaeiaeoea yeiiiie/aneea
i?aia?aciaaiey Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa: iaoeeiiaeecaoeey eania, caiee,
iaae?, o?ainii?oa, aaieia e i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

3. Eiinoeoooeey cae?aieea oaaea?aoeaiue i?eioeei ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa ?NON? (no. 11), noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee auee iaoeeiiaeueiua
?anioaeeee. I?aaeoniao?eaaeinue oaeaea nicaeaiea iaeanoiuo nithcia,
ninoiyueo ec ianeieueeeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaeanoae, aoiaeyueo a ?NON? ia
ia/aeao oaaea?aoeee.

4. O?aoee ?acaeae Eiinoeoooeee cae?aieye nenoaio i?aaiia aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey. Aunoei i?aaiii aeanoe iauyaeyeny Ana?inneeneee nuacae
Niaaoia ?aai/eo, nieaeaoneeo e e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia, a a ia?eiae
iaaeaeo nuacaeaie — ecae?aaiue ei Ana?inneeneee Oeaio?aeueiue
Eniieieoaeueiue Eiieoao (AOeEE).

AOeEE yaeyeny aunoei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui, ?anii?yaeeoaeueiui e
eiio?iee?othuei i?aaiii. AOeEE oi?ie?iaae I?aaeoaeuenoai ?NON? — Niaao
Ia?iaeiuo Eiienna?ia. A ninoaa NIE aoiaeeei 18 io?aneaauo ia?iaeiuo
eiienna?eaoia, aicaeaaeyaiuo ia?iaeiuie eiienna?aie. NIE oaeaea
iaaeaeyeny caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie iieiiii/eyie.

I?aaiaie aeanoe ia ianoao yaeyeenue iaeanoiua, aoaa?ineea, oacaeiua e
aieinoiua nuacaeu Niaaoia, ai?iaeneea e naeueneea Niaaou, eioi?ua
ecae?aee naie eniieieoaeueiua eiieoaou. Ianoiua Niaaou iaeaaeaee anae
iieiioie aeanoe i?e ?aoaiee ianoiuo aii?inia.

5. Eiinoeoooeeae cae?aieyeanue neaaeothuay ecae?aoaeueiay nenoaia. A
auai?ao o/anoaiaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee oieueei o?oaeyueony nioeeaeueiuo
a?oii. Oaeei ia?acii, a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa, a oii /enea e ecae?aoaeueiuo,
auee eeoaiu ieiei 5 iei /aeiaae: eeoea, eniieuecothuea iaaiiue o?oae a
oeaeyo ecaea/aiey i?eauee, /anoiua oi?aiaoeu, iin?aaeieee, aeooiaainoai,
neoaeauea aeaiaea?ia?ee e ae?.

Eiinoeoooeey cae?aieea iiiainooiai/aooth e iai?yioth nenoaio auai?ia a
Niaaou. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyee i?yiua auai?u a naeueneea e ai?iaeneea
Niaaou. Aeaeaaaou iineaaeothueo o?iaiae ecae?aeenue ia niioaaonoaothueo
nuacaeao Niaaoia ia iniiaa i?eioeeiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e
aeaeaae?iaaiey.

I?aaii ecae?aoue e auoue eca?aiiuie a Niaaou iieueciaaeenue o?oaeyueany,
aeinoeaoea 18 eao, iacaaeneii io iiea, iaoeeiiaeueiinoe,
aa?ieniiaaaeaiey e o. ae. ?aai/ea eiaee i?aeiouanoai i?e auai?ao ia?aae
e?anoueyiaie. Ecae?aoaee eiaee i?aai ioicaaoue naiaai aeaiooaoa.

69) Nenoaia i?aaiia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey e ecae?aoaeueiay nenoaia ii
Eiinoeoooeee 1918a.

?acaeae o?aoee “Eiino?oeoeey Niaaoneie aeanoe” iinayuai i?aaiecaoeee e
aeayoaeueiinoe oeaio?aeueiuo e ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe e oae?aaeaiey.
Eiinoeoooeey cae?aieea nenoaio e acaeiiioiioaiey i?aaiia aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey. A iniiao iino?iaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa aue iieiaeai i?eioeei aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
oeaio?aeecia. Aunoei i?aaiii aeanoe a no?aia yaeyeny Ana?inneeneee
nuacae Niaaoia, a a ia?eiae iaaeaeo nuacaeaie – AOeEE. AOeEE ia?aciauaae
Niaao ia?iaeiuo eiienna?ia aeey iauaai oi?aaeaiey no?aiie. Eiinoeoooeey
ii?aaeaeeea eiiiaoaioeeth yoeo i?aaiia, iie iaaeaeyeenue
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie iieiiii/eyie, /oi aeeeoiaaeinue, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
neiaeiie enoi?e/aneie ianoaiiaeie, n ae?oaie – no?aieaieai nicaeaoue
oaeie ?aaioathuee ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao, eioi?ue niaaeeiye au
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua e eniieieoaeueiua ooieoeee e, ii caiuneo aaoi?ia,
ecaaaae io?eoeaoaeueiuo yaeaiee, naienoaaiiuo ao?aeoaciiio
ia?eaiaioa?ecio.

Ia ianoao aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeaea iaeanoiui, aoaa?ineei, oacaeiui,
aieinoiui’ nuacaeai Niaaoia; ai?iaeneei e naeueneei Niaaoai, eioi?ua
ecae?aee eniieieoaeueiua eiieoaou. Ianoiua Niaaou iaeaaeaee anae
iieiioie aeanoe a ?aoaiee naieo ianoiuo aii?inia, aianoa n oai ia ieo
aiceaaaeinue “i?iaaaeaiea a aeeciue anao iinoaiiaeaiee niioaaonoaothueo
aunoeo i?aaiia Niaaoneie aeanoe” (no. 61).

Ecae?aoaueiay nenoaia 64. I?aaii ecae?aoue e auoue eca?aiiuie a Niaaou
iieuecothony iacaaeneii io aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, iaoeeiiaeueiinoe,
inaaeeinoe e o. i. neaaeothuea iaiaai iiea a?aaeaeaia ?N ON ?.

65. Ia ecae?atho e ia iiaoo auoue eca?aiiuie, oioy au iie aoiaeeee a
iaeio ec auoaia?a/eneaiiuo eaoaai?ee:

a) i?eaaaathuea e iaaiiiio o?oaeo n oeaeueth ecaea/aiey i?eauee;

a) aeeaouea ia iao?oaeiaie aeioiae, eae-oi: i?ioeaiou n eaieoaea,
aeioiaeu n i?aaei?eyoee, iinooieaiey n eiouanoaa e o. i.;

a) /anoiua oi?aiaoeu, oi?aiaua e eiiia?/aneea iin?aaeieee;

a) iiiaoe e aeooiaiua neoaeeoaee oea?eaae e ?aeeaeiyiio eoeueoia;

ae) neoaeauea e aaaioue’ auaoae iieeoeeeae;

ae) inoaeaeaiiua

Aeaaa /aou?iaaeoeaoay I I?IECAIAeNOAA AUAI?IA

66. Auai?u i?iecaiaeyony niaeanii onoaiiaeaoeiny iau/ayie, a aeie,
onoaiaaeeaaaiua ianoiuie Niaaoaie.

67. Auai?u i?iecaiaeyony a i?enoonoaee ecae?aoaeueiie eiiennee e
i?aaenoaaeoaey ianoiiai Niaaoa.

68. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?enoonoaea i?aaenoaaeoaey Niaaoa ieacuaaaony
oaoie/anee iaaiciiaeiui, aai caiaiyao i?aaenaaeaoaeue ecae?aoaeueiie
eiiennee, a ca ionoonoaeai oaeiaiai – i?aaenaaeaoaeue ecae?aoaeueiiai
nia?aiey. ,

69. I oiaea e ?acoeueoaoa auai?ia ninoaaeyaony i?ioieie ca iiaeienueth
/eaiia ecae?aoaeueiie eiiennee e i?aaenoaaeoaey Niaaoa. .

70. Iiae?iaiue ii?yaeie i?iecaiaenoaa auai?ia, a ?aaii o/anoea a ieo
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo e eiuo ?aai/eo i?aaiecaoeee ii?aaeaeaony ianoiuie
Niaaoaie niaeaii eino?oeoeee Ana?inneeneiai Oeaio?aeueiiai
Eniieieoaeueiiai Eiieoaoa Niaaoia.

Aeaaa iyoiaaeoeaoay I I?IAA?EA E IOIAIA AUAI?IA E IA IOCUAA AeAIOOAOIA

71. Aanue iaoa?eae ii i?iecaiaenoo auai?ia iinooiaao a niioaaonoaothuee
Niaao.

72. Niaao aeey i?iaa?ee auai?ia iacia/aao iaiaeaoioth eiienneth.

73. I ?acoeueoaoao i?iaa?ee iaiaeaoiay eiienney aeieeaaeuaaao Niaaoo.

74. Niaao ?aoaao aii?in ia ooaa?aeaeaiee nii?iuo/eaiaeeaeaoia.

75. A neo/aa iaooaa?aeaeaiey oiai eee eiiai eaiaeeaeaoa Niaao iacia/aao
iiaua auai?u.

76. A neo/aa iai?aaeeueiinoe auai?ia a oeaeii aii?in ia ioiaia auai?ia
?ac?aoaaony aunoei ii ii?yaeeo i?aaiii Niaaoneie aeanoe.

77. Iineaaeiae einoaioeeae ii eannaoeee niaaoneeo auai?ia yaeyaony
Ana?inneeneee Oeaio?aiueiue Eniieieoaaeueiue Eiieoao Niaaoia.

78. Ecae?aoaee, iineaaoea a Niaao aeaiooaoa, eiatho i?aai ai anyeia
a?aiy ioicaaoue aai e i?iecaanoe iiaua auai?u niaeanii iauaio
iieiaeaieth.

7. Eciaiaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa ?innee a aiaeu a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu

N eiioea 1919a. nannee AOeEE noaee nicuaaoueny /a?ac aeaa ianyoea. N
aeaeaa?y 1920a. I?aceaeeoi AOeEE ioeoeeaeueii iaaeaeyaony
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie i?aaaie. Niaao ?aai/a-E?anoueyineie Iai?iiu (N?EI)
nin?aaeioi/ee a naieo ?oeao anth iieiioo aeanoe a iaeanoe iai?iiu. A
ai?aea 1920a. Niaao ?aai/a-E?anoueyineie Iai?iiu i?aia?acoaony a Niaao
O?oaea e Iai?iiu (NOI), aeaenoaothuee ia i?aaao eiiennee i?e NIE,
aicaeaaeyaiie i?aaenaaeaoaeai NIE. A ninoaa NOI noaee aoiaeeoue
ia?iaeiua eiienna?u (yeiiiie/aneeo ia?eiiaoia) e i?aaenoaaeoaeue AOeNIN.
A oaa?aea 1920a. Ia?eiiao ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey aue i?aia?aciaai a
ia?eiiao ?aai/a-e?anoueyineie einiaeoeee (?EE). ?EE oi?ie?iaaeanue ia
auai?iie iniiaa e ia ianoao iie?aeanue ia y/aeee ?EE. A ?aciethoeee “I
niaaoneii no?ieoaeuenoaa” Ainueiiai nuacaea niaaoia (1920 a.)
ii?aaeaeyeanue i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a aoaa?ineeo e oacaeiuo
eniieeiiia. Ioaeaeu iaoiaeeeenue a aeaieiii iiae/eiaiee: eniieeiio e
niioaaonoaothuaio aaaeiinoao. No?oeoo?a eniieeiiia iiaoi?yea no?oeoo?o
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ia?yaeo n Niaaoaie (/anoi aianoi ieo) nicaeaaaeenue
?aaeiiu. Iie iaaeaeyeenue i?aaaie ?aeaeceoeee eiouanoaa,
i?eioaeeoaeueiiai aunaeaiey, ?aneaa?oe?iaaiey aieineeo /anoae, a oaeaea
ae?oaeie /?acau/aeiuie i?aaaie. Ei i?eiaaeeaaeaea any iieiioa aeanoe ia
ianoao.

A aeaeaa?a 1917 a. NIE i?eiye aeae?aou “I auai?iii ia/aeai ia
i?aaiecaoeee aeanoe a a?iee” e “Ia o?aaiaiee anao aiaiiineoaeaueo a
i?aaao”, ioiaiyaoea aieineea /eiu, caaiey, ciaee ?acee/ey e
i?aeiouanoaa. Any aeanoue ia?aaeaaaeanue nieaeaoneei eiieoaoai e
niaaoai. Eiiaiaee?u ecae?aeenue. A yiaa?a 1918 a. NIE ecaeae aeae?ao “I
nicaeaiee ?aai/a-E?anoueyineie E?aniie A?iee”. Iiaay a?iey
oi?ie?iaaeanue ia iniiaa i?eioeeia aeia?iaieueiinoe. Ai?aeueneei 1918 a.
iinoaiiaeaieai AOeEE ia?aoiaeeee io auai?ia eiiaiaee?ia – e eo
iacia/aieth. A iaa 1918 a. AOeEE i?eiye aeae?ao “I aaaaeaiee anaiauae
aieineie iiaeiiinoe”, i?aaenoaaeoaee “o?oaeyueony” aeieaeiu auee
neoaeeoue n i?oaeeai a ?oeao, “iao?oaeiauo yeaiaioia” – a iano?iaauo
/anoyo. A naioya?a 1918a. ia?acoaony ?aaiethoeeiiiue Aiaiiue Niaao
?anioaeeee (?aaaiainiaao). A E?anioth A?ieth i?ecuaaeinue aieueoia /enei
aiaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia – ioeoea?ia noa?ie a?iee. Aeey eiio?iey ca eo
aeayoaeueiinoueth a ea/anoaa eiiaiaee?ia /anoae e aeey
aaeoaoeeiiii-iieeoe/aneie ?aaiou a /anoyo eniieueciaaeny einoeooo
aiaiiuo eiienna?ia. Iieeoe/anee auee iiaeaaeaiu aunooieaiey “aiaiiie
iiiiceoeee”, caueuaaoae ia?oecaineea e aeia?iaieue/aneea o?aaeeoeee
E?aniie A?iee. A ia?eiaeu ie?iuo ia?aaeuoae ?aaoey?iua /anoe E?aniie
A?iee eniieueciaaeenue a ea/anoaa o?oaeiauo a?iee.

8. *?acau/aeiua i?aaiu a ?innee a ia?eiae a?aaeaeaineie aieiu

9. Aeaeueiaainoi/iay ?anioaeeea eae aooa?iia ainoaea?noai e aa ioiioaiey
n ?NON?

Aeaeueiaainoi/iay ?anioaeeea (AeA?), aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?anioaeeea a
1920—1922 aiaeia a Aino. Neae?e e ia Ae. Ainoiea, nicaeaiiay n oeaeueth
i?aaeioa?aoeoue aiaiiia noieeiiaaiea Nia. ?innee n ssiiieae e
iaania/eoue oneiaey aeey eeeaeaeaoeee eioa?aaioeee e aaeiaaa?aeaeueiu ia
Ae. Ainoiea. A oneiaeyo e?aoa eie/aeiaueiu yna?u e iaiueoaaeee,
aunooiaaoea iiniaieeaie eioa?aaioia, iuoaeenue ia?aciaaoue a Aino.
Neae?e ?oeiaiaeyuee i?aai a oi?ia «Iieeoe/aneiai oeaio?a». Ii eo caiunae
i?iaaeeeny. 22 yia. 1920 aeanoue a E?eoonea ia?aoea a ?oee E?eooneiai
?aaeiia, aicaeaaeyaiiai eiiioienoaie. 7 ia?oa /anoe 5-e nia. a?iee
anooieee a E?eoone. Aeaeueiaeoaa eo i?iaeaeaeaiea e *eoa, aaea
iaoiaeeeenue yiii. eioa?aaiou, iiaei i?eaanoe e aiai. noieeiiaaieth Nia.
?innee n ssiiieae. *oiau ecaaaeaoue yoiai, ii oeacaieth A. E. Eaieia
ianooieaiea auei i?einoaiiaeaii. A ia?oa auei nicaeaii Aeaeueath?i
?EI(a), ia e-?ia OeE ia?oee aiceiaeee ?oeiaiaenoai iiaeaioiaeie e
no?ieoaeuenoaii AeA?. AeA? auea i?iaicaeaoaia 6 ai?. 1920 a
Aa?oiaoaeeinea (Oeai-Oaey) ia O/?aaeeo, nuacaea o?oaeyueony
I?eaaeeaeuey, eca?aaoai A?ai, i?-ai AeA?, ?oeiaiaeyuoth ?ieue a e-?ie
ea?ae ?aai/ee eeann ai aeaaa n eiiia?oeae. Ia?aie a? noieeoeae noae
Aa?oiaoaeeine. A ninoaa AeA? aioee Caaaeeaeueneay, Aio?neay, I?eii?neay,
Eai/aoneay iae. e Naa. Naoaeei. Iaeiaei aaniie 1920 aeanoue AeA?
oaeoe/anee ?ani?ino?aiyeanue eeoue ia oa?. I?eaaeeaeuey. 14 iay 1920
AeA? auea ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaia i?-aii ?NON?, e-?ia noaei ieacuaaoue ae
oeiain., aeeieiiaoe/., oic. e aiai. iiiiuue. A. E. Eaiei oae iauyniee
i?e/eiu ia?aciaaiey AeA?: «…ianoiyoaeuenoaa i?eioaeeee e nicaeaieth
aooa?iiai ainoaea?noaa — a aeaea Aeaeueiaainoi/iie ?anioaeeee… aanoe
aieio n ssiiieae iu ia iiaeai e aeieaeiu ana naeaeaoue aeey oiai, /oiau
iiiuoaoueny ia oieueei ioaeaeeoue aieio n ssiiieae, ii, anee iiaeii,
iaieoenue aac iaa…» (Iiee. nia?. ni/. Ecae. 5-a. O. 42, n. 93). A
ia?oa — ieo. 1920 ia aaca ia?oec. niaaeeiaiee i?e anaia?iie iiiiue ?NON?
auea nicaeaia ?aaoey?iay Ia?iaeii-?iaiethoeeiiiay a?iey (HPA). Iie?aynue
ia iiiiuue Nia. ?innee, i?-ai AeA? iineaaeiaaoaeueii e iaoeeiiii ?aoaei
caaea/o inaiaiaeaeaiey anao iaeanoae Ae. Ainoiea io yiii. eioa?aaioia e
aaeiaaa?aeaeoeaa. I?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii auei canoaaeoue eioa?aaioia
iieeiooue *eoo e a oeaeii Caaaeeaeuea, aaea iiae eo caueoie oe?aieeenue
aaiaeu yiii. noaaeaiieea aoaiaia Nai?iiaa. Ia ia?aaiai?ao, ninoiyaoeony
ia no. Aiiaioa (24 iay—15 ethey), yiii. aeaeaaaoeey auea auioaeaeaia
niaeaneoueny ia yaaeoaoeeth naieo aiene ec Caaaeeaeuey. Yoi yaeeinue
aieueoie aeeieiiaoey, iiaaaeie AeA?, iicaieeaoae I?A ?acaa?iooue
ianooieaiea e a ieo.— iiya. 1920 ?aca?iieoue aaiaeu Nai?iiaa.
Inaiaiaeae?iiay 22 ieo. io aaeiaaa?aeaeoeaa *eoa noaea iiaie noieeoeae
?anioaeeee. Eca?aiiia ia aeaiie?aoe/. ia/aeao O/?aaeeo, nia?aiea AeA?, a
e-?ii aieueoeinoai i?eiaaeeaaeaei eiiioienoai, a ia?eiae naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe (12 oaa?.— 27 ai?. 1921) i?eiyei Eiinoeoooeeth AeA?,
io?aceaooth iniaaiiinoe a? iieeoe/. no?iy. A ea/anoaa i?aaia aa?o,
aeanoe O/?aaeeo, nia?aiea eca?aei i?aaeoaeuenoai ai aeaaa n eiiioienoii
A. I. E?aniiu?eiaui, eniieieoaeueii-?anii?yaeeo. i?aaiii noae Nia. Iei.
iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii eiiioienoa I. I. Ieeeoi?iaa. A aaa. 1920
Aeaeueath?i ?EI(a) auei i?aia?aciaaii a Aeaeueath?i OeE ?EI(a) aeey
oneeaiey ia?oeeiiiieeoe/. ?oeiaiaenoaa. Iianaynue aeaeueiaeoaai
oe?aieaiey iiceoeee AeA? a I?eii?uea, yiii. eioa?aaiou e aaeiaaa?aeaeoeu
26 iay 1921 naa?aee ai Aeaaeeainoiea ia?. aeanoue e nicaeaee
ia?eiiaoi/iia ao?ae. i?-ai. Ia/aaoeany 26 aaa. 1921 ia?aaiai?u iaaeaeo
AeA? e ssiiieae ia o?aaoee?iaaiee ioiioaiee naaioe?iaaeenue yiii. i?-aii
(ni. Aeae?aineay eiioa?aioeey 1921—22). A iiya. 1921 ia/aeinue
ianooieaiea o. i. Aaeiiianoai/aneie a?iee, e-?ay 22 aeae. caoaaoeea
Oaaa?iane. A yoie neiaeiie ianoaiiaea NIE ?NON? e OeE ?EI(a) i?iaaee
ia?ii?eyoey ii oe?aieaieth ia?o, e ain. ?oeiaiaenoaa e iai?iiu AeA?.
Aianoi E?aniiu?eiaa i?-ai aicaeaaee I. I. Iaoaaaa, aiai. ieieno?ii aue
iacia/ai A. E. Aethoa?. A oaa?. 1922 I?A iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai A. E.
Aethoa?a ia?aoea a eiio?ianooieaiea e ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n ia?oec.
io?yaeaie iaianea aaeiaaa?aeaeoeai nie?ooeo, oaea?u. 12 oaa?. 1922 aaeua
auee ?acaeou o no. Aiei/aaaea (ni. Aiei/aaaneea aie 1922), 14 oaa?.
inaiaiaeae?i Oaaa?iane. Aaeiaaa?aeaeoeu ionooieee ca iaeo?aeueioth ciio
iiae i?ee?uoeai yiii. aiene. Iaeiaei a naio. 1922 iie iiyoue ia?aoee a
ianooieaiea, ii aiiaue auee ?aca?iieaiu I?A. Oe?aieaiea iaaeaeoia?. e
aioo?. iieiaeaiey Nia. ?innee e AeA?, aeeieiiaoe/. ecieyoeey ssiiiee ia
Aaoeiaoiineie eiioa?aioeee 1921 —22 e iaaeiaieuenoai oe?ieeo neiaa a?
ianaeaiey i?iaeieaeaieai aioenia. eioa?aaioeee canoaaeee yiii. i?-ai
yaaeoe?iaaoue naie aienea ec I?eii?uey. 25 ieo. 1922 aienea I?A anooieee
ai Aeaaeeainoie. O?oaeyueany AeA? ia nia?aieyo e ieoeiaao o?aaiaaee
ainniaaeeiaiey n Nia. ?inneae. Au?aaeay aieth ia?iaea, Ia?iaeiia
nia?aiea AeA? 14 iiya. 1922 ia?aoeeinue ai AOeEE n i?inueaie aeeth/eoue
AeA? a ninoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. 15 iiya. 1922 AOeEE iauyaee AeA?
/anoueth ?NON?.

10. I?aia?aciaaiea nenoaiu niaaoneeo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey a ia?eiae iyia.

A ai?iaeao /anoiui eeoeai ?ac?aoaeinue ioe?uaaoue eee a?aoue a a?aiaeo
iaeeea e io/anoe n?aaeiea i?aaei?eyoey (n iay 1921 aiaea).

Auea naeaeaia iiiuoea i?eaea/ue eiino?aiiue eaieoae — a 1920 aiaeo aue
i?eiyo caeii i eiioeanneyo. Nicaeathony niaoeeaeueiua aeoeeiia?iua
i?aaei?eyoey — ?onneea, eiino?aiiua, niaoaiiua. A 1923 aiaeo eiaeinue 24
niaoaiiuo iauanoaa. A ioee/ea io eiioeannee a ieo o/anoaiaae e eaieoae
niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa.

I?iecaaaeaia auea oaeaea ia?ano?ieea oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii,
ineaaeaia aai /?acia?iay oeaio?aeecaoeey. Iauaaeeiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee (o?anou) ia?aoee ia oic?an/ao, naiinoiyoaeueii ?aoaee
aii?inu caaioiaee nu?uey e ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. O?oaeiaua
iiaeeecaoeee caiaiee naiaiaeiue iaai ?aai/ae neeu /a?ac ae?aee o?oaea.
Oi?acaeiyeanue o?aaieoaeueiay iieaoa o?oaea, aianoi iaa aaiaeeeanue
ca?aaioiay ieaoa, caaenyuay io eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/aai e eiee/anoaa
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. E 1922 aiaeo a iniiaiii auea ioiaiaia
ea?oi/iay nenoaia. A ieoya?a 1921 aiaea ainnoaiiaeai Ainaaie,
eiio?iee?iaaaoee naoue aiiaue ia?aciaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaiuo aaieia,
e?aaeeoiuo e no?aoiauo oiaa?euanoa. A eiioea 1922 aiaea n auionea
niaaoneiai /a?aiioea ia/eiaeanue aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia. N oiai a?aiaie ii
ia?o 1924 aiaea a ia?auaiee iaeiia?aiaiii aue onoie/eaue /a?aiiaoe e
iaaeathuee niaciae. Iaiai oae a niioiioaiey 1 /a?aiiaoe ia 60 ouny/
niaciaeia (eo?n iaiyeny a caaeneiinoe io iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe
iineaaeieo). E oaa?aeth 1924 aiaea inoaaoeany niaciaee Ainaaie aueoiee o
ianaeaiey. *a?aiiaoe E aue oaa?aeie eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethoie e noiee ia
ie?iaii ?uiea aei 1927 aiaea ieiei 6 aeieea?ia NOA.

Aiaae?yeenue a IyIianeoth yeiiiieeo e yeaiaiou. aeieain?i/iiai
ieaie?iaaiey. Ia?aue oaeie ieai aue iiaeaioiaeai Ainoaea?noaaiiie
eiienneae ii yeaeo?eoeeaoeee ?innee (AIYE?I) i iaeia?ai aua ia VIII
nuacaea Niaaoia a aeaeaa?a 1920 aiaea. A oaa?aea 1921 aiaea auea
o/?aaeaeaia Ainoaea?noaaiiay ieaiiaay eiienney (Ainieai).

8 ia?oa 1921 aiaea O nuacae ia?oee iaeia?ee iinoaiiaeaiea i caiaia
?acaa?noee iaiueoei ii ?acia?o iaeiaii. Caieaaeaeueoeai
i?aaeio|noaaeyeinue i?aai iaiaia inoathueony caiania i?iaeiaieuenoaey,
nu?uey e oo?aaea ia ioaeiua ei i?iaeoeou i?iiuoeaiiiai e
naeueneioicyeaoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A oi aea a?aiy, eae e a 1918 aiaeo
ia ia?aia oeanoi auaeaeaaeny aacaeaiaaeiue oiaa?iiaiai iaaeaeo ai?iaeii
e aea?aaiae /a?ac ainoaea?noaaiiua e eiiia?aoeaiua oi?aiaua o/?aaeaeaiu

A ieoya?a 1922 aiaea aue i?eiyo iiaue Caiaeueiue eiaeaen ?NON?,
e?anoueyia iieo/eee i?aai naiaiaeiiai auoiaea ec iaueiu e auai?a oi?i
caieaiieueciaaiey. ?ac?aoaeenue, oioy e a ia?aie/aiiie ia?a, a?aiaea
caiee e i?eiaiaiea iaaiiiai o?oaea. Ainoaea?noai iiiu?yei ?acaeoea
i?inouo oi?i eiiia?aoeee: iio?aaeoaeueneie, i?iniuneiaie, e?aaeeoiie e
o. ae. Ian/eouaaaony ieiei 50 ?acee/iuo oi?i iauaaeeiaiee. Ia/aei iiaiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i eiiia?aoeee aeiaeee aeae?ao io 7 ai?aey 1921 aiaea.
Ii inaiaiaeaeae eiiia?aoeeth iaiin?aaenoaaiiie iiaee Ia?eiii?iaea, ii
nio?aiye ?oeiaiaenoai iineaaeiaai a /anoe auiieiaiey iaycaoaeueiuo
caaeaiee. E 1927 aiaeo naeueoiceiiia?aoeey ioaaoeea 1/3 anao
e?anoueyineeo aeai?ia.

A oi aea a?aiy i?eaioaoeey ia naea?aeeaaiea e ia?aie/aiea ?uii/iuo e
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee a naeueneii oicyenoaa, oauoi/iinoue e?oiiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iayeaeaaeaioiue iaiai iaaeaeo ai?iaeii
e aea?aaiae aueeeenue a e?ecen nauoa. A ?yaea iano aniuoioee ianniaua
e?anoueyineea ainnoaiey. Yoi auioaeeei i?aaeoaeuenoai iieoe ia
ioaeaeueiua onooiee — a 1924-1925 aiaeao auea niya/aia a iieueco
naeueneeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae oeaiiaay iieeoeea, ?anoe?aii i?aai ia a?aiaeo
caiee e eniieueciaaiea iaaiiiai o?oaea. Oiaaea aea aue inouanoaeai
ia?aoiae e aeaiaaeiiio iaeiaeaieth e?anoueyi, /oi aeaaaei ei aieueooth
naiaiaeo a ?acaeoee oicyenoaa.

A naiai aunooieaiee 17 ai?aey 1925 aiaea I. E. Aooa?ei i?ecuaae
e?anoueyi “iaiaauaoueny, ia aiynue ieeaeeo ?ai?annee”, aini?eieiay
e?anoueyieia, eae o/anoieea nioeeaeenoe/aneiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. Ii ana
ia?ii?eyoey a yoie iaeanoe ieacaeenue ia aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiuie.

A aeaeaa?a 1925 aiaeia ia XIV nuacaea ia?oee aue i?iaicaeaoai eo?n ia
eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth. Ii/oe n?aco aea iaino?eeny aii?in oeaaicaaioiaie.
Iiauoaiea oeai ia i?iiuoeaiiua ecaeaeey i?eaaei e oiio, /oi e?anoueyia
oo?aoeee noeioe i?iaeaaaoue oeaa ainoaea?noao, nie?auaeenue iinaaiua
ieiuaaee, e?anoueyineia oicyenoai niiaa noaiiaeeinue “iaoo?aeueiui”. A
?acoeueoaoa oeaaa auei caaioiaeaii ia aieueoa 60% io oiai eiee/anoaa,
eioi?ia iaeeaeaee. A 1925 — 1926 aiaeao auoee ec cao?oaeiaiee ca n/ao
?aca?aia aaethou e ?ac?aoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie i?iaeaaee nie?oiiai.
Iaeiaei ia?niaeoea ia oeo/oaiey auei ana iaiueoa. Neaaeothuee
oeaaicaaioiaeoaeueiue e?ecen ?ac?aoeeny a 1927 — 1928 aiaeao. Ia yoio
?ac aeaaea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia niaaaeaiea ai?iaeia auei iinoaaeaii iiae
oa?ico. Ecuyoea eceeoeia e ?ai?annee eeoue onoaoaeee e?ecen. A oaa?aea
1929 aiaea a ai?iaeao niiaa iiyaeeenue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua ea?oi/ee.

75) ?aoi?ia i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoe a nayce n ia?aoiaeii e
IYIo.

2. A aeaeaa?a 1921 a. XI Ana?inneeneay eiioa?aioeey ?EI(a) i?eiyea
?aoaiea i ?ai?aaiecaoeee A*E. Iinoaiiaeaiea ia oi?acaeiaiee A*E auei
i?eiyoi IX Ana?inneeneei nuacaeii Niaaoia. Ai eniieiaiea ?aoaiey nuacaea
Niaaoia AOeEE aeae?aoii io 6 oaa?aey 1922 a. oi?acaeiee A*E e aa ianoiua
i?aaiu.

Aianoi A*E auei nicaeaii Ainoaea?noaaiiia iieeoe/aneia oi?aaeaiea (AIO)
i?e IEAAe iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii ia?eiia eee iacia/aaiiai NIE aai
caianoeoaey. N ia?aciaaieai NNN? AIO ?NON? auei ?ai?aaieciaaii a
Iauaaeeiaiiia ainoaea?noaaiiia iieeoe/aneia oi?aaeaiea IAIO) i?e NIE
NNN?.

Ia ianoao nicaeaaaeenue iiae/eiaiiua AIO iieeoe/aneea ioaeaeu: a
aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeeeao — i?e OeEE aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee, a aoaa?ieyo —
i?e aoaeniieeiiao.

A ninoaaa AIO e iieeoe/aneeo ioaeaeia nicaeaaaeenue Iniaua ioaeaeu,
eioi?ua aaee ai?ueao n i?anooieaieyie a a?iee e oeioa, e O?ainii?oiua
ioaeaeu, ai?iaoeany n eiio??aaiethoeeae ia o?ainii?oa.

Ana iauaoaieiaiua aeaea ia?aaeaaaeenue a ?aao?eaoiaeu eee ia?iaeiua
noaeu. Aeayoaeueiinoue AIO nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue ia ?ane?uoee iieeoe/aneeo
e aioeainoaea?noaaiiuo i?anooieaiee.

Ia AIO aiceaaaeenue caaea/e ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth, ?ane?uoeth e
i?ana/aieth a?aaeaeaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe aioeniaaoneeo yeaiaioia, io?aia
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu e ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu, ai?ueaa ni
oieiiaaeai, n a?aaeaeaaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth eiino?aiiuo ?acaaaeie,
eiio?aaaiaeie. I?aaiai AIO aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo caaea/
i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai ia i?iaaaeaiea ?icuneiuo aeaenoaee, aeiciaiey,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey e ia? aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey.
Onoaiaaeeaaeenue i?ioeannoaeueiua n?iee i?iaaaeaiey aeiciaiey e
neaaenoaey, oneiaey i?iaaaeaiey iauneia e a?anoia.

11. Iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai. Ia?aciaaiea NNN?

1. I?e/eiu ia?aciaaiey NNN?

2. Ia?aciaaiea NNN?

1. Ia?aciaaiea NNN? ii?aaeaeyeinue neaaeothueie i?e/eiaie:

— iaiaoiaeeii auei iauaaeeieoue yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu ?anioaeee aeey
oniaoiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey ?ac?ooaiiiai aieiaie ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e
inouanoaeaiey iyia;

— iauaaeeiaiea ?anioaeee iaania/eaaei au eo iacaaeneiinoue e iicaieeei
au oniaoiaa ?aoaoue aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea caaea/e, eae iai?iiiua, oae e
aeeieiiaoe/aneea.

Iieeoe/aneie i?aaeiinueeie ia?aciaaiey NNN? yaeyeinue iaee/ea a
?anioaeeeao aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa. Yeiiiie/aneie i?aaeiinueeie
yaeyeanue iauanoaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa.

2. 29 aeaeaa?y 1922 a. ninoiyeanue eiioa?aioeey iieiiii/iuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeaeaaaoeee iacaaeneiuo ?anioaeee ?NON?, ONN?, ANN?,
CNON? (Caeaaeacneie Nioeeaeenoe/aneie Oaaea?aoeaiie Niaaoneie
?anioaeeee, iauaaeeiyaoae Aca?aaeaeaeaineoth NN?, A?iyineoth NN?,
A?oceineoth NN?), eioi?ay iaeia?eea i?iaeou Aeaeea?aoeee e Aeiaiai?a ia
ia?aciaaiee NNN?.

30 aeaeaa?y 1922 a. ioe?ueny I nuacae Niaaoia Nithca Niaaoneeo
Nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ?anioaeee, eioi?ue th?eaee/anee ioi?iee ia?aciaaiea
NNN?. Auee ooaa?aeaeaiu: Aeaeea?aoeey ia ia?aciaaiee NNN? e Aeiaiai? ia
ia?aciaaiee NNN?. Aeieeaae i Aeaeea?aoeee e Aeiaiai?a ia ia?aciaaiee
NNN? naeaeae ia nuacaea E. A. Noaeei. Nuacaeii auee i?iaaaeaiu auai?u
OeEE NNN?.

Ia?auie i?aaenaaeaoaeyie OeEE NNN? auee eca?aiu i?aaenaaeaoaee OeEE
nithciuo ?anioaeee: I. E. Eaeeiei, A. E. Iao?ianeee, A. A. *a?ayeia, I.
I. Ia?eiaiia. Eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiii yaeyeny NIE NNN?.

Ia?aia i?aaeoaeuenoai NNN? auei ia?aciaaii OeEE NNN? a ethea 1923 a.
Aicaeaaeye i?aaeoaeuenoai A. E. Eaiei.

Ia?auie noauaeoaie NNN? auee /aou?a nithciua ?anioaeeee: ?NON?, ONN?,
ANN? e CNON?. A aeaeueiaeoai NNN? iiiieiyeny iiauie noauaeoaie.

Ia ia?aii yoaia ?acaeoey Nithca NN? i?ienoiaeeei
iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aciaaeaaaiea a N?aaeiae Acee, ia
oa??eoi?ee Oo?eanoaineie ANN? (aoiaeeaoae a ninoaa. ?NON?) e aeaoo
naiinoiyoaeueiuo ainoaea?noa — Oi?acineie e Aooa?neie ia?iaeiuo
niaaoneeo ?anioaeee.

Ia ia?auo Anaocaaeneii e Anaoo?eiaineii nuacaeao Niaaoia, i?ioaaeoeo a
oaa?aea 1925 a., auee i?eiyou aeaeea?aoeee ia ia?aciaaiee Ocaaeneie NN?
e Oo?eiaineie NN?. Ia nuacaeao oaeaea auee i?eiyou ?aoaiey i aoiaeaeaiee
Ocaaeneie NN? e Oo?eiaineie NN? a ninoaa NNN?. 13 iay 1925 a. ia III
nuacaea Niaaoia NNN? auee iaeia?aiu ?aoaiey Ocaaeneie NN? e Oo?eiaineie
NN?, e iineaaeiea auee i?eiyou a ninoaa NNN?. Ia ieo noaei
?ani?ino?aiyoueny aeaenoaea aeiaiai?a ia ia?aciaaiee Nithca NN?.

Aue caaa?oai i?ioeann iauaaeeiaiey oaaeaeeeneeo caiaeue a aaeeiia
iaoeeiiaeueiia Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai. A aeaeaa?a 1926a. I nuacae
Niaaoia i?eiye Aeaeea?aoeeth ia ia?aciaaiee Oaaeaeeeneie ANN? e
aoiaeaeaiee aa a Ocaaeneoth NN?. 15 ieoya?y 1929 a. III *?acau/aeiue
nuacae Niaaoia Oaaeaeeeenoai» i?eiye Aeaeea?aoeeth, a eioi?ie
i?iaicaeanee auoiae ec ninoaaa Ocaaeneie NN? e nicaeaiea Oaaeaeeeneie
NN?. Ia VI nuacae Niaaoia Nithca NN? i?ioaaeoai 17 ia?oa 1931 a.,
Oaaeaeeeneay NN? auea i?eiyoa a ninoaa NNN?.

Ia oa??eoi?ee ?NON? a 1920 a. ia?aciaaeanue Ee?aecneay ANN?,
ia?aeiaiiaaiiay a ai?aea 1925 a. a Eacaoneoth ANN?. A aa ninoaaa a
oaa?aea 1925 a. aicieeea Ea?a-Eaeiaeneay Aaoiiiiiay Iaeanoue, eioi?ay a
1930 a. aioea iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ?NON?, a a 1932 a. auea i?aia?aciaaia a
ANN?. A ieoya?a 1924 a ia?aciaaeanue Ea?a-Ee?aecneay Aaoiiiiiay Iaeanoue
(a ninoaaa ?NON?), ia?aeiaiiaaiiay a 1925 a. a Ee?aecneoth AI e
i?aia?aciaaiioth caoai a ANN? (1927 a.).

12. Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia 1922 a.

1. Noaeaaiay nenoaia

2. Nenoaia ?aaiethoeeiiiuo o?eaoiaeia

3. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea

1. 31 ieoya?y 1922 a. AOeEE ooaa?aeee Iieiaeaiea i noaeiono?ienoaa
?NON?, iieiaeeaoaa ia/aei iiaie noaeaaiie ?aoi?ia. Iieiaeaiea
aaiaeeeinue a aeaenoaea ia anae oa??eoi?ee ?NON? n 1 yiaa?y 1923 a.

Aeaiiui ii?iaoeaiui aeoii nicaeaaaeanue aaeeiay noaeaaiay nenoaia:

• ia?iaeiue noae a ninoaaa iinoiyiiiai ia?iaeiiai noaeuee;

• ia?iaeiue noae a ninoaaa iinoiyiiiai ia?iaeiiai noaeuee e aeaoo
ia?iaeiuo canaaeaoaeae;

• aoaa?ineee noae;

• Aa?oiaiue noae ?NON? e aai eieeaaee.

Ia?aeeaeueii n aaeeiie nenoaiie ia?iaeiuo noaeia ?NON? aeaenoaiaaee
niaoeeaeueiua noaeu: aiaiiua o?eaoiaeu, aiaiii-o?ainii?oiua o?eaoiaeu,
o?oaeiaua nannee ia?iaeiuo noaeia, caiaeueiua eiiennee, a?aeo?aaeiua
eiiennee i?e NOI e aoaa?ineeo yeiiiie/aneeo niaauaieyo.

Aa?oiaiue noae ?NON? aeeth/ae I?aceaeeoi, Ieaioi e naiue eieeaaee: aeaa
noaeaaiua (ii oaieiaiui e a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai), aeaa eannaoeeiiiua,
aiaiioth, aiaiii-o?ainii?oioth e aeenoeeieeia?ioth. Ninoaa Aa?oiaiiai
noaea ecae?aeny AOeEE.

Aa?oiaiue noae ?NON? aue iaaeci?iie einoaioeeae aeey anao noaeaaiuo
i?aaiia, eannaoeeiiiie — aeey aoaa?ineeo noaeia, ia?aie einoaioeeae — ii
aeaeai ia iniai iianiuo i?anooieaieyo.

Noaeuee e canaaeaoaee ia?iaeiuo noaeia ecae?aeenue aoaeniieeiiaie ec
?aai/eo, e?anoueyi e aiaiiineoaeaueo.

29 ieoya?y 1924 a. auee ooaa?aeaeaiu Iniiau noaeiono?ienoaa Nithca NN? e
nithciuo ?anioaeee. Ia noaeaaiua i?aaiu aiceaaaeenue neaaeothuea
caaea/e: ia?aaeaeaiea caaiaaaiee i?ieaoa?neie ?aaiethoeee,
?aai/a-e?anoueyineie aeanoe e i?aaiii?yaeea, caueoa eioa?ania e i?aa
o?oaeyueony, oe?aieaiea iauanoaaiii-o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu, i?aaiaia
ainieoaiea e ae?.

2. Iieiaeaiea i noaeiono?ienoaa 1922 a. eciaieei nenoaio ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
o?eaoiaeia. Oi?acaeiyeenue iauea ?aaiethoeeiiiua o?eaoiaeu, nie?auaeinue
eiee/anoai aiaiii-o?ainii?oiuo o?eaoiaeia. Nio?aiyeenue aiaiiua
o?eaoiaeu o?iioia, ie?oaia, ei?ionia e aeeaecee, aiaiii-o?ainii?oiua
o?eaoiaeu a ianeieueeeo ai?iaeao no?aiu.

3. Inouanoaeaiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey aiceaaaeinue ia ia?iaeiuo
neaaeiaaoaeae, aeaenoaothueo i?e ioaeaeueiuo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo,
neaaenoaaiiuo o/anoeao e ioaeaea i?ieo?aoo?u Ia?eiithnoa.
Aeayoaeueiinoue ia?iaeiuo neaaeiaaoaeae iaoiaeeeanue iiae eiio?ieai
i?aaiia i?ieo?aoo?u e aoaa?ineeo noaeia

13. Eiaeeoeeaoeey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a ia?eiae IYIa

Ia?aoiae iinea a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e ie?iiio oicyenoaaiiiio
no?ieoaeuenoao aeoeaece?iaae aeaeueiaeooth ?ac?aaioeo
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ii?ie?othuaai iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey oicyenoaaiiie ?aaiou. Iiaue yoai ?acaeoey iinoaaee ?yae
aaaeiaeoeo i?aaiauo i?iai, a oii /enea aii?inu i i?aaiauo enoi/ieeao e
th?eaee/aneie oao ieea.

Ia?aiia/aeueioth ?ieue enoi/ieea i?aaa ea?aei ?aaiethoeeiiiia
i?aainiciaiea. Iineieueeo i?aeoeea e «?aaiethoeeiiiia ie?iaicc?aiea
o?oaeyueony iann» a oio ia?eiae aua ia iiaee i?eieiaoue oi?io
ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiia, a noa?ia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai auei iai?eaieaiui
aeey iiaiai no?iy, ?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aainiciaiea inoaaaeinue ii/oe
aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa. A 1917—1918 aa. i?eieiaeenue iiaua
aeae?aou i noaea, a eaaeaeii ec eioi?uo oae eee eia/a
eioa?i?aoe?iaaeinue iiiyoea ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aainiciaiey. Oae, a no. 5
Aeae?aoa i noaea ? 1 (1917 a.) aiai?eeinue i «?aaiethoeeiiiie niaanoe» e
i «?aaiethoeeiiiii i?aainiciaiee» eae i neiiieiao. A no. 36 Aeae?aoa i
noaea ? 2 (1918 a.) oiiieiaaony oaea «nioeeaeenoe/aneia i?aainiciaiea»,
a a no. 22 Aeae?aoa i noaea ? 3 (1918 a.) — «nioeeaeenoe/aneay
niaanoue».

Oaea ia aeaiiii yoaia aeaeaeanue iiiuoea ?aca?aie/eoue eaoaai?ee
«?aaiethoeeiiiay niaanoue» e «?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aainiciaiea». Ia?aay
icia/aea noauaeoeaioth niiniaiinoue iniciaaaoue e i?eiaiyoue
?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aainiciaiea, aoi?ay — iauaeoeaiia niaea?aeaiea i?aaa.

I?aaiaaaeu 20-o aa. i?eaeaaaee aaaeiia cia/aiea yoei aeae?aoai, ii ana
aea aeaaiia ianoi ioaiaeeee noaeaaiiio ?aoaieth eae aaaeouae oi?ia
i?aaioai?/anoaa. Iauyniyeinue yoi io/anoe oai, /oi aeae?aou yoiai
ia?eiaea (1917—1920 aa.) auee ?ac?iciaiu e ia i?eaaaeaiu a nenoaio. Ia
aeaiiii yoaia «?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aainiciaiea» ninoaaeyei noa?aioei
«?aaiethoeeiiiie caeiiiinoe» aiiaua, eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue, ii/oe
niaiaaeaea n i?aaenoaaeaieai i «?aaiethoeeiiiie oeaeaniia?aciinoe».
Eeoue e eiioeo ia?eiaea «aiaiiiai eiiioiecia» a i?aaiaie oai?ee
i?iecioea ii?aaeaeaiiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey yoeo eaoaai?ee.

Naia eiaeeoeeaoeey ?anniao?eaaeanue a yoie nayce oieueei eae yoai a
inouanoaeaiee ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aainiciaiey (eee oeaeaniia?aciinoe),
eae niinia «eo/oaai a aeaiiuo aeaenoaeyo aeinoeaeaiey oeaee».
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ii?iu ia iiaee iie?uaaoue anaai iiiaiia?acey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue iiiaio oi/ii io?aaeaoue «iiuo
oicyenoaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa». A yoie neooaoeee ?aaiethoeeiiiia (eee,
eae /aua ia/aee aiai?eoue a 20-a aa., nioeeaeenoe/aneia) i?aainiciaiea
i?eia?aoaei iiaoth cia/aiea — iaoiaea, ainiieiythuaai i?iaaeu a caeiia.

A oeaeii a i?aaiaie oai?ee 20-o aa. iiae ?aaiethoeeiiiie caeiiiinoueth
noaee iiieiaoue onoaiiaeaiiue e ii?aaeaeaiiue ainoaea?noaii
i?aaiii?yaeie, eiiieaen i?aaee, /oi naycuaaeinue n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
?ac?aaioee nenoaiu niioaaonoaothueo ii?i. ?an/ao ia nei?ia ioie?aiea
i?aaa (i?e nioeeaeecia) iaoneiaee iniaia ioiioaiea e i?aaiaie ii?ia:

«caeii ioia/aao oa aaoe, ii eioi?ui ii?aaeaeythony a?aieoeu aeaiiiai
i?aaiii?yaeea, aeaiiie nenoaiu i?aaiauo ioiioaiee… Oai?aoe/anee caeii
aeieaeai aeaoue iniiaiie i?eioeei aeaiiie nenoaiu, a inoaeueiia — oaea
aeaei i?ieaoa?neiai noaea» (I. Noo/ea).

I?eaioaoeey ia «?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aainiciaiea» eae ia aaaeiaeoee
enoi/iee i?aaa niaea?aeaeanue a eiioeaioeeyo noi?iiieeia ineoieiae/aneie
oai?ee i?aaa (I. ?aenia?), a eioi?uo ioiaeaeanoaeyeinue nianoaaiii i?aai
n ?aaiethoeeiiiui i?aainiciaieai. A?aoiaioai ineoieiaenoia
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyeanue nioeeieiae/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey i?aaa. N yoie oi/ee
c?aiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai yaeyeinue ia /ai eiui, eae ieaiiaie iieeoeeie.
«Iu ia aiai?ei i aa?oiaainoaa caeiiia, ii aiai?ei, /oi /anoe iiae/eiaiu
oeaeiio e /oi a nioeeaeueiii no?ieoaeuenoaa ioaeaeueiua aai aeou
oaycuaathony iauaaeeiythuei eo iauei ieaiii» (E. Eeueeineee).

Niaaoneea i?aaiaaaeu 20-o aa. noieeioeenue ni cia/eoaeueiui
i?ioeai?a/eai, caeiaeaiiui a naiie i?aaiaie nenoaia ia?aoiaeiiai
ia?eiaea, iaaeaeo «i?ieaoa?neei noaeii» e «ao?aeoaciui i?aaii».
I?aainoaaiiinoue th?eaee/aneeo oi?i («ao?aeoaciia» — niaaoneia i?aai)
au?aaeaeanue, a /anoiinoe, a oii, /oi i?aao ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea
ia?yaeo n i?eioeeiii oeaeaniia?aciinoe aue i?enou e i?eioeei
«ni?aaaaeeeainoe». Oioy iineaaeiyy ie ?aco i?yii ia oiiieiaeanue a AE
?NON?, ii ii?aaeaeaiii i?enoonoaiaaea a niaea?aeaiee aai noaoae, a ?yaea
neo/aaa aeaaea ii?aaeaeyy a?aieoeu i?eiaiaiey caeiia. Noaeaaiay e
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiay i?aeoeea i?aaenoaaeyeanue niaaoneei i?aaiaaaeai
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii i?ioeaiaeaenoaey «ao?aeoaciui» ia/aeai,
ana aua nouanoaothuei a i?aaa ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea. «Oai?/aneay
aeoeaiinoue noaeaaiie i?aeoeee, oi/ii ia?aie/aiiay eneeth/eoaeueii
eioa?anaie ainoaea?noaa e o?oaeyueony, ii aiana ia ia?aie/aiiay
iaiiaeaeaeiuie ?aieaie caeiia» — a yoii aeaeaeinue ia/aei ei??aeoeaia
i?aaioai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea.

?ac?aoaiea aeeeaiiu «i?ieaoa?neee noae — ao?aeoaciia i?aai»
inouanoaeyeinue neaaeothuei ia?acii: noaeuey aeieaeai aue, i?aaeaea
anaai, iiiuoaoueny iaeoe i?yiie ioaao a aeaenoaothuai caeiia. Anee yoi
ia oaeaaaeinue, ii ia?auaeny e aiaeeco «iaueo ia/ae», eioi?ua iiaeii
auaanoe ec nouanoaa niaaoneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Ia iaeaey aeinoaoi/ii
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ioaaoa e oai, noaeuee ai?aaa aue eneaoue ?aoaiea a
iineaaeiae einoaioeee — a «iaueo i?eioeeiao eeanniaie iieeoeee». Oaeie
ii?yaeie iaoneiaeeaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue ouaoaeueii ?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue
i?ioeaaeo?o noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, iiyoiio caeiiiaeaoaeue
cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeye ?ac?aaioea ii?i i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa.

Oaea a 1919 a. Noo/ea i?aaeeiaeee ia/aoue eiaeeoeeaoeeth iiaiai i?aaa.
Aeaaainoaothuaa ianoi aeieaeia auea caiyoue Eiinoeoooeey. Aeaeaa oei
«nioeeaeueiia i?aai», aeeth/athuaa naiaeiia i?aai e i?aai nioeeaeueiiai
iaania/aiey. Caoai aeieaeiu auee ?aniieaaaoueny «eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa»,
oi/iaa, ii?iu, ioiaiythuea e ia?aie/eaathuea yoe i?aaa (i
iaoeeiiaeecaoeee caiee e i?iecaiaenoaa), a oaeaea «aeiionoeiinoue
i?eiaiaiey ia?aaeeoeia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia?aoiaeiiai a?aiaie».
Caaa?oao nai?iee eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua i?aaeea i o?oaea, «inoaoee
aeiaiai?iiai i?aaa» e iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?aai. Nenoaiaoece?iaaiiua oaeei
ia?acii ii?iu ninoaayo «iaycaoaeueiia aeey anao i?aai», oiaaea eae ana
aeaeueiaeoea ocaeiiaiey aoaeoo i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie eeoue oaoie/aneea
eino?oeoeee. Yoio ia?aue iiaeoiae e aii?ino i nenoaia i?aaa aue
iaoneiaeai i?aeoe/aneie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, naycaiiie n oi?ie?iaaieai
nenoaiu niaaoneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

20-a aa. noaee ia?eiaeii eioaineaiie eiaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou. Auee
i?eiyou e anooieee a aeaenoaea A?aaeaeaineee, Oaieiaiue, Caiaeueiue,
A?aaeaeainei-i?ioeannoaeueiue, Oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiue eiaeaenu,
Eiaeaen caeiiia i o?oaea, ?ac?aaioaiu i?iaeou Oicyenoaaiiiai, Oi?aiaiai,
I?iiuoeaiiiai, Eiiia?aoeaiiai, Aaeieieno?aoeaiiai eiaeaenia.

14. Noauaeou a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa ii AE ?NON? 1922 a.

15. I?aai nianoaaiiinoe ii AE ?NON? 1922 a.

16. Ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai ii AE ?NON? 1922 a.

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?NON? aue i?eiyo /aoaa?oie nanneae AOeEE aeaayoiai
nicuaa 31 ieoya?y 1922 a. Ii ninoiye ec /aou?ao ?acaeaeia: iauay /anoue,
aauiia i?aai, iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia i?aai e ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai. ?acaeaeu
aeaeeeenue ia aeaau, a aeaau, a naith i/a?aaeue, — ia noaouee. Anaai AE
?NON? 1922 a. niaea?aeae 435 noaoae.

A Iauae /anoe (no. 1) AE cae?aieyeinue iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa io?aiythony caeiiii, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, eiaaea
iie inouanoaeythony a i?ioeai?a/ee n eo nioeeaeueii-oicyenoaaiiui
iacia/aieai.

Iauai a?aaeaeaineie i?aainiiniaiinoe ia caaenae io iiea, ?anu,
iaoeeiiaeueiinoe, aa?ieniiaaaeaiey e i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Ieeoi ia iia auoue
eeoai a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa eee ia?aie/ai a i?aaao eia/a eae a neo/ayo e
ii?yaeea, ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiii. I?aainiiniaiinoue e aeaaniiniaiinoue a
iieiii iauaia ianooiaee ii aeinoeaeaiee 18-eaoiaai aic?anoa.

Caeii ?acee/ae neaaeothuea aeaeu nianoaaiiinoe: ainoaea?noaaiiay,
eiiia?aoeaiay e /anoiay. I?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaaeinue ia?aie. Oae, caiey,
iaae?a, eana, ai?u, aeaeaciua aei?iae, eo ia?aaeaeaeiie ninoaa e
eaoaoaeueiua aiia?aou iiaee iaoiaeeoueny oieueei a nianoaaiiinoe
ainoaea?noaa. N ioiaiie /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth auei
eeeaeaee?iaaii e aeaeaiea eiouanoaa ia aeaeaeeiia e iaaeaeaeeiia. AE
?NON? ia?aie/eaae iauai e ?acia?u i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe (e?oa
iauaeoia, eioi?ua iiaee iaoiaeeoueny a /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
onoaiiaeaiea i?aaeaeueiiai ?acia?a e o. ae.).

A AE auee i?aaeoniio?aiu iniiaaiey aicieeiiaaiey e i?ae?auaiey
iaycaoaeuenoa. Eiaeaen ii?aaeaeye ii?yaeie, oneiaey e oi?iu caeeth/aiey
aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa, a oaeaea iineaaenoaey eo ia?ooaiey.
A?aaeaeaineiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao auee ecaanoiu neaaeothuea aeaeu
aeiaiai?ia: eoiee-i?iaeaaee, iaiu, aea?aiey, iiae?yaea, eiouanoaaiiiai
iaeia e ae?.

AE ?aaeaiaioe?iaae ianeaaeiaaiea ii caeiio e ii caaauaieth. A noa?a
ianeaaenoaaiiiai i?aaa iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue iieiaeaiea ia ia?aie/aiee
eiouanoaa, ia?aaeaaaaiiai ii ianeaaenoao, a i?aaeaeao 10 oun. cieiouo
?oaeae. 29 yiaa?y 1926 a. Iinoaiiaeaieai OeEE e NIE NNN? ia?aie/aiea
?acia?a ianeaaeiaaiey auei ioiaiaii, iaeiaei ianeaaeiaaiea eiouanoaa
noaei iaeaaaoueny aunieei iaeiaii. Cai?auaeinue caaauaoue eiouanoai
eeoeai, eioi?ua ia yaeyeenue ianeaaeieeaie ii caeiio.

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?NON? 1922 a. n eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie
aeaenoaiaae aei 1964 a.

17. Iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia i?aai ii AE ?NON? 1922 a.

18. Naiaeiia i?aai ii «Eiaeaeno caeiiia i a?aea, naiuea e iiaea?NON?»
1926a.

aue ooaa?aeaeai AOeEE 19 iiya?y 1926 a. e aaaaeai a aeaenoaea n 1 yiaa?y
1927 a. Eiaeaen ninoiye ec 4 ?acaeaeia e 143 noaoae.

Oaeoe/aneee a?ae aue i?e?aaiai e ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiiio. Onoaiaaeeaaeenue
neaaeothuea oneiaey aeey i?eciaiey oaeoe/aneiai a?aea: niaianoiia
i?iaeeaaiea, aaaeaiea iauaai oicyenoaa, niaianoiia ainieoaiea aeaoae,
auyaeaiea noi?oaeaneeo ioiioaiee ia?aae o?aoueeie eeoeaie a ia?aienea e
ae?oaeo aeieoiaioao.

Onoaiaaeeaaeny aaeeiue ieieiaeueiue aic?ano anooiathueo a a?ae — 18 eao.
A 1928 a. iinoaiiaeaieai AOeEE e NIE ianoiui eniieeiiai auei
i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai a eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo nieaeaoue a?a/iue
aic?ano aeaiueiu, ii ia aieaa /ai ia iaeei aiae.

Ii?aaeaeyeenue oneiaey ?aaeno?aoeee a?aea: aeinoeaeaiea a?a/iiai
aic?anoa, acaeiiia niaeanea a?a/othueony, ionoonoaea aeeceiai ?iaenoaa
iaaeaeo ieie, ionoonoaea ae?oaiai ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiiai a?aea e ae?.

Eiouanoai noi?oaia, iaaeeoia a a?aea, i?eciaaaeinue niaianoiui (iauei).
Anooiathuea a a?ae eiaee i?aai inoaaeoue aeia?a/iua oaieeee.

Eiaeaen i?aaeinoaaee noaeo i?aai auiineoue ?aoaiey ia ioae?aiee aeaoae o
?iaeeoaeae e ia?aaea/a eo i?aaiai iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa. Iiae?iaii
?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe iiaeoiia e iiia/eoaeae. Iiaea
onoaiaaeeaaeanue iaae ianiaa?oaiiieaoieie aei 14 eao, iaae neaaioiiuie e
aeooaaiiaieueiuie. Eiaeaen aiciaiiaeye aeaenoaea einoeoooa onuiiaeaiey.

Eiaeaen caeiiia i a?aea, naiuea e iiaea ?NON? 1926 a. aeaenoaiaae aei
1969a., eiaaea aue i?eiyo iiaue Eiaeaen i a?aea e naiuea.

19. O?oaeiaia i?aai ii «Eiaeaeno caeiiia i o?oaea (ECiO) ?NON?» 1922a.

(ECiO) aue ooaa?aeaeai iinoaiiaeaieai AOeEE 9 iiya?y 1922 a. Ii ninoiye
ec 17 aeaa e 192 noaoae. A Iauae /anoe ii?aaeaeyeinue, /oi iieiaeaiey
eiaeaena ?ani?ino?aiythony ia ana i?aaei?eyoey e anao eeoe, i?eiaiyaoeo
iaaiiue o?oae ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.

Ioiaiyeanue anaiauay o?oaeiaay iiaeiiinoue. O?oaeiaua ioiioaiey
aicieeaee a ?acoeueoaoa caeeth/aiey o?oaeiaiai eee eieeaeoeaiiai
aeiaiai?a.

O?oaeiaie aeiaiai? yaeyeny niaeaoaieai aeaoo eee aieaa eeoe, ii eioi?iio
iaeia noi?iia (iaieiathueeny) i?aaeinoaaeyao naith ?aai/oth neeo ae?oaie
noi?iia (iaieiaoaeth) ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. Caeii ?aaeaiaioe?iaae
ii?yaeie caeeth/aiey o?oaeiauo aeiaiai?ia, auieaou eiiiainaoeee e
iiniaee, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai a?aiaie e a?aiaie ioaeuoa, o?oae
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e aeaiuei. Eieeaeoeaiua aeiaiai?u yaeyeenue
niaeaoaieai, caeeth/aaiui i?ionithcii eae i?aaenoaaeoaeai ?aai/eo e
neoaeaueo e iaieiaoaeai, eioi?ia onoaiaaeeaaei oneiaey iaeia e o?oaea
aeey ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee e o/?aaeaeaiee eee eo a?oii.

Aeaea i ia?ooaieyo caeiiia i o?oaea e ana o?oaeiaua nii?u aeieaeiu auee
?aoaoueny eeai a i?eioaeeoaeueiii, eeai a i?eie?eoaeueiii ii?yaeea.

ECiO ?NON? 1922 a. aianoi nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey aaiaeee nioeeaeueiia
no?aoiaaiea ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo, iauanoaaiiuo, eiiia?aoeaiuo,
eiioeanneiiiuo, a?aiaeiuo, niaoaiiuo e /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, a
o/?aaeaeaieyo, oicyenoaao e aeey /anoiuo eeoe. Nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea
ioaaoeei ana aeaeu auieao, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeeeenue ec n?aaenoa aeaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey eee eeoea.

Caeii i?aaeoniao?eaae naieoeee aeey ia?ooeoaeae o?oaeiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A ai?aea 1922 a. NIE ?NON? i?eiye Aeae?ao i
iaeacaieyo ca ia?ooaiea iinoaiiaeaiee ii io?aia o?oaea, a iaa 1924 a. —
Aeae?ao i ii?yaeea i?eaea/aiey einiaeoeeae o?oaea iaieiaoaeae e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Eiaeaen caeiiia i o?oaea ?NON? 1922 a. aeaenoaiaae aei i?eiyoey iiaiai
Eiaeaena caeiiia i o?oaea a 1972 a.

20. Iiiyoea i?anooieaiey e ninoaa i?anooieaiey ii OE ?NON? 1922 a.

21. Nenoaia iaeacaiee e ia?u nioeeaeueiie caueou ii OE ?NON? 1922 a.

Aue ooaa?aeaeai o?aoueae nanneae AOeEE aeaayoiai nicuaa 26 iay 1922a. e
anooiee a aeaenoaea 1 ethey 1922 a. Eiaeaen ninoiye ec aaaaeaiey e aeaoo
/anoae —Iauae e Iniaaiiie. *anoe aeaeeeenue ia aeaau, a iineaaeiea — ia
227 noaoae.

Iiae i?anooieaieai OE ?NON? iiieiae anyeia iauanoaaiii iianiia aeaenoaea
eee aacaeaenoaea, oa?iaeaaoaa iniiaai niaaoneiai no?iy e i?aaiii?yaeeo,
onoaiiaeaiiiio ?aai/a-e?anoueyineie aeanoueth ia ia?aoiaeiue e
eiiioienoe/aneiio no?ith ia?eiae a?aiaie.

Aeaenoaea OE ?ani?ino?aiyeinue ia ana i?anooieaiey, niaa?oaiiua a
i?aaeaeao ?NON? eae aa a?aaeaeaiaie, oae e eiino?aioeaie, ia
iieueciaaaoeieny i?aaii yenoa??eoi?eaeueiinoe.

Oeaeyie iaeacaiey yaeyeenue: i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea iiauo i?aaiia?ooaiee,
i?eniiniaeaiea ia?ooeoaey e oneiaeyi iauaaeeoey iooai
eni?aaeoaeueii-o?oaeiaiai aicaeaenoaey, eeoaiea i?anooiieea aiciiaeiinoe
niaa?oaoue iiaua i?anooieaiey.

Oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianooiaea n 14 eao. A ioiioaiee
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo a aic?anoa io 14 aei 16 eao iiaee auoue iacia/aiu
ia?u iaaeeei-iaaeaaiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey.

Nenoaia iaeacaiee aeeth/aea a naay: iauanoaaiiia ii?eoeaiea, ecaiaiea ca
i?aaeaeu ?NON?, eeoaiea naiaiaeu, i?eioaeeoaeueiua ?aaiou, oneiaiia
inoaeaeaiea, eiioeneaoeeth, oo?ao e ae?. Ii aeaeai, iaoiaeyueiny a
i?iecaiaenoaa ?aao?eaoiaeia, a ea/anoaa eneeth/eoaeueiie ia?u i?eiaiyeny
?anno?ae. I?e ionoonoaee a OE i?yiuo oeacaiee ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu
i?anooieaiee iaeacaiey i?eiaiyeenue a niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiii
aiaeiaee. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee ia?u iaeacaiey o/eouaaeenue noaiaiue e
oa?aeoa? iianiinoe i?anooiieea e niaa?oaiiiai ei i?anooieaiey.

Nenoaia i?anooieaiee ii OE aeeth/aea i?anooieaiey ainoaea?noaaiiua,
i?ioea ii?yaeea oi?aaeaiey, oicyenoaaiiua, eiouanoaaiiua, aieineea e
ae?.

22 iiya?y 1926 a. AOeEE i?eiye iiaue Oaieiaiue eiaeaen ?NON?, iaeiaei
aeaiiue ii?iaoeaiue aeo ia aian na?ueaciuo eciaiaiee a OE ?NON? 1922 a.

22. Eiinoeoooeey NNN? 1924 a. e Eiinoeoooeey ?NON? 1925 a.: Iauaa e
iniaaiiia

A aeaeaa?a 1922 a. Ia?aue nuacae niaaoia NNN? ooaa?aeee Aeaeea?aoeeth e
Aeiaiai? ia ia?aciaaiee NNN?, iiaeienaiiua /aou?ueiy ?anioaeeeaie:
?NON?, Oe?aeiie, Aaei?onneae e CNON?. Iauanithciay eiinoeoooeey auea
ooaa?aeaeaia Aoi?ui nuacaeii niaaoia NNN? a yiaa?a 1924 a. e aeeth/eea
Aeaeea?aoeeth ia ia?aciaaiee NNN? e Aeiaiai? ia ia?aciaaiee NNN?. Ca
nithciie ?anioaeeeie nio?aieeinue i?aai auoiaea ec Nithca (ia aeaea
oeeoeaiia). Nuacae niaaoia NNN?, ecae?aeny io ai?iaeneeo niaaoia (1
aeaiooao io 25000 ecae?aoaeae) e io aoaa?ineeo nuacaeia niaaoia (1
aeaiooao io 125000 ecae?aoaeae). A ia?eiae iaaeaeo nuacaeaie aunoei
i?aaiii aeanoe aue Oeaio?aeueiue Eniieieoaeueiue Eiieoao NNN? (OeEE
NNN?). A i?iiaaeooeao iaaeaeo nanneyie OeEE NNN? aunoei
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui e eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiii aue I?aceaeeoi OeEE NNN?.
OeEE NNN? oi?ie?iaae aunoee eniieieoaeueiue e ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue i?aai
– Niaao ia?iaeiuo eiienna?ia NNN?. Eiinoeoooeey ?NON? 1925a.
nicaeaaaeanue ii ia?acoeo nithciie.

Iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aciaaeaaaiea

A 1924 a. OeE ?aoee oi?acaeieoue Oo?eanoaineoth ANN? e “iacaaeneiua”
Oi?aci e Aooa?o. Ia?aciaaiu aeaa nithciua ?anioaeeee: Ocaaeneay NN? e
Oo?eiaineay NN?; aeaa aaoiiiiiua ?anioaeeee: Oaaeaeeeneay a ninoaaa
Ocaaeneie NN? e Ee?aecneay a ninoaaa ?NON?; aaoiiiiiay Ea?a-Ee?aecneay
iaeanoue a ninoaaa ?NON?. Onoaiaaeeaaeenue iiaua a?aieoeu iaaeaeo
?anioaeeeaie ia iniiaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?eioeeia. Au?aaioaiiue ia iiuoa
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, yoio i?eioeei, ii neiaai e?oiiaeoaai ciaoiea Acee
aeaaeaieea A.Aa?oieueaea, ieacaeny niaa?oaiii /oaeaeui ianoiui
enoi?e/aneei o?aaeeoeeyi. Eoia – ia iaiaa aeanyoea nii?iuo oa??eoi?ee,
ioaa/aiiuo iaiai “aania/anoaa”. Ia?aua aiaeu Niaaoneie aeanoe
oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue ii?aaeaeaiiui iieneii oi?i iaoeeiiaeueiie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe ia?iaeia. Ia?iaeu iaeeaeaee io oeaio?a
oaeiaeaoai?aiey naiaai iaoeeiiaeueiiai /oanoaa, eiiiainaoeee ca aiaeu e
aaea oieaeaiee a ?inneeneie eiia?ee. ?NON? ia?aaeae Aaei?onnee ?yae
iaeanoae n i?aiaeaaeaieai aaei?onneiai ianaeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa
oa??eoi?ey e ianaeaiea ANN? au?inee a 2-3 ?aca. Ia Oe?aeia e a
Aaei?onnee nicaeaaaeenue iaoeeiiaeueiua ?aeiiu, a eioi?uo oi?aaeaiea,
oeiea, ia/aoue inouanoaeyeenue ia ?iaeiii (aa?aeneii, iieueneii, /aoneii
e ae?oaeo) ycuea. Ii /anoi eciaiaiey, a o./. iia?aie/iua, ?aoaeenue ia
ii?inii aeeoaeae, a ia?oeeiuie /eiiaieeaie. A 1924a. a ninoaaa ONN? auea
ia?aciaaia Iieaeaaneay aaoiiiiiay ?anioaeeea, a ninoaaa
Aca?aaeaeaeaineie NN? – Iaoe/eaaineay aaoiiiiiay ?anioaeeea e aaoiiiiiay
iaeanoue Iaai?iue Ea?aaao n i?aiaeaaeathuei a?iyineei ianaeaieai. A 1924
a. auea eeeaeaee?iaaia Ai?iay ?anioaeeea, ec eioi?ie auaeaeeeny ?yae
aaoiiiiiuo iaeanoae. Ana yoe oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey
iiaeaioiaeee ii/ao aeey iaoeeiiaeueii-yoie/aneie neooaoeee, aicieeoae ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 80-o aa. A 1925 a. auea i?eiyoa Eiinoeoooeey ?NON?, ana
iniiaiua iieiaeaiey eioi?ie no?ieeenue a niioaaonoaee n Eiinoeoooeeae
NNN? 1924 a.

23. Eciaiaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa NNN? a eiioea 1920-ia/aea
1940-o aiaeia

24. Nenoaia i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey ii Eiinoeoooeee
NNN? 1936 a. e Eiinoeoooeee ?NON? 1937 a.

A aeaaao III-VIII (no.30-101) Eiinoeoooeee NNN? ?anniao?eaaeanue
i?aaiecaoeey, nenoaia e ii?yaeie aeayoaeueiinoe aunoeo i?aaiia aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey NNN? e nithciuo ?anioaeee, aunoeo i?aaiia aeanoe aaoiiiiiuo
?anioaeee, ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe. Eiinoeoooeey NNN? enoiaeeea ec
i?eioeeia aa?oiaainoaa i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe, eioi?ua ia?acotho iiaeio/aoiua e iiaeeiio?ieueiua ei i?aaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Aunoei i?aaiii ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a
NNN? yaeyeny Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN?, ecae?aaoeeny ia 4 aiaea. Ii
inouanoaeye ana i?aaa, i?enaiaiiua Nithco NN?, anee oieueei iie ia
aoiaeeee a eiiiaoaioeeth iiaeio/aoiuo Aa?oiaiiio Niaaoo i?aaiia NNN?.
Caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeanoue a NNN? inouanoaeye eneeth/eoaeueii Aa?oiaiue
Niaao NNN?. Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? ninoiye ec aeaoo iaeao: Niaaoa Nithca e
Niaaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, eioi?ui a iaeeiaeiaie ia?a i?eiaaeeaaeaea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay eieoeeaoeaa. Nannee Niaaoa Nithca e Niaaoa
Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae ia/eiaeenue e caeai/eaaeenue iaeiia?aiaiii. Caeiiu
n/eoaeenue ooaa?aeaeaiiuie, anee auee iie i?eiyou iaaeie iaeaoaie
i?inoui aieueoeinoaii aieinia. Caeiiu ioaeeeiaaeenue ia ycueao nithciuo
?anioaeee. Niaao Nithca acae?aeny a?aaeaeaiaie NNN? ii ii?ia – 1
aeaiooao ia 300 oan. ianaeaiey. Niaao Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae ecae?aeny
a?aaeaeaiaie NNN? ii nithciui e aaoiiiiiui ?anioaeeeai, aaoiiiiiui
iaeanoyi e iaoeeiiaeueiui ie?oaai ii oi?ia: io eaaeaeie nithciie
?anioaeeee – ii 25 aeaiooaoia1, io aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee – ii 11
aeaiooaoia, io aaoiiiiiie iaeanoe – ii 5 aeaiooaoia e io iaoeeiiaeueiiai
ie?oaa – ii 1 aeaiooaoo. Niaao Nithca e Niaao Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae ecae?aee
iaiaeaoiua eiiennee, eioi?ua i?iaa?yee iieiiii/ey aeaiooaoia eaaeaeie
iaeaou. Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? iia iacia/eoue, eiaaea ni/oao ioaeiui,
neaaenoaaiiua e ?aaeceiiiua eiiennee ii ethaiio aii?ino, i?e/ai ana
o/?aaeaeaiey e aeieaeiinoiua eeoea iaycaiu auee auiieiyoue o?aaiaaiey
yoeo eiiennee e i?aaenoaaeyoue ei iaiaoiaeeiua iaoa?eaeu e aeieoiaiou.
Eiinoeoooeey aa?aioe?iaaea iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue aeaiooaoia Aa?oiaiiai
Niaaoa NNN?. Iie ia iiaee auoue i?eaea/aiu e noaeaaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe
eee a?anoiaaiu aac niaeaney Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?, a a ia?eiae iaaeaeo
nanneyie – aac niaeaney I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa. Eiinoeoooeey
onoaiiaeea nanneiiiue ii?yaeie ?aaiou Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?. Nicua aai
i/a?aaeiuo nannee i?aaeoniao?eaaeny aeaa ?aca a aiae, a aiai/a?aaeiuo –
ii oniio?aieth I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? eee ii o?aaiaaieth
iaeiie ec nithciuo ?anioaeee. Aunoei i?aaiii aeanoe Nithca NN? a ia?eiae
iaaeaeo nanneyie Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? yaeyeny iiaeio/aoiue aio
I?aceaeeoi Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?, ecae?aaoeeny ia niaianoiii canaaeaiee
iaaeo iaeao, eiiiaoaioeey eioi?iai auea ii?aaeaeaia a Eiinoeoooeee NNN?.
Niaeanii no. 49 Eiinoeoooeee I?aceaeeoi Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? nicuaae
nannee Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?, aeaaae oieeiaaiea aeaenoaiaaaoeo caeiiia
NNN?, ecaeaaae oeacu, ?anioneae Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? i?e ionoonoaee
niaeaniiai ?aoaiey aeaoo aai iaeao e iacia/ae iiaua auai?u; i?iecaiaeee
anaia?iaeiue ii?in (?aoa?aiaeoi) ii naiae eieoeeaoeaa eee ii o?aaiaaieth
iaeiie ec nithciuo ?anioaeee; ioiaiye iinoaiiaeaiey NIE NNN? a NIE
nithciuo ?anioaeee a neo/aa eo ianiioaaonoaey caeiio; a ia?eiae iaaeaeo
nanneyie Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? inaiaiaeaeae io aeieaeiinoe e iacia/ae
ioaeaeueiuo ia?iaeiuo eiienna?ia NNN? ii i?aaenoaaeaieth i?aaenaaeaoaey
NIE NNN? n iineaaeothuei aianaieai ia ooaa?aeaeaiea Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa
NNN?; iaa?aaeaeae i?aeaiaie e i?enaaeaae ii/aoiua caaiey NNN?;
inouanoaeye i?aai iiieeiaaiey; iacia/ae e niaiye aunoaa eiiaiaeiaaiea
Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee NNN?; a ia?eiae iaaeaeo nanneyie Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?
iauyaeye ninoiyiea aieiu a neo/aa aiaiiiai iaiaaeaiey ia NNN? eee a
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe auiieiaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa ii acaeiiie iai?iia io aa?annee; iauyaeye iauoth e
/anoe/ioth iiaeeecaoeeth; ?aoeoeoee?iaae iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u;
iacia/ae e iocuaae iieiiii/iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae NNN? a eiino?aiiuo
ainoaea?noaao; i?eieiae aa?eoaeueiua e iocuaiua a?aiiou aee?aaeeoiaaiiuo
i?e iai aeeieiiaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa.

25. Nenoaia i?aaiia i?aainoaeey ii Eiinoeoooeee NNN? 1936 a.

A aeaaa XI Eiinoeoooeee “Noae e i?ieo?aoo?a” auee cae?aieaiu i?eioeeiu
i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia noaea e i?ieo?aoo?u. Ii
Eiinoeoooeee, i?aainoaeea a NNN? inouanoaeyeinue Aa?oiaiui Noaeii NNN?,
Aa?oiaiuie noaeaie nithciuo ?anioaeee, e?aaauie e iaeanoiuie noaeaie,
noaeaie aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee e aaoiiiiiuo iaeanoae, ie?oaeiuie noaeaie,
niaoeeaeueiuie noaeaie NNN?, nicaeaaaaiuie ii iinoaiiaeaieth Aa?oiaiiai
Niaaoa NNN?, ia?iaeiuie noaeaie. Ia?iaeiua noaeu aeieaeiu auee
ecae?aoueny a?aaeaeaiaie ?aeiia ia iniiaa anaiauaai, i?yiiai e ?aaiiai
ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa i?e oaeiii aieiniaaiee n?ieii ia 3 aiaea. Ana
inoaeueiua caaiuey noaeaaiie nenoaiu ecae?aeenue niioaaonoaothueie
Niaaoaie aeaiooaoia o?oaeyueony n?ieii ia 5 eao. Eiinoeoooeey cae?aieea
aanueia aaaeiua i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe noaeaaiuo
i?aaiia: ?anniio?aiea aeae ai anao noaeao n o/anoeai ia?iaeiuo
canaaeaoaeae (e?iia neo/aaa, niaoeeaeueii i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii),
ioe?uoia ?acae?aoaeuenoai aeae (iineieueeo caeiiii ia i?aaeoniio?aiu
eneeth/aiey), iaania/aiea i?aaa iaaeiyaiiio ia caueoo, aaaeaiea
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ia ycuea nithciie eee aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee eee
aaoiiiiiie iaeanoe n iaania/aieai aeey eeoe, ia aeaaeaaoeo yoei ycueii,
iieiiai iciaeiieaiey n iaoa?eaeaie aeaea /a?ac ia?aaiae/eea, a oaeaea
i?aai aunooiaoue ia noaea ia ?iaeiii ycuea. Eiinoeoooeey i?iaicaeaoaea
i?eioeei iacaaeneiinoe noaeae e iiae/eiaiey eo oieueei caeiio, eioi?ue
ia i?aeoeea ia?aaeei ia?ooaeny.

Aunoee iaaeci? ca oi/iui eniieiaieai caeiiia anaie ia?iaeiuie
eiienna?eaoaie e iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuie ei o/?aaeaeaieyie, ?aaii eae
ioaeaeueiuie aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie, a oaeaea a?aaeaeaiaie NNN?,
Eiinoeoooeey aiceaaaea ia I?ieo?i?a NNN?. ?anioaeeeaineea, e?aaaua,
iaeanoiua i?ieo?i?u, a oaeaea i?ieo?i?u aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee e
aaoiiiiiuo iaeanoae iacia/aeenue I?ieo?i?ii NNN? n?ieii ia iyoue eao.
Ie?oaeiua, ?aeiiiua e ai?iaeneea i?ieo?i?u iacia/aeenue i?ieo?i?aie
nithciuo ?anioaeee n ooaa?aeaeaiey I?ieo?i?a NNN? n?ieii ia iyaeue eao.
I?aaiu i?ieo?aoo?u, ii Eiinoeoooeee, aeieaeiu auee inouanoaeyoue naie
ooieoeee iacaaeneii io eaeeo au oi ie auei ianoiuo i?aaiia, iiae/eiyynue
oieueei I?ieo?i?o NNN?. Ia i?aeoeea a aeaiiue ia?eiae ?ieue i?ieo?i?neeo
i?aaiia i?eieaeaeanue. Ec-iiae eiio?iey i?aaiia i?ieo?aoo?u auee
oaeoe/anee auaaaeaiu i?aaiu IEAAe, oe?iei eniieuecoaiua oiaaea aeey
iacaeiiiuo ?ai?annee. Iiiaea ?aaioieee i?ieo?aoo?u, eioi?ua /anoii
auiieiyee naie aeiea, noa?aynue iiiaoaoue iacaeiiiui ?ai?anneyi, naie
iiae/an iiaeaa?aaeenue yoei ?ai?anneyi e iiiaea ec ieo iiaeaee a
ia?aaiie ai?ueaa.

26. Iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey i?aaa a 1930-a aiaeu e ianniaua
iieeoe/aneea ?ai?annee

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1930a. iiyaeeinue niiauaiea i ?ane?uoee
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie i?aaiecaoeee — O?oaeiaie e?anoueyineie ia?oee,
eioi?oth yeiau aicaeaaeyee yeiiiienou I. Ae. Eiiae?aoueaa, A.A. *ayiia,
E.I. TH?ianeee e ae?.

Iaaeiaiey anai o?ai a?oiiai auee i?aaeuyaeaiu noaiaea?oiua:
a?aaeeoaeueneea aeaenoaey, iai?aaeaiiua ia ?acaae yeiiiieee NNN?,
iiaeaioiaea naa?aeaiey Niaaoneie aeanoe.

Aeaa iineaaeieo i?ioeanna auee ioe?uouie, iaaeiyaiua iieiinoueth
i?eciaee naith aeio, iieo/eee ?aciua n?iee eeoaiey naiaiaeu. Iaoaieci
aeiauaaiey i?eciaiey aue i?ino. Ia iaaeiyaiiai «iaaeaaeeaaee», e ii
iaiaa?eaay nai naay.

Iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu eiioea 20-o — ia/aea 30-o aa. noaee iiaiaeii e
ianniaui ?ai?anneyi i?ioea noa?ie eioaeeeaaioeee. Iie neoaeeee
ainieoaoaeueiui oeaeyi, i?eaeaay ?aai/ei iaaeiaa?ea e «aieeie»
eioaeeeaaioeee.

Aiia?ao IAIO aue oaea aioia e aeaenoaeyi, eiaeanue e niioaaonoaothuay
oai?ey ia oneeaiee eeanniaie ai?ueau ii ia?a no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia,
noi?ioee?iaaiiay E. Noaeeiui a 1928 a. Ioaeai aue oie/ie, /oiau
?ai?anneaiay iaoeia ia/aea ?aaioaoue.

Oi?ne?iaaiiay eiaeono?eaeecaoeey, ia?anoaiea e?eceniuo yaeaiee i?eaaee e
?inoo iaaeiaieuenoaa, a?iaeaieth a ia?oeeiie n?aaea. A eiioea 1930 a.
i?ioea noaeeineeo iaoiaeia eiaeono?eaeecaoeee aunooieea «a?oiia» N. E.
Nu?oeiaa — A.A. Eiieiaaec?. “Ia?aue yaeyeny eaiaeeaeaoii a /eaiu
Iieeoath?i, i?aaenaaeaoaeai NIE ?NON?, aoi?ie — nae?aoa?ai Caeaaeacneie
ia?oi?aaiecaoeee. «Aeaei» caaa?oeeinue eneeth/aieai ec ninoaaa OeE,
ioi?aaeie ia ia?eoa?eth.

A 1932 a. auei ioe?uoi aeaei oae iacuaaaiiai «Nithca
ia?enenoia-eaieioeaa» ai aeaaa n I. I. ?thoeiui. Ii aiceiaeee ee/ioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia Noaeeia ca aeaaeueiua iineaaenoaey
aaaioth?enoe/aneeo oaiiia eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, eieeaeoeaecaoeee, o?aaiaae
aai niauaiey n iinoa Aainaea. I. ?thoei e aai noi?iiieee auee eneeth/aiu
ec ia?oee e nineaiu.

Iinea yoiai a ia?oee auea i?iaaaeaia /enoea, eioi?ay i?iaeieaeaeenue
iieoi?a aiaea, e caaa?oeeanue eneeth/aieai 18% eiiioienoia (15% «auoee»
ec iaa aeia?iaieueii).

Ia XVII nuacaea AEI(a) (1934 a.), «nuacaea iiaaaeeoaeae», ana auaoea
iiiiceoeeiia?u a i/a?aaeiie ?ac aunooieee n iieayiiuie ?a/aie e
i?ineaaeaieai aiaeaey. Anao i?aacioae Aooa?ei, iacaaaoee Noaeeia
«aaia?aeenneionii ie?iaiai i?ieaoa?eaoa». A eeoa?aoo?a i?eaiaeeony
aa?ney i oii, /oi ?yae aeaeaaaoia nuacaea, iaaeiaieueiuo Noaeeiui,
ia?aoeeenue n i?aaeeiaeaieai e Ee?iao aicaeaaeoue ia?oeth. Iaeiaei oio
?anneacae iai anai Noaeeio, naiaio ae?oao. Ai a?aiy auai?ia OeE i?ioea
Noaeeia auei iiaeaii 300 atheeaoaiae. Noaeei, ociaa ia yoii, iio?aaiaae
ecuyoue atheeaoaie e naeaeaoue oae, /oiau i?ioea iaai auei iiaeaii 3
atheeaoaiy. Yoo aa?neth neiaeii i?iaa?eoue ec-ca ionoonoaey aeieoiaioia.

1 aeaeaa?y 1934 a. a Niieueiii aue oaeo N. I. Ee?ia. Yoi aeaei iiaiae e
ia/aeo «aieueoiai oa??i?a». Oaeeoea N. Ee?iaa, E. Ieeieaaa, aue noaa/ai
ia ianoa i?anooieaiey.

Oaeenoai Ee?iaa i?eaaei e oaeanoi/aieth iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia. Oaea 1
aeaeaa?y a Oaieiaiue eiaeaen NNN? aiinyony eciaiaiey ii aeaeai i
oa??i?a. Neaaenoaea ii iei aeeeeinue ia aieaa 10 aeiae, iaaeieoaeueiia
caeeth/aiea a?o/aeinue iaaeiyaiui ca nooee aei ?anniio?aiey aeaea a
noaea; aeaea neooaeenue aac o/anoey noi?ii; iaaeaeiaaiey i?eaiai?a ia
aeiioneaeinue; i?eaiai? e aunoae ia?a iaeacaiey i?eaiaeeeny a eniieiaiea
iaiaaeeaiii. A 1935 a. i?eieiaaony caeii i iaeacaiee /eaiia naiae
eciaiieeia ?iaeeiu. Aaiaeeony oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeey aeaoae
ia/eiay n 12-eaoiaai aic?anoa.

A 1935 a. ia/aeny iaiai ia?oaeeaoia, iniiaiay caaea/a aeoeee naiaeeeanue
e ecaiaieth ec ia?oee auaoeo o?ioeeenoia e ceiiaueaaoeaa. 9% eiiioienoia
ia i?ioee i/a?aaeioth /enoeo.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie eaiiaiee yaeyeinue iiaeeeth/aiea e iae IEAAe. O
i?aaiia ainaaciianiinoe iiyaeeny «iaoa?eae» ia anao eiiioienoia, eioi?ua
a oi eee eiia a?aiy aoiaeeee a «aioeia?oeeiua» a?oiiu.

Aeey iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia 30-o aa. oa?aeoa?ia iaeia /a?oa: iaaeiaiey
no?ieeenue ia iaeiii aeaea oeee — i?eciaiea naieo iaaeiyaiuo. Iiyoiio
ia?aae neaaenoaeai noiyea oieueei iaeia caaea/a — iieo/eoue eo. A oiae
oei ana: oa?icu, oaiai?u, «eiiaaea?iay» nenoaia aeii?inia, iuoee,
oaioaae.

Oaa?aiuenei-ia?oianeee 1937 a. Ieaioi OeE AEI(a) naieoeeiie?iaae
«aieueoie oa??i?», A 1937 – 1938 aa. no?aio caoeanoioea aieia a?anoia e
?anno?aeia. Nioie ouny/ eaae?iauo ?aaioieeia ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa,
ia?oeeiuo, aiaiiuo e o. i. aaaeiinoa ieacaeenue «a?aaaie ia?iaea».

Oae, a ethia 1937 a. i?aaiu IEAAe ?ane?uee «caaiai?» a a?iee, ai aeaaa
eioi?iai noiye ia?oae I. Oooa/aaneee. Ii e aieueoay a?oiia
aiaia/aeueieeia auee ?anno?aeyiu. A a E?aniie A?iee ia/aeanue «/enoea»,
?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie auei ?ai?anne?iaaii ieiei 40 oun. eiiaiaee?ia.

Ec oeaio?a ia ianoa ioi?aaeeanue a?oiia oiieiiii/aiiuo:

Aa?ey a A?oceth, Eaaaiiae/ a Niieaine, Iaeaieia a Aaei?onneth e
A?iaieth, Iieioia, O?ouaa, Aaeia ia Oe?aeio, o/eieaoea a ?anioaeeeao
e?iaaaoth ?ani?aao.

Ca 1930—1953aa. ii iaaeiaieth a eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo i?anooieaieyo auee
inoaeaeaiu 3 778 234 /aeiaae, ec ieo 786 098 ?anno?aeyiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa oa??i?a no?aia eeoeeanue eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia anao
o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey, auea ?aca?iieaia a?iey, oie/oiaeaiu niaoeeaeenou
oicyenoaaiiuo ia?eiiaoia, aeaii?aeeciaaia ia?oey.

Iiaue neie ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia iaeaaeae ie ciaieyie, ie iiuoii, aiyeny
i?iyaeoue eieoeeaoeao aac oa?icu naiei ieacaoueny a /enea «a?aaia
ia?iaea».

Ia XVIII nuacaea AEI(a) (1939 a.) E. Noaeei au?acee oaeiaeaoai?aiea
i?iaaaeaiiie /enoeie. I?e yoii auei ioia/aii, /oi iia nii?iaiaeaeaeanue
«iiiai/eneaiiuie ioeaeaie», ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eioi?ua aiceaaaeanue ia
ianoiua ia?oi?aaiecaoeee. A 1939 a. ec AOEAAa auee inaiaiaeaeaiu 327
oun. /aeiaae. Yoi niinianoaiaaei nicaeaieth aie?oa eiaie E. Noaeeia e
iiaiai oaoa IEAAe E. Aa?ey eieaeaea «ni?aaaaeeeauo» ?oeiaiaeeoaeae.

A ?acoeueoaoa oioaeueiie «/enoee» anao noa? aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe
ainoaea?noaa E. Noaeei oe?aiee ee/ioth aeanoue; eeeaeaee?iaae anyeoth
aiciiaeiinoue iiyaeaiey iiiiceoeee; oneeee aeanoue oeaio?a iaae
ia?eoa?eae; «niye» nioeeaeueiia iai?yaeaiea a iauanoaa, iai?aaeaoaai ia
iiene «a?aaia».

27. ?acaeoea a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa a NNN? a 1930-a aiaeu

28. Naiaeiia i?aai a NNN? a 1930-a aiaeu

29. Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey oaieiaiiai i?aaa e i?ioeanna a 1930-a aiaeu

?acaeoea i?aaa a 30-a a.

1. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai 2. Naiaeiia i?aai

3. O?oaeiaia i?aai 4. Eieoiciia e caiaeueiia i?aai

5. Oaieiaiia i?aai 6. Oaieiaiue i?ioeann

1. A noa?a a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue
aeiaiai?iui ioiioaieyi. N 1931 a. ana oicyenoaaiiua i?aaiu i?e iinoaaea
oiaa?ia, i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaio e ieacaiee oneoa auee iaycaiu ioi?ieyoue
ienueiaiiua aeiaiai?u. Oneeeaaeanue ?ieue aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyie eae n?aaenoai auiieiaiey ieaia.

Onoaiaaeeaaeinue aeaa aeaea aeiaiai?ia: aaia?aeueiua e eieaeueiua.
Aaia?aeueiua aeiaiai?u caeeth/aeenue iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiuie i?aaiaie. Ia
eo iniiaaiee caeeth/aeenue eieaeueiua aeiaiai?u iaaeaeo eiie?aoiuie
oicyenoaaiiuie noauaeoaie.

?acaeoea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa naeaeaei nenoaio aaia?aeueiuo aeiaiai?ia
iai?eaieaiie. Yoi aucaaei ia?aoiae e nenoaia i?yiuo aeiaiai?ia. I?yiua
aeiaiai?u caeeth/aeenue ia iniiaa i?ioieieueiuo niaeaoaiee. A 1937 a.
i?ioieieueiua niaeaoaiey auee caiaiaiu iniiaiuie oneiaeyie iinoaaee.

Nouanoaiaaea i?aeoeea iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee aac caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?ia.
Iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa o?oaea e iai?iiu io 7 ai?aey 1935 a. aue ioiaiai
aeiaiai?iue ii?yaeie iinoaaee aaoiiaoei, ioa?ocea eioi?uo ai?aaeue
aeieaeia auea i?iecaiaeeoueny ii ia?yaeai, auaeaiiui ia iniiaaiee ieaia,
ooaa?aeaeaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaii. A 1938 a. aaiaeeony aacaeiaiai?iue ii
?yaeie iinoaaee iaoaeeia e iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee. Aac aeiaiai?ia
i?iecaiaeeeanue iinoaaea oiaa?ia ia yenii?o e o. ae.

2. Ii?iu naiaeiiai i?aaa a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae auee iai?aaeaiu ia
oe?aieaiea niaaoneie naiuee, caueoo eioa?ania aeaoae, caei?iauey iaoa?e,
ieacaiea iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue iiiainaiaeiui. Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey
?acaeoey naiaeiiai i?aaa eiaea Eiinoeoooeey NNN? 1936 a., no. 122
eioi?ie cae?aieyea ?aaiii?aaea aeaiueiu e ioae/eiu.

Aaiaeeeny einoeooo iao?iiaoa. Aeaoe-ne?iou, a oaeaea aeaoe, ecuyoua ii
iinoaiiaeaieth noaea io ?iaeeoaeae, iiaee ia?aaeaaaoueny a naiuee
o?oaeyueony ia ainieoaiea. Yoi ioi?ieyeinue aeiaiai?ii, caeeth/aiiui
i?aaiaie cae?aaiio?aiaiey eee ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey, a a naeueneeo
ianoiinoyo — i?aaenoaaeoaeyie naeueneeo Niaaoia n eeoeaie, aa?oueie
aeaoae ia ainieoaiea.

27 ethiy 1936 a. auei i?eiyoi iinoaiiaeaiea OeEE e NIE NNN? «I
cai?auaiee aai?oia, oaaee/aiee iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue ?iaeaieoeai,
onoaiiaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiue iiiainaiaeiui, ?anoe?aiee naoe
?iaeeeueiuo aeiiia, aeaoneeo yneae e aeaoneeo naaeia, oneeaiee
oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey ca iaieaoaae aeeiaioia e i iaeioi?uo eciaiaieyo a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i ?acaiaeao».

I?e ?anoi?aeaiee a?aea i?aaiu caan auee iaycaiu i?eiyoue ia?u e
i?eie?aieth noi?oaia. A noaeao nie?auaeenue n?iee ?anniio?aiey
aeeiaioiuo aeae. Ca iaoieaoo aeeiaioia onoaiaaeeaaeanue oaieiaiay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue — eeoaiea naiaiaeu ia n?ie aei aeaoo eao.

3. O?oaeiaia i?aai auei iai?aaeaii ia iaania/aiea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
iiauie eaae?aie, iiauoaiea eoeueoo?ii-oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy ?aaioieeia,
?aoaiea aii?inia iieaou o?oaea. Iii niinianoaiaaei ?acaeoeth ianniaiai
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ni?aaiiaaiey, oe?aieaieth o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu. A
iaeanoe o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee Eiinoeoooeey 1936 a. cae?aieyea neaaeothuea
i?aaa: i?aai ia o?oae, ia ioaeuo, ia iaoa?eaeueiia iaania/aiea a
noa?inoe, a neo/aa aieacie e iioa?e o?oaeiniiniaiinoe, ?aaiua i?aaa ia
o?oae aeaiueiu e ioae/eiu. Oaeaea Eiinoeoooeeae cae?aieyeanue
iaycaiiinoue a?aaeaeai o?oaeeoueny.

N ieoya?y 1930 a. a nayce n eeeaeaeaoeeae aac?aaioeoeu i?ae?aoeeanue
auieaoa iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea.

N 20 aeaeaa?y 1938a. Iinoaiiaeaieai NIE NNN? auee aaaaeaiu aaeeiua
o?oaeiaua eieaeee.

O?oaeiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aaiaeeei ia?u iiiu?aiey aeey
aeia?iniaanoiuo ?aaioieeia. A aeaeaa?a 1938 a. auee i?eiyou iieiaeaiey i
i?enaiaiee aunoaai o?oaeiaiai ioee/ey — caaiey Aa?iy Nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
O?oaea e i iaa?aaeaeaiee iaaeaeyie «Ca o?oaeiaoth aeiaeanoue», «Ca
o?oaeiaia ioee/ea».

A 1940 a. a nayce n aic?inoae aiaiiie iianiinoueth ia anao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo, eiiia?aoeaiuo e iauanoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e a
o/?aaeaeaieyo aue aaaaeai 8-/aniaie ?aai/ee aeaiue, ca eneeth/aieai
i?ioannee n a?aaeiuie oneiaeyie o?oaea. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoie ia?ie
onoaiaaeeaaeanue oanoeaeiaaiay ?aai/ay iaaeaey.

4. Aeaaiuie caaea/aie a noa?a eieoiciiai e caiaeueiiai i?aaa auee
caaea/e ?acaeoey e oe?aieaiey i?aaiaiai noaoona eieoicia.

17 oaa?aey 1935 a. ia II Ananithciii nuacaea eieoicieeia-oaea?ieeia aue
i?eiyo I?eia?iue onoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie a?oaee, eioi?ue
aiineaaenoaee aue ooaa?aeaeai NIE NNN? e OeE AEI(a). I?eia?iue onoaa
ninoiye ec 25 noaoae, naaaeaiiuo a 8 ?acaeaeia.

A Onoaaa eceaaaeanue i?ia?aiia aeayoaeueiinoe eieoicia, ii?aaeaeyeenue
oeaee e caaea/e iauaaeeiaiey e?anoueyi a eieoic, ii?yaeie iauaaeeiaiey.
Onoaa cae?aieye caieth ca a?oaeueth a aann?i/iia iieueciaaiea, iia ia
iiaeeaaeaea eoiea-i?iaeaaea eee naea/a a a?aiaeo. ?acia?u i?eonaaeaaiie
caiee, iaoiaeeaoaeny a ee/iii iieueciaaiee eieoiciiai aeai?a,
eieaaaeenue io 1/4 aei 1/2 aa, a a ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiao — aei 1 aa. Onoaa
ia?a/eneye n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaeeaaeaaoea iaiauanoaeaieth i?e
anooieaiee a eieoic, a oaeaea n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, inoaaaaoeany a
ee/iii iieueciaaiee eieoiciiai aeai?a. Onoaiaaeeaaeinue, /oi a?oaeue
auea iaycaia aanoe naia oicyenoai ii ieaio, iiauoaoue o?iaeaeiinoue
eieoiciuo iieae, ?anoe?youe iinaaioth ieiuaaeue, iieiinoueth
eniieueciaaoue naeueneioicyenoaaiioth oaoieeo, i?aaieciauaaoue
aeeaioiiaiae/aneea oa?iu, iiauoaoue o?oaeiaoth eaaeeoeeaoeeth /eaiia
a?oaee, iiaeieiaoue eo eoeueoo?iue o?iaaiue e o. ae. *eaiaie a?oaee
iiaee auoue o?oaeyueany, aeinoeaoea 16-eaoiaai aic?anoa. Aunoei i?aaiii
a?oaee yaeyeinue iauaa nia?aiea aa /eaiia.

NIE NNN? e OeE AEI(a) a oeaeyo ?acaeoey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa i?eiyee
neaaeothuea iinoaiiaeaiey: io 8 ethey 1939 a. «I ia?ii?eyoeyo ii
?acaeoeth iauanoaaiiiai aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a eieoicao» e io 30 yiaa?y 1940
a. «Ia iaycaoaeueiie iinoaaea oa?noe ainoaea?noao». Yoe aeou
onoaiaaeeaaee iiaaeoa?ioth nenoaio iinoaaie i?iaeoeoia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.
?aiaa iaycaoaeueiua iinoaaee iyna e oa?noe ainoaea?noao en/eneyeenue ii
eiee/anoao aieia neioa.

5. Aeey oaieiaiiai i?aaa a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ii oneeaiea
ai?ueau i?ioea ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?anooieaiee, i?ioea i?anooieaiee,
iauaeoii eioi?uo yaeyeanue nioeeaeenoe/aneay nianoaaiiinoue, i?ioea
i?anooieaiee, aeaci?aaieciaaaoeo ii?iaeueioth ?aaioo i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
iiae?uaaaoeo o?oaeiaoth aeenoeeieeio, e ae?oaeo i?anooieaiee.

Aua iaeiie iniaaiiinoueth oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yaeyeinue
oaeanoi/aiea ia? iaeacaiey. Iaeioi?ua caeiiu eniieueciaaeenue
ainoaea?noaii aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?ai?annee i?ioea iaaeiiaiuo ethaeae.

6. A ?acaeoee oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue neaaeothuaa.
Ainoaea?noaii i?eieiaeenue eae ii?iaoeaiua aeou, yaeyaoeany
th?eaee/aneei iniiaaieai ianniauo iacaeiiiuo ?ai?annee, oae e caeiiu,
cae?aieyaoea aeaiie?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna.

Eiinoeoooeey NNN? 1936 a. e Caeii i noaeiono?ienoaa 1938 a.
onoaiaaeeaaee neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna— aeaniinoue
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, iacaaeneiinoue noaeae e iiae/eiaiea eo oieueei
caeiio, iaania/aiea iaaeiyaiiio i?aaa ia caueoo, o/anoea a ninoaaa noaea
ia?iaeiuo canaaeaoaeae, aaaeaiea noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ia ycuea nithciie,
aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee eee aaoiiiiiie iaeanoe e o. ae.

Iiiaea aeaiie?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna ai a?aiaia
?ai?annee eaii?e?iaaeenue eee ia?ooaeenue.

30. Eciaiaiey a nenoaia i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey a
NNN? a ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu (1941-1945 aa.)

1. *?acau/aeiua i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey 2. Aiaiiay ?aoi?ia

3. Aiaiiay thnoeoeey 4. Iieiaeaiea oea?eae

1. *a?ac iaaeaeth iinea ia/aea Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu a ethia 1941
a. I?aceaeeoi Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa, NIE e OeE AEI(a) i?eiyee niaianoiia
iinoaiiaeaiea i nicaeaiee aunoaai /?acau/aeiiai i?aaia —
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiieoaoa iai?iiu (AEI), nin?aaeioi/eaoaai a naieo
?oeao anth iieiioo aeanoe. Aicaeaaee Eiieoao E. A. Noaeei. Ana
a?aaeaeaia e i?aaiecaoeee auee iaycaiu auiieiyoue ?aoaiey e
?anii?yaeaiey AEI.

AEI ia eiae naiaai aiia?aoa e aeaenoaiaae /a?ac nouanoaothuea
ainoaea?noaaiiua, ia?oeeiua, iauanoaaiiua i?aaiu e naieo oiieiiii/aiiuo.
A iaeioi?uo ai?iaeao nicaeaaaeenue ianoiua eiieoaou iai?iiu, eioi?ua
aicaeaaeyeenue ia?auie nae?aoa?yie iaeiiia eee ai?eiiia ia?oee. A eo
ninoaa oaeaea aoiaeeee i?aaenoaaeoaee ia?oeeiuo i?aaiia, ?aaioieee
i?aaiia IEAAe e aiaiiiai eiiaiaeiaaiey e ae?oaea eeoea.

Aeey yaaeoaoeee i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a ainoi/iua ?aeiiu no?aiu aue
nicaeai Niaao ii aeaeai yaaeoaoeee i?e AEI. A ieoya?a 1941 a. aue
ia?aciaai Eiieoao ii yaaeoaoeee i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo caiania,
i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia e i?aaei?eyoee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A aeaeaa?a 1941 a.
iaa yoeo i?aaia niaieei Oi?aaeaiea ii aeaeai yaaeoaoeee. Yaaeoaoeeae
ethaeae caieiaeinue Oi?aaeaiea ii yaaeoaoeee ianaeaiey.

A ethea 1941 a. Iieeoath?i OeE AEI(a) i?eiyei iinoaiiaeaiea ia
i?aaiecaoeee ia?oecaineiai aeaeaeaiey ia ieeoie?iaaiiuo oa??eoi?eyo.
I?aaiecaoeey aiceaaaeanue ia ia?oeeiua i?aaiu, aeeaa?neiiiua aiaiiua
a?oiiu e i?aaiu IEAAe. ?aoaieai AEI io 30 iay 1942 a. i?e Noaaea
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai aue nicaeai Oeaio?aeueiue ooaa ia?oecaineiai
aeaeaeaiey, a naioya?a — Iniaia Aeaaiia eiiaiaeiaaiea ia?oecaineiai
aeaeaeaiey.

2 iiya?y 1942 a. Oeacii I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? auea
ia?aciaaia *?acau/aeiay Ainoaea?noaaiiay eiienney ii onoaiiaeaieth e
?anneaaeiaaieth ceiaeayiee iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo caoaao/eeia e eo
niiauieeia e i?e/eiaiiiai eie oua?aa a?aaeaeaiai, eieoicai, iauanoaaiiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi, ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi e o/?aaeaeaieyi NNN?. A
?anioaeeeao, e?ayo, iaeanoyo e ai?iaeao ia?aciauaaeenue ianoiua
eiiennee.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey iiaeeecaoeee o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey a ethia 1941 a.
aue nicaeai Eiieoao ii o/aoo e ?ani?aaeaeaieth ?aai/ae neeu i?e NIE
NNN?, i?e iaeanoiuo e e?aaauo eniieeiiao o/?aaeaeaeenue ath?i ii o/aoo e
?ani?aaeaeaieth ?aai/ae neeu.

2. A ia?aue aeaiue aieiu auea iauyaeaia iiaeeecaoeey ioae/ei a aic?anoa
io 19 aei 55 eao.

Aunoaa aiaiiia ?oeiaiaenoai aiceaaaeinue ia Noaaeo Aa?oiaiiai
Aeaaiieiiaiaeiaaiey. Aa ninoaa aeeth/ae /eaiia Iieeoath?i OeE AEI(a) e
Ia?eiiaoa iai?iiu. I?aaiaie Noaaee auee Aaia?aeueiue ooaa E?aniie A?iee,
oi?aaeaiey ia?eiiaoia iai?iiu e oeioa, eiiaiaeiaaiea o?iioaie. A
i?aaeaeao o?iioia nicaeaaaeenue niaaeeiaiey, iia?aoeaiua iauaaeeiaiey e
ei?iona.

17 naioya?y 1941 a. AEI i?eiye iinoaiiaeaiea «I anaiauai iaycaoaeueiii
iao/aiee aiaiiiio aeaeo a?aaeaeai NNN?». Niaeanii yoiio ii?iaoeaiiio
aeoo iaycaoaeueiia aiaiiia iao/aiea aaiaeeeinue aeey a?aaeaeai NNN?
ioaeneiai iiea a aic?anoa io 16 aei 50 eao. I?aaiecaoeeae iao/aiey
caieiaeenue Ia?eiiao iai?iiu e aai i?aaiu.

N ethey 1941 a. ii ieoya?ue 1942 a. a a?iee aeaenoaiaae einoeooo aiaiiuo
eiienna?ia e iieeo?oeia. Inaiueth 1942 a. aai niaiee einoeooo
caianoeoaeae eiiaiaee?ia ii iieeo/anoe, ia eioi?uo aiceaaaeinue
inouanoaeaiea eaeaieiae/aneiai eiio?iey e ainieoaiey.

No?oeoo?a aii?oaeaiiuo nee aeeth/aea o?iiou, a?iee, ei?iona, aeeaecee,
a?eaaaeu, iieee, aaoaeueiiu, ?iou, acaiaeu, ioaeaeaiey.

A yiaa?a 1943 a. auee aaaaeaiu iiaua ciaee ?acee/ey — iiaiiu. A ethea
1943 a. aaaaeaii aeaeaiea aiaiiineoaeaueo E?aniie A?iee ia ?yaeiaie,
na?aeaioneee, ioeoea?neee ninoaau e aaia?aeeoao.

3. Iniaay nenoaia aiaiiie thnoeoeee ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeanue Oeacii
I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 22 ethiy 1941 a. «I aiaiiuo
o?eaoiaeao a ianoiinoyo, iauyaeaiiuo ia aiaiiii iieiaeaiee, e ?aeiiao
aiaiiuo aeaenoaee». Niaeanii yoiio Oeaco o?eaoiaeu ia?aciaaeenue i?e
a?ieyo, ei?ionao, aeeaeceyo, aa?ieciiao, a?eaaaeao ia aeaeaciuo aei?iaao
e a ?a/iuo (ii?neeo) aannaeiao. Iie ?anniao?eaaee ana i?anooieaiey,
niaa?oaiiua aiaiiineoaeaueie, a oaeaea aeaea i i?anooieaieyo i?ioea
iai?iiu, iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoe e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea.

Onoaiaaeeaaeny neaaeothuee i?ioeannoaeueiue ii?yaeie ?anniio?aiey aeae.
Aei 1943 a. o?eaoiaeu aeaenoaiaaee a ninoaaa o?ao iinoiyiiuo /eaiia,
caoai a ieo noaee o/anoaiaaoue canaaeaoaee. N?iee ?anniio?aiey aeae auee
i?aaeaeueii naeaou. Aeaea neooaeenue a cae?uoii i?ioeanna. I?eaiai?u
anooiaee a caeiiioth neeo n iiiaioa eo i?iaicaeaoaiey e i?eaiaeeeenue a
eniieiaiea iaiaaeeaiii. Eniieiaiea nia?oiuo i?eaiai?ia iiaei auoue
i?einoaiiaeaii eiiaiaeothueie a?ieyie e ie?oaaie, a oaeaea aiaiiuie
niaaoaie. I?eaiai?u ia?aniao?eaaeenue oieueei a ii?yaeea iaaeci?a.
Iaaeci?iuie einoaioeeyie auee Aiaiiay, Aiaiii-aeaeaciiaei?iaeiay,
Aiaiiay aiaeiio?ainii?oiay eieeaaee Aa?oiaiiai noaea NNN? e Ieaioi
Aa?oiaiiai noaea NNN?.

4. Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo ia?ii?eyoee auei ainnoaiiaeaiea ?oeiaiaeyueo
oea?eiaiuo i?aaiia. A naioya?a 1943 a. aue nicaai Niai?, eca?aaoee
Iao?ea?oa Iineianeiai e Anay ?one (aia?aua n 1925 a.), e ia?aciaai
neiiae. Aeey nio?oaeie/anoaa n oea?eiaueth nicaeaaaeny niaoeeaeueiue
ainoaea?noaaiiue i?aai — Niaao ii aeaeai i?aaineaaiie oea?eae. Aue
i?aiaeieai nicaeaiiue a 20-a aa. oea?eiaiue ?aneie.

31. I?aaiaay iieeoeea Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa a aiaeu Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu (1941-1945 aa.)

1. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai 2. Naiaeiia i?aai 3. O?oaeiaia i?aai 4. Eieoiciia
i?aai 5. Oaieiaiia i?aai

1. A iaeanoe a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa neaaeoao ioiaoeoue neaaeothuaa. Ia
oa??eoi?ee, a?aiaiii ieeoie?iaaiiie a?aaii, niaaoneea caeiiu n/eoaeenue
aeaenoaothueie. Iiyoiio ana a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua
ia a?aiaiii ieeoie?iaaiiie oa??eoi?ee, ia niioaaonoaiaaaoea niaaoneei
caeiiai eee ia?ooaaoea eioa?anu Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa, i?eciaaaeenue
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie.

A nayce n aiaiiie neooaoeeae ?anoe?yeenue i?aaa ainoaea?noaa a ioiioaiee
iauaeoia i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Oae, a?aaeaeaia auee iaycaiu
naeaoue ?aaeeii?eaiieee e iaeioi?ia ae?oaia eiouanoai.

A iaycaoaeuenoaaiiii i?aaa noaeaeanue noa?a i?eiaiaiey aeiaiai?iuo
ioiioaiee e ?anoe?yeinue i?eiaiaiea aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiauo iaoiaeia.
Aieia ia yaeyeanue iniiaaieai aeey iaeniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa.
Nicaeaaaeanue nenoaia oeaeaauo oiiaeia. ?anoe?yeenue ?anii?yaeeoaeueiua
i?aaa ia?eiiaoia.

2. A noa?a naiaeiiai i?aaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue ia?u, eiathuea naiae
oeaeueth oe?aieaiea einoeoooa a?aea, iiiu?aiea iiiaiaeaoiuo naiae,
?anoe?aiea naoe aeaoneeo naaeia, iiauoaiea ?iaeaeaaiinoe e o. ae.

Oeacii I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 21 iiya?y 1941 a. aaiaeeeny
iaeia ia oieinoyeia, iaeeiieeo e aacaeaoiuo a?aaeaeai. A 1943 a. auee
i?eiyou ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua aeou i iiaea e onuiiaeaiee.

Oeac I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 8 ethey 1944 a. «Ia
oaaee/aiee ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiue aa?aiaiiui aeaiueiai, iiiaiaeaoiui e
iaeeiieei iaoa?yi, oneeaiea io?aiu iaoa?einoaa e aeaonoaa, ia
onoaiiaeaiee ii/aoiiai caaiey “Iaoue-aa?ieiy” e o/?aaeaeaiee i?aeaia
“Iaoa?eineay neaaa” e iaaeaee “Iaaeaeue iaoa?einoaa”» aian
i?eioeeieaeueiua eciaiaiey a einoeooo a?aea e ?acaiaea. A niioaaonoaee n
Oeacii oieueei ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue a?ae ii?iaeaeae i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
noi?oaia. Eeoea, oaeoe/anee ninoiyaoea a a?a/iuo ioiioaieyo, iiaee
ioi?ieoue naie ioiioaiey iooai ?aaeno?aoeee a?aea.

Ioiaiyeenue noaeaaiue ii?yaeie onoaiiaeaiey iooeianoaa e acuneaiea
aeeiaioia ia ?aaaiea, ?iaeaeaiiiai io eeoea, n eioi?ui iaoue ia ninoiyea
a ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiii a?aea.

Oneiaeiyeny i?ioeann ?acaiaea — ?acaiae i?iecaiaeeeny oieueei a
noaeaaiii ii?yaeea, i?e/ai i?ioeann ninoiye ec aeaoo noaaeee. Ia ia?aie
noaaeee ia?iaeiue noae aue iaycai i?eiyoue ia?u ii i?eie?aieth noi?oaia.
Anee noi?oae ia i?eie?eeenue, aeaei iinooiaei a auoanoiyuoth
einoaioeeth, eioi?ay e ?aoaea aii?in ii nouanoao.

3. Aaiaeeeenue /?acau/aeiua ia?u ?aaoee?iaaiey o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee. 22
ethiy 1941 a. aue i?eiyo Oeac I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? «I
aiaiiii iieiaeaiee», a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui aiaiiua aeanoe eiaee i?aai
i?eaeaeaoue a?aaeaeai e o?oaeiaie iiaeiiinoe aeey auiieiaiey ?yaea
?aaio. Oeac «I ?aaeeia ?aai/aai a?aiaie ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo a aiaiiia
a?aiy», ooaa?aeaeaiiue 26 ethiy 1941 a., oaaee/eaae ia?o o?oaea.
Aee?aeoi?ai i?aaei?eyoee auei i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai onoaiaaeeaaoue
iaycaoaeueiua naa?oo?i/iua ?aaiou ia n?ie aei 3 /ania a aeaiue.

Ia anao i?aaei?eyoeyo e a o/?aaeaeaieyo ioiaiyeenue i/a?aaeiua e
aeiiieieoaeueiua ioionea. Iie caiaiyeenue aeaiaaeiie eiiiainaoeeae.
Ioionea i?aaeinoaaeyeenue: a neo/aa aieacie, ii aa?aiaiiinoe e ?iaeai,
?aaioieeai aei 16 eao.

Oeac I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 13 oaa?aey 1942 a. aaiaeee
iiaeeecaoeeth o?oaeiniiniaiiai ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ia ia?eiae aiaiiiai
a?aiaie aeey ?aaiou ia i?iecaiaenoaa e a no?ieoaeuenoaa. O?oaeiaie
iiaeeecaoeee iiaeeaaeaee ioae/eiu a aic?anoa io 16 aei 55 eao e aeaiueiu
io 16 aei 45 eao, ia ?aaioaaoea a ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo e
i?aaei?eyoeyo. Eeoea, oeeiiyaoeany io iiaeeecaoeee, i?eaeaeaeenue e
oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

4. Eieoiciia i?aai ?aoaei neaaeothuea caaea/e: iaania/aiea
i?iaeiaieuenoaeai e nu?ueai, oe?aieaiea o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu,
ainnoaiiaeaiea ?ac?ooaiiiai naeueneiai oicyenoaa e o. ae. I?eieiathony
ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia oneeaiea ieaiiauo ia/ae a naeueneii oicyenoaa.

Aaeaeo aiaiiie neooaoeee a oeaeyo iaania/aiey no?aiu i?iaeiaieuenoaeai
aue iiauoai iaycaoaeueiue ieieioi o?oaeiaeiae a aiaeo: aei 150
o?oaeiaeiae — a oeiieiauo ?aeiiao, aei 100 — a Iineianeie, Eaaiianeie e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo iaeanoyo, aei 120 — ai anao inoaeueiuo ?aeiiao no?aiu.
*eaiu naiae eieoicieeia a aic?anoa io 12 aei 16 eao auee iaycaiu
io?aaioaoue ia iaiaa 50 o?oaeiaeiae a aiaeo.

Ia naea ia oaaoaei ?aai/ae neeu. A nayce n yoei NIE NNN? e OeE AEI(a)
i?aaeinoaaeei NIE nithciuo e aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee, e?aaaui e iaeanoiui
eniieeiiai i?aai i?eaeaeaoue aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio
o?oaeiniiniaiia ianaeaiea ai?iaeia e naeueneeo ianoiinoae, ia
?aaioathuaa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe e o?ainii?oa, /anoue
neoaeaueo o/?aaeaeaiee, o/aueony 6— 10-o eeannia, nooaeaioia oaoieeoiia
e aocia,

5. A oneiaeyo aiaiiiai a?aiaie i?iecioee nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey
noaieiaiii i?aaa. Aeaenoaiaaee eae aeiaiaiiua ii?iu oaieiaiiai i?aaa,
oae e iiaua ii?iu, aucaaiiua aiaiiie ianoaiiaeie.

Oeac I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 6 ethey 1941 a. «Ia
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?ani?ino?aiaiea a aiaiiia a?aiy eiaeiuo neooia,
aicaoaeaeaaoeo o?aaiao n?aaee ianaeaiey» ca niaa?oaiea oaeeo aeaenoaee
onoaiaaeeaae oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue a aeaea oth?aiiiai caeeth/aiey
ia n?ie io 2 aei 5 eao.

Oeacii I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 2 iay 1943 a.
onoaiaaeeaaeanue oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeey aieineeo ia/aeueieeia
ca iacaeiiiia iaa?aaeaeaiea. Oo?aoa ciaiaie aieineeo /anoae i?eaiaeeea e
?anoi?ie?iaaieth yoie /anoe, a aeiiaiua iiaeeaaeaee noaeo aiaiiiai
o?eaoiaea.

Oeac I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 15 iiya?y 1943 a. «Ia
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?acaeaoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu eee ca oo?aoo
aeieoiaioia, niaea?aeaaoeo ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio» onoaiaaeeaae
oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue a aeaea eeoaiey naiaiaeu aeey aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe ia n?ie aei 10 eao, aeey a?aaeaeai — aei 3 eao.

19 ai?aey 1943 a. Oeacii I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? aeey
oaoenoneeo i?anooiieeia e eo iiniaieeia auee aaaaeaiu iiaua aeaeu
iaeacaiee — nia?oiay eaciue /a?ac iiaaoaiea e nnueea ia eaoi?aeiua
?aaiou ia n?ie io 15 aei 20 eao.

I?eiaiyeanue ion?i/ea eniieiaiey i?eaiai?ia n ioi?aaeie inoaeaeaiiuo ia
o?iio. Ioee/eaoeany a aiyo inaiaiaeaeaeenue io iaeacaiey.

32. Aeaii?oaoeey ia?iaeia eae iaeei ec aeaeia eieeaeoeaiiai iaeacaiey a
aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu

A aiaeu aieiu i?iaiaeeeanue aeaii?oaoeey iaeioi?uo ia?iaeia NNN?.
Ia?auie i?eioaeeoaeueiiio ia?anaeaieth iiaeaa?aeenue a 1941—1942 aa.
niaaoneea iaioeu (aeaaiui ia?acii ec ?anioaeeee Iaioeaa Iiaieaeuey e n
Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca). A eiioea oaa?aey 1944 a. a ainoi/iua ?aeiiu no?aiu
aunaeaii 650 oun. /a/aioeaa, eiaooae, eaeiueia e ea?a/aaaoeaa. Eaoii
1944 a. eo o/anoue ?acaeaeeee ieiei 225 oun. e?uineeo oaoa?, a oaeaea
aieaa?, a?aeia, a?iyi, i?iaeeaaaoeo a E?uio. A i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
aeieoiaioao oeacuaaeenue neaaeothuea i?e/eiu aunaeaiey: noaaeeecaoeey
iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee a yoii ?aaeiia e eeeaeaeaoeey aaiaeeoecia,
i/enoea oa??eoi?ee io «aioeniaaoneeo, oieiineeo yeaiaioia», iaeacaiea ca
iiniaie/anoai oaoenoai e aunooieaiey i?ioea niaaoneie aeanoe.
Aeaii?oaoeee iiaeeaaeaei ana ianaeaiea oeacaiiuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae aac
eneeth/aiey e i?e?aaieaaeinue ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie e iia?aoeeyi, a
eioi?uo eniieueciaaeenue e?oiiua neeu aiene IEAAe e iia?/aeenoneee
ninoaa. Oae, i?e aunaeaiee /a/aioeaa e eiaooae auei caaeaenoaiaaii 100
oun. aieoeia e ioeoea?ia, 19 oun. iia?aoeaiuo ?aaioieeia IEAAe, IEAA e
«NIA?O». Any yoa aeoeey auea i?iaaaeaia anaai ca ianeieueei aeiae,
«i?aaieciaaiii e aac na?ueaciuo neo/aaa nii?ioeaeaiey». Eae aeieeaaeuaae
E. A. Noaeeio ia?eii aioo?aiieo aeae E. I. Aa?ey, ia ianoa ?oeiaiaeeaoee
iia?aoeeae, «caneoaeeaathueo aieiaiey i?ienoanoaee iao». *oiau onei?eoue
ia?aaiceo aunaeaioeaa e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui yoaeiiai, eniieueciaaeenue
aaoiiaoeiu, iieo/aiiua iacaaeieai aei yoiai ii eaiae-eeco. Ca yoo
iia?aoeeth aieaa 700 /aeiaae auee ioia/aiu aiaauie iaa?aaeaie, /aoaa?i —
E. I. Aa?ey, A. 3. Eiaoeia, N. I. E?oaeia, E. A. Na?ia — i?aeaiii
Noai?iaa I noaiaie. Ii aeaiiui IEAAe, e inaie 1944 a. iauaa /enei
aunaeaiiuo ca a?aiy aieiu ninoaaeei 1514 oun. /aeiaae.

33. Ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneay nenoaia a NNN? ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1940-
ia/aea 1950-o aiaeia

Aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue

I?aaenoaaeoaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoe

3. I?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey

4. Noaeaaiua i?aaiu 5. Aii?oaeaiiua neeu

A iineaaiaiiua aiaeu aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue Niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaa inouanoaeyeanue a oneiaeyo eciaiaiey niioiioaiey nee ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia. Aicieeea iiaay nenoaia ainoaea?noa —
nioeeaeenoe/aneee eaaa?ue. Ia/aeny ?aniaae eieiieaeueiie nenoaiu,

A oiaea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea Aa?iaiey, Eoaeey,
ssiiiey e eo nithcieee. Oneeeeanue aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa, aic?in aai iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaoi?eoao.

Iinea ieii/aiey aieiu aicieeei i?ioeainoiyiea aeaoo aea?aeaa: NNN? e
NOA. Ia/aeenue «oieiaeiay aieia» e aiiea aii?oaeaiee.

A 1946 a. a III Niaaoneee Nithc aunooiee n i?aaeeiaeaieyie i
i?iaeieaeaiee nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo aea?aeaaaie, niaianoii auea?aaoeie
aieio, i ie?iii ninouanoaiaaiee aeaoo ?acee/iuo nenoai, i cai?auaiee
yaea?iiai i?oaeey, eeeaeaeaoeee eiino?aiiuo aiaiiuo aac. Yoe
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia auee iiaeaea?aeaiu caiaaeiuie no?aiaie.

Iinea ieii/aiey aieiu a oaa?aea 1946 a. auee i?iaaaeaiu auai?u a
Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN?, a a 1947 a. — a aa?oiaiua niaaou nithciuo e
aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee. Aeey eaiaeeaeaoia a aeaiooaou aue iiauoai
aic?anoiie oeaic: aeey aeaiooaoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? — aei 23 eao,
aeey aeaiooaoia aa?oiaiuo niaaoia nithciuo e aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee — aei
21 aiaea. A 1947— 1948 aa. auee i?iaaaeaiu auai?u a ianoiua Niaaou.

A ia?aua iineaaiaiiua aiaeu (1945—1954) Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? nicuaaeny 9
?ac, o. a. ai?acaei ?aaea, /ai yoi auei i?aaeoniio?aii Eiinoeoooeeae.
E?oa aii?inia, ?anniao?eaaaiuo Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii NNN?, naiaeeeny e
aianaieth eciaiaiee a Eiinoeoooeeth, ooaa?aeaeaieth
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo ieaiia, ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, oeacia
I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa.

A ia?oa 1946 a. aue nie?auai eiee/anoaaiiue ninoaa I?aceaeeoia
Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?. A oaa?aea 1947 a. auea ?anoe?aia aai
eiiiaoaioeey.

Ii ieii/aiee aieiu auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu eeai i?aia?aciaaiu /?acau/aeiua
i?aaiu, aucaaiiua e aeecie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie aiaiiiai a?aiaie. Oae,
aeaea oi?acaeiaiiiai AEI ia?aaeaaaeenue Niaaoo Ia?iaeiuo Eiienna?ia,
aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiua ia?eiiaou i?aia?aciauaaeenue a i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey
ie?iuie io?aneyie i?iecaiaenoaa e o. ae.

A ia?oa 1946 a. Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? i?eiye caeii, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ui Niaao Ia?iaeiuo Eiienna?ia NNN?, niaia?eiiu nithciuo e
aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee auee i?aia?aciaaiu a niioaaonoaothuea niaaou
ieieno?ia, a ia?eiiaou — a ieienoa?noaa.

A ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae auee oniaoii ?aaeeciaaiu ieaiu /aoaa?oie e
iyoie iyoeeaoie. A ie?a ia/aeanue iiaay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey.
Anoaee caaea/e ii iiaeiyoeth oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iinea ieii/aiey aieiu noaeaaiua i?aaiu ia?ano?aeaaeenue ia ?aaioo a
ie?iuo oneiaeyo. Ainnoaiaaeeaaeenue iau/iay iiaenoaeiinoue e ii?yaeie
aeayoaeueiinoe. N ioiaiie aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey aiaiiua o?eaoiaeu
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai e aiaeiiai o?ainii?oa i?aia?aciauaaeenue a eeiaeiua
e ie?oaeiua noaeu. Auee ainnoaiiaeaiu o?ainii?oiua eieeaaee Aa?oiaiiai
Noaea NNN?.

A niioaaonoaee n Eiinoeoooeeae NNN? 1936 a. e Caeiiii i noaeiono?ienoaa
1938 a. auee i?iaaaeaiu auai?u a ia?iaeiua noaeu. Oeacii I?aceaeeoia
Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 16 naioya?y 1948 a. aeey ia?iaeiuo noaeae e
ia?iaeiuo canaaeaoaeae onoaiaaeeaaeny aic?anoiie oeaic a 23 aiaea.

Oeacii I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 15 ethiy 1948 a.
onoaiaaeeaaeanue ioaaonoaaiiinoue noaeae ia?aae aeenoeeieeia?iuie
eieeaaeyie.

A 1945—1947 aa. aiaiiua o?eaoiaeu ?acae?aee aeaea aiaiiuo i?anooiieeia,
auaoeo aiaiiineoaeaueo aa?iaineie a?iee, eioi?ua niaa?oeee ianniaua
oaeenoaa, enoycaiey a?aaeaeaineiai ianaeaiey e aiaiiiieaiiuo, oaii
ie?iuo niaaoneeo a?aaeaeai a Aa?iaieth e ae?oaea i?anooieaiey.

Iinea ieii/aiey aieiu auea oi?acaeiaia Noaaea Aa?oiaiiai
Aeaaiieiiaiaeiaaiey.

N 1946 a. E?aniay A?iey noaea eiaiiaaoueny Niaaoneie A?ieae.
Aii?oaeaiiua Neeu NNN? ninoiyee ec neaaeothueo aeaeia: nooiiooiua
aienea, aiaiii-aicaeooiua neeu, aiaiii-ii?neie oeio, aienea IAI,
aicaeooii-aeanaioiua aienea, ai aeaaa ni naieie aeaaiieiiaiaeothueie.
Iniiaiuie oeiaie niaaeeiaiee yaeyeenue no?aeeiaay, iaoaiece?iaaiiay e
oaieiaay aeeaecee.

Auee ooaa?aeaeaiu Aeenoeeieeia?iue onoaa (1946 a.), Onoaa aioo?aiiae
neoaeau Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee NNN? (1946 a.), Onoaau no?iaaie (1947 a.),
aa?ieciiiie e ea?aoeueiie neoaeau (1950 a.).

34. ?acaeoea niaaoneiai i?aaa ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1940 – ia/aea1950-o
aiaeia

1. Oicyenoaaiiia i?aai

2. O?oaeiaia i?aai

3. Eieoiciia I?aai-4, Oaieiaiia i?aai

1. A iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae a noa?a oicyenoaaiiiai i?aaa aeiaiai? noae
iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo ?u/aaia oi?aaeaiey.

21 ai?aey 1949 a. Niaao Ieieno?ia NNN? i?eiye iinoaiiaeaiea «I
caeeth/aiee oicyenoaaiiuo aeiaiai?ia», a eioi?ii aiiaue cae?aieyeanue
aeaieiay nenoaia aeiaiai?ia: aaia?aeueiua aeiaiai?u caeeth/aeenue
iaaeaeo oicyenoaaiiuie nenoaiaie e io?aneyie, eieaeueiua — iaaeaeo
eiie?aoiuie eiio?aaaioaie. A iaeioi?uo iaeanoyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
i?iaeieaeaee i?eiaiyoueny i?yiua aeiaiai?u.

Iaycaoaeueiuie yeaiaioaie aeiaiai?a auee neaaeothuea: eiee/anoai,
anni?oeiaio, ea/anoai, oeaia, ii?yaeie, n?iee eniieiaiey e oi?iu
ioaaonoaaiiinoe noi?ii.

A iaa 1955 a. aue i?eiyo Oeac I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui ?anoe?yeenue i?aaa ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aaaeiinoa a
iaeanoe ?anii?yaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie e aeaiaaeiuie
n?aaenoaaie, ia?aie/aiiua n oaa?aey 1941 a.

2. A iaeanoe o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa n ieii/aieai aieiu auee
eeeaeaee?iaaiu /?acau/aeiua ia?u, aucaaiiua iio?aaiinoyie aiaiiiai
a?aiaie. N 1 ethey 1945 a. Oeacii I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io
30 ethiy 1945 a. ainnoaiaaeeaaeenue ioionea e 8-/aniaie ?aai/ee aeaiue,
ioiaiyeenue iaycaoaeueiua naa?oo?i/iua ?aaiou, i?ae?auaeanue o?oaeiaay
iiaeeecaoeey a?aaeaeai.

23 ethiy 1945 a. aue i?eiyo Caeiia aeaiiaeeecaoeee, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ui ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe e ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaei?eyoee auee iaycaiu
i?aaeinoaaeoue ?aaioo aeaiiaeeeciaaiiui aiaiiineoaeauei a oa/aiea
iaeiiai ianyoea.

A oaa?aea 1947 a. auei aiciaiiaeaii caeeth/aiea eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ia
iaaeaeo aaeieieno?aoeeae i?aaei?eyoee e i?ionithcaie.

Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue io?aia o?oaea e caei?iauey o?oaeyueony. A
niioaaonoaee n Eino?oeoeeae Ieienoa?noaa cae?aaiio?aiaiey NNN? e AOeNIN,
i?eiyoie 21 ethiy 1949 a., ia i?aaei?eyoeyo n a?aaeiuie oneiaeyie o?oaea
onoaiaaeeaaeny iaycaoaeueiue iaaeeoeeineee iniio? anao ?aaioathueo. Ia
naa?oo?i/iua ?aaiou ia aeiioneaeenue aa?aiaiiua aeaiueiu, iiae?inoee e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea eaoaai?ee o?oaeyueony.

Aeey ?ac?aoaiey o?oaeiauo nii?ia a niioaaonoaee n Iieiaeaieai i ii?yaeea
?ac?aoaiey o?oaeiauo nii?ia, i?eiyoui a 1957 a., ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
nicaeaaaeenue eiiennee ii o?oaeiaui nii?ai. ?aoaiey eiiennee iiaee auoue
iaaeaeiaaiu a oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneii eiieoaoa, a caoai a noaea.

14 ethey 1956 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii i ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaineyo, eioi?ui
onoaiaaeeaaeenue aaeeiua e?eoa?ee aeey iacia/aiey iainee: aic?ano (60
eao aeey ioae/ei, 55 eao aeey aeaiuei), o?oaeiaie noaae (25 eao aeey
ioae/ei, 20 eao aeey aeaiuei), n?aaeiaiany/iue ?acia? ca?aaioiie ieaou.
Caeii aaiaeee ieieioi e iaeneioi iaineiiiuo auieao, aeey eaoaai?ee
ieceiiiea/eaaaiuo ?aaioieeia iiauoaeenue iaineiiiua noaaee.

3. A iaeanoe eieoiciiai i?aaa iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iineaaiaiiuo aeoia
noaei iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN? e OeE AEI(a) io 19 naioya?y
1946 a. «I ia?ao ii eeeaeaeaoeee ia?ooaiee Onoaaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
a?oaee a eieoicao». Aeaaiie oeaeueth yoiai iinoaiiaeaiey auei
cae?aieaiea ca eieoicaie ioaaaeaiiuo ei caiaeueiuo ianneaia e
i?aaeioa?auaiea ia?aoiaea yoeo caiaeue a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia iieueciaaiea.

Niaeanii iinoaiiaeaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa «I ia?ao ii oeo/oaieth
i?aaiecaoeee, iiauoaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e oii?yaei/aieth iieaou
o?oaea a eieoicao», i?eiyoiio a ai?aea 1948 a., iniiaiie oi?iie
i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea a eieoica noaiiaeeanue i?iecaiaenoaaiiay a?eaaaea.

N 1955 a. a niioaaonoaee n iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN? «Ia
eciaiaiee i?aeoeee ieaie?iaaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa» ?aeeniieeiiu noaee
aeiaiaeeoue aei eieoicia oieueei iauea iieacaoaee ii iauaio caaioiaie e
iaoo?ie, eiie?aoiia ieaie?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa noaee inouanoaeyoue naie
eieoicu.

N 1958 a. aianoi iaycaoaeueiuo iinoaaie naeueoici?iaeoeoeee e
iaoo?iieaou aue onoaiiaeai ii?yaeie caeoiee naeueoici?iaeoeoeee
ainoaea?noaii. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei auee eciaiaiu i?eioeeiu iieaou
o?oaea a eieoica.

4. A iaeanoe oaieiaiiai i?aaa a iineaaiaiiia a?aiy ea?aeeiaeueiuo
eciaiaiee ia i?ienoiaeeo. Iniiaiua eciaiaiey eanaeenue e?oaa noauaeoia,
aeaeia iaeacaiey, ioiaiu /?acau/aeiuo iieiaeaiee caeiia e ae?.

A na?aaeeia 1945 a. aue i?eiyo oeac Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? «Ia aiienoee
a nayce n iiaaaeie iaae aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaieae». A niioaaonoaee n
aeaiiui ii?iaoeaiui aeoii inaiaiaeaeaeenue io iaeacaiey eee niya/aeinue
iaeacaiea eeoeai, inoaeaeaiiui ca iaiaa oyaeeea i?anooieaiey. N aieueoie
eaoaai?ee eeoe nieiaeanue noaeeiinoue e aaeieieno?aoeaiay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue. A iaa 1947 a. auea ioiaiaia nia?oiay eaciue, n 1950 a.
iia auea ainnoaiiaeaia ii aaaeiaeoei ainoaea?noaaiiui i?anooieaieyi
(eciaia, oieiiaae e o. ae.).

35. *?acau/aeiua i?aaiu a ?innee a ia?eiae a?aaeaeaineie aieiu

36.

28 ieoya?y 1917 a. ii oaeaa?aoo IEAAe i?aaeienae anai Niaaoai ?aai/eo e
nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia o/?aaeeoue ?aai/oth ieeeoeeth. Iia aeieaeia auea
iaoiaeeoueny a aaaeaiee Niaaoa ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia, aeanoe
iaycaiu auee niaeaenoaiaaoue ae a niaaaeaiee i?oaeeai. A aeoa ie/aai ia
aiai?eeinue i naeueneie ieeeoeee, ii anei?a aa noaee nicaeaaaoue
e?anoueyineea Niaaou.

Ia?aia a?aiy ai?ueao i?ioea eiio??aaiethoeee aaee: Iao?ia?aaeneee A?E,
ianoiua A?E, ianoiua Niaaou, nicaeaiiay i?e Niaaoao ?aai/ay ieeeoeey,
noaeaaiua i?aaiu, io?yaeu E?aniie aaa?aeee, iiaeaea?aeeaaaoea Niaaoneoth
aeanoue /anoe noa?ie a?iee, neaaenoaaiiua eiiennee e o.ae.
Niaoeeaeueiiai aea i?aaia ii ai?ueaa n eiio??aaiethoeeae ia auei.
Neiaeiinoue e ino?ioa eeanniaie ai?ueau, ianniaue naaioaae /eiiaieeia,
aeayoaeueiinoue eiino?aiiuo ?acaaaeie e o.ae. noaaeee aii?in i nicaeaiee
niaoeeaeueiiai i?aaia ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoe. 21 iiya?y 1917a.
iinoaiiaeaieai Iao?ia?aaeneiai A?E nicaeaaony Eiienney ii ai?ueaa n
eiio??aaiethoeeae. Iaeiaei 5 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. Iao?ia?aaeneee A?E e ana
aai i?aaiu ia?anoaee nouanoaiaaoue. 7 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. NIE nicaeae
Ana?inneeneoth /?acau/aeioth eiienneth ii ai?ueaa n eiio??aaiethoeeae e
naaioaaeai (A*E). O/?aaeaeaeanue iia i?e NIE. A yoii iinoaiiaeaiee NIE
ia aiai?eeinue i no?oeoo?a A*E, iiae?iaii ia ?ane?uaaeenue aa caaea/e e
eiiiaoaioeee. Naii iacaaiea I?aaia naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei ia Iniiaiie aai
caaea/a – ai?ueaa n eiio??aaiethoeeae. A iiiaio ia?aciaaiey A*E ia iaa
niio?aee eae ia a?aiaiiue i?aai. Yoi, a /anoiinoe, io?aceeinue a
iacaaiee eiiennee /?acau/aeiay, oioy a iiiaio nicaeaiey A*E ia
iaaeaeyeanue /?acau/aeiuie iieiiii/eyie. AOeEE e NIE a aeaeueiaeoai
ecaeaee cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, ii?aaeaeyaoeo
caaea/e, no?oeoo?o, eiiiaoaioeeth A*E, aa ianoi a nenoaia i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, acaeiiioiioaiey n ieie.

No?oeoo?a e ninoaa A*E oi?ie?iaaeenue iinoaiaiii. Ai aeaaa aiia?aoa A*E
noiye aa i?aaenaaeaoaeue. Ia yoo aeieaeiinoue aue iacia/ai O.Y.
Aeca?aeeineee ia canaaeaiee NIE 7 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. A*E aeaenoaiaaea eae
eieeaaeaeueiue i?aai. I?e i?aaenaaeaoaea A*E ninoiyea eieeaaey. Aia/aea
a A*E auee nicaeaiu o?e ioaeaea: eioi?iaoeeiiiue, i?aaiecaoeeiiiue e
ai?ueau n eiio??aaiethoeeae e naaioaaeai. 8 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. ia?acoaony
I?aceaeeoi A*E a eiee/anoaa 5 /aeiaae: i?aaenaaeaoaey, aeaoo
caianoeoaeae e aeaoo nae?aoa?ae. Aieueooth iianiinoue a oi a?aiy
i?aaenoaaeyea niaeoeyoeey, ai?ueaie n eioi?ie oaeaea i?eoeinue caiyoueny
A*E. Iiyoiio ia canaaeaiee eieeaaee A*E 11 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. auei ?aoaii
nicaeaoue /aoaa?oue ioaeae – ii ai?ueaa ni niaeoeyoeeae.

18 ia?oa 1918 a. I?aceaeeoi A*E i?eiye ?aoaiea i nicaeaiee iiauo
ioaeaeia. Nicaeaaaeny ioaeae aei ai?ueaa n i?anooieaieyie ii
aeieaeiinoe, eai yoi noaei iaeiei ec aeaaiuo o/anoeia ?aaiou A*E. A
nayce n nicaeaieai ianoiuo *E aue ia?aciaai eiiai?iaeiee ioaeae ia aaca
i?aaeiaai i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ioaeaea, inouanoaeyaoee ?oeiaiaenoai
ianoiuie *E. Auei nicaeaii aua aeaa iiauo ioaeaea: oth?aiiue e
oicyenoaaiiue. Eaioeaey?ey auea i?aia?aciaaia a iauee ioaeae. E?iia
oiai, nouanoaiaaee ni?aai/iia ath?i, aeaaaaoaa ni?aaee ia a?anoiaaiiuo e
i aeaeao, iaoiaeeaoeony a i?iecaiaenoaa A*E; noie ee/iiai ninoaaa A*E,
caieiaaoeeny o/aoii ?aaioieeia A*E. A eiioea ethey 1918 a. NIE aiceiaeee
ia A*E ai?ueao n eiio??aaiethoeeae, niaeoeyoeeae ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii
o?ainii?oa. Iiyoiio auee nicaeaiu aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue ioaeae A*E e
niioaaonoaothuea ioaeaeu aoaa?ineeo *E, a oaeaea *E ia aieueoeo
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo noaioeeyo. A iiiaio nicaeaiey A*E yaeyeanue /enoi
aieueoaaenoneie ii naiaio ia?oeeiiio ninoaao. 8 yiaa?y 1918 a. NIE
iacia/ee /aou?ao eaauo yna?ia /eaiaie A*E, a iaeei ec ieo – I.A.
Aeaenaiae?iae/ – iacia/aeny caianoeoaeai i?aaenaaeaoaey A*E. Iinea
caeeth/aiey A?anoneiai ie?a eaaua yna?u ooee ii/oe ec anao ia?eiiaoia,
ii a A*E inoaeenue. 6 ethey 1918 a. eaaua yna?u /anoe/ii eniieueciaaee
aiia?ao A*E a i?aaiecaoeee aii?oaeaiiiai aunooieaiey i?ioea
aieueoaaeeia. Iinea eeeaeaeaoeee yoiai aunooieaiey eaaua yna?u auee
iono?aiaiu io ?aaiou a i?aaiao A*E e iia aiiaue noaea oieueei
aieueoaaenoneie ii ia?oeeiiio ninoaao.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo iieiiii/ee A*E eiaea naie aii?oaeaiiua neeu. Ni
aoi?ie iieiaeiu aeaeaa?y 1917 a. noaee nicaeaaaoueny ianoiua *E,
nicaeaaaaiua ianoiuie Niaaoaie. E eiioeo iay 1918 a. auei nicaeaii 40
aoaa?ineeo e 365 oacaeiuo *E. Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a oieoeeaoeee oi?i e
iaoiaeia ai?ueau i?aaiia *E n eiio??aaiethoeeae e ae?oaeie iianiuie
i?anooieaieyie, a au?aaioea aaeeiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo i?eioeeiia
iino?iaiey i?aaiia *E, /aoeiai ?aca?aie/aiey eiiiaoaioeee ?acee/iuo
caaiueaa *E, eo acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo niaie e o.ae. nua?aea I
Ana?inneeneay eiioa?aioeey /?acau/aeiuo eiiennee, i?ioiaeeaoay a ethia
1918 a. I?e eaaeaeii iaeanoiii, aoaa?ineii Niaaoa, a oaeaea i?e e?oiiuo
oacaeiuo Niaaoao, oceiauo aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo noaioeeyo, e?oiiuo ii?oao,
a iia?aie/iie iieina ia?aciauaaeenue *E. A aieinoyo e iaaieueoeo oacaeao
iacia/aeenue eiienna?u *E.

N naiiai ia/aea naiae aeayoaeueiinoe A*E iaaeaeyeanue i?aaii a?anoa
eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ia. Iinoaiiaeaieai io 21 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. NIE
aiceiaeee ia A*E ai?ueao n iauaoaieiaiui i?anooieaieai – niaeoeyoeeae, e
iia ia/eiaao i?eia?aoaoue /a?ou /?acau/aeiiai i?aaia. Aaaeiia cia/aiea
aeey i?aaiaiai noaoona A*E eiaei iinoaiiaeaiea NIE io 31 yiaa?y 1918 a.,
onoaiiaeaoaai, /oi A*E caieiaaony ?icuneii, i?ana/aieai e
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieai i?anooieaiee, ia?aaeaaay iaoa?eaeu aeey
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey a neaaenoaaiioth eiienneth o?eaoiaea.
Oaeei ia?acii, /aoei ?aca?aie/eaaeanue eiiiaoaioeey i?aaiia A*E e
neaaenoaaiiuo eiiennee o?eaoiaeia. Nicaeaaaeenue ii?iaeueiua
acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo yoeie i?aaiaie. ?acoeueoaou ?anneaaeiaaiey
ia?aaeaaaeenue a o?eaoiae aeey auianaiey i?eaiai?a. Yoi ii?iaeueiia
iieiaeaiea auei ia?ooaii ianooieaieai iaiaoeeeo aiene, eiaaea a i?eiyoii
a nayce n yoei 21 oaa?aey 1918 a. iinoaiiaeaiee NIE “Nioeeaeenoe/aneia
Ioa/anoai a iianiinoe” aiai?eeinue, /oi iai?eyoaeueneea aaaiou,
“niaeoeyiou, a?iieeu, ooeeaaiu, eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua aaeoaoi?u,
aa?iaineea oieiiu”, eeoea, nii?ioeaeyaoeany iiaeeecaoeee a aaoaeueiiu
aeey ?uouey ieiiia, iiaeeaaeaee ?anno?aeo. Enneaaeiaaoaee enoi?ee A*E
n/eoatho, /oi yoi iinoaiiaeaiea iaaeaeeei A*E i?aaii aianoaeaaiiai
?aoaiey aeae n i?eiaiaieai aunoae ia?u iaeacaiey – ?anno?aea. A*E
noaiiaeony /?acau/aeiui i?aaiii. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iaaeaeaiea A*E
yoei i?aaii aeaaea a oao neiaeiuo oneiaeyo ia auei iaiaoiaeeiui. Yoi
caoai i?eaaei e ceioiio?aaeaieyi a aeaiiuo i?aaiao, oae eae ia?ooaeanue
iauai?eiyoay nenoaia ai?ueau n i?anooiiinoueth, en/acee oaeea noaaeee,
eae i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ?anneaaeiaaiea e noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai.
Ia?ooaeenue oaeea aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu, eae ioaeaeaiea noaea io
aaeieieno?aoeee, neaaenoaey io noaea. I?aaiu A*E aaee ia oieueei
iia?aoeaioth ?aaioo, ii e i?iaiaeeee neaaenoaea e auiineee
iinoaiiaeaiea, o.a. i?eaiai?, caiaiyy, oaeei ia?acii, neaaenoaaiiua e
noaeaaiua i?aaiu

37. O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea

O/?aaee?oaeueiia nia?aiiea — auai?iia o/?aaeaeaiea, nicaeaiiia ii
ia?acoeo O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee,
i?ecaaiiia ii?aaeaeeoue oi?io i?aaeaiey e eiinoeoooeeth a ?innee iinea
Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee. Auei ?aniouaii aeae?aoii AOeEE io 6 (19)
yiaa?y 1918 aiaea

Nicua O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey aue iaeiie ec ia?aii/a?aaeiuo caaea/
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ii iii iaaeeeei n iei. Iinea naa?aeaiey
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a ieoya?a 1917 a. aii?in ia O/?aaeeoaeueiii
nia?aiee noae aeey anao ia?oee ia?ainoaiaiiui. Aieueoaaeee,
iianaynue[1][iao a enoi/ieea] iaaeiaieuenoaa ia?iaea, oae eae eaeay
nicuaa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey auea i/aiue iiioey?ia, onei?eee
iaia/aiiua A?aiaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii auai?u a iaai. 27 ieoya?y 1917 a,
Niaia?eii i?eiye e iioaeeeiaae ca iiaeienueth A. E. Eaieia iinoaiiaeaiea
i i?iaaaeaiee a iacia/aiiue n?ie — 12 iiya?y 1917 a. anaiaueo auai?ia a
O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea.

Ie iaeii iinoaiiaeaiea A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ianiio?y ia
aeeeoaeueioth iiaeaioiaeoaeueioth ?aaioo niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuo aeey
oiai eiiennee, ia onoaiaaeeaaei, eaeia eiaiii /enei /eaiia
O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey iaiaoiaeeii aeey aai ioe?uoey. Yoio eai?oi aue
ii?aaeaeai eeoue iinoaiiaeaieai eaieineiai Niaia?eii io 26 iiya?y, ii
eioi?iio O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea aeieaeii auei auoue ioe?uoi «ii
i?eauoee a Iao?ia?aae aieaa 400 /eaiia O. N.», /oi ninoaaeyei aieaa 50 %
anaai iaia/aiiiai /enea /eaiia O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey.

A auai?ao i?eiyee o/anoea iaiueoa 50 % ecae?aoaeae. Anaai auei eca?aii
715 aeaiooaoia, ec eioi?uo 370 iaiaeaoia iieo/eee i?aaua yna?u e
oeaio?enou, 175 — aieueoaaeee, 40 — eaaua yna?u, 17 — eaaeaou, 15 —
iaiueoaaeee, 86 — aeaiooaou io iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii (yna?u 51,7 %,
aieueoaaeee — 24,5 %, eaaua yna?u — 5,6 %, eaaeaou 2,4 %, iaiueoaaeee —
2,1 %

Canaaeaiea O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey ioe?ueinue 5 (18) yiaa?y 1918 a
Oaa?e/aneii aeai?oea a Iao?ia?aaea. Ia i?i i?enoonoaiaaei 410
aeaiooaoia; aieueoeinoai i?eiaaeeaaeaei yna?ai-oeaio?enoai, aieueoaaeee
e eaaua yna?u eiaee 155 iaiaeaoia (38,5 %). Ioe?ue canaaeaiea ii
ii?o/aieth AOeEE aai i?aaenaaeaoaeue sseia Naa?aeeia au?acee iaaeaaeaeo
ia «iieiia i?eciaiea O/?aaeeoaeueiui Nia?aieai anao aeae?aoia e
iinoaiiaeaiee Niaaoa Ia?iaeiuo Eiienna?ia» e i?aaeeiaeee i?eiyoue
iaienaiiue A. E. Eaieiui i?iaeo «Aeaeea?aoeee i?aa o?oaeyuaainy e
yenieoaoe?oaiiai ia?iaea», 1-e ioieo eioi?ie iauyaeye ?inneth
«?anioaeeeie Niaaoia ?aai/eo, nieaeaoneeo e e?anoueyineeo
aeaiooaoia»[6]. Iinea ioeaca i?aauo yna?ia ianoaeaeaoue yoio aii?in,
aieueoaaeee, eaaua yna?u e iaeioi?ua aeaeaaaou iaoeeiiaeueiuo ia?oee
iieeioee canaaeaiea. Inoaaoeany aeaiooaou iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii
eeaea?a yna?ia Aeeoi?a *a?iiaa i?iaeieaeeee ?aaioo e i?eiyee neaaeothuea
iinoaiiaeaiey:

· ia?aua 10 ioieoia aa?a?iiai caeiia, i?iaicaeaoaaoaai caieth
iauaia?iaeiie nianoaaiiinoueth;

· ia?auaiea e aiththuei aea?aeaaai n i?ecuaii ia/aoue ie?iua ia?aaiai?u;

· aeaeea?aoeeth, i?iaicaeaoaaooth nicaeaiea ?inneeneie aeaiie?aoe/aneie
oaaea?aoeaiie ?anioaeeee[6].

Eaiei ?anii?yaeeeny ia ?acaiiyoue nia?aiea n?aco, a aeiaeaeaoueny
i?ae?auaiey canaaeaiey e oiaaea cae?uoue Oaa?e/aneee aeai?aoe e ia
neaaeothuee aeaiue oaea ieeiai ooaea ia ioneaoue. Canaaeaiea iaeiaei,
caoyioeinue aei iicaeiae ii/e, a caoai e aei oo?a. A 5-i /ano oo?a 6
(19) yiaa?y, niiauea, /oi «ea?aoe onoae», ia/aeueiee io?aiu aia?oeno A.
AEaeaciyeia cae?ue canaaeaiea, i?aaeeiaeea aeaiooaoai ?acieoenue[6].
Aa/a?ii oiai aea aeiy AOeEE i?eiye aeae?ao i ?inionea O/?aaeeoaeueiiai
nia?aiey.

18 (31) yiaa?y III Ana?inneeneee Nuacae Niaaoia iaeia?ee aeae?ao i
?inionea O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey e i?eiye ?aoaiea ia ono?aiaiee ec
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa oeacaiee ia aai a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa? («ai?aaeue aei
nicuaa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey»).

38. Iiiyoea i?anooieaiey e ninoaa i?anooieaiey ii OE ?NON? 1922 a.

A OE ?NON? 1922 aiaea cae?aieyeny eeanniaue oa?aeoa? niaaoneie oaieiaiie
iieeoeee. I?anooieaieai i?eciaaaeinue: «anyeia iauanoaaiii iianiia
aeaenoaea eee aacaeaenoaea, oa?iaeathuaa iniiaai niaaoneiai no?iy e
i?aaiii?yaeeo, onoaiiaeaiiiio ?aai/a-e?anoueyineie aeanoueth ia
ia?aoiaeiue e eiiioienoe/aneiio no?ith ia?eiae a?aiaie»

A eiaeaena ia i?inoi aeaaaeenue oi?iaeueiua ii?aaeaeaiey iniiaiuo
oaieiaii-i?aaiauo iiiyoee, ii e ?ane?uaaeanue eo nioeeaeueiay, eeanniaay
nouiinoue: ii?iu eiaeaena auee iai?aaeaiu ia caueoo
?aai/a-e?anoueyineiai i?aaiii?yaeea, ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaa. O/?iuie
ioia/athony e ae?oaea aeinoieinoaa yoiai eiaeaena, auaiaeii ioee/aaoea
aai io i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia[18]: a eiaeaen aiiaue
aa?ioeenue ii?iu i aeiiaiii oa?aeoa?a ioaaonoaaiiinoe, i oi?iao aeiu;
iiae/??eeaaaony aoiaieci nenoaiu iaeacaiee.

A no. 27 Eiaeaen auaeaeye 2 eaoaai?ee i?anooieaiee: 1) iai?aaeaiiua
i?ioea onoaiiaeaiiuo ?aai/a-e?anoueyineie aeanoueth iniia iiaiai
i?aaiii?yaeea eee i?eciaaaaiua ath iaeaieaa iianiuie e 2) ana inoaeueiua
i?anooieaiey. Aeey ia?aie eaoaai?ee onoaiaaeeaaeny iecoee i?aaeae
iaeacaiey (ia iaiaa ii?aaeae?iiiai n?iea), aeey aoi?ie — aunoee i?aaeae.
A noaeaaiie i?aeoeea i?e yoii, niaeanii ?acuyniaieyi Aa?oiaiiai noaea
?NON?, i?eiaiyeinue aieaa no?iaia aeaeaiea: e ia?aie eaoaai?ee
ioiineeenue eeoue aeayiey, iinyaathuea ia iniiau niaaoneiai no?iy:
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua i?anooieaiey, oieiiaae, aaiaeeoeci e ei?unoiua
oicyenoaaiiua e aeieaeiinoiua i?anooieaiey n oyaeaeuie aeey ainoaea?noaa
iineaaenoaeyie

Eiaeaen i?aaeoniao?eaae ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?eaioiaeaiea e
i?anooieaieth (a neo/ayo, eiaaea i?anooiiinoue oaeeo aeaenoaee i?yii
onoaiiaeaia a oaieiaiii caeiia — no. 12), ieii/aiiia e iaieii/aiiia
iieooaiea ia i?anooieaiea (no. 13). Iieooaiea iaeacuaaaony oae aea, eae
e ieii/aiiia i?anooieaiea, iaeiaei ionoonoaea eee iacia/eoaeueiinoue
oaeoe/anee ianooieaoeo i?anooiiuo iineaaenoaee iiaee auoue i?eiyou ai
aieiaiea noaeii i?e iacia/aiee iaeacaiey (no. 14). Nouanoaiaaea e ii?ia
i aeia?iaieueiii ioeaca io niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey (no. 14).

Ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, eneeth/athueie i?anooiiinoue aeayiey, ii OE ?NON?
1922 aiaea yaeyeenue iaiaoiaeeiay iai?iia e e?aeiyy iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

Eiaeaen ia niaea?aeeo iauaai ii?aaeaeaiey nio/anoey. A iaeiii ec
i?iaeoia nio/anoea ii?aaeaeyeinue eae niaa?oaiea aeayiey niiaua a?oiiie
eeoe[29]. I?aaeoniao?eaaeanue ioaaonoaaiiinoue eniieieoaeae,
iiaeno?aeaoaeae e iiniaieeia i?anooieaiey (no. 16), i?e/?i ia?a
iaeacaiey i?e niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiey a nio/anoee ii?aaeaeyeanue eae
noaiaiueth o/anoey, oae e noaiaiueth iianiinoe i?anooiieea e
niaa?oaiiiai ei i?anooieaiey (no. 15).

39. Ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneea ?aoi?iu a NNN? ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1950
– ia?aie iieiaeia 1960-o aiaeia

E na?aaeeia 1950-o aa. noaei i/aaeaeii, /oi niaaoneay yeiiiieea ia
ni?aaeyaony n a?aiaiai aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Aii?oaeaiiua neeu NNN? a
1953 a. ian/eouaaee 5,4 iei. /aeiaae. Nionoy ainaiue eao iinea Iiaaaeu
no?aia oaeoe/anee niaea?aeaea a?ieth aiaiiiai a?aiaie. E oiio aea ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 1940-o aa. auei aiciaiiaeaii i?a?aaiiia a 1941 a.
no?ieoaeuenoai e?oiiuo aiaiii-ii?neeo ei?aaeae.

Aaeeeay Ioa/anoaaiiay i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea, /oi a iai?iieoaeueiie aieia
aeey NNN?, no?aiu eiioeiaioaeueiie, oeio ea?aao aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue.
Ii Noaeei iieaaae, /oi aaeeeie aea?aeaaa iaiaoiaeei iiuiue ieaaineee
aiaiiue oeio, niiniaiue ?aoaoue ethaua caaea/e a naiuo ioaeaeaiiuo
?aeiiao ie?a.A 1957 a. ia/aeanue ?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth.
Aianoi io?aneaaiai i?eioeeia (ieienoa?noaa e aaaeiinoaa) aaiaeeeny
oa??eoi?eaeueiue i?eioeei. N yoie oeaeueth ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu auei
nicaeaii 105 niaia?oicia (Niaaou ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa). A?aoiaioaie a
iieueco oaeiai oaaa yaeeenue o?oaeiinoue inouanoaeaiey oi?aaeaiey
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth (200 oun. i?aaei?eyoee, 100 oun. no?iae), a oaeaea
no?aieaiea i?eaeeceoue oi?aaeaiea e i?iecaiaenoao. Yoi, ii iunee
eieoeeaoi?ia, ecaaaeyei i?iiuoeaiiinoue io ieienoa?neie ath?ie?aoee,
ia?aoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aaicie, ?aniueaiey n?aaenoa e o. i.

I?iaaaeaiiay a ei?ioeea n?iee ?ai?aaiecaoeey aeaea ia ia?auo ii?ao
iieiaeeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao. A oi aea a?aiy iia i?eaaea e oaaee/aieth
ianoiie ath?ie?aoee, ia?ooeeenue yeiiiie/aneea nayce, oneeeeinue
ianoie/anoai. ?ai?aaiecaoeey caoea a ooiee. I?aaei?eyoey a yoeo oneiaeyo
inoaeenue aani?aaiu, aianoi ieienoa?noa eie eiiaiaeiaaee ianoiua NIO.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue a yoi a?aiy i?iaeieaeaea ?acaeaaoueny ia yenoaineaiie
iniiaa. Oii? aue naeaeai ia ?acaeoea oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iauai
eioi?ie ninoaaeye 75% io iauaai iauaia i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
Eaaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue o?iie/anee ionoaaaea. A oeaeii n?aaeiaaiaeiaua
oaiiu i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auee aeinoaoi/ii aunieeie, ninoaaeyee
aieaa 10%. Ia ?oaaaea 50-o — ia/aea 60-o aa. a iaoae no?aia auee
iino?iaiu iniiau eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa.

A 50-a — ia/aea 60-o aa. NNN? eeaee?iaae a i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaieyo
?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee. 4 ieoya?y 1957 a. a iaoae no?aia aue caiouai
ia?aue a ie?a eneonnoaaiiue niooiee Caiee. 12 ai?aey 1961 a. TH. A.
Aaaa?ei inouanoaee ia?aue a ie?a iieao a einiin. Yoi ii?iaeaeaei
caeiiioth ai?aeinoue ca oniaoe no?aiu, eiaei aieueoie i?iiaaaiaeenoneee
yooaeo. A ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa iiaeiee oaoieee aiaae?yeenue neaai,
i?ei?eoao aue ioaeai aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiio eiiieaeno, /oi iicaieeei
aiineaaenoaee aeiaeoueny ?aaiiaaney a yoie iaeanoe n NOA.

Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea I. O?ouaaa ?aceoaeueii ioee/aeanue io noaeeineie
e iineea y?ei au?aaeaiiue nioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Naiui aieueoei
aeinoeaeaieai yaeeinue aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai. Ca 1955 — 1964 aa.
iiainaeuea ni?aaee eaaeaeue 4 a?aaeaeaiei no?aiu. Oaeaaeci?u,
oieiaeeeueieee aoiaeeee a auo niaaoneie naiuee Auea iiauoaia ia 35%
ieieiaeueiay iainey aeey ?aai/eo e, neoaeaueo. Iaineiiiue aic?ano
nieceeny aei 60 eao aeey ioae/ei e 55 eao aeey aeaiuei. ?aai/ee aeaiue
nie?aoeeny n 48 aei 46 /an. a iaaeaeth. Ioiaiyeenue iaycaoaeueiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu, a auieaoa ii noa?ui ion?i/eaaeanue ia 20 eao.

OICssENOAAIIAss ?AOI?IA. A ia/aea 60-o aiaeia ninoiyeanue iao/iay
aeeneonney, a oiaea eioi?ie aa o/anoieee i?aaeeiaeeee iiaua iaoiaeu
ieaie?iaaiey. N oeaeueth i?iaa?ee iiauo i?aaeeiaeaiee a 1964— 1965 aa.
i?iaaaeaiu yenia?eiaiou ia ianeieueeeo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo
(oaaeiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iauaaeeiaiey «Aieueoaae/ea» e «Iaye»), a
oaeaea ia ?yaea oaoo Oe?aeiu, a iaeioi?uo aaoioicyenoaao Iineau e
Eaieia?aaea. Aianoi iiiaeo iieacaoaeae aeey ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee aaiaeeeenue anaai aeaa: ?acoeueoaou auiieiaiey ieaia
?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e ieaia i?eauee. Iiaay nenoaia oi?ioi
ca?aeiiaiaeiaaea naay, /oi iieiaeeei ia/aei ia?ano?ieea ieaie?iaaiey e
oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie. I?aaiecaoi?ii oicyenoaaiiie ?aoi?iu aue
I?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaieia NNN? A. I. Einuaei. I?aaei?eyoey eiaee i?aai
naie ieaie?iaaoue naaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, n?aaeithth ca?ieaoo
e /eneaiiinoue ?aai/eo, ?aoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey,
eniieueciaaoue /anoue i?eauee ia iaoa?eaeueiia iiiu?aiea. A ieoya?a 1965
a. yoe i?aaa auee cae?aieaiu a «Iieiaeaiee i nioeeaeenoe/aneii
ainoaea?noaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee». E 1968 a. ieiei 20
oun. i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia?aaaaeaiu ia iiaua oneiaey
oicyenoaiaaiey, a neaaeothuai aiaeo — aua 10 oun. i?aaei?eyoee.
Neacuaaeenue e iaaeinoaoee: iiaiiy ca iauaiaie ?aaeecaoeee i?eaiaeeea e
oiio, /oi aieaa aeaoaaua oiaa?u auee iaauaiaeiu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa;
oiiae ca?ieaou onoaiaaeeaaeny naa?oo e i?. Iaeiaei ie naia ?aoi?ia, ie
i?e/eiu ioeaca io iaa a 70-a aiaeu aei neo ii? ia iiaeaa?aaeenue
ouaoaeueiiio aiaeeco.

A 1957 a. ia/aeanue ?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth. Aianoi
io?aneaaiai i?eioeeia (ieienoa?noaa e aaaeiinoaa) aaiaeeeny
oa??eoi?eaeueiue i?eioeei. N yoie oeaeueth ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu auei
nicaeaii 105 niaia?oicia (Niaaou ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa). A?aoiaioaie a
iieueco oaeiai oaaa yaeeenue o?oaeiinoue inouanoaeaiey oi?aaeaiey
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth (200 oun. i?aaei?eyoee, 100 oun. no?iae), a oaeaea
no?aieaiea i?eaeeceoue oi?aaeaiea e i?iecaiaenoao. Yoi, ii iunee
eieoeeaoi?ia, ecaaaeyei i?iiuoeaiiinoue io ieienoa?neie ath?ie?aoee,
ia?aoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aaicie, ?aniueaiey n?aaenoa e o. i.

I?iaaaeaiiay a ei?ioeea n?iee ?ai?aaiecaoeey aeaea ia ia?auo ii?ao
iieiaeeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao. A oi aea a?aiy iia i?eaaea e oaaee/aieth
ianoiie ath?ie?aoee, ia?ooeeenue yeiiiie/aneea nayce, oneeeeinue
ianoie/anoai. ?ai?aaiecaoeey caoea a ooiee. I?aaei?eyoey a yoeo oneiaeyo
inoaeenue aani?aaiu, aianoi ieienoa?noa eie eiiaiaeiaaee ianoiua NIO.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue a yoi a?aiy i?iaeieaeaea ?acaeaaoueny ia yenoaineaiie
iniiaa. Oii? aue naeaeai ia ?acaeoea oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iauai
eioi?ie ninoaaeye 75% io iauaai iauaia i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
Eaaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue o?iie/anee ionoaaaea. A oeaeii n?aaeiaaiaeiaua
oaiiu i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auee aeinoaoi/ii aunieeie, ninoaaeyee
aieaa 10%. Ia ?oaaaea 50-o — ia/aea 60-o aa. a iaoae no?aia auee
iino?iaiu iniiau eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa.

A 50-a — ia/aea 60-o aa. NNN? eeaee?iaae a i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaieyo
?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee. 4 ieoya?y 1957 a. a iaoae no?aia aue caiouai
ia?aue a ie?a eneonnoaaiiue niooiee Caiee. 12 ai?aey 1961 a. TH.A.
Aaaa?ei inouanoaee ia?aue a ie?a iieao a einiin. Yoi ii?iaeaeaei
caeiiioth ai?aeinoue ca oniaoe no?aiu, eiaei aieueoie i?iiaaaiaeenoneee
yooaeo. A ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa iiaeiee oaoieee aiaae?yeenue neaai,
i?ei?eoao aue ioaeai aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiio eiiieaeno, /oi iicaieeei
aiineaaenoaee aeiaeoueny ?aaiiaaney a yoie iaeanoe n NOA.

Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea I. O?ouaaa ?aceoaeueii ioee/aeanue io noaeeineie
e iineea y?ei au?aaeaiiue nioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Naiui aieueoei
aeinoeaeaieai yaeeinue aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai. Ca 1955 — 1964 aa.
iiainaeuea ni?aaee eaaeaeue 4 a?aaeaeaiei no?aiu. Oaeaaeci?u,
oieiaeeeueieee aoiaeeee a auo niaaoneie naiuee. Auea iiauoaia ia 35%
ieieiaeueiay iainey aeey ?aai/eo e, neoaeaueo. Iaineiiiue aic?ano
nieceeny aei 60 eao aeey ioae/ei e 55 eao aeey aeaiuei. ?aai/ee aeaiue
nie?aoeeny n 48 aei 46 /an. a iaaeaeth. Ioiaiyeenue iaycaoaeueiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu, a auieaoa ii noa?ui ion?i/eaaeanue ia 20 eao

40. I?aaiaay iieeoeea Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1950 –
ia?aie iieiaeia 1960-o aiaeia

E na?aaeeia 1950-o aa. noaei i/aaeaeii, /oi niaaoneay yeiiiieea ia
ni?aaeyaony n a?aiaiai aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Aii?oaeaiiua neeu NNN? a
1953 a. ian/eouaaee 5,4 iei. /aeiaae. Nionoy ainaiue eao iinea Iiaaaeu
no?aia oaeoe/anee niaea?aeaea a?ieth aiaiiiai a?aiaie. E oiio aea ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 1940-o aa. auei aiciaiiaeaii i?a?aaiiia a 1941 a.
no?ieoaeuenoai e?oiiuo aiaiii-ii?neeo ei?aaeae.

Aaeeeay Ioa/anoaaiiay i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea, /oi a iai?iieoaeueiie aieia
aeey NNN?, no?aiu eiioeiaioaeueiie, oeio ea?aao aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue.
Ii Noaeei iieaaae, /oi aaeeeie aea?aeaaa iaiaoiaeei iiuiue ieaaineee
aiaiiue oeio, niiniaiue ?aoaoue ethaua caaea/e a naiuo ioaeaeaiiuo
?aeiiao ie?a.

N na?aaeeiu 1950-o aa., eiaaea noaei ynii, /oi aeaaioth ?ieue a
naea?aeeaaiee i?ioeaieea aoaeao ea?aoue yaea?iia i?oaeea, niaaoneia
?oeiaiaenoai iinoaiaiii ia/aei ia?aie/eaaoue iau/iua aii?oaeaiey
i?aaeaeaie iai?iiiie aeinoaoi/iinoe.

Oaea a 1954—1955 aa. i?iecioee ia?aua ?aoeoaeueiua noieeiiaaiey O?ouaaa
n aiaiiuie. I?aceaeeoi OeE ?anniao?eaae i?ia?aiio no?ieoaeuenoaa
aiaiii-ii?neiai oeioa, ?ann/eoaiioth ia 10 eao. Iia aeeth/aea iaoe?iia
no?ieoaeuenoai aaeaiinoeaa, eeiei?ia, e?aena?ia, o?ainii?oiuo noaeia, ia
eioi?ia o?aaiaaeinue 150 ie?ae. ?oa. Ii aeaaea yoi ia iaania/eei au
Niaaoneiio Nithco ?aaainoai n aia?eeaineei oeioii. *oiau i?aiaeieaoue
ionoaaaiea io NOA ia ii?a, ioaeii auei ec?anoiaeiaaoue a aeanyoee ?ac
aieueoa n?aaenoa, /oi auei aaniethoii iaiineeueii aeey niaaoneie
yeiiiieee.

O?ouaa n/ae i?aaeeiaeaiiua cao?aou aanniuneaiiuie e iaaeiionoeiuie. Aai
ii?aceei niiauaiea i oii, /oi ca iaeei auoiae a ii?a *a?iiii?neee oeio
naeeaae noieueei aea iacooa, neieueei auaeaeyeinue ia aiae anae Oe?aeia.
A no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo ei?aaeae iiiaie?aoii oaaee/eei au yoe ?anoiaeu. E
oiio aea, ii iiaieth O?ouaaa, a yaea?ioth yiioo iaaeaiaeiua ei?aaee a
oaeii eiee/anoaa auee ioaeiu eeoue aeey aunaaeee e?oiiuo aeanaioia, oi
anoue aeey ianooiaoaeueiie aieiu, eioi?oth eeaea? EINN a i?eioeeia
ioaa?aae.

A nayce n yoei, aii?aee aic?aaeaieyi aaeie?aeia, O?ouaa ianoiye ia
ioeaca io aei?iainoiyuae i?ia?aiiu iiaea?iecaoeee iaaeaiaeiiai oeioa.
I?ei?eoao a ?acaeoee aiaiii-ii?neeo nee aue ioaeai ?aeaoiiiniui
iiaeaiaeiui eiaeeai. Iiiaea e?aena?u e eeiei?u, oieueei /oi iino?iaiiua
eee aua no?ieaoeany, auee iouaiu ia neii.

(Eeoue iaeiaaeaeu O?ouaa aa?ioeny e aii?ino i no?ieoaeuenoaa
iaaeaiaeiiai oeioa. Niaeanii ainiiieiaieyi aai nuia, ai a?aiy eiioeeeoa
a Eiiai a 1961 a. O?ouaa iieioa?aniaaeny, ai /oi iaieaeaony, e a oa/aiea
eaeiai a?aiaie iiaeao auoue iino?iaia yneaae?a auno?iai ?aaae?iaaiey,
niiniaiay «a ethaii ?aeiia naiae neeie e oeaaii Niaaoneiai Nithca
iiaeaea?aeaoue iaoeo ae?ocae». Ociaa, /oi aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa oaeie
yneaae?u o?aaoaony iyoue eao e iyoue ieeeea?aeia ?oaeae, ii neacae:
«Aei?iaiaaoi. Oaeei aeaiueaai iaeaeai i?eiaiaiea iieo/oa».)

Aeey ii?yeia oie/oiaeaiea ei?aaeae noaei ianoiyuae o?aaaaeeae. Iaeiaei
ioeac io eiioeaioeee oaea?iiai iaaeaiaeiiai oeioa e ?acaa?iooia a yoe
aea aiaeu nie?auaiea a?iee icia/aee ia?aoiae e iai?iieoaeueiie
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeieo?eia.

Iauay /eneaiiinoue Aii?oaeaiiuo nee NNN? a 1955—1958 aa. nie?aoeeanue ia
2,1 iei. /aeiaae e ninoaaeea ieiei 3,3 iei. aiaiiineoaeaueo. NOA a
1955 a. nie?aoeee a?ieth n 1,4 iei. aei 1 iei. /aeiaae, a oeio — n 920
oun. aei 870 oun. /aeiaae.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1950-o aa. aiiea aii?oaeaiee iaaeaeo NNN? e NOA
i?eia?aea iaaeaeaiiue ?aciao. Ia?aay iiiuoea ia?aie/eoue aa,
i?aaei?eiyoay ia AEaiaaneie eiioa?aioeee 1955 a., ia oaeaeanue. Inaiueth
1957 a. NNN? i?aaeeiaeee aaanoe ii?aoi?ee ia eniuoaiey yaea?iiai
i?oaeey, a aaniie 1958 a. iauyaee ia iaeiinoi?iiiai i?ae?auaiee
eniuoaiee. A niaaoneii cayaeaiee aiai?eeinue, /oi anee NOA e Aiaeey ia
i?ae?aoyo eniuoaiee, oi «Niaaoneee Nithc aoaeao, ?acoiaaony,
aeaenoaiaaoue naiaiaeii a aii?ina eniuoaiey aoiiiiai e aiaei?iaeiiai
i?oaeey».

Aia?eeaineay noi?iia ni/ea yoio oaa i?iiaaaiaeenoneei, iineieueeo NNN?
oieueei /oi caaa?oee aieueooth na?eth eniuoaiee, a NOA eeoue aioiaeeenue
ia/aoue naith na?eth. Oai ia iaiaa, iaa naa?oaea?aeaau ia/aee ia?aaiai?u
ii aii?ino i cai?auaiee yaea?iuo eniuoaiee.

A naioya?a 1959 a. O?ouaa i?eaue a NOA n aeceoii. Yoi aue ia?aue
ioeoeeaeueiue aeceo aeaau niaaoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e eeaea?a EINN a
e?oiiaeooth no?aio caiaaeiiai ie?a.

41. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai a NNN? ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1950 – ia?aie iieiaeia
1960-o aiaeia

O?oaeiaia i?aai a NNN? ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1950 – ia?aieiieiaeia 1960-o
aiaeia

Oaieiaiia i?aai a NNN? ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1950 – ia?aieiieiaeia 1960-o
aiaeia

A?aaeaeaineia i?aai

2. A?aaeaeainei-i?ioeannoaeueiia i?aai

3. O?oaeiaia i?aai

4. Caiaeueiia e eieoiciia i?aai

5. Oaieiaiia i?aai

6. Oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiia i?aai

1. Ii?aaeaeythuaa aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea eiouanoaaiiuo e ae?oaeo
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, ?aaoee?oaiuo a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauie ii?iaie,
ieacuaaei i?aa?auaiea nioeeaeenoe/aneie nianoaaiiinoe a aeaaiue oaeoi?
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie no?aiu.

8 aeaeaa?y 1961 a. Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? i?eiye Iniiau a?aaeaeaineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN?-e nithciuo ?anioaeee. A ?aieao nithciuo
?anioaeee a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai auei eiaeeoeoee?iaaii a aeaea
a?aaeaeaineeo eiaeaenia.

Iniiau cae?aieyee ainoaea?noaaiioth e eiiia?aoeaii-eieoicioth
nianoaaiiinoue, nianoaaiiinoue i?ionithciuo e eiuo iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee. A Iniiaao a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN?
1961 a. aeaaaeanue eeanneoeeaoeey iniiaaiee aicieeiiaaiey a?aaeaeaineeo
i?aa e iaycaiiinoae, a oaeaea eeanneoeeaoeey oi?i caueou a?aaeaeaineeo
i?aa.

A noa?a iaycaoaeuenoaaiiiai i?aaa a Iniiaao aaaeouaa ianoi caieiaee
ii?iu, ?aaoee?iaaaoea aeiaiai?u e ae?oaea iaycaoaeuenoaa iaaeaeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuie e iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie. Aeiaiai?iay oi?ia
eniieueciaaeanue eae eino?oiaio auiieiaiey ieaiia e iaania/aiey
ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee ca anni?oeiaio, ea/anoai, eiiieaeoiinoue e
naiaa?aiaiiie iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee.

2. 8 aeaeaa?y 1961 a. Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii NNN? auee ooaa?aeaeaiu Iniiau
a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa Nithca NNN? e nithciuo ?anioaeee.
Iniiau onoaiaaeeaaee aaeeiua aeey anaai Nithca NN? iauea iieiaeaiey
a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa.

Iniiau ii?aaeaeyee caaea/e a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa,
caeeth/aaoeany a i?aaeeueiii e auno?ii ?anniio?aiee e ?ac?aoaiee
a?aaeaeaineeo aeae. I?aaeoniao?eaaeinue ?anoe?aiea o/anoey i?aaiecaoeee
e eieeaeoeaia o?oaeyueony a noaeaaiii ?anniio?aiee a?aaeaeaineeo aeae. A
oeaeyo caueou i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania a?aaeaeai i?ionithcu e ae?oaea
iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee /a?ac naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiaee
i?aaeuyaeyoue enee a noae, o/anoaiaaoue a noaeaaiii ?acae?aoaeuenoaa e
niiauaoue noaeo iiaiea eieeaeoeaa ii ?anniao?eaaaiiio aeaeo
A?aaeaeaineea aeaea a onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii neo/ayo iiaee
?anniao?eaaoueny oiaa?euaneeie noaeaie.

A niioaaonoaee n Iniiaaie a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa Nithca NNN?
e nithciuo ?anioaeee a 1964 a. auee i?eiyou
a?aaeaeainei-i?ioeannoaeueiua eiaeaenu a ?aieao nithciuo ?anioaeee.

3. O?oaeiaia i?aai ?acaeaaeinue a iai?aaeaiee iiauoaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey a?aaeaeai e iaania/aiey eo nioeeaeueiuo i?aa.

A 1955—1958 aa. iiauoaaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa ieceiiiea/eaaaiui
o?oaeyueiny. A 1964a. auea iiauoaia ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aaioieeai, caiyoui
a noa?a i?inaauaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey, aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai
oicyenoaa, oi?aiaee, iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo io?aneyo
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

A niioaaonoaee n i?eiyouie ?aoaieyie XX nuacaea EINN i?iaiaeeeenue ia?u
ii ia?aoiaeo ia nie?auaiiue ?aai/ee aeaiue. A i?aaei?acaeie/iua e
i?aaeauoiaeiua aeie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy nie?auaeanue ia
aeaa /ana. N 77 aei 112 eaeaiaea?iuo aeiae oaaee/eaaeanue
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ioionea aeaiueiai ii aa?aiaiiinoe e ?iaeai.

?aai/ea e neoaeauea iieo/eee i?aai iaeiinoi?iiiaai ?anoi?aeaiey
o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a n i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieai
aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey eee o/?aaeaeaiey ca aeaa iaaeaee.

Iiaia Iieiaeaiea i ii?yaeea ?anniio?aiey o?oaeiauo nii?ia auei
ooaa?aeaeaii a 1957 a. I?aceaeeoiii Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?. A
niioaaonoaee n Iieiaeaieai ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, a o/?aaeaeaieyo e
i?aaiecaoeeyo ec ?aaiiai /enea iinoiyiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae oaa?e/iuo,
caaiaeneeo, ianoiuo eiieoaoia i?ionithcia e aaeieieno?aoeee
ia?aciauaaeenue eiiennee ii o?oaeiaui nii?ai. Eiiennee ?anniao?eaaee
o?oaeiaua nii?u, aicieeaaoea iaaeaeo ?aai/eie (neoaeaueie) e
aaeieieno?aoeeae. Iaaeaeiaaiea ?aoaiey eiiennee inouanoaeyeinue a
7-aeiaaiue n?ie a eiieoaoa i?ionithca. A neo/aa ianiaeaney n ?aoaieai
eiieoaoa i?ionithca iii a 10-aeiaaiue n?ie iiaei auoue iaaeaeiaaii a
ia?iaeiii noaea.

4. Eciaiaiey a caiaeueiii e eieoiciii i?aaa, i?ienoiaeeaoea a
?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae, i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ninoaaioth /anoue ia?,
i?eieiaaoeony ?oeiaiaenoaii EINN e Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa ii
i?aiaeieaieth ionoaaaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. A yoeo oeaeyo auee
?anoe?aiu i?aaa eieoicia. Eieoicieeai i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai aeiiieiyoue e
eciaiyoue ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey I?eia?iiai onoaaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
a?oaee 1935 a. n o/aoii ianoiuo oneiaee. Eieoicu iiaee

naie ii?aaeaeyoue ?acia?u i?eonaaeaaiuo o/anoeia eieoicieeia, eiee/anoai
neioa, iaoiaeeaoaainy a eo ee/iie nianoaaiiinoe. Eieoicai oaeaea auei
i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai onoaiaaeeaaoue iaycaoaeueiue ieieioi o?oaeiaeiae,
enoiaey ec iio?aaiinoae o?oaeiauo cao?ao a iauanoaaiiii oicyenoaa.

Eciaiaiey i?iecioee a i?eioeeiao e oi?ia iieaou o?oaea a eieoicao.
Nouanoaiaaaoay i?aeoeea, eiaaea iniiaiay /anoue aeioiaea, iiaeeaaeaaoay
?ani?aaeaeaieth ii o?oaeiaeiyi, auaeaaaeanue eieoicieeai ii ieii/aiee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai aiaea, ia ioaa/aea i?eioeeio iaoa?eaeueiie
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe eieoicieeia e ia niinianoaiaaea ?inoo i?iecaiaenoaa.
Iiyoiio a ia?oa 1956 a. a eieoicao auei aaaaeaii aaeaiany/iia
aaaine?iaaiea eieoicieeia.

5. 25 aeaeaa?y 1958 a. Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii NNN? auee i?eiyou iiaua Iniiau
oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e nithciuo ?anioaeee. Iniiau
ninoiyee ec 4 ?acaeaeia e 47 noaoae.

. A ea/anoaa aeaaiie caaea/e Iniiau i?iaicaeaoaee io?aio niaaoneiai e
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy, nioeeaeenoe/aneie nianoaaiiinoe,
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai i?aaiii?yaeea, ee/iinoe e i?aa a?aaeaeai..

A Iniiaaa ?anniao?eaaeenue iiiyoea i?anooieaiey, aeaeu nio/anoey,
einoeooou iaiaoiaeeiie iai?iiu e e?aeiae iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Ioiaiyeny ?aiaa
aeaenoaiaaaoee i?eioeei aiaeiaee, o. a. inoaeaeaiey /aeiaaea ca aeayiea,
i?yii ia i?aaeoniio?aiiia oaieiaiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. 3aeii,
onoaiaaeeaathuee iaeacoaiinoue aeayiey eee oneeeaathuee iaeacaiea ca
iaai, ia eiae ia?aoiie neeu, o. a. ia ?ani?ino?aiyeny ia aeayiey,
niaa?oaiiua aei iiiaioa aai aaaaeaiey. Caeii, ono?aiyaoee eee niya/aaoee
iaeacoaiinoue aeayiey, eiae ia?aoioth neeo.

Niaeanii Iniiaai iaeacaiea iiaei i?eiaiyoueny oieueei ii i?eaiai?o
noaea, o/eouaathuaai ana iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa
aeaea. Oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianooiaea n 16 eao, i?aaeiee
aic?anoiie i?aaeae a 14 eao i?iaeieaeae aeaenoaiaaoue a neo/ayo iaeaieaa
oyaeeeo i?anooieaiee.

Iaeneiaeueiue n?ie eeoaiey naiaiaea aue nie?auai n 25 aei 15 eao.
Onoaiaaeeaaeny ii?yaeie oneiaii-aein?i/iiai inaiaiaeaeaiey inoaeaeaiiuo,
i?iyaeaoeo oi?ioaa iiaaaeaiea e /anoiia ioiioaiea e o?oaeo.

Iniiau iaania/eaaee aaeeinoai niaaoneiai oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
aai oeaeae, i?eioeeiia e iniiaiuo einoeoooia.

a. Iniiau oaieiaiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa Nithca NN? e nithciuo ?anioaeee
auee i?eiyou Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii NNN? 25 aeaeaa?y 1958 a. Iniiau ninoiyee
ec 54 noaoae, naaaeaiiuo a 6 ?acaeaeia.

Ii?aaeaeyeenue caaea/e oaieiaiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua ninoiyee a
iaania/aiee auno?iai e iieiiai ?ane?uoey i?anooieaiee, eciaee/aiee e
iaeacaiee aeiiaiuo, ia?aaeaeaiee iaaeiiaiuo io oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Iniiau cae?aieee neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu oaieiaiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa:
inouanoaeaiea i?aainoaeey oieueei noaeii ia ia/aeao ?aaainoaa a?aaeaeai
ia?aae caeiiii e noaeii, iacaaeneiinoue noaeae e iiae/eiaiea eo oieueei
caeiio, o/anoea ia?iaeiuo canaaeaoaeae e eieeaaeaeueiinoue ?anniio?aiey
aeae a noaea, aeaniinoue noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, iaaeiionoeiinoue
i?eaea/aiey e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eia/a eae ia iniiaaieyo e a
ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii, iaania/aiea iaaeiyaiiio i?aaa ia
caueoo, aaaeaiea noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ia ycuea nithciie eee aaoiiiiiie
?anioaeeee, aaoiiiiiie iaeanoe, iaoeeiiaeueiiai ie?oaa eee ycuea
.ianoiiai ianaeaiey.

Iniiau ii?aaeaeyee iieiiii/ey noaea, neaaenoaaiiuo i?aaiia a oaieiaiii
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Aaiaeeeny einoeooo iauanoaaiiuo iaaeieoaeae e
iauanoaaiiuo caueoieeia.

?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue ioaeaeueiua noaaeee noaeii?iecaiaenoaa:

aeiciaiea e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea, i?iecaiaenoai a noaea ia?aie
einoaioeee, i?iecaiaenoai a eannaoeeiiiie e iaaeci?iie einoaioeeyo,
eniieiaiea i?eaiai?a

42. Yaiethoeey i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey a ia?eiae
caiaaeeaiey oaiiia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a NNN? (na?aaeeia
1960 – na?aaeeia 1980-o aiaeia).

?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth auea iaeia?aia naioya?ueneei (1965
a.) Ieaioiii OeE EINN. Aa iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie noaee: iiaay
aaeieieno?aoeaiay oeaio?aeecaoeey: oi?acaeiaiea niaia?oicia e
ainnoaiiaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo ieienoa?noa (io?aneaaiai oi?aaeaiey);
aaaaeaiea oic?an/aoa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo; eciaiaiey a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e no?ieoaeuenoaii: nie?auaiea /enea ieaie?oaiuo naa?oo
iieacaoaeae; aaaaeaiea a ea/anoaa iniiaiie ioeaiee; ?acaeoea
yeiiiie/aneiai noeioee?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoee.

I?aaei?eyoey, ia?aoaaeoea ia iiaoth nenoaio, a oeaeii oeo/oeee
iieacaoaee naiae ?aaiou. Ia?eiae 1966-1970 aa. aue iaeeo/oei ca
iineaaeiea 30 eao. Iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa au?in a iieoi?a
?aca.

N 1966 ii 1985 aa. /eneaiiinoue EINN aic?inea n 12,4 aei 19 iei.
/aeiaae. A a?aaeiaaneee ia?eiae i?ienoiaeee i?ioeann aeaeueiaeoae
oeaio?aeecaoeee ia?oeeiiai aiia?aoa, oneeaiea aeanoe ia?oie?aoee. Oaeea
yaeaiey eae ei??oioeey, e?eieiaeecaoeey e ae?. ieii/aoaeueii iiae?uaaee
aaoi?eoao aeanoe. Eaeaieiae/aneee aeeeoao EINN naea?aeeaae ?acaeoea
oai?/anoaa, iiiu?ye aaeeiiiuneea.

Niaaoneay aiaoiyy iieeoeea ca 1965-1985 aa. oaeaea i?ioea neiaeiue e
i?ioeai?a/eaue iooue io aeanoeie eiio?iioaoeee n Caiaaeii e ?ac?yaeea e
io iaa e iiaiio iaino?aieth iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iai?yaeaiiinoe, iinoaaeaoae
ie? ia a?aiue ie?iaie aieiu. A aa iniiaa eaaeaee eiioeaioeee
eaeaieiae/aneiai i?ioeainoiyiey e ai?ueau aeaoo nenoai. O a?aaeiaaneiai
?oeiaiaenoaa ieacaeinue aeaa na?ueaciuo aeinoeaeaiey: iaania/aiea
aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneiai ia?eoaoa n NOA e iieeoeea ?ac?yaeee ia?aie ia/aea
70-o aiaeia. E ia?aie iieiaeia 80-o aiaeia NNN? aoyaeaaeny a i/a?aaeiie
aeoie aiiee aii?oaeaiee, eioi?ay iiae?uaaea ninoiyiea niaaoneie
yeiiiieee.

43. Iauaa e iniaaiiia a Eiinoeoooeee NNN? 1936 a. e Eiinoeoooeee NNN?
1977 a.

Eiinoeoooeey NNN? 1936 aiaea (iaioeoeeaeueiua iacaaiey: «Noaeeineay
eiinoeoooeey», ?aaea — «Eiinoeoooeey iiaaaeeaoaai nioeeaeecia») —
iniiaiie caeii NNN?, i?eiyoue VIII /?acau/aeiui nuacaeii Niaaoia 5
aeaeaa?y 1936 aiaea, e aeaenoaiaaaoee aei 1977 aiaea.

Eiinoeoooeey i?iaicaeaneea, /oi nioeeaeeci a NNN? iiaaaeee e a iniiaiii
iino?iai. Yoi icia/aei, /oi oie/oiaeaia /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e yenieoaoaoi?neea eeannu (e neaaeiaaoaeueii
i?ieaoa?eao aieueoa ia nouanoaoao, o.a. aeeeoaoo?a i?ieaoa?eaoa –
i?ieaeaiiue yoai), iiaaaeeee nioeeaeenoe/aneea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey. Yeiiiie/aneie iniiaie i?iaicaeaoaeanue ieaiiaay
nioeeaeenoe/aneay nenoaia oicyenoaa, iie?athuayny ia nioeeaeenoe/aneoth
nianoaaiiinoue a aeaoo aa oi?iao — ainoaea?noaaiioth e
eieoicii-eiiia?aoeaioth.

Aia?aua a enoi?ee Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa Eiinoeoooeey 1936 aiaea anai
a?aaeaeaiai i?aaeinoaaeyea ?aaiua i?aaa:

anaiauaa, ?aaiia e i?yiia ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai i?e oaeiii aieiniaaiee;

i?aai ia o?oae e ioaeuo, iaoa?eaeueiia iaania/aiea a noa?inoe e aieacie;

naiaiaea niaanoe, neiaa, ia/aoe, nia?aiee e ieoeiaia.

I?iaicaeaoaeenue iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue ee/iinoe e oaeia ia?aienee.

Caiey, a? iaae?a, aiaeu, eana, caaiaeu, oaa?eee, oaoou, ?oaeieee,
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue, aiaeiue e aicaeooiue o?ainii?o, aaiee, n?aaenoaa
nayce iauyaeyeenue anaia?iaeiui aeinoiyieai; caiey, caieiaaiay
eieoicaie, ia?aaeaaaeanue ei a aa/iia iieueciaaiea.

Eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey i?iaicaeaoaeanue «?oeiaiaeyuei yae?ii»
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee (a Eiinoeoooeee 1924 a.
ia?oey ia oiiieiaeanue).

Aunoae caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoueth a no?aia iauyaeyeny aeaooiaeaoiue
Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN?, a a ia?a?uaao iaaeaeo aai nanneyie — I?aceaeeoi
Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?. A eiinoeoooeee auei iieiaeaiea i iaaiciiaeiinoe
o/?aaeaeaiey aaeeiiee/iie i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe e nicaeaiea
«eieeaeoeaiiai i?aceaeaioa» a eeoea I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa,
i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue ?aaainoai iaeao Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa e aai i?aai
nicaeaaaoue neaaenoaaiiua e ?aaeceiiiua eiiennee ii ethaiio aii?ino,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeaiooaoia ia?aae ecae?aoaeyie e i?aai iocuaaoue oao,
eoi ia ii?aaaeuaaao ieacaiiia ei aeiaa?ea.

I?aaeoaeuenoai no?aiu nio?aiyei nai? iacaaiea — Niaao ia?iaeiuo
eiienna?ia NNN?. NIE yaeyeny aunoei eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiii,
iiaeio/aoiui Aa?oiaiiio Niaaoo e aai I?aceaeeoio.

Eiinoeoooeey NNN? 1977 aiaea — iniiaiie caeii NNN?, i?eiyoue 7 ieoya?y
1977 aiaea Aa?oiaiui niaaoii NNN? acaiai Eiinoeoooeee NNN? 1936 aiaea.
Yoa eiinoeoooeey cae?aieyea iaeiiia?oeeioth iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio
(noaouey 6). Ianiio?y ia ?aniaae NNN? aeaenoaiaaea ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
aei aeaeaa?y 1993 aiaea niaeanii 4 noaouee Eiinoeoooeee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee (?NON?)[1]. Aioea a enoi?eth eae «eiinoeoooeey ?acaeoiai
nioeeaeecia».

?ac?aaioea iiaie eiinoeoooeee ia/aeanue au? a 1962 aiaeo[2], eiaaea 25
ai?aey oiai aiaea Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? iinoaiiaee au?aaioaoue i?iaeo
iiaie Eiinoeoooeee NNN? e nicaeae Eiinoeoooeeiiioth eiienneth a ninoaaa
97 /aeiaae. I?aaenaaeaoaeai Eiinoeoooeeiiiie eiiennee aue iacia/ai
I.N. O?ou?a.

15 ethiy 1962 aiaea ia canaaeaiee Eiinoeoooeeiiiie eiiennee auee
ianoaeaeaiu iniiaiua caaea/e ii iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoa iiaie Eiinoeoooeee e
ia?aciaaii 9 iiaeeiiennee.

11 aeaeaa?y 1964 aiaea i?aaenaaeaoaeai Eiinoeoooeeiiiie eiiennee noae
E. E. A?aaeiaa.

19 aeaeaa?y 1966 aiaea niaeanii iinoaiiaeaieth Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa, a
ninoaa Eiinoeoooeeiiiie eiiennee aioee 33 iiauo aeaiooaoa acaiai
auauaoeo.

?aai/oth a?oiio ii iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoa Eiinoeoooeee aicaeaaeyee: n 1962
aiaea E. O. Eeuee/?a, n 1968 aiaea — A. I. sseiaeaa, n 1973 aiaea —
A. I. Iiiiia??a.

4-6 ieoya?y 1977 aiaea ninoiyeinue neooaiea Eiinoeoooeee ia canaaeaieyo
iaeao Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa. 7 ieoya?y ninoiyeinue caeeth/eoaeueiia
niaianoiia canaaeaiea iaeao Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?, aaea a ia/aea ii
?acaeaeai, a caoai a oeaeii Eiinoeoooeey auea i?eiyoa. A oio aea aeaiue
Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? ?acaeaeueiui aieiniaaieai ii iaeaoai i?eiye
Aeaeea?aoeeth Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? i i?eiyoee e iauyaeaiee
Eiinoeoooeee (Iniiaiiai Caeiia) NNN?, Caeii NNN? ia iauyaeaiee aeiy
i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee (Iniiaiiai Caeiia) NNN? anaia?iaeiui i?acaeieeii e
Caeii NNN? i ii?yaeea aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea Eiinoeoooeee (Iniiaiiai
Caeiia) NNN?.

8 ieoya?y iiaay Eiinoeoooeey NNN? auea iioaeeeiaaia ai anao aacaoao
no?aiu.

Iieeoe/aneay nenoaia

Ia?aue ?acaeae Eiinoeoooeee cae?aieye iauea i?eioeeiu nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
no?iy e iniiaiua /a?ou ?acaeoiai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa.

Noaouey 1 iaicia/aea, /oi NNN? «anoue nioeeaeenoe/aneia iauaia?iaeiia
ainoaea?noai, au?aaeathuaa aieth e eioa?anu ?aai/eo, e?anoueyi,
eioaeeeaaioeee, o?oaeyueony anao iaoeee e ia?iaeiinoae no?aiu».

Noaouey 6 caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieyea ?oeiaiaeyuoth e iai?aaeythuoth
?ieue EINN, yaeyaoaeny yae?ii iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu NNN?.
Caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieyeanue aaaeiay ?ieue a iieeoe/aneie nenoaia
i?ionithcia, eiiniiiea e ae?oaeo ianniauo iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, /oi
auei cia/eoaeueiui ioee/eai io i?aaeieo Eiinoeoooeee: a Eiinoeoooeee
1936 aiaea AEI(a) auea «?oeiaiaeyuei yae?ii anao i?aaiecaoeee
o?oaeyueony, eae iauanoaaiiuo, oae e ainoaea?noaaiiuo» (no. 126), a a
Eiinoeoooeee 1924 aiaea ia oiiieiaeanue aiana.

I aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey ae?oaeo ia?oee a Eiinoeoooeee ie/aai ia
aiai?eeinue; Eiinoeoooeey i?eciaaaea eeoue i?aai a?aaeaeai
«iauaaeeiyoueny a iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee» (no. 51).

A 1990 aiaeo auee i?eiyou cia/eoaeueiua iii?aaee a Eiinoeoooeeth 1977
aiaea, a /anoiinoe, aaiaeeony iiiaiia?oeeiay iieeoe/aneay nenoaia[3].

Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia

Noaouey 10 caoeene?iaaea, /oi iniiao yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu NNN?
ninoaaeyao nioeeaeenoe/aneay nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa,
nouanoaothuay a aeaoo oi?iao: ainoaea?noaaiiay (iauaia?iaeiay) e
eieoicii-eiiia?aoeaiay

Noaouey 16 cae?aieyea i?eioeei ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey yeiiiieee,
aianoa n oai i?aaeiieaaaea ni/aoaiea oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey n
oicyenoaaiiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth e eieoeeaoeaie i?aaei?eyoee,
eniieueciaaiea oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa, i?eauee, naaanoieiinoe e ae?oaeo
yeiiiie/aneeo ?u/aaia e noeioeia

I?aaiu aeanoe

A iiaie Eiinoeoooeee aue aaaaeai iiaue ?acaeae «Niaaou ia?iaeiuo
aeaiooaoia e ii?yaeie eo eca?aiey», aaea auea cae?aieaia any nenoaia
Niaaoia, oaaee/ai n?ie iieiiii/ee Aa?oiaiuo Niaaoia n 4 aei 5 eao,
ianoiuo Niaaoia — n 2 aei 2,5 eao.

Cae?aieyeny oaeaea oaea nouanoaiaaaoee a i?aaeiae Eiinoeoooeee i?eioeei
anaiauaai, ?aaiiai, i?yiiai ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa i?e oaeiii
aieiniaaiee. I?e yoii, niaeanii noaouea 96, aue nieaeai aic?ano
ianneaiiai ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa a Niaaou aei 18 eao, a Aa?oiaiue Niaao
NNN? — aei 21 aiaea (?aiaa — 23 aiaea).

?acaeae IV cae?aieye iieiaeaiey i aunoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiao aeanoe
— AN e NI NNN?.

Eiinoeoooeey ia ia?aciaaiee

Noaouey 45 aiai?eo i «?acaeoee cai/iiai e aa/a?iaai ia?aciaaiey»,
«i?aaeinoaaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo noeiaiaeee e eueaio o/aueiny e
nooaeaioai», «aanieaoiie auaea/a oeieueiuo o/aaieeia» e «nicaeaiee
oneiaee aeey naiiia?aciaaiey» (a eiinoeoooeee 1936 aiaea anaai yoiai ia
auei).

A oi a?aiy eae a eiinoeoooeee 1936 aiaea aiai?eeinue ia «iao/aiee a
oeieao ia ?iaeiii ycuea» (no. 121), eiinoeoooeey 1977 aiaea aiai?eo i
«aiciiaeiinoe iao/aiey a oeiea ia ?iaeiii ycuea» (no. 45) — yoi
io?aaeaao oe?iei ?ani?ino?ai?iioth i?aeoeeo oiai, /oi iiiaea ?iaeeoaee
i?aaeii/eoaee ioi?aaeyoue aeaoae a ?onneiycu/iua oeieu, a ia a
iaoeeiiaeueiua.

44. Nenoaia i?aainoaeey, a?aeo?aaea e i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a ii
Eiinoeoooeee NNN? 1977 a.

VII. I?AAINOAeEA, A?AEO?AAE E I?IEO?I?NEEE IAAeCI?

Aeaaa 20. NOAe E A?AEO?AAE

Noaouey 151. I?aainoaeea a NNN? inouanoaeyaony oieueei noaeii.

A NNN? aeaenoaotho Aa?oiaiue Noae NNN?. Aa?oiaiua Noaeu nithciuo
?anioaeee. Aa?oiaiua Noaeu aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee, e?aaaua, iaeanoiua,
ai?iaeneea noaeu, noaeu aaoiiiiiuo iaeanoae, noaeu aaoiiiiiuo ie?oaia,
?aeiiiua (ai?iaeneea) ia?iaeiua NOAeU. a oaeaea aiaiiua o?eaoiaeu a
Aii?oaeaiiuo Neeao.

Noaouey 152. Ana noaeu a NNN? ia?acothony ia ia/aeao auai?iinoe noaeae e
ia?iaeiuo canaaeaoaeae.

Ia?iaeiua noaeuee ?aeiiiuo (ai?iaeneeo) ia?iaeiuo noaeia ecae?athony
a?aaeaeaiaie ?aeiia (ai?iaea) ia iniiaa anaiauaai, ?aaiiai e i?yiiai
ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa i?e oaeiii aieiniaaiee n?ieii ia iyoue eao.
Ia?iaeiua canaaeaoaee ?aeiiiuo (ai?iaeneeo) ia?iaeiuo noaeia ecae?athony
ia nia?aieyo a?aaeaeai ii ianoo eo ?aaiou eee aeeoaeuenoaa ioe?uoui
aieiniaaieai n?ieii ia aeaa n iieiaeiie aiaea.

Auoanoiyuea noaeu ecae?athony niioaaonoaothueie Niaaoaie ia?iaeiuo
aeaiooaoia n?ieii ia iyoue eao.

Noaeuee aiaiiuo o?eaoiaeia ecae?athony I?aceaeeoiii Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa
NNN? n?ieii ia iyoue eao, a ia?iaeiua canaaeaoaee — nia?aieyie
aiaiiineoaeaueo n?ieii ia aeaa n iieiaeiie aiaea.

Noaeuee e ia?iaeiua canaaeaoaee ioaaonoaaiiu ia?aae ecae?aoaeyie eee
eca?aaoeie eo i?aaiaie, io/eouaathony ia?aae ieie e iiaoo auoue eie
ioicaaiu a onoaaiaeaieii Caeiiii ii?yaeea.

Noaouey 153. Aa?oiaiue Noae NNN? yaeyaony aunoei noaeaaiui i?aaiii NNN?
e inouanoaeyao iaaeci? ca noaeaaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth noaeia NNN?, a
oaeaea noaeia nithciuo ?anioaeee a i?aaeaeao, onoaiiaeaiiuo Caeiiii.

Aa?oiaiue Noae NNN? ecae?aaony Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii NNN? a ninoaaa
I?aaenaaeaoaey, aai caianoeoaeae, /eaiia e ia?iaeiuo canaaeaoaeae. A
ninoaa Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN? aoiaeyo ii aeieaeiinoe i?aaenaaeaoaee
Aa?oiaiuo Noaeia nithciuo ?anioaeee.

I?aaiecaoeey e ii?yaeie aeayoaeueiinoe Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN?
ii?aaeaeythony Caeiiii i Aa?oiaiii Noaea NNN?.

Noaouey 154. ?anniio?aiea a?aaeaeaineeo e oaieiaiuo aeae ai anao noaeao
inouanoaeyaony eieeaaeaeueii; a noaea ia?aie einoaioeee — n o/anoeai
ia?iaeiuo canaaeaoaeae. Ia?iaeiua canaaeaoaee i?e inouanoaeaiee
i?aainoaeey iieuecothony anaie i?aaaie noaeuee.

Noaouey 155. Noaeuee e ia?iaeiua canaaeaoaee iacaaeneiu e iiae/eiythony
oieueei Caeiio.

Noaouey 156. I?aainoaeea a NNN? inouanoaeyaony ia ia/aeao ?aaainoaa
a?aaeaeai ia?aae Caeiiii e noaeii.

Noaouey 157. ?acae?aoaeuenoai aeae ai anao noaeao ioe?uoia. Neooaiea
aeae a cae?uoii canaaeaiee noaea aeiioneaaony eeoue a neo/ayo,
onoaiiaeaiiuo Caeiiii, n niaethaeaieai i?e yoii anao i?aaee
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

Noaouey 158. Iaaeiyaiiio iaania/eaaaony i?aai ia caueoo.

Noaouey 159. Noaeii?iecaiaenoai aaaeaony ia ycuea nithciie eee
aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee, aaoiiiiiie iaeanoe, aaoiiiiiiai ie?oaa eee ia
ycuea aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey aeaiiie ianoiinoe. O/anoaothuei a aeaea
eeoeai, ia aeaaeathuei ycueii, ia eioi?ii aaaeaony noaeii?iecaiaenoai,
iaania/eaaaony i?aai iieiiai iciaeiieaiey n iaoa?eaeaie aeaea, o/anoea a
noaeaaiuo aeaenoaeyo /a?ac ia?aaiae/eea e i?aai aunooiaoue a noaea ia
?iaeiii ycuea.

Noaouey 160. Ieeoi ia iiaeao auoue i?eciai aeiiaiui a niaa?oaiee
i?anooieaiey, a oaeaea iiaeaa?aioo oaieiaiiio iaeacaieth eia/a eae ii
i?eaiai?o noaea e a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii.

Noaouey 161. Aeey ieacaiey th?eaee/aneie iiiiue a?aaeaeaiai e
i?aaiecaoeeyi aeaenoaotho eieeaaee aaeaieaoia. A neo/ayo,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, th?eaee/aneay iiiiuue a?aaeaeaiai
ieacuaaaony aanieaoii.

I?aaiecaoeey e ii?yaeie aeayoaeueiinoe aaeaieaoo?u ii?aaeaeythony
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Nithca NN? e nithciuo ?anioaeee.

Noaouey 162. A noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ii a?aaeaeaineei e oaieiaiui aeaeai
aeiioneaaony o/anoea i?aaenoaaeoaeae iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e
o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia.

Noaouey 163. ?ac?aoaiea oicyenoaaiiuo nii?ia iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie,
o/?aaeaeaieyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie inouanoaeyaony i?aaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?aeo?aaea a i?aaeaeao eo eiiiaoaioeee.

I?aaiecaoeey e ii?yaeie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
a?aeo?aaea ii?aaeaeythony Caeiiii i ainoaea?noaaiiii a?aeo?aaea a NNN?.

Aeaaa 21. I?IEO?AOO?A

Noaouey 164. Aunoee iaaeci? ca oi/iui e aaeeiiia?aciui eniieiaieai
caeiiia anaie ieienoa?noaaie, ainoaea?noaaiiuie eiieoaoaie e
aaaeiinoaaie, i?aaei?eyoeyie, o/?aaeaeaieyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie,
eniieieoaeueiuie e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuie i?aaiaie ianoiuo Niaaoia
ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia, eieoicaie, eiiia?aoeaiuie e eiuie iauanoaaiiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie, a oaeaea a?aaeaeaiaie
aiceaaaaony ia Aaia?aeueiiai i?ieo?i?a NNN? e iiae/eiaiiuo aio
i?ieo?i?ia.

Noaouey 165. Aaia?aeueiue i?ieo?i? NNN? iacia/aaony Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii
NNN?. ioaaonoaai ia?aae iei e aio iiaeio/aoai, a a ia?eiae iaaeaeo
nanneyie Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa — ia?aae I?aceaeeoiii Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?,
eioi?iio iiaeio/aoai.

Noaouey 166. I?ieo?i?u nithciuo ?anioaeee, aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee, e?aaa,
iaeanoae e aaoiiiiiuo iaeanoae iacia/athony Aaia?aeueiui i?ieo?i?ii
NNN?. I?ieo?i?u aaoiiiiiuo ie?oaia, ?aeiiiua e ai?iaeneea i?ieo?i?u
iacia/athony i?ieo?i?aie nithciuo ?anioaeee e ooaa?aeaeathony
Aaia?aeueiui i?ieo?i?ii NNN?.

Noaouey 167. N?ie iieiiii/ee Aaia?aeueiiai i?ieo?i?a NNN? e anao
ieaeanoiyueo i?ieo?i?ia iyoue eao.

Noaouey 168. I?aaiu i?ieo?aoo?u inouanoaeytho naie iieiiii/ey iacaaeneii
io eaeeo au oi ie auei ianoiuo i?aaiia, iiae/eiyynue oieueei
Aaia?aeueiiio i?ieo?i?o NNN?.

I?aaiecaoeey e ii?yaeie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia i?ieo?aoo?u
ii?aaeaeythony Caeiiii i i?ieo?aoo?a NNN?.

45. ?acaeoea a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1960 – ia?aie
iieiaeia 1980-o aiaeia

A naioya?a 1965 aiaea i?iaaaeaia ?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth.
Auea i?eiyoa iiaay nenoaia «ieaie?iaaiey e yeiiiie/aneiai
noeioee?iaaiey». N iaeiie noi?iiu, eeeaeaee?iaaeenue niaia?oicu e aiiaue
aic?iaeaeaeenue io?aneaaua ieienoa?noaa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, cia/eoaeueii
?anoe?yeenue i?aaa naieo i?aaei?eyoee, aic?anoaea eo yeiiiie/aneay
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. ?acei nieaeaeinue /enei ieaiiauo iieacaoaeae,
nioneaaiuo i?aaei?eyoeth naa?oo. Iniiaiui ieaiiaui iieacaoaeai
noaiiaeeinue ia eiee/anoai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, a iauai
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee (oi anoue ieaiii
aeaaaeinue caaeaiea i?iecaanoe i?iaeoeoeee ia ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio
?oaeae). A ia?oa 1965 aiaea auei iauyaeaii i ?aoi?ia a naeueneii
oicyenoaa. Iiauoaeanue ?ieue yeiiiie/aneeo noeioeia e o?oaeo
(iiauoaeenue caeoii/iua oeaiu, onoaiaaeeaaeny oaa?aeue ieai
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie, aaiaeeeanue 50-i?ioeaioiay iaaeaaaea e
iniiaiie oeaia ca naa?oieaiiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth). Ianeieueei ?anoe?yeanue
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue eieoicia e niaoicia. ?acei oaaee/eeenue eaieoaeueiua
aeiaeaiey a ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Yoe ?aoi?iu aeaee iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo. Ii ea?aeeiaeueiiai oeo/oaiey
ia i?iecioei. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie iaoaea/e ?aoi?i noaei eceeoiyy
oeaio?aeecaoeey oi?aaeaiey, nii?ioeaeaiea naiie aaeieieno?aoeaii
ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu. Aic?iaeaeaiiua ieienoa?noaa aiiaue noaee
?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue anth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee. Iau/iui aeaeii
noaea ei??aeoe?iaea aiaeiauo ieaiia e ieaiiauo caaeaiee. *enei
ieienoa?noa iinoiyiii ?inei.

A ionoonoaea eiieo?aioeee i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoey, a iiaiia ca
i?eaueueth, oaaee/eaaee oeaiu ia i?iecaaaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth ca n/ao
eniieueciaaiey aieaa aei?iaeo aeaeia nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

N iaeiie noi?iiu yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea NNN? auei aeinoaoi/ii
onoie/eaui. Niaaoneee Nithc iia?aaeae NOA e no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu ii
oaeei iieacaoaeyi, eae aeiau/a oaey e aeaeaciie ?oaeu, iaooe, oeaiaioa,
i?iecaiaenoao o?aeoi?ia, eiiaaeiia. Ii /oi eanaaony ea/anoaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia, oi caeanue ionoaaaiea auei iaeeoei. Iaaethaeaeinue iaaeaiea
oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Niaaoneay yeiiiieea noaea
iaaini?eei/eaie e eiiiaaoeeyi, i/aiue iaaeeaiii inaaeaaea aeinoeaeaiey
iaoee e oaoieee.

46. ?aoi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe eoi?aaeaiey a NNN? e
?NON? a ia?eiae ia?ano?ieee (1985-1991aa.)

N na?aaeeiu 70-o a. “oaiaaay yeiiiieea” i?iieeaao ai ana noa?u
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie, a 1980a. OeE EINN i?eieiaao ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia
ai?ueao n ei??oioeeae, e a 1981-1982 aa. i?ioiaeeo ianeieueei a?iieeo
noaeaaiuo i?ioeannia. Iaeiia?aiaiii auee naeaeaiu iiiuoee oe?aieoue
o?oaeiaoth aeenoeeieeio e iiauneoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.
?aaeeeaeueiay ?aoi?ia iauanoaa, ia/aaoayny naa?oo a 1985 a., i?ioiaeeea
iiae eicoiaaie: “Aeaniinoue”, “Onei?aiea”, “Ia?ano?ieea”. Ia/aaoaany
aeaeaeaiea auei i?ecaaii ?aoi?ie?iaaoue nouanoaothuoth nenoaio, ii
i?eaaei e aa ?ac?ooaieth. “Aeaniinoue” i?eaaea e iiae?uao
eaeaieiae/aneie iainii?eiinoe ia?oeeiuo ?aoaiee e ioeaiie. A ia/aoe
noaee ?acai?a/eaaoue ino?ua eaeaieiae/aneea aeeneonnee ii iieeoe/aneei
aii?inai. Auno?i i?ienoiaee ?aciaaeaaaiea iauanoaa ia aeaiie?aoia,
iaoeeiiae-iao?eioia e eiiioienoia. A ?anioaeeeao NNN? ia?anoaea
iaoeeiiaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue. Auaeaeaaee o?aaiaaiey i i?eciaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaoona iaoeeiiaeueiuo ycuea aica?auaiea ia
enoi?e/aneoth ?iaeeio aeaii?oe?iaaiiuo ia?iaeia, auaiaea ?inneeneeo
aiene e “iea?aioia” ec ?innee n oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeee. N 1988 ia/eiaaony
/a?aaea iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo aii?oaeaiiuo noieeiiaaiee. I?iaeaiu aicieeaee
e a noa?a yeiiiieee. Nie?auaeenue iieacaoaee i?e?inoa i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A ethia 1987 i?eieiaaony Caeii “I
ainoaea?noaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee”, i?aaeoniao?eaaaoee iiaia ia/aei
oic?an/aoa e naiioeiaine?iaaiey. Ia i?aeoeea ainoaea?noaaiiua iiiiiieee
(aincaeac, oeaiiia?aciaaiea, niaaaeaiea, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea iaoiaeeee a
aaaeaiee oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia) ia?aie/eaaee iaeanoue eiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee. A iiya?a 1986 a. e a iaa 1988 a. caeii
eaaaeecoao /anoioth i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a ?yaea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e na?aeniuo iaeanoae. Neiaeeeenue /aou?a o?iaiy oeai
(ainoaea?noaaiiua, aeiaiai?iua eiiia?aoeaiua, /a?iiai ?uiea).
Oi?ie?othuayny ?uii/iay yeiiiieea cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie noaea iineoue
niaeoeyoeaiue oa?aeoa?, i?eaioe?oynue a naiae ?aaioa ia nethieiooioth
auaiaeo. A 1988 a. aaaaeaiea a?aiaeiuo aeiaiai?ia ia caieth (ia n?ie aei
50 eao) caeiaeeei iniiao aeey oi?ie?iaaiey oa?ia?noaa. Iaeiaei a?aiaeiia
aeaeaeaiea oae e ia iieo/eei oe?ieiai ?acaeoey.

A ethia 1988 a. XIX ia?oeeiay eiioa?aioeey auaeaeioea eaeath
eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?iu: aeaooo?iaiaaay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo
i?aaiia: Nuacae ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia e Aa?oiaiue Niaao, eca?aiiue ec
aeaiooaoia nuacaea. *anoue ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia ecae?aeanue a
ecae?aoaeueiuo ie?oaao ii no?aia, /anoue – ia?oeae, i?ionithcaie e
iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie. A ia?oa 1990 a. ia iino I?aceaeaioa aue
eca?ai Aaia?aeueiue nae?aoa?ue OeE EINN I.Ai?aa/aa. Auai? ia?iaeiuo
aeaiooaoia (1989 e 1990 aa.) i?eaaee e nicaeaieth ia?eaiaioneiai opaaia
iiaiai oeia (oioy iie ia auee ie i?yiuie, ie ?aaiuie), ii eaaeoeiiinoue
i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe ia auea iieiie (iineieueeo ii ecae?aeny ia
ia?iaeii, a iiin?aaeiaaiii – ia?eaiaioii). Noi?ie?iaaeanue eiioeaioeey
“nioeeaeenoe/aneiai i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa”, a eioi?ie iiae/a?eeaaeenue
i?ei?eoao i?aaa e i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoe. Aaniie 1988 a.
oi?ie?oaony Aeaiie?aoe/aneee nithc. A yiaa?a 1990 a. aioo?e EINN
neiaeeeanue iiiiceoeeiiiay aeaiie?aoe/aneay ieaooi?ia. A iiya?a 1990 a.
ia?aciaaeanue ?anioaeeeaineay ia?oey, n ia?oa 1990 a. noaea
oi?ie?iaaoueny Aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey, ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii n iae
Eiinoeoooeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay e Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oee.
A ieoya?a 1990a. ai a?aiy ianoaeaeaiey aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iaeoia
yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu I?aceaeaio NNN? iiaeaea?aeae i?iaeo Nithciiai
Niaaoa Ieieno?ia i?ioea aiea ?aaeeeaeueiiai i?iaeoa, oaea iaeia?aiiiai
?inneeneei ia?eaiaioii. A yiaa?a 1991 a. i?iaiaeeony aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia,
iai?aaeaiiay ia ai?ueao n “oaiaaie” yeiiiieeie, ii aucaaaoay
aeiiieieoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea a iauanoaa. A oaa?aea 1991 a. ia
?aoa?aiaeoia a Eeoaa aieueoay /anoue ianaeaiey i?iaieiniaaei ia
“iacaaeneioth e aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ?anioaeeeo”. Ia ia?o aue iacia/ai
?aoa?aiaeoi ii aii?ino i nio?aiaiee. I?iaaaeaiiue 17 ia?oa 1991 a.
?aoa?aiaeoi aeae aieueoeinoai noi?iiieeia Nithca, ii iiaeoaa?aeee ?aneie
iauanoaa. A ethia 1991 a. I?aceaeaioii ?NON? aue eca?ai A. Aeueoeei.

I?iaeieaeaeinue ianoaeaeaiea i?iaeoia iiaiai nithciiai aeiaiai?a: iaeie
o/anoieee niaauaiey a Iiai-Iaa?aaa ianoaeaaee ia eiioaaea?aoeaiuo
i?eioeeiao, ae?oaea ia oaaea?aoeaiuo. I?aaeiieaaaeinue iiaeienaoue
aeiaiai? 20 aaaonoa 1991 a. Ii. 19 aaaonoa 1991a. nicaeaaony
Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii /?acau/aeiiio iieiaeaieth a NNN? (AE*I),
cayaeaoee i iaia?aiee “ainnoaiiaeoue ii?yaeie a no?aia e i?aaeioa?aoeoue
?acaae NNN?”. Onoaiaaeeaaeinue /?acau/aeiia iieiaeaiea, aaiaeeeanue
oeaico?a. I?aceaeaio e ia?eaiaio ?NON? ioeacaeenue iiae/eiyoueny
?anii?yaeaieyi AE*I, i?eieiay nianoaaiiua oeacu e ?anii?yaeaiey. Aneaae
ca i?iaaeii “ioo/a” ainaiue ?anioaeee cayaeee i naiae iacaaeneiinoe, a
o?e aiiaue ia?aciaaiiua i?eaaeoeeneea ?anioaeeee a naioya?a auee
i?eciaiu NNN?. Aaia?aeueiue nae?aoa?ue OeE EINN inoaaee naie iino e
?anionoee OeE. Aeayoaeueiinoue EINN auea i?einoaiiaeaia, a iicaea
cai?auaia I?aceaeaioii ?innee. No?aiynue nio?aieoue oeaio?, I.N.
Ai?aa/aa i?aaeeaaaao ?anioaeeeai iiaue aa?eaio nithciiai aeiaiai?a, ii
nithc oaea ieii/aoaeueii ?aniaaeaaony. A ia/aea aeaeaa?y Oe?aeia
iauyaeea i naiae iacaaeneiinoe (iinea ?aoa?aiaeoia), e aneaae ca yoei
i?aceaeaiou ?innee, Oe?aeiu e Aaei?onnee a Ieinea cayaeee i oii, /oi
“Niaaoneee Nithc aieaa ia nouanoaoao” e /oi eie ia?aciaaii
“Niae?oaeanoai Iacaaeneiuo Ainoaea?noa” (NIA), ioe?uoia aeey anao
ainoaea?noa auaoaai Nithca. Iicaea a NIA anooieee aua ainaiue ?anioaeee,
iinea /aai Ai?aa/aa iauyaee i i?ae?auaiee eniieiaiey ei ooieoeee
i?aceaeaioa NNN?.

47. ?acaeoea i?aaa a NNN? a ia?eiae ia?ano?ieee

N 1982 a. aeaeaaony ?yae iiiuoie inouanoaeoue /anoe/iua ?aoi?iu nenoaiu.
N na?aaeeiu 70-o aa. «oaiaaay yeiiiieea» i?iieeaao ai ana noa?u
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie, a 1980 a. OeE EINN i?eieiaao ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia
ai?ueao n ei??oioeeae, e a 1981—1982 aa. i?ioiaeyo ianeieueei a?iieeo
noaeaaiuo i?ioeannia. Iaeiia?aiaiii auee naeaeaiu iiiuoee oe?aieoue
o?oaeiaoth aeenoeeieeio e iiauneoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea. Yoe
ia?u i?iaiaeeeenue ia oiia ?aaeeeaeueiuo ?uii/iuo i?aia?aciaaiee a
Aaia?ee, onoaiiaeaiey a eiioea 1981 a. aiaiiiai ?aaeeia a Iieueoa,
i?iaeieaeathuaeny n 1979 a. aieiu a Aoaaienoaia. Aiiaue ia/aei
iiaeieiaoueny iiaeaaeaiiia a na?aaeeia 70-o «aeenneaeaioneia» e
«iaoi?iaeueiia» aeaeaeaiey.

?aaeeeaeueiay ?aoi?ia iauanoaa, ia/aaoayny naa?oo, a 1985 a., i?ioiaeeea
iiae eicoiaaie: «Aeaniinoue», «Onei?aiea», «Ia?ano?ieea». Ia/aaoaany
aeaeaeaiea auei i?ecaaii ?aoi?ie?iaaoue nouanoaothuoth nenoaio, ii
i?eaaei e aa ?ac?ooaieth (yoi iaiiieiaei ?aoi?iu na?aaeeiu XIX a.).
?aoi?iu auoee ec-iiae eiio?iey eo eieoeeaoi?ia. «Aeaniinoue», ioe?uaoay
aeinooi e ?aiaa cae?uoie eioi?iaoeee e ii?iaeeaoay ieth?aeeci ?aoeaioia
nioeeaeueiie e iaoeeiiaeueiie ?aeiino?oeoeee, aeaea ?acoeueoaou oaea e
na?aaeeia 1986 a. A ethea 1988 a. ia XIX ia?oeeiie eiioa?aioeee auei
cayaeaii, /oi «aeaniinoue ia aeieaeia iaiineoue oua?aa eioa?anai
ainoaea?noaa, iauanoaa e i?aaai /aeiaaea». Ii «aeaniinoue» i?eaaea e
iiae?uao eaeaieiae/aneie iainii?eiinoe ia?oeeiuo ?aoaiee e ioeaiie.
E?eoeea noaeeiecia einie?e?iaaea e?eoeeo ii?iaeaeaiiie ei
«aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey», nioeeaeecia eae
nenoaiu a oeaeii. N 1986 a. ia/eiaao ia?aie/eaaoueny ?ieue oeaico?u, a
i?aaiecaoeeyo eeaa?aeueiie e oai?/aneie eioaeeeaaioeee a i?anna e
i?aaiao ia/aoe noaee ?acai?a/eaaoueny ino?ua eaeaieiae/aneea aeeneonnee
ii iieeoe/aneei aii?inai. Auno?i i?ienoiaeeei ?aciaaeaaaiea iauanoaa ia
aeaiie?aoia, iaoeeiiae iao?eioia e eiiioienoia.

A ?anioaeeeao NNN? ia?anoaea iaoeeiiaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue.
Auaeaeaaeenue o?aaiaaiey i i?eciaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaoona
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ycueia, aica?auaiee ia enoi?e/aneoth ?iaeeio
aeaii?oe?iaaiiuo ia?iaeia, auaiaea ?inneeneeo aiene e «iea?aioia» ec
?innee n oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeee. N 1988 a. ia/eiaaony /a?aaea
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo aii?oaeaiiuo noieeiiaaiee.

I?iaeaiu aicieeaee e a noa?a yeiiiieee. Nie?auaeenue iieacaoaee i?e?inoa
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, n 1991 a. auno?i
ia?anoaee eioeyoeeiiiua oaiaeaioeee. ?aoi?iu i?aaeiieaaaee ?anoe?eoue
i?aaa i?aaei?eyoee e o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia, oe?a ?acaa?iooue /anoioth
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth eieoeeaoeao. A ethia 1987 a. i?eieiaaony Caeii «I
ainoaea?noaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee» (?ani?ino?aiaiiue ia ana i?aaei?eyoey n
1989 a.), i?aaeoniao?eaaaoee iiaua ia/aea oic?an/aoa e
naiioeiaine?iaaiey. I?aaei?eyoey iieo/aee i?aai naiinoiyoaeueii
ieaie?iaaoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue, onoaiaaeeaaoue i?yiua
ai?eciioaeueiua nayce n ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, aeaenoaiaaoue ia iniiaa
eiio?aeoia, caeacia, yeiiiie/aneeo ii?iaoeaia. Oeaio?aeeciaaiiua
eiaanoeoeee e aee?aeoeau ieaiiauo i?aaiia nouanoaaiii nie?auaee naith
noa?o aeaenoaey. Ia i?aeoeea ainoaea?noaaiiua iiiiiieee (aincaeac,
oeaiiia?aciaaiea, niaaaeaiea, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea iaoiaeeeenue a aaaeaiee
oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia) ia?aie/eaaee iaeanoue eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee. Nenoaia noaneaeee, iieo/aaiuo i?aaei?eyoeyie a
oeaio?aeeciaaiiii ii?yaeea, cia/eoaeueiue aeaoeoeeo e «oaiaaay
yeiiiieea» oaeaea ia iicaieyee iaeaaeeoue iiaoth nenoaio
oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Noaiiaeaiea ?uiea i?ioiaeeei n ia?iiiuie o?oaeiinoyie.

A iiya?a 1986 a. e iaa 1988 a. caeii eaaaeecoao /anoioth
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a ?yaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e
na?aeniuo iaeanoae. Auno?i noaee ?acaeaaoueny eiiia?aoeaiue naeoi?
yeiiiieee e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay o?oaeiaay aeayoaeueiinoue. Aianoa n oai a
eaaaeeciaaiiii /anoiii naeoi?a i?ienoiaeeea «ioiuaea» eaieoaeia,
ca?aaioaiiuo a noa?a «oaiaaie yeiiiieee». Neiaeeeenue /aou?a o?iaiy oeai
(ainoaea?noaaiiua, aeiaiai?iua, eiiia?aoeaiua, «/a?iiai ?uiea»), /oi
oaeaea aaei e oneiaeiaieth yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee. ?acaeoea /anoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iaoaeeeaaeinue ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiua, oeiainiaua,
eaeaieiae/aneea e ineoieiae/aneea (iai?eyoea) i?aiyonoaey.
Oi?ie?othuayny ?uii/iay yeiiiieea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie noaea iineoue
niaeoeyoeaiue oa?aeoa?, i?eaioe?oynue a naiae ?aaioa ia nethieiooioth
auaiaeo.

?anoe?aiea noa?u /anoiie eieoeeaoeau a aa?a?iii naeoi?a ia/eiaaony a
1988 a., eiaaea aaaaeaiea a?aiaeiuo aeiaiai?ia ia caieth (ia n?ie aei 50
eao) caeiaeeei iniiao aeey oi?ie?iaaiey oa?ia?noaa. A iiaii iieiaeaiee i
eieoicao (1988 a.) i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue onoaiiaeaiea ?acia?ia
i?eonaaeaaiiai o/anoea e iiaieiauey neioa a ee/iii oicyenoaa ia iniiaa
?aoaiee eieeaeoeaa eaaeaeiai eieoica. Iaeiaei a?aiaeiia aeaeaeaiea oae e
ia iieo/eei oe?ieiai ?acaeoey. Aeaaea i?eciaiiia i?aai naiaiaeii
i?eia?aoaoue caieth i?e ionoonoaee ?acaeoie eio?ano?oeoo?u e
naeueoicoaoieee o e?anoueyi ia eciaieei iieiaeaiey. Eiio?ieue ianoiuo
aeanoae ca eieoicaie oaeaea ia niinianoaiaae auno?iio ?inoo oa?ia?neeo
oicyenoa.

Eo?n «nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ?aoi?iecia» a EINN aue acyo a naiii ia/aea
ia?ano?ia/iiai aeaeaeaiey: ec Iieeoath?i oaeaeyeenue eiina?aaoeaii
iano?iaiiua eeaea?u, e ?oeiaiaeyuee i?aai iiiieiyeny iiauie ethaeueie.
Niaia ninoaaia i?ienoiaeeea ia eaaeaeii iiaii yoaia ia?ano?ieee.
I?ienoiaeeei iaiiaeaiea anao ?oeiaiaeyueo ia?oeeiuo no?oeoo?. Aeey
yooaeoeaiinoe i?aia?aciaaiee auei i?eciaii iaiaoiaeeiui iieiinoueth
ainnoaiiaeoue ?ieue Niaaoia eae «i?aaiia nioeeaeenoe/aneie aeanoe»,
?ieue, eioi?oth i?enaieee naaa ia?oeeiua i?aaiu. I?e yoii ?oeiaiaeyuay
?ieue ia?oee aeieaeia nio?aiyoueny. Aeey eaaeoeiecaoeee yoie ?iee auee
i?aaei?eiyou ?aciua iieeoe/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ia?u:
aeueoa?iaoeaiua auai?u e oaeiia aieiniaaiea i?e auai?ao, ioaaonoaaiiuo
ia?oeeiuo ?aaioieeia.

A ethia 1988 a. XIX ia?oeeiay eiioa?aioeey auaeaeioea eaeath
eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?iu, i?iaeo eioi?ie aue i?eiyo Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii a
ieoya?a 1988 a. Auea ainnoaiiaeaia (ii ia?acoeo Eiinoeoooeee 1918 a.)
aeaooo?iaiaaay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia: Nuacae ia?iaeiuo
aeaiooaoia e Aa?oiaiue Niaao, eca?aiiue ec aeaiooaoia nuacaea. E?iia
oiai, o/?aaeaeaeny iino I?aceaeaioa NNN?, iaaeaeaiiiai oe?ieeie
iieiiii/eyie. *anoue ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia ecae?aeanue a ecae?aoaeueiuo
ie?oaao ii no?aia, /anoue — ia?oeae, i?ionithcaie e iauanoaaiiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie. I?aceaeaio ecae?aeny nuacaeii, a caoai nai iacia/ae
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a. A ia?oa 1990 a. ia iino I?aceaeaioa aue eca?ai
Aaia?aeueiue nae?aoa?ue OeE EINN I.N. Ai?aa/aa. Auai?u ia?iaeiuo
aeaiooaoia (1989 e 1990 aa.) i?eaaee e nicaeaieth ia?eaiaioneiai i?aaia
iiaiai oeia ii eaaeoeiiinoue i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe ia auea iieiie
(iineieueeo ii ecae?aeny ia ia?iaeii, a iiin?aaeiaaiii ia?eaiaioii).

XIX ia?oeeiay eiioa?aioeey ioiaoeea, /oi iiaia i?aai aeieaeii neoaeeoue
ia ainoaea?noao, a iauanoao, e inoaeeea aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiue
iaoiae ?oeiaiaenoaa, iiae/a?eioa iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey i?aaiaie aacu
aeey i?iaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i e caueou i?aa a?aaeaeai.

A 1988—1990 aa. a ?acaeoea yoeo iieiaeaiee i?eieiaaony ?yae caeiiia e
oeacia: i i?aaa a?aaeaeai ia noaeaaiia iaaeaeiaaiea iai?aaiia?iuo
?aoaiee aaeieieno?aoeee; i ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoe; i i?anna e
n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee; ia iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo; i
auacaea e auacaea ec NNN? e ae?. Noi?ie?iaaeanue eiioeaioeey
«nioeeaeenoe/aneiai i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa», a eioi?ie iiae/a?eeaaeenue
i?ei?eoao i?aaa e i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae. Yoe i?aia?aciaaiey
i?aaeiieaaaeinue inouanoaeyoue a ?aieao iauaai ?aoi?iaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna.

Iieeoe/aneay eeaa?aeecaoeey i?eaaea e ?inoo /enea ia oi?iaeueiuo
a?oiie?iaie, n 1988a. aeeth/eaoeony a iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.
I?iia?acaie aoaeoueo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee noaee nithcu, annioeeaoeee e
ia?iaeiua o?iiou ?aciuo iai?aaeaiee (iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea,
iao?eioe/aneea, eeaa?aeueiua, aeaiie?aoe/aneea e o. i.). Aicieeaee
?aciiai ?iaea nia?aiey o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia, Niaaou i?aaei?eyoee,
noa/a/iua eiieoaou, iacaaeneiua i?ionithcu.

A ?yaea ?inneeneeo ai?iaeia auee ia?aciaaiu ia?iaeiua o?iiou, aaniie
1988 a. oi?ie?oaony Aeaiie?aoe/aneee nithc, a eioi?ue aioee o?ioeeenou,
aa?ieiiioienou, nioeeae-aeaiie?aou, eeaa?aeueiua a?oiie?iaee. Inaiueth
1989 a. iiiaea caaanoiai/iua eiieoaou oaooa?ia i?aia?acothony a
?aaeiiaeueiua nithcu e eaoii 1990 a. iauaaeeiythony a Eiioaaea?aoeeth
o?oaea. A Aa?oiaiii Niaaoa neiaeeeanue iiiiceoeeiiiay Iaae?aaeiiaeueiay
aeaiooaoneay a?oiia. A yiaa?a 1990 a. aioo?e EINN neiaeeeanue
iiiiceoeeiiiay aeaiie?aoe/aneay ieaooi?ia, /eaiu eioi?ie noaee
auoiaeeoue ec ia?oee.

A iiya?a 1990 a. ia?aciaaeanue ?anioaeeeaineay ia?oey, n ia?oa 1990 a.
noaea oi?ie?iaaoueny Aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey, ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii n iae
Eiinoeoooeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay e Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oee.
Oi?ie?othueany iieeoe/aneea aeiee ?aciaaeaaaeenue ia aeaa e?uea:
eeaa?aeueii-caiaaeie/aneia (ia e?aeiai oeaiaa ieacaeanue
«Aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?inney») e iaoeeiiaeueii-iao?eioe/aneia. A oeaio?a
ieacaeenue Nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey, «oaoiie?aoe/aneea» e
«yeieiae/aneea» ia?oee e a?oiiu.

O?aaeeoeeiiiua iieeoe/aneea einoeooou oo?a/eaaee naith aeanoue, ioaeaaay
aa yoei iiaiia?aciaaieyi. Iiiiiieey EINN ia aeanoue oo?a/eaaeanue, n
na?aaeeiu 1990 a. ia/aeny auno?ue ia?aoiae e iiiaiia?oeeiinoe. Yoe
i?ioeannu i?ioaeaee ia oiia «aa?oaoiie ?aaiethoeee» a *aoineiaaeee (1989
a.), iauaaeeiaiey Aa?iaiee e en/aciiaaiey AAe? (1990 a.), ?aoi?i a
Aaia?ee, Iieueoa e Aieaa?ee. «Nioeeaeenoe/aneee eaaa?ue» ?aniaaeaeny.

I?iaeaiu, eioi?ua iaia?aaaeenue ?aoeoue ?aoi?iaoi?u iinea 1985 a.
(iieeoe/aneee ieth?aeeci, nicaeaiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee), e 1990 a. ia
auee ?aoaiu. A ethea 1990 a. ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai iuoaeinue
i?iaanoe iaeioi?ua ?aaeeeaeueiua ia?u a noa?a yeiiiieee (inaiaiaeaeaiea
oeai, i?eaaoecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe), ii ia niiaei yoiai
auiieieoue. A oi aea a?aiy aue ?ac?aaioai i?iaeo iiaiai nithciiai
aeiaiai?a, cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ythuaai i?aaa ?anioaeee. A ai?aea 1991 a.
nithciue oeaio? e aeaayoue ?anioaeee (ca eneeth/aieai i?eaaeoeeneeo,
A?ocee, A?iaiee e Iieaeaaee) iiaeienaee aeieoiaiou, a eioi?uo
aeaeea?e?iaaeenue iieiaeaiey iiaiai nithciiai aeiaiai?a. Iaeiaei
neooaoeey ineiaeiyeanue ia/aaoaeny ai?ueaie iaaeaeo ia?eaiaioaie NNN? e
?innee, i?aa?aoeaoaeny a «aieio caeiiia».

A ieoya?a 1990 a. ai a?aiy ianoaeaeaiey aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iaeoia
yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu I?aceaeaio NNN? iiaeaea?aeae i?iaeo nithciiai
Niaaoa Ieieno?ia i?ioea aieaa ?aaeeeaeueiiai i?iaeoa, oaea iaeia?aiiiai
?inneeneei ia?eaiaioii. A iiya?a Aa?oiaiue Niaao ?NON? i?eiye caeii,
aa?aioe?othuee yeiiiie/aneea iniiau noaa?aieoaoa ?NON? (i i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nao). Nithciia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?aaei?eiyei ?yae ioaaoiuo ia?:
ia?aiauaiey a ?oeiaiaenoaa, i?ecuau e «ai?ueaa n oeaio?iaaaeiuie e
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeie oaiaeaioeeyie». Nuacae ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia NNN? a
aeaeaa?a 1990 a. i?iaieiniaae ca nio?aiaiea NNN?.

Iaeiaei ?aniaae NNN? oaea oae iieiui oiaeii. A ieoya?a 1990 a. ia
nuacaea oe?aeineiai ?oo auea i?iaicaeaoaia «ai?ueaa ca iacaaeneiinoue
Oe?aeiu»; ia?eaiaio A?ocee, a eioi?ii aieueoeinoai iieo/eee
iaoeeiiaeenou ec «Naiaiaeiie A?ocee», i?eiye i?ia?aiio «ia?aoiaea e
noaa?aiiie A?ocee». A I?eaaeoeea nio?aiyeanue iieeoe/aneay
iai?yaeaiiinoue.

A iiya?a 1990 a. ?anioaeeeai aue i?aaeeiaeai iiaue aa?eaio nithciiai
aeiaiai?a, a eioi?ii aianoi Nithca Niaaoneeo Nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ?anioaeee
oiiieiaeny Nithc Niaaoneeo Noaa?aiiuo ?anioaeee. Ii iaeiia?aiaiii auee
iiaeienaiu aeaonoi?iiiea niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo ?inneae e Oe?aeiie, acaeiii
i?eciaaoeie noaa?aieoao ae?oa ae?oaa iacaaeneii io oeaio?a, iaaeaeo
?inneae e Eacaonoaiii. Nicaeaaaeanue ia?aeeaeueiay iiaeaeue nithca
?anioaeee.

A yiaa?a a Aeeueithna e ?eaa i?iecioee noieeiiaaiey n o/anoeai aiaiiuo,
/oi i?eaaei e aua aieueoae iiey?ecaoeee oai iieeoe/aneeo nee. Nithciia
i?aaeoaeuenoai a ?yaea e?oiiuo ai?iaeia aaiaeeo (iiae i?aaeeiaii
oneeaiey ai?ueau n i?anooiiinoueth) aiaiii-ieeeoeaeneia iao?oee?iaaiea
oeeoe.

A yiaa?a 1991 a. i?iaiaeeony aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia, iai?aaeaiiay ia ai?ueao
n «oaiaaie yeiiiieeie», ii aucaaaoay aeiiieieoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea a
iauanoaa.

A oaa?aea 1991 a. ia ?aoa?aiaeoia a Eeoaa aieueoay /anoue ianaeaiey
i?iaieiniaaea ia «iacaaeneioth e aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ?anioaeeeo». Oiaaea
aea a Iineaa, Eaieia?aaea e ae?oaeo e?oiiuo ai?iaeao i?ioee
aeaiiino?aoeee e eiio?aeaiiino?aoeee. Ieaioi OeE EINN inoaeee
«aioeeiiioienoe/aneoth enoa?eth, ?acaeeaaaioth a?aaaie ia?ano?ieee»,
i?aaenaaeaoaeue Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?NON? A.I. Aeueoeei iio?aaiaae ooiaea
a ionoaaeo I?aceaeaioa NNN? e ?inionea Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?. Ia ia?o
aue iacia/ai ?aoa?aiaeoi ii aii?ino i nio?aiaiee NNN? (i?ioeaieee Nithca
iiaeaa?aee aai eaaeoeiiinoue niiiaieth, i?ecuaay e ia?aaea/a aeanoe
Niaaoo Oaaea?aoeee, ninoiyuaio ec ia?auo eeoe ?anioaeeee).

A ia/aea ia?oa oaooa?u Aeiiaanna, Eocaanna e Ai?eoou ia/aee caaanoiaeo,
o?aaoy ionoaaee I?aceaeaioa NNN?, ?inionea Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?,
iiiaiia?oeeiinoe, iaoeeiiaeecaoeee eiouanoaa EINN. Ioeoeeaeueiua aeanoe
ia iiaee inoaiiaeoue ia/aaoeeny i?ioeann. I?iaaaeaiiue 17 ia?oa 1991 a.
?aoa?aiaeoi iiaeoaa?aeee iieeoe/aneee ?aneie iauanoaa, a anei?a
i?iaaaeaiiia ?aceia iiauoaiea oeai oneeeei nioeeaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue
e iiiieieei ?yaeu aanoothueo. Iaeiie ec ia? i?einoaiiaee caaanoiaie
noaea ia?aaea/a i?aaei?eyoee a ?anioaeeeaineoth th?enaeeeoeeth e
i?ae?auaiea ia?a/eneaiey eo i?eaueae a nithciue athaeaeao. A ethia 1991
a. i?ioiaeeee auai?u I?aceaeaioa ?NON?. Aue eca?ai A. Aeueoeei.

I?iaeieaeaeinue ianoaeaeaiea i?iaeoia iiaiai nithciiai aeiaiai?a: iaeie
o/anoieee niaauaiey a Iiai-Iaa?aaa ianoaeaaee ia eiioaaea?aoeaiuo
i?eioeeiao, ae?oaea — ia oaaea?aoeaiuo. I?aaeiieaaaeinue iiaeienaoue
aeiaiai? a ethea 1991 a. A oiaea ia?aaiai?ia ?anioaeeeai oaeaeinue
ionoiyoue iiiaea naie o?aaiaaiey: ?onneee ycue ia?anoae auoue
ainoaea?noaaiiui ycueii, aeaau ?anioaeeeaineeo i?aaeoaeuenoa o/anoaiaaee
a ?aaioa nithciiai eaaeiaoa ieieno?ia n i?aaii ?aoathuaai aieina,
i?aaei?eyoey AIE ia?aoiaeeee a niaianoiia aaaeaiea Nithca e ?anioaeee.
Iiiai aii?inia eae i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii, oae e aioo?enithciii noaoona
?anioaeee inoaaaeenue ia?aoaiiuie. Iayniuie inoaaaeenue aii?inu i
nithciuo iaeiaao e i ?anii?yaeaiee i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, a oaeaea
noaoon oanoe ?anioaeee, ia iiaeienaaoeo niaeaoaiea. Aianoa n oai
n?aaeiaaceaoneea ?anioaeeee caeeth/aee iaaeaeo niaie aeaonoi?iiiea
aeiaiai?u, a Oe?aeia aicaea?aeeaaeanue io iiaeienaiey niaeaoaiey aieioue
aei i?eiyoey naiae Eiinoeoooeee.

A ethea 1991 a. aue iiaeienai Oeac i aeaia?oecaoeee, cai?aoeaoee
aeayoaeueiinoue ia?oeeiuo i?aaiecaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e o/?aaeaeaieyo.
19 aaaonoa 1991 a. nicaeaaony Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii /?acau/aeiiio
iieiaeaieth a NNN? (AE*I), cayaeaoee i iaia?aiee «ainnoaiiaeoue ii?yaeie
a no?aia e i?aaeioa?aoeoue ?acaae NNN?». Onoaiaaeeaaeinue /?acau/aeiia
iieiaeaiea, aaiaeeeanue oeaico?a. I?aceaeaio e ia?eaiaio ?NON?
ioeacaeenue iiae/eiyoueny ?anii?yaeaieyi AE*I, i?eieiay nianoaaiiua
oeacu e ?anii?yaeaiey. Aneaae ca i?iaaeii «ioo/a» ainaiue ?anioaeee
cayaeee i naiae iacaaeneiinoe, a o?e aiiaue ia?aciaaiiua i?eaaeoeeneea
?anioaeeee a naioya?a auee i?eciaiu NNN?.

Aaia?aeueiue nae?aoa?ue OeE EINN inoaaee naie iino e ?anionoee OeE.
Aeayoaeueiinoue EINN auea i?einoaiiaeaia, a iicaea cai?auaia
I?aceaeaioii ?innee. Nie?aoeeny aiia?ao EAA. Iaeiia?aiaiii nithciue
ia?eaiaio aa?ioe naaa ?yae iniauo yeiiiie/aneeo iieiiii/ee, ?aiaa
i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo ei I?aceaeaioo NNN?. No?aiynue nio?aieoue oeaio?,
iineaaeiee i?aaeeaaaao ?anioaeeeai iiaue aa?eaio nithciiai aeiaiai?a. Ii
nithc oaea ieii/aoaeueii ?aniaaeaaony. A ia/aea aeaeaa?y Oe?aeia
iauyaeea i naiae iacaaeneiinoe (iinea ?aoa?aiaeoia), e aneaae ca yoei
i?aceaeaiou ?innee, Oe?aeiu e Aaei?onnee a Ieinea cayaeee i oii, /oi
«Niaaoneee Nithc aieaa ia nouanoaoao» e /oi eie ia?aciaaii
«Niae?oaeanoai Iacaaeneiuo Ainoaea?noa» (NIA), ioe?uoia aeey anao
ainoaea?noa auaoaai Nithca. Iicaea a NIA anooieee aua ainaiue ?anioaeee,
iinea /aai Ai?aa/aa iauyaee i i?ae?auaiee eniieiaiey ei ooieoeee
I?aceaeaioa NNN?.

48. Aeaeea?aoeey «I ainoaea?noaaiiii noaa?aieoaoa ?NON?» io 12 ethiy
1990 a.

Aeaeea?aoeey i ainoaea?noaaiiii noaa?aieoaoa ?NON? — iieeoeei-i?aaiaie
aeo, iciaiaiiaaaoee ia/aei eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?iu a ?NON? (a
aeaeueiaeoai — a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee). Aeaeea?aoeey auea i?eiyoa
Ia?aui Nuacaeii ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia ?NON? 12 ethiy 1990 aiaea. Iiieii
i?iaicaeaoaiey noaa?aieoaoa ?NON? e iaia?aiey nicaeaoue aeaiie?aoe/aneia
i?aaiaia ainoaea?noai a ninoaaa iaiiae?iiiai Nithca NN?, a aeaeea?aoeee
oaeaea ooaa?aeaeaeenue:

i?ei?eoao Eiinoeoooeee e Caeiiia ?NON? iaae caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie
NNN?;

?aaiua i?aaiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey anao a?aaeaeai, iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e
iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee;

i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie
aeanoae;

iaiaoiaeeiinoue nouanoaaiiiai ?anoe?aiey i?aaa aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee,
iaeanoae, ie?oaia, e?a?a ?NON?.

Aeaeea?aoeey iiaeienaia I?aaenaaeaoaeai Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?NON?
A. I. Aeueoeeiui.

N 1992 aiaea aeaiue i?eiyoey Aeaeea?aoeee, 12 ethiy, — ainoaea?noaaiiue
i?acaeiee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. i?eiyoa Ia?aui Nuacaeii ia?iaeiuo
aeaiooaoia ?NON? 12 ethiy 1990 a. Iiieii i?iaicaeaoaiey ain.
noaa?aieoaoa ?NON?, Ae. i a. n. ?NON? niaea?aeaea aua oeaeue ?yae
aaaeiaeoeo iieiaeaiee: aia?aua a ?NON? i?eciaaaeinue ?aaiii?aaea
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, i?iaicaeaoaeny i?eioeei
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, iauyaeyeinue aa?oiaainoai Eiinoeoooeee ?NON? e
caeiiia ?NON? ia anae oa??eoi?ee ?NON?, i?eciaaaeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue
nouanoaaiiiai ?anoe?aiey i?aa aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee, aaoiiiiiuo iaeanoae
e ie?oaia, ?aaii eae e?aaa e iaeanoae ?NON?, a oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue
caeeth/aiey iiaiai Nithciiai aeiaiai?a. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi Ae. i a.
n. ?NON? aeieaeia auea noaoue iniiaie aeey ?ac?aaioee iiaie Eiinoeoooeee
?NON?, caeeth/aiey iiaiai Nithciiai aeiaiai?a e niaa?oainoaiaaiey
?anioaeeeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

49. ?aniaae NNN? e nicaeaiea NIA.

50. Auoiae nithciuo ?anioaeee ec ninoaaa NNN?;

51. ?aoa?aiaeoi

3. Iineaaenoaey aaaonoa 1991 a.

1. Ii ia?a ineaaeaiey NNN? e oe?aieaiey noaa?aieoaoa ?anioaeee
iiaeieiaaony aieia naia?aoecia — aeaeaeaiey ca auoiae ec ninoaaa NNN?.

Niaea?aeauaany a Eiinoeoooeee NNN? iieiaeaiea i i?aaa nithciuo ?anioaeee
ia auoiae ec ninoaaa NNN? ieeiaaea ia ?anniao?eaaeinue eae inouanoaeiia.
Iiyoiio i?ioeaaeo?u ?aaeecaoeee yoiai i?aaa nicaeaii ia auei. A eiioea
80-o aa. a ?yaea nithciuo ?anioaeee iaaethaeaaony aeaeaeaiea ca auoiae
ec NNN?. A yoeo oneiaeyo Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? 3 ai?aey 1990 a. aue
auioaeaeai i?eiyoue caeii «I ii?yaeea ?aoaiey aii?inia, naycaiiuo n
auoiaeii nithciie ?anioaeeee ec NNN?», ?aaeaiaioe?othuee ?aaeecaoeeth
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa ia auoiae ec ninoaaa NNN? e i?aaeoniao?eaathuee
i?e yoii ?aoa?aiaeoi e iyoeeaoiee n?ie.

E?ao NNN? aue i?aae?ao?i ia/aaoeiny e?aoii EINN. Auoiae ec EINN
?anioaeeeaineeo ia?oeeiuo i?aaiecaoeee a oneiaeyo neiaeeaoaainy ca
aeanyoeeaoey ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaeeinoaa icia/ae, /oi ia ca
ai?aie e auoiae ?anioaeee ec ninoaaa NNN?. AEaeaoue i?eoeinue iaaeieai.
Ia?auie a ai?ueao ca iacaaeneiinoue aeeth/eeenue ?anioaeeee I?eaaeoeee,
a inoaeueiua iiaoi?eee yoio iooue.

2. Aaeaeo iiaeiyaoaeny aieiu naia?aoecia noaea i/aaeaeiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoue cae?aieaiey a th?eaee/aneie oi?ia no?aieaiey
aieueoeinoaa a?aaeaeai e nio?aiaieth NNN?. N yoie oeaeueth ?oeiaiaenoai
NNN? ?aoeei i?iaanoe ?aoa?aiaeoi.

A niioaaonoaee n ?aoaieyie IV nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia Aa?oiaiue
Niaao NNN? iinoaiiaee i?iaanoe 17 ia?oa 1991 a. ?aoa?aiaeoi NNN? ii
aii?ino i nio?aiaiee NNN? eae oaaea?aoeee ?aaiii?aaiuo ?anioaeee. Auea
ii?aaeaeaia neaaeothuay oi?ioee?iaea aii?ina: «N/eoaaoa ee au
iaiaoiaeeiui nio?aiaiea Nithca Niaaoneeo Nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ?anioaeee eae
iaiiaeaiiie oaaea?aoeee ?aaiii?aaiuo noaa?aiiuo ?anioaeee, a eioi?ie a
iieiie ia?a aoaeoo aa?aioe?iaaoueny i?aaa e naiaiaeu /aeiaaea ethaie
iaoeeiiaeueiinoe?» I?aaeeaaaeinue aua?aoue iaeei ec ioaaoia: «aea» eee
«iao».

Aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey no?aiu ia ?aoa?aiaeoia NNN? auneacaeinue ca
nio?aiaiea NNN? eae oaaea?aoeee, ii ?oeiaiaenoai NNN?, oo?aoea iaoaieciu
naiaai aicaeaenoaey ia ?anioaeeee /a?ac no?iai oeaio?aeeciaaiioth
nenoaio ia?oeeiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa, ia niiaei iaeoe ae?oaeo, e i?ioeann
?aniaaea NNN? i?iaeieaeaeny. ss?/a anaai yoi i?iyaeyeinue a aieia
caeiiia, o. a. eaii?e?iaaiee ianoiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe Eiinoeoooeee NNN?,
caeiiia NNN?, nicaeaiee iaeiinoeoooeeiiiuo, ia?aeeaeueii Niaaoai,
no?oeoo? aeanoe ia ianoao e o. ae.

3. Niauoey 19—21 aaaonoa 1991 a. yaeeenue iineaaeiae i?aaieciaaiiie
iiiuoeie i?ioeaiaeaenoaey ?aniaaeo NNN? e nicaeaieth ia aai ianoa
eiioaaea?aoeee a oie eee eiie oi?ia. Ii?aaeaiea AE*I niinianoaiaaei
aeaeueiaeoaio iiaeuaio aeaoeaio?aeenoneeo nee ii anaio i?ino?ainoao
NNN?. I?aceaeaio NNN? ia iia eniieiyoue naie iaycaiiinoe aa?aioa
aaeeinoaa e oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe naiaai ainoaea?noaa.
Aieueoeinoai nithciuo ?anioaeee, ?aiaa iauyaeaoeo i naiai noaa?aieoaoa,
oaia?ue iioee aeaeueoa, cayaea i iacaaeneiinoe e ia?aoeaoenue e ie?iaiio
niiauanoao ca aa i?eciaieai. Iie iauyaeee nithcioth nianoaaiiinoue
?anioaeeeaineie e ia?anoaee i?eieiaoue o/anoea a aeayoaeueiinoe nithciuo
no?oeoo? e a ?aaioa nithciuo i?aaiia aeanoe.

Noaeueaa NNN? auea ?aoaia ia Aaeiaaaeneie ano?a/a ?oeiaiaeeoaeae o?ao
?anioaeee — Aaei?onnee, ?innee e Oe?aeiu 8 aeaeaa?y 1991 a., eiaaea a
Ieinea auei iiaeienaii Niaeaoaiea i nicaeaiee Niae?oaeanoaa Iacaaeneiuo
Ainoaea?noa (NIA). Niaeaoaiea i?aaeoniao?eaaei ?inione Nithca NN?,
i?ae?auaiea aeaenoaey caeiiia NNN? e eeeaeaeaoeeth aai i?aaiia. Yoi
Niaeaoaiea iiaeoieeioei ae?oaea ?anioaeeee i?eniaaeeieoueny e i?ioeanno
?inionea NNN?.

52. Iineaaenoaey ?aniaaea NNN? aeey ?innee: enoi?eei-i?aaiaua aniaeou

Ioeaiee ?aniaaea NNN? iaiaeiicia/iu. I?ioeaieee NNN? a oieiaeiie aieia
aini?eiyee eieeain NNN? eae naith iiaaaeo. A nayce n yoei, a NOA,
iai?eia?, iiaeii /anoi oneuoaoue ?aci/a?iaaiea a iiaaaea: i?iea?aaoea
aieio «?onneea» ii-i?aaeiaio yaeythony yaea?iie aea?aeaaie, caueuatho
iaoeeiiaeueiua eioa?anu, aiaoeaathony ai aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea nii?u e oae
aeaeaa. «I?iea?aaoee ia i?iea?ae… i?iea?aaoee ia n/eoaao, /oi i?iea?ae…
e ia aaae?o naay oae, eae iioa?iaaoee ii?aaeaiea n naiiai 1991 aiaea», —
neacae auaoee eiiaiaeothuee no?aoaae/aneeie yaea?iuie neeaie NOA aaia?ae
THaeaeei Oaaeaa? a eioa?aueth, iieacaiiii a oaeaia?aaea/a «?aiaoeoeey
eiioea naaoa» eaiaea CNN[55].

25 ai?aey 2005 aiaea I?aceaeaio ?innee A. Iooei a iineaiee
Oaaea?aeueiiio Nia?aieth ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee cayaee:

A oii, /oi i?iecioei n Niaaoneei Nithcii, ia auei ieeaeie iauaeoeaiie
iaecaaaeiinoe, yoi yaeeinue ?acoeueoaoii aeaenoaey noauaeoeaiuo
oaeoi?ia, oi anoue aeaenoaee e iinooieia ioaeaeueiuo eeoe. E o enoieia
yoiai ?ac?ooeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna noiyee aeaa /aeiaaea — Ai?aa/aa e
sseiaeaa

A ieoya?a 2009 aiaea a eioa?aueth[59] n aeaaiui ?aaeaeoi?ii ?aaeei
«Naiaiaea» Ethaeieeie Oaeaiue ia?aue e aaeeinoaaiiue I?aceaeaio NNN?
Ieoaee Na?aaaae/ Ai?aa/?a i?eciae naith aeio ca ?acaae NNN?:

53. Noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia a noaa?aiiie
?innee (aeaeaa?ue 1991 -aeaeaa?ue 1993 a.)

?aoi?ie?iaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
ia/eiaaony n i?eiyoey 27 ieoya?y 1989 a. Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii ?NON? Caeiia
ia eciaiaieyo e aeiiieiaieyo Eiinoeoooeee ?NON? e Caeiia i auai?ao. Yoe
aeou ai iiiaii io?aaeaee ia?aiaiu, i?iecioaaeoea a Nithca NN?. Eciaiaiey
Eiinoeoooeee i?aaeoniao?eaaee aaaaeaiea aeaooo?iaiaaie nenoaiu
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe a oeaio?a, o/eouaathueo oaaea?aoeaiia
iino?iaiea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, – Nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia e
Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?NON?.

Nuacae noaiiaeeny aunoei i?aaiii ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ?NON?. Ii aue
i?aaiii/ai i?eiyoue e naiaio ?anniio?aieth e ?aoeoue ethaie aii?in,
ioianaiiue e aaaeaieth ?NON?. E aai eneeth/eoaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee
ioiineeinue i?eiyoea Eiinoeoooeee e aianaiea a iaa eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiea aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee ?NON?,
oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo aii?inia i?eioeeieaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Nuacae ninoiye
ec 1068 aeaiooaoia, 900 ec eioi?uo ecae?aeenue ii oa??eoi?eaeueiui
ie?oaai n ?aaiui eiee/anoaii ianaeaiey, a 168 aeaiooaoia io
iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?aciaaiee (iieiaeia) e
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aaeeieoe (iieiaeia).
I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai io iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee ia i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue.
Nuacae ecae?ae Aa?oiaiue Niaao e aai i?aaenaaeaoaey, /eaiia
Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea iinea aai ia?aciaaiey.

Aa?oiaiue Niaao ?NON? noaiiaeeny iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui, ?anii?yaeeoaeueiui e eiio?ieueiui i?aaiii e aia?aua a
enoi?ee ?anioaeeee iieo/ae aeaooiaeaoioth no?oeoo?o. Ii ecae?aeny
Nuacaeii ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia e ninoiye ec Niaaoa ?anioaeeee e Niaaoa
Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, ii 126 aeaiooaoia a eaaeaeie iaeaoa. Iieiaeia Niaaoa
iaoeeiiaeueiinoae ecae?aeanue io aeaiooaoia, i?aaenoaaeythueo
iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiua ia?aciaaiey, a iieiaeia – ec eca?aiiuo io
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aaeeieoe. Niaao ?anioaeeee ecae?aeny
io aeaiooaoia, i?aaenoaaeythueo oa??eoi?eaeueiua ie?oaa.

Aeieaeiinoue i?aceaeaioa ?NON? auea aaaaeaia ia iniiaa eoiaia
?aoa?aiaeoia 17 ia?oa 1991 a., eioi?ue i?iaiaeeeny iaeiia?aiaiii n
?aoa?aiaeoiii NNN?. 24 ai?aey 1991 a. Aa?oiaiue Niaao ?NON? i?eieiaao
caeii “I I?aceaeaioa ?NON?”. A niioaaonoaee n yoei caeiiii i?aceaeaio –
aunoaa aeieaeiinoiia eeoei, aeaaa eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. Ia yoo
aeieaeiinoue iia ecae?aoueny a?aaeaeaiei ?NON? ia iieiaea 35 e ia noa?oa
65 eao. N?ie iieiiii/ee ninoaaeye 5 eao. Iaeii e oi aea eeoei ia iiaei
auoue i?aceaeaioii aieaa aeaoo n?ieia iiae?yae. I?aceaeaio iiaeienuaaao
caeiiu e eiaao i?aai aaoi, i?aiaeieaaaaiia aieueoeinoaii eaaeaeie ec
iaeao. Ii ?oeiaiaeeo i?aaeoaeuenoaii. N niaeaney Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa
iacia/aao i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa Ieieno?ia. Iacia/aao ieieno?ia ii
i?aaenoaaeaieth i?aaenaaeaoaey i?aaeoaeuenoaa. I?aceaeaio iacia/aao e
iocuaaao aeeieiiaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae, aaaeao ia?aaiai?u e
iiaeienuaaao aeiaiai?u. Ii aicaeaaeyao Niaao Aaciianiinoe, iaa?aaeaeaao,
i?enaaeaaao caaiey, inouanoaeyao i?aai iiieeiaaiey. I?aceaeaio yaeyaony
Aa?oiaiui Aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei. Ii iacia/aao e inaiaiaeaeaao io
aeieaeiinoe aunoeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae a?iee. I?aceaeaioo i?aaeinoaaeaii
i?aai aaiaeeoue /?acau/aeiia iieiaeaiea.

O/?aaeaeaaony aeieaeiinoue aeoea-i?aceaeaioa. E i?aoaiaeaioo ia yoo
aeieaeiinoue i?aaeuyaeyeenue oaeea aea o?aaiaaieth, /oi e ia
aeieaeiinoue i?aceaeaioa.

15 aeaeaa?y 1990a. i?aoa?iaaaao eciaiaiey
eniieieoaeueii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiay aeanoue a ?anioaeeea. Oi?acaeiyaony
eaoaai?ey nithcii-?anioaeeeaineeo ieienoa?noa e ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiieoaoia. Oaia?ue ana aaaeiinoaa ?anioaeeee iiae/eiyeenue oieueei
Niaaoo Ieieno?ia ?NON?.

Ianoiia oi?aaeaiea. Ia/eiaaony iooiae io i?eioeeia aaeeinoaa e
iieiiaeanoey Niaaoia. Ianoiay aaeieieno?aoeey ia?anoaao auoue i?aaiii
niioaaonoaothuaai Niaaoa. Aeaaa aaeieieno?aoeee nai iacia/aao
?oeiaiaeeoaeae no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee. Aianoa n oai aeaaa
aaeieieno?aoeee iiaeio/aoai Niaaoo, eioi?ue iiaeao ioiaiyoue aai
?aoaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiee io 24 iay 1991 o. a Eiinoeoooeee ?NON?
iiyaeeinue iiiyoea i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, e eioi?ui noaee
ioiineoue e ieaeanoiyuaa caaii Niaaoia: ai?iaeneea, ?aeiiiua e
naeueneea.

Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey, iai?aaeaiiua ia oe?aieaiea noaa?aieoaoa ?innee,
i?ienoiaeyo a nenoaia i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia. 15 aeaeaa?y 1990 a.
o/?aaeaeaaony aeieaeiinoue Aaia?aeueiiai i?ieo?i?a ?NON?, iacia/aaiiai
Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii e ooaa?aeaeaaiiai Nuacaeii. I?ieo?aoo?a ?innee
ioaeaeyeanue io I?ieo?aoo?u NNN?.

Eciaiaiey a noaeaaiie nenoaia niioaaonoaiaaee eciaiaieyi ia nithciii
o?iaia. Aue oaeeeiai n?ie i?aauaaiey noaeae a aeieaeiinoe aei 10 eao e
niioaaonoaaiii eciaiai ii?yaeie eo eca?aiey. Caeiiii ?NON? io 4 ethey
1991 a. onoaiaaeeaaaony nenoaia a?aeo?aaeiuo noaeia ?NON?. N aai
aaaaeaieai a aeaenoaea n 1 ieoya?y 1991 a. ia oa??eoi?ee ?NON?
oi?acaeiyeenue a?aeo?aaee e eiua aiaeiae/iua i?aaiu a nenoaia
ieienoa?noa, ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiieoaoia, aaaeiinoa, a annioeeaoeeyo,
eiioea?iao e eiuo iauaaeeiaieyo, a oaeaea ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e a
i?aaiecaoeeyo. I?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?aeo?aaea i?iaeieaeaee
auiieiyoue naie ooieoeee aei eca?aiey niioaaonoaothueo a?aeo?aaeiuo
noaeia.

A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee o/?aaeaeaaony Eiinoeoooeeiiiue noae. Caeii i
eioi?ii i?eieiaaony 6 iay 1991 a. Eiinoeoooeeiiiue noae ecae?aaony
Nuacaeii ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia ii i?aaenoaaeaieth i?aaenaaeaoaey
Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?NON? oaeiui aieiniaaieai a ninoaaa 15 noaeae. Aai
ianoi a noaeaaiie nenoaia ii?aaeaeyeinue no. 165 Eiinoeoooeee eae
aunoaai noaeaaiiai i?aaia eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiio?iey, inouanoaeythuaai
noaeaaioth aeanoue a oi?ia eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

16 ethiy 1990 a. I Nuacae ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia ?NON? i?eieiaao iiaoth
?aaeaeoeeth no. 6 Eiinoeoooeee ?innee, eneeth/athuoth iieiaeaiea i
?oeiaiaeyuae ?iee EINN, a 20 ethiy 1990 a. i?eieiaao iinoaiiaeaiea “I
iaoaiecia ia?iaeiaeanoey a ?NON?”, aaea aiai?eeinue i oii, /oi “a ?NON?
ia aeiioneaaony niaiauaiea aeieaeiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey ainoaea?noaaiiiai
i?aaia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey n ethaie ae?oaie Aeieaeiinoueth, a oii /enea
A iieeoe/aneeo eee iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo”. Ie aeey eiai
ia auei nae?aoii, /oi i?aaeaea anaai oi iinoaiiaeaiea auei iai?aaeaii
oiaea i?ioea EINN. Aeiaeaoenue ono?aiaiey Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee ec
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai iiey, aieueoeinoai Nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia’
iaeiiaoe iicaieeei ioe?uoi au?aceoue e naie iiaeaeaiey a ioiioaiee
iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa ?innee. 15 aeaeaa?y 1990 a. Nuacae ia?iaeiuo
aeaiooaoia ?NON? aian eciaiaiey a i?aaiaoeo Eiinoeoooeee, aaea oaia?ue
noaei aiai?eoueny ia i nioeeaeenoe/aneii, a i aeaiie?aoe/aneii, i?aaiaii
ainoaea?noaa, N yoeo ii? noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi eiia/iie oeaeueth
?aoi?iaoi?ia yaeyaony ?anoaa?aoeey eaieoaeecia a iaoae no?aia.

54. Eiinoeoooeeiiiue e?ecen a ?innee. Oeac io 21 naioya?y 1993 a. «I
iiyoaiiie eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?ia a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee»

Iieeoe/aneee e?ecen a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee 1992—1993 aiaeia —
i?ioeainoiyiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy iieeoe/aneeie neeaie: n iaeiie noi?iiu —
I?aceaeaio ?innee A. I. Aeueoeei, I?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee ai aeaaa n E.I.
I?aaenaaeaoaey Aeeoi?ii *a?iiiu?aeeiui, iy? Iineau TH?ee Eoaeeia e ?yae
?aaeiiaeueiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, /anoue aeaiooaoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa –
noi?iiieee Aeueoeeia; n ae?oaie noi?iiu — ?oeiaiaenoai e aieueoay /anoue
aeaiooaoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa e Nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia ai aeaaa n
?. E. Oanaoeaoiaui, a oaeaea aeoea-i?aceaeaio ?innee A. A. ?ooeeie e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea i?aaenoaaeoaee caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe.
Eoeueieiaoeeae eiinoeoooeeiiiiai e?ecena noaei aii?oaeaiiia
e?iaii?ieeoiia noieeiiaaiea 3—4 ieoya?y 1993 a oeaio?a Iineau e aicea
oaeaoeaio?a “Inoaieeii” e iineaaeothuee ooo?i aieneaie, aa?iuie
i?aceaeaioo Aeueoeeio, Aeiia Niaaoia ?innee, /oi, a niaieoiiinoe,
i?eaaei e aieueoiio eiee/anoao aea?oa, a oii /enea e n?aaee
i?aaenoaaeoaeae a?aaeaeaineiai ianaeaiey.

Iiyoaiiay eiinoeoooeeiiiay ?aoi?ia

· 5 ieoya?y — ?aniouai Iinniaao e ?aeniaaou (ianeieueei aeaiooaoia
a?anoiaaiu), niyo n aeieaeiinoe aaii?ieo?i? A. Noaiaieia, ia aai ianoi
iacia/ai A. Eacaiiee, niyou n aeieaeiinoae aeaau aaeieieno?aoeee,
auneacuaaaoeany i?ioea oeaca ? 1400[8]: Aeeoi? Aa?anoiaie (Aaeai?iaeneay
iaeanoue), TH?ee Eiaeeei (A?yineay iaeanoue, niyo au? 25 naioya?y),
Aeoaeee Iooa (Iiaineae?neay iaeanoue), I?o? Noiei (*aeyaeineay
iaeanoue), Aeaenaiae? No?ao (Aio?neay iaeanoue).

· 7 ieoya?y 1993 aiaea — I?aceaeaio i?eieiaao oeac «I i?aaiaii
?aaoee?iaaiee a ia?eiae iiyoaiiie eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?iu», eioi?ui
oaeoe/anee i?eieiaao ia naay iieiiii/ey caeiiiaeaoaey. I?aaenaaeaoaeue
Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea A. Ci?ueeei iiae oa?icie oaieiaiiai
i?aneaaeiaaiey ii iaaeiaieth «a i?aaiaii iaania/aiee eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
ia?aai?ioa» auioaeaeai oeoe a ionoaaeo (nio?aiea iieiiii/ey
noaeuee).[9]. Noaeuee, iiae aeaaeaieai ie?oaeaiey i?aceaeaioa,
auioaeaeaiu neiaeeoue n naay iieiiii/ey ii ?anniio?aieth ii?iaoeaiuo
aeoia i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeanoe e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia. (A iiaoth
Eiinoeoooeeth auei aeeth/aii iieiaeaiea i iieiie caiaia noaeae EN,
iaeiaei, a iineaaeiee iiiaio, ii ioeaea, yoi iieiaeaiea ec
iioaeeeiaaiiiai i?iaeoa auiaei[10])

· 9 ieoya?y — I?aceaeaio i?ae?auaao iieiiii/ey Niaaoia anao o?iaiae.

· 11 ieoya?y — I?aceaeaio ioeacuaaaony io eaeae oi?ie?iaaiey Niaaoa
Oaaea?aoeee e iacia/aao auai?u a Niaao Oaaea?aoeee

· 15 ieoya?y — I?aceaeaio iacia/aao anaia?iaeiia aieiniaaiea ii
Eiinoeoooeee ia 12 aeaeaa?y

· 22 ieoya?y — I?aceaeaio i?eieiaao oeac ia iniiaiuo ia/aeao
i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a noauaeoao ?O

· 26 ieoya?y — I?aceaeaio i?eieiaao oeac i ?aoi?ia ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey

· 10 iiya?y — a ?inneeneeo Aanoyo iioaeeeiaai i?iaeo Eiinoeoooeee,
auiineiie ia anaia?iaeiia aieiniaaiea

· 12 aeaeaa?y — ninoiyeinue anaia?iaeiia aieiniaaiea ii Eiinoeoooeee
?innee, a oiaea eioi?iai ca Eiinoeoooeeth i?iaieiniaaee 58 i?ioeaioia
o/anoieeia ?aoa?aiaeoia, a oaeaea auai?u a Niaao Oaaea?aoeee e
Ainoaea?noaaiioth Aeoio ia?aiai nicuaa

· 24 aeaeaa?y — I?aceaeaio iiaeienae ?yae oeacia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
i?eaaaeaiea caeiiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a niioaaonoaea n iiaie
Eiinoeoooeeae

· 25 aeaeaa?y 1993 aiaea — Iiaay Eiinoeoooeey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
iioaeeeiaaia a «?inneeneie aacaoa» e anooieea a neeo ia anae oa??eoi?ee
?innee

· 11 yiaa?y 1994 aiaea — a Iineaa ia/aee ?aaioo Niaao Oaaea?aoeee e
Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia, eca?aiiua 12 aeaeaa?y 1993 aiaea

· 23 oaa?aey 1994 aiaea — Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia i?eiyea iinoaiiaeaiea
ia aiienoee o/anoieeia ieoya?ueneeo niauoee 1993 aiaea (oioy noae oae e
ia ninoiyeny). O/anoieee niauoee niaeaneeenue ia aiienoeth, oioy e ia
i?eciaee naay aeiiaiuie. Ana neaaenoaaiiua aeaenoaey ii niauoeyi
naioya?y — ieoya?y auee i?ae?auaiu.

55. Aunoea i?aaiu aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey ii Eiinoeoooeee ?O 1993a.

56. I?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey ii Eiinoeoooeee ?O 1993 a.

57. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?aai aeanoe ii Eiinoeoooeee ?O 1993 a. Aai
no?oeoo?a e eiiiaoaioeey.

58. Noaeaaiay aeanoue ii Eiinoeoooeee ?O 1993 a.

59. ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey e NIA: i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau.

A ?aieao NIA ?inney noaea naiinoiyoaeueiui ainoaea?noaii, a auaoea
niaaoneea ?anioaeeee — aa ?aaiii?aaiuie ia?oia?aie. Yoi nicaeaei iiaoth
neooaoeeth. Iaaeyoie/aneea eiioeeeou a Iieaeaaee e A?ocee,
a?iyii-aca?aaeaeaeaineee eiioeeeo ec-ca Iaai?iiai Ea?aaaoa,
iaaeoaaeaeeeneay aieia ieacaeenue caoyaeiuie e e?iaii?ieeoiuie. ?inney
auea auioaeaeaia ea?aoue ?ieue ie?ioai?oea, neoaeeoue i?eaaaeeuai aeey
nioai ouny/ aaaeaioeaa, ianoe a?aiy ioaaonoaaiiinoe e a?oc iaaeiaiee a
i?iaeieaeaiee i?aaeiae «eiia?neie iieeoeee» ii ioiioaieth e aiiaue
ia?aciaaiiui noaa?aiiui ainoaea?noaai. Neooaoeey onoaoaeyeanue
i?enoonoaeai auaoeo niaaoneeo aii?oaeaiiuo nee ia oa??eoi?ee auaoeo
nithciuo ?anioaeee; neiaeiie ieacaeanue i?iaeaia yaea?iiai i?oaeey
(iaeioi?ua eeaea?u iiauo ainoaea?noa niaeacieeenue aiciiaeiinoueth
iioi?aiaaoueny aeey iieo/aiey io ie?iaiai niiauanoaa i?eaeeaaee a iaiai
ia aacuyaea?iue noaoon). Aicieeee oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?iaeaiu iaaeaeo
?inneae e aa iiauie ninaaeyie. E?ui, auaoee /anoueth ?NON? aei 1954 a.,
noae ieacuaaoue nii?ioeaeaiea ianeeuenoaaiiie oe?aeiecaoeee e ecieyoeee
io ?innee, i?iaiaeeiie iiae aeaaeaieai iaoeeiiaeenoia i?aaeoaeuenoaii
noaa?aiiie Oe?aeiu. Ia?ac?aoeiie i?iaeaiie noaei ii?aaeaeaiea noaoona
Naaanoiiiey, eioi?ue anaaaea aue aeaaiie aacie ?inneeneiai oeioa ia
*a?iii ei?a. A Naaa?iii Eacaonoaia i?iaiaeeeanue eeiey ia auoaniaiea e
i?eoaniaiea ?onneiai ianaeaiey.

Eae i?aaiieoea NNN?, ?inney i?eiyea ia naay aieueooth /anoue
iaycaoaeuenoa, iieo/eea iinoiyiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai a Niaaoa
Aaciianiinoe III. Iiaia ?oeiaiaenoai no?aiu iiaeoaa?aeeei aa?iinoue
iaycaoaeuenoaai e aeiaiai?ai i yaea?iii ?aci?oaeaiee, auaiaea aiene ec
Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, Aaeoee, Aa?iaiee. Iiene ?inneae iiaie iiaeaee
ioiioaiee n auaoeie nithciuie ?anioaeeeaie eniieueciaaeny eae iiaiae
aeey iaaiaoaiey no?aoa ia?aae «?onneie yeniaineae» (yoi au?aceeinue a
ieaiao ?anoe?aiey IAOI ia ainoie). Iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay
iaonoie/eainoue aioo?e ?innee, a ca/anooth iai?aaeneacoaiinoue
aioo?aiiae iieeoeee cao?oaeiyee eiioaeou ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa n
ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie

60. Nithc «?inney – Aaea?onue»: enoi?eei-i?aaiaua aniaeou

61. Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia a ?innee: i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau

?inneeneay noaeaaii-i?aaiaay ?aoi?ia a eiioea XX ouny/aeaoey auea
iai?aaeaia ia ?aaeecaoeeth ianeieueeeo acaeiinaycaiiuo caaea/. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, ii nicaeaieth iiauo ?aaeee a noa?a caueou i?aa /aeiaaea n
o/aoii iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo th?eaee/aneeo noaiaea?oia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii
oi?ie?iaaieth i?eioeeieaeueii eiie i?aaiio?aieoaeueiie nenoaiu,
niiniaiie, eniieuecoy nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee, aa?aioe?iaaoue io?aio
i?aa, eiouanoaa, caueoo aeecie e caei?iauey ?inneyi.

Eae ioia/atho e?eoeee, ianooaaiie noaeaaii-i?aaiaie ?aoi?iu ia
iieo/eeinue. Ia/aoua i?aia?aciaaiey inoaeenue iacaaa?oaiiuie. Iniiaiua
yeaiaiou noaeaaiie nenoaiu nouanoaaiii ia eciaieeenue. *anoe/ii
iiaea?iece?iaaeanue i?ieo?aoo?a, aaeaieaoo?a e iioa?eao. Ieeeoeey
i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth oo?aoeea naie i?ioanneiiaeueiue aaoi?eoao.
?aoi?ia i?ioiaeeea aac o/anoey iauanoaaiiinoe. «Eiioeaioeey
noaeaaii-i?aaiaie ?aoi?iu» i?eieiaeanue oceei e?oaii caeioa?aniaaiiuo
eeoe, iiyoiio eiaea aieueoia eiee/anoai ecuyiia[1].

Iaaeinoaoi/ii i?iaeoiaiiua eciaiaiey i?aaiio?aieoaeueiie nenoaiu
io?aceeenue ia ?acoeueoaoao e ea/anoaa i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. ?inneeneay i?aaiio?aieoaeueiay iieeoeea ia/aea 90-o
aiaeia i?ioeiai aaea ca?eaeueii io?aaeaea anth niaieoiiinoue
nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai. Yoe i?iaeaiu eanaeenue eae oai?aoe/aneeo, oae e
i?aeoe/aneeo aniaeoia aeecie ?inneyi

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