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История государства и права Японии в новое время

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ENOI?Ess AINOAeA?NOAA E I?AAA ssIIIEE A IIAIA A?AIss

1. ?aaiethoeey Iyeaece

Iniiaiua eciaiaiey a nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneii no?ia. A na?aaeeia XIX a.
ssiiiey iaoiaeeeanue a ninoiyiee aeoaieiai nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai
e?ecena, iaoneiaeaiiiai a eiia/iii n/aoa ?aceiaeaieai ainiiaenoaiaaaoaai
oaiaeaeueiiai no?iy, naea?aeeaaaoaai aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea no?aiu.
Iniiaiua naeueneioicyenoaaiiua caiee aianoa n e?anoueyiaie iaoiaeeeenue
a nianoaaiiinoe e?oiiuo oaiaeaeia — eiycae (aeaeia), eioi?ua n iiiiuueth
aannaeia oi?aaeyee naieie aeaaeaieyie. E?anoueyia ioaeaaaee eiycueyi
aieaa iieiaeiu o?iaeay, ia n/eoay ae?oaeo iiai?ia e iiaeiiinoae.
Aeaeueiaeoaa oneeaiea yenieoaoaoeee a oneiaeyo ieceiai o?iaiy
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oaoieee aaei e ?aci?aieth aieueoeinoaa e?anoueyi.
A no?aia ii/oe iai?a?uaii i?ienoiaeeee e?anoueyineea aieiaiey e
ainnoaiey.

A ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. iiyaeeanue eaieoaeenoe/aneay iaiooaeoo?a.
Iaeiaei oaiaeaeueiay ?aaeaiaioaoeey, aieueoea iaeiae, ocinoue
aioo?aiiaai ?uiea (e?anoueyinoai — iniiaiay /anoue ianaeaiey no?aiu —
ii/oe ia iieoiaei i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia) oi?iiceee aa aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea.

Oooaeoeeinue e aiaoiaiieeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ssiiiee. A 1853 a. o aa
aa?aaia iiyaeeanue aia?eeaineay yneaae?a. Aa eiiaiaeothuee aaeie?ae
Ia??e oeueoeiaoeaii iio?aaiaae caeeth/aiey oi?aiaiai aeiaiai?a ia
aia?eeaineeo oneiaeyo, oaeoe/anee eeoaaoeo ssiiieth oaiiaeaiiie
aaoiiiiee. Iiae oa?icie i?eiaiaiey neeu yiiineia i?aaeoaeuenoai auei
auioaeaeaii iiae/eieoueny. Anei?a aiaeiae/iua aeiaiai?u auee iiaeienaiu
n aa?iiaeneeie aea?aeaaaie. Iiyaeeanue ?aaeueiay oa?ica i?aa?auaiey
no?aiu a iieoeieiieth. Yoi i?eaaei e neeyieth aioeoaiaeaeueiie ai?ueau e
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey.

I?ioea nouanoaothuaai ii?yaeea aunooieee iniiaiua nioeeaeueiua neie
yiiineiai iauanoaa: e?anoueyinoai, ?aai/ea, ?aianeaiieee,
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay ao?aeoacey, naio?ae — aiaiiia nineiaea iaeeeo
aeai?yi e iiiaeo eiycae, aeaaiui ia?acii thai-caiaaeiuo eiyaeanoa,
iaeaieaa ?acaeouo a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee. O/anoea a yoii aeaeaeaiee
aeai?yinoaa, iniaaiii iaeeiai, iaoneiaeeaaeinue aai io?eoeaoaeueiui
ioiioaieai e aiaoiaiieeoe/aneiio eo?no i?aaeoaeuenoaa e a aua aieueoae
noaiaie oooaeoaieai aai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey. Naio?ae,
yaeyynue aannaeaie eiycae, iau/ii ia eiaee naiae caiee, a iieo/aee io
eiycae aeaeiaaiuea ?enii; aeaeiaaiuea aannaeia oiaiueoaeinue, eo /enei
nie?auaeinue, e iiiaea ec ieo iiiieiyee ?yaeu ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo
a?oii.

Aeai?yia, aeeth/ay eiycae-iiiiceoeeiia?ia, aeaaiaea?y naiae
ioiineoaeueiie niei/aiiinoe, iaee/eth aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee,
yeiiiie/aneei aiciiaeiinoyi ea?aee ?oeiaiaeyuoth ?ieue a aeaeaeaiee. Iie
i?eciaaaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoi?i, o/eouaathueo eiino?aiiue iiuo, ii
iieaaaee, /oi i?iaaaeaiea eo neaaeiaaei inouanoaeyoue naa?oo, n
iiiiuueth ainoaea?noaa.

A yoio ia?eiae aeaaie ainoaea?noaa iiieiaeueii n/eoaeny eiia?aoi?. Ii
?aaeueii aeanoue iaoiaeeeanue a ?oeao n?aoia (iieeiaiaeoea) — aunoaai
aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea, yaeyaoaainy aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei e ia/aeueieeii
anaai aiia?aoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, aaneiio?ieueii
inouanoaeyaoaai eniieieoaeueii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiua, oeneaeueiua e
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ooieoeee. Ia/eiay n XVII a. iino naaoia caieiaee
i?aaenoaaeoaee aeiia Oieoaaaa — naiiai aiaaoiai oaiaeaeueiiai eeaia
no?aiu, i?ioeaeaoaainy ethaui i?ia?anneaiui ?aoi?iai.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo auee noi?ioee?iaaiu eiie?aoiua caaea/e
eiyaeanei-naio?aeneiai aeaeaeaiey: naa?aiooue n?aoiao, ainnoaiiaeoue
aeanoue eiia?aoi?a e io aai eiaie i?iaanoe iaiaoiaeeiua ?aoi?iu.

A ieoya?a 1876 a. ?oeiaiaeeoaee aeaeaeaiey iio?aaiaaee o naaoia Eyeee
iaiaaeeaiiie ia?aaea/e aa?oiaiie aeanoe eiia?aoi?o (15-eaoiaio
Iooeooeoi) e iauyaeee nai? aiaiiuo nee, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo eiia?aoi?a.
N?aoi eaieooee?iaae. Aeanoue ia?aoea a ?oee eiycae e naio?aaa —
noi?iiieeia eiia?aoi?a. Auei ioeoeeaeueii iauyaeaii i ainnoaiiaeaiee
eiia?aoi?neie aeanoe.

A yiiineie ioeoeeaeueiie enoi?eia?aoee yoio ia?eiae iau/ii iacuaatho
?anoaa?aoeey Iyeaece (Iyeaece — a?aiy i?aaeaiey eiia?aoi?a Iooeooeoi).
Ii naiaio iiaeeeiiiio niaea?aeaieth yoi auea aioeoaiaeaeueiay
?aaiethoeey, ?oeiaiaenoai eioi?ie i?eiaaeeaaeaei oia?aiii-?aaeeeaeueiui
e?oaai aeai?yinoaa, naycaiiui n eiia?aoi?neei aeai?ii. ?acae?iaeaiiinoue
e iaaeinoaoi/iay i?aaieciaaiiinoue e?anoueyineiai aeaeaeaiey,
ioiineoaeueiay neaainoue ao?aeoacee ai iiiaii iaoneiaeee iacaaa?oaiiue
oa?aeoa? yoie ?aaiethoeee. Oai ia iaiaa no?aia anooieea ia iooue
ao?aeoaciiai ?acaeoey. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee ia/aaoeany
yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea ?aoi?iu, oioy e ia anaaaea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiua, ii iauaeoeaii i?ecaaiiua iiaea?iece?iaaoue yiiineia
iauanoai, i?eiaueoue aai e aieaa aunieiio oaoie/aneiio e
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiio o?iaith.

?aoi?iu eiioea 60—80-o aiaeia XIX a. ?oeiaiaenoai no?aiu, inouanoaeyy
i?aia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua ioaaoeee aaaeiaeoea noa?u aeecie, no?aieeinue
iaeneiaeueii eniieueciaaoue iiuo aa?iiaeoeaa e naaa?iaia?eeaioeaa.

A iaeanoe nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee auei ono?aiaii ana, /oi
ia?aie/eaaei ee/ioth naiaiaeo, aeeth/ay auai? ianoiaeeoaeuenoaa e
i?ioannee, e aaaaeaii oi?iaeueiia ?aaainoai anao a?aaeaeai ia?aae
caeiiii.

A 1872 a. auei cae?aieaii i?aai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, aaaaeai
aaeeiue iicaiaeueiue iaeia. Ioiuia ana oaeoe/aneea aeaaeaeueoeu caiee
noaiiaeeenue aa nianoaaiieeaie. Niioaaonoaaiii ?ac?aoaeanue naiaiaeiay
eoiey-i?iaeaaea caiee. A eoiaa iaeaieaa iaeeiciua einoeooou
oaiaeaeueiiai caieaiieueciaaiey auee oi?acaeiaiu. Ii ?aaeeeaeueiiai
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey caiee ia i?iecioei. Iia inoaeanue o aeai?yinoaa e
ninoiyoaeueiuo e?anoueyi, ii oaea ia i?aaao /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe.
Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue e?anoueyi ii-i?aaeiaio auea aaccaiaeueiie eee
iaeicaiaeueiie.

A ai?iaea auee oi?acaeiaiu oeaoa e aeeueaeee, a oaeaea naycaiiay n ieie
?aaeaiaioaoeey ?aianea e oi?aiaee. Cae?ueenue ana aioo?aiiea oaiiaeie,
aaiaeeeenue aaeeiua aeey anae no?aiu aaeeieoeu ecia?aiey.

A 1872 a. i?eieiaaony Caeii i anaiauai ia/aeueiii ia?aciaaiee.

A eiia/iii n/aoa auee aiioee?iaaiu ia?aaiii?aaiua iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
aeiaiai?u.

Aaaeiua i?aia?aciaaiey i?aoa?iaei ainoaea?noai. A?iey ?ai?aaieciaaeanue
ii aa?iaineiio ia?acoeo, a oeio – ii aiaeeeneiio; auea aaaaeaia anaiauay
aieineay iiaeiiinoue, i?e/ai naio?ae nio?aieee i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia i?aai
ia caiyoea ioeoea?neeo aeieaeiinoae. Auee o/?aaeaeaiu ieienoa?noaa ii
ioaeaeueiui io?aneyioi?aaeaiey, a a ea/anoaa aunoaai i?aaia
eniieieoaeueii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiie aeanoe nicaeai eaaeiao ieieno?ia i?e
eiia?aoi?a. I?e yoii iacia/aiey ia /eiiaie/uee aeieaeiinoe i?iaiaeeeenue
ii eiieo?niie nenoaia. Aianoi noa?uo a?aieoe oaiaeaeueiuo eiyaeanoa auei
onoaiiaeaii aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea ii aoaa?ieyi n
i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeeiaeiaie /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey. Aoaa?ieae oi?aaeye
aoaa?iaoi?, iacia/aaiue i?aaeoaeuenoaii e ioaaonoaaiiue ia?aae iei, a
oaeaea auai?iia niaauaoaeueiia nia?aiea (1871-1878 aa.). Aeaaeaoaeueiua
eiycuey ieii/aoaeueii eeoeeenue iieeoe/aneie aeanoe ia ianoao.

Aua iaeia aieia aeoeaecaoeee iauanoaaiiuo aeaeaeaiee i?eoeanue ia 80 a
aiaeu XIX a. Iaeiei ec i?iyaeaiee iaeioi?iai oneeaiey aeeyiey ao?aeoacee
e eioaeeeaaioeee yaeeinue ia?aciaaiea iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee. A 1881 a.
auea nicaeaia eeaa?aeueiay ia?oey,a aiae nionoy – ia?oey
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo ?aoi?i. Eo i?eioeeieaeueiua i?ia?aiiiua onoaiiaee auee
noiaee: aaaaeaiea ia?eaiaioneiai no?iy i?e nio?aiaiee iiia?oee,
iacaaeneiue aiaoiaiieeoe/aneee eo?n e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea iieiaeaiey.
?acee/ey i?iniao?eaaeenue a ioiineoaeueii aoi?inoaiaiiuo aii?inao,
naycaiiuo n o?iaiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, noaiaiueth iacaaeneiinoe
naiioi?aaeaiey e i?. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai ia?oee eiaee ii/oa iaeeiaeiaoth
nioeeaeueioth aaco (ninoiyoaeueiua neie ianaeaiey ai?iaea e aea?aaie).
I?e/ai iiiaea iaiaeiie?aoii iaiyee naie ia?oeeiua neiiaoee a caaeneiinoe
io eiie?aoiuo i?ia?aii, auaeaeioouo ia i/a?aaeiuo auai?ao). Ia?oee
ecia/aeueii ia ea?aee ?aoathuae ?iee a iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu, ii
?anniao?eaaeenue i?aayueie e?oaaieeae aaaeiue yeaiaio nicaeaaaaiie
eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee. A neeo yoiai eo o/?aaeaeaiea i?ioiaeeei i?e
aeoeaiii iie?iaeoaeuenoaaiiii o/anoee aeanoae.

2. Eiinoeoooeey 1889 a.

Aaaaeaiea eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee. Caaa?oaieai ?aoi?i yaeeinue
i?eiyoea Eiinoeoooeee. Aa nicaeaoaee i?iaaee aieueooth
iiaeaioiaeoaeueioth ?aaioo, ouaoaeueii eco/ea eiinoeoooeeiiiue iiuo
iiiaeo no?ai. Iie ia no?aieeenue neiino?oe?iaaoue /oi-eeai
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaia. I?eciaaaeinue oeaeaniia?aciui eniieueciaaoue
eiinoeoooeeiiiua ii?iu ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa, ai?iae?iaaiiua ia i?aeoeea e
iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoii ioaa/athuea oeaeyi i?aayueo e?oaia ssiiiee. Aoaeouay
eiinoeoooeey aeieaeia auea th?eaee/anee cae?aieoue noaoon eiia?aoi?a eae
aeaau ainoaea?noaa, iaaeaeaiiiai /?acau/aeii oe?ieeie iieiiii/eyie,
iniaaiii a iaeanoe aiaiiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, i?e ?acaeaeaiee
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe iaaeaeo iei e ia?eaiaioii. Iauaeoeaii
eiinoeoooeee i?aaenoiyei cae?aieoue eiii?iienn iaaeaeo aeiieie?othuei a
ainoaea?noaa aeai?yinoaii ai aeaaa n eiia?aoi?ii, eiio?iee?iaaaoei
eniieieoaeueioth aeanoue e aii?oaeaiiua neeu, e ao?aeoaceae,
aeiioneaaiie e o/anoeth a caeiiioai?/anoaa e /anoe/ii eiio?ieth ca
athaeaeaoii. Iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueie aeey ?aoaiey yoeo caaea/ auee
i?eciaiu i?onneay Eiinoeoooeey 1850 a. e aa?iaineay Eiinoeoooeey 1871 a.
Iie e iineoaeeee ia?acoeii aeey Eiinoeoooeee ssiiiee.

A 1889 a. ?aaioa iaae ia?aie a enoi?ee no?aiu eiinoeoooeeae auea
caaa?oaia. Iniaa eiia?aoi?a iauyaeyeanue nayuaiiie e iai?eeiniiaaiiie.
Eae aeaaa ainoaea?noaa ii iaaeaeyeny aa?oiaiie aeanoueth — iia
iauyaeyoue aieio e ie?; caeeth/aoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u;
aaiaeeoue inaaeiia iieiaeaiea, nin?aaeioi/eaay a naieo ?oeao
/?acau/aeiua i?aaiii/ey; a ea/anoaa aa?oiaiiai aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai ii
iaaeaeyeny i?aaii onoaiaaeeaaoue no?oeoo?o e /eneaiiue ninoaa
aii?oaeaiiuo nee, aeeth/ay ieeaaeu ee/iiai ninoaaa; a noa?a
ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?aaeaeaineiai oi?aaeaiey ii ii?aaeaeye no?oeoo?o
ieienoa?noa, iacia/ae, oaieueiye anao aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, onoaiaaeeaae
eo ieeaaeu.

Eiia?aoi? iacia/ae ieieno?a-i?aceaeaioa(aeaao eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe), a
ii aai i?aaenoaaeaieth — inoaeueiuo ieieno?ia, eioi?ua oaeoe/anee ia
caaenaee io ia?eaiaioa, oae eae Eiinoeoooeeae ia i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue
i?aai auianaiey aiooia iaaeiaa?ey.

Eiia?aoi? inouanoaeye caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeanoue niaianoii n
ia?eaiaioii, nicuaae ia?eaiaio e cae?uaae aai, ion?i/eaae ia?eaiaioneea
canaaeaiey, ?anioneae ieaeithth iaeaoo — iaeaoo aeaiooaoia. Caeiiu,
i?eiyoua ia?eaiaioii, ia iiaee auoue iaia?iaeiaaiu e i?eiyou e
eniieiaieth aac aai ooaa?aeaeaiey e iiaeiene. A i?iiaaeooeao iaaeaeo
nanneyie ia?eaiaioa eiia?aoi? iia ecaeaaaoue oeacu, eiathuea neeo caeiia
(yoe oeacu i?aaenoaaeyeenue ia?eaiaioo ia aeeaeaeoae nannee; anee iie ia
iieo/aee aai iaeia?aiey, oi iauyaeyeenue iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie ia aoaeouaa
a?aiy). Ii eiae i?aai aiienoee, iiieeiaaiey, niya/aiey iaeacaiey e
ainnoaiiaeaiey a i?aaao.

Ia?eaiaio aeieaeai aue ninoiyoue ec aeaoo iaeao — iaeaou iy?ia e iaeaou
aeaiooaoia. A iaeaoo iy?ia aoiaeeee /eaiu eiia?aoi?neie oaieeee,
oeooeiaaiiay ciaoue (ai iiiaii aeey yoiai ianeieueei ?aiaa auee aaaaeaiu
aa?iiaeneea oeooeu — eiycuey, ia?eecu, a?aou, aeeiiou, aa?iiu), a oaeaea
eeoea, iacia/aiiua eiia?aoi?ii. Iaeaoa aeaiooaoia ninoiyea ec eeoe,
iiaaaeeaoeo ia auai?ao.

Caeiiii 1890 a. i?aai o/anoey a auai?ao a ieaeithth iaeaoo
i?aaeinoaaeyeinue yiiineei iiaeaeaiiui, ioae/eiai, iaaiaiiineoaeauei,
aeinoeaoei 25 eao, oiea/eaathuei ia iaiaa 15 eai i?yiiai iaeiaa e
i?iaeeaathuei a ii?aaeaeaiiie ianoiinoe ia iaiaa iieooi?a eao.

Iaa iaeaou e i?aaeoaeuenoai iaaeaeyeenue i?aaii caeiiiaeaoaeueiie
eieoeeaoeau. Caeiiii?iaeou ianoaeaeaeenue iaeaoaie ?acaeaeueii e
ooaa?aeaeaeenue aaniethoiui aieueoeinoaii. Aaaaeaiea iiaiai iaeiaa auei
aiciiaeii oieueei ia iniiaaiee caeiia. Niaeanea ia?eaiaioa o?aaiaaeinue
ia caeeth/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeia eee i?eiyoea eaeeo-eeai eiuo
oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa, anee yoi aeiiieieoaeueii ia?aiaiyei
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao. Ia?eaiaio ooaa?aeaeae aaeaaiaeiue athaeaeao.
Anee ii ioeacuaaeny aai ooaa?aeaeaoue, oi i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaei
i?eiaieoue athaeaeao i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaai aiaea.

Aeaiooaou iieo/aee i?aai ia?eaiaioneie iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe, ii oieueei ca
iiaiea, auneacaiiia a iaeaoa. A inoaeueiii ia ieo ?ani?ino?aiyeinue
aeaenoaea caeiiia. Aeiioneaeny e a?ano aeaiooaoia a neo/aa “caaea?aeaiey
ia ianoa i?anooieaiey eee iaeacoaiiai aeayiey, naycaiiiai n aioo?aiieie
eee aiaoieie aieiaieyie”.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeye eaaeiao
ieieno?ia, aicaeaaeyaiue ieieno?ii-i?aceaeaioii. Aai oaeoe/aneia
iieiaeaiea, ii?aaeaeaiiia Eiinoeoooeeae, auei caaeneiui io eiia?aoi?a e
aai i?eaeeaeaiiuo.

Eiinoeoooeey i?aaeoniao?eaaea o/?aaeaeaiea oae iacuaaaiiai Oaeiiai
niaaoa, i?ecaaiiiai ii oeacaieth eiia?aoi?a ianoaeaeaoue aaaeiaeoea
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea.

Ioaeaeueiay aeaaa Eiinoeoooeee auea iinayuaia i?aaai e iaycaiiinoyi
iiaeaeaiiuo. Iauyaeyeenue iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue nianoaaiiinoe, naiaiaea
neiaa, ia/aoe, nia?aiee e nithcia, ?aaiue aeinooi e a?aaeaeaineei e
aiaiiui aeieaeiinoyi, oaeia ia?aienee e o. ae. Iaeiaei onoaiiaeaiiua
Eiinoeoooeeae ia?aie/aiey oaeoe/anee naiaeeee yoe i?aaa ia iao
(iai?eia?, oaeia ia?aienee iiaea auoue ia?ooaia a ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiii
neo/ayo (no. 26), iiaeiaiua ia?aie/aiey nii?iaiaeaeaee eaaeaeia
i?iaicaeaoaiiia i?aai eee naiaiaeo).

Iineaeiinoeoooeeiiiia ?acaeoea ssiiiee. Eiinoeoooeey ieii/aoaeueii
th?eaee/anee cae?aieea iiaaaeo ?aaiethoeee Iyeaece, caeiaeeea
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaua iniiau aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey no?aiu e, eae
iieacaea iineaaeothuay enoi?ey, nicaeaea oneiaey aeey i?aa?auaiey
ssiiiee a aa?anneaiia ieeeoa?enoneia eiia?eaeenoe/aneia ainoaea?noai.
Aiaiiua iieo/aee iinoiyiioth iiaeaea?aeeo aeai?yinoaa, a anei?a e
ie?aioae iiiiiieenoe/aneie ao?aeoacee. Iniaaiii neeueiu auee eo iiceoeee
a o/?aaeaeaieyo, yaeyaoeony iieioii ciaoe, iaoiaeeaoeony aia eiio?iey
iauanoaaiiinoe, ii ieacuaaaoeo aieueoia aeeyiea ia iieeoeeo,
ooieoeeiie?iaaee Oaeiue niaao e aai?i (ia i?aaeoniio?aiiue Eiinoeoooeeae
niaauaoaeueiue i?aai i?e eiia?aoi?a, ninoiyaoee a iniiaiii ec ciaoe,
iiaeaea?aeaaoae ai?ueao i?ioea n?aoiaoa). A 1895 a. aue caeiiiaeaoaeueii
iiaeoaa?aeaeai ii?yaeie, ii eioi?iio ia iinou aiaiiiai e aiaiii-ii?neiai
ieieno?ia iacia/aeenue oieueei /eiu aunoaai aiaiiiai e aiaiii-ii?neiai-
eiiaiaeiaaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, aiaiiua e?oae iieo/eee aeiiieieoaeueioth
aiciiaeiinoue aeaaeaiey ia i?aaeoaeuenoai e ia?eaiaio. N 70-o aiaeia XIX
a. ssiiiey anoaea ia iooue aa?anneaiuo aiei e eieiieaeueiuo caoaaoia.

A iaeanoe aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiuo iiaiaaaaeaiee iaeaieaa caiaoiui
yaeaieai auea ?ai?aaiecaoeey noaeaaiie nenoaiu ia aa?iiaeneeo ia/aeao.
Aaaeiie aaoie a yoii i?ioeanna, ia/aaoainy aua a 70-a aiaeu, yaeeny
caeii 1890 a., a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui o/?aaeaeaeenue aaeeiua aeey anae
no?aiu noaeu. Oa??eoi?ey ssiiiee auea iiaeaeaia ia i?eaeeceoaeueii
?aaiua ii /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey ie?oaa, a eaaeaeii ec eioi?uo
nicaeaaaeny ianoiue noae. Noaeai i?aaenoiyei ?ac?aoaoue aieueoeinoai
oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo aeae. Neaaeothueie einoaioeeyie noaee
aoaa?ineea noaeu, naiue aiaeeyoeeiiiuo noaeia e Aunieee eiia?neee noae,
a eiiiaoaioeeth eioi?iai aoiaeeee ?anniio?aiea onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii
iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aeae, aunoay aiaeeyoeey, a oaeaea ?acuyniaiea caeiiia.
Noaeueyie iiaee auoue eeoea, eiathuea th?eaee/aneia ia?aciaaiea e
niioaaonoaothuee i?aeoe/aneee iiuo. Onoaiaaeeaaeanue ianiaiyaiinoue
noaeae, ia i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue ?acee/iua oeiainiai-aaeieieno?aoeaiua
ia?u aicaeaenoaey ia ieo. Iaeiia?aiaiii eiie?aoece?iaaeny noaoon
i?ieo?aoo?u, ?anoe?yeenue aa i?aaiii/ey. Ia iaa aiceaaaeenue
?oeiaiaenoai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui ?anneaaeiaaieai, iiaeaea?aeaiea iaaeiaiey
a noaea, ii?ioanoiauaaiea i?eaiai?ia e inouanoaeaiea iaaeci?a ca
noaeaie. Ianeieueei iicaea auei ooi/iaii i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea
aaeaieaoo?u.

A 1890 a. iieo/ee iiaoth ?aaeaeoeeth Oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiue eiaeaen.
Noaeaaiia neaaenoaea aeieaeii auei iniiauaaoueny ia i?eioeeiao
aeaniinoe, onoiinoe, ninoycaoaeueiinoe.

Ii iiceoeaiia cia/aiea noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu ieieiece?iaaeinue ?anoe?aieai
i?aaiii/ee aeaiaea?inei-iieeoeaeneiai aiia?aoa, iieo/eaoaai i?aai
eiio?iee?iaaoue anth a?aaeaeaineoth aeeciue no?aiu.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie ssiiiee aei na?aaeeiu 60-o aa. XIX a. Iinoaiaiiia
noaiiaeaiea ao?aeoaciiai ainoaea?noaa a ssiiiee, ia/aaoaany ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XIX a., a oiaea eioi?iai aaniethoenoneay iiia?oey i?aa?auaeanue
a aeoaeenoe/aneoth iiia?oeth ao?aeoaciiai oeia, ia auei naycaii a
ssiiiee n iiaaaeiiiniie ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeeae.

ssiiiey aei XIX a. auea oaiaeaeueiie no?aiie, i?ioeannu ?acaeoey eioi?ie
auee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caoi?iiaeaiu iieeoeeie “naiiecieyoeee”
i?aaeaea anaai io “caiaaeiuo aa?aa?ia”. Ia/eiay n XV a. ?ino ?aianea e
oi?aiaee, ?acaeoea ai?iaeia i?eaiaeyo e nicaeaieth ianoiuo ?uieia, e
ieii/aoaeueiiio ooaa?aeaeaieth yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe aeaaeaoaeueiuo eiycae — i?aaenoaaeoaeae e?oiiuo
oaiaeaeueiuo aeiiia — aeaei? (“aieueoia eiy”). Aeaaeaiey aeaei?
ioaaouaaee i?iaeioeee eee a?oiio i?iaeioeee. Iie eeoue iiieiaeueii
i?eciaaaee aeanoue oeaio?aeueiiai aiaiii-ieeaa?oe/aneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa,
aicaeaaeyaiiai n?aoiii (“aaeeeei iieeiaiaeoeai”), i?aaenoaaeoaeai
iaeiiai ec e?oiiaeoeo e neeueiaeoeo oaiaeaeueiuo aeiiia. Ia?aue n?aoiao,
i?eaaaeoee e oaeoe/aneiio iono?aiaieth io oi?aaeaiey yiiineiai
eiia?aoi?a, eioi?ue nio?aiye eeoue ?aeeaeicii-?eooaeueiua ooieoeee, aue
onoaiiaeai a ssiiiee aua a XII a.

Ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaio?aeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe n iiiiuueth
aiaiiie neeu aeiaeeenue eeoue n?aoiu ec aeeianoee Oieoaaaa, a ia?eiae
o?aoueaai n?aoiaoa (XVII—XIX aa.). Oiaaea aea iaeaieaa caeii/aiiua oi?iu
i?eia?aei a ssiiiee e nineiaiia aeaeaiea, ne?aieaiiia caeiiii e
aeanoueth n?aoia, au?aaeaiiia oi?ioeie “ne-ii-ei-n?”: naio?ae,
e?anoueyia, ?aianeaiieee, oi?aiaoeu. Naio?aeneia, aeai?yineia nineiaea —
auei iaiaeii?iaeiui. Aunoee neie oaiaeaeueiuo eiycae aeaeeeny ia 2
eaoaai?ee: ooaeae-aeaei?, caieiaaoeo ana aaeieieno?aoeaiua iinou i?e
n?aoia, a oii /enea e a aai i?aaeoaeuenoaa “aaeooo” (“aiaiii-iieaaay
noaaea”), e oiaecaia-aeae-i? — “aiaoiea” eiycuey, iono?aiaiiua io aeae
oi?aaeaiey.

E aunoaio neith naio?aeneiai nineiaey i?eiaaeeaaeaea e i?eaeai?iay (i?e
eiia?aoi?a) a?enoie?aoey (eoay), iieiinoueth caaeneiay io n?aoineie
aaeieieno?aoeee, iieo/aaoay io iaa “?eniaua iaeee”. Ca n/ao “?eniauo
iaeeia” aeeea e iniiaiay ianna neoaeeeiai aiaiiiai naio?aenoaa,
aoiaeyuay a a?ieth n?aoia eee oiai eee eiiai aeaei?. Naio?ae
i?ioeainoiyee o?ai iecoei nineiaeyi. Oieueei ei i?eiaaeeaaeaei i?aai
caieiaoue aaeieieno?aoeaiua iinou, ainoaea?noaaiiua e aiaiiua
aeieaeiinoe. Eneeth/eoaeueii naio?aeneei caiyoeai auea aiaiiay neoaeaa.

A XVIII a., ii ia?a ?acaeoey ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aeiiaoiae
iaiooaeoo?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oaiaeaeueiia nineiaea oi?aiaoeaa,
caieiathuaa naioth iecooth nooiaiue oaiaeaeueiie eanoieoeu, ia/aei
ea?aoue ana aieaa aaaeioth ?ieue. Neaaenoaeai ?acaeoey
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee noaei ?aceiaeaiea naio?aeneiai nineiaey,
iiaeiaaeathuaai iiae ana aieueooth caaeneiinoue io ?anoouaai
oi?aiai-?inoiaue/aneiai eaieoaea. E?oiiaeoee oi?aiaue aeii Ieoeoe noae n
XVII a. oeiainiaui aaaioii naiiai n?aoia, a caoai aaiee?ii eiia?aoi?a.

A ?acoeueoaoa iaaaeiaiey aeaei? naio?ae iioa?yee naieo iie?iaeoaeae, a
aianoa n oai e “?eniaua iaeee”, iiiieiyy a?ieth iaaeiaieueiuo i?aayuei
?aaeeiii. Iaaeiaieuenoai n?aoiii, ouaieyaoei oaiaeaeueioth aieueieoeo,
c?aei e n?aaee cia/eoaeueiie /anoe aeaei?. Oaeoaeeny n ?acaeoeai
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee e i?ioeann ?anneiaiey yiiineiai
e?anoueyinoaa, aaaeiaeoay /anoue eioi?iai, caaeaaeaiiay oyaeaeaeoeie
a?aiaeiuie ieaoaaeaie, iaeiaaie, aieiaeii, ceioiio?aaeaieyie
aaeieieno?aoeee, a?aaaaeii ?inoiaueeia, noaiiaeony aeaaiie neeie ana
aieaa a?iciuo ia?iaeiuo, oae iacuaaaiuo “?eniauo aoioia”.

Ainnoaiiaeaiea eiia?aoi?neie aeanoe. 1868 a. iciaiaiiaae ia/aei aaaeiiai
ia?aeiiiiai yoaia a enoi?ee ssiiiee. Niauoey yoiai aiaea iieo/eee
iacaaiea “?anoaa?aoeee Iyeaece” eee “Iyeaece-enei”. Eo ia?aui
iieeoe/aneei ?acoeueoaoii noaei naa?aeaiea naaoia e ainnoaiiaeaiea
aeanoe yiiineiai eiia?aoi?a a oi?ia aaniethoiie iiia?oee. Yoe niauoey ia
ia?a?inee a ao?aeoacioth ?aaiethoeeth a i?yiii niunea yoiai neiaa. A
ssiiiee a yoi a?aiy ia auei ie ao?aeoacee, ie eiie iieeoe/aneie neeu,
niiniaiie ionoaeaaoue oeaee ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee, a /anoiinoe
eeeaeaeaoeeth oaiaeaeecia, aaniethoenoneiai ?aaeeia e i?.

O?aaiaaiey “?anoaa?aoeee Iyeaece”, niioaaonoaothuea ?aiiei yoaiai
nioeeaeueiie, ao?aeoaciie ii naiae nooe ?aaiethoeee, noaee oi?iie
i?iyaeaiey oaiaeaeueiiai iaoeeiiaeecia, oneeeaoaainy iiae i?yiui
aicaeaenoaeai i?iieeiiaaiey a ssiiieth caiaaeiiai eaieoaea.

A 1865 aiaeo Aiaeey e caoai NOA, no?aiyueany “ioe?uoue” ssiiieth,
i?aa?aoeoue a? a oi?iino naiae eieiieaeueiie iieeoeee ia Aeaeueiai
Ainoiea, n iiiiuueth “iieeoeee eaiiia?ie” aeiaeaathony ?aoeoeeaoeee
n?aoiii ia?aaiii?aaiuo oi?aiauo aeiaiai?ia, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo “no?aia
caoiaeyuaai nieioea” i?e?aaieaaaony a oi?aiaii ioiioaiee e
iieoeieiieaeueiiio Eeoath.

Oa?ica iioa?e naiae iacaaeneiinoe noaiiaeony a ssiiiee onei?ythuei
eiioeuenii iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey, ?acaeoea eioi?iai i?ienoiaeeei ii
ia?a ana aieueoaai iniciaiey i?aayueie e?oaaie, naio?ayie —
“aeai?yineeie ?aaiethoeeiia?aie” iaiaoiaeeiinoe “aic?iaeaeaiey e
aaeeinoaa no?aiu”, nicaeaiey neeueiiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa,
niiniaiiai iaania/eoue aa iacaaeneiia, naiinoiyoaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea.
Aaeeinoaaiiue iooue e yoiio — i?iaaaeaiea ao?aeoaciuo ii naiaio
oa?aeoa?o ?aoi?i.

Ia/aaoayny a ssiiiee a eiioea 60-o aa. ai?ueaa iaaeaeo noi?iiieeaie
naaoia e eiia?aoi?a auea naycaia ia n oai, i?iaiaeeoue eee ia
i?iaiaeeoue ?aoi?iu, ianoiyoaeueiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue eioi?uo noaea
i/aaeaeiie, a n oai — eoi eo aoaeao i?iaiaeeoue. Eicoiae ono?aiaiey
aeanoe naaoia e ainnoaiiaeaiey aeanoe eiia?aoi?a, eiathuae
o?aaeeoeeiiiia ?aeeaeiciia iainiiaaiea, noaiiayony oie iauae eaeaeiie
ieaooi?iie, ia eioi?ie e i?ienoiaeeo iauaaeeiaiea ?aoi?iaoi?neeo nee.
Iieacaoaeueia e ?aeeaeiciay ie?anea aioeaaeooneie eaeaieiaee: aoaeaeecio
— ?aeeaee naaoia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony ae?aaiyy ?aeeaey yiiioeaa neioi —
iaiaeanoaeythuay eiia?aoi?a.

Aeaeueiiaeaeiua naio?aeneea e?oae aeaeaee a eiia?aoi?neii i?anoiea, a
eoeueoa eiia?aoi?a aaeeinoaaiii iaaeaaeioth iii?o a aeaea eiinieeaeaoeee
yiiioeaa ia?aae aiaoiae oa?icie. Ia neo/aeii eiaiii a yoi a?aiy a
ssiiiee oi?ie?oaony “oyiiieci” (io neiaa oyiii — Nui Iaaa, ae?aaiaai
iacaaiey yiiineiai eiia?aoi?a) eae neiaeiia iiiaiieaiiaia yaeaiea,
iieo/eaoaa iacaaiea “eiia?aoi?neee iooue”, ianouaa iieeoe/aneee,
eaeaieiae/aneee, ?aeeaeiciue e ie?iaicc?ai/aneee niune, noaaoaa
iauaaeeieoaeueiui ia/aeii, eioi?ia au?aaioaei o yiiioeaa iniaia /oanoai
iaoeeiiaeueiie iauiinoe.

Aiaae?aiea oyiiiecia icia/aei i?yiia ia?ooaiea yiiineie ?aeeaeiciie
o?aaeeoeee aa?ioa?ieiinoe (yiiioeu, eae ecaanoii, iieeiiyeenue
aiaeanoaai ?acee/iuo ?aeeaee). Eniieuecoaiue i?aayueie e?oaaie eae
eino?oiaio eaeaieiae/aneiai caaiaaaiey iann, ii neoaeee ia oieueei
?aoaieth iaoeeiiaeueiuo caaea/ ssiiiee, ii e a neeo naiae
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe iineaaeothuae aa?anneaiie aiaoiae
iieeoeea ssiiiee.

Ia?aai?io 1868 a. a ssiiiee iinee ie?iue, aane?iaiue oa?aeoa?. Ii aue
inouanoaeai aac iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey ia?iaeiuo iann. Iee
e?anoueyineeo aunooieaiee a oi?ia oae iacuaaaiuo “?eniauo aoioia”
iaaeaao ia 1866 a. A 1867—1868 aa. ia?iaeiue i?ioano iinee oa?aeoa?
nei?aa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeey ssiiiee ?eooaeueiuo oanoaee e ieynie, eioi?ua
/anoi eieoeee?othony naieie i?aayueie e?oaaie, /oiau “auionoeoue ia?”
ia?iaeiiai iaaeiaieuenoaa.

Iineaaeiee n?aoi Eaeee nai io?aeny io i?anoiea, cayaea, /oi
aaeeiiaeanoea yaeyaony “iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai a neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee”.
“Ieiieaoiay a?aaeaeaineay aieia”, eae aa iacuaatho enoi?eee, aueeeanue
eeoue a ei?ioeia noieeiiaaiea naio?aeneeo a?iee ec-ca ioeaca naaoia
iiae/eieoueny eiia?aoi?o, iieeoe/aneay e aiaiiay iiaeaea?aeea eioi?iai
eae aioo?e, oae e aiaia ssiiiee oe?eeanue eci aeiy a aeaiue. Ia noi?iia
eiia?aoi?a, iai?eia?, aunooiaee ii/oe iieiinoueth iacaaeneiua aeaei?
THai-Caiaaeiuo eiyaeanoa n eo nia?aiaiiuie ii oai a?aiaiai aii?oaeaieai
e i?aaiecaoeeae aienea. Ia auei ioe?uoiai aiaiiiai noieeiiaaiey e n
Aiaeeae e NOA. ssiiineea i?aayuea e?oae iiae aeoeaie caiaaeiuo iooae
i/aiue nei?i ioeacaeenue io ai?ueau ca “ecaiaiea aa?aa?ia”. Iaauaiaeia
auea aeanoaaeeecaoeey iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee a ssiiiee e caiaaeiui
no?aiai, iniciaaoei ia i?eia?a Eeoay iaaoaiinoue, ?ac?ooeoaeueioth neeo
ia?iaeiuo ainnoaiee, e a neeo yoiai i/aiue nei?i niaieaoeo iiaeaea?aeeo
n?aoia iiaeaea?aeeie eiia?aoi?a. Ia neo/aeii naie ?aoi?iu i?iaiaeeeenue
i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii o/anoee a?eoaineie iennee a ssiiiee.

I?aayuea e?oae ssiiiee, a oiaea i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i, naiaia?aciie
“?aaiethoeee naa?oo”, ?aoaee, oaeei ia?acii, aeaa caaea/e —
iauaiaoeeiiaeueioth caaea/o caueou no?aiu io iioa?e ath noaa?aieoaoa e
nei?aa eiio??aaiethoeeiiioth ii ioiioaieth e ia?iaeiiio aeaeaeaieth
nioeeaeueioth caaea/o, oeaeueth eioi?ie auei ia?aaanoe yoi aeaeaeaiea ec
?onea ?aaiethoeeiiiie ai?ueau a ?onei ?aoi?i.

Ao?aeoaciua ?aoi?iu 70—80-o aa. Ia?aae iiaui i?aaeoaeuenoaii anoaea
caaea/a onei?aiiiai oe?aieaiey no?aiu a yeiiiie/aneii e aiaiiii
ioiioaiee, noi?ioee?iaaiiay eeaea?aie Iyeaece a aeaea eicoiaa “nicaeaiea
aiaaoie no?aiu e neeueiie a?iee”. Aaaeiaeoei oaaii e inouanoaeaieth yoie
iieeoeee auea aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia 1872—1873 aa., eioi?ay eiaea aeaeaei
eaeouea nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey. ?aoi?ia, cae?aieaoay iiaua,
neiaeeaoeany oaea e oiio a?aiaie iicaiaeueiua ioiioaiey, i?eaaea e
eeeaeaeaoeee oaiaeaeueiuo i?aa ia caieth. Caiey i?aa?aoeeanue a
io/oaeaeaaioth eaieoaeenoe/aneoth nianoaaiiinoue, iaeaaaaioth aaeeiui
iicaiaeueiui iaeiaii a iieueco ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciu. Anee e?anoueyia,
ianeaaenoaaiiua aea?aeaoaee caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, iieo/aee eo a
nianoaaiiinoue, oi e?anoueyia-a?aiaeaoi?u ieeaeeo nianoaaiie/aneeo i?aa
ia caieth ia i?eia?aee. I?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia caeiaeaiioth caieth auei
i?eciaii ca oaie, eiio yoa caiey auea caeiaeaia. O e?anoueyi auea ecuyoa
e iaueiiay caiey — eoaa, eana, ionoioe. ?aoi?ia, oaeei ia?acii,
niinianoaiaaea nio?aiaieth eaaaeueiuo oneiaee caiaeueiie a?aiaeu,
aeaeueiaeoaio iaaccaiaeeaaieth e?anoueyi, ?anoe?aieth caieaaeaaeaiey oae
iacuaaaiuo iiauo iiiaueeia, eioi?ua neoieee aiineaaenoaee e aieueooth
/anoue iaueiiie caiee, iauyaeaiiie ii ?aoi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiie,
eiia?aoi?neie nianoaaiiinoueth.

Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo oeaeae yoie aeoeee auei iieo/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiie
eaciie n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?aa?auaiey ssiiiee a “nia?aiaiiia”
ainoaea?noai, aeey iiaea?iecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oe?aieaiey a?iee.
Eiycueyi nia/aea auea onoaiiaeaia aunieay iainey, ?aaiay 10% oneiaiiai
aaeiaiai aiaeiaiai caiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Caoai yoa iainey auea
eaieoaeece?iaaia e eiycuey iieo/eee aeaiaaeioth eiiiainaoeeth ca caieth
a aeaea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?ioeaioiuo iaeeaaoeee, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie
yiiineay ciaoue a 80-o aa. noaea iaeaaeaoaeueieoeae cia/eoaeueiie aeiee
aaieianeiai eaieoaea. Yoi niinianoaiaaei aiineaaenoaee aa auno?iio
ia?aoiaeo a ?ac?yae aa?oooee oi?aiai-oeiainiaie e i?iiuoeaiiie
ao?aeoacee.

I?aaeiea oaeaeueiua eiyaeanoaa auee ?ai?aaieciaaiu a i?aoaeoo?u,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iiae/eiaiiua oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe. Aianoa n
oaiaeaeueiuie i?aaaie ia caieth eiycuey ieii/aoaeueii eeoeeenue ia
ianoao e iieeoe/aneie aeanoe. Yoiio niinianoaiaaea e aaeieieno?aoeaiay
?aoi?ia 1871 a., ia iniiaa eioi?ie a ssiiiee auei nicaeaii 50 e?oiiuo
i?aoaeoo? ai aeaaa n iacia/aaiuie ec oeaio?a i?aoaeoaie, no?iai
ioaa/athueie ca naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia?aae i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Oaeei
ia?acii, eeeaeaee?iaaeny oaiaeaeueiue naia?aoeci, caaa?oaeinue
ainoaea?noaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea no?aiu, yaeythuaany iaeiei ec aeaaiuo
oneiaee ?acaeoey aioo?aiiaai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?uiea.

Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia i?eaaea e oe?aieaieth iiceoeee “iiauo iiiaueeia”, iiaie
aeaiaaeiie ciaoe, ninoiyuae ec ?inoiaueeia, ?enioi?aiaoeaa, naeueneeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, caaeeoi/iie naeueneie aa?oooee — aine, oaeoe/anee
neiioeaio?e?iaaaoeo caieth a naieo ?oeao. A oi aea a?aiy iia aieueii
oaea?eea ii eioa?anai iaeeeo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa-e?anoueyi. Aunieee
iicaiaeueiue iaeia (ioiuia 80% anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeiuo
iinooieaiee oei io iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa, aeinoeaaaoaai /anoi iieiaeiu
o?iaeay) i?eaae e ianniaiio ?aci?aieth e?anoueyi, e ao?iiio ?inoo iauaai
/enea e?anoueyi-a?aiaeaoi?ia, yenieoaoe?oaiuo n iiiiuueth ?u/aaia
yeiiiie/aneiai i?eioaeaeaiey.

?aoi?ia eiaea e aaaeiua iieeoe/aneea iineaaenoaey. Nio?aiyaoaany
iiiaue/uea caieaaeaaeaiea e yiiineee aaniethoeci auee acaeiinaycaiu.
Iiiaue/uea caieaaeaaeaiea iiaei inoaaaoueny iao?iiooui ii/oe aei
na?aaeeiu XX a., aeaaea a oneiaeyo o?iie/aneiai e?ecena naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, oieueei ca n/ao i?yiie iiaeaea?aeee aaniethoenoneei
ainoaea?noaii. A oi aea a?aiy “iiaua iiiaueee” noaiiaeeenue iaeciaiiie
iii?ie aaniethoenoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

O?aaiaaiey, i?iaeeeoiaaiiua oa?icie yeniainee no?ai Caiaaea, iaoaaeoea
au?aaeaiea a oi?ioea “aiaaoay no?aia, neeueiay a?iey, ii?aaeaeeee a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a niaea?aeaiea e ae?oaeo ?aoi?i Iyeaece, a /anoiinoe
aiaiiie, eeeaeaee?iaaaoae noa?ue i?eioeei iono?aiaiey iecoeo nineiaee io
aiaiiie neoaeau.

A 1878 aiaeo aue aaaaeai caeii i anaiauae aieineie iiaeiiinoe. Aai
i?eiyoea noaei i?yiui neaaenoaeai, ai-ia?auo, ?inionea naio?aeneeo
oi?ie?iaaiee, ai-aoi?uo, i?iaicaeaoaiey a 1871 a. “?aaainoaa anao
nineiaee”. Oioy a?iey ssiiiee nicaeaaaeanue ii aa?iiaeneiio ia?acoeo, aa
eaeaieiae/aneoth iniiao ninoaaeyea n?aaeiaaaeiaay naio?aeneay ii?aeue n
eoeueoii eiia?aoi?a — “aeeaiai aiaa”, iaoa?iaeeciii (“ioeoea? — ioaoe
nieaeao”) e i?.

A 1872 aiaeo aue i?eiyo oaeaea caeii i eeeaeaeaoeee noa?uo caaiee,
oi?iuaaoaa nineiaiia aeaeaiea ia aunooth ciaoue (eeaecieo) e iecoaa
aeai?yinoai (neaecieo); ana inoaeueiia ianaeaiea auei ioianaii e
“i?inoiio ia?iaeo”. “?aaainoai nineiaee” ia oei aeaeueoa aiaiiuo oeaeae,
?ac?aoaiey niaoaiiuo a?aeia, a oaeaea oi?iaeueiiai o?aaiaiey a i?aaao n
inoaeueiui ianaeaieai eanou ioaa?aeaiiuo (“yoa”). Ioeoea?neea
aeieaeiinoe e a iiaie a?iee caiauaeenue naio?ayie. Aieineay iiaeiiinoue
ia noaea anaiauae, io iaa iiaeii auei ioeoieoueny. Inaiaiaeaeaeenue
oaeaea io aieineie iiaeiiinoe /eiiaieee, nooaeaiou (a iniiaiii aeaoe ec
ninoiyoaeueiuo naiae), e?oiiua iaeiaiieaoaeueueee.

Eaieoaeenoe/aneiio ?acaeoeth no?aiu niinianoaiaaee e eeeaeaeaoeey anao
ia?aie/aiee ia ?acaeoea oi?aiaee, oaiaeaeueiuo oeaoia e aeeueaeee,
oa?eoiuo aa?uea?ia iaaeaeo i?iaeioeeyie, oii?yaei/aiea aeaiaaeiie
nenoaiu. A 1871 a. auee aaaaeaiu naiaiaeiia ia?aaeaeaeaiea ii no?aia, a
oaeaea naiaiaea auai?a i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Naio?ayi, a
/anoiinoe, auei ?ac?aoaii caieiaoueny oi?aiaeae e ?aianeii. E?iia oiai,
ainoaea?noai anaia?ii noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?aaeinoaaeyy i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi caeiu, noaneaeee,
iaeiaiaua eueaiou, aeeaaeuaay n?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciu a
no?ieoaeuenoai aeaeaciuo aei?ia, oaeaa?aoiuo eeiee, i?aaei?eyoee aiaiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?.

A iauai ?onea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee i?ioiaeeea e ?aoi?ia
yiiineie oeieu, o?aaeeoeeiiiie nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey, ioe?uaoay aeaa?e
aeey aeinoeaeaiee caiaaeiie. iaoee. I?aaeoaeuenoao Iyeaece a yoie noa?a
i?eoeinue ?aoaoue neiaeioth caaea/o. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aeey iaai auei
i/aaeaeii, /oi aac iiaea?iecaoeee yiiineie oeieu, ia?aciaaiey ii
caiaaeiiio ia?acoeo, ?aoeoue caaea/o nicaeaiey aiaaoiai, neeueiiai
ainoaea?noaa iaaiciiaeii, n ae?oaie — /?acia?iia oaea/aiea caiaaeiuie
iaoeaie e eaeayie auei /?aaaoi iioa?ae naiiauoiie eoeueoo?u, ?aniaaeii
oeaeinoiinoe neiaeeaoaeny yiiineie iaoeee, iniiaaiiie ia ne?aieythuae aa
oyiiienoneie eaeaieiaee.

Caeinoaiaaiea /oaea?iaeiuo aeinoeaeaiee eoeueoo?u a yoie nayce iineei
eneeth/eoaeueii ooeeeoa?ii-i?aeoe/aneee oa?aeoa? e ia cao?aaeaaei
aeooiaiuo iniia yiiineiai iauanoaa. Eae aiai?eee oiaaea a ssiiiee,
?acaeoea no?aiu aeieaeii niaiauaoue “yiiineee aeoo e aa?iiaeneea
ciaiey”. ssiiineee aeoo o?aaiaae i?aaeaea anaai ainieoaiey a aeooa
neioiecia, ii/eoaiey “aeeaiai aiaa” eiia?aoi?a. *oiau iaania/eoue
ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea neioiecia, o?enoeainoai a 1873 a. auei
cai?auaii, aoaeaeeci iinoaaeai a i?yioth caaeneiinoue io
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeiciie eaeaieiaee. A 1868 a. aue i?eiyo oeac i
“aaeeinoaa ioi?aaeaiey ?eooaea e oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii”, nicaeaii ii
noa?iio ia?acoeo “Oi?aaeaiea ii aeaeai iaaaniuo e caiiuo aiaeanoa”
(Aeceiaeeai). A ssiiiee noae caeeaaeuaaoueny, oaeei ia?acii, oio
niaoeeoe/aneee yiiineee ii?yaeie, eiaaea noaoai iieeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu
ainoaea?noaa noaiiaeeenue niaea?aeaieai ?aeeaeiciuo ia?yaeia, ?eooaea.

I?eia?ii yoiio iiaeao neoaeeoue ciaiaiaoaeueiia aiaineoaeaiea eiia?aoi?a
a 1868 a., a oiaea eioi?iai ii aeae eeyoao ia?aae neioienoneeie
aiaeanoaaie “Iaaa e Caiee” nicaeaoue a aoaeouai “oe?ieia nia?aiea” e
?aoaoue ana aeaea “a niioaaonoaee n iauanoaaiiui iiaieai”, enei?aieoue
“ieioea iau/ae i?ioeiai”, caeinoaiaaoue ciaiey “ai anai ie?a” e i?.

A 1869 aiaeo Aeceiaeeai o/?aaeaeaao einoeooo i?iiiaaaeieeia, eioi?ua
aeieaeiu auee ?ani?ino?aiyoue n?aaee ia?iaea oyiiienoneea i?eioeeiu,
iieiaeaiiua a iniiao aeeianoeeiiai eoeueoa “aaeeinoaa ioi?aaeaiey
?eooaea e oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii”. A 1870 a. i?eieiathony aeaa iiauo
eiia?aoi?neeo oeaca i aaaaeaiee iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo aiaineoaeaiee, a
oaeaea i i?iiaaaiaea aaeeeiai o/aiey “oaee?” — aeieo?eiu i aiaeanoaaiiii
i?ienoiaeaeaiee yiiineiai ainoaea?noaa, noaaoaai eaeaieiae/aneei
i?oaeeai yiiineiai aieinoaothuaai iaoeeiiaeecia.

ssaiay i?ioeai?a/eainoue iieeoeee aeooiaiiai ainieoaiey yiiioeaa e
“caeinoaiaaiey ciaiee ai anai ie?a”, a oaeaea ia/aaoaany aeaeaeaiea iiae
eicoiaii eoeueoo?u e i?inaauaiey ia?iaea” canoaaeei i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?eiyoue a 1872 a. Caeii i anaiauai ia?aciaaiee, ineaaeoue aeaaeaiea ia
aoaeaeeci, i?aia?aciaaoue “Oi?aaeaiea ii aeaeai iaaaniuo e caiiuo
aiaeanoa” a Ieienoa?noai ?aeeaeiciiai ia?aciaaiey, /eiiaieee eioi?iai
noaee iacuaaoueny ia i?iiiaaaeieeaie, a “ii?aeueiuie eino?oeoi?aie”,
i?ecaaiiuie ?ani?ino?aiyoue eae ?aeeaeiciua, oae e naaoneea ciaiey.

Caeii i anaiauai ia?aciaaiee 1872 a. ia i?eaae e inouanoaeaieth
i?iaicaeaoaiiiai aeaiaaiae/aneiai eicoiaa “ie iaeiiai iaa?aiioiiai”, oae
eae iao/aiea inoaaaeinue ieaoiui e ii-i?aaeiaio i/aiue aei?iaei, ii ii
iineoaeee oeaeyi iaania/aiey ?acaeaathuaeny eaieoaeenoe/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e iiaiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aiia?aoa a?aiioiuie
ethaeueie.

Ai?ueaa ca aeaiie?aoecaoeeth iieeoe/aneiai no?iy. Ia?aciaaiea
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee ssiiiee. A eiia?aoi?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai ssiiiee a
1868 a. aioee aeaei? e naio?ae THai-Caiaaeiuo eiyaeanoa, nua?aaoea
aaaeioth ?ieue a naa?aeaiee n?aoia. I?aayuee aeie ia aue ao?aeoaciui, ii
ii aue oanii naycai n oeiainiai-?inoiaue/aneie ao?aeoaceae e nai a oie
eee eiie ia?a aoyioo a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

O aioeaaeooneeo nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo nee ssiiiee n naiiai ia/aea ia
auei eiino?oeoeaiie i?ia?aiiu ia?ano?ieee noa?iai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiia?aoa e oai aieaa aai aeaiie?aoecaoeee. A “Eeyoaa”, i?iaicaeaoaiiie a
1868 a., eiia?aoi? iaauae “nicaeaiea niaauaoaeueiiai nia?aiey”, a oaeaea
?aoaiea anao aeae oi?aaeaiey “niaeanii iauanoaaiiiio iiaieth”, aac
oeacaiey eiie?aoiuo n?ieia.

Iineaaeothuea aeanyoeeaoey 70—80-o aa. auee ioia/aiu aeaeueiaeoei ?inoii
iieeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo neiaa. Ia iauai oiia
oe?ieiai ia?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey oneeeaathony iiiiceoeeiiiua iano?iaiey
n?aaee oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiie ao?aeoacee, naio?aeneeo e?oaia, aunooiathueo
i?ioea caneeey a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa i?eaeeaeaiiie e eiia?aoi?o
ciaoe. Iieeoe/anee aeoeaece?othony ii?aaeaeaiiua e?oae iiiaueeia e
naeueneie aiaaoie aa?oooee, o?aaothuea nieaeaiey iaeiaia, aa?aioee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, o/anoey a ianoiii oi?aaeaiee.

Iano?iaiey i?ioanoa, aueeaathueany a o?aaiaaiey eciaiaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e i?eiyoey eiinoeoooeee, i?eaiaeyo e
iauaaeeiaieth iiiiceoeeiiiuo, aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oa/aiee a oe?ieia
“Aeaeaeaiea ca naiaiaeo e ia?iaeiua i?aaa”. Eniieueciaaiea eeaa?aeueiie
iiiiceoeeae oei?aieaoeony e aeinooiiuo oe?ieei iannai noa?aioeiia
?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey naeaeaei yoi aeaeaeaiea iienoeia ianniaui. Eicoiae
aeaeaeaiey iniiauaaeenue ia oeaio?aeueiii a yiiineii ?aeeaeiciii
niciaiee iiiyoee “Iaaa” eae aunoaai ia/aea, niiniaiiai iaaeaeeoue /ai-oi
eee iiaoaeoue /aeiaaea. Aini?eiya eaeaieiaeth o?aioeocneeo i?inaaoeoaeae
i anoanoaaiiuo i?aaao /aeiaaea, eeaea?u “Aeaeaeaiey ca naiaiaeo e
ia?iaeiua i?aaa” eneaee eeth/ e iiieiaieth aa nooe a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
iiiyoeyo. Anoanoaaiiua i?aaa /aeiaaea i?e ia?aaiaea ia yiiineee
o?ainoi?ie?iaaeenue, oaeei ia?acii, a “i?aaa /aeiaaea, aea?iaaiiua
Iaaii”, a “naiaiaea e ia?iaeiua i?aaa” niioiineeenue n eiioooeeaineei
o?aaiaaieai ?acoiiinoe (“?e”) e ni?aaaaeeeainoe (“aa”).

I?aaeoaeuenoai ioaaoeei ia o?aaiaaiey eiinoeoooeeiiiuo ?aoi?i
?ai?anneyie, a?anoaie, i?aneaaeiaaieyie i?ia?anneaiie ia/aoe e i?.
Aianoa n oai ia?aae oa?icie ia?iaeiuo aunooieaiee a i?aaeoaeuenoaa c?aao
iiieiaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiii?iienna n eeaa?aeueiie iiiiceoeeae. A 1881
a. eiia?aoi? ecaeaao oeac i aaaaeaiee n 1890 a. ia?eaiaioneiai
i?aaeaiey. A i?aaeaeaa?ee eiinoeoooeeiiiuo ?aoi?i i?ienoiaeeo
cia/eoaeueiay ia?ano?ieea anae iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu no?aiu.
Ao?aeoacii-eeaa?aeueiay iiiiceoeey i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieyaony a
iieeoe/aneea ia?oee. A 1881 a. auea nicaeaia Eeaa?aeueiay ia?oey
(Aecethoi), eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyea eioa?anu iiiaueeia, n?aaeieo
ai?iaeneeo neiaa e naeueneie ao?aeoacee. E iei i?eiueaee e oia?aiii
iano?iaiiay /anoue e?anoueyinoaa, iaeeea nianoaaiieee. Ia?oey
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo ?aoi?i (Eaeneioi), a eioi?oth aioee i?aaenoaaeoaee
n?aaeieo neiaa, ao?aeoacee, eioaeeeaaioeee, nicaeaiiay a 1882 a., noaea
ae?oaie oia?aiiie ia?oeae iiiiceoeee.

Iieeoe/aneea i?ia?aiiiua o?aaiaaiey o iaaeo ia?oee auee ii/oe
iaeeiaeiau: aaaaeaiea ia?eaiaioneeo oi?i i?aaeaiey, iieeoe/aneeo
naiaiae, ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, eeeaeaeaoeey iiiiiieee a oi?aaeaiee
no?aiie oceiai e?oaa ath?ie?aoee e naio?aenoaa. Iie aeiiieiyeenue
yeiiiie/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie nieaeaiey iaeiaia, ia?aniio?a ia?aaiii?aaiuo
aeiaiai?ia n caiaaeiuie no?aiaie, oe?aieaiey iiceoeee yiiineie
ao?aeoacee ca n/ao ?acaeoey .aiaoiae oi?aiaee, i?iaaaeaiey aeaiaaeiie
?aoi?iu e i?. A ?aieao Eeaa?aeueiie ia?oee oi?ie?oaony eaaia e?uei,
noaayuaa naiae caaea/ae onoaiiaeaiea ?anioaeeee, eeaea?u eioi?iai a
1883— 1884 aa. aicaeaaeytho ioe?uoua aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aunooieaiey.
Iinea ia/aea ?aaiou ia?eaiaioa a 1890 a. ia?oee Aecethoi e Eaeneioi
noaee ea?aoue ana aieaa ianneaioth ?ieue a iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu. A
80-o aa. ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoue naay eae naiinoiyoaeueiay nioeeaeueiay e
iieeoe/aneay neea ?anoouee ?aai/ee eeann ssiiiee. Nicaeathony ia?aua
?aai/ea i?aaiecaoeee, a ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea i?iieeatho nioeeaeenoe/aneea
eaeae.

Ia o?aaiaaiey iiiiceoeee i?aaeoaeuenoai ioaa/aao nicaeaieai
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie Eiinoeoooeeiiii-eiia?aoi?neie ia?oee (Iyenyeoi),
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?ie auea iai?aaeaia ia oi, /oiau ia?aie/eoue
aoaeouea eiinoeoooeeiiiua ?aoi?iu oaiaeiuie aio ?aieaie. O?aaiaaiey yoie
ia?oee ia eaeoo aeaeueoa iiaeaeaiee “naiaiaeu neiaa e ia/aoe niaianoii n
iauanoaaiiui niieienoaeai”. Io?aieoaeueiui oeaeyi, ia?yaeo n nicaeaieai
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie ia?oee, neoaeeei e i?aaeeiinoeoooeeiiiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Oae, caeiiii 1884 a. a ssiiiee ia aa?iiaeneee iaia?
aaiaeeeenue iiaua oeooeu ciaoiinoe: eiycae, ia?eecia, a?aoia, aeeiioia,
aa?iiia, eioi?ui auei i?aaeinoaaeaii aiineaaenoaee i?aai oi?ie?iaaoue
aa?oithth iaeaoo yiiineiai ia?eaiaioa.

A 1885 aiaeo nicaeathony ioaeaeueiua ieienoa?noaa e eaaeiao ieienoa?noa
aa?iiaeneiai ia?acoea, ioaaonoaaiiue a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ia?aae
eiia?aoi?ii. A 1886 a. ainnoaiaaeeaaaony a ea/anoaa niaauaoaeueiiai
i?aaia i?e eiia?aoi?a eeeaeaee?iaaiiue ?aiaa Oaeiue niaao. A yoii aea
aiaeo aaiaeeony yecaiaiaoeeiiiay nenoaia iacia/aiee ia /eiiaie/uee
aeieaeiinoe. A 1888 a. i?iaiaeeony iiaay aaeieieno?aoeaiay ?aoi?ia. A
eaaeaeie i?aoaeoo?a nicaeathony auai?iua i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey, iaeaaeathuea
niaauaoaeueiuie ooieoeeyie, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaoiaeyony iiae
no?iaei eiio?ieai ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae. Naiaia?aciui aaioeii
yoiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa noae iieeoeaeneee caeii ia io?aia ii?yaeea,
i?eiyoue a 1887 a. e cae?aieaoee iiae no?aoii no?iauo iaeacaiee
nicaeaiea oaeiuo iauanoa, nicua iaeaaaeueiuo nia?aiee, ecaeaiea
iaeaaaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u. Aeaeaeaiea “ca naiaiaeo e ia?iaeiua i?aaa” auei
?aca?iieaii n iiiiuueth ?ai?anneaiuo ia?.

Eiinoeoooeey 1889 a. Ai eniieiaiea iaauaiey eiia?aoi? “aea?oao” a 1889
a. naiei iiaeaeaiiui Eiinoeoooeeth, ioiaieoue eee eciaieoue eioi?oth iia
oieueei ii nai.

?aoathuoth ?ieue a iiaeaioiaea “Eiinoeoooeee aaeeeie ssiiineie eiia?ee”
nua?ae aeaaa Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiieoaoa, aoaeouee i?aiuea?-ieieno?
ssiiiee Oe?iaoie Eoi, eioi?ue enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi oae eae a ssiiiee ia
nouanoaoao “iauaaeeiythuae ?aeeaee”, iiaeiaii caiaaeiiio o?enoeainoao,
oi oeaio?ii eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaeaiey aeieaeia noaoue eiia?aoi?neay
aeeianoey, ieeoeaoai?yaoay ainoaea?noai e iaoeeth.

Iiaay Eiinoeoooeey (a oaeaea aa ioeoeeaeueiue eiiiaioa?ee),
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie oiaeia ia?aeiaeaiea i?eioeeiia, caeinoaiaaiiuo ec
caiaaeiuo eiinoeoooeee (e i?aaeaea anaai i?onneie Eiinoeoooeee 1850 a.),
ia iniiaiiieaaathueo ia/aeao oyiiienoneie eaeaieiaee. A yoii
caeeth/aeanue nooue iieeoe/aneiai eiii?iienna iaaeaeo oai?eyie
neioienoneeo o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoia e noi?iiieeia caiaaeiiai
eiinoeoooeeiiaeecia, i?ecaaiiiai i?ae?aoeoue iauanoaaiiia a?iaeaiea,
aucaaiiia aeaeaeaieai “ca naiaiaeo e ia?iaeiua i?aaa”.

Niaeanii no. 1, a ssiiineie eiia?ee oea?noaoao e ath i?aaeo eiia?aoi?,
i?eiaaeeaaeauee e “aaeeinoaaiiie e iai?a?uaiie ai aaee aaeia” aeeianoee.
Iniaa eiia?aoi?a, a niioaaonoaee n “aiaeanoaaiiui” caeiiii, iauyaeyeanue
“nayuaiiie e iai?eeiniiaaiiie”. Eiia?aoi? eae aeaaa ainoaea?noaa eiae
i?aai iauyaeyoue aieio e ie?, caeeth/aoue aeiaiai?u, nicuaaoue e
?anioneaoue ia?eaiaio, ?oeiaiaeeoue aii?oaeaiiuie neeaie, aeaeiaaoue
aeai?yinoai e i?. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue, niaeanii Eiinoeoooeee,
oaeaea aaa?yeanue “eiia?aoi?o e ia?eaiaioo” (no. 5). Eiia?aoi?
ooaa?aeaeae caeiiu e i?aaeienuaae eo eniieiaiea. Ia iniiaaiee no. 8
eiinoeoooeee eiia?aoi?neea oeacu, ecaeaiiua a neo/aa “ianoiyoaeueiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeaea?aeaiey iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea”, ai a?aiy
ia?a?uaia a ?aaioa ia?eaiaioa eiaee neeo caeiia. Yoe oeacu e
iiyaeyeenue, eae i?aaeei, ai a?aiy ia?eaiaioneeo eaieeoe, eioi?ua
aeeeeenue 9 ianyoeaa a aiaeo. Eiia?aoi?o oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeaei i?aai
aaaaeaiey a no?aia inaaeiiai iieiaeaiey.

Ieieno?u, eae e ana aunoea aeieaeiinoiua eeoea, ia oieueei iacia/aeenue
eiia?aoi?ii, ii e auee ioaaonoaaiiu ia?aae iei. Eo aeayoaeueiinoue
?anniao?eaaeanue eae neoaeaiea eiia?aoi?o — nae?aeueiiio oeaio?o
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ii?yaeea. Nai aea eiia?aoi? aue ioaaonoaaiai oieueei
ia?aae Aiaii, /aio i?ioeai?a/eei, ia ia?aue acaeyae, o?aaiaaiea
Eiinoeoooeee inouanoaeyoue ei naith aeanoue “a niioaaonoaee n
Eiinoeoooeeae” (ae. 4). Aeaeeiinoue yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey ono?aiyeanue
aeaaiui eiinoeoooeeiiiui iinooeaoii, /oi naia eiinoeoooeey —
“aiaeanoaaiiue aea?” eiia?aoi?neiai naiiia?aie/aiey, i?aaeinoaaeaiey
eiia?aoi?ii iaeioi?uo i?aa ia?eaiaioo, i?aaeoaeuenoao, iiaeaeaiiui.
Eiinoeoooeey e iino?iaia ii yoie eiioeaiooaeueiie noaia naiiia?aie/aiey,
iooai ia?a/iy i?aa ia?eaiaioa, i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea i?aa e naiaiae
iiaeaeaiiuo.

A eiiiaioa?eyo e eiinoeoooeee Eoi, i?iaicaeaoay eiia?aoi?a nayuaiiui
oeaio?ii iiaiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ii?yaeea, iiae/a?eeaae, /oi
eiinoeoooeey — aai “aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiue e ieeina?aeiue aea?”. Eanaynue
aii?ina ioaaonoaaiiinoe ieieno?ia ia?aae eiia?aoi?ii, a ia ia?aae
ia?eaiaioii, ii ?anniao?eaae aeayoaeueiinoue naiiai ia?eaiaioa eae
neoaeaiea eiia?aoi?o iooai “aianaiey naiae aeiee a aa?iiie/iia
inouanoaeaiea oieeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa — naiuee”, ai aeaaa eioi?ie e
noieo eiia?aoi?.

Ia?eaiaio, iaaeaeaiiue ii eiinoeoooeee caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie i?aaaie,
ninoiye ec aeaoo iaeao: iaeaou iy?ia e iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae. Eaaeaeay
iaeaoa eiaea i?aai aunooiaoue n i?aaenoaaeaieyie i?aaeoaeuenoao,
“eanathueieny caeiiia e ae?oaiai ?iaea i?aaeiaoia”, ii no. 71
Eiinoeoooeee cai?auaea ia?eaiaioo eaeea-eeai ianoaeaeaiey ioiineoaeueii
eciaiaiee a noaoona eiia?aoi?neiai aeiia. Aeey ?aoaiey aii?inia a
iaeaoao o?aaiaaeinue aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai aieinia.

Ii ecae?aoaeueiiio caeiio 1890 a. ieaeiyy iaeaoa ecae?aeanue ia iniiaa
aunieiai (a 25 eao) aic?anoiiai oeaica, a oaeaea eiouanoaaiiiai oeaica
(15 eai i?yiiai iaeiaa) e oeaica inaaeeinoe (1,5 aiaea). AEaiueiu e
aiaiiineoaeauea ia iieo/eee ecae?aoaeueiuo i?aa. Ecae?aoaeueiui i?aaii,
oaeei ia?acii, iieueciaaeanue iacia/eoaeueiay /anoue ianaeaiey ssiiiee,
ieiei 1%. *eaiaie aa?oiae iaeaou auee i?eioeu e?iae, i?aaenoaaeoaee
oeooeiaaiiie a?enoie?aoee, e?oiiua iaeiaiieaoaeueueee e eeoea, eiathuea
“iniaua caneoae” ia?aae eiia?aoi?ii. N?ie iieiiii/ee ieaeiae iaeaou
ii?aaeaeyeny a 4 aiaea, aa?oiae — a 7 eao. Ieieno?u auee i?ecaaiu eeoue
“iiaeaaaoue niaao eiia?aoi?o”. Einoeoooa “aiooi iaaeiaa?ey” Eiinoeoooeey
ia ciaea.

Ia?eaiaioneee eiio?ieue au?aaeaeny oieueei a i?aaa cai?ina
i?aaeoaeuenoao ia iaiaa /ai 30 aeaiooaoaie, i?e yoii ieieno?u iiaee
oeeiiyoueny io ioaaoa ia cai?in, eioi?ue iia auoue ioianai e ?ac?yaeo
“nae?aoiuo”. Ionoonoaiaae (oaeoe/anee o yiiineiai ia?eaiaioa e oaeie
iiuiue ?u/aa aeaaeaiey ia i?aaeoaeuenoai, eae eiio?ieue iaae oeiainaie,
oae eae eiinoeoooeey ia i?aaeoniao?eaaea aaeaaiaeiiai ia?eaiaioneiai
aioe?iaaiey athaeaeaoa. A neo/aa ioeeiiaiey athaeaeaoa ia?eaiaioii
i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaei i?eiaieoue athaeaeao i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea. E?iia
oiai, no. 68 Eiinoeoooeee i?aaeoniao?eaaea iinoiyiiue ?anoiaeiue oiiae,
ooaa?aeaeaaiue ia ianeieueei eao, a oaeaea aeaiaaeiua noiiu “aeey
inouanoaeaiey i?aaiii/ee naiiai eiia?aoi?a” e aeey ?anoiaeia, “naycaiiuo
n iaycaoaeuenoaaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa”. ?anoiaeu i?aaeoaeuenoaa aac niaeaney
ia?eaiaioa iiaee auoue ocaeiiaiu e naiei eiia?aoi?ii.

A Eiinoeoooeee iaoea io?aaeaiea ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiay ?ieue
aiaiueiu, i?aayuae iiia?oe/aneie ath?ie?aoee, — aeaoaaeeiie neeu,
noaaoae ni a?aiai ao?aeoaciuo ?aoi?i aeoeaiui i?iaiaeieeii eioa?ania
ainiiaenoaothueo eeannia: iieooaiaeaeueiuo iiiaueeia e e?aiiouae
iiiiiieenoe/aneie ao?aeoacee. Yoi au?aaeaeinue, a /anoiinoe, a iniaii,
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiii iieiaeaiee oaeeo caaiueaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa,
eae Oaeiue niaao, Aai?i (niaao noa?aeoei), Ieienoa?noai aeai?a, a
aaaeaiee eioi?iai iaoiaeeeenue ia?iiiua caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey eiia?aoi?a,
a oaeaea ?oeiaiaeyuae aa?oooeie a?iee. Oaeiue niaao, ninoiyuee ec
i?aceaeaioa, aeoea-i?aceaeaioa e 25 niaaoieeia, iacia/aeny eiia?aoi?ii
ec aunoeo aiaiii-ath?ie?aoe/aneeo e?oaia. Ii aue iacaaenei eae io
ia?eaiaioa, oae e io eaaeiaoa ieieno?ia. Aio i?aaeienuaaeinue ii no. 56
Eiinoeoooeee ianoaeaeaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea ii cai?inai eiia?aoi?a.
Oaeoe/anee eaaeaeia neieueei-ieaoaeue aaaeiia ?aoaiea a ainoaea?noaa
aeieaeii auei niaeaniauaaoueny n /eaiaie Oaeiiai niaaoa, io iaai aea
enoiaeeei iaeia?aiea eiia?aoi?neeo oeacia e iacia/aiee.
Aiaeiinoeoooeeiiiue i?aai Aai?i, ieacuaaaoee ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia
iieeoeeo no?aiu a oa/aiea iieoaaea, ninoiye ec iiaeeciaiii caieiathueo
naie ianoa i?aaenoaaeoaeae ciaoe auaoeo THai-Caiaaeiuo eiyaeanoa.

A 1889 aiaeo eiia?aoi? onoaiiaee, /oi ana iaeaieaa cia/eiua aii?inu,
ioiinyueany e a?iee e oeioo, ia/aeueieee niioaaonoaothueo ooaaia
aeieeaaeuaatho aio, ieioy i?aaeoaeuenoai, aeaaea aiaiiiai e ii?neiai
ieieno?ia. Aiaiueia iiaea oai naiui aeeyoue ia ?aoaiea eiia?aoi?a i
caiauaiee aeaoo aeaaiaeoeo iinoia a i?aaeoaeuenoaa — aiaiiiai e ii?neiai
ieieno?ia, i?aae?aoay oai naiui aii?in ia oieueei i ninoaaa
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ii e aai iieeoeea. Yoi iieiaeaiea a 1895 a. auei
caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaii. Iinou aiaiiiai e ii?neiai ieieno?ia iiaee
caiauaoue eeoue aiaiiua, iaoiaeyueany ia aeaenoaeoaeueiie aiaiiie
neoaeaa.

Niaoeeaeueiue ?acaeae Eiinoeoooeee aue iinayuai i?aaai e iaycaiiinoyi
yiiineeo iiaeaeaiiuo (ieaoeoue iaeiae e ianoe aiaiioth neoaeao), eioi?ua
ioiaeaeanoaeyeenue n eo aeieaii ia?aae “aiaeanoaaiiui” eiia?aoi?ii.
N?aaee i?aa e naiaiae yiiineeo iiaeaeaiiuo iacaaiu naiaiaea auai?a
ianoiaeeoaeuenoaa, ia?aiauaiey, naiaiaea io i?iecaieueiuo a?anoia,
neiaa, ia/aoe, aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, nia?aiee, iaoeoeee, nithcia. Ii ana yoe
naiaiaeu aeiioneaeenue a “onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii i?aaeaeao”.

Noaoai oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa? yoeo i?aa e naiaiae iniaaiii y?ei i?iyaeeny
a ioiioaiee naiaiaeu aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, cao?aaeaathuae naioth
/oanoaeoaeueioth noi?iio yiiineiai ie?iaicc?aiey. O?aaiaaiea ioaeaeaiey
?aeeaee io ainoaea?noaa, i?eciaiey naiaiaeu aa?ieniiaaaeaiey ana
ianoie/eaaa noaee cao/aoue aua a ia?eiae, i?aaeoanoaothuee i?eiyoeth
eiinoeoooeee, ii ia?a oiai, eae eaeae naiaiaeu e ?aaainoaa iaeaaeaaaee
oiaie iaeaieaa ia?aciaaiiuo neiaa iauanoaa. Iiae aeeyieai yoeo
o?aaiaaiee a 1877 a. auei eeeaeaee?iaaii Ieienoa?noai ?aeeaeiciiai
ia?aciaaiey.

Ia?aniao?eaay a i/a?aaeiie ?ac naith ?aeeaeicioth iieeoeeo,
i?aaeoaeuenoai a 1882 a. i?aaei?eiyei oeo?ioiiue oiae. Oi?iaeueii
i?iaicaeanea “naiaiaeo ?aeeaee”, iii iauyaeei neioieci ia ?aeeaeae, a
ainoaea?noaaiiui ?eooaeii. A nayce n yoei anai neioienoneei nayuaiieeai
eiia?aoi?neeo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo nayoeeeu auei cai?auaii niaa?oaoue
?aeeaeiciua ia?yaeu e i?iiiaaaee. Iie aeieaeiu auee ioi?aaeyoue eeoue
ainoaea?noaaiiua ?eooaeu, aa?oiaiui aethnoeoaeai eioi?uo a ea/anoaa
aeaaiiai nayuaiiineoaeeoaey noaiiaeeny nai eiia?aoi?, /oi eeoue
oneeeaaei aai ?aeeaeiciue aaoi?eoao. Neioieci, oaeei ia?acii,
i?aa?auaeny a iaeoth “naa?o?aeeaeth”, iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeth/aiioth a
ainoaea?noaaiioth nenoaio.

Niciaoaeueiiio aini?eyoeth eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aa e naiaiae
i?aiyonoaiaaei e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aiaae?aiea aeanoyie a iauanoaaiiia
niciaiea i?eioeeia “nayuaiiie yiiineie iaoeeiiaeueiie iauiinoe”
(“eieooae”), eaeae, /aoei au- ?aaeaiiie Eoi, /oi “ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
aeanoyie e iiaeaeaiiuie auee ecia/aeueii ii?aaeaeaiu i?e iniiaaiee
yiiineiai ainoaea?noaa”.

Oi?iaeueiia cae?aieaiea ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aa e naiaiae ia
iiaei eciaieoue noaoai eiina?aaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a Eiinoeoooeee 1889 a.,
ii Eiinoeoooeey noaea ii?aaeaeaiiui oaaii aia?aae ii iooe e?aeia
ia?aie/aiiie aeaiie?aoecaoeee yiiineiai iauanoaa. Aianoa n
ooaa?aeaeaieai i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai i?aaia, i?iaicaeaoaieai
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aa e naiaiae iia niinianoaiaaea
noaiiaeaieth oaeoe/anee iiaie ia?aoiaeiie oi?iu yiiineiai ainoaea?noaa
io aaniethoiie e aeoaeenoe/aneie iiia?oee, a ?aieao eioi?ie a
iineaaeothuea aeanyoeeaoey ia oieueei eiina?ae?iaaeenue oaiaeaeueiua
ia?aaeeoee, ii e i?ienoiaeeei no?aieoaeueiia ?acaeoea yiiineiai
eaieoaeecia.

Nicaeaiea noaeaaiie nenoaiu. Eiinoeoooeey 1889 a. ii?aaeaeeea eeoue
iauea i?eioeeiu aoaeouae ia?ano?ieee noaeia a ssiiiee, oi?iaeueii
onoaiiaea ianiaiyaiinoue e iacaaeneiinoue noaeae, aeayoaeueiinoue
eioi?uo inouanoaeyeanue “io eiaie eiia?aoi?a e niaeanii caeiiai”.
Eiiiaoaioeey iaueo noaeia auea ia?aie/aia, iie ia iiaee ?anniao?eaaoue
aeaeiau ia aeaenoaey aaeieieno?aoeee. Noaouey 60 Eiinoeoooeee
i?aaeoniao?eaaea nicaeaiea iniauo, aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeia,
aeayoaeueiinoue /eiiaieeia auea auaaaeaia ca ?aiee noaeaaiiai eiio?iey.
I?aai aiienoee, niaeanii no. 16 Eiinoeoooeee, i?eiaaeeaaeaei eiia?aoi?o,
oae aea eae e caiaia iaeacaiey ii noaeo.

Noa?ay noaeaaiay nenoaia e noaeii?iecaiaenoai a ssiiiee ia?ano?aeaaeenue
iaaeeaiii. Aua aei i?eiyoey eiinoeoooeee yiiineeie iieeoe/aneeie
aeayoaeyie, th?enoaie auei i?iaaaeaii oe?ieia eco/aiea noaeaaiuo e
i?aaiauo nenoai caiaaeiuo no?ai. Yoiio niinianoaiaaea aeayoaeueiinoue
aiiaue nicaeaiiuo oaeeo iao/iuo oeaio?ia, eae O?aiei-i?aaiaay oeiea
(1879), I?ioanneiiaeueiay i?aaiaay oeiea Iyeaece (1881), Aiaeeeneay
oeiea i?aaa (1885) e i?.

N 1872 aiaea a noaeu noaee aeiioneaoueny i?aaenoaaeoaee i?annu, auee
cai?auaiu iuoee i?e ?ac?aoaiee a?aaeaeaineeo aeae, oi?iaeueii
oie/oiaeaiu nineiaiua ?acee/ey, cai?auaia, e?iaiay ianoue. A 1874 a.
ia?aie/eaathony, a caoai iieiinoueth cai?auathony iuoee a oaieiaiii
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

A 1890 aiaeo ia iniiaa Caeiia ia i?aaiecaoeee noaeia i?ienoiaeeo
oii?yaei/aiea noaeaaiie nenoaiu ssiiiee, nicaeathony ianoiua ie?oaeiua,
aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeaaiua einoaioeee. Ec noaeae aiaeeyoeeiiiuo noaeia e
Aieueoiai noaea i?aainoaeey ia?aciaaeenue eieeaaee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
noaeia.

Caeii a niioaaonoaee n eiinoeoooeeae oi?iaeueii cae?aiee i?eioeei
ianiaiyaiinoe e iacaaeneiinoe noaeae, i?aaeoniio?aa aiciiaeiinoue
niauaiey, iiieaeaiey noaeuee a aeieaeiinoe oieueei a neo/ayo i?eaea/aiey
aai e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eee iaeacaiey a aeenoeeieeia?iii
ii?yaeea. N yoie oeaeueth a yoii aea aiaeo aue i?eiyo Caeii i
aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe noaeae. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiua ?u/aae
aeaaeaiey ia noaeae nio?aiyeenue o ieieno?a thnoeoeee, iaania/eaathuaai
iauee aaeieieno?aoeaiue iaaeci? ca yiiineei i?aainoaeeai, iaeaaeathuaai
i?aaii auaeaeaeaiey noaeae ia aunoea noaeaaiua e aaeieieno?aoeaiua
iinou.

Aeey caiauaiey aeieaeiinoe noaeuee, niaeanii Caeiio 1890 a.,
o?aaiaaeenue th?eaee/aneea ciaiey e i?ioanneiiaeueiue iiuo. Noaeueyie
noaiiaeeenue eeoea, naeaaoea niioaaonoaothuea yecaiaiu e oniaoii
i?ioaaeoea eniuoaoaeueiue n?ie neoaeau a i?aaiao noaea e i?ieo?aoo?u a
oa/aiea o?ao eao.

Caeiiii 1890 a. i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue oaeaea nicaeaiea Aunoaai ioaee/iiai
aeaia?oaiaioa i?ieo?aoo?u ni ooaoii ianoiuo i?ieo?i?ia, iiae/eiythueony
no?iaie noai?aeeiaoeee. E i?ieo?i?ai i?aaeuyaeyeenue oa aea
eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua o?aaiaaiey, /oi e e noaeueyi, ia ieo oaeaea
?ani?ino?aiyeny eiio?ieue ieieno?a thnoeoeee, eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeaei
i?aai aeaaaoue oeacaiey i?ieo?i?ai ii oai eee eiui noaeaaiui aeaeai.

A 1893 aiaeo aue i?eiyo Caeii ia aaeaieaoo?a. Aaeaieaou noaee
o/anoaiaaoue a ?aaioa noaea. Aaeaieaoneee ei?ion iaoiaeeeny iiae
aeanoeei eiio?ieai eae ieieno?a thnoeoeee, oae e i?ieo?aoo?u. Aaeaieaou
oaeaea iiaeiaaeaee iiae th?enaeeeoeeth aeenoeeieeia?iuo noaeia. I?aai
i?eaeaeaoue eo e aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?eiaaeeaaeaei
i?ieo?i?ai. Ianiio?y ia ana yoe iiaiaaaaeaiey, “i?aaiio?aieoaeueiay”
nenoaia ssiiiee aua aeieai inoaaaeanue ?ai?anneaiui i?eaeaoeii eiia?neie
aeanoe.

Ainoaea?noai ssiiiee iinea i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee. Yiioa i?iiuoeaiiiai
?acaeoey a ssiiiee ii/oe iieiinoueth niaiaea ni a?aiaiai ia?aoiaea e
e?oiiiio ei?ii?aoeaiiio eaieoaeecio. Yoiio niinianoaiaaea
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay iieeoeea aaniethoenoneiai ainoaea?noaa, inouanoaeaiea
ei oe?ieeo yeiiiie/aneeo e aiaiiuo ooieoeee. A oeaeyo i?aiaeieaiey
oaoie/aneiai e aiaiiiai ionoaaaiey io ia?aaeiauo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ainoaea?noa yiiineia ainoaea?noai ia oieueei anaia?ii noeioee?iaaei
?acaeoea /anoiiai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ii e naii
aeoeaii o/anoaiaaei a i?iiuoeaiiii no?ieoaeuenoaa, oe?iei noaneaee?oaiii
ca n/ao iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee. Ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciie oeiaine?iaaeinue
no?ieoaeuenoai aieueoiai /enea aiaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aeaeaciuo aei?ia e
i?. I?iiuoeaiiui no?ieoaeuenoaii ?oeiaiaeeei nicaeaiiia a 1870 a.
ieienoa?noai i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

N?aueaaiea aaieianeiai e i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaeia, ioiineoaeueii ?aiiaa
ia?aciaaiea yiiineeo iiiiiieee auee onei?aiu iineaaeothuae ia?aaea/ae ca
aanoeaiie aaieianeei aeiiai, oaeei, eae Ieoeoe, Noieoiii e ae?oaea,
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo ainoaea?noao. Aicieeatho
iiiiiieenoe/aneea eiioea?iu (“aecaeaaoeo”), i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie ?yae
naycaiiuo oe?i, eiio?iee?oaiuo iaeiie iaoa?eineie oe?iie eee a?oiiie
oeiainenoia.

ssiiineia ainoaea?noai, iaeiaei, eiina?ae?oy oaiaeaeueiua ia?aaeeoee ai
anao noa?ao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe yiiineiai iauanoaa, aua aeieai onooiaei
ii o?iaith ?acaeoey Aa?iia e NOA. A nioeeaeueiie iaeanoe nouanoaiaaee ia
oieueei iieooaiaeaeueiia iiiaue/uea caieaaeaaeaiea, eaaaeueiay
yenieoaoaoeey e?anoueyi-a?aiaeaoi?ia, caneeea ?inoiaueeia, nineiaiua
?acee/ey, ii e aeanoi/aeoea oi?iu yenieoaoaoeee, nioeeaeueiia aani?aaea
?aai/eo, iieooaiaeaeueiay eiio?aeoaoeey i?iiuoeaiieeaie ?aai/ae neeu a
aea?aaia e i?. A iieeoe/aneie iaeanoe oaiaeaeueiua ia?aaeeoee
au?aaeaeenue a aaniethoenoneii oa?aeoa?a yiiineie iiia?oee n
i?aiaeaaeathuae ?ieueth iiiaueeia a i?aayuai iiiaue/uea-ao?aeoaciii
aeiea, nio?aieaoainy aieioue aei ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, a iieeoe/aneii
caneeee iiiaueeia a yiiineie aea?aaia.

Ia oniaa auoue i?eciaiiie a ea/anoaa eiieo?aioa ae?oaeie iiuiuie a
aiaiiii ioiioaiee aea?aeaaaie, ssiiiey i/aiue ?aii iioea ii iooe
yeniaineiienoneie iieeoeee. A oeaeyo ia?aaeaea ie?a a naith iieueco a
1876 a. ia/aeanue yiiineay aiaiiay aeoeaiinoue a Ei?aa, a 1894 a.
yiiineay aiaiueia ?acaycaea aieio a Eeoaa.

Nicaeaiea aieueoie nia?aiaiiie a?iee e. aiaiii-ii?neiai oeioa noaei
iniaie caaioie iiaiai yiiineiai eiia?aoi?neiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa n ia?auo
aeiae aai nouanoaiaaiey. Yoiio niinianoaiaaee oa aaaeiay ?ieue, eioi?oth
ea?aee a ainoaea?noaa aeeyoaeueiua ieeeoa?enoneea eeee, iaaeiaieuenoai
nioai ouny/ naio?aaa, ieacaaoeony ia o aeae, eeoeaoeony naieo i?aaeieo
oaiaeaeueiuo i?eaeeaaee, oyiiienoneay eaeaieiaey n aa ieoaie i aaeeeie
iennee yiiioeaa eae iaoeee “oieeaeueiuo ii?aeueiuo ea/anoa”, i?ecaaiiie
naieie aiaaie “nianoe /aeiaa/anoai”, onoaiiaeoue aa?iiieth ai anai ie?a
iooai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia iaai aeanoe “aiai?aaiiai oyiii”. Eiaiii a yoi
a?aiy a ssiiiee ?ani?ino?aieeny eicoia “aanue ie? iiae iaeiie e?uoae”,
?anniao?eaaaoeeny eae aiaeanoaaiiue eiia?aoea.

Iiniaieeii ieeeoa?ecaoeee no?aiu, aiaiiuo aaaioth? oaeoe/anee noae e
yiiineee ia?eaiaio. Iinea yiiii-eeoaeneie aieiu 1894—1895 aa. ana
ia?eaiaioneea iiiiceoeeiiiua ia?oee noaee aaeeiiaeooii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
aiaiioth iieeoeeo i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ec aiaea a aiae oaaee/eaaaoaai aiaiiua
anneaiiaaiey.

A?iee ia?yaeo n ?acaaoaeaiiui iieeoeaeneei aiia?aoii ioaiaeeeanue a yoi
a?aiy e aaaeiay ?ieue a io?aia i?aayuaai ?aaeeia. N yoie oeaeueth iia
anaia?ii ia?aaeaeaeanue io i?iieeiiaaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneeo eaeae,
eciee?iaaeanue io iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu. Aiaiiineoaeauea ia oieueei
eeoaeenue ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa, ii e anao ae?oaeo iieeoe/aneeo i?aa e
naiaiae, eioi?ua iiaee i?eiaiyoueny e iei, niaeanii no. 32 Eiinoeoooeee,
“eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iie ia i?ioeai?a/eee onoaaai e aiaiiie
aeenoeeieeia”.

No?ieoaeuenoai iiaie a?iee e aiaiii-ii?neiai oeioa i?ienoiaeeei n
iiiiuueth eiino?aiiuo niaoeeaeenoia, aeaaiui ia?acii ec Aiaeee e
O?aioeee. Iieiaeuo yiiioeaa aeey eco/aiey aiaiiiai aeaea iinueaee ca
a?aieoeo. Naienoaaiiu auee yiiineie a?iee e noaoai oaiaeaeueiua /a?ou —
caneeea a oa/aiea iiiaeo aeanyoeeaoee naio?aeneeo yeaiaioia,
i?aiaeaaeaiea a ?oeiaiaenoaa a?iee e oeioa auoiaeoeaa ec oaiaeaeueiuo
eeaiia auaoeo THai-Caiaaeiuo eiyaeanoa e ae?.

I?e iauae iiaeaea?aeea iieeoe/anee aeoeaiie /anoueth yiiineiai iauanoaa
ieeeoa?enonei-yeniaineiienoneie ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee i?aayuaio
aeieo oaeaeinue noi?ie?iaaoue a 1898 a. aeinoaoi/ii aeaaniiniaiia
ia?eaiaioneia aieueoeinoai. Aeaaiaea?y nicaeaieth “eiinoeoooeeiiiie
ia?oee”, iauaaeeieaoae e iiiiceoeeth, a oii aea aiaeo aue noi?ie?iaai
ia?aue a enoi?ee ssiiiee ia?oeeiue eaaeiao. Ianiio?y ia
iaaeieaiaa/iinoue e eneonnoaaiiinoue ia?eaiaioneiai eaaeiaoa, a eioi?ue
aioee i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeiie i?ii?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie ia?oee, nai oaeo aai
nicaeaiey noae aaaeiui iieeoe/aneei niauoeai, canoaaeaoei
aiaiii-ath?ie?aoe/aneea e?oae ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue ia ?ieue iieeoe/aneeo
ia?oee e naiiai ia?eaiaioa. A 1890 a. a ssiiiee auea i?iaaaeaia ?aoi?ia
ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa, ?anoe?eaoay /enei ecae?aoaeae. Oae ia/aeinue
iaaeeaiiia, iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiia (nii?iaiaeaeaaiia, iai?eia?,
?anoe?aieai iieiiii/ee Oaeiiai niaaoa ca n/ao ia?eaiaioa e i?.)
ia?a?anoaiea aaniethoiie iiia?oee a ia?aie/aiioth, aeoaeenoe/aneoth,
eioi?ia auei i?a?aaii iineaaeothuae iiaeaioiaeie e “aieueoie aieia” e
onoaiiaeaieai iiia?oi-oaoenoneiai ?aaeeia a ssiiiee.

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