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История государственности древнего мира

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Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaaiiinoe ae?aaiaai ie?a

1.Ae?aaiaainoi/iia ainoaea?noai

1.1 Ainoaea?noai Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa

1.2 Ainoaea?noai Ae?aaiaai Aaaeeiia

1.3 Ainoaea?noai Ae?aaiae Eiaeee

1.4 Ainoaea?noai Ae?aaiaai Eeoay

2.Ae?aaiaa?a/aneia ainoaea?noai

2.1 Aoeineia ainoaea?noai

2.2 Nia?oaineia ainoaea?noai

3. Ae?aaia?eineia ainoaea?noai

3.1 ?eineay ?anioaeeea

3.2 ?eineay eiia?ey

1. Ae?aaiaainoi/iia ainoaea?noai

1.1 Ainoaea?noai Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa

A i?ioeanna ?aceiaeaiey ?iaeiieaiaiiiai no?iy e ia?aciaaiey
nioeeaeueiieeanniaiai iauanoaa a Aaeioa aicieeatho 40 iiiia (iauei) ai
aeaaa n iiia?oaie (i?aaeoaeyie).

A 3200a. aei i.y. iiiu iauaaeeieeenue a aeaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo
ainoaea?noaa Aa?oiee e Ieaeiee Aaeiao. A IV ouny/aeaoee aei i.y. oea?e
Aa?oiaai Aaeioa iauaaeeiytho no?aio a aaeeiia iieeoe/aneia oeaeia.
Ae?aaiaaaeiaoneia ainoaea?noai iaiaeiie?aoii ?aniaaeaeinue e
ainnoaiaaeeaaeinue aiiaue.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa aicaeaaeyeny oa?aiiii, o. a.
oea?ai eee iiia?oii, ee/iinoue eioi?iai iaiaeanoaeyeanue e i?eia?aoaea
ianeaaenoaaiiue oa?aeoa?.

Aeaaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa yaeyeny aece?ue, eioi?ue
iacia/aeny e niauaeny oa?aiiii.

Ooieoeee aece?y neiaeiu e iiiai/eneaiiu:

1. Ii aeaaa oeiainiaiai aaaeiinoaa e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ioaee/iuo ?aaio.

2. Aece?ue auiieiye ooieoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai eaioeea?a e o?aieoaey
ainoaea?noaaiiie ia/aoe.

3. Ii aue a?aaeii?aaeoaeai oea?neie noieeoeu. A ?aceaeaioeee oa?aiia aio
i?eiaaeeaaeaea aunoay iieeoeaeneay aeanoue.

4. Aece?ue eiae oe?ieea iieiiii/ey e a iaeanoe ioi?aaeaiey i?aainoaeey.
Ii aicaeaaeye aunooth noaeaaioth einoaioeeth no?aiu oanoue noaeaaiuo
iaeao (“oanoue aaeeeeo aeiiia”).

Aianoa n oai eiiiaoaioeee aece?y aua aieaa oneiaeiythony, aio iiae/eiaiu
e aienea, e e?aiinoe. Ii a iaeanoe oeiainiaie ia ia?aia ianoi
auaeaeaaaony eacia/ae.

Ai aeaaa aiaiiiai aaaeiinoaa noiye ia/aeueiee i?aaenoaaeoaeue aunoae
/eiiaiie ciaoe, a eiiaaea e eaeie-ieaoaeue /eai oea?neie oaieeee. A aai
?anii?yaeaiee iaoiaeeeny aiia?ao /eiiaieeia e ienoeia. A iaycaiiinoe
?oeiaiaeeoaey aiaiiiai aaaeiinoaa e anaai iiae/eiaiiiai aio aiia?aoa
aoiaeeee oi?ie?iaaiea e aii?oaeaiea oea?neie a?iee, iino?ieea e?aiinoae
e aiaiiuo noaeia, oi?aaeaiea eioaiaeaioneeie neeaaeaie, niaaaeaiea
aienea i?iaeiaieuenoaeai.

A?iey eiiieaeoiaaeanue ec ianaeaiey naiiai Aaeioa, a oaeaea iiei?aiiuo
no?ai.

A Aaeioa ia nouanoaiaaei aua no?iaiai ?aca?aie/aiey eiiiaoaioeee iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie aaaeiinoaaie e /eiiaieeaie, noiyueie ai aeaaa yoeo
aaaeiinoa. A oi?aaeaiee ainiiaenoaiaaea nenoaia oea?neeo ii?o/aiee.

Noae a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa ia aue ioaeaeai io aaeieieno?aoeee. Aunoea
aeieaeiinoiua eeoea e iiia?oe auee iaeiia?aiaiii e aa?oiaiuie noaeueyie.
Noaeii?iecaiaenoai inouanoaeyeinue, eae i?aaeei, eieeaaeaeueii.
Oeaio?aeueiue noae (eaiaao) ninoiye ec 30 noaeae, eioi?ua iiaeae?aeenue
ec ciaoiuo a?aaeaeai ?aciuo ai?iaeia. Auee o/?aaeaeaiu eaiaaou ie?oaia e
ioaeaeueiuo ai?iaeia. Nouanoaiaaee o?aiiaua noaeu, ninoiyaoea ec
ae?aoeia. A iiiao ?oeiaiaenoai i?aainoaeeai inouanoaeyeinue iiia?oaie.
Oa?aii aue aunoae noaeaaiie einoaioeeae, iia ee/ii ?aoeoue ethaia aeaei
e ioiaieoue ?aoaiea inoaeueiuo noaeia. Ana naiaiaeiua aaeioyia iiaee
ia?auaoueny e iaio n aeaeiaaie e i?inueaaie i iiieeiaaiee.

1.2 Ainoaea?noai Ae?aaiaai Aaaeeiia

Iniaaiiinoueth ae?aaiaaaaeeiineiai iauanoaa yaeyeinue i?aa?auaiea
ainoaea?noaa a eeoea oea?ae a e?oiiaeoaai caieaaeaaeaeueoea e
?aaiaeaaeaeueoea. Oea?neee caiaeueiue oiiae neeaaeuaaeny eae a
?acoeueoaoa i?aa?auaiey o?aiiauo caiaeue a ainoaea?noaaiiua, oae e a
?acoeueoaoa caoaaoa e iieoiee iaueiiuo caiaeue. Ae?oaie iniaaiiinoueth
iauanoaa yaeyeinue, ianiio?y ia ?ino oea?neiai e /anoiiai
caieaaeaaeaiey, nio?aiaiea iaueiiiai no?iy, /oi auei iaoneiaeaii
e??eaaoeeiiiie nenoaiie caieaaeaeey. Ainoaea?noai a eeoea oea?y
yaeyeinue aa?oiaiui nianoaaiieeii aiaeu, i?aaiecaoi?ii e??eaaoeeiiiuo
nenoai, e iaueia ?anii?yaeaeanue aiaeie aeey ioaeae caieaaeaeey iiae
eiio?ieai oea?neie aaeieieno?aoeee. Yoi aeaaaei oea?th i?aai ia /anoue
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa, nicaeaaaaiiai iaueiieeaie; i?aai ia ?acee/iua
iiaeiiinoe a iieueco ainoaea?noaa.

Iaueiieee auee yeiiiie/anee iaiaeii?iaeiu. Oioy oi?iaeueii eaaeaeue
iaueiiee iia auoue ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeai, oaeoe/anee eie iiaee noaoue
oieueei ninoiyoaeueiua ethaee, iaueiiay ciaoue, auaeaeeaoayny a
?acoeueoaoa eiouanoaaiiiai ?anneiaiey. Iaaethaeaaony ianniaia iaieuaiea
naiaiaeiuo e?anoueyiiaueiieeia e ?aianeaiieeia, auioaeaeaiiuo eiiaaea ca
aeieae i?iaeaaaoue naay eee /eaiia naiae naiuee a ?aanoai.

Oieueei aeaaeaiea caieae a iaueia aeaeaei /aeiaaea, iacaaeneii io aai
neoaeaaiiai e nioeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey, iieiii?aaiui.

Ia yeiiiie/aneii ia?aaainoaa e ia iaieuaiee /anoe iieiii?aaiuo
iaueiieeia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao cia/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea aeieaiaiai ?aanoaa.

Yenieoaoe?oaiui eeannii iauanoaa yaeyeenue ?aau, iaoiaeeaoeany eae a
ainoaea?noaaiiie (aeai?oea) e eieeaeoeaiie (o?aiia), oae e a /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Eo ?yaeu iiiieiyeenue aeaaiui ia?acii ca n/ao
aiaiiiieaiiuo. Iie aoiaeeee a ninoaa eiouanoaa ainiiaeeia, eioi?ia
iiaeii auei io/oaeaeaoue e ia?aaeaaaoue ii ianeaaenoao.

A Ae?aaiai Aaaeeiia ia iieo/eei ?acaeoey e?oiiia /anoiia ?aaiaeaaeaiea.
Iniiaiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa auee naiaiaeiua
e?anoueyiaiaueiieee e ?aianeaiieee. Iiyoiio /anoiia ?aaiaeaaeaiea iineei
iao?ea?oaeueiue, aeiiaoiee oa?aeoa?. Aeaaea oea?neea caiee
ia?aaaouaaeenue aeaaiui ia?acii ia ?aaaie, a naiaiaeiuie e?anoueyiaie.

Ii oi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa ae?aaiaaaaeeiineia ainoaea?noai
yaeyeinue ioiineoaeueii oeaio?aeeciaaiiui ainoaea?noaii, a ii oi?ia
i?aaeaiey ae?aaiaainoi/iie aeaniioeae.

Aeanoue aaaeeiineeo oea?ae auea aaniethoiie. Ei i?eoiaeeeinue n/eoaoueny
n aiaaoie oi?aiaie ciaoueth.

A caeiiao Oaiio?aie ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi oea?neay aeanoue enoiaeeo io
aa?oiaiuo aiaeanoa, eioi?ua naeaeaee Aaaeeii “iiaouanoaaiiaeoei n?aaee
/aou?ao /anoae naaoa, ooaa?aeeee oea?neoth aeanoue, /uea iniiaaiea
i?i/ii, iiaeiaii iaaanai e caiea”, a caiey e ethaee no?aiu ioaeaiu
oea?th a oi?aaeaiea aa?oiaiuie aiaaie. Oea?ue aue aa?oiaiui
?oeiaiaeeoaeai ?aeeaeiciiai eoeueoa. Aai aeanoue ia?aoiaeeea ii
ianeaaenoao.

Iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaie oea?neie aeanoe yaeyeinue ia?iiiia oea?neia
oicyenoai, a ninoaa eioi?ith aoiaeeee oaeaea caiee o?aiia.

Oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeaeaie inouanoaeyeinue /a?ac neiaeiue
oeaio?aeeciaaiiue /eiiaie/uea-ath?ie?aoe/aneee aiia?ao, iacia/aaiue
oea?neie aeanoueth e ioaaonoaaiiue ia?aae iae. Oeaio?ii
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey yaeyeny oea?neee aeai?aoe, e /eiiaieee,
aaaeaaoea aeai?oeiaui oicyenoaii, iaeiia?aiaiii yaeyeenue aunoeie
aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie ainoaea?noaa. Iie ?oeiaiaeeee e??eaaoeeiiiuie
?aaioaie, oeiainiauie, aiaiiuie e ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeaeaie.
Aunoei oea?neei /eiiaieeii yaeyeny oi?aaeoaeue oea?neiai aeai?oea,
eiaioaiue ioaaiaea. Iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii iaoiaeeeny ia?iiiue ooao
/eiiaieeia. Aiaeiui oicyenoaii aaaeae /eiiaiee, iacuaaaoeeny
“oi?aaeoaeai ?aee”. Aio iiae/eiyeenue iaaece?aoaee ca ethaeueie, ianoeie
iiaeiiinoe a iieueco oea?y. A ia?iiiii oea?neii oicyenoaa aue
iiiai/eneaiiue ooao ?acee/iuo iaaeniio?ueeia, eiio?iea?ia, eeaaeiaueeia,
n/aoiaiaeia e ae?.

Ana ainoaea?noai auei ?acaeaeaii ia iaeanoe, ai aeaaa eioi?uo auee
iinoaaeaiu oea?neea iaianoieee. Aeaaiie caaioie iaianoieeia auei
iiaeaea?aeaiea a ii?yaeea e??eaaoeeiiiuo nii?oaeaiee e i?i?uoea iiauo
eaiaeia, aeey /aai iie iiaee i?eaeaeaoue ia ?aaiou ianoiia ianaeaiea.
E?iia oiai, iie neaaeeee ca nai?ii oea?neeo aeioiaeia e ioi?aaeie eo
oea?th, niae?aee iioeeiu n eoioeia, inouanoaeyee iieeoeaeneea ooieoeee
ii iiaeaea?aeaieth iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, eiiaiaeiaaee io?yaeaie ec
aieiia, neaeaaoeo ia oea?neie caiea, niae?aee aiaiiia iiie/aiea e o.i.

Aeey eiio?iey iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth ianoiuo i?aaeoaeae e i?iaaaeaiey a
aeeciue oea?neie aiee ia ianoa iinueaeenue niaoeeaeueiua aiioeu eee
“oea?neea iineaioeu”, iaaeaeyaoeany oea?ai ia?iiiuie iieiiii/eyie.

A ae?aaiaaaaeeiineii ainoaea?noaa nio?aieeenue e i?aaiu iaueiiiai
oi?aaeaiey. I?aaiii iaueiiiai oi?aaeaiey yaeyeny iaueiiue niaao, iaeiaei
aai aeaaa ?aaeaioi iacia/aeny oea?ai. E aaaeaieth iaueiiiai niaaoa
ioiineeinue oi?aaeaiea ia?acaeaeaiiie iaueiiie caieae, ?ac?aoaiea
caiaeueiuo nii?ia e nii?ia i iieueciaaiee aiaeie, nai? iaeiaia,
iaaethaeaiea ca eniieiaieai oea?neeo iiaeiiinoae, a oaeaea eniieiaiea
noaeaaiiiieeoeaeneeo ooieoeee, a /anoiinoe iiaeaea?aeaiea iauanoaaiiiai
ii?yaeea. Noaeaaiay aeanoue, eae e a ae?oaeo ae?aaiaainoi/iuo
ainoaea?noaao, ia auea ioaeaeaia io aaeieieno?aoeaiie aeanoe. Oea?ue e
oea?neea /eiiaieee iaeiia?aiaiii aaaeaee e aaeieieno?aoeaiuie, e
noaeaaiuie aeaeaie. Aunoae noaeaaiie einoaioeeae yaeyeny oea?ue. Ii iia
e nai ?anniao?eaaoue aaaeiaeoea aeaea, ii /aua anaai iai?aaeye eo a
ieaeanoiyuea noaeaaiua i?aaiu. Oea?ue iieueciaaeny i?aaii iiieeiaaiey
i?anooiieeia.

Noaeaaiua ooieoeee iaoiaeeeenue oaeaea a ?oeao “iaianoieea” e
“?aaeaioia”, eioi?ua i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaee a noaeaaiuo eieeaaeyo. A
ia?aii neo/aa eieeaaey ninoiyea ec /eiiaieeia, iiae/eiaiiuo
“iaianoieeo”, a ai aoi?ii eeai ec /eaiia iaueiiiai niaaoa, eeai ec
iaueiiiai niaaoa a iieiii ninoaaa a iaaieueoeo iaueiao. A aieueoeo
ai?iaeao noaeaaiua ooieoeee inouanoaeyee niaoeeaeueiua “oea?neea
noaeuee”, iiae/eiyaoeany iaiin?aaenoaaiii oea?th e aeaenoaiaaaoea a
niioaaonoaee n aai eino?oeoeeyie.

Oaiio?aie nio?aiee o?aiiaua noaeu, iaeiaei eo ooieoeee auee aanueia
ia?aie/aiiuie: iie i?eaiaeeee noi?iiu e eeyoaa e canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee
aa. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi iie ?acae?aee oaeaea aeaea, noi?iiaie a eioi?uo
yaeyeenue ae?aoeu.

1.3 Ainoaea?noai Ae?aaiae Eiaeee

Ia oiia ?aiiaa ?anniio?aiiuo no?ai ainoaea?noai a Eiaeee eiaei
neaaeothuea iniaaiiinoe: a) eanoiaay no?oeoo?a iauanoaa; a) iaee/ea a
ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ia caiaoiuo neaaeia aiaiiie aeaiie?aoee e
?anioaeeeaineeo oi?i i?aaeaiey.

Ia?aua ainoaea?noaaiiua ia?aciaaiey a Eiaeee aicieeee a naaa?iie /anoe
ia?iiiiai iieoino?iaa, iinyuaai iacaaiea Eiaeinoai, a aeieeiao ?ae Eiaea
e Aaiaa, aaea nouanoaiaaee iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey caiyoey
neioiaiaenoaii e caieaaeaeeai.

N na?aaeeiu aoi?iai ouny/aeaoey aei i.y. n naaa?icaiaaea ia oa??eoi?eth
Eiaeinoaia aoi?aeenue ei/aaua ieaiaia a?eaa. A aeeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa n
ianoiui ianaeaieai iie iiei?eee Eiaeeth.

Iniiaiuie ia?eiaeaie a enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa Ae?aaiae Eiaeee iiaeii
n/eoaoue neaaeothuea: 1) ?aceiaeaiea ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy e
ia?aciaaiea ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneeo ainoaea?noa (aoi?ay iieiaeia II
ouny/aeaoey aei i.y.); 2) ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneea ainoaea?noaa a aeieeiao
Eiaea e Aaiaa (II ouny/aeaoea aei i.y. IV a. aei i.y.); 3)
oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ainoaea?noai Iao?ueaa (IVII aa. aei i.y.); 4) e?ecen
eiaeeeneiai ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai iauanoaa e ooaa?aeaeaiea oaiaeaeueiie
nenoaiu oicyenoaa (II a. aei i.y. IV a. i.y.).

Oi?iu i?aaeaiey a Eiaeee yiioe ?aaiaeaaeaiey auee ?aciiia?aciuie.
Ia?yaeo n iiia?oe/aneeie oi?iaie i?aaeaiey a ?yaea eiaeeeneeo
ainoaea?noa nouanoaiaaee ?anioaeeee. Naiaia?acea ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneeo
ainoaea?noa a Ae?aaiae Eiaeee ninoiyei a oii, /oi a ieo i?iaeieaeaee
nio?aiyoueny iaeioi?ua einoeooou e yeaiaiou aiaiiie aeaiie?aoee
(ia?iaeiua nia?aiey, niaaou noa?aeoei e o.ae.) Oea?ue (?aaeaea eee
iaaa?aaeaea), oioy e n/eoaeny i?aaenoaaeoaeai aiaa ia caiea, ii aai
aeanoue ia auea aaca?aie/iie. A?aoiaiuae?aoeu aeeyee ia aai
aeayoaeueiinoue.O oea?y a Eiaeee yiioe Iao?ueaa auee oe?ieea iieiiii/ey:
iacia/aiea e oaieueiaiea aunoeo e iecoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
no?ieoaeuenoai e?aiinoae, i?ineoaeueiuo nenoai, aei?ia, ii?oia e ae?.
Oea?yi i?eiaaeeaaeaee e caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ooieoeee, ii iie auee
ia?aie/aiu. I?aaiaua aeou e ?anii?yaeaiey oea?ae aeieaeiu auee auoue
niaeaniaaiu n ?aeeaeiciuie i?aaeienaieyie. Oea?e inouanoaeyee noaeaaioth
aeanoue niaianoii n iacia/aiiuie ec a?aoiaiia niaaoieeaie.

Aaaeiui i?aaiii e a yiioo Iao?ueaa aue ia?eoaae, ninoiyaoee ec a?aoiaiia
e ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie a?enoie?aoee, eioi?ue aeaaae niaaou oea?th ii
aaaeiaeoei aii?inai aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee.

*eiiaieee /aoei aeaeeeenue ia aeaa a?oiiu /eiiaieeia oeaio?aeueiiai e
ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey. N?aaee aunoeo /eiiaieeia iniaia iieiaeaiea
caieiaee: aeaaiue niaaoiee e ae?aoe oea?y, eiiaiaeothuee a?ieae, aunoee
naiiaiee ii noaeaaiui aeaeai e ae?. Oeaio?aeueiue aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey a
Eiaeee, eae e ae?oaeo no?aiao Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea, ?acaeaeyeny ia o?e
aaaeiinoaa: aiaiiia, oeiainiaia e ioaee/iuo ?aaio.

Ianoiia oi?aaeaiea a Eiaeee auei i/aiue neiaeiui, oae eae ia?yaeo n
/eiiaieeaie, iacia/aaiuie oeaio?aeueiuie aaaeiinoaaie, aeaenoaiaaee e
auai?iua /eiiaieee a iaueiao. A ainoaea?noaa Iao?ueaa auaeaeyeenue
iaeanoe, iaoiaeeaoeany iiae oi?aaeaieai e eiio?ieai oea?y, e i?iaeioeee,
iaeaaeaaoea iaeioi?ie aaoiiiieae, a eioi?uo oi?aaeaiea i?eiaaeeaaeaei
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie a?enoie?aoee eee ?iaenoaaiieeai
oea?y. I?iaeioeee, eae i?aaeei, aeaeeeenue ia ie?oaa, a ie?oaa ia
?aeiiu. Iecoae oa??eoi?eaeueiie aaeeieoeae auea iaueia.

A ia?eiae eiia?ee Iao?ueaa a?ieae ?oeiaiaeee aiaiiue niaao, ninoiyaoee
ec 30 /eaiia, ?acaeaeaiiue ia oanoue eieeaaee, aaaeaaoeo /aou?ueiy
?iaeaie eiaeeeneeo aiene: iaoioie, eaaaea?eae, neiiaie e eieanieoeaie, a
oaeaea aiaiiui oeioii e o?ainii?oii a?iee.

Aieueooth ?ieue ai a?aiy aieiu e a ie?iia a?aiy a Ae?aaiae Eiaeee ea?aee
inaaaeiieoaee e oieiiu, eioi?ua auiieiyee oaeiua ii?o/aiey oea?y eee aai
aunoeo /eiiaieeia.

Aeey niaea?aeaiey ia?iiiiai aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey e a?iee a Eiaeee auea
ouaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaia iaeiaiaay nenoaia. Iaeiae n e?anoueyi,
oi?aiaoeaa, a oaeaea ?acee/iua ainoaea?noaaiiua iiiiiieee, iai?eia?
nieyiay, e ?acee/iiai ?iaea iioeeiu iaania/eaaee iinooieaiea n?aaenoa
aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae. E?iia oiai, ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei aeiae a
aiaeo naiaiaeiua iaueiieee iaycaiu auee io?aaioaoue ia no?ieoaeuenoaa
aei?ia, iinoia e ia ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo ?aaioao.

N iiiiuueth a?iee e ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa eiaeeeneia
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia ainoaea?noai iiaeaea?aeeaaei oaiaeiue
ainiiaenoaothuei eeannai ii?yaeie a no?aia e oaea?aeeaaei a iiaeiiaaiee
oaiaoaiiua iannu ianaeaiey. Eiaeey yaeyeanue ainoaea?noaii, aaea ia
nianai i?i/iua yeiiiie/aneea nayce iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie aa /anoyie
eiiiaine?iaaeenue no?iaie oeaio?aeecaoeeae oi?aaeaiey. Eae oieueei yoa
oeaio?aeecaoeey ineaaaaaea, ainoaea?noai ?aniaaeaeinue ia ioaeaeueiua
naiinoiyoaeueiua iieeoe/aneea ia?aciaaiey.

1.4 Ainoaea?noai Ae?aaiaai Eeoay

Enoi?ey ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai ae?aaiaeeoaeneiai ainoaea?noaa ioaaouaaao
cia/eoaeueiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, aeeth/athuee ?yae yiio eee ia?eiaeia:
1) ia?eiae Oai (Eiue) (XVIIIXI aa. aei. i.y.), 2) ia?eiae *aeio (XIIII
aa. aei i.y.), 3) ia?eiae Oeeiue (221207aa. aei i.y.) e Oaiue (III a.
aei i.y. III a. i.y.).

Niaoeeoe/aneie /a?oie ae?aaiaeeoaeneiai iauanoaa auei oi, /oi ?aau a
Ae?aaiai Eeoaa aeeee naiueyie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aaiaeaaeaiea caeanue,
eae e a ae?oaeo ae?aaiaainoi/iuo iauanoaao, iineei iao?ea?oaeueiue
oa?aeoa?. Eiueneea i?aaeoaee iieo/aee ?aaia io iiae/eiaiiuo ieaiai a
aeaea aeaie. Ai a?aiaia *aeio i?aeoeeiaaeinue ia?auaiea a ?aanoai
i?anooiieeia. ?aaaie noaiiaeeenue ?aci?eaoeany e?anoueyiaiaueiieee
aianoa n eo aeaiaie e aeaoueie, aacaeiiiua a?iaeyae e o. i. I?e Oeeiue e
Oaiue auei oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii aeieaiaia ?aanoai.

Ai a?aiaia Aai Iaia (1a. i.y.) ec ?aaia auei nicaeaii aienei, iacaaiiia
“a?ineii eaaaia”.

A ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneii Eeoaa nio?aiyeny e aanueia cia/eoaeueiue neie
naiaiaeiuo iaueiieeia. Aioo?aiithth i?aaiecaoeeth ae?aaiaeeoaeneie
iaueiu a?aiaie Eiue e ia/aea *aeio iau/ii naycuaatho n ii?aaeaeaiiie
nenoaiie caieaiieueciaaiey oae iacuaaaiie nenoaiie oeceioyiue
(“eieiaeaciua iiey”). Nooue aa a oii, /oi any caiey, iaoiaeeaoayny a
iieueciaaiee iaueiu, aeaeeeanue ia aeaa /anoe. O?iaeae n “iauaai” iiey,
eioi?ia ia?aaaouaaeinue anaie iaueiieeaie, oae aaio, i?aaeoaeth
oea?noaa. O?iaeae n “/anoiuo” iieae, iaoiaeeaoeony a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii
iieueciaaiee e?anoueyineeo naiae, i?eiaaeeaaeae naiei
caieaaeaeueoeai-iaueiieeai. E?iia ia?aaioee “iaueo” iieae e?anoueyia
auiieiyee aiaiioth, no?ieoaeueioth, aoaeaaoth e ae?oaea iiaeiiinoe.

A Eeoaa nouanoaiaae iau/ae ?aaoey?iiai ia?aaeaea iaoioiie caiee a ?aieao
iaueiu. ?acaeoea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, ?ino eiouanoaaiiie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aioo?e naiie iaueiu i?eaiaeyo e oiio, /oi a VIIV aa.
aei i.y. i?ienoiaeeo ia?ooaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiiai i?eioeeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaaeaeia. Iaueiiay aa?oooea caoaaouaaao e inoaaeyao ca niaie eo/oea,
iaeaieaa ieiaei?iaeiua caiee. Yoi ?ac?ooaao nenoaio “eieiaeaciuo iieae”.
A oea?noaa Eo a 594 aiaeo aei i.y. aaiaeeony iaeia n eiee/anoaa
ia?aaaouaaaiie caiee. Iaoioiua caiee cae?aieythony ca ioaeaeueiuie
aeiiioicyenoaaie e ia?aoiaeyo a eo ianeaaenoaaiiia iieueciaaiea.

Oaea ai a?aiaia Iicaeiaai Oai (XIVXI aa. aei i.y.) ec iauae iannu
ianaeaiey auaeaeeeanue i?eaeeaae?iaaiiay aa?oooea. Yoa nioeeaeueiay
i?ineieea aeeth/aea i?aaeoaey e aai ?iaee/ae, i?eaeeaeaiiuo i?aaeoaey,
ae?aoeia, /eiiaieeia, ciaoue iiae/eiaiiuo ieaiai.

Aanueia neeueiu auee ?iaenoaaiiua nayce e a /aeioneii Eeoaa, aaea a
nineiaiie ea?a?oee ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai eeanna ioi?ieyaony ianeieueei
?ac?yaeia. ?yae neiaa nioeeaeueiuo ?aiaia ninoaaeye aaeeioth
ea?a?oe/aneoth nenoaio, e yoi iaoiaeeei naia aiaoiaa au?aaeaiea a
yeaiaioao iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u. A niioaaonoaee n ?aiaii auee no?iai
?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu iaeaaeaea e oe?aoaiey. ?aia ii?aaeaeye ?acia?u aeeeuey
e caiee, eiee/anoai ?aaia e ?acia?u aeaeiaaiuey. Ainiiaenoaothuay
aa?oooea /aeioneiai Eeoay auea i?aaenoaaeaia, i?aaeaea anaai,
ianeaaenoaaiiie a?enoie?aoeae. Eeoue iinoaiaiii a iaa ia/eiaao aoiaeeoue
neoaeeeay i?ineieea (oe) ec ethaeae iaciaoiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

E ia?eiaeo Oeeiue n?aaee ?aianeaiieeia e oi?aiaoeaa iiyaeythony ethaee,
eioi?ua iiaee n?aaieoueny aiaaonoaii n oeooeiaaiiie ciaoueth. E?oiiua
?inoiaueee, oi?aiaoeu i?iieeatho e a ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao. Neeueiue
oaea? aue iaianai iioiinoaaiiie a?enoie?aoee i?aia?aciaaieyie,
i?iaaaeaiiuie a IV a. aei i.y. a oea?noaa Oeeiue naiiaieeii Oai ssiii.
Ii aaae iiaia iieiaeaiea i ?aiaao ciaoiinoe, niaeanii eioi?iio ?aiae
i?enaaeaaeenue oaea ia a nayce n a?enoie?aoe/aneei i?ienoiaeaeaieai, a
ca caneoae ia?aae i?aaeoaeai. Iiaeiaiia iieiaeaiea nio?aiyeinue e a
aeaeueiaeoai. Anaai auei 20 ?aiaia ciaoiinoe, i?e/ai n IIIa. aei i.y.
ioeoeeaeueii ?ac?aoaeanue eo iieoiea.

Oae, ni a?aiaiai ia ia?aia ianoi auaeaeaaaony iiaay ciaoue
eiouanoaaiiay, aiaiiay, neoaeeeay, oi?aiai-?inoiaue/aneay, eioi?ay
io/anoe iooaniyao noa?oth iioiinoaaiioth a?enoie?aoeth, a a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo neeaaaony n iae.

Ai aeaaa neeaaeuaathuaainy ainoaea?noaa noiye ianeaaenoaaiiue aai
(eiia?aoi?), eioi?iio aicaeaaaeenue ii/anoe, eae “nuio iaaa”. Aai
?anii?yaeaeny caieae, aaaeae iieeoe/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie aeeciueth
no?aiu, niaa?oae aea?oaii?eiioaiey, aunooiae eae aiaia/aeueiee. I?e iai
ninoiye niaao ciaoe. A ia?eiae *aeio ia aoi?ii ianoa iinea oea?y noiye
aai aeeaeaeoee iiiiuiee n aanueia oe?ieie eiiiaoaioeeae. Aeieaeiinoue
yoiai iiiiuieea noaiiaeeanue ianeaaenoaaiiie.

Caoai oee o?e ae?oaeo aeeaeaeoeo niaaoieea e iiiiuieea aaia, eiaioaiua a
enoi/ieeao “o?aiy noa?oeaie”. Eaaeaeue ec “noa?oeaa” ?oeiaiaeee iaeiei
ia o?ao aaaeiinoa. Yoei o?ai aa?oiaiui naiiaieeai auee iiae/eiaiu oanoue
/eiiaieeia aieaa ieceiai ?aiaa. Ei iiae/eiyeenue aeaayoue aoaa?iaoi?ia
(i?aaeoaee iaeanoae).

*oi eanaaony i?iaeioeee, oi a ieo oi?aaeai/aneee aiia?ao no?ieeny ii
aiaeiaee n oeaio?aeueiui aiia?aoii. Nouanoaiaae a?iiaaeiue ooao
/eiiaieeia, eioi?ue ?ae?ooe?iaaeny ec ?yaeia ciaoe. Aeey caiyoey
aeieaeiinoe o?aaiaaeinue ia?aciaaiea.

*eiiaieee iieo/aee aeioiae n caiee, ia?aaaouaaaiie e?anoueyiaie. ?acia?
o/anoea ii?aaeaeyeny a niioaaonoaee n caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoueth.

Aaaeiinoaa oi?aaeaiey: oeiainiaia, aiaiiia e iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio. Ia?aia
ec ieo aceiaei iiaeaoe iaoo?ie. Nouanoaiaaei o?e aeaea iaoo?aeueiuo
iiaeaoae: a) iicaiaeueiay iiaeaoue eaaeaeue ac?ineue /aeiaae, o. a.
niiniaiue iineoue i?oaeea, ieaoee iaeei iaoie ca?ia; a) iaoo?aeueiay
iiaeiiinoue eaaeaeue ac?ineue iaycai aue io?aaioaoue a iieueco oea?y 20
aeiae a aiaeo; a) anaaiciiaeiua i?eiioaiey (aeaayoue aeaeia) aea?oaaiiuo
aeeaioiuo, aeia, oeaiae, ooaa?e e o. ae.

Ninaaeiea ainoaea?noaa, n/eoaaoeany n iiuueth Eeoaeneiai ainoaea?noaa,
i?eiineee aeaiue.

Aoi?ia i?iecaiaeeei aiaiiua iaai?u, ?oeiaiaeeei aiaiiui iao/aieai,
aaaeaei niaaaeaieai aiene. Aeey e?anoueyi aieineay iiaeiiinoue auea
oyaeaeaeoae. Ninaaeneay iaueia ninoiyea ec 8 aeai?ia. Iaeei
e?anoueyineee aeai? iaycai aue aunoaaeoue aieia. Ae?oaea naiue aeai?ia
iinoaaeyee i?iaeaio e oo?aae, a oaeaea aiaaua e iaiciua eieanieoeu. I?e
caoyaeiie aieia i?eaaaaee e aoi?e/iiio iaai?o aieiia e e o?aoueaio nai?o
i?iaeaioa. Ii?yaeie e aeenoeeieeia a aieneao iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue ia
iniiaa aeaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiie nenoaiu iiiu?aiee e iaeacaiee. A aieneao
nouanoaiaaea e?oaiaay ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Yoi icia/aei, /oi ia?aaeei ca
i?anooieaiea iaeiiai nieaeaoa ea?aee anao nieaeao iiae?acaeaeaiey.

O?aouea aaaeiinoai caieiaeinue aeaaiui ia?acii caieaaeaeeai. Iii
oi?aaeyei caieaaeaeue/aneei ianaeaieai, onoaiaaeeaaei a?aieoeu iieae,
?ani?aaeaeyei caiee, i?aaieciauaaei iinaa, aeaoao e iieioueao. *eiiaieee
ninoaaeyee ieaiu caiaeue, nienee ianaeaiey e neioa. Aieueoia aieiaiea
oaeaeyeinue e??eaaoeeiiiui ?aaioai.

Noae ia aue ioaeaeai io aaeieieno?aoeee, aai ooieoeee inouanoaeyee
iiiai/eneaiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee ?acaaoaeaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa.
Aa?oiaiui noaeueae a ainoaea?noaa yaeyeny aai, a ia?eiae ?aniaaea
aaeeiiai ainoaea?noaa i?aaeoaeue ioaeaeueiiai oea?noaa a i?aaeaeao naiae
oa??eoi?ee e, iaeiiaoe, aiineaaenoaee eiia?aoi?. A ninoaa oeaio?aeueiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa aoiaeee /eiiaiee, eioi?ue caieiaeny aii?inaie
noaea e iaeacaiee. Ai a?aiaia Oaiue noaeaaiua ooieoeee eniieiye iaeei ec
/eaiia eiia?aoi?neiai niaaoa. I?aai ?ac?aoaiey noaeaaiuo aeae
i?eiaaeeaaeaei e i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ianoiie aaeieieno?aoeee.

N nicaeaieai Oeeiueneie eiia?ee auea aaaaeaia aeieaeiinoue ie?oaeiiai
noaeuee. ?anniio?aieai noaeaaiuo nii?ia caieiaeny oaeaea ia/aeueiee
aieinoe. Iaeeea oyaeau a i?aaeaeao iaueiu ?ac?aoaee i?aaiu iaueiiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey. Aieueoia eiee/anoai /eiiaieeia iaycaii auei aanoe
ai?ueao n “?acaieieeaie”, ?acuneeaaoue i?anooiieeia. Ie?oaeiiio noaeuea
iiae/eiyeny iniaue oacaeiue /eiiaiee, a aaaeaiee eioi?iai auee ana
ianoiua oth?ueiu .

2. Ae?aaiaa?a/aneia ainoaea?noai

2.1 Aoeineia ainoaea?noai

?aceiaeaiea ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy e ia?aciaaiea ai?iaeia-ainoaea?noa
(iieenia) a A?aoeee i?eaaee e ?aciui iieeoe/aneei ?acoeueoaoai. Aoeiu,
Ei?eio, Iaaa?u, Iaeiaceeneea ai?iaea-iieenu i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ia?acoeu
aeaiie?aoee.

Ia?yaeo n yoeie iieenaie auee e oaeea, a eioi?uo nio?aieeenue
cia/eoaeueiua ia?aaeeoee ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy e onoaiiaeeenue
naiaia?aciua oi?iu a?enoie?aoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa (Nia?oa, E?eo,
Oannaeey e ae?.).

Niaeanii i?aaeaieth, a Aooeea e VIII a. aei i.y. nouanoaiaaee /aou?a
ieaiaiiuo a?oiiu oeeu. Caoai i?ienoiaeeo iauaaeeiaiea yoeo iaeiaaea
?acae?iaeaiiuo a?a/aneeo iauei aie?oa iaeiiai oeaio?aeueiiai ioieoa
Aoei. I?ioeann neeyiey ieaiai a aaeeiue aoeineee ia?iae a?aee iacuaaee
“neiieeeciii” e i?eienuaaee aai eaaaiaea?iiio oea?th Oacath. Aoaeoi au e
iaio ainoiaeeo ?acaeaeaiea anaai ia?iaea iacaaeneii io ?iaea, o?ao?ee
eee ieaiaie ia o?e eeanna: yaiao?eaeia eee aeaai?iaeiuo, aaiii?ia eee
caieaaeaeueoeaa e aeaieo?aia eee ?aianeaiieeia. Oieueei yaiao?eaeu iiaee
caieiaoue aeieaeiinoe. I?iaeieaeaaony ineaaeaiea aeanoe
aiaeaey-aaceeaana. A VIII a. aei i.y. ianeaaenoaaiiay oea?neay aeanoue
i?ae?auaaony. Yaiao?eaeu auaeaeaatho ec naiae n?aaeu iaeioi?ia
eiee/anoai aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, o. i. “a?oiioia”, e eioi?ui oaia?ue e
ia?aoiaeyo ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey. Nia/aea a?oiiou auae?aeenue iiaeeciaiii.
Iicaeiaa eo noaee auae?aoue n?ieii ia 10 eao, a n 683 a. aei i.y.
aaeaaiaeii. Eieeaaey a?oiioia ninoiyea ec 9 /aeiaae. Ia?aue a?oiio
i?aaenaaeaoaeue eieeaaee, aoi?ie aiaiiiia/aeueiee, o?aoee ae?aoe.

Inoaeueiua oanoue a?oiioia caieiaeenue ioi?aaeaieai i?aainoaeey.

Aua a VII a. aei i.y. iiyaeeny i?aai eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
a?oiioia a?aiiaa. A?aiiaa ninoiye ec auaoeo a?oiioia. A?aiiaa auoaniee
i?aaeiee ieaiaiiie niaao noa?aeoei.

Oaea a VII a. aei i.y. Aooeea auea ?acaeaeaia ia iaeeea oa??eoi?eaeueiua
ie?oaa iaae?a?ee, eioi?ua ianee aiaiiua iiaeiiinoe. Ai aeaaa iaae?a?ee
noiyee i?eoaiu.

Aeaiiua i?aaiu aeanoe oe?aieee a?enoie?aoe/aneoth oi?io i?aaeaiey.

A VI a. aei i.y. a Aoeiao aeaiin (ia?iae) noae o?aaiaaoue io aeanoae
oeo/oaiey naiaai iaoa?eaeueiiai iieiaeaiey (iaaeaeaiey caieae, ioiaiu
aeieaiaiai ?aanoaa, aaaaeaiey naiaiaeu caaauaiey e ae?.). *oiau
eeeaeaee?iaaoue i/aa nioeeaeueiie ai?ueau iaaeaeo aeaiinii e
yaiao?eaeaie eieeaaey a?oiioia a 594a. aei i.y. ii?o/aao Nieiio (/eaio
eieeaaee) i?iaanoe ?aoi?iu, eioi?ua aaaee iaeneiaeueiue ?acia?
caiaeueiiai iaaeaea, aai eoieth, i?iaeaaeo e ae?iaeaiea, naiaiaeo
caaauaiey. Aeieaiaia ?aanoai auei ioiaiaii. Nieii aaiaeeo ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie ii eiouanoaaiiiio i?eciaeo. Ii aeaeeo ana ianaeaiea
ia /aou?a ?ac?yaea. E ia?aiio ?ac?yaeo ioiinyony iaeaieaa aiaaoua
nianoaaiieee; ei aoi?iio ioiinyony oa, eioi?ua iaeaaeaee aeinoaoi/iui
ninoiyieai aeey i?eia?aoaiey eieanieoeu e oyaeaeiai i?oaeey (yoi auee
o.i. “anaaeieee”), e o?aoueaio ?ac?yaeo, eee caaaeoai, ioiineeanue
n?aaeiyy a?oiia nianoaaiieeia; e /aoaa?oiio ?ac?yaeo i?e/eneyeenue oaou
aao?aee, ia iaeaaeaaoea eaeei au oi ie auei eiouanoaii.

Ia yoii aeaeaiee e aace?oaony any nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeieaeiinoae.
A?oiioaie iiaee auoue oieueei eeoea, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea e ia?aiio
?ac?yaeo.

Nieii nicaeae Niaao 400 (aoey), eioi?iio aaa?yeanue any iieiioa
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie aeanoe a no?aia. A iaai auae?aeenue ii 100
i?aaenoaaeoaeae io eaaeaeiai ?ac?yaea a?aaeaeai. Nieii nio?aiyao a
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe e a?aiiaa, eioi?ue eiae i?aai caoi?iiceoue ethaia
?aoaiea Niaaoa 400.

Nieii o/?aaeee oaeaea noae i?enyaeiuo aaeeyth.

?aoi?iu Nieiia ia?aie/eee aeanoue ianeaaenoaaiiie a?enoie?aoee, iaeiaei
aea ia neiieee a? aeeyiea aei eiioea. Ia/aoua ?aoi?iu caaa?oee Eeenoai,
eioi?ue ?acaeaeee Aooeeo ia 10 oee. Oeeu yaeyeenue oa??eoi?eaeueiuie
ie?oaaie, iaaeaeo eioi?uie a?aaeaeaia ?ani?aaeaeyeenue ia ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth, a ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa. Any Aooeea auea ?acaeaeaia
Eeenoaiii ia 30 /anoae eee o?eoee. Eaaeaeay oeea ninoaaeyeanue ec o?ao
o?eoee, aeeth/ay a naay iaeio ai?iaeneoth o?eoeth, iaeio aa?aaiaoth e
iaeio o?eoeth a oeaio?a no?aiu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eeenoaiianeay oeea ia
yaeyeanue nieioiie oa??eoi?eae. Iia auea /a?aniieiniie. Oeeu aeaeeeenue
ia aeaiu (aieinoe) ii 10 a eaaeaeie oeea. Aeaiu, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea oioy
au e iaeiie e oie aea oeea, ii e ?aciui o?eoeyi, eaaeaee a ?aciuo
?aeiiao Aooeee. Iineieueeo oa??eoi?eaeueiue i?eioeei aiciaeaaeae iaae
?iaeiaui e iineieueeo a?aaeaeainoai noaei oaia?ue ii?aaeaeyoueny ia
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e ?iaeo, a e oiio eee eiiio aeaio, oi e iieo/eeinue,
/oi a aeaiu, o?eoee e oeeu aoiaeeee ia?aaia ciaoiua e iaciaoiua.
?iaeiaay ciaoue, ieacaaoayny a ?aciuo oeeao, oo?a/eaaao naia
iieeoe/aneia aeeyiea.

Ia iniiaa iiaiai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ono?ienoaa no?aiu Eeenoai i?aaieciaae
iiaua ainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey e aeieaeiinoe. Ii ioeacuaaaony io
nieiiianeiai Niaaoa 400 e acaiai iineaaeiaai aaiaeeo Niaao 500 aunoee
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue i?aai.

Aaaeiinoue i?aia?aciaaiee Nieiia e Eeenoaia ninoiyea a oii, /oi iie
niinianoaiaaee eeeaeaeaoeee ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy e aicieeiiaaieth
?acaeoie oi?iu ainoaea?noaa aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee

Aoeineay aeaiie?aoey oi?aaeyeanue o?aiy i?aaiaie aeanoe: ia?iaeiui
nia?aieai, Niaaoii 500, aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie.

A ia?iaeiii nia?aiee i?eieiaee o/anoea oieueei iieiii?aaiua aoeineea
a?aaeaeaia. Aei 451 a. aei i.y. i?aaii a?aaeaeainoaa iaeaaeae anyeee,
eoi ?iaeeeny io iooea aoeiyieia, ii n 451 a. aei i.y. caeii Ia?eeea
onoaiiaee, /oi aeey i?eia?aoaiey i?aa aoeineiai a?aaeaeainoaa
iaiaoiaeeii auei, /oiau iaa ?iaeeoaey auee aoeineeie a?aaeaeaiaie.
Iaiaoiaeeii auei auoue niaa?oaiiieaoiei. Niaa?oaiiieaoea ianooiaei a 18
eao, o. a. n iiiaioa aianaiey a nienee aeaiioia. Ii oae eae a oa/aiea 2
eao iieiaeua ethaee ianee aiaiioth neoaeao, oi oaeoe/anee o/anoaiaaoue a
ia?iaeiii nia?aiee iie ia/eiaee n 20 eao. Oioy e na?aaeeia V a. aei i.y.
/enei naiaiaeiuo a?aaeaeai a Aoeiao i?eaeeaeaeinue e 42000, iaeiaei a
ia?iaeiii nia?aiee, eae i?aaeei, i?eieiaee o/anoea ia aieaa 2 3 oun.
/aeiaae, i?e/ai aieueoeinoai nia?aiey ninoiyei anaaaea ec ai?iaeneeo
aeeoaeae. E?anoueyia, aeey eioi?uo o/anoea a nia?aiee naycuaaeinue n
aeeeoaeueiui i?aauaaieai a ai?iaea Aoeiu e n io?uaii io oicyenoaa, auee
ii/oe eeoaiu oaeoe/aneie aiciiaeiinoe o/anoaiaaoue a iai.

Ianoii nia?aiey iau/ii neoaeee o?ai Iieen, a ae?oaeo neo/ayo ?uii/iay
ieiuaaeue eee oaao?. Nia?aiea ia/eiaeinue ?aiiei oo?ii n ainoiaeii
nieioea. A neo/aa a?icu, caieao?ynaiey eee nieia/iiai caoiaiey
canaaeaiea iaiaaeeaiii cae?uaaeinue. Aei ia/aea i?aiee i?ienoiaeeea
?aeeaeiciay oea?aiiiey (i?eiineeenue aea?oau, i?iaicaeaoaeinue i?ieeyoea
anai, eoi iuoaeny iaiaiooue ia?iae). A V a. aei i.y. ia?iaeiia nia?aiea
nicuaaeinue iaeei ?ac e ianyoe, o a. 10 ?ac a aiae. Iicaeiaa /enei
canaaeaiee aic?inei aei 3040 ?ac a aiae.

Eaaeaeia canaaeaiea eiaei naie ii?yaeie e naith iaia/aiioth iiaanoeo.
Eiaaea oa?iaeaei eaeia-ieaoaeue ia?iaeiia aaaenoaea, i?eoaiu iiaee
nicaaoue “ia?iaeiia nia?aiea oaeana e niyoaiey”, ia eioi?ia a?aaeaeaia
i?ecuaaeenue caoeaie o?oa, a naeueneea aeeoaee iin?aaenoaii eino?ia.
Nicuaaeinue ia?iaeiia nia?aiea i?eoaiaie. A Va. aei i.y.
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaae a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee yienoao i?eoaiia, eioi?iio
iiiiaae aa?ieueae, aeaeaaoee io aai eiaie niiauaiey nia?aieth.
Ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou iaeaoaeenue nae?aoa?ai. Ca ii?yaeeii a nia?aiee
iaaethaeaee i?eoaiu e iieeoeaeneea neoaeeoaee.

Nia?aiea ia/eiaeinue n oiai, /oi nae?aoa?ue iaeaoae aianaiiua niaaoii
caeeth/aiey i?iaoeaaio, oae eae cai?auaeinue noaaeoue ia ianoaeaeaiea
eaeea-eeai i?aaeeiaeaiey, ia ?anniio?aiiua i?aaeaa?eoaeueii a Niaaoa.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai ia?iaeiia nia?aiea iaycaii auei ia?aaeaaaoue a Niaao
ana i?aaeeiaeaiey, aiineaoeany ii /anoiie eieoeeaoeaa.

Iinea /oaiey i?iaoeaaiu, a oao neo/ayo eiaaea aeieeaae Niaaoa aue
ninoaaeai a iaeia?eoaeueiia niunea, i?aaenaaeaoaeue i?enooiae e
aieiniaaieth, e i?enoonoaothuea iiaeiyoeai ?oee auneacuaaeenue ca
i?inoia e aaciaiai?i/iia i?eiyoea i?iaeoa eee ca ianoaeaeaiea aai a
oeaeii eee ii /anoyi.

Oai?aoe/anee eaaeaeiio aoeineiio a?aaeaeaieio i?aaeinoaaeyeanue iieiay
naiaiaea a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee. Ii oaeoe/anee yoei i?aaii iieueciaaeinue
iacia/eoaeueiia /enei a?aaeaeai. Aunooiaee i?aeiouanoaaiii
i?ioanneiiaeueiua iieeoeee e i?aoi?u, o.i. “aeaiaaiae”.

Ia?auie aunooiaee noa?oea ii aic?anoo, caoai aieaa iieiaeua. E?iia oiai,
auea eaoaai?ey a?aaeaeai, eioi?ui ?ac?aoaeinue i?enoonoaiaaoue a
ia?iaeiii nia?aiee, ii eioi?ua auee eeoaiu i?aaa aieina. Yoi auee eeoea,
iaoiaeyueany iiae neaaenoaeai i i?anooieaieyo, aeaeoueo ca niaie
iici?yuaa iaeacaiea. Iie auee i?ieeyou caeiiii e iiaee iieo/eoue
?aaaeeeoaoeeth oieueei /a?ac noae.

Acieaey ia o?eaoio, a?aaeaeaiei aiceaaae naaa ia aieiao ie?oiaue aaiie e
noaiiaeeny ee/iinoueth nayuaiiie e iai?eeiniiaaiiie. Anee
i?aaenaaeaoaeue iaoiaeee, /oi i?aoi? oeeiiyaony a noi?iio io
ianoaeaeaaiiai i?aaeiaoa, aeiioneaao ?aceea au?aaeaiey, iiaoi?yaony e
o.i., oi ii iia eeoeoue aai neiaa e aeaaea ioo?aoiaaoue a ?acia?a 50
ae?aoi.

I?ioea anyeiai aaoi?a, aianoaai caeiiii?iaeo, iiaei auoue aicaoaeaeaii
noaeaaiia iaaeiaiea a i?ioeaicaeiiiinoe aianaiiiai ei i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ii ieii/aiee i?aiee aii?in noaaeeny ia aieiniaaiea, eioi?ia iaueiiaaiii
i?iecaiaeeeinue iiaeiyoeai ?oe. E oaeiio aieiniaaieth (iooai /a?aieia,
aiaia, eaiaoeia) i?eaaaaee eeoue a neo/ayo, eiaaea ?a/ue oea i
eaeeo-eeai na?ueaciuo ia?ao, iai?aaeaiiuo i?ioea ioaeaeueiiai eeoea
(ino?aeeci, ?acae?aoaeuenoai ii aeaeai ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaiu).
?acoeueoaou aieiniaaiey iaeaoaeenue i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuei. Eiaaea
ii?yaeie aeiy ieacuaaeny en/a?iaiiui, i?aaenaaeaoaeue cae?uaae ia?iaeiia
nia?aiea.

Eiiiaoaioeey ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey auea aanueia iaoe?iie. I?aaeaea anaai,
ia?iaeiia nia?aiea yaeyeinue aunoei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui i?aaiii aoeineie
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie aeaiie?aoee. Anee iinoaiiaeaiea ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey
eanaeinue iaueo aii?inia, oi iii iacuaaeinue caeiiii. Iinoaiiaeaiea
eanaoaeueii /anoiiai eeoea iacuaaeinue inaoeciie. Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea
inouanoaeyei e ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey, ecae?ay aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe e
eiio?iee?oy aeayoaeueiinoue iineaaeieo. Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea ?aniieaaaei e
cia/eoaeueiie noaeaaiie aeanoueth. Iii iiaei i?enoaeeoue e ecaiaieth, e
eiioeneaoeee eiouanoaa e aeaaea e nia?oiie eacie. Aeaenoaoy a ea/anoaa
noaeaaiiai i?aaia, ia?iaeiia nia?aiea ?acae?aei eeoue aeaea i iaeaieaa
oyaeeeo i?anooieaieyo.

I?aaiii/ey ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey ?ani?ino?aiyeenue e ia aiaoiea niioaiey
(aii?inu aieiu e ie?a, caeeth/aiea nithcia e ?anoi?aeaiea eo). A
ia?iaeiii nia?aiee i?iecaiaeeeny ino?aeeci, eee “noae /a?aieia”.
Eaaeaeue ec o/anoieeia nia?aiey ienae ia /a?aiea (iia?a/anee “/a?aiie”
“ino?aeii”) eiy /aeiaaea, i?aaenoaaeyaoaai oa?ico aeey aeaiie?aoee.
A?oiiou e /eaiu Niaaoa 500, i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaaoea a yoii nia?aiee,
iiaen/eouaaee /a?aiee e eeoei, iaia/aiiia e ecaiaieth, aieueoeinoaii
iethnia iaycaii auei a 10aeiaaiue n?ie oaeaeeoueny a ecaiaiea ca
i?aaeaeu Aoeineiai ainoaea?noaa n?ieii ia 10 eao. Ecaiaiiue, iaeiaei, ia
eeoaeny a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa.

A V IV aa. aei i.y. Niaao 500 a Aoeiao yaeyeny n?aaeioi/eai aunoae
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie aeanoe. Ii ia?acoaony ec eaiaeeaeaoia, aunoaaeyaiuo
eaaeaeie oeeie (ii 50 /aeiaae). *eaiii Niaaoa iia auoue ethaie
a?aaeaeaiei oeeu, oae eae auai?u i?iecaiaeeeenue iooai ae?aaey.
Eiiiaoaioeey Niaaoa 500 auea i/aiue iaoe?iie e caeeth/aeanue a
neaaeothuai:

A) Niaao ?oeiaiaeeo aeayoaeueiinoueth ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey. Iinea
?anniio?aiey caeiiii?iaeoa ia?iaeiui nia?aieai oaeie caeiiii?iaeo
iinooiae ia caeeth/aiea Niaaoa 500. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ca iaeia?aiea
caeiiii?iaeoa, aianaiiiai eaeei-eeai eeoeii, ioaa/aee e /eaiu Niaaoa; a)
Niaao ?oeiaiaeeo aaeieieno?aoeeae. Eaiaeeaeaou ia oa eee eiua
aeieaeiinoe aeieaeiu auee i?ieoe i?iaa?eo ni noi?iiu Niaaoa 500. Niaao
eiio?iee?oao aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, io eioi?uo o?aaoao
io/aoa. Anee ii onoaiaaeeaae ia?aaeaiea eee ceioiio?aaeaiea oiai eee
eiiai aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea, oi ii iia aicaoaeeoue i?ioea iineaaeiaai
noaeaaiia i?aneaaeiaaiea;

a) Niaao neaaeeo ca oe?aieaieai aiaiiie iiue Aoeineiai ainoaea?noaa.

a) Niaaoo 500 i?eiaaeeaaeao aaaeiua iieiiii/ey a iaeanoe aiaoieo
niioaiee. Ii aeaao aoaeeaioeeth iineai ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa. Oieueei
iinea oiai, eae ii i?eiao iineia, ianoaeeo eo i?aaeeiaeaiey, ii
i?aaenoaaeyao iineia ia?iaeiiio nia?aieth, aeaaay i?e yoii naia
caeeth/aiea. Ii eiiaiaee?oao aoeineeo a?aaeaeai a ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa
aeey ?aoaiey nii?iuo aii?inia eee aeey caeeth/aiey ie?a.

ae) Niaao 500 yaeyaony aunoei ?anii?yaeeoaeueiui i?aaiii a iaeanoe
i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Eiioeneaoeey eiouanoaa,
naea/a a a?aiaeo ?oaeieeia, acuneaiea iaeiaia, iaania/aiea
i?iaeiaieuenoaeai ai?iaea Aoei, ?aaoee?iaaiea oi?aiaee ana yoi aoiaeeo a
eiiiaoaioeeth Niaaoa;

a) Aeaenoaoy a ea/anoaa noaeaaiiai i?aaia, ii iia i?enoaeaeaoue aeaaea e
oaeie ia?a iaeacaiey, eae nia?oiay eaciue

Aeey eniieieoaeueii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe Niaao auaeaeyao ec
naiae n?aaeu niaoeeaeueiue eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao a ninoaaa iyoeaeanyoe
/aeiaae. Ooieoeee oaeiai eniieieoaeueiiai eiieoaoa:

a) neaaeeoue ca aeaaininoiyieai ai?iaea Aoei;

a) caaioeoueny i iieeoeaeneie neoaeaa a i?aaeaeao ai?iaea;

a) iiaeaioaaeeaaoue aii?inu aeey ?anniio?aiey a Niaaoa 500 eee a
ia?iaeiii nia?aiee.

Aeieaeiinoiua eeoea (iaaeno?aou) a Aoeiao naith aeayoaeueiinoue
inouanoaeyee ia iniiaa iaueo i?eioeeiia, e /eneo eaeiauo ioiinyony:

1.Auai?iinoue. Ana aeieaeiinoe auee auai?iuie. Auai?u i?iecaiaeeeenue a
ia?iaeiii nia?aiee ioe?uoui aieiniaaieai iooai iiaeiyoey ?oe ii
ae?aaeth.

2. N?i/iinoue. Eae i?aaeei, aeieaeiinoiua eeoea inoaaaeenue o aeanoe
iaeei aiae, iinea /aai neaaaee naie iieiiii/ey.

3. Eieeaaeaeueiinoue. Iau/ii eieeaaey ninoaaeyeanue ec 10 eeoe. Ai aeaaa
eieeaaee noiyee i?aaenaaeaoaee. Ana i?i/ea /eaiu eieeaaee n/eoaeenue
?aaiuie a i?aaao.

4. Ionoonoaea ea?a?oe/aneie iiae/eiaiiinoe (eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyee
aiaiiua aeieaeiinoe).

5. Aiciacaeiinoue. Iaaeno?aoai, ca eneeth/aieai no?aoaaia, iieaaaeinue
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.

6. Iiaeio/aoiinoue. Ii ieii/aiee n?iea iieiiii/ee aeieaeiinoiua eeoea
iaycaiu auee io/eoaoueny ia?aae iniauie eieeaaeyie (yaoeiia e eiaenoia).
Oaeea io/aou iiaeeaaeaee iineaaeothuae i?iaa?ea ni noi?iiu aaeeye. Aei
oao ii?, iiea io/ao ia ooaa?aeaeaee, auaoee iaaeno?ao ia eiae i?aaa
caieiaoue iiaoth aeieaeiinoue, ia iia ?anii?yaeeoueny naiei eiouanoaii,
ia eiae i?aaa auacaeaoue ca i?aaeaeu Aooeee e ia iia ?ann/eouaaoue ia
iieo/aiea iaa?aaeu.

Aeieaeiinoiua eeoea eiaee i?aai iaeaaaoue ia a?aaeaeai oo?aou ca
iaiiae/eiaiea eo ?anii?yaeaieyi. ?acia? oo?aoa caaenae io oyaeanoe
i?inooiea, io ?aiaa aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea e ii?aaeaeyeny caeiiii. E?iia
oiai, iaaeno?aou auee ai?aaa aicaoaeaeaoue i?ioea a?aaeaeai noaeaaiia
i?aneaaeiaaiea.

Oa?aeoa?ecoy ioaeaeueiuo iaaeno?aoia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a
?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae cia/aiea eieeaaee a?oiioia caiaoii oiaei. A
iniiaiii iie nio?aieee ca niaie i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea a noaeao e
?aeeaeiciua ooieoeee.

Ia ia?aia ianoi a oi?aaeaiee auaeaeaathony no?aoaae, eieeaaey eioi?uo
auea nicaeaia Eeenoaiii a 501500 aa. aei i.y. No?aoaaia ecae?aee ii
iaeiiio io eaaeaeie oeeu. Auai?u i?iecaiaeeeenue iooai ioe?uoiai
aieiniaaiey, a ia ae?aaeai. Ia aeieaeiinoue no?aoaaa iiaee
i?aoaiaeiaaoue eeoue aeaiaoua e i?eoii ?aniieaaaaoea iaaeaeaeeiie
nianoaaiiinoueth. No?aoaae a ioee/ea io i?i/eo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ia iieo/aee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeiouea eee iaeieiouea
eeoaiu auee aiciiaeiinoe caiyoue yoo aeieaeiinoue. Ia ieo eaaeaea
i?aaiecaoeey nai?a /?acau/aeiuo aiaiiuo iaeiaia, iie ?oeiaiaeeee
aeinoaaeie i?iaeaioa a Aoeiu e o.ae. I?aaaea, ?anii?yaeaeenue iie
n?aaenoaaie ia aaneiio?ieueii. Iineieueeo aunoee eiio?ieue ca
?anoiaeiaaieai n?aaenoa i?eiaaeeaaeae ia?iaeiiio nia?aieth e Niaaoo 500,
oi no?aoaae iaycaiu auee io/eouaaoueny a ?anoiaeiaaiee noii ia?aae yoeie
i?aaiaie. No?aoaae aaaeaee aeeieiiaoe/aneeie niioaieyie: iie i?eieiaee
eaieooeyoeeth i?ioeaieea, caeeth/aee ia?aie?ea, iie ne?aieyee naiae
iiaeienueth ie?iua aeiaiai?u, caeeth/aaiua Aoeineei ainoaea?noaii.

No?aoaae aaee neaaenoaea e i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaee a noaeao ii aeaeai i
aieineeo i?anooieaieyo (aeaca?oe?noai, o?oninoue e iiaaa n iiey aiy,
aiaiiay eciaia, oeeiiaiea io aiaiiie neoaeau e o. ae.).

No?aoaae aea?aeaee iinoiyiioth naycue n Niaaoii 500 e ia?iaeiui
nia?aieai (n iineaaeiei /a?ac i?eoaiia) e eiaee i?aai o?aaiaaoue nicuaa
aiai/a?aaeiuo canaaeaiee Niaaoa 500 eee ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey. Iie eiaee
i?aai a ethaie iiiaio naeaeaoue aeieeaae a Niaaoa 500 e o?aaiaaoue
i?eiyoey ioaeiuo ia?.

Ae?oaea aeieaeiinoiua eeoea Aoeineiai ainoaea?noaa:

a) iieaou aaaeaee ioaea/ae a a?aiaeo e ia ioeoi ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiouanoa, ono?aeaaee oi?ae, ?ani?iaeaaaee eiioeneiaaiiia eiouanoai;

a) eiaenou i?eieiaee oeiainiaua io/aou io aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe e
aicaoaeaeaee oaieiaiua aeaea a neo/aa ioe?uoey ceioiio?aaeaiey
oeiainaie:

a) yaoeiu-eieeaaey n aiaeiae/iuie ooieoeeyie;

a) aai?aiiiu ?uii/iua iaaece?aoaee. Neaaeeee ca ?icie/iie oi?aiaeae,
i?anaeaee oi?aiaeth iaaeia?iea/anoaaiiuie oiaa?aie e i?iaeoeoaie,
ioieiay e oie/oiaeay oaeiaua. Neaaeeee ca /enoioie e ii?yaeeii ia
?uieao. Iie aea i?eieiaee io eiino?aioeaa iioeeio ca i?aai oi?aiaee ia
?uieao;

ae) neoioeeaee iaaece?aee ca oeaaiie oi?aiaeae;

a) iao?iiiiu iaaethaeaee ca i?aaeeueiinoueth ia? e aania;

ae) anoeiiiu neaaeeee ca /enoioie ai?iaea e ii?yaeeii ia oeeoeao,
iaaece?aee ca a?iaey/eie a?oenoaie e iaaethaeaee ca i?aanoaaiiinoueth.

Ae?oaea aeieaeiinoiua eeoea, neaaeeee ca eni?aaiui ninoiyieai aei?ia,
enoi/ieeia, nayoeeeu; ?oeiaiaeeee iao/aieai iieiaeuo ethaeae, neaaeeee
ca ia?acii aeecie aeaiuei e o. ae.

Iniaia ianoi a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee caieiaea aaeeyy eee
noae i?enyaeiuo, o/?aaeaeaiiue Nieiiii. Iia ninoiyea a V IV aa. aei i.y.
ec 6000 a?aaeaeai, aeinoeaoeo 30eaoiaai aic?anoa e ecae?aaiuo aaeaaiaeii
ii ae?aaeth a /enea 600 io eaaeaeie oeeu. Ia?aae anooieaieai a
aeieaeiinoue i?enyaeiua aaeeanou i?eiineee eeyoao a oii, /oi iie aoaeoo
noaeeoue “niaeanii caeiiai e iinoaiiaeaieyi aoeineiai ia?iaeiiai
nia?aiey e Niaaoa 500”. Aaeeyy aeaeeeanue ia 10 aeeeanoa?ee eee iaeao.
Oae eae 5000 /eaiia n/eoaeenue i/a?aaeiuie, a 1000 caianiuie, oi
auoiaeeei, /oi ninoaa aeeeanoa?ee ii?aaeaeyeny a 500 /aeiaae. Eae
i?aaeei, canaaeaea iaeia aeeeanoa?ey; a aieaa aaaeiuo neo/ayo aeaa eee
o?e. Eeoue a i/aiue ?aaeeeo neo/ayo iaeiia?aiaiii canaaeaee 2000
/aeiaae. Auaaei oae, /oi aeeeanoa?ee ae?iaeeenue e ninoaa noaea
ii?aaeaeyeny a 200, 250, 400 /aeiaae. A IV a. aei i.y. aeaea,
iiaeeaaeauea ?anniio?aieth a aaeeya, ?ani?aaeaeyeenue iaaeaeo
aeeeanoa?eyie ii ae?aaeth iaeaioia aeiy canaaeaiey. Yoi aeaeaeinue n oie
oeaeueth, /oiau ecaaaeaoue aicaeaenoaey ia i?enyaeiuo ni noi?iiu
caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe.

Ii ieii/aiee eaaeaeiai canaaeaiey i?enyaeiua iieo/aee aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.
Aaeeyy auea ia?aie einoaioeeae ii aaaeiaeoei aeaeai, a oii /enea ii
aeaeai i ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?anooieaieyo e ceioiio?aaeaieyo aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe. Iia aea yaeyeanue aiaeeyoeeiiiie einoaioeeae ii aeaeai,
?anniao?eaaaiui a ae?oaeo noaeao.

Ii cia/aiea aaeeye ii?aaeaeyeinue oai, /oi iia ia aunooiaea oieueei eae
noaeaaiue i?aai; ae i?eiaaeeaaeaee aaaeiua iieiiii/ey oaeaea a iaeanoe
oi?aaeaiey e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Aaeeyy ?aoaea oeiainiaua aii?inu. Iai?eia?, iia o/anoaiaaea a ?aneeaaeea
iaeiaia ia nithcieeia, i?iecaiaeeiie eaaeaeua /aou?a aiaea.

Aaeeyy i?iecaiaeeea i?iaa?eo i?eaiaeiinoe eaiaeeaeaoia, aua?aiiuo ia oa
eee eiua aeieaeiinoe aieiniaaieai eee ae?aaeai. Anee i?aanoaaiiay eee
iieeoe/aneay aeaaiiaaeaaeiinoue eaiaeeaeaoa aucuaaea niiiaiea o /eaiia
noaea, oi oaeie eaiaeeaeao iaiaaeeaiii ioaiaeeeny.

Aaaeiay ?ieue a Aoeineii ainoaea?noaa i?eiaaeeaaeaea e ae?oaei ?acee/iui
noaeaaiui i?aaiai. Noaeo a?aiiaaa iiaeeaaeaea /anoue aaaeiuo oaieiaiuo
aeae, a eiaiii: aeaea i i?aaeoiuoeaiiuo oaeenoaao, ia io?aaeaiee yaeii,
i iiaeaeiaao, i iaianaiee ?ai e oaa/ee n oeaeueth eeoaiey aeecie.

Oaieiaiua aeaea i ?acaia, a?aaaaea, i ii/iuo e?aaeao, i ea?iaiiuo
e?aaeao, i iioeuaiee a?aaeaeai e o.i. ?anniao?eaaea “eieeaaey
iaeeiiaaeoeaoe”. Iia iaaece?aea ca oth?ueiaie e ca eniieiaieai
i?eaiai?ia.

Aeoeaii aeaenoaiaae noae yoaoia. Nouanoaiaaei /aou?a iaeaou yoiai noaea.
Eaaeaeay ec ieo ?anniao?eaaea aeaea oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiiai oa?aeoa?a.
Iaeie e oa aea noaeuee (yoaou) canaaeaee oi a iaeiie, oi a ae?oaie
iaeaoa, niio?y ii ?iaeo aeaea:

1) noae i?e o?aia Iaeeaaeu. Caeanue ?acae?aeenue aeaea i
iai?aaeoiuoeaiiuo oaeenoaao, ia oaeenoaao iaoaeia (eiino?aioeaa), i
iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoaa e oaeenoao eee iaianaieth oaeenoaa;

2) noae i?e o?aia Aiieeiia. ?anniao?eaae aeaea, a eioi?uo oaeeoea
cayaeye, /oi ii niaa?oee oaeenoai, ?ac?aoaiiia caeiiii eee ia
i?aneaaeoaiia caeiiii (oaeenoai a ninoiyiee iaiaoiaeeiie iai?iiu,
oaeenoai ai?a, noaa/aiiiai n iiee/iui, oaeenoai ethaiaieea aeaiu,
ia/ayiiia oaeenoai e o.i.);

3) noae aicea aaaaie Cae. Yoio noae ?anniao?eaae aeaea i eeoeao, eie,
aoaeo/e ecaiaiu ec i?aaeaeia Aooeee ca iai?aaeoiuoeaiiia oaeenoai,
niaa?oaee iiaia. Noaeuee ?aniieaaaeenue ia naiii aa?aao ii?y, a
iaaeiyaiue, eae eeoaiiue i?aaa anooiaoue ia caieth Aooeee, iiaeieuaae ia
eiaeea e aa?aao e ec eiaeee aiai?ee naith caueoeoaeueioth ?a/ue e
auneooeaae i?eaiai?;

4) noae a iaeaoa aicea i?enoaie. ?anniao?eaae aeaea, eiaaea aeiiaiee
oaeenoaa ia aue ecaanoai, eeai eiaaea nia?oue i?e/eieee iaiaeooaaeaiiua
i?aaeiaou eaiaiue, a?aaii e o.i. Caeanue aea noaeeee aeeaioiuo, oaeaoeo
/aeiaaea. Oaeeo aeeaioiuo i?enoaeaeaee e nia?oiie eacie, oaeaaee, a
caoai oooe eo auaiceee ca i?aaeaeu Aooeee.

A?aaeaeaineea nii?u ?acae?ae noae aeeyoaoia. Auee aeeyoaou
ainoaea?noaaiiua, ecae?aaiua aaeaaiaeii ii ae?aaeth ec /enea a?aaeaeai,
aeinoeaoeo 60eaoiaai aic?anoa, e /anoiua. Iineaaeiea yaeyeenue ii
nouanoao o?aoaeneeie noaeueyie, ecae?aaiuie a /enea 3 /aeiaae ii
acaeiiiio niaeaneth oyaeaoueieny. Noae aeeyoaoia ioee/aeny io noaea
i?enyaeiuo aieueoae nei?inoueth e iaiueoeie noaeaaiuie ecaea?aeeaie. Ia
?aoaiea noaea aeeyoaoia aeiioneaeanue aiaeeyoeey a aaeeyth. Noae
aeeyoaoia ?acae?ae enee ia noiio aieaa 10 ae?aoi.

Iaeeea aeaea ia eiouanoaaiiuo nii?ao ia noiio ia nauoa 10 ae?aoi
?acae?ae “noae ni?iea ioaeae”. Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiie?aoe/aneea Aoeiu
eiaee neiaeioth e oe?iei ?acaaoaeaiioth nenoaio noaeia, eioi?ua auee
i?ecaaiu iaania/eaaoue i?aaiii?yaeie e caeiiiinoue a no?aia.

2.2 Nia?oaineia ainoaea?noai

Nia?oaineia ainoaea?noai ia?aciaaeinue a IX a. aei i.y. a ?acoeueoaoa
caaiaaaiee Nia?oie ae?oaeo iauei.

Nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a a Nia?oa e VII a. aei i.y. neiaeeeanue a
neaaeothuai aeaea.

Ainiiaenoaothuei eeannii auee nia?oeaou, iieiii?aaiua a?aaeaeaia,
aeeaoea oieueei a Nia?oa. Iie iaeaaeaee nianoaaiiinoueth ia caieth, neio
e ia ?aaioathueo ia eo iieyo eeioia. Nia?oeaoia ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 8
oun. Eo i?aaiecaoeey auea ?iaeiaie. Ana nia?oeaou aeaeeeenue, ii
i?aaeaieth, ia o?e ?iaeiaua oeeu, eaaeaeay oeea aeaeeeanue ia aeanyoue
ia, eaaeaeay iaa ia aeanyoue o?eaeeae.

Naith ?iaeiaoth iaueio nia?oeaou iacuaaee “iaueiie ?aaiuo”. Aei naiiai
iicaeiaai a?aiaie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth a Nia?oa
i?eioeeieaeueii ia aeiioneaeanue, oae eae caiey n/eoaeanue
nianoaaiiinoueth ainoaea?noaa.

Eaaeaeay naiuey eiaea iaaeae, eioi?ue iaeuecy auei ae?iaeoue e
io/oaeaeaoue. Ii yoi ioiineeinue e iniaie eaoaai?ee o/anoeia, oae eae
auee o/anoee, eioi?ua, iiaeaeeiiio, io/oaeaeaeenue.

Ii i?aaeaieth, ieoe/aneee oea?ue Nia?ou Eeeo?a cai?aoee iieueciaaoueny
i?e iino?ieea aeiiia eaeeie-eeai ae?oaeie eino?oiaioaie, e?iia oiii?a e
ieeu, aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ?ineioe. Ii aea cai?aoee iieueciaaoueny
cieioie e na?aa?yiie iiiaoie. ?ac?aoaeanue oieueei aeaeaciay.

Ana ono?ienoai ainieoaiey e auoa eiaei naiae caaea/ae naeaeaoue ec
nia?oeaoa e?aieiai e auiineeaiai aieia.

Nia?oaioeu iinoiyiii aeeee aiaiiui eaaa?ai. Iie aeaeeeenue ia
“oiaa?euanoaa iaeaoie”. *eaiu oiaa?euanoaa aeieaeiu auee aianoa
iaaaeaoue. Oaeea niaianoiua o?aiacu iacuaaeenue nenneoeyie. Eaaeaeue ec
15 /aeiaae aeieaeai aue i?eiineoue aaeaiany/ii ii?aaeaeaiiua ii?oeee
i?iaeoeoia e eiee/anoai aeaiaa aeey iieoiee i?iaecee. Eoi ia iia
aeaaaoue i?iaeoeoia, oio ia oieueei ia o/anoaiaae a nenneoeyo, ii e
eeoaeny i?aa a?aaeaeainoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, any iauanoaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey nia?oeaoia a ?aieao
a?enoie?aoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa auea ia?aiaiaia ia?aaeeoeaie
?iaeiieaiaiiiai no?iy, auea ?ann/eoaia ia oi, /oiau aea?aeaoueny
caieiooie e niei/aiiie a?oiiie i?ioea ii?aaiuaiiuo eeioia e aani?aaiuo
ia?eyeia.

Eeiou auee iiei?aiiuie aeeoaeyie caaiaaaiiuo iaeanoae e i?aaenoaaeyee
niaie yenieoaoe?oaiue eeann a Nia?oa, ?aaioaaoee ia caiea nia?oeaoia.
Iieiaeaiea eeioia ianeieueei ioee/aeinue io iieiaeaiey ?aaia oai, /oi
oioy iie e auee eeoaiu i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e naie auee
nianoaaiiinoueth nia?oeaoia, ii an? aea nio?aiyee iaeioi?oth
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Iie aaee naia oicyenoai e ia auee oiaa?ii, iiaeiaii
?aaai. E?iia ?aaiou ia iieyo nia?oeaoia iie aeieaeiu auee oiea/eaaoue
naiei ainiiaeai ia?ie.

E?iia eeioia a Eaeiieea auea aua a?oiia iaiieiii?aaiuo, iacuaaaoeony
ia?eyeaie (ie?anoiua aeeoaee). Iie aeeee a i?eeaaathueo e aeieeia Ya?ioa
aanieiaeiuo ai?iuo iaeanoyo. Ia?eyee auee ee/ii naiaiaeiuie, ii ia eiaee
iieeoe/aneeo i?aa, ieaoeee Nia?oa aeaiue e iinoaaeyee ii?aaeaeaiiua
?iaeu aiene (oyaeaeiaii?oaeaiioth iaoiooaiieeoia). Ia?eyee caieiaeenue
oaeaea ?aianeaie e oi?aiaeae, /oi auei cai?auaii nia?oeaoai.

Any iieiioa ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe iaoiaeeeanue a ?oeao i?aaenoaaeoaeae
iaeaieaa ciaoiuo ?iaeia. Oi?aaeaiea nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue a oaeeo i?aaiao,
eae yoi?ao e aa?oney. Ia?aue ec ieo i?aaenoaaeye niaie eieeaaeth ec iyoe
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, ecae?aaioth aaeaaiaeii a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee. Yoi?u
nicuaaee aa?oneth e ia?iaeiia nia?aiea e i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaee a ieo.
Iie nii?iaiaeaeaee oea?ae ai a?aiy aiaiiuo iioiaeia, iaaece?ay ca eo
aeayoaeueiinoueth. Yoi?u iiaee aeaaea io?aoaoue oea?ae io aeieaeiinoe e
i?aaeaaaoue noaeo. Ethaia aeieaeiinoiia eeoei iiaei auoue oaieaii
yoi?aie e i?aaeaii noaeo. Iie yaeyeenue “aethnoeoaeyie i?aaia”
nia?oaioeaa. Ia?eyeia (eiino?aioeaa) e eeioia iie eiaee i?aai i?aaeaoue
nia?oiie eacie aac anyeiai noaea. Yoi?u caaaaeaee oeiainaie e aiaoieie
niioaieyie e ae?. A naiae aeayoaeueiinoe iie io/eouaaeenue oieueei
ia?aae naieie i?aaiieeaie.

Aoi?ie i?aai Niaao noa?aeoei (aa?oney), ii i?aaeaieth, o/?aaeaeai a IX
a. aei i. y. eaaaiaea?iui oea?ai Eeeo?aii. A ninoaa aa?onee aoiaeeei 30
/aeiaae: 2 oea?y e 28 aa?iioia. Iicaeiaa a ia? aioee oaeaea yoi?u.
Aeieaeiinoue aa?iioia caieiaeanue eeoeaie, aeinoeaoeie 60eaoiaai
aic?anoa. Ii aeaaioth ?ieue i?e eca?aiee ea?ae ia aic?ano, a ciaoiinoue
i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Auai?u aa?iioia i?iecaiaeeeenue a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee
e?eeii. A aeeceaaeauaa iiiauaiea iiiauaeenue naiaai ?iaea “yenia?ou”,
eioi?ua ia aeiua/eao aeey ienueia ioia/aee neeo e?eea.

Aa?oney eiaea i?aai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau. Iia eiio?iee?iaaea e
aeaenoaey oea?ae. Iia aaaeaea oaeaea noaeaaiuie aeaeaie i
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ?aeeaeiciuo i?anooieaieyo. Aieiniaaiea a aa?onee
inouanoaeyeinue iooai ?anoiaeaeaiey a noi?iiu ia aeaa a?oiiu iaeaai e
iai?aai.

Nouanoaiaaea e oea?neay aeanoue. Oea?e (a /enea aeaoo) yaeyeenue
ae?aoeaie e iieeiaiaeoeaie. A ea/anoaa ae?aoeia iie i?aaenoaaeyee
nia?oaioeaa ia?aae eeoeii aiaia, niaa?oaee aea?oaii?eiioaiey; iinoaiaiii
oea?neay aeanoue ia?aie/eaaaony yoi?aie.

Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea a Nia?oa iacuaaeinue aiiaeie. A nia?aiee i?eieiaee
o/anoea oieueei iieiii?aaiua a?aaeaeaia, aeinoeaoea 30 eao. Niae?aeinue
iii iaeei ?ac a ianyoe. I?aaii nicuaa iieueciaaeenue oea?e e yoi?u.
Aieueoiai cia/aiey a iieeoe/aneie aeecie Nia?ou aiiaea ia eiaea,
yaeyynue eeoue aniiiiaaoaeueiui e iiaeeiio?ieueiui i?aaiii, ia eiathuei
ii?aaeaeaiiie eiiiaoaioeee.

A ia?iaeiii nia?aiee ianoaeaeaeenue aii?inu aieiu e ie?a e auae?aeenue
aeieaeiinoiua eeoea aa?iiou e yoi?u.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao Nia?ou ninoiye oaeaea ec aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe
?acee/iiai ?aiaa. Iie ecae?aeenue ia?iaeiui nia?aieai eee iacia/aeenue
oea?yie e yoi?aie, ia?aae eioi?uie iie e io/eouaaeenue.

Anae niaieoiiinoueth a?aaeaeaineeo e iieeoe/aneeo i?aa iieueciaaeanue
n?aaieoaeueii iaei/eneaiiay a?oiia nia?oaioeaa (nia?oeaoia), iaeoaaoeo a
ai?iaea Nia?oa. Nia?oaioeu eiaiiaaee Nia?oo “iaueiie ?aaiuo”.
“?aaainoai” nia?oaioeaa iauyniyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aea?aeaoueny
iinoiyiii a aiaaie aioiaiinoe, aiaiiui eaaa?ai ia?aae eeoeii ?aaia e
caaeneiuo ia?eyeia. Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie iauanoaaiiiai no?iy auee
niaianoiua o?aiacu (nenneoee), o/anoea a eioi?uo yaeyeinue iaycaoaeueiui
e auei iieacaoaeai i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e nia?oaineiio a?aaeaeainoao. Eeoue
oa eeoea, eioi?ua o/anoaiaaee a niaianoiuo iaaaeao, n/eoaeenue
iieiii?aaiuie a?aaeaeaiaie.

Nio?aiaiea nenneoee eiaei oeaeueth iiaeaea?aeaoue e nio?aieoue aiaiioth
aeenoeeieeio.

A Nia?oa a VIVaa. aei i. y. ia nouanoaiaaei /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
caieth. TH?eaee/anee aa?oiaiui nianoaaiieeii caiee n/eoaeinue
ainoaea?noai. Caiey i?eiaaeeaaeaea anaio eeanno naiaiaeiuo
?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa-nia?oeaoia.

Ioaeaeueiui a?aaeaeaiai n iiiaioa eo ?iaeaeaiey ainoaea?noai
i?aaeinoaaeyei caiaeueiua o/anoee, eioi?ua ia?aaaouaaeenue eeioaie.
Iaaeae n/eoaeny naiaeiui, e aai aaeeinoai iiaeaea?aeeaaeinue oai, /oi
iinea nia?oe aeaaeaeueoea ii ia?aoiaeee ii ianeaaenoao noa?oaio a?aoo.
Eoiey-i?iaeaaea caiee, ?aaii eae e aea?aiea, n/eoaeenue iacaeiiiuie.
Iaeiaei n oa/aieai a?aiaie iaaeaeu noaee ae?iaeoueny, ia/aeanue
eiioeaio?aoeey caiee a ?oeao o iaiiiaeo.

Nioeeaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey e ai?ueaa ineaaeee nia?oaineia iauanoai e
ainoaea?noai. Ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie ae?aaiaa?a/aneeie iieenaie Nia?oa a
na?aaeeia II a aei i.y. ieacaeanue iiae aeanoueth ?eia .

3. Ae?aaia?eineia ainoaea?noai

3.1 ?eineay ?anioaeeea

?eineia ainoaea?noai e?oiiaeoaa iieeoe/aneia ia?aciaaiea
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie yiioe. Iii iiyaeeinue ia iieeoe/aneie ea?oa
ae?aaiaai ie?a iicaeiaa ainoi/iuo iiia?oee e a?a/aneeo iieenia, ii
oai?/anee aini?eiyei eo iieeoeei-i?aaiaoth eoeueoo?o.

Enoi?ey ?eineiai ainoaea?noaa iiae?acaeaeyaony ia neaaeothuea ia?eiaeu:

1. Aiaiiay aeaiie?aoey (VIII a. aei i.y. VI a. aei i.y.);

2. ?anioaeeea (VI a. aei i.y. I a aei i.y.);

3. Eiia?ey (I a. aei i.y. VI a. i.y.)

Ae?aaiaeoay aeiainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey ?eineiai ia?iaea
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iniiaiuie /a?oaie ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy. Iniiaiay
y/aeea iaueiu iacuaaaony ?iaeii (gens). ?iae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
caieioooth aaeeieoeo, nio?aieaooth a oa/aiea ecaanoiiai a?aiaie
niaianoiia aeaaeaiea caieae, a /anoiinoe ianoaeuaie. Aeaea ?iaea
?aoaeenue ia nia?aiee ?iaea. Ai aeaaa ?iaea noieo auai?iue noa?oeia.
Aanueia ?aii aicieeaao aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ?iaeaie, e
iaeioi?ua, iaeaieaa iiaouanoaaiiua ec ieo, ia/eiatho n/eoaoueny
“noa?oeie ?iaeaie”. Aianoa n oai e aioo?e ioaeaeueiuo ?iaeia auaeaeyaony
ianeaaenoaaiiay a?enoie?aoey iaeaieaa aiaaoua naiuee, i?enaieaoea naaa
iauanoaaiioth caieth e aeanoue iaae ni?iaee/aie. *eaiu yoeo naiae
iieo/eee iacaaiea iao?eoeeaa.

E?iia iieiii?aaiuo /eaiia ?iaeiaay i?aaiecaoeey aeeth/aea e caaeneiuo
ethaeae eeeaioia, ia o/anoaiaaaoeo a oi?aaeaiee aeaeaie ?iaea. Einoeooo
eeeaioaeu aicieeae ec ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia. Eeeaioaie yaeyeenue eae
“ieaaeoea ?iaee/e”, oae e ioaeaeueiua /oaeaee, eioi?ua oioy e ia auee
ia?auaiu a ?aanoai, ii yaeyeenue a ?eia aani?aaiuie, e auee auioaeaeaiu
ioaeaoueny iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoai ei?aiiuo ?eineeo a?aaeaeai (iao?iiia).
Eeeaiou iieo/aee io naieo iao?iiia o/anoee caiee, iineee eiy ?iaea e
o/anoaiaaee a ?iaeiaii eoeueoa. Ii acaiai iie aeieaeiu auee auiieiyoue
?yae iaycaiiinoae ee/iiai e eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a a iieueco iao?iiia.

Iauaa /enei ?iaeia a ae?aaiai ?eia 300. Aeanyoue ?iaeia ninoaaeyee
eo?eth. Aeanyoue eo?ee iauaaeeiyeenue a o?eao. ?eineee ia?iae ninoiye ec
o?ao o?ea. ?eieyia iacuaaee naay a ae?aaiinoe “eae?eoaie” (“eae?eo”
ieoe/aneia aiaeanoai, iie?iaeoaeue ae?aaieo ?eieyi). Niaieoiiinoue
?eineeo a?aaeaeai e anoue ?eineay iaueia.

A yiioo, ia?aoiaeioth io ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy e eeanniaiio
iauanoao, a ?eia auee neaaeothuea i?aaiu aeanoe:

a) Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea ii eo?eyi. E eiiiaoaioeee ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey
ioiineeenue aaaeiaeoea aii?inu, eanaaoeany anaai ?eineiai ia?iaea:
iauyaeaiea aieiu, aeeth/aiea iiauo ?iaeia, eca?aiea ?aena (aiaeaey).
Eaaeaeay eo?ey niae?aeanue ioaeaeueii e ?aoaea ii aieueoeinoao aieinia
a?aaeaeai iinoaaeaiiue aii?in. ?aoaieai ia?iaea n/eoaeinue ?aoaiea, ca
eioi?ia auneacaeinue aieueoeinoai eo?ee.

a) Naiao, aicieeoee ec ae?aaiaai niaaoa aiaeaeae ?iaeia, yaeyeny
nia?aieai ?iaeiauo noa?aeoei. *enei naiaoi?ia ninoaaeyei 300. Naiao
ooaa?aeaeae eca?aiea ?aena e ?aoaiey ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey e i?eieiae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea a aeaeao oi?aaeaiey.

a) ?aen ecae?aeny ia?iaeiui nia?aieai. Ii yaeyeny i?aaeaiaeeoaeai aienea
e aa?oiaiui ae?aoeii e noaeueae.

Ieiei 500 a. aei i. y. ?aen aue naa?aioo. Aianoi ?aena noaee auae?aoueny
ec /enea iao?eoeeaa aeaa aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoea “i?aoi?u”, eioi?ua
yaeyeenue aiaia/aeueieeaie e aaaeaee iauanoaaiiuie aeaeaie. Iaeei i?aoi?
iia aiioee?iaaoue ?aoaiea ae?oaiai e ionthaea yaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue
aeey eaaeaeiai ec ieo i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey, eeoue iiniaaoiaaaoenue n
ae?oaei. Iiyoiio i?aoi?u iieo/eee iiaia iacaaiea eiinoeu (ianoaeaeaoue,
niaauaoueny).

I?eoeua ethaee ieaaae. Iie noiyee aia eo?ee e yaeyeenue aani?aaiuie,
iaoiaeeeenue a caaeneiinoe io iao?eoeeaa. Ieaaae iiaee eiaoue
nianoaaiiinoue, iie caieiaeenue oi?aiaeae, ?aianeaie e ianee ?yae
iaycaiiinoae: ieaoeee iaeiae, o/anoaiaaee a aniiiiaaoaeueiii aienea. A
neeo yoiai aicieeaao aeieai aeeeaoayny ai?ueaa ieaaaaa ca ?aaiii?aaea.

Iaeiia?aiaiii a nayce n ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ?acaeaaaony
?aanoai, ii aua a naiae iao?ea?oaeueiie oi?ia. ?aau iaoiaeeeenue aeaaiui
ia?acii a aeiiao iao?eoeeaa e caaeeoi/iuo ieaaaaa. N iiyaeaieai ?aanoaa
iauanoai ia/eiaao aeaeeoueny ia eeannu ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa e ?aaia.
Iao?eoeeaineay aa?oooea, aeaaii oaea oyaioeaoayny ia?aiauoiiiaueiiuie
ioiioaieyie, no?aieony cae?aieoue naia eneeth/eoaeueiia iieiaeaiea a
iauanoaa, naia “i?aai” ia caieth, ?aaia e iieeoe/aneoth aeanoue,
inouanoaeyaioth a ioiioaiee ?aaia, ieaaaaa e eeeaioia.

Ai?ueaa ieaaaaa n iao?eoeeyie onei?yao i?ioeann oie/oiaeaiey
ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy e ia?aoiae e ainoaea?noao, i?eaeaao yoiio
caeiiiia?iiio i?ioeanno iniaoth niaoeeoeeo.

A VI a. aei i.y. auea inouanoaeaia iiaay i?aaiecaoeey naiaiaeiiai
ianaeaiey. Ia iniiaa ?aoi?iu ?aena Na?aey Ooeeey ianaeaiea auei
?ani?aaeaeaii ia a?oiiu ii eiouanoaaiiiio e oa??eoi?eaeueiiio i?eciaeai.

Eae ?eineee ia?iae, oae e ieaaae auee ?acaeou ia oanoue ?ac?yaeia a
caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu eiouanoaa. Eaaeaeue ?ac?yae aeaeeeny ia oi/ii
onoaiiaeaiiia eiee/anoai aaeeieoe, o.a. oeaioo?ee. Eiee/anoai ethaeae a
oeaioo?eyo auei ia iaeeiaeiai; oeaioo?ee aunoeo ?ac?yaeia auee
iaei/eneaiiaa oeaioo?ee iecoeo ?ac?yaeia, ii iieueciaaeenue iaeeiaeiauie
i?aaaie. Oeaioo?ey yaeyeanue aaeeieoeae aiaiiie, iieeoe/aneie e
iaeiaiaie. Iiiaea aaaeiua aii?inu ?aoaeenue ia ia?iaeiii nia?aiee,
?an/eaiaiiii ia ioaeaeueiua oeaioo?ee, i?e/ai eaaeaeie oeaioo?ee
i?eiaaeeaaeae iaeei aiein.

Eaaeaeua iyoue eao i?iecaiaeeeanue ioeaiea eiouanoaa a?aaeaeai e iiaia
?ani?aaeaeaiea eo oi oeaioo?eyi.

Ia?yaeo n aeaeaieai ii oeaioo?eyi ?eineea a?aaeaeaia auee ?ani?aaeaeaiu
ii oa??eoi?eaeueiui ie?oaai, oae iacuaaaiui o ? e a a i. Ai?iae ?ei aue
?acaeaeai ia 4 o?eau, e eioi?ui caoai i?eaaaeeinue 17 naeueneeo o?ea. A
oa??eoi?eaeueioth o?eao ca/eneyeenue ana a?aaeaeaia, aeeaoea a aeaiiii
ie?oaa.

?ani?aaeaeaiea a?aaeaeai ii oeaioo?eyi e o?eaai oioy e aeeth/eei ieaaaaa
a ninoaa “?eineiai ia?iaea”, ii aua ia onoaiiaeei ?aaiii?aaey ieaaaaa n
iao?eoeeyie. Iao?eoeee oaea?aeaee naia eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia
iieo/aiea iiauo caiaeue e ia caiyoea aunoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeieaeiinoae; iie nio?aieee naith caieiooinoue, cai?auay a?aee iaaeaeo
iao?eoeeyie e ieaaayie. Iiyoiio ia?eiae iinea “?aoi?iu Na?aey Ooeeey”
yaeyaony a?aiaiai aeaeueiaeoeo i?aia?aciaaiee.

Aua nia/aea V a. aei i.y. iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea e i?eciaiea
“ieaaaeneea” nia?aiey. O/anoaiaaee a ieo oieueei ieaaae. Oai naiui
ieaaae aeinoeaee iainiaeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, e yoi iaeaa/aei
eiinieeaeaoeeth ieaaaaa a aai ai?ueaa i?ioea iao?eoeeaa. Oiaaea aea
iiyaeeanue auai?iay ieaaaeneay aeieaeiinoue ieaaaeneee o?eaoi,
yaeyaoeeny i?aaeaiaeeoaeai e ?oeiaiaeeoaeai ieaana. O?eaoiu auae?aeenue
ia aiaee/iue n?ie a /enea nia/aea aeaoo, caoai /aou?ao, a aiineaaenoaee
aeanyoe. Iniiaiie caaea/ae o?eaoiia yaeyeanue caueoa ieaaaaa. O?eaoiai
ia auei i?aaeinoaaeaii eaeie-eeai ?anii?yaeeoaeueiie aeanoe. Ii iie
eiaee i?aai iaeaaaoue cai?auaiea (veto) ia ?anii?yaeaiea iaaeno?aoia.
Oai naiui ieaaaeneea o?eaoiu iieo/atho iniaia cia/aiea: naiao e
iaaeno?aou i?e naiii ecaeaiee eie eaeiai-eeai ?anii?yaeaiey auioaeaeaiu
auee n/eoaoueny n aiciiaeiinoueth iaeiaeaiey cai?aoa o?eaoiii. Ee/iinoue
o?eaoia auea iauyaeaia iai?eeiniiaaiiie e eeoei, eioi?ia iinyaiao ia
o?eaoia, iiaeeaaeaei nia?oiie eacie.

A 445 a. aei i. y. aue ecaeai caeii Eaioeay, ?ac?aoeaoee a?aee
iao?eoeeaa n ieaaayie e yaeyaoeeny nouanoaaiiie onooieie ni noi?iiu
iao?eoeeaa. Oai naiui auei neeueii ineaaeaii ?acee/ea a th?eaee/aneii
iieiaeaiee iao?eoeeaa e ieaaaaa. Ieaaae iieo/eee i?aai caieiaoue
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe. Iie noaee a?aaeaeaiaie ?eineie ?anioaeeee.

Anae iieiioie i?aa eae ioaee/iuo, oae e /anoiuo iieueciaaeenue eeoue
?eineea a?aaeaeaia.

?eineia a?aaeaeainoai i?eia?aoaeinue, i?aaeaea anaai, ?iaeaeaieai io
a?aea ?eineeo a?aaeaeai eee io ?eineie a?aaeaeaiee, ia ninoiyuae a
a?aea. E?iia oiai, niiniaaie onoaiiaeaiey ?eineiai a?aaeaeainoaa
yaeyeenue: inaiaiaeaeaiea ?eineei a?aaeaeaieiii naiaai ?aaa (i?e/ai,
aieueiiioiouaiiee ia i?eia?aoae iieiuo i?aa ?eineiai a?aaeaeainoaa),
onuiiaeaiea ?eineei a?aaeaeaieiii /oaeacaioea, iiaeaeiaaiea ?eineiai
a?aaeaeainoaa ioaeaeueiui eeoeai eee oeaeui iaueiai.

?eineia a?aaeaeainoai oo?a/eaaeinue: a) caoaaoii ?eineiai a?aaeaeaieia a
ieai (iaeiaei a neo/aa aica?auaiey yoiai a?aaeaeaieia aai a?aaeaeainoai
ainnoaiaaeeaaeinue), a) i?enoaeaeaieai ?eineiai a?aaeaeaieia e oyaeeiio
iaeacaieth (naycaiiiio n ecaiaieai).

A?aaeaeaia ?eia aeaeeeenue ia aeaa nineiaey:

a) Iiaeee, aeeth/aaoea a naie ninoaa e?oiiuo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa. Ii
iauaio i?aaeeo ec iiaeeae auae?aeenue iaaeno?aou e eiiieaeoiaaeny naiao.
Iiyoiio iiaeeeoao iacuaaeny eiiaaea “naiaoi?neei nineiaeai”. Iiaeeeoao
nio?aiee ca niaie aeeyiea ia iieeoe/aneea aeaea e iinea ia?aoiaea e
iiia?oee. Aeey yoiai nineiaey aue onoaiiaeai eiouanoaaiiue oeaic a
ieeeeii nanoa?oeeaa.

a) Anaaeieee, caieiaaoeany oi?aiaeae, ?inoiaue/anoaii, aceiaieai iaeiaia
a i?iaeioeeyo. Oeaic anaaeieeia 400.000 nanoa?oeeaa.

?eineia ainoaea?noai yaeyeinue aiia?aoii a ?oeao e?oiiuo
?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa e aii?oaeaiiui eaaa?ai. Yoei iaoneiaeeaaaony iniiaiay
eiino?oeoeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa ?eia, iineaoay aiaiiue oa?aeoa?,
oaa?aei cae?aieyaoay aeanoue a ?oeao e?oiiuo ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa e
aeaaaaoay ia?iiioth naiaiaeo aeaenoaee aaeieieno?aoeaiui i?aaiai.

?eieyia iacuaaee naia ainoaea?noai “?anioaeeea”, o.a. “iauaa,
iauanoaaiiia aeaei”. Yoei iacaaieai iiae/??eeaaeinue aa?oiaainoai
ia?iaea e aeaiie?aoe/aneea iniiau ainoaea?noaa. Ii yoi iacaaiea ia
niioaaonoaiaaei aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oae eae oaeoe/anee ia?iiiia
aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey ia i?eieiaei ieeaeiai o/anoey a oi?aaeaiee
ainoaea?noaii, aaea aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeaea aa?oooea ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa.
Ii aeeeoaoo?a ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa ia eneeth/aea ecaanoioth aeaiie?aoeth
n?aaee ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa e aeey ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa, e iia aeaenoaeoaeueii
nouanoaiaaea a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee, oioy e ia aeinoeaea oiai ?acaeoey,
eae a Aoeiao.

I?aaiaie oeaio?aeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a ?anioaeeeaineii ?eia
yaeyeenue: naiao, ia?iaeiia nia?aiea, iaaeno?aou.

1. Naiao yaeyeny i?aaiii ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa-iao?eoeeaa e ea?ae
ia?aainoaothuoth ?ieue a oi?aaeaiee ?eiii. *enei naiaoi?ia ninoaaeyei
300, a a I a. aei i.y. 600. Naiaoi?u ecae?aeenue ia?aiia/aeueii
eiinoeaie, a n ia/aea IV a. aei i.y. oeaici?aie. Eaaeaeua iyoue eao
nienie naiaoi?ia ia?aniao?eaaeny, i?e/ai eeoue a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo
oeaici? ia aiinee i?aaeieo naiaoi?ia a iiaue nienie. A ninoaa naiaoa
aeeth/aeenue aeaaiui ia?acii auaoea iaaeno?aou.

Iacia/aee canaaeaiey naiaoa e i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaee a ieo aunoea
iaaeno?aou eiinoeu, i?aoi?u, a n na?aaeeiu IV a. aei i.y. e ieaaaeneea
o?eaoiu. Iinoaiiaeaiey naiaoa iiaee auoue ii?ioanoiaaiu ieaaaeneeie
o?eaoiaie.

Naiao eiae neaaeothuoth eiiiaoaioeeth:

a) A iaeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiie. Caeiiu, i?eiyoua oeaioo?eaoiuie e
o?eaooiuie nia?aieyie o?aaiaaee aeey naiae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
ooaa?aeaeaiey naiaoa.

a) A iaeanoe aaeieieno?aoeaiie. Naiao iia ecaeaaaoue iauea
iinoaiiaeaiey, eanathueany aeaaiono?ienoaa e iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe.

a) A iaeanoe oeiainiaie. Naiao ninoaaeye athaeaeao e onoaiaaeeaae
iaeiae. A ?anii?yaeaiee naiaoa iaoiaeeeanue ainoaea?noaaiiay eacia. Ana
yoi noaaeei iaaeno?aoia a iaiin?aaenoaaiioth caaeneiinoue io naiaoa.

a) A iaeanoe aiaoiae iieeoeee. Naiao aaaeao ia?aaiai?u n ae?oaeie
ainoaea?noaaie. Ii i?eieiaao e ioi?aaeyao iineia e caeeth/aao ie?iua
aeiaiai?u. (Iauyaeaiea aieiu aoiaeeei a eiiiaoaioeeth oeaioo?eaoiiai
nia?aiey).

ae) A iaeanoe aiaiiiai aeaea. Naiao onoaiaaeeaae eiee/anoai i?ecuaaaiuo
a a?ieth, ?ani?aaeaeye a?iee e i?iaeioeee iaaeaeo aiaia/aeueieeaie.
Naiao ?oeiaiaeee aeaenoaeyie aunoaai eiiaiaeiaaiey, oae eae io naiaoa
caaenae ioione n?aaenoa ia aaaeaiea aieiu. Io naiaoa caaenaei
i?iaeieaeaiea aieiu eee caeeth/aiea ie?iiai aeiaiai?a.

a) *?acau/aeiua ia?u. A iniauo neo/ayo; a /anoiinoe i?e iianiinoyo ecaia
eee i?e aieiaieyo aioo?e ainoaea?noaa, naiao iia i?eieiaoue /?acau/aeiu
ia?u, aeaeaoue ?anii?yaeaiey i iacia/aiee aeeeoaoi?a, i?aaeinoaaeyoue
iaaeno?aoai /?acau/aeioth e iaia?aie/aiioth aeanoue e o. ae.

ae) Eoeueo. Naiao aaaeae iino?ieeie o?aiia, iacia/aieai ?aeeaeiciuo
oea?aiiiee, aeiiouaieai eoeueoa iiauo aiaia.

2. Ia?iaeiua nia?aiey (eiieoeee). a) Eo?eaoiua nia?aiey oioy iiieiaeueii
e nio?aieeenue, ii iinoaiaiii oo?aoeee anyeia iieeoe/aneia cia/aiea. E
eo eiiiaoaioeee, e?iia ooaa?aeaeaiey onuiiaeaiee, niaa?oaaiuo
iao?eoeeyie, ioiineeinue eeoue niaa?oaiea ia?yaea; oi?iaeueiiai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai, eca?aiiui ia oeaioo?eaioiuo
nia?aieyo, aunoae aeanoe.

a) Oeaioo?eaoiua nia?aiey aienea, i?aaieciaaiiiai a oeaioo?ee. A III a.
aei i.y. i?iecioei eciaiaiea. E eiiiaoaioeee oeaioo?eaoiiai nia?aiey
ioiineeinue: a) eca?aiea aunoeo iaaeno?aoia eiinoeia, i?aoi?ia,
oeaici?ia; a) i?eiyoea eee ioeeiiaiea i?iaeoia caeiiia; a) ?anniio?aiea
aeaeia eeoe, i?enoaeaeaiiuo iaaeno?aoii e oyaeeiio iaeacaieth.

A) O?eaooiua nia?aiey a?aaeaeai ii oa??eoi?eaeueiui o?eaai. O?eaooiua
nia?aiey yaeyeenue aieaa aeaiie?aoe/aneeie, /ai oeaioo?eaoiua, oae eae a
ieo iiaee o/anoaiaaoue ia oi?iaeueii ?aaiuo iniiaaieyo ia oieueei
aiaa/e, ii e n?aaeiea e iaeeea caieaaeaaeaeueoeu. Iaeiaei ia aeaea,
e?anoueyia ia eiaee aiciiaeiinoe yaeyoueny ia nia?aiey, i?ienoiaeeaoea
iaeciaiii a ?eia, a iioiio e ia iiaee aeeyoue ia aieiniaaiea. Ia
o?eaooiuo nia?aieyo ecae?aeenue eo?oeueiua yaeeeu, eaanoi?u e iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea aeieaeiinoiua eeoea, i?eieiaeenue eee ioaa?aaeenue i?iaeou
caeiiia e ?anniao?eaaeenue aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey iaaeno?aoa i iaeiaeaiee
oo?aoa.

Ia?iaeiua nia?aiey nicuaaeenue iaaeno?aoii (iau/ii eiinoeii eee
i?aoi?ii), i?e/ai ca?aiaa oeacuaaeenue aii?inu, iiaeeaaeauea ?aoaieth.
Iinea niaa?oaiey ?aeeaeiciuo ia?yaeia iaeaoaeinue e aieiniaaeinue
i?aaeeiaeaiea. Aieiniaaiea i?iecaiaeeeinue ioaeaeueii a eaaeaeie
oeaioo?ee eee o?eaa. Ianoaeaeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey, aianaiea iiauo
i?aaeeiaeaiee eee iii?aaie ia aeiioneaeinue, oae /oi ?eineea a?aaeaeaia
iiaee eeoue ianneaii aieiniaaoue ca aianaiiua iaaeno?aoaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ia?iaeiua nia?aiey eiaee iaiaeia cia/aiea a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee. Ii a 1
a. aei i.y. ?ieue eo oiaea. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ii ia?a ?anoe?aiey
?eineiai ainoaea?noaa a ia?iaeiuo nia?aieyo, i?ienoiaeeaoeo a ?eia,
o/anoaoao ana iaiueoay /anoue a?aaeaeai. ?aneeioaoaany ia ia?iiiua
i?ino?ainoaa ainoaea?noai ia?a?anoaao oi?iu, onoaiiaeaiiua aeey
ainoaea?noaa-ai?iaea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaino?aiea i?ioeai?a/ee aioo?e
eeanna ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa e oneeaiea eeanniaie ai?ueau canoaaeyao e?oiiuo
?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa, aea?aeaaoeo a naieo ?oeao aeanoue, noaeeaaoue, a
caoai e eeeaeaee?iaaoue aeaaea oa neoaeiua yeaiaiou aeaiie?aoecia,
eioi?ua niaea?aeaeenue a ia?iaeiuo nia?aieyo. Aeanoue eiioeaio?e?oaony a
?oeao i?aayuae a?enoie?aoe/aneie yeeou.

A ?oeao iaaeno?aoia, oi?iaeueii auae?aaiuo ia?iaeiuie nia?aieyie, a ii
nouanoao iacia/aaiuo naiaoii, nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey,
aiaiiay e aaeieieno?aoeaiay aeanoue. I?aaeaeu aeanoe iaaeno?aoia ia auee
oi/ii i/a?/aiu caeiiii, e iaaeno?aou auee naiaiaeiu a naieo aeaenoaeyo,
ii ii nouanoao iaoiaeeeenue a caaeneiinoe io naiaoa. TH?eaee/anee
iaaeno?aoii iia auoue ethaie ?eineee a?aaeaeaiei, ii oaeoe/anee
aeieaeiinoe iaaeno?aoia caiauaeenue ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iiaeeeoaoa.

Ii iauaio i?aaeeo eaaeaeue iaaeno?ao ecae?aaony ia iaeei aiae, i?e/ai ia
eaaeaeoth aeieaeiinoue (e?iia aeeeoaoi?a) auae?aaony ianeieueei eeoe. Ii
ioaeaao ?anii?yaeaiey eaaeaeue iaaeno?ao naiinoiyoaeueii. Iaeiaei ethaie
aai eieeaaa (a ?aaii iaaeno?ao aieaa aunieiai ?aiaa) iiaeao
aiioee?iaaoue ioaeaiiia ?anii?yaeaiea. Oai naiui ia?aie/eaaeinue ee/iia
oniio?aiea ioaeaeueiuo iaaeno?aoia e a ?yaea neo/aaa aicieeaea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey ia?ii?eyoee. Iaaeno?aou
ia iieo/aee aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Aieaa oiai, ei i?eoiaeeeinue ianoe
cia/eoaeueiua ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n ecae?aoaeueiuie eaiiaieyie e n
auiieiaieai aeieaeiinoe. Ii, eiia/ii, yoa “aacaiciacaeiinoue” yaeyeanue
oeeoeaiie: iaaeno?aoo?a yaeyeanue iaen/a?iaaiui enoi/ieeii any/aneeo
aeioiaeia.

Iieiiii/ey iaaeno?aoia: a) eiiaiaeiaaiea aieneii e caeeth/aiea
ia?aie?ee, a) i?aai niae?aoue naiao e ia?iaeiia nia?aiea e
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue a ieo, a) i?aai noaea e iaeiaeaiey iaeacaiee,
a) i?aai ecaeaaaoue i?eeacu e i?eioaeaeaoue e eo eniieiaieth. A ninoaa
potestes, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoae anai iaaeno?aoai, aoiaeeei: a) i?aai
ecaeaaaoue iauea ?anii?yaeaiey yaeeeou, a) i?aai iaeaaaoue oo?aou ca
iaauiieiaiea ?anii?yaeaiee.

Eiinoeu, ecae?aaoeany a /enea aeaoo. ssaeyynue aa?oiaiuie iaaeno?aoaie,
iie inouanoaeyee eiiaiaeiaaiea aieneii. Aeanoue eiinoea ai a?aiy iioiaea
ia eiaea ia?aie/aiee. Eiinoeu yaeyeenue e aunoeie aaeieieno?aoeaiuie
aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie: nicuaaee naiao e ia?iaeiua nia?aiey, aaaeaee
aioo?aiiei oi?aaeaieai e o. i.

Aeeeoaoi? yaeyeny /?acau/aeiui iaaeno?aoii, o.a. iacia/aeny eeoue a
iniauo neo/ayo. Aeeeoaoi?a iacia/ae iaeei ec eiinoeia ii i?aaeeiaeaieth
naiaoa. Aeeeoaoi?o iiae/eiyeenue ana iaaeno?aou, a ieaaaeneee o?eaoi ia
eiae veto a ioiioaiee aai ?anii?yaeaiee. Aeaenoaey aeeeoaoi?a ia
iiaeeaaeaee iaaeaeiaaieth. Ii aeeeoaoo?a auea ia?aie/aia e?aoeei, a
eiaiii 6iany/iui n?ieii. Aeeeoaoo?a o/?aaeaeaeanue i?e iaee/ee
na?ueaciie aiaiiie iianiinoe, i?e aicieeiiaaiee ainnoaiee e a iaeioi?uo
ae?oaeo /?acau/aeiuo neo/ayo.

I?aoi?u. Ia?aiia/aeueii i?aoi?u yaeyeenue eeoue caianoeoaeyie eiinoeia.
Iie a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo eiiaiaeiaaee aieneii e aaaeaee
aaeieieno?aoeaiuie aeaeaie. Ii iinoaiaiii iniiaiie ooieoeeae i?aoi?a
noaei iai?aaeaiea noaeueyi aeey ?ac?aoaiey eiouanoaaiiuo aeae, i?e/ai
yoi iai?aaeaiea nii?iaiaeaeaeinue oeacaieai, eae aeieaeii auoue ?aoaii
aeaei a caaeneiinoue io oiai, eaeea ianoiyoaeuenoaa aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu.

Oeaici?u ecae?aeenue a /enea aeaoo ia n?ie a iieoi?a aiaea. Iie
ninoaaeyee nienee naiaoi?ia e ?ani?aaeaeyee a?aaeaeai ii oeaioo?eyi e
o?eaai, i?iecaiaey ioeaieo eiouanoaa a?aaeaeai.

Eo?oeueiua yaeeeu, ecae?aaoeany a /enea aeaoo, aaaeaee ii?yaeeii a ?eia,
iaaeci?ii ca ?uieaie, i?aaiecaoeeae c?aeeu. Iie eiaee th?enaeeeoeeth ii
aeaeai i i?iaeaaea ia ?uieao ?aaia e neioa.

Eaanoi?u eiaee ?aciiia?acioth eiiiaoaioeeth: iaeie aaaeaee iaeioi?uie
oaieiaiuie aeaeaie, ae?oaea o?aieee eacio, iieo/aee ieaoaaee e
auiea/eaaee aeaiueae.

E?iia oiai, aue ?yae iaaeno?aoia, aaaeaaoeo iaeioi?uie noaeaaiuie
aeaeaie, iaaeci?ii ca /aeaieie iiiaou, aei?iaaie e o. i. Iniaua
iaaeno?aou oi?aaeyee i?iaeioeeyie (aiaeoaeeeneeie caieyie).

AEeoaee i?iaeioeee ia?auaeenue a ?aanoai eee noaiiaeeenue iiaeaeaiiuie
?eia, ia iieo/ay i?aa a?aaeaeainoaa, e iaeaaaeenue oyaeaeuie iaeiaaie.
I?iaeioeee ?anniao?eaaeenue eae “iiianouey ?eineiai ia?iaea”, e
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?iaeioeeaeueiuo caiaeue aeeth/aeanue a ninoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caiaeue. Eaeiai-eeai iauaai ii?yaeea oi?aaeaiey
i?iaeioeeyie ia nouanoaiaaei. ?ei iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaiaeee i?eioeei
“?acaeaeye e aeanoaoe”. Ai aeaaa i?iaeioeee noiye ?eineee iaaeno?ao,
i?e/ai e eiioeo ?anioaeeeaineiai ia?eiaea i?iaeioeee oi?aaeyeenue iau/ii
ieii/eaoeie n?ie naiae neoaeau eiinoeaie e i?aoi?aie. Oi?aaeoaeth
i?iaeioeee i?eiaaeeaaeaea any iieiioa aeanoe: ii yaeyeny aunoei
aaeieieno?aoi?ii, aiaia/aeueieeii e noaeueae.

3.2 ?eineay eiia?ey

?anioaeeeaineea o/?aaeaeaiey ?eia neiaeeeenue eae i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey
iaaieueoei iieenii. Auiieiyoue oa aea ooieoeee a ioiioaiee anae ia?iiiie
aea?aeaau, a eioi?oth i?aa?aoeeny ?ei a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey aeoeaiie
aiaiiie iieeoeee, iie ia iiaee. Yoo caaea/o enoi?e/anee noaeaeaii auei
auiieieoue ?eineie eiia?ee. Ia?eiae iiia?oee aeaeeeny ia aeaa /anoe: a)
i?eioeeiao (aei III a.) e a) aeiieiao (IVV a.).

1. I?eioeeiao. Ia?eiae i?eioeeiaoa iieo/ee nai? iacaaiea ii oeooeo
eeoea, noiyuaai ai aeaaa ?eineiai ainoaea?noaa, i?eioeaina. N oi/ee
c?aiey i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia ia?eiae i?eioeeiaoa
eiaao aeaeeiinoue ia?aoiaeiiai yoaia io ?anioaeeee e iiia?oee. A ?oeao
i?eioeaina nin?aaeioi/eaaaony iinoaiaiii aaeeiiee/iay e iaia?aie/aiiay
aeanoue, ii n nio?aiaieai a aieueoai eee iaiueoai iauaia iaeioi?uo
?anioaeeeaineeo o/?aaeaeaiee, iaoiaeyueony, iaeiaei, a caaeneiinoe io
i?eioeaina.

I?eioeain. Aua a 36 a. aei i.y. Ieoaaeai aue eca?ai iiaeeciaiii
o?eaoiii. A 31 a. ii ecae?aaony eiinoeii, a 29 a. aio auea
i?aaeinoaaeaia aeanoue oeaici?a. Ieoaaeai iieo/ee caaiea “ia?aue
naiaoi?”. Yoio oeooe nouanoaiaae e ?aiueoa: oae iacuaaeny naiaoi?,
eioi?ue noiye ia?aui a nienea i?aoi?ia, ii ii ieeaeeie iniauie i?aaaie
ia iieueciaaeny. Iaiai?io Ieoaaeai, eae i?eioeain, noae ?anniao?eaaoueny
eae aunoaa aeieaeiinoiia eeoei. A 27 a. Ieoaaeai aue iaea/ai aunoae
aeanoueth e anei?a iinea yoiai i?eiye eiy Aaaonoa (o.a. “aicaaee/aiiiai”
aiaaie). Aeanoue i?eioeaina aeeth/aea a naay eiiaiaeiaaiea aieneaie,
aaaeaiea aiaoieo niioaiee e caeeth/aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia,
?oeiaiaenoai ecaeaieai caeiiia, oi?aaeaiea ?eiii e i?iaeioeeyie.

Aeanoue i?eioeainia ia?aiia/aeueii ia auea ianeaaenoaaiiie. Eca?aiea
iiaiai i?eioeaina i?iecaiaeeeinue naiaoii.

Ii ia?a ?inoa aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ee e aiaoieo ineiaeiaiee aeanoue ana
aieaa eiinieeaee?oaony a ?oeao i?eioeaina. A ia/aea III a. ciaiaieoue
?eineee th?eno Oeueieai n iieiui iniiaaieai neacae: “/oi ?aoee
i?eioeainoi eiaao neeo caeiia”. Iooiaeyo ia aoi?ie ieai e aeaaea aiana
oo?a/eaatho naia cia/aiea ?anioaeeeaineea o/?aaeaeaiey.

Iio?aaiinoe oi?aaeaiey ia?iiiie eiia?eae aucaaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
?acaeoii aaeieieno?aoeaiii e aiaiiii aiia?aoa i?eioeaina. Yoio aiia?ao
ninoieo ia ec auai?iuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, a ec neoa i?eioeaina, eioi?uo
ii iacia/aao e niauaao ii naiaio oniio?aieth e eioi?ua yaeythony
iineooiuie i?oaeeyie a aai ?oeao. I?e i?eioeaina ninoieo niaauaiea,
eioi?ia ianoaeaeaao aaaeiaeoea aeaea.

Iii?ie aeanoe i?eioeaina yaeyeanue a?iey. I?e Aaaonoa auea cae?aieaia
i?aaiecaoeey iinoiyiiie a?iee (a ninoaaa 500 000 /aeiaae), ?aciauaiiie
i?aeiouanoaaiii a iia?aie/iuo i?iaeioeeyo. Ii iauaio i?aaeeo a?iey
eiiieaeoiaaeanue iooai iaeia ia n?ie neoaeau a 20 eao. Ii a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo i?iecaiaeeeny e i?eioaeeoaeueiue iaai? e ia oieueei iieiii?aaiuo
?eineeo a?aaeaeai, ii e aieueiiioiouaiieeia. Aunoee eiiaiaeiue ninoaa
iacia/aeny i?eioeainii ec eeoe naiaoi?neiai e anaaeie/aneiai nineiaee.
A?iey, neiaaiiay no?iaie aeenoeeieeiie e naieie i?ioanneiiaeueiuie
eioa?anaie, i?aaenoaaeyea niaie a?icioth neeo. Iniaia iieiaeaiea
caieiaea eiia?aoi?neay aaa?aeey (i?aoi?eaioeu), ninoaaeyaoay aa?iecii
?eia e ee/ioth io?aio eiia?aoi?a.

Nouanoaoao iniaay eacia eiia?aoi?a (oene). A iaa iinooiatho aeioiaeu io
ee/iiai eiouanoaa eiia?aoi?a, n ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa a i?iaeioeeyo,
aeaiue e iaeiae n iiei?aiiuo ia?iaeia e o. i. A yoie eacia
nin?aaeioi/eaathony ia?iiiua n?aaenoaa, aeathuea i?eioeaino
aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeeoue aai iieeoeeo, e niioaaonoaaiii iaaeaao
cia/aiea iauaainoaea?noaaiiie eaciu, iaoiaeyuaeny a aaaeaiee naiaoa.

Ia?iaeiua nia?aiey oo?a/eaatho anyeia cia/aiea. Eeoue a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo e eeoue a ia/aea ia?eiaea i?eioeeiaoa i?iaeou caeiiia,
iaeia?aiiua naiaoii, aiinyony ia aieiniaaiea oeaioo?eaoiuo e o?eaooiuo
nia?aiee, ii yoi aieiniaaiea yaeyaony /enoie oi?iaeueiinoueth.

A ia/aea i?eioeeiaoa naiao aua nio?aiyao iaeioi?ia, oioy e aanueia
ia?aie/aiiia, aeeyiea ia ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea. Eiiea i?aaeieo
o/?aaeaeaiee i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiii, e iaaeaeo naiaoii e i?eioeainii
i?ienoiaeeo a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ai?ueaa, ii yoa ai?ueaa iaeciaiii
caeai/eaaaony iiaaaeie i?eioeaina. Eiiieaeoiaaiea naiaoa i?iecaiaeeony
anaoeaei i?eioeainii, e i?e oaeeo oneiaeyo noaiiaeony iiiyoiui, /oi a
iaeioi?uo ioiioaieyo eiiiaoaioeey naiaoa oi?iaeueii ?anoe?yaony: a
eioa?anao iiia?oee eniieuecothony i?eau/iua ?anioaeeeaineea oi?iu. Oae,
naiaoo i?aaeinoaaeyaony caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue, ii ii eeoue
iaoaie/anee ooaa?aeaeaao i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eioeaina.

Iaaeno?aou oaea eeoaiu ?aaeueiie aeanoe: iie yaeythony eniieieoaeyie
?anii?yaeaiee i?eioeaina e eo iniiaiua ooieoeee ia?aoiaeyo e
eiia?aoi?neei /eiiaieeai. Aaeeinoaaiiui iaaeno?aoii, nio?aieaoei naia
cia/aiea aei II a., yaeyaony i?aoi?. Iaeiaei, anee ii e oaea?aeae
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue naieo ooieoeee, oi oa?aeoa? aai aeayoaeueiinoe
eciaieeny: ?acaeoea /anoiiai i?aaa iooai i?aoi?neiai yaeeeoa ineaaeyaony
e iniiaiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa noaiiayony ?anii?yaeaiey eiia?aoi?a.

Iinoaiaiii naeaaeeaaaony ?acee/ea iaaeaeo Eoaeeae e i?iaeioeeyie: any
oa??eoi?ey ?eineie eiia?ee iieo/aao aaeeiiia?aciia ono?ienoai. Eoaeey
iinoaiaiii oo?a/eaaao naia i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea. Iaeioi?ua
iaueiu nio?aiytho ecaanoioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ai aioo?aiieo aeaeao e
ai acaeiiioiioaieyo eo a?aaeaeai aeaenoaoao ianoiia i?aai. Nouanoaotho e
iaeioi?ua i?iaeioeeaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, iaeiaei eiiiaoaioeey eo neeueii
o?acaia. A i?iaeioeeyo niaea?aeaony iinoiyiiua ?eineea aa?ieciiu e
aaiaeeony ?eineay iieeoeey. ?eineea /eiiaieee inouanoaeytho e noaeaaiua
ooieoeee, /oi niaeaenoaoao auoaniaieth ianoiiai i?aaa i?aaii ?eineei.
Yenieoaoaoeey i?iaeioeee a iieueco eaciu i?eioeaina noaiiaeony
nenoaiaoe/aneie, aeoaieie e ?ann/eoaiiie ia aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae.

2. Aeiieiao. (III IVaa.). Ia?aae eeoeii ainnoaiee ?aaia e aiaiiuo
ii?aaeaiee io “aa?aa?ia” yenieoaoaoi?u aeaeatho iineaaeithth iiiuoeo
ion?i/eoue /an naiae aeaaee e euoo nianaiey a aeaeueiaeoai oneeaiee
aiaiiiai oa??i?a. ?eineay ainoaea?noaaiiay iaoeia iineaaeiaai ia?eiaea
yaeyaony aiaiiie aeaniioeae eiia?aoi?a, au?aaeathuae oeaio?aeeciaaiioth
aiaiioth aeeeoaoo?o aa?oooee eeanna ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa. A nayce n yoei a
eiioea III a. e ia/aea IV a. auea i?iecaaaeaia aiaiiay ?aoi?ia. A?iey
auea neeueii oaaee/aia e ?acaeaeaia ia iiaeaeaeiua aienea,
i?aaeiacia/aaoeany aeey ai?ueau n ainnoaieyie e iioiaeia, e ia
iia?aie/iua aienea. A ia/aea IV a. auea aaaaeaia iniaay aeieaeiinoue
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai. Eciaieeny e ii?yaeie eiiieaeoiaaiey a?iee.
Caieaaeaaeaeueoeu a caaeneiinoe io /enea eo ?aaia aeieaeiu auee
aunoaaeyoue ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai ?ae?ooia. Iia?aie/iua aienea
eiiieaeoiaaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii ec aa?aa?ia.

O?enoeaineay oea?eiaue noaea iiuiie i?aaiecaoeeae, n eioi?ie oaea
aeieaeii auei n/eoaoueny ainoaea?noai. O?enoeaineea iaueiu iieo/eee
i?aai naiaiaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe e i?aai aeaaeaoue eiouanoaii. A IV a.
o?enoeainoai noaei ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeae. O?enoeaineay oea?eiaue
anai naiei aaoi?eoaoii iiaeaea?aeeaaea ainiiaenoaothuea eeannu e
“ii?aaaeuaaea” eiia?aoi?neoth aeanoue.

A ia?eiae aeiieiaoa oneeeaaaony oa??i?, aeiaiaeeony aei ia?aaeaea
iaeiaiaia iaeiaeaiea, aaiaeeony iaei/iay ?aaeaiaioaoeey. Ii eaeao
?aniaae ?eineie eiia?ee, e ana iiiuoee nianoe iieiaeaiea yaeythony
ouaoiuie ?ei auno?aa eaeao e naiae aeaaee.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oneeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe aeey caueou
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai no?iy io ?aaia, iaii?a “aa?aa?ia” e
aeaoeaio?aeenoneeo no?aieaiee yenieoaoe?oaiuo ?eiii i?iaeioeee, aucaaea
na?ueaciua eciaiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy. Aua i?e Aeeieeaoeeaia
(eiiaoe III a.) iaia/aaony ?acaeaeaiea eiia?ee ia aeaa iieiaeiu
ainoi/ioth e caiaaeioth. Ieii/aoaeueii yoi ?acaeaeaiea i?iecioei i?e
Oaiaeinee 1 (395 a.). Yoio i?ioeann ciaiaiiaae niaie ineaaeaiea
oicyenoaaiiuo naycae iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie /anoyie eiia?ee. Ai aeaaa
eaaeaeie iieiaeiu eiia?ee noiye iniaue aaaono, eiaaoee nii?aaeoaey,
iineaoaai oeooe oeaca?y. Ia?aiia/aeueii iaa iieiaeiu ?anniao?eaaeenue
eae /anoe aaeeiiai ainoaea?noaa, ii a aeaeueiaeoai yoe /anoe iinoaiaiii
iainiaeyeenue, e e eiioeo aeiieiaoa oaea iiaeii aiai?eoue i aeaoo
ioaeaeueiuo ainoaea?noaao (Caiaaeiay e Ainoi/iay Eiia?ee).

Ai aeaaa eiia?ee (a aiineaaenoaee eaaeaeie iieiaeiu eiia?ee) noieo
eiia?aoi?, iinyuee oeooe aaaonoa e aeaaeuee. Aeanoue aai i?eciaaony
iaia?aie/aiiie. Naiaai aeeaeaeoaai iiiiuieea, oeaca?y, auae?aao
eiia?aoi?; iau/ii oeaca?ue yaeyaony nuiii eiia?aoi?a e aio ianeaaeoao.
Oaeoe/aneia oi?aaeaiea eiia?eae iaoiaeeeinue a ?oeao iiiai/eneaiiie
ath?ie?aoee.

Naiao e iaeioi?ua iaaeno?aou oioy e nio?aiythony, ii oo?a/eaatho anyeia
aeeyiea ia ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea. Oeaio?aeueiui i?aaiii,
?anniao?eaathuei aaaeiaeoea aii?inu, yaeyeny niaao i?e eiia?aoi?a
(eiinenoi?ey). Aeaaiui aeieaeiinoiui eeoeii yaeyaony oi?aaeythuee
aeai?ii. E?iia iaai, i?e eiia?aoi?a ninoieo ?yae oi?aaeaiee, iniiaaiiuo
ia i?eioeeia oeaio?aeecaoeee e ea?a?oe/aneie iiae/eiaiiinoe.

Iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie i?aaiecaoeee ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey yaeythony:
no?iaay oeaio?aeecaoeey, iiiai/eneaiiinoue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
/eiiaieeia, ioaeaeaiea aiaiiie aeanoe io a?aaeaeaineie. Ana ieoe
ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey noiaeeeenue a ?ei, e caaea/aie ianoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee
yaeyeinue auaeeiaiea ec iiaeaeaiiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oyainoiuo iaeiaia e
iaoo?aeueiuo iinoaaie, aaniiuaaeiay ai?ueaa ni anyeiai ?iaea aieiaieyie
e i?iyaeaieyie iaaeiaieuenoaa.

Eaaeaeay iieiaeia eiia?ee ?acaeaeyeanue ia aeaa i?aoaeoo?u, i?aoaeoo?u
aeaeeeenue ia aeeioeacu (ia caiaaea auei 6 aeeioeacia, ia ainoiea 7
aeeioeacia), aeeioeac ?acaeaeyeny ia i?iaeioeee (a iaeiie Caiaaeiie
eiia?ee auei 34 i?iaeioeee), e iaeiiaoe, i?iaeioeee aeaeeeenue ia
ie?oaa. A yoeo ie?oaao auee e i?aaiu ec ianoiiai ianaeaiey (naiao e
ioieoeeiaeueiua iaaeno?aou), ii iiae/eiyaoeany eiia?aoi?neei /eiiaieeai.
Ai aeaaa ?eia noiye i?aoaeo ai?iaea, iaiin?aaenoaaiii iiae/eiaiiue
eiia?aoi?o. Naiao nio?aieeny, ii aaaeae /enoi ianoiuie aeaeaie ai?iaea
?eia. Caiaaeiay ?eineay eiia?ey iaea iiae oaea?aie aa?aa?ia a 476a.
Ainoi/iay ?eineay eiia?ey Aecaioey i?inouanoaiaaea au? ii/oe ouny/o eao,
aieaey a ie? oaiaeaeecia .

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