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ENOI?Ess EINOEOOOIA IOAEE*IIAI I?AAA. AINOAeA?NOAAIIIA ONO?IENOAI

OA??EOI?Ess

Ia?eiae ?anioaeeee ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo – oeaio?aeueiue ia?eiae ?eineie
enoi?ee. Ia i?ioyaeaiee yoiai ia?eiaea ?ei ec iaeaiueeie eaoeineie
iaueiu n /?acau/aeii i?inoui ono?ienoaii i?aa?auaaony a ia?iiiia
ainoaea?noaaiiia oaei n iaoe?iie oa??eoi?eae, n i/aiue neiaeiie
i?aaiecaoeeae e i/aiue neiaeiith aeeciueth; i?eieoeaiia iaoo?aeueiia
oicyenoai iiae aeeyieai iaeeaeaiiiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iai?ioa
caiaiyaony eioaineaiuie yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie, i?eaiaeyueie a
eiioea eiioeia e eieinnaeueiui aiaaonoaai – n iaeiie noi?iiu, e e
aiiethuae ieuaoa – n ae?oaie, e o. ae. Ai anao iaeanoyo ia?iaeiie aeecie
i?ienoiaeeo ?anoe?aiea, oneiaeiaiea.

?anniio?ei i?aaeaea anaai aiaoiaa ?anoe?aiea ?eia – ?ino aai oa??eoi?ee.

Eae auei ioia/aii auoa, e ia/aeo ?anioaeeeaineiai ia?eiaea ?ei i?eia?ae
oaea ?aoeoaeueioth aaaaiiieth a Eaoeineii nithca. Ii yoa aaaaiiiey,
i/aaeaeii, oyaeaei eiaeeeanue ia nithcieeia; ii e?aeiae ia?a, oio/an aea
ca ecaiaieai oea?ae (510 a. aei ?. O.) ?eineia i?aaeaiea ?anneacuaaao
iai i e?oiiii ainnoaiee eaoeineeo ieaiai. Ainnoaiea yoi ieai/eaaaony
iiaaaeie ?eia e ie?ii, caeeth/aiiui Nio?eai Eanneai e iioiio iinyuei
iacaaiea foedus Cassianum (493 a.). Yoio ie?, a nouiinoe, ia oie/oiaeaao
Eaoeineiai nithca, ii aeiaiaa?eaathueieny noi?iiaie a iai yaeythony oaea
n iaeiie noi?iiu ?ei, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu – ana inoaeueiua eaoeineea
iaueiu; neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?ei eae au iainiaee naay io nithca, caiye ii
ioiioaieth e iaio iieiaeaiea ?aaiiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oaea120.
Ioaeaeueiua eaoeineea civitates ia iioa?yee naiae naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, ii
e?aeiae ia?a, a i?eioeeia; iie nio?aieee naia oi?aaeaiea e naia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. A?aaeaeaia yoeo iauei oaeaea i?iaeieaeaee eiaoue
iieiia jus commercii, oi anoue iieioth a?aaeaeaineoth i?aainiiniaiinoue
aeey eiouanoaaiiiai iai?ioa n ?eieyiaie. Aaeeinoaaiiia ia?aie/aiea
oa?iaee yoe iaueiu a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaieyo: aac aiee ?eia iie ia
iiaee anooiaoue a niaeaoaiey n ninaaeieie ainoaea?noaaie; a neo/aa aieiu
?eia n eai-eeai ec ninaaeae iie aeieaeiu auee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aai
naieie aieneaie. Oae eae ?eieyia ii/oe aani?a?uaii aaaeoo aieiu, oi
oaeoe/anee nithciua aienea ii/oe ana a?aiy iaoiaeyony a ?anii?yaeaiee
?eia. I?aaaea, eaoeineea iaueiu ca yoi eiaee i?aai ia ecaanoiua auaiaeu,
a?iaea iieiaeiiie aeiee a aiaiiie aeiau/a, ii, ?acoiaaony, aeaaiua
auaiaeu anaaaea i?eoiaeeeenue ia aeieth ?eia. Yaienoe/aneay iieeoeea
?eia, neoaaie eioi?ie iiiaaiea aeaeaeanue nithcieee, ia iiaea, eiia/ii,
ia ?acae?aaeaoue eo. Yoi ?acae?aaeaiea i?eaiaeeo e ioaeaeueiui aniuoeai
aiciouaiey, iiaoi?yaoeiny io ii?u aei ii?u, a caoai e e iauaio
ainnoaieth nithcieeia (340-338 a. aei ?. O.). Ainnoaiea yoi iiyoue auei
iiaeaaeaii (iiaaaeie Iaieey Oi?eaaoa), iinea /aai aue caeeth/ai iiaue
ie?, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai noa?ue Eaoeineee nithc ieacuaaaony oaea
oie/oiaeaiiui: ioiuia ?ei eiaao oaea aeaei oieueei n ioaeaeueiuie
iaueiaie, aieueoeinoai eioi?uo noaaeony a iieiaeaiea civitates
foederatae121.

Ii/oe aanue yoio ia?eiae iaiieiai aani?a?uaiuie aieiaie ?eieyi – nia/aea
n ninaaeyie aeeaeaeoeie, a iioii e n aieaa ioaeaeaiiuie, e a ?acoeueoaoa
yoeo aiei ?eieyia iaei-iiiaeo ?ani?ino?aiytho naia ainiiaenoai aeaeaei
ca i?aaeaeu Eaoeeoia.

*anoue caaiaaaiiuo i?e yoii caiaeue, a ea/anoaa ager publicus,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?eniaaeeiyaony e ?eineie oa??eoi?ee e caoai eee
i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia oaeeo eee eiuo i?aaao (ia yoii ieaea) iieueciaaieth
a?aaeaeai, eee aea oiio?aaeyaony aeey nicaeaiey i?aaieciaaiiuo eieiiee
(coloniae). Iniiaaiea ?eineeo eieiiee n?aaee iiei?aiiiai /oaeiai
ianaeaiey auei ecethaeaiiui e aeaenoaeoaeueii i/aiue oeaeaniia?aciui
i?eaiii oe?aieoue ainiiaenoai ?eia. Eieiiey iieo/aea aioo?aiiaa
naiioi?aaeaiea; eieiienou i?iaeieaeaee n/eoaoueny ca cives romani122,
oioy a iieeoe/aneie aeecie ?eia anoanoaaiii ia?anoaaaee i?eieiaoue
o/anoea; ai?i/ai, a ia?iaeiuo nia?aieyo ii o?eaai (comitia tributa) aeey
ieo ii ae?aaeth ioaiaeeeanue iaeia ec o?ea, a eioi?ie iie iiaee
aieiniaaoue ia neo/ae naiaai i?aauaaiey a ?eia. Ia?aaeei, iaeiaei,
iniaaiii a eiioea ?anioaeeee, ?eineea iaaeno?aou ieacuaaeenue
auioaeaeaiiuie i?eieiaoue ia?u e oiio, /oiau eieiienou ia iieeaeaee
iannaie naieo eieiiee e ia neiieyeenue a ?eia.

Ii ioiioaieth e naiinoiyoaeueiui eoaeeeneei ainoaea?noaai – iaueiai
(civitates), n eioi?uie ?ei noaeeeaaaony a oa/aiea yoiai ia?eiaea a
i?ioeanna iinoaiaiiiai ?anoe?aiey naiaai ainiiaenoaa, ii aea?aeeony
?acee/iie iieeoeee. Nia/aea aanniciaoaeueii, a iioii e niciaoaeueii
?oeiaiaeynue i?eioeeiii “divide et impera”123, i?eioeeiii ?acuaaeeiaiey
eioa?ania naieo i?ioeaieeia, ?ei nicaeaao /?acau/aeiia ?aciiia?acea
th?eaee/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo niaith e eoaeeeneeie civitates,
ioiioaiee, eioi?ua i?eoii ia inoathony iaiiaeaeaeiuie, a ia?aaeei ia
n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeii i?ioyaeaiee a?aiaie /anoi iaiythony.

I?e anai naiai iaiythuainy ?aciiia?acee, iaeiaei, oi?iu ?eineiai
ainiiaenoaa a Eoaeee iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e neaaeothuei iniiaiui.

1. Iaeioi?ua ec civitates aeeth/athony a ninoaa ?eineiai ainoaea?noaa ni
anaie i?aaaie ?eineiai a?aaeaeainoaa; aeeoaee eo aeaeathony iieiuie
cives Romani cum suffragio124. Yoi, i/aaeaeii, naiay ii/aoiay e naiay
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiay oi?ia, aeinoathuayny ia ia?auo ii?ao a oaeae
n?aaieoaeueii iaiiiaei. Oaeay eiei?ii?aoeey nii?iaiaeaeaeanue iai?aiaiii
caianaieai i?eniaaeeiyaiie iaueiu a iicaiaeueiua o?eau, i?e/ai a neo/aa
cia/eoaeueiinoe i?eniaaeeiyaiie oa??eoi?ee ec iaa ia?aciauaaeanue iiaay
o?eaa. Oaeei iooai e 241 aiaeo aei ?. O. /enei o?ea au?inei aei 35, ii
caoai oaea aieueoa ia oaaee/eaaeinue; caiee, i?eniaaeeiyaiua aiiaue,
caiineeenue a oo eee ae?oaoth ec noa?uo o?ea.

2. AEeoaee ae?oaie a?oiiu i?eniaaeeiyaiuo civitates noaiiaeeenue a
iieiaeaiea cives sine suffragio. Iie iieo/aee iieioth i?aainiiniaiinoue
a iaeanoe a?aaeaeaineeo ioiioaiee (jus commercii, jus connubii), ii ia
i?eia?aoaee ?eineeo iieeoe/aneeo i?aa (jus suffragii e jus honorum). A
oi aea a?aiy iie ianee ecaanoiua iiaeiiinoe ii ioiioaieth e ?eio
(aeaaiui ia?acii, aieineoth a naieo iniauo aieneao); oaeea iiaeiiinoe
iacuaathony munera, ii/aio iaueiu yoiai ?iaea iaueiiaaiii eiaiothony
municipia. Iaueiiaaiii e aioo?aiiyy aaoiiiiey yoeo ioieoeeiee
ia?aie/eaaaony: aeey oi?aaeaiey eie iinueathony ec ?eia iniaua
iaaeno?aou – praefecti jure dicundo.

3. O?aoueth – e i?eoii aei iineaaeiaai noieaoey ?anioaeeee iaeaieaa
iiiai/eneaiioth – a?oiio ninoaaeytho iaueiu, eioi?ua nio?aiytho naith
iieeoe/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e eioi?uo ioiioaiey e ?eio
ii?aaeaeythony iaaeaeoia?iaeiui i?aaii, oi anoue aeiaiai?ii eo n
?eiii125. Oaeie aeiaiai? iacuaaaony aiiaua foedus, a civitates yoie
a?oiiu yaeythony iiyoiio civitates foederate eee liberae126. Iaueiu
yoiai ?iaea ia aoiaeyo a ninoaa ?eineiai ainoaea?noaa; th?eaee/anee iie
naie ninoaaeytho ainoaea?noai ni naiei iniaui a?aaeaeainoaii, naiei
oi?aaeaieai e o. ae. Foedus nicaeaao oieueei iaaeaeo oaeie civitas e
?eiii ecaanoiua ioiioaiey aeecinoe, nithca. Ii yoa naycue n ?eiii iiaeao
auoue aieaa oaniie e iaiaa oaniie: eiiaaea aeiaiai? ia?aie/eaaaony
oieueei onoaiiaeaieai ae?oaeanoaa iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie (amicitia,
hospitium publicum), eiiaaea aea ii iaeaaaao ia nithcieeia
iaycaoaeuenoaa aieaa ii?aaeaeaiiua. A yoii iineaaeiai ioiioaiee
?acee/atho foedus aequum e foedus iniquum127. A ia?aii neo/aa ?ei e
civitas foederata i?eioeeieaeueii noiyoue ?aaii: eaaeaeay noi?iia
iaycuaaaony iiiiaaoue ae?oaie ia neo/ae iaiaaeaiey a?aaa (nithc
iai?iieoaeueiue); ii civitas foederata ia eeoaaony i?aaa aanoe naith
nianoaaiioth iieeoeeo. Ai aoi?ii neo/aa, iai?ioea, civitas foederata
iaycoaony anaaaea iiiiaaoue ?eio, aeaaea a aai aieia ianooiaoaeueiie, e
aiiaua iaycoaony neaaeiaaoue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iieeoeea ca ?eiii
(“majestatem populi Romani comiter conservando”128), ioeacuaaynue io
naiae nianoaaiiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eieoeeaoeau.

*ai aeaeaa, oai ana aieaa e aieaa yoa iineaaeiyy oi?ia aeaeaaony
i?aiaeaaeathuae. – AEeoaee yoeo iauei, inoaaaynue aeey ?eieyi
/oaeano?aioeaie, peregrini, aeaaiaea?y onoaiiaeaoaiony aeiaiai?o,
ia?anoatho auoue hostes e nouanoaaie aani?aaiuie; iie oaia?ue socii129,
iieuecothueany e aac eaeiai-eeai /anoiiai iao?iiaoa ainoaea?noaaiiie
io?aiie ia ?eineie oa??eoi?ee. I?aaaea, peregrini, eae ia ?eineea
a?aaeaeaia, ia niiniaiu e naeaeeai /enoiai ?eineiai i?aaa e e ?eineei
jura Quiritium130 e ia iiaoo ia?auaoueny e noaeo a iau/iuo oi?iao legis
actio, oai ia iaiaa iie oaea ia aaccaueoiu: aeey io?aiu eo eiouanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee e aeey caueou eo a ?eia iaaeno?aoo?ie iaei-iiiaeo nicaeathony
iniaua ii?iu – oae iacuaaaiia jus gentium, a caoai o/?aaeaeaaony e
iniaay iaaeno?aoo?a – praetor peregrinus. Aneaaenoaea yoiai einoeooo
eeeaioaeu a aai ae?aaiai niunea niaa?oaiii en/acaao.

4. Iaeiiaoe, /aoaa?ooth eaoaai?eth ninoaaeytho oa iaueiu, eioi?ua,
iioa?iaa a ai?ueaa n ?eiii ?aoeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea, naeathony aio aac
anyeeo oneiaee – ia aai ieeinoue (deditio). Oaeay iaueia, ii iauaio
i?aaeeo, oo?a/eaaao naith aioo?aiithth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, oo?a/eaaao
naia oi?aaeaiea e oi?aaeyaony ia/aeueieeaie, iinueaaiuie ec ?eia.
Aeia?iaieueiay naea/a (deditio) neacuaaaony, iaeiaei, a oii, /oi aeeoaee
oaeie iaueiu ana aea ia n/eoathony ca nouanoaa aani?aaiua; iie noaayony
a iieiaeaiee peregrini, ii iacuaathony, a ioee/ea io i?aaeuaeouae
eaoaai?ee, – peregrini dediticii: oa eiatho a?aaeaeainoai oioue a naiae
no?aia, peregrini dediticii ia eiatho aai ieaaea, eai eo iaueia ca
naiinoiyoaeueioth civitas oaea ia i?eciaaony.

5. Deditio ana aea anoue aeia?iaieueiay naea/a, i?eiyoay ?eiii (eee aai
aiaia/aeueieeii); a iae anoue ana aea, oioy e neaaue, yeaiaio aeiaiai?a.
Oai aea, aaea e oaeie deditio ia auei, aaea aieia i?eaaea e iieiiio
?aca?iio, oai ianooieea occupatio bellica:131 i?iecaieo ?eia oaea ia
auei ieeaeeo ia?aie/aiee. Any caiey iiei?aiiuo, ii iauaio i?aaeeo,
ia?auaeanue a ager publicus populi Romani132; aeeoaee, eae
aiaiiiieaiiua, ia?auaeenue a ?aaia.

Aeaaiaea?y ?aciiia?aceth oi?i th?eaee/aneiai ainiiaenoaa ?eia iaae
eoaeeeneeie civitates, th?eaee/aneay ea?oa eoaeueyineie oa??eoi?ee ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia ?anioaeeee i?aaenoaaeyea /?acau/aeii iano?oth ea?oeio.
Nieioue e ?yaeii aeeaeaeoea ninaaee iaoiaeeeenue a naiuo iaiaeeiaeiauo
ioiioaieyo e ?eio. Yoa iieeoeea ?acuaaeeiaiey eioa?ania a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie aeinoeaaea oeaee; iaeiaei, a ia/aea I aaea aei ?. O. iiiaei
iaueiai ?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee oaeaaony iauaaeeieoueny a iauai ainnoaiee
i?ioea ?eia. Nithcieee aeoiatho aeaaea iniiaaoue iniaia ainoaea?noai –
Italia – n iniaie noieeoeae (Corfinium) e n iniaui nithciui oi?aaeaieai
(naiaoii ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae io nithciuo civitates). Iiiaio aue i/aiue
na?ueaciue, e, niciaaay anth na?ueaciinoue iieiaeaiey, ?eieyia, ai?ynue
i?oaeeai, a oi aea a?aiy eaeoo e ia onooiee. A 90 aiaeo eiinoe Ethoeee
THeee Oeaca?ue i?iaiaeeo caeii – lex Julia, a neeo eioi?iai aeaaony
i?aai iieiiai ?eineiai a?aaeaeainoaa oai ec nithcieeia, eioi?ua
inoaeenue aa?iu ?eio, a oaeaea oai, eioi?ua ecuyayo naith iiei?iinoue a
oa/aiea 2 ianyoeaa. Ii oae eae yoio caeii, nicaeaiiue n oeaeueth
iinaeeoue ?aceaae iaaeaeo ainnoaaoeie, ia i?eaae e aeaeaiiui
?acoeueoaoai, a neaaeothuai 89 aiaeo aue ecaeai iiaue caeii – lex
Plautia Papiria, a neeo eioi?iai i?aai a?aaeaeainoaa aeaaaeinue anai
aeeoaeyi Eoaeee aiiaua. Any nicaeaiiay oaeei ia?acii ianna iiauo
a?aaeaeai aiineony a 8 niaoeeaeueii iacia/aiiuo o?ea (ec iauaai /enea
35), /ai oaeoe/anee ineaaeyaony eo aeeyiea a ia?iaeiuo nia?aieyo.

N yoiai iiiaioa any oa??eoi?ey Eoaeee aeaeaaony oa??eoi?eae ?eia, ana
aeeoaee Eoaeee aeaeathony ?eineeie a?aaeaeaiaie ni anaie aeoeaiuie e
ianneaiui iieeoe/aneeie i?aaaie. Iaeiiaoe, caeii THeey Oeaca?y 45 a. –
lex Julia municipalis – onoaiaaeeaaao iaeioi?ua iauea i?aaeea
ioiineoaeueii ianoiiai ai?iaeiaiai ono?ienoaa, aneaaenoaea /aai yoi
iineaaeiaa iaei-iiiaeo i?eieiaao iaeiiia?aciue aeae. A iniiaa yoiai
ioieoeeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey eaaeeo ia/aei oe?ieie aaoiiiiee a ianoiuo
aeaeao.

A ia?eiae ?anioaeeee aeaaeu/anoai ?eia ia?aoiaeeo e ca i?aaeaeu Eoaeee.
Iieeoeea ?eieyi ii ioiioaieth e aiaeoaeeeneei caieyi nouanoaaiii
ioee/aaony io iieeoeee, eioi?ie i?eaea?aeeaaeenue iie a Eoaeee. A oi
a?aiy, eae eoaeeeneea civitates, aieueooth /anoue eioi?uo ninoaaeyee
civitates foederatae, ia oa?yee naiae aioo?aiiae naiinoiyoaeueiinoe,
aiaeoaeeeneea caiee, ca iaaieueoeie eneeth/aieyie (iai?eia?, Aoeiu),
noaiiaeeenue a iieioth caaeneiinoue io ?eia. Iie iacuaaeenue
i?iaeioeeyie. Oa?iei provincia iaicia/ae ia?aiia/aeueii oeacuaaaioth
naiaoii noa?o aiaiiuo aeaenoaee eaaeaeiai ec 2 eiinoeia (iaeei iinueaeny
ni naieie eaaeiiaie a iaeio ianoiinoue, ae?oaie a ae?oaoth), i?e/ai
i?eciae ecaanoiie oa??eoi?ee ia aue aeaaea aeey iiiyoey provincia
nouanoaaiiui. Oi?aaeaiea aiaeoaeeeneeie caieyie, n oi/ee c?aiey ?eieyi,
iineei oa?aeoa? i?iaeieaeathuaeny aiaiiie ieeoiaoeee, e n yoie noi?iiu
yoe caiee, aeaenoaeoaeueii, yaeythony provinciae a noa?ii niunea yoiai
neiaa. I?aaeoaee i?iaeioeee, iinueaaiua ec ?eia proconsules eee
propraetores, auee, iiyoiio, iaea/aiu aunoae aiaiiie, aaeieieno?aoeaiie
e noaeaaiie aeanoueth, ia eioi?oth ia auei provocatio133. Aeaeaa, a neeo
oiai iniiaiiai i?eioeeia, /oi caaiaaaiiay oa??eoi?ey n/eoaaony
nianoaaiiinoueth ?eineiai ia?iaea, any i?iaeioeeaeueiay caiey,
iineieueeo iia inoaaeyeanue a ?oeao aa i?aaeieo nianoaaiieeia,
th?eaee/anee ?anniao?eaaeanue ia eae eo nianoaaiiinoue, a eae i?inoia
aeaaeaiea – possessio, a?iaea aeaaeaiey a?aiaeaoi?ia. Ionthaea oio
aeaeueiaeoee auaiae, /oi i?iaeioeeaeueiay caiey (solum provinciale)
iiaeeaaeeo ieaoaaeo iaeiaia a iieueco ?eineiai ainoaea?noaa, iaae oai
eae oa??eoi?ey Eoaeee (solum italicum) ii i?eioeeio io ieo naiaiaeia. –
Iauaa ono?ienoai i?iaeioeee ii?aaeaeyeinue oio/an ii aa i?eniaaeaiee
iniaui iieiaeaieai, ninoaaeythuei lex provinciae (iai?eia?, lex Rupilia
aeey Neoeeeee, lex Pompeia aeey Aeoeiee e o. ae.), aeeaeaeoee aea
ii?yaeie oi?aaeaiey onoaiaaeeaaeny naiuie i?aaeoaeyie i?iaeioeee a
ecaeaaaaiuo eie edicta provincialia. AEeoaee i?iaeioeee iaoiaeeeenue a
iieiaeaiee ia?aa?eiia.

Acaeyae ia i?iaeioeee, eae ia eiaiey ?eineiai ia?iaea, aaca?aie/iay
aeanoue i?iaeioeeaeueiuo i?aaeoaeae iaae aeeoaeyie, neaainoue eiio?iey
iaae yoeie i?aaeoaeyie, – ana yoi i?eaiaeeei e oiio, /oi iieiaeaiea
i?iaeioeee auei i/aiue oyaeaeui: iie auee eeoue enoi/ieeii aeioiaea aeey
?eia e iauaeoii /anoi naiie aiiethuae yenieoaoaoeee eae aeey ?eineeo
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, oae e aeey /anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

IANAEAIEA

O?aaiaeiue e ao?iue ai aiaoieo ioiioaieyo, ia?eiae ?anioaeeee yaeyaony a
?aaiie noaiaie o?aaiaeiui e ao?iui e ai aioo?aiiae aeecie ?eia.

Oaea n naiiai ia/aea ?anioaeeee iu iaaethaeaai oii?ioth ai?ueao iaaeaeo
iao?eoeeyie e ieaaayie ca iieeoe/aneoth ?aaiii?aaiinoue, i?e/ai yoa
ai?ueaa iaiieiyao niaith caoai anth ia?aoth iieiaeio ia?eiaea.
Iinoiyiiui, a?aiaiaie aeooei, a a?aiaiaie i/aiue ?aceei, aeeiiiaiaiaioii
yoie nineiaiie ai?ueau yaeyaony ii/oe ai anao aa noaaeeyo yeiiiie/aneay
ai?ueaa iaaeaeo aiaaouie e aaaeiuie, e eiaaea, iaeiiaoe, nineiaiay
ai?ueaa oeaaeanue, ?ani?y yeiiiie/aneay ?acai?aynue ana aieaa e aieaa,
noaea iniiaiie i?e/eiie ia?iaeiuo aieiaiee e oaiie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
caaio. Inoaaeyy iiea yoo iineaaeithth, yeiiiie/aneoth noi?iio
yaiethoeee, iaiiiiei caeanue aeaaiaeoea noaaeee ai?ueau nineiaiie.

Ioaeii, iaeiaei, iaiai?eoueny, /oi iiiaia ec oiai, i /ai iai iiaanoaoao
a yoii ioiioaiee i?aaeaiea, n/eoaaony nia?aiaiiuie enoi?eeaie
iaaeinoiaa?iui. E?eoe/aneia ioiioaiea e niauoeyie ia?aie iieiaeiu
?anioaeeee o iaeieo neaaaa, o ae?oaeo neeueiaa; acaiai ?ac?ooaaiiai
eaaeaeue enoi?ee iuoaaony aeaoue naia iieiaeeoaeueiia iino?iaiea, –
iaeiaei neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueaciiai niaeaoaiey a yoii iineaaeiai
ioiioaiee aei neo ii? ia aeinoeaiooi.

Caiaia oea?neie aeanoe aeaoiy ecae?aaiuie ia aiae iaaeno?aoaie
(eiinoeaie) naia ii naaa ia aeinoaaeyea ieaaayi eaeeo-eeai iniaaiiuo
auaiae; nei?aa iaiai?io: aaeaeo oiai, /oi yoe iaaeno?aou ecae?aeenue
oieueei ec iao?eoeeaa, oeacaiiay caiaia ioaeaaaea ieaaaaa a ?oee
iao?eoeeaa ai?acaei aieaa, /ai yoi auei i?e ana-oaee n?aaieoaeueii
iacaaeneiuo oea?yo. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia?aua oneeey ieaaaaa
iai?aaeythony ia ai?ueao i?ioea aiciiaeiiai i?iecaiea yoeo
iao?eoeeaineeo iaaeno?aoia. Aicieeaao, oae neacaoue, eiinoeoooeeiiiay
oaiaeaioeey: ieaaae iuoathony aeiaeoueny oaeeo eee eiuo th?eaee/aneeo
ia?aie/aiee aeanoe iaaeno?aoia. Niaeanii i?aaeaieth, ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii
n onoaiiaeaieai iiaiai ?aaeeia (510 a.), a 509 a. ecaeaaony caeii – lex
Valeria de provocatione, a neeo eioi?iai anyeee i?eaiai? eiinoea,
iaeaaathuee ia eiai-eeai nia?oioth eaciue, iia auoue iaaeaeiaai a
ia?iaeiia nia?aiea (comitia centuriata); yoei caeiiii, oaeei ia?acii,
aii?in i aeecie e nia?oe a?aaeaeaieia aue ecuyo ec eiiiaoaioeee
iaaeno?aoa. I?aai provocatio ad populum auei caoai iiaeoaa?aeaeaaii
iaiaeiie?aoii; caeiiu XII oaaeeoe oaeaea iinoaiiaeyee: “de capite civis
nisi per maximum comitiatum ne ferunto”134. Oie aea oaiaeaioeeae
i?iieeioo e lex Aternia Tarpeia 454 a., caeii, yaeythueeny ii nouanoao
eeoue aeiiieiaieai e aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai caeiia o provocatio.
Ia?aie/aiiua a i?aaa iaeaaaoue nia?oioth eaciue, eiinoeu inoaaaeenue
iaia?aie/aiiuie a i?aaa iaeaaaoue eiouanoaaiiua oo?aou aieioue aei
iieiie eiioeneaoeee anaai eiouanoaa; iie iiaee, oaeei ia?acii, eeoeoue
/aeiaaea ii naiaio i?iecaieo aai yeiiiie/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey. *oiau
ia?aaeeoue a?aaeaeaieia e caeanue, lex Aternia Tarpeia iinoaiiaee, /oi
ioiuia eiinoeu naiae aeanoueth iiaoo iacia/aoue oo?aou eeoue ia nauoa
ecaanoiie ia?u (30 aueia e 2 iaoeu = 3020 annia).

Ii oaea ia?aua iiuou ai?ueau ca oeo/oaiea naiaai iieiaeaiey aeieaeiu
auee iieacaoue ieaaayi, /oi aeey eo/oaai oniaoa ei i?aaeaea anaai
iaiaoiaeeii i?aaieciaaoue naieo naay. Iinoaaeaiiue eeoeii e eeoeo n
ieioii niayiiie naiae ?iaeiaie i?aaiecaoeeae iannie iao?eoeeaoa, a nai
ninoiyuee ec ?ac?iciaiiiai iiiaeanoaa ioaeaeueiuo naiaenoa, ieaan
i?eoiaeeo e niciaieth, /oi ia?aui oneiaeai oniaoiie ai?ueau yaeyaony
niei/aiea aai naiiai a eaeoth-eeai oeaeueioth nineiaioth i?aaiecaoeeth.
Oae aicieeaao i?aaiecaoeeiiiia oa/aiea a iaoae ai?ueaa.

Ii i?aaeaieth, a 494 a., aeiaaaeaiiay aaaenoaaiiui yeiiiie/aneei e
i?aaiaui iieiaeaieai aei e?aeiaai ?acae?aaeaiey, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
ieaaaaa inoaaeea ?ei e ia?aoea ia Nayuaiioth ai?o n iaia?aieai iniiaaoue
oai naie ai?iae (yoi oae iacuaaaiay ia?aay secessio ieaaaaa). Iao?eoeee,
aiynue eeoeoueny /anoe ianaeaiey e iieo/eoue o naay iiae aieii iiaiai
a?aaa, iioee ia onooiee e anooieee n ieaaayie a niaeaoaiea, ?acoeueoaoii
eioi?iai yaeeenue oae iacuaaaiua leges sacratae, iacaaiiua oae iioiio,
/oi iie auee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu eeyoaie e, oaeei ia?acii, auee iinoaaeaiu
iiae iniaoth caueoo ?aeeaee. Aeaaiui ioieoii yoeo leges sacratae auei
o/?aaeaeaiea ieaaaeneeo o?eaoiia (tribuni plebis): ca ieaaayie auei
i?eciaii i?aai ecae?aoue ec naiae n?aaeu aeaoo i?aaenoaaeoaeae, eioi?ui
auea i?aaeinoaaeaia aeanoue caueuaoue eo io ?anii?yaeaiee iao?eoeeaineeo
iaaeno?aoia (“auxilii latio adversus consulare imperium”135). Aeey
iiiiue o?eaoiai i?e ieo iaoiaeeeenue aeaa ieaaaeneeo yaeeea. Eae
o?eaoiu, oae e yaeeeu auee niaaaeaiu iniaie io?aiie: anyeie eeoei,
iinyaioaoaa ia ieo, ca ia?ooaiea lex sacrata, iauyaeyeinue homo sacer
(ni anaie iineaaenoaeyie “sacer esto”); iie yaeyeenue iiyoiio
sacrosancti.

A eceiaeaiiii i?aaeaiee aicieeiiaaiea ia?iaeiuo o?eaoiia naiaeeony e
aeiaiai?o iaaeaeo ieaaayie e iao?eoeeyie, a leges sacratae
ecia?aaeathony caeiiii, i?eiyoui niaaeeiaiiie iao?eoeeainei-ieaaaeneie
iaueiie. Auoue iiaeao, i?aaeeueiaa i?aaenoaaeyao aicieeiiaaiea
ieaaaeneie i?aaiecaoeee A. aea Naieoen136. Ii aai iiaieth, ia ia?auo
ii?ao ieaaae ia eiaee eiuo n?aaenoa iaania/eoue auiieiaiea naieo
iinoaiiaeaiee, e?iia acaeiiiai iaycaoaeuenoaa anao ieaaaaa ai?ioueny aei
iineaaeiae e?aeiinoe n eo ia?ooeoaeyie. Aaeaeo yoiai, eiaaea ieaaae
ii/oanoaiaaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue nieioeoueny a i?aaiecaoeeth, eiaaea iie
noaee ecae?aoue naaa naieo aiaeaeae, iie ana iieeyeenue inoeoue ca
anyeia iinyaaoaeuenoai ia eo i?aaiecaoeeth eee ia eo i?aaeaiaeeoaeae.
Yoe-oi eeyoaaiiua iinoaiiaeaiey ieaaaaa e nooue ae?aaiaeoea leges
sacratae137. Iie ia yaeythony ianoiyueie caeiiaie, eai i?aaenoaaeytho
niaith eeoue ?aoaiey iaeiie (ieaaaeneie) /anoe ?eineiai ianaeaiey; n
th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, oaeei ia?acii, iie ie aeey eiai ia
iaycaoaeueiu; i?aaiecaoeey ieaaaaa ia anoue caeiiiay i?aaiecaoeey,
ia?iaeiua o?eaoiu ia iauaainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue. Ii ieaaae
iauaaeeiythony, oae neacaoue, ?aaiethoeeiiiui iooai, aunoaaeytho naith,
oiaea ?aaiethoeeiiioth, iaaeno?aoo?o e iauyaeytho, /oi anyeee, eoi
iinyaiao ia eo i?aaiecaoeeth eee ia eo i?aaenoaaeoaeae, aoaeao oaeo.
Aeaaea aieaa iicaeiea ienaoaee aiai?yo, /oi ieaaaeneea o?eaoiu auee
caueuaiu ia?aiia/aeueii oieueei yoie eeyoaie, /oi iie oieueei religione
inviolati138. Oae iaeaaaeueiui ?aaiethoeeiiiui iooai aicieeea nineiaiay
i?aaiecaoeey ieaaaaa; niei/aiiinoe iao?eoeeaineie ieaan i?ioeaiiinoaaee
niei/aiiinoue naith, – e iao?eoeeao i/aiue nei?i aeieaeai aue i?eciaoue
yoo i?aaiecaoeeth oaea ia oieueei de facto, ii e de jure. Ia?iiiia
cia/aiea ia?iaeiuo o?eaoiia a aeaeueiaeoae ai?ueaa ieaaaaa, a
aiineaaenoaee e i?ieaoa?eaa, iauaecaanoii.

Eaeei ia?acii i?ienoiaeeei ia?aia a?aiy eca?aiea o?eaoiia e eaeiaa auea
ae?aaiaeoay i?aaiecaoeey ieaaaaa, iaynii. N iaeiie noi?iiu, anoue
naeaeaoaeuenoaa, /oi ia?aia a?aiy ieaaae ecae?aee o?eaoiia a nia?aieyo
ii eo?eyi, ii caeii 471 a. (lex Publilia Voleronis139) i?eciae
iaaeeaaeaueie nia?aieyie ieaaaaa nia?aiey eo ii (oa??eoi?eaeueiui)
o?eaai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaeioi?ua ec nia?aiaiiuo o/aiuo (iai?eia?,
oio aea aea Naienen, Iae? e ae?.) iieaaatho, /oi eneiie caiaeueiua o?eau
auee anoanoaaiiuie y/aeeaie ieaaaeneie i?aaiecaoeee e /oi ieaaaeneea
o?eaoiu ia /oi eiia, eae auai?iua i?aaenoaaeoaee yoeo o?ea, oae
neacaoue, ieaaaeneea ie?oaeiua noa?inou. Eae au oi ie auei, ii a aieaa
ecaanoiia iai a?aiy ieaaaeneay nineiaiay i?aaiecaoeey iieieony ia
o?eaao, e i?aaiii ieaaaeneiai nineiaey yaeythony niaoeeaeueii-ieaaaeneea
nia?aiey ii o?eaai – concilia plebis tributa.

Ooaa?aeea naith nineiaioth i?aaiecaoeeth, ieaaae iiae
i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii naieo o?eaoiia ia/eiatho aaeoaoeeth ia ecaeaiee
oeaeiai eiaeaena, eioi?ue caiaiee au iaii?aaeaeaiiia, aeiioneathuaa
?aciiia?aciua oieeiaaiey, a iioiio e i?iecaie, iau/iia i?aai
ii?aaeaeaiiuie ienaiiuie ii?iaie e aianoa n oai yniaa ii?aaeaeee au
th?eaee/aneia iieiaeaiea ieaaaaa ii ioiioaieth e iao?eoeeyi. Iinea
aeanyoeeaoiae ai?ueau ecaeathony caeiiu XII oaaeeoe, eioi?ua eiaee
ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey anaai aeaeueiaeoaai ?eineiai i?aai?acaeoey.

Iinea niooiiai a?aiaie aoi?iai aeaoeaiae?aoa e iinea aoi?iai oaeaeaiey
ieaaaaa ia nayuaiioth ai?o iiyaeythony leges Valeriae et Horatiae (449
a.), eioi?uie ainnoaiaaeeaathony ana i?aaeiea ieaaaeneea o/?aaeaeaiey,
i?einoaiiaeaiiua ia a?aiy aeaoeaiae?ia.

Anee aei neo ii? ieaaae caieiaee aeaaiui ia?acii iieiaeaiea
caueuathueony, oi oaia?ue iie ia?aoiaeyo a ianooieaiea; iie
i?aaeuyaeytho o?aaiaaiea i i?eciaiee ca ieie oao eee eiuo i?aa, o?aaotho
?aaiiai o/anoey a ?aoaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae e ?aaiiai iauanoaaiiiai
iieiaeaiey.

A 445 a. ieaaaeneee o?eaoi Eaioeae i?iaiaeeo caeii – lex Canuleia, a
neeo eioi?iai aeiioneathony cai?auaiiua ?aiaa a?aee iaaeaeo iao?eoeeyie
e ieaaayie (iineaaeiei, oaeei ia?acii, aeaaony jus connubii). Yoio caeii
eiaao aieueoia iauanoaaiiia cia/aiea, auaiaey ieaaaaa ec iieiaeaiey
ia?eaa, n eioi?uie a?aee oieceoaeueiu; ii yoio caeii, aianoa n oai,
eiaao e aieueoia ainoaea?noaaiiia cia/aiea: n i?eciaiai jus connubii
iaaeaao nouanoaaiiia nae?aeueiia i?aiyonoaea aeey caiyoee ieaaayie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeieaeiinoae.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oio/an iinea yoiai caeiia ieaaae auaeaeaatho o?aaiaaiea
i aeiiouaiee eo e eiinoeaoo. Niaeanii ?eineie o?aaeeoeee, iao?eoeee,
aueacaa oii?iia nii?ioeaeaiea, ana-oaee aeieaeiu auee iieoe ia onooieo,
au?aceaoothny a oii, /oi iie aiana oie/oiaeeee aeieaeiinoue eiinoeia e
caiaieee aa aiaiiuie o?eaoiaie n eiinoeueneie aeanoueth – tribuni
militum consulari potestate (444 a.), a /enei eioi?uo iiaee auoue
eca?aiu e ieaaae. Iaeiaei, aeaeay yoo onooieo, iao?eoeee auaeaeytho ec
aeanoe yoie iiaie iaaeno?aoo?u aanueia nouanoaaiioth ooieoeeth –
ninoaaeaiea a?aaeaeaineeo nieneia e ?ani?aaeaeaiea a?aaeaeai ii o?eaai,
eeannai e oeaioo?eyi – e nicaeatho aeey yoie oeaee iniaoth iaaeno?aoo?o
– oeaico?o, aeinooi e eioi?ie aeey ieaaaaa aua cae?uo.

A 421 a. auei i?eciaii iaiaoiaeeiui oaaee/eoue /enei eaanoi?ia140 aei
/aou?ao, i?e/ai e yoie aeieaeiinoe noaee aeiioneaoueny e ieaaae. Caeanue
iie aia?aua iieo/eee aeinooi e i?aeeia?iui iaaeno?aoo?ai (tribuni
militum consulari potestate auee iaaeno?aoo?ie yeno?ai?aeeia?iie: iie
nouanoaiaaee oieueei a?aiaiii e auee aiineaaenoaee oie/oiaeaiu).

Caeiiaie Eeoeeiey – Naenoey (leges Liciniae Sextiae, 367 a.) auea
ainnoaiiaeaia eiinoeueneay aeanoue, ii oaea n oai, /oiau iaeei ec
eiinoeia aue iai?aiaiii ieaaae; oaeei ia?acii, auei oaeiaeaoai?aii oi
o?aaiaaiea, eioi?ia aunoaaeee ieaaae noi eao iacaae. Iaeiia?aiaiii
?yaeii n eiinoeaie o/?aaeaeaaony aeieaeiinoue i?aoi?a e e aeaoi
nouanoaiaaaoei aei neo ii? ieaaaeneei yaeeeai i?eniaaeeiythony aeaa
eo?oeueiuo yaeeea. Eae i?aoo?a, oae e aeieaeiinoue eo?oeueiuo yaeeeia,
auee, ii-aeaeeiiio, anee ia oio/an, oi ai, anyeii neo/aa, nei?i ioe?uou
e aeey ieaaaaa.

?aaiii?aaiinoue i?eaeeaeaaony oaia?ue nei?uie oaaaie. A 350 a.
oiiieiaaony oaea ia?aue oeaici? ec ieaaaaa (aac eaeiai-eeai
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaai caeiia), a a 339 a. lex Publilia Philonis
iinoaiiaeyao, /oi iaeei ec oeaici?ia aeieaeai auoue iai?aiaiii ec
ieaaaaa. Iaeiiaoe, ieaaae iieo/atho aeinooi e e aaaeiaeoei nae?aeueiui
aeieaeiinoyi: caeiiii 300 a. – lex Ogulnia – /enei iiioeoeeia e aaao?ia
auei oaaee/aii – n oai, /oiau iieiaeia eo ninoiyea ec ieaaaaa.

N yoiai iiiaioa iu iiaeai n/eoaoue ai?ueao ieii/aiiie. Ieaaae noaee
aiieia ?aaiii?aaiu n iao?eoeeyie, oioy, eae ioaeaeueiua nineiaey, e oa e
ae?oaea i?iaeieaeatho noiyoue ?yaeii e aeaeaa. Eaaeaeia ec yoeo nineiaee
eiaao aua iaeioi?ua iniaua iaaeno?aoo?u (ieaaae – ia?iaeiuo o?eaoiia,
iao?eoeee – rex sacrificulus, flamen Dialis141), ii anyeeo i?aeoe/aneee
eioa?an e yoei iniaaiiinoyi en/ac: iiaua a?aiaia i?eianee n niaie iiaua
eioa?anu e iiaua iauanoaaiiua a?oiie?iaee.

A ia?aciaaiee yoie iiaie iauanoaaiiie a?oiie?iaee nua?aee ?ieue oaea ia
oieueei oa eee ae?oaea th?eaee/aneea oneiaey, ii a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
e ioiioaiey yeiiiie/aneea. Iauaa i?ienoiaeaeaiea yoeo iiauo iauanoaaiiuo
eeannia oaeiai.

N ?acaeoeai nenoaiu iaaeno?aoo? a ?eineii iauanoaa ia/eiatho iaei-iiiaeo
auaeaeyoueny naiuee, /eaiu eioi?uo aeinoeaee aunoeo ?anioaeeeaineeo
aeieaeiinoae (honores). Ai iiiaeo ec yoeo naiae onoaiaaeeaaaony naiaeiay
o?aaeeoeey, a neeo eioi?ie aeaoe eaeoo ii noiiai iooeia, iinayuay naay
oaeaea iieeoe/aneie, neoaeaaiie ea?uea?a. Naiuee yoe, anoanoaaiii,
iieuecothony iniaui ii/aoii a iauanoaa, a, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iauiinoue
eioa?ania naeeaeaao eo ae?oa n ae?oaii. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio, n oa/aieai
a?aiaie aicieeaao iniaay iauanoaaiiay a?oiia – nobiles, ninoaaeaoayny
eae ec iao?eoeeaineeo, oae e ec ieaaaeneeo naiae, a?oiia, oae neacaoue,
aeieaeiinoiie a?enoie?aoee. I?e aacaiciacaeiinoe ?eineeo aeieaeiinoae
iieeoe/aneay ea?uea?a i?aaeiieaaaea cia/eoaeueioth eiouanoaaiioth
ninoiyoaeueiinoue eeoe, aa ecae?athueo; n ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?aau (a
caoai e caeiiu, – iai?eia?, lex Claudia ieiei 200 a.) cai?auaee ei
caiyoea oi?aiaeae e i?iiuneaie. Aneaaenoaea yoiai a?oiia nobiles
anoanoaaiii au?aaaouaaaony a eeann e?oiiie caiaeueiie a?enoie?aoee.
TH?eaee/aneeo i?eaeeaaee, ai?i/ai, nobiles ia eiaee, anee ia n/eoaoue
/enoi aiaoieo ioee/ee, a?iaea jus imaginum (i?aai eiaoue e oiio?aaeyoue
i?e oi?aeanoaaiiuo naiaeiuo i?ioeannao athnou i?aaeeia) eee oe?ieie
e?aniie iieinu ia iaeaaeaea.

Aie i aie n nobiles neaaaaony caoai e ae?oaie eeann – anaaeieeia, ordo
equester. Oaea a i?aaiecaoeee, nicaeaiiie (ii i?aaeaieth) Na?aeai
Ooeeeai, aeaeiia iieeoe/aneia cia/aiea a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee eiaee 18
anaaeie/aneeo oeaioo?ee: iie ninoaaeyeenue ec aieaa aiaaouo iao?eoeeaa e
ieaaaaa e iiaeaaaee aieina ia?auie. Aiineaaenoaee ?aaeueiia cia/aiea
anaaeie/aneeo oeaioo?ee, eae eiiieoeu a a?iee, oo?aoeeinue, ii naiua
anaaeie/aneea oeaioo?ee a ia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee (a comitia centuriata)
nio?aieeenue, eae yae?i ecaanoiiai iauanoaaiiiai eeanna. Ca/eneaiea ai
anaaeie/aneoth oeaioo?eth o?aaiaaei oaeaea iaeaaeaiey aieueoei
eiouanoaii, ii i?e yoii aua ioaeaaaeinue i?aaeii/oaiea oai, i?aaeee
eioi?uo ninoiyee a yoeo oeaioo?eyo. Oaeei iooai ia?aciaaeny iinoaiaiii
eeann, aeaaiui ia?acii, aeaiaaeiie, ii aianoa n oai e ianeaaenoaaiiie,
a?enoie?aoee. Ia aiiyynue ca e?oiiie iieeoe/aneie ea?uea?ie e ia
noaniaiiue aa iau/iuie o?aaiaaieyie, eeann anaaeie/aneee iinayuae naay
aeayoaeueiinoe eiiia?/aneie e oeiainiaie, ?acaeaay a naiae n?aaea
?aciiia?aciua iia?aoeee e niae?ay eieinnaeueiua aiaaonoaa. Ec yoiai
eeanna ninoaaeyeenue oa ciaiaieoua collegia publicanorum142, eioi?ua
a?aee ia ioeoi ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu n oeaeuo i?iaeioeee, e?oiiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua iiae?yaeu e o. i. e eioi?ua eiaee oaeia aieueoia
cia/aiea a yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee ?eia.

IA?IAeIIA NIA?AIEA

Anee ioiioaiea oea?y e ia?iaeo iu iiaee i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa a aeaea
iao?ea?oaeueiiai ioiioaiey aeiiiaeaaeuee e naiae naiuea, oi n
onoaiiaeaieai ?anioaeeee ia?iae inaiaiaeaeaaony io iao?ea?oaeueiie
iiaee, aeaeaaony naiinoiyoaeueiui aeanoeoaeai naieo noaeaa, aeaeaaony
noaa?aiiui. Ainoaea?noai – yoi Populus Romanus Quirites143. Ia?iae
yaeyaony iiaeeeiiui iineoaeai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aa?oiaainoaa,
ainoaea?noaaiiiai “aaee/anoaa” (majestas); e anee anoue a ?eia a yoi
a?aiy eaeia-eeai “aaee/anoai”, oi yoi anoue Aai Aaee/anoai ?eineee
Ia?iae. Inei?aeaiea ia?iaea, ia?ooaiea aai i?a?iaaoea eaaeeoeoee?oaony
eae “inei?aeaiea aaee/anoaa”, eae crimen laesae majestatis.

Ia?iae yaeyaony oaeaea iineoaeai e anao /anoiuo i?aa, i?enoueo
ainoaea?noao: ii eiaao nianoaaiiia eiouanoai (iai?eia?, ager publicus
n/eoaaony eiouanoaii populi Romani), ii yaeyaony eiiaaea ianeaaeieeii
(iai?eia?, ii ioiioaieth e Ia?aaio) e aeaaea iiaeoiii (ii ioiioaieth e
Aaeioo)144.

Iauay eaeay yoiai ia?iaeiiai aa?oiaainoaa iaoiaeeo naaa ?aaeueiia
au?aaeaiea a ia?iaeiuo nia?aieyo: ia?iae inouanoaeyao naia aa?oiaainoai
oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea ii aeaenoaoao a ecaanoiuo oi?iao, eiaaea ii
aunooiaao iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii i?aaieciaaiiui. Aaeaeo yoiai io ia?iaeiuo
nia?aiee a oaoie/aneii niunea, io oae iacuaaaiua comitia, iaaei
ioee/aoue i?inoua nia?aiey-ieoeiae, oae iacuaaaiua contiones. Aeaaea
anee yoe contiones auee nicaaiu eaeei-eeai iaaeno?aoii aeey oaeiai eee
eiiai niiauaiey ia?iaeo, aeey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ianoaeaeaiey
eaeiai-eeai caeiiii?iaeoa e o. ae., iiaiey e ?aoaiey nia?aaoaeny iannu
ia aoaeao eiaoue ieeaeiai th?eaee/aneiai cia/aiey. Ia oaeeo contiones
iaaeno?ao th?eaee/anee ie a /ai ia?iae ia ni?aoeaaao e ieeaeiai ?aoaiey
io iaai ia aeaeao (“contionem habere, hoc est verba facere ad populum
sine ulla rogatione”145), iai?ioea, i?aaeiaoii eiieoeee yaeyaony anaaaea
oaeia eee eiia ?aoaiea ia?iaea, oaeie eee eiie ioaao ia i?aaeeiaeaiea
(rogatio) iaaeno?aoa.

Ia?eiae ?anioaeeee ciaao oaea o?e aeaea eiieoeee.

1. Ia?aue aeae – yoi noa?ua aeina?aeaiianeea ia?iaeiua nia?aiey ii
eo?eyi – comitia curiata. Iie aua nio?aiythony, ii iinoaiaiii oa?ytho
naia cia/aiea: ana aaaeiaeoea aii?inu ?aoathony a ae?oaeo ia?iaeiuo
nia?aieyo; ca ieie inoathony eeoue iaeioi?ua ooieoeee /enoi oi?iaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a. Oaeiau: a) lex de imperio146. Iaaeno?ao, eca?aiiue a ae?oaii
ia?iaeiii nia?aiee, aeieaeai aue iieo/eoue aua io comitia curiata lex de
imperio. Yoi ia cia/eo, /oi aac yoiai ii ia eiae au ieeaeie aeanoe; lex
de imperio iaiaoiaeei eeoue aeey oiai, /oiau aeinoaaeoue aio i?aai
niineoueny n aiaaie, oi anoue i?aai aonieoeee. Yoa ooieoeey a aeacao
Oeeoea?iia auea oaea ii/oe aaeeinoaaiiie ooieoeeae comitia curiata. b)
Iaeioi?ua /anoiua aeou, niaa?oaiea eioi?uo aeieaeii auei i?iecieoe a
ia?iaeiii nia?aiee: onuiiaeaiea (arrogatio) e caaauaiea (testamentum).

Iaynai, iaeiaei, ninoaa eo?eaoiuo eiieoeee a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee. Anoue
o/aiua (iai?eia?, Aa?oeia e ae?.), eioi?ua aeoiatho, /oi yoe eiieoeee e
a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee ninoiyo oieueei ec iao?eoeeaa, /oi ieaaae e oaia?ue
inoaeenue aia i?aaiecaoeee ii eo?eyi. Ae?oaea iieaaatho, /oi ieaaae,
iai?ioea, o/anoaotho a comitia curiata, e nnueathony i?e yoii ia
neaaeothuea aeaiiua. a) Ai aeaaa eaaeaeie eo?ee noiye iniaue curio, a ai
aeaaa anao eo?eiiia – curio maximus. Ii niiauaieth iaeioi?uo enoi/ieeia,
a 209 a. aei ?. O. ia aeieaeiinoue curio maximus aue eca?ai ieaaae, /oi
auei au iaiuneeii, anee au ieaaae ia aoiaeeee a ninoaa eo?ee. b) Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia ?anioaeeee iu ano?a/aai neo/ae onuiiaeaiey iao?eoeeaa
ieaaayie, /oi iiyoue-oaee auei au iaaiciiaeii, anee au iineaaeiea a
eo?eaoiuo nia?aieyo ia o/anoaiaaee. n) Iaeiiaoe, anoue niiauaiea i oii,
/oi ia?aia a?aiy (aei lex Publilia Voleronis) ia?iaeiua o?eaoiu
ecae?aeenue a nia?aieyo ieaaaaa ii eo?eyi. Ia iniiaaiee yoeo aeaiiuo
iaeioi?ua o/aiua (iai?eia?, Nieoi, Eaiaeue) i?eoiaeyo aeaaea e
caeeth/aieth, /oi ieaaae auee aeeth/aiu a eo?ee e i?eieiaee o/anoea a
comitia curiata anaaaea, aeaaea aua a ia?eiae oea?ae. Ii oiaaea any
aeaeueiaeoay ecaanoiay iai ai?ueaa iaaeaeo iao?eoeeyie e ieaaayie auea
au niaa?oaiii iaiiiyoia: anoanoaaiiue ?ino ieaaaenoaa aeae au aio aieaa
eaaeee ia?aaan iaae iao?eoeeyie a ?aieao comitia curiata, /ai a ?aieao
comitia centuriata. Anee i?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua ianiiieoaeueiu, oi,
i/aaeaeii, iiyaeaiea ieaaaaa a comitia curiata anoue niauoea ?anioaeeee,
ii eiaaea e i?e eaeeo oneiaeyo iii i?iecioei – iaecaanoii.

Eae au oi ie auei, ii ?ieue comitia curiata a aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie
?eia iaoeeiiii iaaeaao; ianaeaiea oo?a/eaaao e iei anyeee eioa?an, oae
/oi ia?aaeei ana nia?aiea ninoieo oieueei ec 30 eeeoi?ia, eioi?ua ii
iaycaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeytho 30 eo?ee.

2. Aeaaiith oi?iie ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee yaeythony a yoii ia?eiaea nia?aiey
ii oeaioo?eyi – comitia centuriata. Caeanue i?ienoiaeyo auai?u
aaaeiaeoeo iaaeno?aoia, caeanue ?aoathony aaaeiaeoea aii?inu
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e iieeoeee, aneaaenoaea /aai yoe nia?aiey iacuaathony
comitiatus maximus147. Ii a ninoaaa eo i?iecioee aanueia nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey.

Eae auei oeacaii auoa, comitia centuriata auee ia?aiia/aeueii nia?aieai
aienea; i?aaiecaoeey iieeoe/aneay iieieeanue ia i?aaiecaoeee aiaiiie e
niaiaaeaea n iae. A ia?eiae ?anioaeeee yoa naycue ii?uaaaony:
oaoie/aneea oneiaey aiaiiiai aeaea canoaaeee ia?aeoe e eiie i?aaiecaoeee
aienea, aneaaenoaea /aai comitia centuriata i?eia?aee oa?aeoa? oi?iu
ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee eneeth/eoaeueii iieeoe/aneie.

Aianoa n oai, yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea ?anioaeeee aucaaei e aeecie
iiyaeaiea oaeeo a?oii n?aaee ?eineiai ianaeaiey, eioi?ua aeaeaa iaeuecy
auei eaii?e?iaaoue e eioi?ua a noa?ie, Na?aeaiianeie i?aaiecaoeee ia
iaoiaeeee naaa ianoa, niioaaonoaothuaai eo aeaenoaeoaeueiiio
iauanoaaiiiio cia/aieth. Ionthaea anoanoaaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue ecaanoiuo
?aoi?i.

Ia?aay ec yoeo ?aoi?i ninoiyea a neaaeothuai. Ii ia?aiia/aeueiiio,
Na?aeaiianeiio, ono?ienoao a o?eau, a caoai e a eeannu caiineeenue
oieueei caieaaeaaeaeueoeu (“adsidui”, a iioiio e “tribules”); eeoea aea,
ia aeaaeathuea iaaeaeaeeiinoueth (proletarii), eae capite censi, ana
aianoa auee nia?aiu a iaeio iineaaeithth, aiaeeannioth oeaioo?eth. E
iieiaeia ?anioaeeee oaeeo ia-caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa a ?eia iiyaeeinue oaea
iiiaeanoai, e iie ia?anoaee i?aaenoaaeyoue ec naay aaee/eio nioeeaeueii
iacia/eoaeueioth. Aaeaeo yoiai Aiiee Eeaaaeee Oeae, oeaici? 312 a., noae
caienuaaoue e yoeo ia-caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, aerarii, a o?eau e eeannu
(niia?acii eo aeaeaeeiiio eiouanoao). Aeaaiaea?y yoiio, o?eau oo?aoeee
naie i?aaeiee oa?aeoa? caieaaeaaeaeue/aneeo ie?oaia, a naiua
oeaioo?eaoiua nia?aiey neeueii aeaiie?aoece?iaaeenue (“humilibus per
omnes tribus divisis et forum et campum corrupit”148). Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai aucaaei neeueioth ?aaeoeeth, e n 304 a. aerarii noaee
caiineoueny oieueei a 4 ai?iaeneea o?eau.

I ae?oaie ?aoi?ia iu eiaai, e niaeaeaieth, aanueia neoaeiua naaaeaiey. A
iaueo /a?oao, iaeiaei, nouiinoue aa naiaeeony e neaaeothuei iniiaiui
ioieoai: 1) Aue iiauoai eiouanoaaiiue oeaic eeannia a nayce n
oaaee/eaoeieny aiaaonoaaie e oiaiueoeaoaeny oeaiiinoueth aeaiaa: aeey
ia?aiai eeanna – 100 ouny/ iiauo annia, aeey aoi?iai – 75 ouny/, aeey
o?aoueaai – 50, aeey /aoaa?oiai 25 e aeey iyoiai 12,5 ouny/ annia. 2)
Oie/oiaeaia auea i?eaeeaaey anaaeieeia iiaeaaaoue aieina ia?auie;
oeaioo?ey, ia/eiathuay iiaea/o aieinia (oae iacuaaaiay centuria
praerogativa), ioiuia anyeee ?ac ecae?aeanue ec oeaioo?ee ia?aiai eeanna
ii ae?aaeth. 3) I?eaaaeaii auei a naycue /enei oeaioo?ee n /eneii o?ea,
ii eaeei eiaiii ia?acii – iaecaanoii. N ?anoe?aieai ?eineie oa??eoi?ee
ia?yaeo ni noa?uie ai?iaeneeie e naeueneeie o?eaaie ia?aciaaeenue iiaua,
e e 241 a. aei ?. O. iauaa eiee/anoai o?ea aei?inei aei 35, ii caoai
aieaa ia oaaee/eaaeinue, ianiio?y ia iiaua e e?oiiua oa??eoi?eaeueiua
i?eia?aoaiey: aiiaue i?eniaaeeiyaiua oa??eoi?ee aeeth/aeenue oaea a
ninoaa oao eee ae?oaeo ec nouanoaothueo o?ea. I?e/eiie yoiai yaeyaony,
ii-aeaeeiiio, oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi n yoiai iiiaioa /enei 35 eaaeeo
oaea a iniiaaiee iiaie i?aaiecaoeee oeaioo?eaoiuo eiieoeee. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, Oeeoea?ii niiauaao, /oi /enei oeaioo?ee ia?aiai eeanna auei
iiieaeaii n 80 ia 70. Aaeaeo yoiai iieaaatho (Iiiicai e ae?.), /oi e ana
inoaeueiua eeannu eiatho oaia?ue iaeeiaeiaia eiee/anoai oeaioo?ee, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aieinia, oi anoue ii 70 – io eaaeaeie o?eau ii 2
oeaioo?ee: iaeia centuria juniorum, ae?oaay – seniorum. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai iauaa /enei oeaioo?ee, ia?acothueo comitia centuriata, aic?inei
aei 375: 350 oeaioo?ee io 5 eeannia + 18 oeaioo?ee anaaeieeia + 2
oeaioo?ee aiaiiuo ianoa?ia, 2 oeaioo?ee iocueaioia e 1 aeiiieieoaeueiay
oeaioo?ey aeey i?ieaoa?eaa (n eiouanoaii ieaea 12,500 annia).

Oaeaea iaecaanoii e a?aiy yoie ?aoi?iu. Ianiiiaiii oieueei, /oi iia
i?eoiaeeony ia a?aiy iaaeaeo ia?aie e aoi?ie ioie/aneie aieiie; Iiiicai
i?eienuaaao aa oeaici?ai E. Yieeeth e A. Oeaieieth e ioiineo aa e 220 a.
aei ?. O.

3. O?aoueae oi?iie ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee yaeythony nia?aiey ii o?eaai,
eioi?ua ai aoi?ie iieiaeia ?anioaeeee ia/eiatho ea?aoue aanueia
caiaoioth ?ieue. ?ino eo cia/aiey niioaaonoaoao iauaio ?inoo
aeaiie?aoe/aneie eaeae: a nia?aieyo ii o?eaai eiouanoaaiiay
ninoiyoaeueiinoue a?aaeaeai oaea ia ea?aao ieeaeie ?iee.

Neaaeoao, iaeiaei, ?acee/aoue aeaa aeaea o?eaooiuo nia?aiee: nia?aiey
niaoeeaeueii-ieaaaeneea – concilia plebis tributa e nia?aiey
iao?eoeeainei-ieaaaeneea, oi anoue anaai ia?iaea – comitia tributa.
Iinoaiiaeaiey ia?auo iacuaathony plebiscita, iinoaiiaeaiey aoi?uo –
populiscita. Acaeiiia enoi?e/aneia niioiioaiea yoeo aeaoo aeaeia
o?eaooiuo nia?aiee a aunieie noaiaie iaynii aaeaeo neaaeothuaai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa.

Caeii 286 a. aei ?. O. – lex Hortensia – iinoaiiaee, /oi anyeea ?aoaiey
o?eaooiuo ieaaaeneeo nia?aiee aeieaeiu eiaoue iieioth iaycaoaeueioth
neeo aeey anaai ia?iaea (“ut quod tributim plebs jussisset omnem populum
teneret”149) e /oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, plebiscitum aeieaeii ?aaiyoueny
lex. Iaeiaei, ?yaeii n yoei iu eiaai niiauaiey i ae?oaeo, aieaa ?aiieo
caeiiao, eioi?ua iinoaaeyee, ii-aeaeeiiio, oi aea naiia; yoi lex Valeria
Horatia 449 a. e lex Publilia Philonis 339 a. N/eoay iaaa?iyoiui, /oiau
ana yoe o?e caeiia iiaoi?yee, aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaeii e oi aea,
nia?aiaiiua enoi?eee i?aaeiieaaatho iaeioi?ia ?acee/ea a eo
niaea?aeaiee, ii eaeia eiaiii – a yoii ?anoiaeyony. Iaeaieaa aa?iyoiui
eaaeaony iiaiea Iiiicaia: oieueei iineaaeiee caeii, lex Hortensia,
i?eciae iauaiaycaoaeueioth neeo ca ieaaenoeeoaie; aeaa aea ia?aua caeiia
ioiineeenue ia e plebiscita, a e populiscita, oi anoue e iinoaiiaeaieyi
anaia?iaeiuo nia?aiee ii o?eaai, i?e/ai ia?aue eiae a aeaeo auai?u a
ieo, a aoi?ie – iauea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ?aoaiey. Anee yoa aeiioaca
aa?ia, oi iu eiaai oiaaea aeaoo aicieeiiaaiey iaieo aeaeia nia?aiee ii
o?eaai: concilia plebis tributa i?eia?aoatho th?eaee/aneee oa?aeoa? aeey
eca?aiey ieaaaeneeo o?eaoiia n lex Publilia Voleronis 471 a., a aeey
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie ooieoeee aiiaua n lex Hortensia; comitia tributa
ocaeiiaiu lex Valeria Horatia e lex Publilia Philonis.

Oaeiau o?e enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeany aeaea ?eineeo ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee.
No?iai i?iaaaeaiiiai i?eioeeieaeueiiai ?aca?aie/aiey eiiiaoaioeee
iaaeaeo ieie ia nouanoaiaaei: iiiaia ii?aaeaeyeinue neo/aeiuie
enoi?e/aneeie i?aoeaaeaioaie. Oae, i?aaeaea anaai, /oi eanaaony auai?ia,
oi iie ?ani?aaeaeyeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii: aunoea iaaeno?aou –
eiinoeu, i?aoi?u, oeaici?u -ecae?athony a comitia centuriata; eaanoi?u e
eo?oeueiua yaeeeu a comitia tributa; ieaaaeneea iaaeno?aou (o?eaoiu e
ieaaaeneea yaeeeu) a concilia plebis tributa. A iaeanoe oaieiaiie
th?enaeeeoeee iaeaieaa aaaeiua i?anooieaiey, aeaeouea ca niaie nia?oioth
eaciue (capite anquirere), iiaeeaaeao noaeo comitia centuriata; iaiaa
aaaeiua, aeaeouea oieueei oo?ao (pecunia anquirere), – noaeo comitia
tributa. – *oi eanaaony caeiiii?iaeoia, oi iie aiinyony a oa eee ae?oaea
nia?aiey, niio?y ii oiio, eoi eo aiineo: eaaeaeue iaaeno?ao i?aaeeaaaao
naie i?iaeou oai eiieoeeyi, a eioi?uo ii ecae?aaony; neaaeiaaoaeueii,
eiinoeu e i?aoi?u a comitia centuriata, ieaaaeneea o?eaoiu a concilia
plebis tributa e o. ae.

Ii?yaeie aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa a iauai oaeia. Eieoeeaoeaa a nicuaa
ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey i?eiaaeeaaeeo oieueei iaaeno?aoai. Aeaiue e i?aaeiao
nia?aiey aeieaeiu auoue iauyaeaiu ca?aiaa, i?e/ai, a eioa?anao
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iciaeiieaiey ia?iaea, caeiiii?iaeo eee eiaia
iiaeeaaeaueo eca?aieth eaiaeeaeaoia aeieaeiu auoue oaeaea
caaeaaia?aiaiii aunoaaeaiu ia oi?oi. Ia/eiaaony ia?iaeiia nia?aiea n
aonieoeee, caoai aiiaue iauyaeyaony iiaeeaaeauee ?aoaieth aii?in e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii (aac ?a/ae e aeaaaoia) i?enooiatho e aieiniaaieth.
Iiaea/a aieinia ia?aiia/aeueii auea onoiay e ioe?uoay, ii ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia ?anioaeeee ianeieueeeie legis tabellariae (lex Gabinia 139 a.
aeey auai?ia, lex Papiria 131 a. aeey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ii. ae?.)
onoaiaaeeaaaony aieiniaaiea cae?uoia e ienueiaiiia (iin?aaenoaii
oaaee/ae n iaaeienueth UR – uti rogas, niaeanea e A – antiquo,
ianiaeanea150). Eaaeaeue o/anoaothuee eiae iaeei aiein; aieina
nin/eouaaeenue nia/aea aioo?e eaaeaeie eo?ee, oeaioo?ee eee o?eau, e
oaeei ia?acii iieo/aeny aiein yoie aaeeieoeu; aieueoeinoai aieinia yoeo
aaeeieoe aeaaaei ?aoaiea anaai ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey. Iiiyoii, /oi i?e
oaeii ii?yaeea aieiniaaiey aieueoeinoai aieinia oeaioo?ee eee o?ea iiaei
ia anaaaea niaeaniaaoueny n aeaenoaeoaeueiui aieueoeinoaii ioaeaeueiuo
aieinia.

NAIAO

Iinea oie/oiaeaiey oea?neie aeanoe e iinea caiaiu aa aeanoueth eiinoeia
i?aai ninoaaeyoue naiao, oae iacuaaaiia lectio senatus, ia?aoiaeeo e
yoei iineaaeiei. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei, eae iieaaatho iiiaea (Iiicai,
Aaeea?, Eaiaa, Iaaeaea e ae?.), a ninoaa naiaoa auee aaaaeaiu e ieaaae,
i?e/ai oiaaea eiaiii e ia?aciaaeanue iau/iay oi?ioea ia?auaiey e naiaoo
– “patres conscripti”: patres – yoi naiaoi?u ec iao?eoeeaa, conscripti –
naiaoi?u ec ieaaaaa. Yoi aicc?aiea, iaeiaei, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, e ia aac
nieeaeiuo iniiaaiee, inia?eaaaony. Oae, iai?eia?, Ieca n/eoaao aieaa
aa?iyoiui, /oi ieaaae aioee a naiao ia n?aco n onoaiiaeaieai ?anioaeeee,
a eeoue a yiioo nineiaiie ai?ueau. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, Aeeeain,
iinayoeaoee aii?ino i naiaoa niaoeeaeueioth ?aaioo151, iie?aynue ia oio
oaeo, /oi a ia?aue ?ac naiaoi? ec ieaaaaa aeinoiaa?ii oiiieiaaony
oieueei a 400 a., auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi ieaaae iieo/eee aeinooi
a naiao eeoue iinea oiai, eae iie auee aeiiouaiu e eo?oeueiui
aeieaeiinoyi, oi anoue de jure n 444 a. (tribuni militum consulari
potestate), a de facto ianeieueei iicaea. Oi?ioea aea “patres
conscripti”152 aiana ia oeacuaaao ia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo naiaoi?aie ec
iao?eoeeaa e naiaoi?aie ec ieaaaaa, /oi iia ioiineony aua e yiioa oea?ae
e iaicia/aao patres, eca?aiiuo oea?ai. – Eae au oi ie auei, ii oaea a
ia?aie iieiaeia ?anioaeeee ieaaae aioee a ninoaa naiaoa.

Aaaeioth ?aoi?io a ii?yaeea ninoaaeaiey naiaoa i?iecaae lex Ovinia,
ieaaenoeeo 312 a., eioi?ue iinoaiiaee “ut censores ex omni ordine
optimum quemque jurati in senatum legerent”153. A neeo yoiai caeiia
lectio senatus ia?aoiaeeo ec ?oe eiinoeia a ?oee oeaici?ia, a iioiio
naiao ninoaaeyaony oaia?ue ia ia iaeei aiae, eae auei i?aaeaea, a ia
oeaeia lustrum (oi anoue iaueiiaaiii ia 5 eao). N iiaeiaiui eciaiaieai
ii?yaeea naiao, i/aaeaeii, caiye aieaa iacaaeneioth iiceoeeth ii
ioiioaieth e eiinoeai. Caoai, i?e ninoaaeaiee naiaoi?neiai nienea (album
senatorium) oeaici? aeieaeai aue caiineoue ooaea i?aaeaea anaai oao
eeoe, eioi?ua caieiaee ?aiueoa, a oa/aiea i?aaeuaeoueo ethno?aeueiuo
ia?eiaeia, aeieaeiinoe iaaeno?aoia (“optimum quemque ex omni ordine”).
Oaeei ia?acii, a ninoaa naiaoa iiiaaeatho a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa eeoea,
i?ioaaeoea a oaeii eee eiii ea/anoaa /a?ac ia?iaeiia eca?aiea. E eeoue
ca iaaeinoaoeii oaeiauo oeaici?o i?aaeinoaaeyaony caienuaaoue e ae?oaeo
eeoe. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio nienie naiaoi?ia ?aniieaaaaony ii ?aiao
aeieaeiinoae: consulares, censorii, praetorii e o. ae., a naiaoi?,
noiyuee ai aeaaa nienea, iacuaaaony princeps senatus – caaiea, ai?i/ai,
oieueei ii/aoiia, aac eaeeo-ieaoaeue iniaaiiuo i?aa.

Iauaa /enei naiaoi?ia ii/oe a oa/aiea anaai ?anioaeeeaineiai ia?eiaea
inoaaony i?aaeiaa – 300; eeoue i?e Noeea iii auei oaaee/aii aei 600, a
i?e Oeaca?a aeaaea aei 900.

Naiaoi?u, eae oaeiaua, eiatho, ai-ia?auo, i?aai i?eieiaoue o/anoea a
i?aieyo (jus sententiae dicendae), a ai-aoi?uo, i?aai o/anoaiaaoue a
aieiniaaiee (jus sententiae ferendae). A ninoaaa naiaoa, iaeiaei,
iaoiaeyony oae iacuaaaiua senatores pedarii, n eioi?uie naycai nii?iue
aii?in. Ii ii?aaeaeaieth Aaeeey154, senatores pedarii – yoi oa, qui
sententiam in senatu non verbis dicerent, sed in alienam sententiam
pedibus irent, oi anoue oa, eioi?ua ia o/anoaotho a ianoaeaeaiee
aii?ina, a aeieaeiu eeoue i?e aieiniaaiee i?eniaaeeiyoueny e oiio eee
ae?oaiio /oaeiio iiaieth. Iiiicai aeoiaao, /oi oaeiauie auee eeoea, ia
caieiaaoea aei ca/eneaiey a naiao ieeaeeo aeieaeiinoae. Aeeeain,
ai?i/ai, inia?eaaao yoi oieeiaaiea: senatores pedarii, ii aai iiaieth,
auee eeoea, ia caieiaaoea eo?oeueiuo155 aeieaeiinoae, a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eo?oeueiui iaaeno?aoai, oi anoue oai, eioi?ua sella
curuli sederunt; ii e senatores pedarii eiaee ana i?aaa, i?enouea
naiaoi?ai, oi anoue eae jus sententiae ferendae, oae e jus sententiae
dicendae.

Iai?ioea, ianiiiaiii a ninoaaa naiaoa auee /eaiu, eiaaoea oieueei
niaauaoaeueiue aiein, oi anoue eiaaoea oieueei jus sententiae dicendae.
Oaeiau – flamen Dialis, a oaeaea eeoea, neiaeeaoea n naay iaaeno?aoo?o a
oa/aiea oaeouaai lustrum: iie ipso jure156 noaiiaeeenue ianneaiuie
/eaiaie naiaoa.

Nicuaaao naiao e i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaoao a iai eiinoe eee – a ionoonoaea
eiinoea – i?aoi?. Canaaeaiea ioe?uaaaony niiauaieai (relatio) nicaaaoaai
iaaeno?aoa. Caoai aii?in eee i?inoi iiaeaa?aaaony aieiniaaieth (oiaaea
iu eiaai senatusconsultum per disscessionem factum157), eee aea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ii?aoeaathony iiaiey ioaeaeueiuo naiaoi?ia e
i?ienoiaeyo aeaaaou (oiaaea ?aoaiea aoaeao senatusconsultum per
singulorum sententias exquisitas factum158). Aieiniaaiea niaa?oaaony
iin?aaenoaii iooiaea niaeaniuo a iaeio noi?iio, ianiaeaniuo a ae?oaoth
(discedere, pedibus in sententiam ire159).

*oi eanaaony eiiiaoaioeee naiaoa, oi ii e a yoii ia?eiaea
i?eioeeieaeueii eiaao cia/aiea eeoue niaauaoaeueiiai o/?aaeaeaiey i?e
iaaeno?aoao.

Iaeiaei, oaeoe/anee ii oaea aeiaieueii ?aii auoae ec yoie ?iee e caiye
iieiaeaiea naiinoiyoaeueiia e aeanoiia. A aai ?oeao nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue
ooieoeee naiua ?aciiia?aciua, i?e/ai a iaeieo iaeanoyo aai aeeyiea
neeueiaa, a ae?oaeo – neaaaa. Aaaeaieth naiaoa iiaeeaaeao: a) iaeioi?ua
aii?inu ?aeeaee e eoeueoa: onoaiiaeaiea iauanoaaiiuo i?acaeianoa,
i/enoeoaeueiuo aea?oaii?eiioaiee e o. i.; b) aunoea ia?u iauanoaaiiie
aaciianiinoe, a yeno?aiiuo neo/ayo -i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaaeno?aoai
/?acau/aeiuo iieiiii/ee (senatus consultum ultimum: “caveant consules,
ne quid respublica detrimenti capiat”160) e o. ae.; n) aunoaa
caaaaeiaaiea oeiainaie: ?aaoee?iaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa e
?ani?aaeaeaiea noii iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iaaeno?aoaie, eiio?ieue iaae
athaeaeaoiui eniieiaieai, /aeaiea iiiaou e o. ae.; a nayce n yoei – d)
iauaa oi?aaeaiea i?iaeioeeyie, eae aeiiaiaie ?eineiai ia?iaea; iaeiiaoe,
e) aaaeaiea aeeieiiaoe/aneeo niioaiee, aaea naiao ii/oe aiana ioiaeaeioe
eiinoeia ia aoi?ie ieai.

Iauee ia?a/aiue ooieoeee iieacuaaao, /oi naiao, ia eiay
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe (oaeiaay i?eiaaeeaaeeo oieueei ia?iaeiui
nia?aieyi), yaeyaony oaea ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo i?aaiii ia oieueei
niaauaoaeueiui, ii e aunoei aaeieieno?aoeaiui. I?e /anoie niaia
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe naiao anoanoaaiii aeaeaeny ana aieaa e aieaa
o?aieeeuai aaeieieno?aoeaiie o?aaeeoeee e aeoeaiui ?oeiaiaeeoaeai anae
aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee.

E?iia ia?a/eneaiiuo ooieoeee, naiaoo i?eiaaeeaaeao aua aeaa noa?ua –
eiaiii oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaii ai a?aiy interregnum, oi anoue a
i?iiaaeooie iaaeaeo ieii/aieai iieiiii/ee iaeiiai eiinoea e auai?ii
iiaiai, e auctoritas patrum, ooaa?aeaeaiea caeiiia, aioe?iaaiiuo
ia?iaeiui nia?aieai.

Ii n yoeie ooieoeeyie naycai iiyoue-oaee neaaeothuee nii?iue aii?in.
Niaeanii ainiiaenoaothuaio iiaieth, iaa yoe ooieoeee i?eiaaeeaaeaee ia
iieiiio nia?aieth naiaoa, a eeoue nia?aieth naiaoi?ia-iao?eoeeaa.
Aeeeain, iaeiaei, ioaa?aaao yoo aeaienoaaiiinoue naiaoa. Iaa yoe
ooieoeee, ai?i/ai, oaea a oa/aiea ia?aie iieiaeiu ?anioaeeee iioa?yee
naia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. Interregnum en/acei n oiai a?aiaie, eiaaea
aioei a iau/ae ecae?aoue iiauo iaaeno?aoia aua aei enoa/aiey n?iea
noa?ui; a neo/aa aea aiacaiiie nia?oe iaeiiai iaaeno?aoa inoaaaeenue
ae?oaea, a ?oeao eioi?uo nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue oiaaea any aeanoue:
inoaaaeny ae?oaie eiinoe, i?aoi?, e a interregnum ia auei ieeaeie
iaaeiaiinoe. *oi aea eanaaony auctoritas patrum, oi iia oaeaea n
oa/aieai a?aiaie ioiaea naia niaie.

IAAENO?AOO?A. IAUAss NENOAIA IAAENO?AOO?

N onoaiiaeaieai ?anioaeeeaineiai ?aaeeia any iieiioa oea?neie aeanoe ia
auea oie/oiaeaia, a auea eeoue ia?aianaia ia iiaua i?aaiu, ia aeaoo
eiinoeia, e n yoie oi/ee c?aiey ?eineay ?anioaeeea, iniaaiii ia ia?auo
ii?ao, iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoueny aeaenoaeoaeueii eeoue eae “iiaeeoeeaoeey
iiia?oee” (Iae?). Naie ?eineea ienaoaee io/aoeeai iiae/a?eeaatho yoi.
“Libertatis originem inde magis quia annuum imperium factum sit quam
quod deminutum quicquam sit ex regia potestate numeres”161, – aiai?eo
Eeaee (2. 1. 7). Oae aea au?aaeaaony e Oeeoea?ii: “uti consules haberent
potestatem tempore dumtaxat annuam, genere ipso ac jure regiam”162 (de
Rep. 2. 56).

Aiineaaenoaee, eiaaea e eiinoeai i?eniaaeeiythony ae?oaea iaaeno?aou,
yoa i?eioeeieaeueiay iieiioa ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe oieueei
?ani?aaeaeyaony ia aoeueoaa /enei eeoe. ?eineea iaaeno?aou iiyoiio
aeaeaei ia /eiiaieee a iaoai niunea: eaaeaeue ec ieo iineo a naaa
/anoeoeo oea?neiai aaee/ey e aianoa n ia?iaeii ?eineei yaeyaony
iineoaeai ainoaea?noaaiiiai “aaee/anoaa”. Inei?aeaiea iaaeno?aoa oae
aea, eae e inei?aeaiea ia?iaea, ninoaaeyao crimen laesae majestatis.
Aeieaeiinoue iaaeno?aoa anoue ia neoaeaa, a ii/anoue – honor; iiyoiio
ana ?eineea iaaeno?aou nooue aeanoe auai?iua e aacaiciacaeiua. Oaeay
iinoaiiaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeieaeiinoae ninoaaeyao iniaaiioth /a?oo
?eineie ?anioaeeee. Eaeeo-eeai th?eaee/aneeo, eiinoeoooeeiiiuo
ia?aie/aiee aeanoe naieo iaaeno?aoia ?eieyia ciatho iaiiiai: caeii i
provocatio, Lex Aternia Tarpeia – e oieueei. ?eineee ieaan, anooieaoee
auei a ia/aea naiae ai?ueau ia iooue yoeo eiinoeoooeeiiiuo ia?aie/aiee,
aiineaaenoaee inoaaee eo e noae aeiaeaaoueny aeinooia e iaaeno?aoo?ai.
Eiaaea yoi oaeaeinue, ?eineay aeaiie?aoey ia aeoiaea i aeaeueiaeoeo
ia?aie/aieyo aeanoe iooai caeiia, i?aaeii/eoay eiua niiniau
aa?aioe?iaaoue naiaiaeo. I?eciaaay, ca oeacaiiuie i?aaeaeaie, anth
i?eioeeieaeueioth iieiioo aeanoe, ?eieyia noaayo aa a oaeea oaeoe/aneea
oneiaey, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui aic?iaeaeaiea aaniethoecia aeaeaaony (ii
e?aeiae ia?a, aei iineaaeiaai noieaoey) iaaiciiaeiui. Oaeeie oaeoe/anee
ia?aie/eaathueie oneiaeyie yaeyeenue:

1) E?aoeia?aiaiiinoue neoaeau. Ana iaaeno?aou ecae?athony ia ei?ioeee
n?ie, aieueoeinoai ia aiae e oieueei oeaici? ia iyoue eao. A aeaaea
oea?ue, eca?aiiue ia iaeei aiae, oaeoe/anee ia aoaeao oaeei aeanoaeeiii,
eae oea?ue iiaeeciaiiue, a oai aieaa aeeianoe/aneee. E iu aeaeaee auoa,
/oi naie ?eineea ienaoaee a yoie “aiaee/iinoe” aeanoe oniao?eaaee
aeaaiaeooth iniiao naiae naiaiaeu (“libertatis originem”).

2) Eieeaaeaeueiinoue iaaeno?aoo?. Ana iaaeno?aoo?u i?aaieciaaiu
eieeaaeaeueii: aeaa eiinoea, aeaa, a iioii e aieaa, i?aoi?ia e o. ae.
Auea ee yoa eieeaaeaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoii aieaa iicaeiaai a?aiaie (eae
aeoiaao, iai?eia?, Aiioaioa), eee aea iia (eae iieaaaao ainiiaenoaothuaa
iiaiea) yaeyaony o/?aaeaeaieai, ?iaeeaoeiny iaeiia?aiaiii n ?anioaeeeie,
– ia iiaeeaaeeo niiiaieth, /oi eieeaaeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey iaaeno?aoo?
ninoaaeyao iaeio ec i?eaeiaeueiaeoeo /a?o ?eineiai ?anioaeeeaineiai
ono?ienoaa163. Yoa eieeaaeaeueiinoue, iaeiaei, ioithaeue ia iaicia/aao
oiai, /oi ana iaeii?iaeiua iaaeno?aou aeieaeiu aeaenoaiaaoue niaianoii,
eae eieeaaey; iie yaeythony ia eieeaaeae, a eieeaaaie. Eaaeaeue
iaaeno?ao aeaenoaoao ioaeaeueii e naiinoiyoaeueii – oae, eae anee au ii
aue iaeei; eaaeaeiio ec ieo a ioaeaeueiinoe i?eiaaeeaaeeo any iieiioa
niioaaonoaaiiie aeanoe. Ii ?yaeii n iei oaeay aea iieiioa aeanoe
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ae?oaiio, e a neo/aa aeaeaiey yoio ae?oaie naiei veto
iiaeao ia?aeeciaaoue ethaia ?anii?yaeaiea ia?aiai. A yoii ninoieo
nouiinoue oae iacuaaaiiai jus intercessionis164. I?e yoii jus
intercessionis ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia oieueei ia nieiaiiuo eieeaa, ii e ia
ae?oaeo iaaeno?aoia, iecoeo ii n?aaiaieth n eioa?oeaaee?othuei: eiinoe
iiaeao eioa?oeaaee?iaaoue ia oieueei eiinoeo, ii e i?aoi?o, eaanoi?o e
o. ae. Yoi niioiioaiea iaaeno?aoo? au?aaeaaony i?aaeeii: “par majorve
potestas plus valeto”165. Ec yoiai i?aaeea nouanoaotho, iaeiaei,
iaeioi?ua eneeth/aiey: aeanoue oeaici?a ia iiaeeaaeeo ie/ueae
intercessio, e?iia intercessio ae?oaiai oeaici?a; n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
ia?iaeiue o?eaoi iiaeao eioa?oeaaee?iaaoue anai.

Iiiyoii, /oi i?e oaeeo oneiaeyo jus intercessionis yaeeinue
iiaouanoaaiiui n?aaenoaii acaeiiiai eiio?iey iaaeno?aoia e neoaeeei
aeaenoaeoaeueiui i?ioeaiaanii i?ioea aaniethoenoe/aneeo iiiieciiaaiee
ioaeaeueiuo eeoe.

A iniaaiii o?aaiaeiua iiiaiou ?eineay ?anioaeeea i?eaaaaao e aeeeoaoo?a;
oiaaea ana iau/iua iaaeno?aoo?u caie?atho, e a eeoea aeeeoaoi?a
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue, i?e ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo ?acae?iaeaiiay
iaaeaeo iiiaeie iaaeno?aoo?aie e ineaaeaiiay aiciiaeiinoueth
intercessio, ainnoaiiaeyaony aiiaue ai anae naiae aaniethoiinoe;
aeeeoaoi? ioee/aaony io oea?y oieueei ei?ioeei n?ieii naieo
iieiiii/ee166.

3) Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae ia?iaeii. Iaeiiaoe, iineaaeiei oneiaeai,
oaeoe/anee ia?aie/eaathuei aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaiea ni noi?iiu
iaaeno?aoa, neoaeeei oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ana iie ca naie
aeieaeiinoiua aeaenoaey iiaee auoue i?eaea/aiu e noaeo ia?iaeiiai
nia?aiey – aunoea iaaeno?aou ii enoa/aiee aeieaeiinoiiai n?iea, iecoea
aeaaea e ?aiueoa. Noaeo e ioaaonoaaiiinoe iiaeaa?aaeenue iie i?e yoii ia
ca ia?ooaiea oao eee eiuo i?aaeaeia naiae aeanoe (eai oaeiauo, eae
neacaii, ii/oe ia nouanoaiaaei), a ca aeo?iia eee naiaei?unoiia
iieueciaaiea caeiiiie aeanoueth. Iiiyoii, /oi i?e ecaanoiuo oneiaeyo
oaeie noae iia i?aa?auaoueny a ?ani?aao iaeiie ia?oee iaae ae?oaie, – ii
naiay aiciiaeiinoue noaea aeieaeia auea i?eioaeaeaoue iaaeno?aoa anyeee
?ac /ooei i?eneooeaaoueny e aieino ia?iaeiiai iiaiey.

Aeanoue ?eineeo iaaeno?aoia iineo iauaa iacaaiea imperium e potestas.
Ia?aiia/aeueii, ianiiiaiii, iaa yoe oa?ieia oiio?aaeyeenue aac?acee/ii,
ii aiineaaenoaee noaee ?acee/aoue magistratus cum imperio e sine
imperio167, i?e/ai iineaaeiei (iai?eia?, oeaici?, o?eaoi) noaee
i?eienuaaoue potestas (censoria, tribunicia), e oaeei ia?acii noaee eae
au aeeaaeuaaoue iniaia niaea?aeaiea a iiiyoea imperium e a iiiyoea
potestas. Oieueei oa aeanoue iaueiiaaiii iacuaaaony imperium, eioi?ay
caeeth/aao a naaa ooieoeee aiaiioth, iauaaaeieieno?aoeaioth e oaieiaioth
(neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiieia – aeanoue eiinoea e i?aoi?a), oioy aiiaua
ioaeii neacaoue, /oi oa?ieiieiaey yoa ia ioee/aaony no?iaith
auaea?aeaiiinoueth.

Nouanoaaiiaeoea i?aaa ?eineiai iaaeno?aoa (ia eaaeaeiio iaaeno?aoo,
iaeiaei, a iieiie ia?a i?eiaaeeaaeauea) naiaeyony e neaaeothuei: a)
i?aai niioaiee n aiaaie io eiaie ?eineiai ia?iaea (jus auspiciorum); b)
i?aai niioaiee n naiaoii e ia?iaeii (jus agendi cum patribus et cum
populo), oi anoue i?aai aiineoue a naiao relationes, a a ia?iaeiua
nia?aiey rogationes; n) i?aai ecaeaiey iauaiaycaoaeueiuo ?anii?yaeaiee
(jus edicendi; ia?aiia/aeueii oaeea ?anii?yaeaiey iauyaeyeenue ia?iaeo
onoii in contione168, ionthaea neiai “edictum”, a aiineaaenoaee iie
aunoaaeyeenue a ienueiaiiie oi?ia ia oi?oia); d) aunoaa aiaiiia
eiiaiaeiaaiea ni anaie ioiinyueieny nthaea ooieoeeyie; e) aunoay
aaeieieno?aoeaiay e iieeoeaeneay aeanoue, oi anoue iauay io?aia
aioo?aiiaai iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, ioeoaea i?ienoaeaao oaeaea, ii
?eineei i?aaenoaaeaieyi, oaieiaiay th?enaeeeoeey iaaeno?aoia, eo o/anoea
a a?aaeaeaineii noaea e eo iieeoeaeneay aeanoue a nianoaaiiii niunea
neiaa.

N?aaenoaaie aeey inouanoaeaiey ?anii?yaeaiee ai anao yoeo iaeanoyo a
?oeao iaaeno?aoia yaeyeenue: 1) i?aai ee/iiai caaea?aeaiey iaiineooiiai
(jus prendendi), 2) i?aaeaiea noaeo (in jus vocatio), 3) iaeiaeaiea
oo?aoa (multae dictio), 4) a?ano eaeie-eeai aaue, i?eiaaeeaaeauae
ineooieeo, aeey iaania/aiey aai iiaeiiaaiey (pignoris capio). E yoei
n?aaenoaai iiaee i?eaaaaoue ia oieueei aunoea iaaeno?aou cum imperio, ii
a i?aaeaeao eo niaoeeaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee e ana ae?oaea (yaeee, eaanoi?
e o. ae.).

Imperium, iaeiaei, eiaao ia iaeeiaeiaoth th?eaee/aneoth eioaineaiinoue,
niio?y ii oiio, aaea iia i?iyaeyaony, e a yoii ioiioaiee ?acee/aaony
imperium domi e imperium militiae.

Ii ae?aaiaeoaio ?eineiio aicc?aieth, iau/iue a?aaeaeaineee ii?yaeie
aiciiaeai oieueei “aeiia” (domi), oi anoue ia oa??eoi?ee nianoaaiii
?eia, a ai?iaea, e intra pomerium, oi anoue a iaeanoe, eaaeauae ia
aeaeaa iaeiie ieee aie?oa aai noai. Ca yoeie i?aaeaeaie (extra pomerium)
anaaaea aiciiaeii a?aaeaneia iaiaaeaiea, e iioiio oai ?eieyiei
iaoiaeeeny anaaaea “ia aiaiiii iieiaeaiee” (militiae). Ionthaea e
oeacaiiia ?acee/ea a niaea?aeaiee imperium. Imperium militiae aeieaeii
iaeaaeaoue aieueoae eioaineaiinoueth e iai?a?aeaaiinoueth, e oa
ia?aie/aiey aeanoe, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue oa?ieiu aeiia, ia iiaoo auoue
oa?ieiu aia aai. Aneaaenoaea yoiai: a) Aioo?e ai?iaeneie /a?ou ia
?aoaiey iaaeno?aoa aiciiaeia provocatio; aia aa iia ia aeiioneaaony; oai
aeanoue iaaeno?aoa aaniethoia. b) Aioo?e ?eia aeanoue iaaeno?aoa aeeeony
oieueei aei enoa/aiey n?iea, aneaaenoaea /aai aei eca?aiey iiaiai
aiciiaeai ionoie i?iiaaeooie (interregnum); militiae yoi iaaiciiaeii:
aei i?eacaea i?aaiieea noa?ue iaaeno?ao inoaaony o aeanoe pro
magistratu169. c) Aeiia ana iaaeno?aou i?aayo niaianoii n oeacaiiie auoa
aiciiaeiinoueth intercessio; militiae iiaeiaiia ineaaeaiea aeanoe
iaaeiionoeii, aneaaenoaea /aai iaaeno?aou eee ?annueathony naiaoii ii
?aciui ianoai (iaeei eiinoe ni naieie eaaeiiaie ia iaeei oaao? aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee, ae?oaie ia ae?oaie; oaeay oeacaiiay naiaoii noa?a aeaenoaee
eaaeaeiai e iacuaaeanue a ae?aaiaeoaa a?aiy provincia), eee aea, anee
ieacuaathony aianoa, /a?aaeothony ai aeanoe (eaaeaeue /a?ac aeaiue e o.
i.).

E?iia oiiiyioouo magistratus cum imperio e sine imperio, a nenoaia
?eineeo iaaeno?aoo? ?acee/athony aua: 1) magistratus majores e minores,
i?e/ai iniiaaieai ?acee/ey neoaeeo i?aai ia auspicia majora eee minora;
e magistratus majores ioiineeenue eiinoeu, i?aoi?u e oeaici?u; ana
inoaeueiua – minores. 2) Iaaeno?aou eo?oeueiua e iaeo?oeueiua, niio?y ii
oiio, eiaee ee iaaeno?aou i?aai ioi?aaeyoue naith aeieaeiinoue, neaey a
eo?oeueiii e?anea (sella curulis), eee aea iao. E eo?oeueiui
i?eiaaeeaaeao eiinoe, i?aoi?, oeaici? e eo?oeueiue yaeee.

Ia?aaeei ano?a/athony neo/ae, eiaaea aeanoueth iaaeno?aoa iaeaaeatho
eeoea, ia eca?aiiua a yoo aeieaeiinoue. Oaeea eeoea aeaenoaotho pro
consule, pro praetore e o. ae., aiiaua pro magistratu, io/aai a yoeo
neo/ayo aiai?yo i i?iiaaeno?aoo?ao. I?e yoii eiiaaea iecoee iaaeno?ao
aeaenoaoao ca aunoaai, iai?eia?, i?aoi? ca eiinoea; eiiaaea aea
niaa?oaiii /anoiia eeoei iaeaeaaony ecaanoiuie ioeoeeaeueiuie
iieiiii/eyie. Oae, iai?eia?, i?aaeoaee i?iaeioeee /anoi iinueatho aianoi
naay a oa eee ae?oaea /anoe i?iaeioeee naieo oiieiiii/aiiuo, eioi?ua
aeaenoaotho eo eiaiai (legati pro praetore).

Aie?oa eaaeaeiai iaaeno?aoa a?oiie?oaony aai ee/iue niaao – consilium,
ia eiathuee, ai?i/ai, ieeaeiai ioeoeeaeueiiai cia/aiey, e oeaeay ianna
iecoeo neoaeaueo, iinyueo iauaa iacaaiea apparitores. Oaeiau nae?aoa?e e
ienueiiaiaeeoaee (scribae), eeeoi?u (lictores170), aeaoaoae (precones) e
iinueueiua (viatores). Ana iie ninoiyo ia aeaeiaaiuee, ia n/eoathony
iaaeno?aoaie e ninoaaeytho i?e eaaeaeie iaaeno?aoo?a iaeioi?ue
iinoiyiiue ooao, ia?aoiaeyuee io iaeiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey aa e ae?oaiio.
Iaueiiaaiii apparitores i?e aeaiiie aeieaeiinoe ia?acotho ec naay
iaeioi?oth /anoioth ei?ii?aoeeth, aeey anooieaiey a eioi?oth iaiaoiaeeia
iieoiea ianoa.

Auai?u iaaeno?aoia i?eiaaeeaaeao ia?iaeiiio nia?aieth, e i?eoii
?acee/iui aeaeai aai; ia yoii auei neacaii auoa (§ 12). Ia?aiia/aeueii a
ethaoth iaaeno?aoo?o iia auoue eca?ai eaaeaeue ?eineee a?aaeaeaiei,
eiathuee i?aai o/anoey a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee; eaeeo-eeai iniauo oneiaee
ianneaiiai ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa ia nouanoaiaaei. Ii ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
?anioaeeee iiyaeythony oaea iaeioi?ua ia?aie/aiey.

Caeii 180 a., oae iacuaaaiue lex Villia annalis, onoaiiaee, ai-ia?auo,
ecaanoiue ea?a?oe/aneee ii?yaeie aeieaeiinoae (“certus ordo
magistratuum”): eaanoi?, eo?oeueiue yaeee, i?aoi? e eiinoe; iiianoue ia
aeieaeiinoue eiinoea iiaeii auei oieueei i?ieaey /a?ac yoe
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua nooiaie. Ai-aoi?uo, ii onoaiiaee ieieiaeueiue aic?ano
aeey caiyoey iecoae nooiaie yoie eanoieoeu – eaanoo?u, ii onoaiiaee
einaaiii: eaiaeeaeao aeieaeai i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ioauoue a oa/aiea 10 eao
aieineoth iiaeiiinoue (eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a oa/aiea 10 eao
i?aaeuyaeyoue naay e iaai?o); a oae eae ioauaaiea aieineie iiaeiiinoe
ia/eiaaony n 17 eao, oi eaanoi?ii iiaeii naeaeaoueny ia ?aiaa 27 eao.
Iaeiiaoe, lex Villia i?aaeienaea aua iaycaoaeueiue aeaooeaoiee
i?iiaaeooie iaaeaeo neiaeaieai n naay iaeiie aeieaeiinoe e eca?aieai a
ae?oaoth. Ana yoe o?e ioieoa i?aneaaeotho iaeio oeaeue: ia aeiionoeoue
neeoeii iieiaeuo e iaiiuoiuo ethaeae ia iino aunoeo iaaeno?aoia.

Eceiaeaiiue caeii e eiioeo ?anioaeeee iioa?ye naia cia/aiea, aeaaiaea?y
niaa?oeaoeiny eciaiaieyi a aieineie iiaeiiinoe: oaeoe/anee a?aaeaeaia
ia?anoaee i?eaeaeaoueny e ioauaaieth iaycaoaeueiie aieineie iiaeiiinoe,
aienei aea eiiieaeooaony oaia?ue ec aieiioa?ia-i?ieaoa?eaa. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai caeii Aeeeey aue eni?aaeai niia?acii iiaui oneiaeyi caeiiii Noeeu
– lex Cornelia de magistratibus (81 a. aei ?. O.). Yoio iineaaeiee caeii
oaea i?yii ii?aaeaeyao ieieiaeueiue aic?ano aeey caiyoey eaaeaeie
aeieaeiinoe: aeey eaanoo?u – 30 eao, aeey i?aoo?u – 40 e aeey eiinoeaoa
– 42 aiaea.

Eeoei, aeaeaaoaa aunoaaeoue naith eaiaeeaeaoo?o ia oo eee ae?oaoth
aeieaeiinoue, aeieaeii auei ca?aiaa cayaeoue i naaa iaaeno?aoo,
nicuaaaoaio oi ia?iaeiia nia?aiea, a eioi?ii aeieaeiu auee i?ienoiaeeoue
auai?u; yoi iacuaaaony professio nominis. Eiy eaiaeeaeaoa aunoaaeyeinue
caoai ia oi?oi. I?iiaaeooie aei auai?ia oiio?aaeyeny ia auai?ioth
aaeoaoeeth (ambitus); eaiaeeaeao, iaeaoue a aaeoth oiao, iieacuaaaony a
iauanoaaiiuo ianoao, noa?aynue i?eaea/ue ia?iaeioth neiiaoeth. A auai?a
aaeoaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa ano?a/aeenue e ceioiio?aaeaiey, iiaeeoiu; ii
e?aeiae ia?a, n?aaee ?anioaeeeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iu iaoiaeei
iaiaei caeiiia, noa?aaoeony ai?ioueny n iiaeiaiie iaaeia?iniaanoiie
aaeoaoeeae – oae iacuaaaiua leges de ambitu.

Eca?aiiue eaiaeeaeao, anee ii i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo magistratus cum
imperio, aeieaeai iieo/eoue aua lex curiata de imperio (ni. auoa), a
caoai anyeee – i?eianoe i?enyao ia aa?iinoue caeiiai (jurare in leges),
/oi niaa?oaeinue a iauai o?aieeeua caeiiia, a o?aia Naoo?ia, a
i?enoonoaee eaanoi?a.

IOAeAEUeIUA IAAENO?AOU E IOAeAEUeIUA AAOAE AINOAeA?NOAAIIIAI OI?AAEAIEss

Ai aeaaa anao i?aeeia?iuo iaaeno?aoo? noiyo aeaa eiinoea, a ae?aaiaeoaa
a?aiy iacuaaaoeany praetores (/ai iooaiyeanue eo aiaiiay ooieoeey:
praetor = prae-itor171) e judices (/ai iooaiyeanue eo iauaa?aaeaeaineay
aeanoue: jus dicere172). Eae auei oeacaii auoa, iie ecae?aeenue nia/aea
oieueei ec iao?eoeeaa, ii ni a?aiaie lex Licinia e ec ieaaaaa, i?e/ai
iaeei ec eiinoeia aeieaeai auoue iai?aiaiii ieaaae. Eiinoeai
i?eiaaeeaaeeo suprema potestas e majus imperium173 (aiaoiei ciaeii /aai
yaeythony 12 eeeoi?ia); e iei iaeiei nia/aea ia?aoea any iieiioa
oea?neie aeanoe, ia?aie/aiiay oieueei i?iaieaoeeae. Iinoaiaiii, iaeiaei,
cia/aiea eiinoeueneie aeanoe ineaaeyeinue: oneeaiea ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee e
naiaoa, nicaeaiea iiauo iaaeno?aoo? aeey oao eee ae?oaeo niaoeeaeueiuo
eiiiaoaioeee oaeoe/anee oiaeyei ?ieue eiinoeia e noaeeaaei iaeanoue eo
aeayoaeueiinoe. Nio?aiyy a i?eioeeia oa?aeoa? aunoaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
i?aaia, a ?oeao eioi?iai a iioaioeeaeueiii ninoiyiee iieiyony ana
ainoaea?noaaiiua ooieoeee, eiinoeao oaeoe/anee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
?anioaeeee ii/oe en/a?iuaaaony aunoei aiaiiui eiiaiaeiaaieai: ii iauaio
i?aaeeo, eiinoeu ni naieie eaaeiiaie iaoiaeyony aia ?eia ia oii eee eiii
oaao?a aiaiiuo aeaenoaee.

Aiaiiia aeaei iiaeaa?aaaony a yoii ia?eiaea ei?aiiui eciaiaieyi.
I?eioeei anaiauae aieineie iiaeiiinoe, eae iauaa?aaeaeaineie
iaycaiiinoe, nio?aiyaony, ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aneaaenoaea neeueiiai
i?e?inoa eiee/anoaa a?aaeaeai, aeaeaei i?aauneaoaai ?aaeueiua
iio?aaiinoe a?iee, iaycaoaeueiia ioauaaiea aa i?ae?auaaony. E oiio aea
?acaeoea aiaiiie oaoieee o?aaiaaei aeey eo/oae aiaaie niiniaiinoe
eaaeiiia ecaanoiiai iinoiyinoaa e i?ioanneiiaeueiinoe aiaiiie neoaeau.
Aaeaeo yoiai ni a?aiai Ia?ey eaaeiiu ia/eiatho eiiieaeoiaaoueny ec
aeia?iaieueoeaa, aeaaiui ia?acii, i?ieaoa?eaa, anooiathueo a eaaeiiu
?aaee aeaeiaaiuey e niio?yueo ia aiaiioth neoaeao, eae ia i?ioanneth.
Iaai? aienea i?iecaiaeeony eiinoeaie, ec eioi?uo eaaeaeue iieo/aao aeey
naay iniaue ei?ion a 2 eaaeiia e aianoa n ieie ioi?aaeyaony a
iacia/aiioth aeey aai iia?aoeee ianoiinoue. Aunoea ioeoea?u – tribuni
militum (ii 6 ia eaaeaeue eaaeii) – ia?aiia/aeueii iacia/aeenue
nianoaaiiith aeanoueth eiinoea, ii n iieiaeiu ?anioaeeee ecae?athony
ia?iaeiui nia?aieai. Nieaeaou i?enyaatho eiinoeo ee/ii; iiyoiio n
eaaeaeie niaiie eiinoeia eaaeiiu ?anioneathony e i?ienoiaeeo iiaue
iaai?. A neo/aa iia?aoeee a eaeie-eeai ioaeaeaiiie ianoiinoe eiinoe
ia?aaeei, n niecaieaiey naiaoa, inoaaony oai e ii ieii/aiee naiaai
aeieaeiinoiiai aiaea a ea/anoaa i?ieiinoea. Oae ca?iaeaeaaony
aiciiaeiinoue aieaa oaniie nayce aiaia/aeueieea ni naieie eaaeiiaie, /oi
ea?aei ia ?ac aieueooth ?ieue a niauoeyo iineaaeieo a?aiai ?anioaeeee.

Aeeeoaoo?a. A iiiaio eaeeo-eeai /?acau/aeiuo cao?oaeiaiee naiao iiaeao
aeaoue eiinoeo i?eeacaiea iacia/aoue eiai-eeai aeeeoaoi?ii (dictatorem
dicere). Aeey i?eaeaiey yoiio iacia/aieth ?aeeaeiciie naieoeee
iaiaoiaeeia aua lex curiata de imperio. N iiyaeaieai aeeeoaoi?a
i?ae?auaeanue aeayoaeueiinoue anao ii?iaeueiuo iaaeno?aoia e oaeei
ia?acii eae au ainnoaiiaeyeanue i?aaeiyy oea?neay aeanoue, ii oieueei ia
ei?ioeee n?ie (6 ianyoeaa). Aeeeoaoi?o i?eiaaeeaaeeo summum imperium, ia
eioi?ia (ii e?aeiae ia?a, a ia?aie iieiaeia ?anioaeeee) ia i?inoe?aaony
ie intercessio, ie provocatio. Aiaoiei ciaeii yoie /?acau/aeiinoe aeanoe
neoaeao 24 eaeoi?a.

Io oaeeo /?acau/aeiuo e iieiiii/iuo aeeeoaoi?ia (oae iacuaaaiuo dictator
optima lege creatus) iaaei ioee/aoue aeeeoaoi?ia imminuto jure174,
eioi?ua iacia/aeenue eiiaaea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia ?anioaeeee aeey
eniieiaiey eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey –
ono?ienoaa ea?, niaaaeaiey ia?iaea oeaaii e o. ae. Yoe iineaaeiea
aeeeoaoi?u ia eiatho summum imperium; i?e ieo ana inoaeueiua iaaeno?aou
i?iaeieaeatho aeaenoaiaaoue ii-i?aaeiaio.

I?aoo?a. Niaeanii ?eineie o?aaeeoeee, i?aoo?a auea o/?aaeaeaia oio/an
iinea ainnoaiiaeaiey eiinoeueneie aeanoe caeiiaie Eeoeeiey e Naenoey
(368 a.). Iauae i?e/eiie aa o/?aaeaeaiey iineoaeeei oi ianoiyoaeuenoai,
/oi eiinoeu iaueiiaaiii auee ioaeaeaaiu ec ?eia naieie aiaiiuie aeaeaie,
a iaaeaeo oai iaiaoiaeeii auei eiaoue a ?eia iinoiyiii oaeiai
i?aaenoaaeoaey aeanoe, eioi?ue iia au auoue eo caianoeoaeai a aeaea
io?aiu aioo?aiiaai ii?yaeea e i?aaa. Oaeei caianoeoaeai e yaeeny
praetor. Ia?aiia/aeueii ii aue oieueei iaeei, ii a 242 a. aue
i?eniaaeeiai e ae?oaie niaoeeaeueii aeey iaaethaeaiey ca ia?aa?eiaie,
eioi?ua e oiio a?aiaie ia/eiatho iiyaeyoueny a ?eia aieueoeie iannaie
aeey ?acee/iuo oi?aiauo aeae. Auoue iiaeao, ia?acoeii aeey o/?aaeaeaiey
yoiai aoi?iai i?aoi?a niaoeeaeueii aeey ia?aa?eiia iineoaeeee
aiaeiae/iua iaaeno?aoo?u a iaeioi?uo oi?aiauo a?a/aneeo ai?iaeao,
iai?eia?, a Ai?oeia175. N yoiai a?aiaie ia?aue i?aoi? iacuaaaony praetor
urbanus, a aoi?ie – praetor peregrinus (“qui inter peregrinos jus
dicit”176). Iinea iiei?aiey Neoeeeee e Na?aeeiee /enei i?aoi?ia auei
oaaee/aii aei /aou?ao (i?eaaaeeinue aua aeaa – ii iaeiiio aeey Neoeeeee
e aeey Na?aeeiee); a a 197 a. nicaeaiu auee aua aeaa i?aoi?a aeey aeaoo
oieueei /oi i?eniaaeeiaiiuo Eniaiee. N aicieeiiaaieai i?e Noeea
iinoiyiiuo noaeaaiuo eiiennee aeey oaieiaiuo aeae, iaoiaeeaoeony iiae
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii i?aoi?ia, /enei i?aoi?ia au?inei aei ainueie, a i?e
Oeaca?a aeaaea aei oanoiaaeoeaoe.

Ii oa?aeoa?o naiae aeanoe i?aoi? yaeyaony ieaaeoei eieeaaie eiinoeia –
collega minor: aio a i?eioeeia iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiu ana oa aea aeaea, /oi e
eiinoeo. Minoritas aai au?aaeaaony eeoue a oii, /oi i?aoi? ia eiaao jus
intercessionis ii ioiioaieth e eiinoeo, a aiaoiei ia?acii – a oii, /oi
i?aoi?a nii?iaiaeaeatho oieueei 6 eeeoi?ia. I?aoi?, eae e eiinoe, iiaeao
nicuaaoue ia?iaeiua nia?aiey e canaaeaiey naiaoa e
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue a ieo; a oae eae eiinoeu iaueiiaaiii
ionoonoaotho, oi i?aoi? yaeyaony oai ii?iaeueiui i?aaenaaeaoaeai. I?aoi?
oaeaea iaeaaeaao jus edicendi, i?e/ai, eae oaeaeei aeaeaa, aai yaeeeou
eiaee a?iiaaeiia cia/aiea aeey anae enoi?ee ?eineiai i?aaa.

Iauoth caaea/o i?aoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe ninoaaeyao custodia urbis, oi
anoue iauay caaioa ia io?aia aioo?aiiaai a?aaeaeaineiai ie?a e ii?yaeea.
A yoii niunea i?aoo?a yaeyaony aeanoueth iieeoeaeneie a naiii oe?ieii
cia/aiee yoiai neiaa. Eae auei oeacaii auoa, ec yoie iauae caaiou ia
io?aia ie?a e ii?yaeea, ii ?eineei aicc?aieyi, auoaeaea naia niaie eae
oaieiaiay, oae e a?aaeaeaineay th?enaeeeoeey i?aoo?u. Ia o/anoee i?aoi?a
a oaieiaiii e a?aaeaeaineii noaea aoaeao neacaii iiae?iaiaa ieaea.
Caeanue aea ioiaoei oieueei, /oi ii ia?a oiai, eae
niaoeeaeueii-iieeoeaeneay (a oceii niunea) ooieoeey ana aieaa e aieaa
nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue a ?oeao aeeaeaeoeo iiiiuieeia i?aoi?ia – eo?oeueiuo
yaeeeia, naia iia iinoaiaiii niaoeeaeece?iaaeanue eiaiii a iaeanoe
th?enaeeeoeee, i?aa?auaynue oaeei ia?acii a iaaeno?aoo?o, ii
i?aeiouanoao, noaeaaioth. Aeaaea oai, aaea i?aoi?u i?aneaaeiaaee oeaeue
iieeoeaeneoth, iie i?aaeii/eoaee i?eaaaaoue e n?aaenoaai iaueiiaaiiiai
a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeanna.

A nayce n yoei iaoiaeeony neaaeothuaa, ano?a/athuaany a enoi/ieeao,
oai?aoe/aneia ?an/eaiaiea ooieoeee i?aoi?neie aeanoe. Oai, aaea i?aoi?
aunooiaao io?aieoaeai iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea iin?aaenoaii oo?aoia
(multae dictio) e ae?oaeo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo acuneaiee, aiai?yo ia
imperium merum. Oai, aaea i?aoi? aeaenoaoao eneeth/eoaeueii eae i?aai
noaeaaiie aeanoe, aaea aai aeayoaeueiinoue iai?aaeaia oieueei ia
?ac?aoaiea /anoiiai nii?a iooai i?eiaiaiey caeiia, oai enoi/ieee aiai?yo
i jurisdictio. Ai anao aea oao neo/ayo, a eioi?uo i?aoi? aeey
auioaeaeaiey naiaai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?eeacaiey i?eaaaaao e n?aaenoaai
iaueiiaaiiiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeanna (iooai eioa?aeeeoia e o. ae; ia
yoii ieaea), iu eiaai imperium mixtum (sc. cum jurisdictione177).

Oeaico?a. Eae auei oeacaii auoa, ii niiauaieth ?eineeo ienaoaeae, eiaaea
eiinoeu auee caiaiaiu aiaiiuie o?eaoiaie n eiinoeueneie aeanoueth,
iao?eoeee auaeaeeee ec eo iieiiii/ee i?iecaiaenoai oeaica e ii?o/eee aai
iniaie iaaeno?aoo?a – oeaici?ai (443 a.).

Ea?aei ee aeaenoaeoaeueii i?e o/?aaeaeaiee oeaico?u ?ieue aeaeaiea
iao?eoeeaa oaea?aeaoue a naieo ?oeao yoo aaaeioth ooieoeeth, eee aea e
yoiio i?eaaea ia?aia?aiaiaiiinoue aeaeaie aunoeo iaaeno?aoia,
aneaaenoaea /aai i?iecaiaenoai oeaica caoyaeaaeinue (oae iieaaaao iaeei
ec iiaaeoeo enneaaeiaaoaeae aii?ina I. I. Eieoea178), – ?aoeoue o?oaeii.
Ai anyeii neo/aa, n yoiai a?aiaie oeaico?a aeaeaaony iaeiie ec
aeeyoaeueiaeoeo ?eineeo iaaeno?aoo?. N oa/aieai a?aiaie a ?oee oeaici?ia
ia?aoiaeyo iaeioi?ua ae?oaea ooieoeee, aeaeathuea oeaico?o iaiaoiaeeiui
i?aaiii oaeoueo aeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Ecae?athony oeaici?u
a /enea aeaoo e iaueiiaaiii ia 5 eao (ia?aiia/aeueii n?ie ia?aeca?aiey
oeaici?ia ia aue ii?aaeaeai), ii lex Aemilia i?aaeienaea, /oiau oeaici?u
caeai/eaaee i?iecaiaenoai oeaica ia aieaa /ai a 1 1/2 aiaea. Ia?eiae io
iaeiiai oeaica aei ae?oaiai iineo oaoie/aneia iacaaiea lustrum.

Oeaici?u ia eiatho imperium, eae eiinoeu e i?aoi?u; ei i?eiaaeeaaeeo,
iaeiaei, potestas e i?eoii n iniaui oa?aeoa?ii: iia aeiioneaao oieueei
intercessio eieeaae, ii ia iiaeeaaeeo intercessio ae?oaeo, oioy au e
aunoeo, iaaeno?aoia. A?o/aaony iia iin?aaenoaii lex centuriata da
potestate censoria179.

Aeaaiui iacia/aieai oeaico?u yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai oeaica, oi anoue
ninoaaeaiea nieneia ianaeaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiea a?aaeaeai ii o?eaai,
eeannai e oeaioo?eyi, ca/eneaiea ai anaaeieee, a ii lex Ovinia e lectio
senatus180. Ana yoi nin?aaeioi/eaaei a ?oeao oeaici?ia a?iiaaeioth
iieeoe/aneoth aeanoue, oai aieaa, /oi ia eo ?aoaiey ia auei aiaeeyoeee:
io oeaici?a caaenaei ii?aaeaeaiea iieeoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey eaaeaeiai
a?aaeaeaieia.

A nayce n ninoaaeaieai oeaicoaeueiuo nieneia ?acaeeanue e ae?oaay
iaiaeiaaaeiay ooieoeey oeaici?neie aeanoe – iaaeci? ca i?aaaie, regimen
morum. Oeaici?neay ioiaoea (nota censoria) iaeeaaeuaaea iyoii aan/anouey
e iiaea iiaea/ue ca niaie aanueia nouanoaaiiua iieeoe/aneea ia?aie/aiey
– ono?aiaiea io o/anoey a ia?iaeiuo nia?aieyo, eneeth/aiea ec nienea
naiaoi?ia e o. ae. A eo/ooth ii?o ?anioaeeee oeaico?a eiaea aieueoia
iaeaai?aaeeaathuaa aeeyiea ia anth iaeanoue iieeoe/aneie aeecie.

Iaeiiaoe, e oeacaiiui aeaoi ooieoeeyi oeaici?neie aeanoe
i?eniaaeeieeanue e o?aouey – o/anoea a oeiainiaii oi?aaeaiee.

Oeiainiaia oicyenoai ?eineie ?anioaeeee ?oeiaiaeeony aua
/anoii-oicyenoaaiiui i?eioeeiii: a iai ?anoiaeu ii?aaeaeythony
aeioiaeaie, a ia iaiai?io. Aaaeiaeoeie noaoueyie ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?anoiaeia yaeythony: niaea?aeaiea aienea, iino?ieea ei?aaeae,
i?iaaaeaiea aei?ia, nii?oaeaiea iauanoaaiiuo caeaiee, ?anoiaeu ia
?aeeaeiciua ioaeaeu (iino?ieea o?aiia e o. ae.), aeaeiaaiuea apparitores
e, iaeiiaoe, i/aiue e?oiioth noaoueth ?anoiaea ninoaaeyei e eiioeo
ia?eiaea ia?iaeiia i?iaeiaieuenoaea. – *oi eanaaony aeioiaeia, oi
eaeeo-eeai i?yiuo iaeiaia a?aaeaeaia a yoii ia?eiaea ia ianoo.
Ae?aaia?eineee tributus, aeaaiaea?y n/anoeeaui aieiai e iaiaauaieth
eaciu, ia?anoaao aceiaoueny, e oaeei ia?acii onoaiaaeeaaaony i?eioeei,
/oi cives romani181 io iiaeaoae naiaiaeiu, aneaaenoaea /aai iaaeaeaiea
eiai-eeai i?aaaie ?eineiai a?aaeaeainoaa iaicia/aao e inaiaiaeaeaiea io
(i?yiuo) iaeiaia. I?iaeioeeaeu aea, iai?ioea, ca ?aaeeeie eneeth/aieyie,
iiaeeaaeao ieaoaaeo iiaeaoae e eiaiii a aeaoo neaaeothueo iniiaiuo
aeaeao: a) stipendium – iiaeaoue, iaeaaaaiay naiaoii iaoeii ia anth
i?iaeioeeth e eiathuay oa?aeoa? i?iaeieaeathuaeny aiaiiie eiio?eaooeee e
b) decuma182 – iiaeaoue iicaiaeueiay, ninoiyuay ec ecaanoiie aeiee
i?iaeoeoia caiee (iaueiiaaiii 1/10, ioeoaea e iacaaiea; ii ano?a/athony
e 1/5 e 1/7) e yaeythuayny eae au a?aiaeiie ieaoie aeaaeaeueoeaa caiee
aa nianoaaiieeo – ?eio.

E?iia yoeo i?yiuo iiaeaoae, a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee iiyaeythony oaea e
iaeioi?ua aeaeu iaeiaia einaaiiuo; oaeiau oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu n
i?eaiceiuo ec caa?aieoeu oiaa?ia (portoria), iioeeia ca ioioneaaiuo ia
aieth ?aaia a ?acia?a 5% eo noieiinoe (vicesima manumissionum,
onoaiiaeaiiay caeiiii Iaieey) e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea.

Aieueooth noaoueth aeioiaeia ninoaaeytho aeioiaeu n ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?iiuneia e caiaeue. E ainoaea?noaaiiui i?iiuneai i?eiaaeeaaeao
?aciiia?aciua metalla (eiie – salinae, aurifodinae e o. ae.)183, ?uaiua
eiaee e o. ae. Aua aaaeiaa ainoaea?noaaiiua caiee – ager publicus. Iinea
eaaeaeiai caaiaaaiey ?eieyia ieiei o?aoe caaiaaaiiie oa??eoi?ee
inoaaeyee naaa e caoai n yoie caieae iinooiaee ?acee/ii. Eo/ooth,
ia?aaioaiioth /anoue ainoaea?noai ?aciaaeaauaaei (agri limitati) e iioii
eee ioaiaeeei aeey iinaeaiey eieiiee (ager adsignati), eee aea
?ani?iaeaaaei a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue (i?iaeaaea niaa?oaeanue
eaanoi?aie, aneaaenoaea /aai yoe caiee iacuaaeenue ager quaestorii).
Caiee iaaicaeaeaiiua eee naeaaaeenue a iaai ca ecaanoiue ia?ie
(vectigal, agri vectigales), eee aea i?aaeinoaaeyeenue naiaiaeiiio
caaeaaeaieth (occupatio) anao aeaeathueo (agri occupatorii). E eiioeo
?anioaeeee, iaeiaei, ainoaea?noaaiiua caiee a Eoaeee niaa?oaiii
en/acatho: iineaaeiea inoaoee eo auee ?icaeaiu a yiioo A?aeoia
eieiienoai, a i?e Ia?ee e Noeea aaoa?aiai.

Eae e aieueoeinoai ae?aaieo ainoaea?noa, ?ei ecaaaaao i?yiiai acuneaiey
iiaeaoae e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai (oicyenoaaiiiai) eniieiaiey eacaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaeii/eoay nenoaio ioeoiia e iiae?yaeia. Ia ioeoi
naeathony ii/oe ana noaouee aeioiaeia, e ii/oe ana noaouee ?anoiaeia
inouanoaeythony iooai iiae?yaeia. I?e caeeth/aiee anao ioiinyueony
nthaea eiio?aeoia eaciu n /anoiuie eeoeaie eee eiiiaieyie ioaeeeaiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeai ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony oeaici?: ii ii?aaeaeyao aeeaeaeoea
oneiaey e oi?ioee?oao aeiaiai? (lex censoria). Ii, eiia/ii, aunoee
eiio?ieue ai anao yoeo ioiioaieyo i?eiaaeeaaeeo naiaoo.

Yaeeeu auee o/?aaeaeaiu iaeiia?aiaiii n ieaaaeneeie o?eaoiaie a /enea 2
e yaeyeenue ia?aiia/aeueii oieueei iiiiuieeaie yoeo iineaaeieo. Oio/an
iinea leges Liciniae e iei i?eniaaeeiythony 2 iao?eoeeaineeo, eo?oeueiuo
yaeeea184; ii nei?i caoai ana 4 yaeeea neeaathony a iaeio eieeaaeth n
ii/oe iaeeiaeiauie i?aaaie aeanoe. Yaeeeu n?aaee ?eineeo iaaeno?aoo?
i?aaenoaaeytho aeieaeiinoue ii i?aeiouanoao iieeoeaeneoth. Oioy a ?eia
eaaeaeue iaaeno?ao iaeaaeae iieeoeaeneith aeanoueth iinoieueeo,
iineieueeo yoi auei aio iaiaoiaeeii aeey inouanoaeaiey aai iniiaiie
eiiiaoaioeee, iaeiaei aic?anoaiea ?eia e oneiaeiaiea iauanoaaiiie aeecie
nicaeaao iio?aaiinoue a iaeioi?ii nin?aaeioi/aiee iieeoeaeneiai
iaaeci?a, – e oaeith iieeoeaeneie aeanoueth aeaeathony yaeeeu. Niaeanii
Oeeoea?iio, eiiiaoaioeey yaeeeia aiiaua neaaaaony ec neaaeothueo o?ao
ooieoeee: a) cura urbis – iaaethaeaiea ca ii?yaeeii a ai?iaea aiiaua e
iiaea?iay iieeoeey; b) cura annonae – caaioa i niaaaeaiee ia?iaea
i?iaeiaieuenoaeai, iaaeci? ca oi?aiaeath ia ?uieao, ca i?aaeeueiinoueth
ia? e aania – aiiaua, oi?aiaay iieeoeey; a nayce n yoei a eo ?oeao
ieacaeanue e th?enaeeeoeey ii oi?aiaui aeaeai, ?aaoee?iaaieth eioi?uo
auee iinayuaiu eo yaeeeou – edicta aedilicia; n) cura ludorum – caaioa
ia ono?ienoaa iauanoaaiiuo ea? e c?aeeu. Noaay, oaeei ia?acii, yaeeeia a
iinoiyiiia nii?eeiniiaaiea n ia?iaeii e oee/iie aeeciueth, yoa
aeieaeiinoue i?e ecaanoiii oiaiee iiaea neoaeeoue oaeiaiui n?aaenoaii
aeey i?eia?aoaiey iiioey?iinoe n?aaee oe?ieeo ia?iaeiuo iann.

Eaanoi?u auee ia?aiia/aeueii eeoue iaueie iiiiuieeaie eiinoeia aac
eaeie-eeai niaoeeaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee. Iicaea eo iieiaeaiea naeaeaeinue
aieaa naiinoiyoaeueiui: iie noaee ecae?aoueny a comitia tributa, e
oiaaea iie iaei-iiiaeo niaoeeaeece?othony a aeaoo iaeanoyo – a iaeanoe
oaieiaiie th?enaeeeoeee e a caaaaeiaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciie e
ainoaea?noaaiiui a?oeaii. *oi eanaaony oaieiaiie th?enaeeeoeee, oi, iiea
iia iaoiaeeeanue a ?oeao eiinoeia, eaanoi?u, eae eo iiiiuieee,
i?iecaiaeeee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea (quaestores parricidii).
Eiaaea aea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia ?anioaeeee oaieiaiue noae ia?aoae e
ia?iaeiui nia?aieyi, a caoai e e quaestiones perpetuae185, ?ieue
eaanoi?ia a yoie iaeanoe ieai/eaaaony, ii caoi oai neeueiaa ?acaeaaaony
eo ae?oaay ooieoeey – caaaaeiaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiui eacia/aenoaii. Ia
iaycaiiinoe eo eaaeaei o?aiaiea eacaiiie iaee/iinoe (pecuniam publicam
custodire), aaaeaiea i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiuo eiea (rationes referre) e o.
ae. E?iia oiai, aeaaiaea?y aaeeinoao ainoaea?noaaiiiai o?aieeeua
(eaeiaui yaeyeny O?ai Naoo?ia) eaanoi?u naeaeaeenue e o?aieoaeyie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?oeaa (ainoaea?noaaiiua aeou, nienee caeiiia e o.
ae.). Ia yoii aea iniiaaiee e i?enyaa iaaeno?aoia ia aa?iinoue caeiiai
niaa?oaeanue ia?aae eaanoi?aie. Nia/aea /enei eaanoi?ia auei 2, caoai –
4, 8, i?e Noeea – 20, a i?e Oeaca?a -40. Ec yoiai /enea /anoue eaanoi?ia
inoaaaeanue a ai?iaea aeey caaaaeiaaiey eaciie e a?oeaii – quaestores
urbani eee aerarii, ae?oaea i?eeiiaiaee?iauaaeenue e aiaia/aeueieeai
aeey aaaeaiey oeiainiauo aeae eo a?iee (auaea/a noii ia niaea?aeaiea,
oieaoa aeaeiaaiuey e o. ae.), o?aouee aeey oie aea oeaee iinueaeenue a
i?iaeioeee e i?ieiinoeai e i?ii?aoi?ai; iaeiiaoe, /aoaa?oua iaaethaeaee
a i?eii?neeo ai?iaeao e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ianoao ca iinooieaieai
oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei e ae?oaeie oicyenoaaiiuie aeaeaie ainoaea?noaa
(eaanoi? aeey Aaeeee e quaestor Ostiensis aeey res frumentaria186).

Niaa?oaiii iniaia ianoi n?aaee ?eineeo iaaeno?aoo? caieiatho ia?iaeiua
o?eaoiu. Ia eiay naie eaeie-eeai naiinoiyoaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee, iie
yaeythony oieueei naiaia?aciuie eiio?iea?aie ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei
iaaeno?aoai, yaeythony iaaeno?aoo?ie i?ioea iaaeno?aoo?. O/?aaeaeaiiua
nia/aea a ea/anoaa caueoieeia ieaaaeneiai nineiaey i?ioea i?iecaiea
iao?eoeeaineeo iaaeno?aoo? (auxilii latio adversus consulare imperium) e
iaea/aiiua iniaie iai?eeiniiaaiiinoueth (sacrosancti), o?eaoiu i?eia?aee
iaei-iiiaeo i?aai i?ioanoa ia oieueei i?ioea eiie?aoiuo ?anii?yaeaiee
iaaeno?aoia, ii e i?ioea onoaiaaeeaaaiuo eie iaueo ii?i. ?aaiui ia?acii
iie aeiaeeenue i?aaa o/anoey a canaaeaieyo naiaoa. Iie nicuaatho
ieaaaeneea nia?aiey e i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaotho a ieo – iaeiei neiaii,
yaeythony aiaeaeyie anaai ieaaaeneiai nineiaey e aiieiuatho a naaa anth
neeo nioeeaeueii iecoeo ia?iaeiuo iann.

Inoaeueiua, aieaa iaeeea, iaaeno?aou iineee ana aianoa iauaa
iaeiaiiaaiea – viginti sex viri, iioiio /oi eo auei anaai 26. A yoi
/enei aoiaeyo: 1) Tresviri187 capitales eee nocturni; ia iaycaiiinoe eo
eaaeaea iecoay iieeoeey aaciianiinoe: ?anneaaeiaaiea ia ianoa
i?anooieaiee, niaa?oaiea nia?oiie eacie (iiyoiio – “capitales”),
iiaea?iay iieeoeey, ii i?aeiouanoao ii/ueth (iiyoiio – “nocturni”) e o.
i. 2) Tresviri monetales, caaaaeiaaaoea /aeaieie iiiaou. 3) Decemviri
stlitibus judicandis188 – eieeaaey aeey ?acai?a iaeioi?uo a?aaeaeaineeo
aeae. 4) Quattuorviri viis in urbe purgandis e Duoviri viis extra urbem
purgandis189, niio?aaoea ca niaea?aeaieai oeeoe e aei?ia, e 5)
Quattuorviri jure dicundo Capuam Cumas etc.190, iinueaaoeany a ea/anoaa
iaianoieeia ainoaea?noaa a iaeioi?ua iaaieueoea ai?iaea, iaoiaeeaoeany
ia iniaii iieiaeaiee e eeoaiiua ianoiie aaoiiiiee.

OI?AAEAIEA IANOIIA E I?IAEIOeEAEUeIIA

A ia/aea I aaea aei ?. O. any Eoaeey, eae auei oiiiyiooi auoa, auea
iauaaeeiaia a i?aaa ?eineiai a?aaeaeainoaa, e yoei auea nicaeaia aaeeiay
oa??eoi?ey ainoaea?noaa. Ia yoie iauaaeeiaiiie oa??eoi?ee ia ii/aa
caeiia 45 a. aei ?. O., lex Julia municipalis, aicieeei iaeiiia?aciia
ianoiia ono?ienoai. Iauei i?eioeeiii yoiai ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey Eoaeee
yaeyaony i?eioeei naiioi?aaeaiey, oioy e iiae iaeioi?ui eiio?ieai ?eia.
I?aaiecaoeey ioieoeeiaeueiiai ono?ienoaa yaeyaony oi/iie eiieae
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa ?eia. Aunoei i?aaiii ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey
yaeyaony ia?iaeiia nia?aiea anao a?aaeaeai aeaiiie iaueiu,
i?aaieciaaiiia ii ianoiui eo?eyi (nia?aiea eo?ee). Aio iiaeeaaeao auai?u
ioieoeeiaeueiuo iaaeno?aoia e ?aoaiea iaueo aii?inia ianoiie aeecie.
Aeaeaa, iaiiaeiaea ?eineiai naiaoa, a eaaeaeii ai?iaea nouanoaoao
ioieoeeiaeueiue naiao ec 100 /eaiia (ordo decurionum) n aiaeiae/iuie
ooieoeeyie. Iaeiiaoe, a ia?aeeaeue ?eineie iaaeno?aoo?a, nouanoaoao
iaaeno?aoo?a ioieoeeiaeueiay, a ?oeao eioi?ie iaoiaeeony
aaeieieno?aoeaiay e noaeaaiay aeanoue. Aeaoi ?eineei eiinoeai a
ioieoeeieyo niioaaonoaotho duoviri jure dicundo, ecae?aaiua aaeaaiaeii a
ianoiuo ia?iaeiuo nia?aieyo e ii oa?aeoa?o naieo ooieoeee
i?eaeeaeathueany e ?eineei i?aoi?ai. Iie aea /a?ac eaaeaeua 5 eao
i?iecaiaeyo e iaiaoiaeeioth ?aaeceth nieneia ioieoeeiaeueiuo a?aaeaeai,
naiaoa e o. ae. E?iia ieo, oiiieiathony aua ioieoeeiaeueiua yaeeeu e
eaanoi?u.

Aua ia oae aeaaii i?aaenoaaeyaoea ec naay naiinoiyoaeueiua ainoaea?noaa,
ana yoe ioieoeeiee a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee iaia?oaeeaatho aua aeiaieueii
eioaineaioth aioo?aiithth aeeciue, aneaaenoaea /aai oeacaiiia
naiioi?aaeaiea ioithaeue ia yaeyaony aeey ieo ionoith oi?iie. Iai?ioea,
caia/aaony aeaaea a ieo aeiaieueii neeueiue “eieaeueiue iao?eioeci” (I.
Caae).

Niaa?oaiii eia/a oi?aaeythony i?iaeioeee. Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii aeey ieo
yaeyaony oi?aaeaiea ec ?eia, a o/anoea ianaeaiey a naieo aeaeao naaaeaii
aei ieieioia. Oi?aaeytho i?iaeioeeyie iinueaaiua naiaoii iaaeno?aou,
iaueiiaaiii ec eeoe, auaoeo ?aiaa eiinoeaie eee i?aoi?aie, e iioiio
iacuaathueany oaia?ue i?ieiinoeaie eee i?ii?aoi?aie. ?acieoeu iaaeaeo
i?ieiinoeaie e i?ii?aoi?aie ai aeanoe iao; iie ?acee/athony oieueei
iacaaieai e ?aiaii. Ei i?eiaaeeaaeeo aunoaa oi?aaeaiea i?iaeioeeae e
eiiaiaeiaaiea eaaeiiaie, a iae ?aniieiaeaiiuie; eo aeanoue iineo ana
/a?ou imperium militiae191, i?e/ai yoi imperium i?inoe?aaony aeaaea ia
?eineeo a?aaeaeai, aeeaoueo a i?iaeioeee. Ei aea i?eiaaeeaaeeo aunoay
iieeoeaeneay, noaeaaiay e oeneaeueiay aeanoue, ii?aaeaeyaiay iauei
onoaaii i?iaeioeee (lex provinciae), ?aciuie niaoeeaeueiuie caeiiaie e
naiaoneeie eino?oeoeeyie. I?iaeioeey ?acaeaeyaony ia ie?oaa (conventus),
eioi?ua i?aaeoaeue ia?eiaee/anee iauacaeaao, oai?y noae e ?ani?aao. A
ioaeaeaiiua /anoe ii iinueaao eiiaaea naieo aeiaa?aiiuo eeoe – legati
pro praetore, eioi?ua aeaenoaotho aai eiaiai e ca aai ioaanoaaiiinoueth.
O/anoea naiiai ianaeaiey a oi?aaeaiee ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei aeeaeaeoae
?aneeaaeeie iiaeaoae ii ioaeaeueiui i?iaeioeeaeueiui iaueiai.

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