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История государственности древнего мира

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Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaaiiinoe ae?aaiaai ie?a I?ienoiaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa

1. Ia?aiauoiia iauanoai

Ia?aiauoiiiaueiiue no?ie yoi iauanoai, ia ciaaoaa eeanniaiai aeaeaiey,
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e i?aaiauo ii?i.

Aianoa n oai i?e/eiu, eioi?ua aiineaaenoaee aucaaee aicieeiiaaiea
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, ca?iaeaeaeenue e oi?ie?iaaeenue eiaiii a oneiaeyo
ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa, e iioiio aai oa?aeoa?enoeea yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie
i?aaeiinueeie aeey auyniaiey yoeo i?e/ei.

Iniiaie yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy yaeyeanue
eieeaeoeaiay nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa i?e
o?aaieoaeueiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeiauaaaoeony iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa.

Iaee/ea eieeaeoeaiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa
ii?aaeaeyeinue ieceei o?iaiai ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. I?oaeey
o?oaea oie aeaeaeie yiioe auee i?eieoeaiu, ethaee aea ia eiaee
aeinoaoi/ii aeinoiaa?iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ie ia ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ie i naieo naaa. ssnii, /oi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
o?oaea a oa a?aiaia auea i/aiue ieceie. Neaainoue ethaeae ia?aae eeoeii
i?e?iaeu, no?iaua oneiaey aeecie, iinoiyiiay ai?ueaa ni noeoeae
canoaaeyee eo iauaaeeiyoueny a eieeaeoea, o?oaeeoueny niiaua. Iauee
o?oae iaecaaaeii aae e niaianoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, e ?ani?aaeaeaieth i?iaeoeoia ia ia/aeao ?aaainoaa.

Iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai no?iy ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa iaoneiaeeaaee a
eiia/iii eoiaa aai nioeeaeueioth no?oeoo?o e aeooiaioth aeeciue,
niaoeeoeeo aeanoe e nioeeaeueiuo ii?i.

Iniiaiie y/aeeie ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa aue ?iae. Ii aiciee aneaaenoaea
aeeeoaeueiie yaiethoeee, eioi?ay i?ienoiaeeea a i?aaeoanoaothuee
ia?eiae. Ethaee, aeeaoea “ia?aiauoiui noaaeii”, iiae aicaeaenoaeai
o?oaea ana aieaa i?eia?aoaee /a?ou “iauanoaaiiiai /aeiaaea”.

Ia?ainoaiaiioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee iauanoaaiiiai /aeiaaea e iiyaeaiee
?iaea nua?ae O?OAe. Ia /aeiaae n aai niciaieai nicaeae o?oae, a o?oae
nicaeae /aeiaaea n aai niciaieai. Aeey yiioe “ia?aiauoiiai noaaea” auea
oa?aeoa?ia iieiaay iaoii?yaei/aiiinoue, o. a. i?iieneoeoao.
Aicieeiiaaiea ?iaeiaiai iauanoaa auei naycaii n ia?aoiaeii e a?oiiiaiio
a?aeo. Yoa oi?ia a?a/iuo ioiioaiee ?aiiae ?iaeiaie iaueiu
oa?aeoa?ecoaony yeciaaieae, o.a. ii?yaeeii, i?e eioi?ii cai?auaeinue
anooiaoue a a?a/iua ioiioaiey aioo?e ?iaea e ioaeii auei a?aoue aeai e
ioaeae a ae?oaii ?iaea. Yoei ii?aaeaeyeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ninouanoaiaaiey aeaoo yeciaaiiuo ?iaeiauo eieeaeoeaia a ?aieao iaeiiai
acaeiia?a/iiai iauaaeeiaiey (aeoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee).

Aicieeiiaaiea ?iaea ciaiaiiaaei niaie aieueoie oaa aia?aae a
nioeeaeueiii ?acaeoee. ?iaeiaay iaueia auea oaea iiaeeeiii iauanoaaiiui
i?aaieciii, iauaaeeiaieai, aunooiaaoei eae i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
oicyenoaaiiue eieeaeoea.

Iauay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth, i?oaeey o?oaea e i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey,
y?ei au?aaeaiiia o?aaieoaeuenoai iaoneiaeeaaee oaeea acaeiiioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ni?iaee/aie, i?e eioi?uo ainiiaenoaiaaee eioa?anu eieeaeoeaa.
Ana /eaiu ?iaea naiaiaeiua ethaee, naycaiiua e?iaiuie ocaie. Eo
ioiioaiey no?ieeenue ia iniiaa acaeiiiiiiue, a?aonoaa, ieeoi ia eiae
eaeeoeeai i?aeiouanoa ia?aae ae?oaeie. ?iae eae ia?aiia/aeueiay y/aeea
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa aue oieaa?naeueiie i?aaiecaoeeae, oa?aeoa?iie
aeey anao ia?iaeia.

Ia ?aiieo nooiaiyo ia?aiauoiie yiioe nouanoaiaae iao?ea?oao. ?iaenoai
aaeinue eneeth/eoaeueii ii iaoa?eineie eeiee, eai a oneiaeyo a?oiiiaiai
a?aea ieeoi ia iia aeinoiaa?ii ciaoue naiaai iooea. Ia yoie nooiaie e
iniaaiii iicaeiaa, n aicieeiiaaieai ?acaeoie iaoa?eineie iaueiu,
aeaiueia caieiaea ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea a yeiiiieea. Aa o?oae,
ninoiyaoee a niae?aiee e o?aiaiee ieiaeia, i?eaioiaeaiee ieue, a aeaaiia
a ia?aaioea caiee n iiiiuueth iiouae, aue a oao oneiaeyo ai?acaei aieaa
yooaeoeaiui e iaaeaaeiui enoi/ieeii nouanoaiaaiey, /ai o?oae
ioae/eiu-ioioieea.

A i?aaeaeao iaoa?eineie iaueiu nouanoaiaaei anoanoaaiiia
(iieiaic?anoiia) ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea: a?oiiu ioae/ei, aeaiuei, noa?eeia,
aeaoae caieiaeenue ?acee/iuie aeaeaie o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iinoaiaiii noaeaeny e?oa a?a/iuo naycae, e ia niaio a?oiiiaiio a?aeo
i?eoea ia?iay naiuey. Yoi aue neaaue e iaonoie/eaue a?a/iue nithc i?e
naiaiaea ?acaiaea aeey ethaie ec noi?ii. Ee/iia eiouanoai oia?oeo /eaiia
?iaea ianeaaeiaae ?iae.

Eeanne/aneee ?iae i?aaenoaaeye niaie iniiaaiioth ia eieeaeoeaiii o?oaea
e iauae nianoaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeeth ethaeae, aaaeoueo i?ienoiaeaeaiea io
iaeiie iauae ?iaeiia/aeueieoeu.

Yeiiiie/aneei ioiioaieyi ?iaeiaiai no?iy niioaaonoaiaaee i?aaiecaoeey
iauanoaaiiie aeanoe e nenoaia oi?aaeaiey aeaeaie ?iaea. Iineoaeai aeanoe
yaeyeinue ana iauanoai. Iia ia auea ioaeaeaia io iauanoaa, a niaiaaeaea
n iei, i?eiaaeeaaeaea aio. Ana aaaeiua aii?inu aeecie iauanoaa,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aieiu, ?aeeaeiciuo oea?aiiiee,
?ac?aoaiey nii?ia iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie e o. ae. ?aoaeenue
nia?aieai (niaaoii) anao ac?ineuo /eaiia ?iaea ioae/ei e aeaiuei. Yoi
nia?aiea, aicieeoaa aianoa n ?iaeii, auei aunoae aeanoueth a iai. Aeey
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey aeaeaie nia?aiea auae?aei noa?aeoei
(aiaeaeae) e aiaiiuo i?aaeaiaeeoaeae (aiaia/aeueieeia), eioi?ua ia eiaee
eaeeo-eeai iaoa?eaeueiuo i?aeiouanoa, o?oaeeeenue ia?yaeo ni anaie e
iieueciaaeenue eeoue ii?aeueiui aaoi?eoaoii. Yoe eeoea iiaee auoue
niauaiu nia?aieai a ethaia a?aiy, iie inouanoaeyee naie ooieoeee iiae
eiio?ieai ?iaea.

?aoaiey nia?aiey yaeyeenue niaa?oaiii iaycaoaeueiuie aeey anao e
aini?eieiaeenue eae au?aaeaiea iauae aiee.

Iauanoaaiiay aeanoue i?e ia?aiauoiii no?ia auea aanueia aaoi?eoaoiie,
aiieia ?aaeueiie, niiniaiie yooaeoeaii ?oeiaiaeeoue iaueiie. Iia,
aaconeiaii, iaeaaeaea aiciiaeiinoueth i?eioaeaeaiey ii ioiioaieth e
ia?ooeoaeyi ii?yaeea, ii ieeaeeo iniauo i?aaiia, inouanoaeyaoeo
i?eioaeeoaeueiua ia?u, ia eiaea.

Anee aicieeaea iio?aaiinoue ?aoaiey aeae, naycaiiuo n ia?ooaieyie oao
eee eiuo iau/aaa, i?aanoaaiiuo eee ?aeeaeiciuo onoaiiaeaiee (aeae ia
eciaia, o?oninoe, e?iainiaoaiee e o.i.), oi yoei caieiaeinue naii
nia?aiea, o.a. aanue ?iae. E eiaiii caeanue auiineeinue ?aoaiea i
iaeacaiee i?iaeieaoaainy, e eioi?iio iiaee auoue i?eiaiaiu oaeea ia?u,
eae ii?eoeaiea, oei?, caia/aiea, ecaiaiea ec ?iaea.

A i?eioeeia ?iae i?aaenoaaeye niaie aiieia naiinoiyoaeueioth
nioeeaeueioth iauiinoue. Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeoaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee, auoaeaaoae ec yeciaaiee, iaoneiaeeaaea iinoiyiiia iauaiea
n ae?oaei ?iaeii. Ia yoie iniiaa neeaaeuaaeny nithc ?iaeia, iieo/eaoee
iacaaiea “o?ao?ey”. Ianeieueei o?ao?ee ii ia?a ?acaeoey iauanoaa
iauaaeeiyeenue a ieaiy.

I?aaiecaoeey aeanoe ai o?ao?ee iniiauaaeanue ia oao aea i?eioeeiao, /oi
e a ?iaeiaie iaueia. Iaeiaei a ?yaea neo/aaa niaao o?ao?ee,
inouanoaeyaoee aeanoiua ooieoeee, i?aaenoaaeye niaie ia iauaa nia?aiea
anao aa /eaiia, a oi?ie?iaaeny ec noa?aeoei ?iaeia, aoiaeeaoeo ai
o?ao?eth.

A ieaiaie iauanoaaiiay aeanoue inouanoaeyeanue ieaiaiiui niaaoii, a
eioi?ue aoiaeeee i?aaenoaaeoaee o?ao?ee noa?aeoeiu, aiaia/aeueieee,
ae?aoeu.

?anniio?aiiua auoa oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee aeanoe a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa
aeatho ana iniiaaiey neacaoue, /oi yoa aeanoue aunooiaea eae
naiioi?aaeaiea, ia?aiauoiay aeaiie?aoey. Oaeie aa oa?aeoa? ii?aaeaeyeny
yeiiiie/aneei no?iai, iniiaie eioi?iai auea eieeaeoeaiay nianoaaiiinoue
ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoneiaeaoay nioeeaeueiia ?aaainoai anao
/eaiia iauanoaa.

A ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa aeaenoaiaaee ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey
nioeeaeueiua ii?iu. E iei ioiineeenue aeaaiui ia?acii iau/ae, ea?aaoea
aanueia aaaeioth ?ieue a ?aaoee?iaaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia,
auoa, naiaeiuo e ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Iiiaea iau/ae auee oanii naycaiu n ii?iaie ia?aiauoiie i?aanoaaiiinoe
(ii?aee), ?aeeaeiciuie aaeaieyie, a /anoi e niaiaaeaee n ieie.
?aeeaeicioth ie?aneo iineee e ?acee/iua ia?yaeu, oea?aiiiee, naycaiiua n
ynoaoe/aneeie i?aaenoaaeaieyie ethaeae oie yiioe. Aieueoia cia/aiea
eiaee iiiai/eneaiiua cai?aou (oaao).

Iau/ae auee anoanoaaiiui ii?iaeaeaieai naiiai ia?aiauoiiai no?iy,
?acoeueoaoii e iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.

Iauanoai iai?aaeyei iiaaaeaiea eiaeeaeaea oae, /oiau iii niioaaonoaiaaei
eieeaeoeaiui eioa?anai. Yoiio e neoaeeee iiiai/eneaiiua iau/ae.

Iiiaea aaaeiua iau/ae iaiin?aaenoaaiii auoaeaee ec nouanoaiaaaoeo
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Oae, iau/ae ?aaainoaa anao /eaiia ?iaea io?aaeae
oaeoe/aneea ioiioaiey ?aaainoaa, neiaeeaoeany iauaeoeaii, a neeo
yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee ia?aiauoiiai no?iy. Yoi aea a iieiie ia?a
ioiineony e iau/ath ianeaaeiaaiey ?iaeo.

Nioeeaeueiua ii?iu ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa, eae e nouanoaiaaaoay oai
aeanoue, auee i?iaeoeoii enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee, eioi?ua ia ciaee
ioiioaiee ainiiaenoaa e ii?aaiuaiey. Nioeeaeueiua ii?iu au?aaeaee aieth
anao /eaiia ?iaea, a neeo /aai, eae i?aaeei, eniieiyeenue aeia?iaieueii.
Ieeaeiai ?acee/ey iaaeaeo i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie ia nouanoaiaaei: i?aai
aini?eieiaeinue eae iaycaiiinoue, a iaycaiiinoue (iai?eia?, neoaeaa a
iiie/aiee eee o/anoea a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee) eae i?aai. E i?aaii, e
iaycaiiinoueth yaeyeenue oaeaea e?iaiay ianoue eee, /oi aua aaaeiaa,
eieeaeoeaiue o?oae, ioioa e o.ae. No?iaia niaethaeaiea ii?i auei
i?eau/eie. Anee aea nouanoaiaaaoea i?aaeea ia?ooaeenue ioaeaeueiuie
eeoeaie, oi i?eioaeeoaeueiua ia?u enoiaeeee, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, io
anaai ?iaea a oeaeii.

2. ?aceiaeaiea ?iaeiaie i?aaiecaoeee e aicieeiiaaiea ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa

A i?ioeanna aeeeoaeueiiai, ii iaoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
nee, i?ienoiaeeaoaai ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa,
iinoaiaiii nicaeaaaeenue i?aaeiinueee aai ?aceiaeaiey.
Niaa?oainoaiaaeenue i?oaeey o?oaea, ethaee i?eia?aoaee ana iiaua
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaauee, iiauoaeanue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea,
aic?anoae o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u iauanoaa,

Ia?ainoaiaiioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee e ia?aoiaea io ia?aiauoiiai e
ea/anoaaiii iiaiio niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa nua?aei iauanoaaiiia
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.

Iu oaea ciaai, /oi ia ?aiiae nooiaie ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea auei anoanoaaiiui iaaeaeo ioae/eiaie e aeaiueiaie,
noa?eeaie e aeaoueie. A oo ii?o iii e ia iiaei auoue eiui: neeoeii
ianiaa?oaiiu aua auee naie ethaee e oa i?oaeey, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iie
aeiauaaee naaa n?aaenoaa e aeecie.

Iaeiaei eiaaea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu oniaa?oainoaiaaeenue, aicieeea
aiciiaeiinoue oeaeui ieaiaiai neiioeaio?e?iaaoue naie o?oaeiaua oneeey a
eaeie-oi iaeiie ii?aaeaeaiiie noa?a oicyenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa ia niaio
anoanoaaiiiio ?acaeaeaieth o?oaea i?eoee e?oiiua iauanoaaiiua
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. ?acaeoea caieaaeaeey e neioiaiaenoaa iinoaiaiii
i?eaaei e oiio, /oi nia/aea iaiaoeeanue, a caoai e iieiinoueth
inouanoaeeanue naiaia?aciay o?oaeiaay niaoeeaeecaoeey ioaeaeueiuo
ieaiai, eioi?ua noaee caieiaoueny eeai caieaaeaeeai, eeai
neioiaiaenoaii. I?iecioei ioaeaeaiea neioiaiaenoaa io caieaaeaeey.
Ianoooaneea ieaiaia auaeaeeeenue ec iauae iannu ianaeaiey, neioiaiaenoai
iainiaeeinue a naiinoiyoaeueioth io?aneue oicyenoaa. Yoi auei ia?aia
iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, i?eaaaeoaa e e?oiiui ia?aiaiai a
ia?aiauoiiiaueiiii no?ia.

Niaoeeaeecaoeey ianoooaneeo ?iaeiauo iauei e ieaiai a i?e?o/aiee neioa e
?aciiiaeaiee noaae aeaea iiuiue oie/ie ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee, i?eaaea e
?aceiio aic?anoaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Ianoooaneea ieaiaia
ia/aee iieo/aoue ai?acaei aieueoa ianea, iieiea, oeo?, oa?noe.
I?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue a noa?a neioiaiaenoaa, eae ie a eaeie
ae?oaie iaeanoe oicyenoaa, noaea enoi/ieeii iaeiieaiey eiouanoaa,
nicaeaiey aiaaonoa, i?aa?auaaoeony iinoaiaiii a iainiaeaiioth
nianoaaiiinoue aeiiaoieo iauei e ioaeaeueiuo naiae.

Cia/eoaeueii, ai ana aic?anoaaoeo ?acia?ao, oaaee/eaaeinue i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoia e a iaeanoe caieaaeaeey, /oi auei neaaenoaeai niaoeeaeecaoeee
?iaeia e ieaiai a yoie noa?a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. E caeanue oae
i?ioeann ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, iaeiieaiey i?iaeoeoia, ii ia
aeaiiii yoaia caiey a ioee/ea io neioa aua inoaaaeanue nianoaaiiinoueth
ieaiaie e eeoue ia?aaeaaaeanue a iieueciaaiea ioaeaeueiuo naiae.

A iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo ioaeaeueiay naiuey eee aeaaea iaeei
/aeiaae iiaee ia oieueei iaania/eoue naay iaiaoiaeeiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie
aeaaaie, ii e i?iecaanoe i?iaeoeoa naa?o oiai eiee/anoaa, eioi?ia auei
iaiaoiaeeii aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey nianoaaiiie aeecie, o. a. nicaeaoue
“ecauoie”, i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo.

Neio ia?aiia/aeueii ninoaaeye aeaaiia aiaaonoai ioaeaeueiuo naiae e
ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, i?aaeaea anaai oaeeo, eae noa?aeoeiu, aiaia/aeueieee,
ae?aoeu. I?enaiaiea ioaeaeueiuie naiueyie e ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa, aai iaeiieaiea, noeioee?iaaaoaany oai, /oi neio
aeaeaeny i?aaeiaoii iaiaia e i?eia?aoae ooieoeeth aeaiaa, i?eaaei e
iinoaiaiiiio auoaniaieth eieeaeoeaiie nianoaaiiinoe e aicieeiiaaieth
/anoiiai oicyenoaa, /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa.

?ino i?iecaiaenoaa oaaee/eaae aaeaaeiaaiia eiee/anoai o?oaea,
i?eoiaeeaoaany ia eaaeaeiai /eaia ?iaea, aeiiaoiae iaueiu eee
ioaeaeueiie naiuee. Iiyaeeanue iio?aaiinoue a i?eaea/aiee iiaie ?aai/ae
neeu. A? aeinoaaeyea aieia: anee ?aiueoa aiaiiiieaiiuo oaeaaee eee
i?eieiaee a ninoaa ?iaea, oi oaia?ue eo noaee ia?auaoue a ?aaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaea iinea ia?aiai e?oiiiai iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey
o?oaea, aneaaenoaea ao?iiai ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee aicieeea
/anoiay nianoaaiiinoue e iauanoai ?aneieieinue ia eeannu.

Enoi?ey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ia?auie ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaie iianaianoii
auee ianoooe e neioiaiaeu. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi eiaiii noaaea,
ninoaaeyaoea a oo yiioo aeaaiia aiaaonoai, ?aiaa ae?oaeo oeaiiinoae
ia?aoiaeeee a nianoaaiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo naiae e eeoe.

Iiia/aeo ?aanoai iineei nii?aaee/aneee oa?aeoa?, ii n aeaeueiaeoei
?acaeoeai yeiiiieee iii ana aieueoa oei?aiyeinue a nioeeaeueiie aeecie.

N aicieeiiaaieai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe i?ienoiaeeee eciaiaiey e a
naiaeiuo ioiioaieyo iinoaiaiiue ia?aoiae io ia?iiai a?aea e iiiiaaiee
(aaeeiia?a/eth). I?aa?auaiea ioae/eiu-ioioieea a ianoooa, iiyaeaiea
iaoaiiiai caieaaeaeey, noaaoaai oaeaea aeaeii ioae/eiu, i?eaaei e oiio,
/oi aeiiaoiyy ?aaioa aeaiueiu oo?aoeea naia aueia cia/aiea. Ana yoi
icia/aei iinoaiaiiia ieni?iaa?aeaiea iao?ea?oaoa, onoaiiaeaiea
aaeeiiaeanoey ioae/ei, o.a. aicieeiiaaiea iao?ea?oaoa, i?e eioi?ii
?iaenoai e ianeaaeiaaiea ii?aaeaeyeenue ii ioaeneie eeiee. ?iae noae
iao?ea?oaeueiui.

Ia?aui ?acoeueoaoii yoiai iiaiai yoaia a ?acaeoee ?iaeiaiai no?iy auei
ia?aciaaiea iao?ea?oaeueiie naiuee eee, eae aa aua iacuaatho,
iao?ea?oaeueiie aeiiiaie iaueiu. Aeaaiie oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie
iao?ea?oaeueiie naiuee auei aeeth/aiea a aa ninoaa, e?iia ioaea, aeaiu e
aeaoae, eiuo eeoe, iiae/eiaiiuo iaia?aie/aiiie aeanoe iooea eae aeaau
naiuee. Oeaeue anae yoie iao?ea?oaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ninoiyea a ooiaea
ca noaaeaie a ?aieao ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee e ae?oaeo oicyenoaaiiuo
?aaioao.

Aeinoeaeaiey a i?iiuoeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iniaaiii ecia?aoaiea
oeaoeeiai noaiea e oniaoe a ieaaea e ia?aaioea iaoaeeia, i?aaeaea anaai
aeaeaca, i?eaaee e ?acaeoeth ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Niaoeeaeecaoeey
a yoie iaeanoe aucuaaea ana aieueoee ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa ?aianeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee eeoaeiiai, aii/a?iiai e ae?.

?inei e i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee caieaaeaeey, eioi?ia ia?yaeo n ca?iii,
no?o/eiauie ?anoaieyie, o?oeoaie noaei aeaaaoue ?anoeoaeueiia ianei,
aeii e ae?oaea i?iaeoeou. Noieue ?aciiia?aciay aeayoaeueiinoue ia iiaea,
anoanoaaiii, inouanoaeyoueny iaeieie e oaie aea eeoeaie, a neeo /aai
?aianei ioaeaeeeinue io caieaaeaeey. Yoi auei aoi?ia iauanoaaiiia
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.

Ia i?ae?auaaoeeny ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iiauoae oeaiiinoue ?aai/ae neeu, e anee ia
i?aaeuaeouae nooiaie ?aanoai oieueei aicieeaei, oi oaia?ue iii
noaiiaeoueny nouanoaaiiie /anoueth iauanoaaiiie nenoaiu.

Iiaia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea iiaeaeei ca niaie iiaia ?acaeaeaiea iauanoaa ia
eeannu.

?acaeoea neioiaiaenoaa, caieaaeaeey, ?aianea eae naiinoiyoaeueiuo
io?aneae oicyenoaa i?eaaei e aieueoaio iaeiieaieth i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa. Iiyaeeinue i?iecaiaenoai iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey iaiaia
oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai, a aianoa n iei e oi?aiaey, eioi?ay aaeanue ia
oieueei aioo?e ieaiaie, ii e n caii?neeie no?aiaie.

Ia iineaaeothuai yoaia iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey aicieeoea aeaeu
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea oi?i/eaathony, iniaaiii aneaaenoaea iaino?aiey
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iaaeaeo ai?iaeii e aea?aaiae. E yoei aeaeai
i?eniaaeeiyaony o?aouea iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ?aoathuaai
cia/aiey: aicieeaao eoia/anoai, caieiathuaany oaea ia i?iecaiaenoaii, a
oieueei iaiaiii i?iaeoeoia.

E yoiio ia?eiaeo a nianoaaiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo eeoe ia?aoiaeeo e caiey.

Ia?aie eeanne/aneie oi?iie yenieoaoaoeee, oaiaoaiey e nioeeaeueiiai
ia?aaainoaa auei ?aanoai ?acoeueoao e?ooaiey ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa e
ia?aciaaiey iiaiai ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai iauanoaa. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua
ia?iaeu (iai?eia?, neaayia, ae?aaiea aa?iaioeu) a neeo iniauo
enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee ieiiaaee ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneee no?ie e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii io ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa ia?aoee e oaiaeaeueiiio.

Ia?aai?io a iauanoaaiiie aeecie, au?aceaoeeny a iinoaiaiiii ia?aoiaea io
aaneeanniaiai iauanoaa e eeanniaiio, nii?iaiaeaeaeny aeoaieeie
eciaiaieyie, i?ienoiaeeaoeie a i?aaiao ?iaeiaiai no?iy, ai anae
?iaeiieaiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. Naiuey iieo/eea aiciiaeiinoue
naiinoiyoaeueii aanoe oicyenoai. I?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe e naycaiiue n iei ia?aoiae io ia?iiai a?aea e iiiiaaiee
nicaeaee o?aueio a ae?aaiai ?iaeiaii no?ia: ioaeaeueiay naiuey noaea
oicyenoaaiiie aaeeieoeae iauanoaa, neeie, oa?iaeathua i?ioeainoiyuae
?iaeo. N ?ani?ino?aiaieai ?aanoaa ?inee i?ioeai?a/ey e oaeoaeyeanue
i?iianoue iaaeaeo aiaaouie e aaaeiuie naiueyie, ?ac?ooaeanue
yeiiiie/aneay iniiaa, ia eioi?oth iie?aeanue ?iaeiaay i?aaiecaoeey.

Iaeiaei iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa? aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey, nouanoaiaaaoee a
?iaea, en/ac ia n?aco. Iiyaeaiea eiouanoaaiiiai ia?aaainoaa n
ianeaaeiaaieai eiouanoaa aeaoueie (a i?ioeaiaan ?iaeo), ana aieaa /anoia
ia?auaiea aiaiiiieaiiuo a ?aaia e o.ae. ioiineony e oiio ia?eiaeo
enoi?ee, eiaaea ia?aiauoiay aeaiie?aoey o?ainoi?ie?iaaeanue a aiaiioth
aeaiie?aoeth iniaoth e iineaaeithth oi?io ae?aaiaai ia?iaeii?aaey. Yoa
oi?ia ia?iaeiie aeanoe aeeth/aea a naay aiaiiiai aiaeaey, niaao
noa?aeoei e ia?iaeiia nia?aiea. E oioy ?ieue ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey e
ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo einoeoooia auea aua aanueia cia/eoaeueia, i?aaiu
?iaeiaiai no?iy ia/aee iinoaiaiii oo?a/eaaoue naie oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou. A
oio ia?eiae ae?aaiae enoi?ee yieciaee/aneea aieiu iaaeaeo ieaiaiaie
onooieee ianoi nenoaiaoe/aneiio ?acaith ia nooa e ia ii?a; aieia e
i?aaiecaoeey aeey aieiu i?aa?aoeeenue a ?aaoey?iua ooieoeee aeecie.
A?aaeoaeueneea aieiu ana aieaa oneeeaaee aeanoue aiaiiiai ia/aeueieea
iiia/aeo iacia/eoaeueioth, e iaei-iiiaeo yoa aeanoue noaea
ianeaaenoaaiiie. Ia?aiauoiay aeaiie?aoey i?eoea a oiaaeie. I?aaiu
?iaeiaiai no?iy iinoaiaiii ioi?aaeenue io naieo ei?iae a ia?iaea, oae
eae ?iaeiaia iauanoai i?aa?aoeeinue a naith i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue.
I?aaiecaoeey, au?aaeaaoay iauoth aieth e neoaeeaoay iauei eioa?anai,
o?ainoi?ie?iaaeanue a i?oaeea ainiiaenoaa e oaiaoaiey. ?iae eae
iauanoaaiiay y/aeea en/ac, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aai i?aaiia i?ae?aoeeinue.
Ia?aiauoiue no?ie onooiee ianoi iauanoao, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeea
iaeanoi/aiiay ai?ueaa eeannia.

?iaeiaay i?aaiecaoeey ia auea i?eniiniaeaia e oaeiio iauanoao, iia
ieacaeanue aanneeueiie ia?aae eeanniauie i?ioeai?a/eyie e ia iiaea auoue
eniieueciaaia a oeaeyo ainiiaenoaa iaeiiai eeanna iaae ae?oaei. Aicieeea
iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue a oaeii o/?aaeaeaiee, eioi?ia iiaei au
caueuaoue /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue iaiueoeinoaa, eioa?anu eeanna
?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa. Oaeei o/?aaeaeaieai yaeyeinue ainoaea?noai.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aianoa n ?aneieii iauanoaa ia eeannu, n ia?aoiaeii io
ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa e ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiio i?ienoiaeeo e niaia oeiia
aeanoe iauanoaaiiay aeanoue ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy, aiieiuaiiay a
?iaeiaie i?aaiecaoeee, caiaiyaony ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth,
neiioeaio?e?iaaiiie a ?oeao yeiiiie/anee ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna
?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa.

?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia ainoaea?noai ia?aue enoi?e/aneee oei ainoaea?noaa.

Io ?iaeiaie i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noai ioee/aaony neaaeothueie
oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie.

1. Nicaeaiea iniaie ioaee/iie aeanoe, eioi?ay ia niaiaaeaao n
ianaeaieai. Ioaee/iay (o.a. iauanoaaiiay) aeanoue nouanoaiaaea, eae iu
aeaeaee, e a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa. Ii oai iia niaiaaeaea
iaiin?aaenoaaiii n ianaeaieai, auea iaiieeoe/aneie, o. a. iaeeanniaie
ioaee/iie aeanoueth. Iniaaiiinoue ioaee/iie aeanoe a eeoea aicieeoaai
ainoaea?noaa ninoiyea a oii, /oi iia i?eiaaeeaaeaea ia anai /eaiai
iauanoaa, a eeoue yeiiiie/anee ainiiaenoaothuaio eeanno, yaeyeanue
iieeoe/aneie aeanoueth. Yoa aeanoue inouanoaeyaony niaoeeaeueiuie
io?yaeaie ethaeae, eioi?ua a oeaeyo oaea?aeaiey, oe?aieaiey e ?acaeoey
yeiiiie/aneiai ainiiaenoaa yenieoaoaoi?ia auiieiytho niaoeeoe/aneea
ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey, eniieuecoy iaoaieci i?eioaeaeaiey e ianeeey. A aai
ninoaa aoiaeyo a?iey, ?acee/iua ea?aoaeueiua i?aaiu, /eiiaie/anoai. Aeey
niaea?aeaiey anaai yoiai aiia?aoa, eioi?ue ?acaeaaaony e oneiaeiyaony ii
ia?a ?acaeoey yenieoaoaoi?neiai iauanoaa e io?uaaao cia/eoaeueioth
/anoue ianaeaiey io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea, iaiaoiaeeiu
iaoa?eaeueiua n?aaenoaa. Iie aceiathony n ianaeaiey a aeaea iaeiaia.

2. ?acaeaeaiea iiaeaeaiiuo ainoaea?noaa ii oa??eoi?eaeueiui aeaeaieyi.
?iaeiaua iauaaeeiaiey aea?aeaeenue ia e?iaiuo ocao. N iiyaeaieai aea
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e eeannia ?iaeiaua nayce ia/eiatho neaaaoue, a
caoai en/acatho nianai. I?ienoiaeeo niaoaiea ?iaeia e ieaiai, e ?iaeiaay
i?aaiecaoeey iinoaiaiii i?aia?acoaony a
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueioth. Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue niaaeeiyao
ethaeae ia ii i?eciaeo ?iaenoaa, a ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa, o. a. ii
oa??eoi?eaeueiiio i?eioeeio. A?aaeaeaiai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue inouanoaeyoue
naie iauanoaaiiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe oai, aaea iie iinaeyeenue,
aacioiineoaeueii e ?iaeo e ieaiaie. Ianoi eeaia caieiaao
aaeieieno?aoeaiue ie?oa, ianoi noa?aeoeiu ainoaea?noaaiiue /eiiaiee,
iacia/aaiue ec oeaio?a eee aio iiae/eiaiiue. ?iaeiaay i?aaiecaoeey
onooiaao ianoi ainoaea?noao.

?aceiaeaiea ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa n aai ?iaeiaie i?aaiecaoeeae e
i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a ?acee/iuo enoi?e/aneeo
oneiaeyo eiaee naie niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe. A caaeneiinoe io yoeo
oneiaee iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iniiaiua oi?iu, a eioi?uo aicieeei
ainoaea?noai ia ?acaaeeiao ?iaeiaiai no?iy aoeineoth, ?eineoth e
ae?aaiaaa?iaineoth.

Aicieeiiaaiea ainoaea?noaa a Aoeiao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naioth
“/enooth”, eeanne/aneoth oi?io. Caeanue iii iiyaeeinue iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ec aioaaiienoe/aneeo eeanniauo i?ioeai?a/ee, ?acaeaathueony aioo?e
naiiai ?iaeiaiai iauanoaa, aac aicaeaenoaey eaeeo-eeai aiaoieo eee eiuo
i?eoiaeyueo oaeoi?ia.

?aoi?iu Nieiia (594 a. aei i.y.) e Eeenoaia (509 a. aei i.y.) i?eaaee e
ieii/aoaeueiiio ?ac?ooaieth noa?iai, ?iaeiaiai ono?ienoaa,
nouanoaiaaaoeo oi?i i?aaeaiey, e oa??eoi?eaeueiiio ?acaeaeaieth
ianaeaiey e ia?aciaaieth iieeoe/aneie aeanoe n aa caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie,
caeiiiniaauaoaeueiuie, eniieieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie, iinoiyiiui aieneii,
iieeoeeae e oaiiaeaiiie no?aaeae, oth?ueiaie e ae?oaeie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie.

Aicieeiiaaiea Aoeineiai ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai ainoaea?noaa oeie/iue
i?eia? ia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaa.

Iniaaiiinoe nicaeaiey ?eineiai ainoaea?noaa ninoiyee a oii, /oi yoio
i?ioeann aue onei?ai ai?ueaie ieaaaaa n ?eineie ?iaeiaie ciaoueth
iao?eoeeyie. Ieaaae auee ee/ii naiaiaeiuie ethaeueie ec ianaeaiey
iiei?aiiuo oa??eoi?ee, ii noiyee aia ?eineeo ?iaeia, ia yaeyeenue
/anoueth ?eineiai ia?iaea. Aeaaeay caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth, ieaaae
aeieaeiu auee ieaoeoue iaeiae e ioauaaoue aiaiioth neoaeao, ii auee
eeoaiu i?aaa caieiaoue eaeea-eeai aeieaeiinoe, ia iiaee iieueciaaoueny
?eineeie caieyie. Ai?ueaa ieaaaaa i?ioea iao?eoeeaineeo i?eaeeaaee auea
aeaaiui ia?acii ai?ueaie i?ioea ae?aaiaai iauanoaaiiiai no?iy,
iieieaoaainy ia e?iaiuo ocao. Iiaaaea ieaaaaa a yoie ai?ueaa aci?aaea
noa?oth, ?iaeiaoth i?aaiecaoeeth e aicaeaeaea ainoaea?noaaiiia
ono?ienoai, iniiaaiiia ia oa??eoi?eaeueiii aeaeaiee e eiouanoaaiiuo
?acee/eyo.

Ia ia?aciaaiea ainoaea?noaa o ae?aaieo aa?iaioeaa aeoeaii iiaeeyee
caaiaaaiey eie ia?iiiuo oa??eoi?ee ?eineie eiia?ee. Aa?iaineea ieaiaia,
eiaaoea e oiio a?aiaie aua ?iaeiaia ono?ienoai, ia iiaee n iiiiuueth
?iaeiieaiaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeyoue ?eineeie i?iaeioeeyie:
iiiaaeiaeeny niaoeeaeueiue aiia?ao i?eioaeaeaiey e ianeeey. I?aaiu
?iaeiaiai no?iy auee auno?i i?aia?aciaaiu a ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu.

Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaa o ae?aaieo aa?iaioeaa
yaeeinue oi, /oi iii aicieeei ia eae ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia, a eae
?aiiaoaiaeaeueiia. Yoi auei iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi a ?eineie eiia?ee
?aanoai yeiiiie/anee naay ecaeeei, caeanue aicieeee e ia/aee e?aiiooue
oaiaeaeueiua ioiioaiey; aa?iaineea aea ieaiaia iaoiaeeeenue a ninoiyiee
?aniaaea ?iaeiauo ioiioaiee, ia?aciaaiey eeannia, ii neiaeeaoaainy
?aanoaa o ieo ia auei.

Eaeei au naiaia?aceai ie ioee/aeinue aicieeiiaaiea ainoaea?noaa o ?aciuo
ia?iaeia, ai anao neo/ayo iii iiyaeyaony, a eiia/iii n/aoa, iiae
aicaeaenoaeai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey eae caeiiiia?iue ?acoeueoao
?aceiaeaiey aeieeanniaiai e ia?aciaaiey eeanniaiai iauanoaa.

Ia?aeeaeueii n aicieeiiaaieai ainoaea?noaa oae i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
i?aaa.

Ia?aciaaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e ?aneie iauanoaa ia iai?eie?eiua
eeannu naeaeaee ia?aiauoiua iau/ae a eo i?aaeiai aeaea iai?eaiaeiuie
aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey iiaaaeaiey ethaeae. Yoe iau/ae au?aaeaee iauoth
aieth. A iiauo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo eeanniaie ai?ueau iiiaaeiaeeenue
ii?iu, eioi?ua au au?aaeaee aieth oieueei ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna. Yoio
eeann iiia/aeo no?aieeny i?eniiniaeoue iau/ae i?ioeie yiioe e naiei
iio?aaiinoyi, a neeo /aai iinoaiaiii iaiyeinue niaea?aeaiea oaeeo
iau/aaa. Iie o?ainoi?ie?iaaeenue a th?eaee/aneea i?aaeea, ia?a?anoaee a
i?aaiaua ii?iu. Aianoa n oai o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiua iau/ae aua aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy nio?aiyee /a?ou ia?aiauoiie yiioe.

E?iia o?ainoi?iaoeee iau/ay enoi/ieeii ia?aciaaiey i?aaiaie nenoaiu
neoaeeee aeou ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. Iniaaiii aeoeaiie auea
i?aaioai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia thnoeoeee, nicaeaiiuo oaea ia
?aiiai yoaia aicieeiiaaiey ainoaea?noaa. Enoi/ieeii i?aaiia?aciaaiey
neoaeeee iiiaea noaeaaiua ?aoaiey, eioi?ui i?eaeaaaeinue cia/aiea iaueo
i?aaee. Iaeiaei ii ia?a oiai, eae e?aiee oeaio?aeueiua i?aaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, eiaiii eo aeou noaiiaeeenue iaeaieaa
aaoi?eoaoiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa, aeaaiui n?aaenoaii aai oi?ie?iaaiey.
Nicaeaaaaoeany ainoaea?noaii th?eaee/aneea caeiiu auee iai?aaeaiu ia
o?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e ae?oaeo a?oii
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee aeey iaania/aiey i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiai iieiaeaiey
?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa.

I?aai aicieeei eae ea/anoaaiii iiaay, iaecaanoiay ia?aiauoiiio no?ith
nenoaia nioeeaeueiuo ii?i. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue i?aaiauo ii?i
ainoaea?noai eniieueciaaei i?eioaeeoaeueioth neeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiia?aoa, ?acee/iua ia?u ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?eioaeaeaiey .

3. I?ienoiaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa

Nouanoaoao iyoue iniiaiuo oai?ee i?ienoiaeaeaiey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa:

1. Oaieiae/aneay oai?ey – ainoaea?noai e i?aai yaeythony aiaeanoaaiiui
i?iiuneii; oaeiai iiaiey i?eaea?aeeaaeenue iiiaea ainoi/iua iuneeoaee,
Oiia Aeaeineee (?acaeaeye aiaeanoaaiiia e /aeiaa/aneia – oi?aaeythuaa
iauanoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie – i?aai), a oae aea iaeioi?ua nia?aiaiiua
eaeaieiae eaoieeoeecia e eneaia. Oaieiae/aneay oai?ey ia ?ane?uaaao
i?ioeann nicaeaiey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, a aeieacaoaeuenoaii a?
i?aaeeueiinoe iiaeao neoaeeoue oieueei aa?a.

2. I?aaie/aneay oai?ey – ainoaea?noai ?acaeaaaony ii yaiethoeeiiiiio
iooe ii aiaeiaee n aeeauie i?aaieciaie; a /anoiinoe, ainoaea?noai iiaeii
n?aaieoue n /aeiaaeii, a i?aai – n ineoeeie. Enoi/iee ?acaeoey –
anoanoaaiiue ioai?, au?aaeathueeny a eiieo?aioiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaieyo. Iiaeiaiie oi/ee c?aiey i?eaea?aeeaaeenue ?aiiea iiceoeaenou
(Niaina?, Ai?in).

3. Oai?ey ianeeey – ainoaea?noai e i?aai aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa
aeaenoaey oaeoi?ia aiaiii-iieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a (caoaao iaeiiai
ainoaea?noaa ae?oaei, ia?aai?io). Ecaanoiu ?aciiia?aciua enoi?e/aneea
oaeou – eae iiaeaea?aeeaathuea, oae e ii?iaa?aathuea iiaeiaioth oai?eth.
Iniiaiua eaeaieiae oai?ee ianeeey – ia?enenou (Aoiieiae/, Eaooneee,
Aeth?eia).

4. Oai?ey iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a – eaaeaeue /aeiaae iaeaaeaao oeaeui
?yaeii «anoanoaaiiuo» i?aa e naiaiae, eioi?ua, a oie eee eiie noaiaie,
ia?ooathony ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Aeey oiai, /oiau o?aaoee?iaaoue
/aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey, iaiaoiaeeiu ainoaea?noai e i?aai, aicieeathuea
eae ?acoeueoao anaiauaai niaeaoaiey. Iiyaeaiea oai?ee iauanoaaiiiai
aeiaiai?a naycaii n eiaiai A?enoioaey, a iee a? iiioey?iinoe – yiioa
I?inaauaiey.

5. Aeeaeaeoe/aneay oai?ey, ?acaeoay Yiaaeuenii e Eaieiui, iieaaaao, /oi
ainoaea?noai e i?aai eiatho eae yeiiiie/aneoth, oae e nioeeaeueioth
i?aaeunoi?eth. I?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey ainoaea?noaa ia/eiaaony n
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea (i?ienoiaeeei a o?e yoaia – ioaeaeaiea
caieaaeaeey e neioiaiaenoaa, ioaeaeaiea ?aianea, ?acaeoea oi?aiaee e
ioaeaeaiea eeanna eoioeia), i?eaiaeyuaai e niaoeeaeecaoeee o?oaea,
iiauoaieth aai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e, iaeiiaoe, ?anoe?aieth ianooaaia
o?oaea. Iaeiieaiiua aeaaa neaieeaathony a ?oeao ?iaeiieaiaiiie ciaoe e
iinoaiaiii i?aa?auathony a nianoaaiiinoue (aaeeinoai iieiiii/ee
aeaaeaiey, iieueciaaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey). Aaaeioth ?ieue a yoii
i?ioeanna ea?atho oaeea /aeiaa/aneea ea/anoaa eae aeaaeiinoue e
ei?unoiethaea.

A aeeaeaeoe/aneie oai?ee ethaee ?acaeaeythony: ii ioiioaieth e i?oaeeyi
e n?aaenoaai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii ?iee a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, ii
?acia?o e aeiea aeioiaea, iieo/aaiiai io i?iecaiaenoaa. Neiieaiea
i?iaeoeoia i?iecaiaenoaa a ?oeao «aa?oooee» i?eaiaeeo e oi?ie?iaaieth
eeannia, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eioi?uie yaeythony aioaaiienoe/aneeie (ii
Yiaaeueno, «ethaee, eiathuea aeaaa, ieeiaaea n ieie ia ?annoaioony, a
ethaee, iaaeae?iiua aeaaaie, ieeiaaea n yoei ia nie?yony»). Ainoaea?noai
e i?aai aicieeatho eae n?aaenoai ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee
aioaaiienoe/aneeo eeannia.

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