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История государства и права Японии в новейшее время

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Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ssiiiee a iiaaeoaa a?aiy

1. ssiiineia ainoaea?noai a ia?eiae iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?iauie aieiaie

2. ssiiineia ainoaea?noai iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu

1. ssiiineia ainoaea?noai a ia?eiae iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?iauie aieiaie

Iiaay iieeoe/aneay no?oeoo?a. ssiiiey auoea ec ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu,
oaaee/ea naie eieiieaeueiua aeaaeaiey ca n/ao caoaaoa aa?iaineeo eieiiee
ia Oeoii ieaaia. ?ino i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iniaaiii aiaiiie, noeioee?iaae
oneeaiea iiceoeee e?oiiuo oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo eiioea?iia
“aecaeaaoeo”. Aianoa n oai nio?aiaiea oaiaeaeueiuo ia?aaeeoeia a
naeueneii oicyenoaa, ia?aeaaoaa e?anoueyi-a?aiaeaoi?ia ia e?aeia
neoaeiia nouanoaiaaiea, naea?aeeaaei ?acaeoea aioo?aiiaai ?uiea. Ia
iaiaa oyaeaeui auei iieiaeaiea e ai?iaeneeo o?oaeyueony.
Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea i?ioeai?a/ey aeinoeaee iniaie
ino?iou a ia?eiae e?ecenia 20-o — ia/aea 30-o aiaeia. Auoiae ec
nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey i?aayuea e?oae aeaeaee a oaeanoi/aiee
aiaiii-iieeoeaeneiai ?aaeeia a no?aia e aeoeaecaoeee eieiieaeueiie
yeniainee. Iiaeaioiaea e iiaie aieueoie aieia noaea ii?aaeaeythuei
oaeoi?ii ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie.

A 1937—1939 e 1940—1941 aa. ia iinoo ieieno?a-i?aceaeaioa aue i?eioe
Eiiiy — noi?iiiee oioaeeoa?iiai no?iy, noaaeaiiee ieeeoa?enoia e
“aecaeaaoeo”. Aai i?aaeoaeuenoai, ninoiyaoaa ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae a?iee e
oeioa, a oaeaea e?oiiaeoeo eiioea?iia “Ieoeoaene”, “Ieoeoe”, “Noieoiii”,
iauyaeei i nicaeaiee “iiaie iieeoe/aneie no?oeoo?u”. Anai eaaaeueiui
iieeoe/aneei ia?oeyi auei “i?aaeeiaeaii” naii?anionoeoueny. Acaiai
nicaeaaaeanue iieoiauanoaaiiay, iieoainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey —
Annioeeaoeey iiiiue o?iio, ieciaua y/aeee eioi?ie ioaaouaaee anth
no?aio. Annioeeaoeeth aicaeaaeye ieieno?-i?aceaeaio, a aa iniiaiua
iiae?acaeaeaiey aicaeaaeyee i?aaenoaaeoaee aiaiiie e a?aaeaeaineie
ath?ie?aoee, a oaeaea iieuecothueany aeiaa?eai ?oeiaiaeeoaee
naii?anionoeaoeony ia?oee. A ninoaa Annioeeaoeee aioee ia i?aaao
eieeaeoeaiuo /eaiia auaoea ia?oee, ?acee/iua iauanoaa e nithcu. Acaiai
?aniouaiiuo i?ionithcia auee nicaeaiu “iauanoaa neoaeaiey ioa/anoao”,
aicaeaaeyaiua iacia/aaiuie i?aaeoaeuenoaii aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie.
Oi?ie?iaaeenue e ae?oaea iiaeiaiua ei i?aaiecaoeee. Oae, a aea?aaia auea
aaaaeaia ii nouanoao n?aaeiaaaeiaay nenoaia “aeaaiaaeoeaoe aeai?ia”,
eiaaea iaeiiio ec iaeiinaeue/ai — naiiio aeaaiiaaeaaeiiio — ii?o/aeny
eiio?ieue ca oiiiano?iaieyie, auiieiaieai iaeiaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa
inoaeueiuo.

N iiiiuueth yoeo i?aaiecaoeee a iaaeaeaiiuo aeaaea aeey ssiiiee
ianooaaao onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaeei anaiauae iieeoeaeneie neaaeee,
iiaeaaeaiey eiaeiiuneey, oneeeaaaony eoeueo eiia?aoi?a,
i?iiaaaiaee?oaony oiaeieci. A eoiaa oaeoe/anee ana ac?ineia ianaeaiea
no?aiu auei aeeth/aii a aeiaaeueioth aiaiii-ath?ie?aoe/aneoth no?oeoo?o,
i?ecaaiioth i?aaiecaoeeiiii e eaeaieiae/anee iiaeaioiaeoue ianaeaiea e
aieia.

Iiaay yeiiiie/aneay no?oeoo?a. “Iiaay iieeoe/aneay no?oeoo?a” auea
aeiiieiaia “iiaie yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?ie”, i?aaeoniao?eaaaoae
i?eioaeeoaeueiia iauaaeeiaiea anao i?aaei?eyoee ii
oa??eoi?eaeueii-io?aneaaiio i?eioeeio. Eaaeaeia
oa??eoi?eaeueii-io?aneaaia iiae?acaeaeaiea aicaeaaeyeinue eeoeii,
iacia/aaiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii, eae i?aaeei, ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. A eo aaaeaiea ia?aaeaaaeinue ?aoaiea aaaeiaeoeo
aii?inia i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa: ?ani?aaeaeaiea nu?uey, yia?aiiineoaeae,
?aai/ae neeu, ii?aaeaeaiea oeai, iniiaiuo oneiaee o?oaea, ca?ieaou e
ae?. Caaanoiaee iauyaeyeenue ainoaea?noaaiiui i?anooieaieai. Iauanoaa
neoaeaiey ioa/anoao aeeth/aeenue a “iiaoth yeiiiie/aneoth no?oeoo?o”.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e eioaineaiinoue o?oaea ?aai/eo ?acei aic?inee.
Oaeei iooai e yeiiiieea no?aiu auea ieeeoa?eciaaia.

A aeaeaa?a 1941 a. ssiiiey, eioi?ay oaea aaea aa?anneaioth aieio n
Eeoaai, aiacaiii iaiaea ia aia?eeaineoth aiaiii-ii?neoth aaco
Ie?e-Oa?ai? e ia/aea aieio n NOA, a anei?a e n ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaie —
/eaiaie aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee.

2. ssiiineia ainoaea?noai iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu

ssiiineia ainoaea?noai a oneiaeyo ieeoiaoeeiiiiai ?aaeeia. Iiaaaea
nithciuo aea?aeaa a aieia ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea i?eaaea e aaciaiai?i/iie
eaieooeyoeee ssiiiee e aa a?aiaiiie aiaiiie ieeoiaoeee aia?eeaineeie
aieneaie, e nicaeaieth yiiineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?iai auee ii?aaeaeaiu Iionaeaineie aeaeea?aoeeae 1945
a., o?aaiaaieyie aa iacaiaaeeeoaeueiie aeaieeeoa?ecaoeee e
aeaiie?aoecaoeee. Aeaaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca auiieiaiea yoeo o?aaiaaiee
aiceaaaeanue ia aia?eeaineea ieeoiaoeeiiiua aeanoe, eioi?ui aue ia?aaeai
n yoie oeaeueth ?yae ainoaea?noaaiiuo ooieoeee: inouanoaeaiea eiio?iey
iaae yiiineeie oeiainaie, iaae ninoaaeaieai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa, aiaoiae oi?aiaeae, iaae anaie i?aaiaie i?aainoaeey, iieeoeee
e i?.

Aeaiie?aoecaoeey e aeaieeeoa?ecaoeey ssiiiee nii?iaiaeaeaeenue ?inioneii
yiiineie a?iee, oeueo?aiaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo e oaoenoneeo i?aaiecaoeee,
ioiaiie oeaeiai ?yaea ?ai?anneaiuo caeiiia, a oii /enea Caeiia ia
iianiuo iuneyo, ia?aie/aieai naiaiaeu neiaa, ia/aoe, nia?aiee. Auee
eeeaeaee?iaaiu oaeiay iieeoeey, Ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae, Aiaiiia e
Ii?neia ieienoa?noaa, eioi?ua a i?ioeii iaeaieaa y?ei aiieiuaee a naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe aioeaeaiie?aoe/aneee, ieeeoa?enoneee oa?aeoa? yiiineie
iieeoeee. Iiae aicaeaenoaeai iaauaaeiai iiaeuaia aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey, iiae eiio?ieai aia?eeaineeo aeanoae ia/ae i?iaiaeeoueny eo?n
e ia enei?aiaiea oyiiiecia, ia ?acaai/aiea ieoia i “aiaeanoaaiiii
i?ienoiaeaeaiee” eiia?aoi?a a ssiiiee.

A aeaeaa?a 1945 a. ia iniiaa aee?aeoeau ieeoiaoeeiiiuo aeanoae
neioienoneay ?aeeaey auea ioaeaeaia io ainoaea?noaa, a a iiaiaiaeiai
ia?auaiee e ia?iaeo a 1946 a. eiia?aoi? ioaee/ii io?aeny io naiaai
“aiaeanoaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey”. I?iaaaeaiiay aneaae ca yoei
aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?aoi?ia ia?aciaaiey ioiaieea “ii?aeueiia ainieoaiea” a
aeooa “eiia?aoi?neiai iooe” a oeieao.

Yoe ?aoi?iu, ciaiaiothuea ea/anoaaiii iiaue yoai a ?acaeoee yiiineiai
iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa, ia auee, iaeiaei, iineaaeiaaoaeueiuie.
Ioaeaeaiea “neioi” io ainoaea?noaa ia eeoeei eiia?aoi?a ?iee aeooiaiiai
aeaau no?aiu, “neiaiea ainoaea?noaa e aaeeinoaa iaoeee”. Ia auei
auiieiaii e aeaaiia o?aaiaaiea Iionaeaineie aeaeea?aoeee i nicaeaiee
iiaeeeiii aeaiie?aoe/aneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

A ?yaeo aaaeiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, i?iaaaeaiiuo a
iineaaiaiiie ssiiiee, iniaia ianoi caieiaao Caeii ia aa?a?iie ?aoi?ia
1946 a., nua?aaoee cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ia?ano?ieea iineaaiaiiie
nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u ssiiiee. Yoei caeiiii i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue
eeeaeaeaoeey iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea eceeoeia
(naa?o 3 oa)’ ia?aaaouaaaiie iiiaue/ueae caiee iooai aueoia aa
ainoaea?noaii e iineaaeothuae ?ani?iaeaaee e?anoueyiai (n
i?aeiouanoaaiiui i?aaii iieoiee a?aiaeaoi?aie). Ia?aie/aia auea
caiaeueiay a?aiaeiay ieaoa, aaaaeaiu oaeaea ia?aie/aiey aeey
ia?ai?iaeaaee caiee n oeaeueth i?ana/aiey aa iiaie eiioeaio?aoeee a
iaeieo ?oeao e i?. Iiiaue/uea caieaaeaaeaiea auei, oaeei ia?acii,
oie/oiaeaii, /anoiia e?anoueyineia oicyenoai noaei i?aiaeaaeathuae
oi?iie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, /oi onei?eei ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee a aea?aaia.

Eeeaeaeaoeey iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey aeieaeia auea i?ienoiaeeoue
aianoa n i?iaaaeaieai iieeoeee aeaea?oaeecaoeee, ono?aiaiey caneeey
oeiainiaie ieeaa?oee a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaea e oeiainao no?aiu.

Iieeoeea aeaea?oaeecaoeee ia iiaei?aaea nouanoaaiii aaaeoueo iiceoeee
e?oiiiai eaieoaea a yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu, oae eae
ia?aie/eeanue eeoue ?inioneii aieiaiuo eiiiaiee (“aecaeaaoeo”),
aea?aeaaoeo eiio?ieueiua iaeaou aeoeee, e i?aia?aciaaieai eo i?aaeieo
aei/a?ieo eiiiaiee a oi?iaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiua. Cai?auaeinue oaeaea
aeaaeaiea aeoeeyie ae?oaeo eiiiaiee, noieiinoue eioi?uo i?aauoaea 25% eo
eaieoaea. Iia, iaeiaei, niinianoaiaaea iaeeaeaieth eiieo?aioeee, /oi
yaeeinue iaeiei ec aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiioeuenia ?acaeoey iineaaiaiiie
ie?iie yeiiiieee ssiiiee.

Aeaea?oaeecaoeey, eae e a iineaaiaiiie Aa?iaiee, naycuaaeanue n
iieeoeeie aeaiaoeeoeeaoeee, aeaiie?aoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa.
Ii e caeanue /enoea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa io aiaiiuo i?anooiieeia
ia i?eaaea e nouanoaaiiui eciaiaieyi a eaae?iaii ninoaaa
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa. Ec 300 n eeoiei ouny/ /eiiaieeia
iiaeaa?aeenue “/enoea”, oi anoue auee iono?aiaiu io aeieaeiinoe, eeo
/aeiaae, ec ieo iaiaa 200 i?eiaaeeaaeaee e aa?oooea yiiineie
ath?ie?aoee.

?aoi?iu nouanoaaiii ia cao?iioee e noa?u o?aaeeoeeiiiuo o?oaeiauo
ioiioaiee n oei?aieaoaeny nenoaia aeeciaiiiai iaeia”, iieaou o?oaea a
caaeneiinoe io a( oa e noaaea, aeene?eieiaoeee a iieaoa o?oaea aeaiuei
Iaaeaeo oai a 1945 a. aue i?eiyo caeii i i?ionithc: eioi?iio ?aai/ea e
neoaeauea iieo/eee i?aai ia i?aaiecaoeeth i?ionithcia, caeeth/aiea
eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ia a 1947 a. — caeii i o?oaeiauo ii?iao,
cai?auathuee i?eioaeeoaeueiue o?oae. Onoaiaaeeaaeenue oaeaea 8-/aniaie
/ee aeaiue, iaaeaaaee ca naa?oo?i/ioth ?aaioo, iiea/eaaaiua ioionea,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eieiaoaey ca io?aio aea; aaiaeeeenue no?aoiaaiea
e eiiiainaoeee i?e ian/anoiuo neo/ayo e ii aac?aaioeoea.

Eiinoeoooeey ssiiiee 1947 a. Aaaeiaeoae aeaiie?aoe/aneie aeoeeae
iineaaiaiiiai ia?eiaea yaeeinue i?eiyo] aie Eiinoeoooeee ssiiiee 1946
a., eioi?ay anooieea a n 1947 a.

?aaioa iaae i?iaeoii aoaeouae yiiineie eiinoeoooeee ia/aeanue aaniie
1946 a. Iia auea ii?o/aia ieeoiaoeeiiiuie aeanoyie aeai?oeiaui e?oaai.
Iieeoe/aneea ia?oey aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie eaeaeiuie
iiceoeeyie iiaeaioiaeee naie i?iaeou, oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a eioi?uo
caiye aii?in ia ioiioaiee e eiia?aoi?neie aeanoe eiina?aaoeaiay ia?oey
aecethoi, iai?eia?, ianoaeaaea nio?aiaiee eiia?aoi?neie aeanoe,
ia?aie/aiiie oie i?aaa ia ecaeaiea /?acau/aeiuo oeacia e i?., oi
?aaeeeaeueiua o?aaiaaiey yiiineeo eiiioienoia naiaeeeenue e
onoaiiaeaieth a ssiiiee “ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee”.

I?iaeo ieeoiaoeeiiiuo aeanoae enoiaeee ec iaoe oaeueiiai niaethaeaiey
neaaeothueo o?aaiaaiee: ssiiiey aeieaeia ioeacaoueny io aieiu e
oie/oiaeeoue naie aii?oaeaiiua noaa?aieoao aeieaeai auoue ia?aaeai
ia?iaeo, iaeaoa iy?ia oi?acaeiaia; nianoaaiiinoue eiia?aoi?neiai aeiia
aeieaeia nooieoue a ?anii?yaeaiea ainoaea?noaa. ssiiineea ieieno?u
iacaaee yoio i?iaeo “ono?aoathua ?aaeeeaeueiui”, cayaea, /oi ii
“niaa?oaiii i?ioeai?a/eo yiiineei o?aaeeoeeyi”. Iniaaiii ao?iia
aic?aaeaiea eiina?aaoeaiuo e?oaia caaee o?aaiaaiey i cai?aoa ia aieio e
aii?oaeaiiua i ia?aaea/a nianoaaiiinoe eiia?aoi?neiai aeiia, eioi?ay,
eae iie ooaa?aeaeaee, “ia?ooeo iaoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o”, ainoaea?noao.

Iiaeaioiaeaiiue a ia?oa 1946 a. ioeoeeaeueiue i?iaeo eiinoeoooeee aue
iniiaai ia i?iaeoa ieeoiaoeeiiiuo aeanoae. A iai aue o/oai ?yae
i?aaeeiaeaiee ec ia?oeeiuo i?iaeoia. Oae, iiae aeeyieai i?iaeoa yiiineeo
eiiioienoia a Eiinoeoooeeth auei aeeth/aii iieiaeaiea i i?aaa a?aaeaeai
o?aaiaaoue aiciauaiey io ainoaea?noaa a neo/aa i?e/eiaiey ei oua?aa
iacaeiiiuie aeaenoaeyie aeanoae (no. 17, 40), a oaeaea i i?aaa yiiineeo
a?aaeaeai ia “ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue caei?iauey e eoeueoo?iie aeecie”
(no. 25).

Oi?iaeueii Eiinoeoooeey auea i?eiyoa yiiineei ia?eaiaioii e ooaa?aeaeaia
Oaeiui niaaoii eae eciaiaiiay noa?ay Eiinoeoooeey. Aiciiaeiinoue oaeiai
eciaiaiey auea i?aaeoniio?aia a no. 7 Eiinoeoooeee 1889 a. Ii yoi auea
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaay eiinoeoooeey, aia?aua a enoi?ee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?acaeoey no?aiu iino?iaiiay ia i?eioeeiao ia?eaiaioneie aeaiie?aoee.

A i?aaiaoea Eiinoeoooeee aue cae?aieai i?eioeei ia?iaeiiai noaa?aieoaoa,
ii ianeaaenoaaiiay eiia?aoi?neay aeanoue auea nio?aiaia iiae aeaaeaieai
i?aaeaea anaai i?aauo nee e ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo
oaeoi?ia, eiina?aaoeaiiai iiia?oe/aneiai niciaiey aieueoeinoaa yiiioeaa,
iniaaiii a naeueneie ianoiinoe.

Eiinoeoooeey nio?aiyea aeeianoeeioth i?aainoaaiiinoue eiia?aoi?neiai
o?iia. Niaeanii no. 1, eiia?aoi? yaeyaony “neiaieii ainoaea?noaa e
aaeeinoaa ia?iaea”. Oaeay oi?ioea iiia?oee ia ano?a/aaony ie a iaeiie ec
nia?aiaiiuo eiinoeoooeee, /oi aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue iaeioi?ui yiiineei
ainoaea?noaiaaaeai aiai?eoue i oii, /oi a ssiiiee auea oaeoe/anee
onoaiiaeaia ia iiia?oey, a ?anioaeeea.

A yaiii i?ioeai?a/ee ni no. 4 Eiinoeoooeee, ioeacuaathuae eiia?aoi?o a
i?aaa inouanoaeyoue ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue, ca iei aue cae?aieai ?yae
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo iieiiii/ee: iacia/aoue i?aiuea?-ieieno?a ii
i?aaenoaaeaieth eaaeiaoa, i?iioeueae?iaaoue iii?aaee e Eiinoeoooeee,
nicuaaoue ia?eaiaioneea nannee, ?anioneaoue ieaeithth iaeaoo,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaoue iacia/aiey e ionoaaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo ieieno?ia e
ae?oaeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe.

Niaeanii no. 3, i?e niaa?oaiee “ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae” eiia?aoi?
aeieaeai ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny “niaaoaie” e iieo/aoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia
“iaeia?aiea” eaaeiaoa, eioi?ue e ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aai
aeaenoaey. Eiinoeoooeey iiae?acoiaaaao iiae “ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeaeaie”
eiia?aoi?a, oaeei ia?acii, eeoue iaycaiiinoe i?ioeannoaeueiiai ii?yaeea.
Ii ii ii-i?aaeiaio ieacuaaao neeueiia aeeyiea ia iieeoe/aneoth e
eaeaieiae/aneoth aeeciue no?aiu, a /ai aai i?yii ia ia?aie/eaaao
Eiinoeoooeey. Iai?eia?, a Eiinoeoooeee iao iieiaeaiee, eioi?ua
eneeth/eee au aiciiaeiinoue eiia?aoi?a ioaa?aaoue ?aoaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Oai naiui yoie “niyuae” i?a?iaaoeaie ?aca?ae?othony aai
aiciiaeiinoe a /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeeyo i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiio eo?no.

Eiinoeoooeey iiae?uaaea ia oieueei iieeoe/aneea, ii e yeiiiie/aneea
iiceoeee eiia?aoi?neiai aeiia. Niaeanii no. 88, eiouanoai eiia?aoi?neie
oaieeee auei ia?aaeaii ainoaea?noao, ?aoeeiiaeece?iaaiu eiia?aoi?neay
caiaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue, eaieoaeu a aeaea aeoeee eiiiaiee, aaieianeeo
aeeaaeia, iaeeaaoeee. Aeioiaeu eiia?aoi?neie naiuee ia?aie/eaathony iuia
athaeaeaoiuie anneaiiaaieyie, ooaa?aeaeaaiuie ia?eaiaioii. Yoi
iieiaeaiea auei cae?aieaii Caeiiii i oicyenoaa eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a
1947 a.

Aianoa n eciaiaieai iieeoe/aneie ?iee eiia?aoi?a auei eeeaeaee?iaaii e
noa?ia Ieienoa?noai eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a. Aianoi iaai auei nicaeaii
Oi?aaeaiea eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a, aeaenoaothuaa i?e eaioeaey?ee
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a, eioi?ia caieiaaony ?aoaieai aii?inia, naycaiiuo n
iianaaeiaaiui aaaeaieai aeae eiia?aoi?a e eiia?aoi?neiai aeiia,
i?aaiecaoeeae i?eaeai?iiai oea?aiiieaea, niaea?aeaieai e io?aiie
eiia?aoi?neie nianoaaiiinoe. Ia/aeueiee yoiai oi?aaeaiey, a aaaeaiee
eioi?iai iaoiaeeony ooao, i?aauoathuee ouny/o /aeiaae, iacia/aaony
i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii n niaeaney eiia?aoi?a.

Ianiio?y ia oi?iaeueii ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa? naieo iieiiii/ee,
Oi?aaeaiea eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a i?e i?yiie iiaeaea?aeea i?aayuae
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee, i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?iaeieaeaao ea?aoue
aaaeioth ?ieue a iiaeaea?aeaiee aa?iiiiaeaeaiie/aneeo iano?iaiee
yiiioeaa iooai i?iaaaeaiey iiiai/eneaiiuo ?eooaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee,
naycaiiuo n aeeciueth eiia?aoi?neie naiuee, e i?. ?eooae, oioy e a
iaiueoae noaiaie, i?iaeieaeaao aieaoaoueny a noa?o yiiineie iieeoeee.
Noaouey 20 Eiinoeoooeee ?aeiiaiaeoao ainoaea?noao e aai i?aaiai eeoue
aicaea?aeeaaoueny io i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaeiciiai iao/aiey e eaeie-eeai
?aeeaeiciie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea i?eioaeaeaoue yiiioeaa e o/anoeth a
eaeeo-eeai ?aeeaeiciuo aeoao, i?acaeianoaao, oea?aiiieyo e ia?yaeao.

Ie iaeia ec iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee iiiiceoeee ia noaaeo iuia naiae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie oeaeueth ono?aiaiea iiia?oee.

Eiinoeoooeey onoaiiaeea aianoi iieoaaniethoenoneie ia?eaiaioa?ioth
iiia?oeth. Ia?eaiaioo i?e yoii auea ioaaaeaia ?ieue “aunoaai i?aaia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e aaeeinoaaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai i?aaia
no?aiu”. A niioaaonoaee n yoei auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu i?aaiu, noiyuea ?aiaa
iaae ia?eaiaioii, — Oaeiue niaao e ae?. N?aco aea ii anooieaiee
Eiinoeoooeee a neeo ec iaa auea ecuyoa noaouey i iiaeeciaiiii nio?aiaiee
ca i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ciaoe eo oeooeia.

ssiiineee ia?eaiaio — aeaooiaeaoiue i?aai, ninoiyuee ec iaeaou
i?aaenoaaeoaeae e iaeaou niaaoieeia. Ia?aay (ieaeiyy) iaeaoa
ia?aecae?aaony oeaeeeii eaaeaeua 4 aiaea, ii iiaeao auoue ?aniouaia
aein?i/ii. N?ie iieiiii/ee /eaiia iaeaou niaaoieeia (aa?oiae) — 6 eao, n
ia?aeca?aieai /a?ac eaaeaeua 3 aiaea iieiaeiu ec ieo. Onoaiiaeaiiue
Eiinoeoooeeae ii?yaeie auai?ia iaeaou niaaoieeia (no. 45, 46) aeaeaao aa
ninoaa aieaa noaaeeueiui ii n?aaiaieth n ieaeiae iaeaoie.

Iaa iaeaou nicaeathony ia iniiaa anaiaueo e i?yiuo auai?ia i?e
nio?aiaiee ioiineoaeueii aunieiai aic?anoiiai oeaica (aeoeaiia
ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai i?aaeinoaaeyaony yiiineei a?aaeaeaiai n 20 eao,
ianneaiia — n 25 eao a ieaeithth e n 30 eao — a aa?oithth iaeaoo),
oeaica inaaeeinoe, a oaeaea o?aaiaaiey aianaiey caeiaa eaiaeeaeaoii a
aeaiooaou. Yoe oneiaey aianoa n iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaiie auai?ia,
onoaiiaeaieai a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea caauoaiiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa io ecae?aoaeueiuo ie?oaia n i?aeiouanoaaiii
naeueneei ianaeaieai iiae?uaatho “anaiauee” e “?aaiue” oa?aeoa? auai?ia
a ssiiiee.

Oi?iaeueiia ia?aie/aiea iieiiii/ee aa?oiae iaeaou ii n?aaiaieth n
ieaeiae (caeiiii?iaeo, niaeanii Eiinoeoooeee, iiaeao auoue i?eiyo aeaaea
i?e ionoonoaee iaeia?aiey aai aa?oiae iaeaoie) ia nieaeaao aieueoie
cia/eiinoe iaeaou niaaoieeia a iaania/aiee iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe a
no?aia. Aa?oiyy iaeaoa iiaeao auoue iaaeaeaia iniauie iieiiii/eyie i?e
?inionea ieaeiae iaeaou, ai a?aiy nicuaa aa /?acau/aeiie nannee, “anee
yoi e?aeia iaiaoiaeeii a eioa?anao no?aiu”, eae caienaii a Eiinoeoooeee.
. Aeaaiui caaiii ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeiu, eioi?ia iaeaaeaao iieiioie
aeanoiuo iieiiii/ee, yaeyaony yiiineia i?aaeoaeuenoai e, aieaa oiai, aai
i?aiuea?-ieieno?. I?aiuea?-ieieno? io eiaie Eaaeiaoa aunooiaao a
ia?eaiaioa ii aii?inai aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee, aiineo a ia?eaiaio
i?iaeo athaeaeaoa, ?oeiaiaeeo anaie caaiueyie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe e
eiio?iee?oao eo.

A Eiinoeoooeee cae?aieaia nenoaia “ia?eaiaioneeo eaaeiaoia”. Ia?eaiaio
ecae?aao aeaao Eaaeiaoa ieieno?ia, aunoaai eniieieoaeueiiai i?aaia
aeanoe. Ei noaiiaeony eeaea? iiaaaeeaoae ia auai?ao ia?oee.
I?aiuea?-ieieno? iacia/aao Eaaeiao ieieno?ia, eioi?ue ioaaonoaaiai
ia?aae ia?eaiaioii e a neeo yoiai aeieaeai ooiaeeoue a ionoaaeo a neo/aa
au?aaeaiey aio iaaeiaa?ey. Ii, iaeiaei, iiaeao ainiieueciaaoueny
aeueoa?iaoeaiie ia?ie — ?anionoeoue iaeaoo i?aaenoaaeoaeae e iacia/eoue
iiaua auai?u. Yoi i?aai i?aiuea?-ieieno?a yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii
yooaeoeaiie naea?aeeaathuae ia?ie aeey ia?eaiaioa. Noaouey 66 (aac. 2)
cae?aieyao i?eioeei a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, niaeanii eioi?iio ie
iaeei ec /eaiia Eaaeiaoa ia iiaeao auoue aiaiiui eeoeii,

Iiae/eiaiiia iieiaeaiea ieieno?ia ii ioiioaieth e i?aiuea?-ieieno?o
iiae/a?eeaaao no. 70 Eiinoeoooeee, niaeanii eioi?ie ieieno?u aeieaeiu
oeoe a ionoaaeo a iieiii ninoaaa, anee aeieaeiinoue i?aiuea?-ieieno?a
noaiiaeony aaeaioiie.

N iaycaiiinoueth i?aiuea?-ieieno?a aeieeaaeuaaoue ia?eaiaioo ia “iauai
ninoiyiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae e aiaoieo niioaiee” naycaii i?aai
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a ia caeiiiaeaoaeueioth eieoeeaoeao. Yoi i?aai aeaao aio
aiciiaeiinoue a oneiaeyo aeeeoaeueiiai iiiiiieueiiai ainiiaenoaa iaeiie
ia?oee (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey) a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ii?aaeaeyoue caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue
ia?eaiaioa. Eiinoeoooeey i?aaeoniao?eaaao aanueia iaoe?iue nienie
iieiiii/ee e naiiai Eaaeiaoa: i?iaaaeaiea caeiiia a aeeciue,
?oeiaiaenoai aiaoiae iieeoeeie, caeeth/aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia,
i?aaiecaoeey e ?oeiaiaenoai a?aaeaeaineie neoaeaie e i?.

N?aaee iniauo iieiiii/ee Eaaeiaoa neaaeoao auaeaeeoue aai i?aai ia
ecaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo oeacia a oeaeyo i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue
Eiinoeoooeee e caeiiia. (I?aaeoaeuenoao cai?auaii i?e yoii ecaeaaaoue
eeoue oeacu, eioi?ua i?aaeoniao?eaatho oaieiaiia iaeacaiea).

I?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue aa?eaio aia?eeaineie
nenoaiu “naea?aeae e i?ioeaiaania”, iniaaiii io/aoeeai i?inooiaao a
yiiineie Eiinoeoooeee e a i?ioeaaeo?a eiie/iaioa, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
i?eiaiaia a ioiioaiee noaeae, e a iieiiii/eyo noaeia ?aoaoue aii?in i
eiinoeoooeeiiiinoe ethaiai caeiia ia?eaiaioa eee oeaca eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe.

I?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe noaeia a iiaie yiiineie Eiinoeoooeee
oaeaeaii cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea. Ai aeaao noaeaaiie nenoaiu ssiiiee
iinoaaeai Aa?oiaiue Noae, ninoiyuee ec Aeaaiiai noaeuee e onoaiiaeaiiiai
caeiiii /enea noaeae. Ana noaeuee, e?iia Aeaaiiai, iacia/athony
Eaaeiaoii, Aeaaiue — eiia?aoi?ii ii i?aaenoaaeaieth Eaaeiaoa. Noaeuee
iacaaeneiu, aeaenoaotho “niaeanii aieino naiae niaanoe” (no. 76) e
iiae/eiythony oieueei caeiio. Eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu ia ai?aaa
aiaoeaaoueny a aeayoaeueiinoue noaeae. Iauaa?aaeaeaineea noaeu
?ani?ino?aiytho naith eiiiaoaioeeth e ia i?aaenoaaeoaeae eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe, aeaea eioi?uo iaoiaeeeenue ?aiaa a aaaeaiee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
noaeia. Eaeea au oi ie auei “iniaua noaeu” cai?auathony.

Eiinoeoooeey niaea?aeeo oe?ieee ia?a/aiue aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aa e
naiaiae. I?yii caeinoaoy ec aia?eeaineie Eiinoeoooeee ?aaeaeoeeth
iniiaiuo i?aa a?aaeaeai, yiiineay Eiinoeoooeey ioiineo e iei “i?aai ia
aeeciue, naiaiaeo e no?aieaiea e n/anoueth” (no. 13).

E /eneo yoeo i?aa ioianaii e ?aaainoai ia?aae caeiiii, iiaee?aieyaiia
cai?auaieai anao aeaeia aeene?eieiaoeee, cai?auaieai “iy?noaa e i?i/eo
a?enoie?aoe/aneeo einoeoooia, any/aneeo i?eaeeaaee” (no. 14). N?aaee
“eeanne/aneeo” i?aa Eiinoeoooeey i?iaicaeaoaao: i?aai “ecae?aoue
ioaee/iuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe” (no. 15), naiaiaeo “iunee e niaanoe” (no.
19), naiaiaeu nia?aiee, neiaa, ia/aoe (n cai?auaieai oeaico?u (no. 21)),
cae?aieyy a ea/anoaa aeaaiaeoeo aa?aioee naiaiae a?aaeaeai
aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu oaieiaiiai i?aaa e i?ioeanna: i?aai ia
?acae?aoaeuenoai “aeaea a noaea” (no. 32), i?aai ia aaeaieaoa (no. 37),
cai?auaiea i?iecaieueiuo a?anoia (no. 33), iauneia (no. 55), i?eiaiaiey
iuoie (no. 36) e i?.

Nioeeaeueiua i?aaa a Eiinoeoooeee ia?aiaaeathony n iieeoe/aneeie. N?aaee
ieo — cai?auaiea i?eioaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea (no. 18), i?aai ia o?oae (no.
27), ia nicaeaiea i?aaiecaoeee o?oaeyueony, aeeth/athuaa i?aai
“eieeaeoeaiuo ia?aaiai?ia” e “eieeaeoeaiuo aeaenoaee” (no. 28), naiaiaea
iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe (no. 23) e ae?.

ssiiineay Eiinoeoooeey i?iaicaeaneea oaeaea a ea/anoaa aaaeiie
nioeeaeueiie iaycaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa “i?eeaaaoue oneeey aeey iiaeuaia e
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai aeaaininoiyiey, nioeeaeueiiai
iaania/aiey, a oaeaea ia?iaeiiai cae?aaey” (no. 25). I?e yoii i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe cae?aieaii a Eiinoeoooeee “a a?aieoeao caeiia, n oai,
/oiau iii ia i?ioeai?a/eei iauanoaaiiiio aeaaininoiyieth” (no. 29).
Iaauaaeue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino aeae aiciiaeiinoue ssiiiee i/aiue nei?i
ia?aaanoe yoe eiinoeoooeeiiiua iieiaeaiey ec noa?u aeaeea?aoeee a noa?o
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

I?eioeeieaeueii iiaui yaeaieai a i?aeoeea ao?aeoaciiai
eiinoeoooeeiiaeecia yaeyaony aeeth/aiea a Eiinoeoooeeth aeaeea?aoeee ia
ioeaca ssiiiee io aieiu (no. 9), a oaeaea “io oa?icu eee i?eiaiaiey
aii?oaeaiiie neeu eae n?aaenoaa ?ac?aoaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo nii?ia”.

Eiinoeoooeey aia?aua a enoi?ee ssiiiee cae?aieea oaeaea aaoiiiieth
ianoiuo i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey. I?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey i?eia?aee
i?aai a i?aaeaeao naiae eiiiaoaioeee ecaeaaaoue iinoaiiaeaiey, aceiaoue
iaeiae, oi?aaeyoue naiei eiouanoaii e aeaeaie.

?aeiiiua aaeieieno?aoeaiua ath?i, caiaieaoea a ia?aua iineaaiaiiua aiaeu
aaia?aeueiua eiienna?eaou, naoue naeueneeo a?oii e annioeeaoeee — iieio
eiina?aaoecia e oaoecia ia naea — auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu aianoa n
Ieienoa?noaii aioo?aiieo aeae. Aoaa?iaoi?u i?aoaeoo?, iy?u ai?iaeia e
aea?aaaineea noa?inou aeieaeiu ecae?aoueny ia iniiaa anaiauaai
ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa. Aoaa?iaoi?ii iiaeao noaoue a?aaeaeaiei,
aeinoeaoee 30 eao, iy?ii e noa?inoie — 35 eao.

Eii?aeeiaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe oeaio?aeueiuo e ianoiuo i?aaiia
aiceaaaeanue ia nicaeaiiia a 1960 a. Ieienoa?noai ii aeaeai ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey, eioi?ia iaaeaeaii auei aianoa n ae?oaeie oeaio?aeueiuie
ieienoa?noaaie e aaaeiinoaaie i?aaii aeaaaoue “niaaou”, ieacuaaoue
“oaoie/aneia niaeaenoaea” ianoiui i?aaiai, einiaeoe?iaaoue eo e i?.

Ooaa?aeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaa?aieoaoa ssiiiee e iieeoeea
“ia?aoiiai eo?na”. Iineaaiaiiay ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea
aeaea?oaeecaoeee e aeaiie?aoecaoeee ssiiiee i/aiue nei?i niaieeanue
iieeoeeie “ia?aoiiai eo?na”, oaeanoi/aieai iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia. Iinea
i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee 1947 a. ia?aae yiiineei ainoaea?noaii anoaee aeaa
aeaaiua caaea/e. Ia?aay, aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay caaea/a, — oii?yaei/aiea
ioiioaiee n ieeoiaoeeiiiuie aia?eeaineeie aeanoyie, eiia/iie oeaeueth
eioi?iai aeieaeii auei noaoue ooaa?aeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
noaa?aieoaoa, eeeaeaeaoeey anao aai ia?aie/aiee. E aoi?ay caaea/a —
ainnoaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea yiiineie yeiiiieee, iii?u neeueiiai e
iacaaeneiiai, iieeoe/anee noaaeeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, n /aoeie
nioeeaeueiie i?eaioaoeeae.

Iaa yoe caaea/e ia/aee ?aoaoueny iaeiia?aiaiii aua a ia?aoiaeiue
ia?eiae, ni a?aiaie i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee aei na?aaeeiu 50-o aa., eiaaea
iinoaiaiii nieiaeenue ia?aie/aiey yiiineiai noaa?aieoaoa aianoa n oaniui
aeeth/aieai ssiiiee a nenoaio “caiaaeiiai ie?a”, nicaeaaaeny iaeaaeaiiue
iaoaieci ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.

I?aaiaua iniiau aeey eciaiaiey eo?na aeaiie?aoecaoeee, aeanoeeo ia?
iaania/aiey iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe auee nicaeaiu aeaoiy aeieoiaioaie
ieeoiaoeeiiiuo aeanoae: Aeae?aoii i aeaenoaeyo, a?aaeiuo oeaeyi
ieeoiaoeee, e Iieiaeaieai i iaaeci?a ca iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo oa?iaeaea iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe.

Ia iniiaa oeacaiey ieeoiaoeeiiiuo aeanoae a 1948 a. i?aaeoaeuenoaii
i?eieiaaony Caeii i o?oaeiauo ioiioaieyo ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo, ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai ?aai/ea yoeo i?aaei?eyoee, ii/ou,
oaeaa?aoa, aeaeaciuo aei?ia e o. i. auee ia?aie/aiu a naieo o?oaeiauo e
i?ionithciuo i?aaao. ?acei oaeanoi/aeenue o?aaiaaiey e eo o/anoeth a
caaanoiaeao, e aaaeaieth eieeaeoeaiuo ia?aaiai?ia n i?aaeoaeuenoaii e
i?. N oeaeueth i?ana/aiey ia yoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo caaanoiaie nicaeaaaeny
iiaue i?aai — Iaoeeiiaeueiia oi?aaeaiea ii ee/iiio ninoaao. A aai
eiiiaoaioeeth aoiaeeei ?ac?aoaiea anao nii?ia ii iaeio, oaieueiaieth,
ca?aaioiie ieaoa, a oaeaea au?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?aaeoaeuenoao e
ia?eaiaioo ii nioeeaeueiui i?iaeaiai, cao?aaeaathuei noa?o aai
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aneaae ca yoei a 1948 a. aaiaeeony iiaue Caeii i
eiio?iea iaae ?aai/eie i?aaiecaoeeyie, i?aaeoniao?eaathuee
?ac?aoeoaeueiue ii?yaeie eo nicaeaiey e ia?aaea/o cia/eoaeueiie /anoe
i?ionithciuo iieiiii/ee eiienneyi ii o?aaoee?iaaieth o?oaeiauo
ioiioaiee. A 1949—1950 aa. i?iaiaeeony ia?aay oe?ieay iineaaiaiiay
eaiiaiey “/enoee e?aniuo”, nii?iaiaeaeaaoayny a?anoaie e oaieueiaieyie
eiiioienoia ec ?acee/iuo neoaea, ?aaeei, ia/aoe, cai?auaieai ?yaea
ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee EIss e ae?.

A 1951 a. aue iiaeienai Nai-O?aioeenneee ie?iue aeiaiai? iaaeaeo NOA e
ssiiieae, a oaeaea “aeiaiai? aaciianiinoe”, eioi?ue anooiee a neeo a
1952 a. aianoa ni niaoeeaeueiui Aaeieieno?aoeaiui niaeaoaieai. Ia
iniiaaiee yoeo aeieoiaioia auee oi?iaeueii ioiaiaiu ana ia?aie/aiey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai noaa?aieoaoa ssiiiee, a oii /enea i?aai ieeoiaoeeiiiuo
aeanoae naieoeeiie?iaaoue i?eiyoua yiiineei ia?eaiaioii caeiiu e
athaeaeao. Aia?eeaii-yiiineee aeiaiai? aianoa n oai aeaaae NOA i?aai
?aciauaoue naie iacaiiua, aicaeooiua e ii?neea neeu a ssiiiee, a oaeaea
i?aaeoniao?eaae eniieueciaaiea aia?eeaineeo aii?oaeaiiuo nee aeey
iiaeaaeaiey “e?oiiuo aioo?aiieo aoioia e aanii?yaeeia a ssiiiee”. I?e
yoii niaoeeaeueii iaiaa?eaaeinue, /oi ssiiiey aoaeao “ana a aieueoae
ia?a i?eieiaoue ia naay “ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nianoaaiioth iai?iio”. Oae
ioe?uaaeny iooue e ainnoaiiaeaieth aiaiiie neeu no?aiu.

Ia iniiaa niaoeeaeueiiai Aaeieieno?aoeaiiai niaeaoaiey aia?eeaineea
aienea, ?aciauaaiua a ssiiiee, iieo/aee iacaaiea “aa?ieciiiuo aiene”,
/uea i?aauaaiea a “iacaaeneiie no?aia” ii?aaaeuaaeinue
aeiaiai?ii-i?aaiauie iniiaaieyie. Ia ee/iue ninoaa aii?oaeaiiuo nee NOA
?ani?ino?aiyeny a neeo yoiai yenoa??eoi?eaeueiue noaoon, iie auee ecuyou
ec-iiae aeaenoaey yiiineeo caeiiia, iieo/aee eueaiou ia iieueciaaiea
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui o?ainii?oii, oaeaoiiiuie e oaeaa?aoiuie n?aaenoaaie
nayce e i?. Oieueei a 1953 a. yiiineea aeanoe “ioaiaaaee” i?aai
i?eaeaeaoue a ia?aie/aiiii /enea neo/aaa aia?eeaineeo nieaeao e
ioeoea?ia, niaa?oeaoeo i?anooieaiea, e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

“Ia?aoiue eo?n” a iieeoeea aeaea?oaeecaoeee oe?aiee ia iiaie iniiaa
iiceoeee e?oiiiai yiiineiai eaieoaea, oneeee i?ioeann neeyiey ?aiaa
?acae?iaeaiiuo eiiiaiee, /oi i?eaaei e aic?iaeaeaieth iiuiuo
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii Ieoeoe, Ieoeoaene, Noieoiii e ae?. Iie
eeoue eciaieee naith i?aaiecaoeeiiioth e i?iecaiaenoaaiioth no?oeoo?u.
Ioiaiaia auea a 1951 a. /enoea yeiiiie/aneeo i?aaiia, i?iaiaeeaoayny
?aiaa ia iniiaa o?aaiaaiee aeaieeeoa?ecaoeee. Auea eeeaeaee?iaaia
Eiienney ii oii?yaei/aieth aei/a?ieo aea?aeaoaeueneeo eiiiaiee,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aaaeaaoay aeaiiiiiieecaoeeae, ?inioneii aieiaiuo
eiiiaiee auaoeo “aecae-aaoeo”. Ainoaea?noai aiiaue ia/eiaao i?eieiaoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea a ?acaeoee aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oe?aieyaony
acaeiiaeaenoaea ainoaea?noaa n “aunoeie i?aaiaie”
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea, i?ecaaiiuie ono?aiyoue ?aciiaeaney
iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeie a?oiiaie, au?aaaouaaoue
iniiau iieeoeee a noa?a yeiiiieee. Yoi Oaaea?aoeey yeiiiie/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee, Oaaea?aoeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeee ssiiiee,
ssiiineay oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay iaeaoa, Iauanoai yeiiiie/aneeo
aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia e i?. Aaaeiui caaiii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa e niaianoiie ?aaiou i?aaenoaaeoaeae e?oiiiai eaieoaea e
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa noaiiaeony Eiinoeueoaoeaiue niaao i?e
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a ii aii?inai yeiiiieee.

A 1960 aiaeo a ianoaiiaea oe?ieiai aeaeaeaiey ca ioiaio “aeiaiai?a
aaciianiinoe”, eeeaeaeaoeee aia?eeaineeo aiaiiuo aac ia yiiineie
oa??eoi?ee, auaiaea ec ssiiiee aia?eeaineeo aii?oaeaiiuo nee aue
caeeth/ai iiaue aeiaiai? “I acaeiiii nio?oaeie/anoaa e aa?aioeyo
aaciianiinoe”, oaeoe/anee ioi?ieaoee yiiii-aia?eeaineee aiaiiue nithc.
Yoei aeiaiai?ii i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue iaycaoaeuenoaa ssiiiee oneeeoue naie
aiaiiue iioaioeeae a oeaeyo “io?aaeaiey iauae aaciianiinoe”, a oaeaea
i?iaeeaaaeny aua ia 10 eao n?ie nouanoaiaaiey aia?eeaineeo aac ia
yiiineie oa??eoi?ee. Aiineaaenoaee yoio aeiaiai? noae i?iaeeaaaoueny
aaoiiaoe/anee. Iiaua iieiaeaiey aeiaiai?a i ?anoe?aiee yeiiiie/aneiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa (a /anoiinoe, i i?aaeinoaaeaiee ssiiiee aia?eeaineeo
eeoeaicee aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iiaaeoaai aii?oaeaiey) nii?iaiaeaeaeenue
ecuyoeai noa?uo noaoae, iicaieythueo NOA i?eieiaoue o/anoea a
iiaeaaeaiee “e?oiiuo aanii?yaeeia”. “Io?aia ie?a e iacaaeneiinoe no?aiu,
iaania/aiea aa iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe” auee aiceiaeaiu ia
Oi?aaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie iai?iiu ssiiiee.

Ia eiay aiciiaeiinoe iie?aoueny ai?aaeue ia aiaiioth neeo NOA a
iaaaaeaiee aioo?aiiaai ii?yaeea, i?aaeoaeuenoai a 1952 a., ianiio?y ia
ianniaia nii?ioeaeaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneeo nee, i?eieiaao iiaue
?ai?anneaiue Caeii i i?aaeioa?auaiee iiae?uaiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuee oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca “aioo?aiiea
ainnoaiey”, “a?aaeaeaineea aanii?yaeee” e iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoai e iei.
Caeii onoaiaaeeaae oaeaea aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaua naieoeee a ioiioaiee
“iiae?uaiuo i?aaiecaoeee”, aeaaea oao, “eioi?ua inouanoaeyee iiae?uaioth
aeayoaeueiinoue a i?ioeii, a nae/an aucuaatho iianaiey, /oi iiaoi?yo
aa”. E yoei i?aaiecaoeeyi iiaea auoue i?eiaiaia iaeia ec aeaoo “ia?
?aaoee?iaaiey”: ia?aie/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee eee aa ?inione.
I?aaeoniao?eaaeinue caeiiii e nicaeaiea aeaoo niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaiia:
Oi?aaeaiey ii ?anneaaeiaaieth e Ath?i iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe. Ia?aiio
aiaiyeinue a iaycaiiinoue ?anneaaeiaaoue iiae?uaioth aeayoaeueiinoue
(eae niioaaonoaothuae eiiennee NOA ii ?anneaaeiaaieth aioeaia?eeaineie
aeayoaeueiinoe), aoi?iio — iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?eiaiyoue “ia?u
?aaoee?iaaiey”.

“Ia?aoiue eo?n” aue naycai e n aic?iaeaeaieai aiaiiie neeu no?aiu,
eioi?ia ia/aeinue n oi?ie?iaaiey oae iacuaaaiiai ?aca?aiiai
iieeoeaeneiai ei?iona a ninoaaa 75000 /aeiaae, i?aia?aciaaiiiai a 1952
a. a “io?aiiua aienea”, n ainnoaiiaeaiey aa aiaiii-ii?neeo e
aiaiii-aicaeooiuo nee. A 1952 a. i?e Oi?aaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiie iai?iiu
aue nicaeai Eiieoao ii ieaie?iaaieth ?acaeoey aii?oaeaiiuo nee. Ei aue
?ac?aaioai o?aoeaoiee ieai ?acaeoey aii?oaeaiiuo nee,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuee nicaeaiea iniia naaeaine?iaaiiie nenoaiu nooiiooiuo,
aiaiii-ii?neeo e aiaiii-aicaeooiuo aiene, iniauaaiuo aia?eeaineei
i?oaeeai, iinoaaeyaiui a ii?yaeea aacaiciacaeiie iiiiue. Aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea aii?oaeaiiuo nee ssiiiee i?ienoiaeeei ia iniiaa iyoeeaoieo
ieaiia, i?aaeoniao?eaathueo iiiieiaiea a?iaeneiai aii?oaeaiey ca n/ao
?acaeoey ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ea/anoaaiii iiaue yoai “iai?iiiie iieeoeee ssiiiee” iaicia/eeny a ia/aea
80-o aa. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae ia oieueei ?ino aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia,
ii e o/anoea ssiiiee a inouanoaeaiee aia?eeaineeo aiaiiuo i?ia?aii, a
?anoe?aiee ia oieueei yenii?oa i?oaeey, ii e aia?eeaineie aiaiiie
oaoiieiaee.

A athaeaeaoa ia 1987 a., iai?eia?, aiaiiua ?anoiaeu aia?aua ca
iineaaiaiiua aiaeu i?aauneee 1% io aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa
no?aiu, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei ia ioeaca i?aaeoaeuenoaa io
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai aa?oiaai eeieoa eo ?inoa, onoaiiaeaiiiai a 1976 a.
Eaaeiaoii ieieno?ia. Yoi icia/aei, /oi iiaui “ia?aie/aieai” aiaiiuo
athaeaeaoia noaiiaeeanue eeoue noiia, cai?ioaiiay Oi?aaeaieai
iaoeeiiaeueiie iai?iiu ia inouanoaeaiea i/a?aaeiiai iyoeeaoiaai ieaia
ia?aueaaiey aii?oaeaiee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ssiiiey iaeaaeaao aiaiiie
neeie, oi?ie?oaiie ia eiio?aeoiie iniiaa, iniauaiiie anaie aeaeaie
nia?aiaiiiai aii?oaeaiey, e?iia aoiiiiai.

Aianoa n oi?iaeueiie ioiaiie ia?aie/aiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai noaa?aieoaoa
ia/aeinue e ieii/aoaeueiia ioi?ieaiea iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu ssiiiee,
eioi?ia caaa?oeeinue a na?aaeeia 50-o aa. I?iecioei iauaaeeiaiea eaaie e
i?aaie nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ia?oee ssiiiee, ainnoaiiaeaii aaeeinoai
Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee, neiaeeeanue ia iniiaa iauaaeeiaiey Eeaa?aeueiie
e Aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee aeiieie?othuay iieeoe/aneay neea a eeoea
Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee, ia aeieaea aiaeu iiiiiieece?iaaaoay
ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue. Oi?ie?othueany a iineaaeiea aiaeu
eiaeeoeeiiiua eaaeiaou nouanoaaiii ia cao?iioee yoie iiiiiieee, eioi?ay
aea?aeeony ia iniaie nenoaia “nai?a aieinia”, aeaaiui ia?acii, a
naeueneeo ?aeiiao.

A yoie nenoaia eeth/aaoth ?ieue ea?atho oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe EAeI eae
i?aayuae ia?oee, caaeneiinoue i?aoaeoo?, iniaaiii naeueneeo, io
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Iiae eicoiaii “Oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey
i?iaeioeee” i?aaeoaeuenoai auaeaeyao n?aaenoaa ianoiui i?aaiai aeanoe,
iiaeaea?aeeaathuei eaiaeeaeaoia EAeI, a /a?ac i?aaiecaoeee n i?aaii
“iniaiai th?eaee/aneiai eeoea'” (aaie ssiiiee, Oeaio?aeueiue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiue oiiae e i?.) oeiaine?oao naieo iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo
ecae?aoaeae, i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaeeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ?uaaeia, oi anoue oao, eiio cae?uou
e?aaeeou /anoiuo aaieia.

Aaaeouea ooieoeeiia?u Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee aianoa n
aunoeie /eiiaieeaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, a oaeaea
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie e?oiiiai aeciana i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oa e?aiei
naycaiiua e?oae i?aayuae yeeou, a ?oeao eioi?ie e neiioeaio?e?iaaia any
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue a no?aia. Nai i?aiuea?-ieieno? eeoai
aiciiaeiinoe i?eiyoue oi eee eiia ?aoaiea, ia niaeaniaaiiia n iiaieai
“i?aayuae o?eaaeu”, ii ii auiieiyao ooieoeee naiaai ?iaea iieeoe/aneiai
a?aeo?a, anee a iae aicieeatho ?aciiaeaney.

Iineaaiaiiia ?acaeoea yiiineie iiaeaee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeiiiieee. Cia/eoaeueiua iineaaiaiiua no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua
eciaiaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa ssiiiee auee naycaiu, iaaeaeo oai,
ia oieueei e ia noieueei n aic?iaeaeaieai aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ssiiiee,
neieueei n nicaeaieai e ii?aaeaeaieai ooieoeee iiiai/eneaiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e einoeoooia, i?ecaaiiuo ?aoaoue neiaeiua
caaea/e ainnoaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ie?iie yiiineie yeiiiieee.

‘ “Iniaia th?eaee/aneia eeoei” — i?aaiecaoeey, iauanoai, nicaeaiiia ia
iniiaa niaoeeaeueii i?eiyoiai caeiia, aeey auiieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eee iauanoaaiiuo caaea/.

Yoe caaea/e ii?aaeaeeee e aeaaiua iai?aaeaiey aiaoaoaeuenoaa
ainoaea?noaa a noa?o /anoiiai aeciana: ainoaea?noaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea e
aeieain?i/iia i?iaiice?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, noeioee?iaaiea
/anoiiai eaieoaea a aeaea anaia?iiai eniieueciaaiey iiaaeoeo
aeinoeaeaiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee, iiiaiieaiiaia o/anoea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia a iiauoaiee ea/anoaa yiiineie i?iaeoeoeee e i?.

Aua aei i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee, a 1946 a., a ssiiiee ia/aea
inouanoaeyoueny ia iniiaa Caeiia “I /?acau/aeiuo ia?ao a iaeanoe
yeiiiieee e oeiainia” oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay iieeoeea yeiiiie/aneie
noaaeeecaoeee. N yoie oeaeueth auee nicaeaiu “Ath?i yeiiiie/aneie
noaaeeecaoeee” e “Eiieoao ii ?aaoee?iaaieth oeai”. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue
/aoeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannia ainnoaiiaeaiey
?anno?iaiiie yeiiiieee iio?aaiaaea ?ac?aaioee ia?auo iiaeeecaoeeiiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo i?ia?aii e iaaeaeaiey Ath?i niaoeeaeueiuie ooieoeeyie ii
ninoaaeaieth iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo ieaiia a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia, eiio?iey ca iaania/aieai i?aaei?eyoee ?aai/ae
neeie, oeiainaie, o?ainii?oii e i?.

A iaa 1947 a. iieiiii/ey Ath?i auee ?anoe?aiu ca n/ao i?aaeinoaaeaiey
aio i?aaa eii?aeeie?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ieaiu ioaeaeueiuo
ieienoa?noa e iaaeci?a ca eo inouanoaeaieai. N yoiai a?aiaie a ssiiiee
noae iaeaieeaaoueny ia?iiiue iiceoeaiue iiuo ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ieaie?iaaiey, i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/iiai io ath?ie?aoe/aneiai,
eiiaiaeiiai ieaie?iaaiey yeiiiieee a oneiaeyo oioaeeoa?iiai nioeeaeecia.
ssiiineay iiaeaeue “aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa” i?iiuoeaiiinoueth,
iniiaaiiay ia ?ac?aaioea iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo ieaiia-i?iaeoia, a oii
/enea e aeieain?i/iuo, nicaeaaony aianoa n i?aaiecaoeeyie /anoiiai
aeciana e aini?eieiaaony eie eae n?aaenoai iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai ?aoaiey
aaaeiaeoeo yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/, noiyueo ia?aae no?aiie.

Yoa oe?iei ecaanoiay a ie?a iiaeaeue iniiaaia ia ia oi?iaeueiuo, a ia
“aeaeaioeueiaineeo” niaeaoaieyo, caeeth/aaiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie
e ei?ii?aoeeyie, a?oiiaie ei?ii?aoeee, ioaeaeueiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie
/anoiiai aeciana, eanathony ee iie nie?auaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, yenii?oa
iiaie oaoieee, noaiaea?oia ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee e i?. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo
aaeieieno?aoeaiue i?aai ia iaaeaeai a noa?a yeiiiieee iniauie aeanoiuie
iieiiii/eyie, e aai ?aoaiey iinyo oaaaeaeathuee, ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, ii iie auiieiythony a neeo ei?ii?aoeaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaoeeiiaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo o?aaiaaiee “ii?aeueiiai
aeieaa”. Caeiiu, eanathueany noaoona ieienoa?noa, ii?aaeaeytho a
ea/anoaa oi?i “aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa” ?aeiiaiaeaoeee,
o?aaiaaiey, niaaou, iin?aaeie/anoai.

Inouanoaeaiea ia?auo iineaaiaiiuo ieaiia noaaeeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia
iiaei ia ano?aoeoue ia naiai iooe ?yae o?oaeiinoae, naycaiiuo n
iaoaaoeie n?aaenoa aeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaneaee?iaaiey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia, n ?inoii eioeyoeee, nioeeaeueiie
iai?yaeaiiinoe e i?. Iaoaaoea nu?uey noeioee?iaaea i?eiyoea Caeiia “Ia
onoaiiaeaiee aeanoeiai eiio?iey iaae oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth”. A
1948 a. aue o/?aaeaeai Oiiae ainnoaiiaeaiey yeiiiieee, aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey eioi?iai auee auiouaiu caeiu, aieueoay /anoue eioi?uo
?aciauaeanue a Ainoaea?noaaiiii aaiea ssiiiee.

Ioiineoaeueiay iayooaeoeaiinoue yoeo ia? iio?aaiaaea i?eiyoey iiaiai
ieaia yeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee, aeaaiie caaea/ae eioi?iai noaei
nicaeaiea naaeaine?iaaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ca n/ao
oaaee/aiey iaeiaiauo nai?ia, ia?aie/aiey auieao noaneaeee, onoaiiaeaiey
eiio?iey iaae oeaiaie, aiaoiae oi?aiaeae e eiino?aiiie aaethoie.
Ieaie?iaaeinue oaeaea oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia
ianoiiai nu?uey e i?.

A 1951 a. ssiiiey aeinoeaea aeiaiaiiiai o?iaiy i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ca n/ao aeaaiui ia?acii ainnoaiiaeaiey noa?uo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae. Aeaeueiaeoee ?ino yeiiiieee no?aiu aue
iaaiciiaeai aac ei?aiiie ia?ano?ieee anae iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, /aoeeo iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo i?eaioe?ia e ieaiia aa
?acaeoey.

N ia/aea 50-o aa. i?aaeoaeuenoai noaei caeeaaeuaaoue i?i/iue ooiaeaiaio,
ia eioi?ii /anoiua oe?iu iiaee au?aaioaoue naith iieeoeeo ?aceiai
oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, iaiaoiaeeiiai oneiaey
iiauoaiey aa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ia ie?iaii ?uiea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?eoiea a no?aio iaiaoiaeeiuo aaethoiuo iinooieaiee.

N yoie oeaeueth noeioee?iaaeny eiii?o ia?aaeiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee,
/anoiui eaieoaeii neoiaeenue eeoeaicee ai anai ie?a, /oi iicaieeei a
ei?ioeee n?ie i?aiaeieaoue oaoie/aneoth ionoaeinoue yiiineie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n Caiaaeii e aeinoe/ue oaea a 50-a aa.
iaauaaeiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

I?aaeoaeuenoaii auee ?ac?aaioaiu oaeaea iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua
ia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ia?aiiu iao/aiey yiiioeaa nia?aiaiiui iaoiaeai
eiio?iey ca ea/anoaii i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ua oeiaine?iaaeenue
ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. N 1949 a. eo?nu iao/aiey “iaoiaeai
oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaii” auee aaaaeaiu a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo e
oeieao.

Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee nii?iaiaeaeaeinue oii?iie ?aaioie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia ii nicaeaieth yooaeoeaii ooieoeeiie?othuae
iaiiaeaiiie iauaainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu noaiaea?oecaoeee. Ia?aua oaae a
yoii iai?aaeaiee auee i?eiyou a ssiiiee aua a 1945 a., eiaaea
Anayiiineay annioeeaoeey noaiaea?oia i?enooieea e eco/aieth
aia?eeaineiai iiuoa. I?aaeoaeuenoai noeioee?iaaei e iaoa?eaeueii, e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii nicaeaiea ssiiineiai nithca o/aiuo e eiaeaia?ia a 1946
a., ea?athuaai cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a aeaea iiioey?ecaoeee nia?aiaiiuo
iaoiaeia eiio?iey ea/anoaa, a oaeaea ssiiineie annioeeaoeee noaiaea?oia,
i?ecaaiiie a iauaainoaea?noaaiiii ianooaaa eii?aeeie?iaaoue ?aaiou a
iaeanoe noaiaea?oecaoeee e iao?ieiaee.

Aneaae ca yoei auee aaaaeaiu ia?aua caeiiu i noaiaea?oecaoeee e ciaea
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee. A 1948 a. i?eieiaaony Caeii i i?iiuoeaiiie
noaiaea?oecaoeee. Ia aiiaue nicaeaiiue Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao
i?iiuoeaiiuo noaiaea?oia aiceaaaeanue caaea/a i?aaiecaoeee e
eii?aeeiaoeee aaeeiie iao?ieiae/aneie neoaeau, a oii /enea ?ac?aaioea
iiauo e ia?aniio? noa?uo noaiaea?oia.

A 1957 a. aue i?eiyo aeaenoaothuee e iiiuia Caeii “Ia yenii?oiuo
iia?aoeeyo”, ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai any yenii?oiay i?iaeoeoeey a ssiiiee
iiaeaa?aaaony iaycaoaeueiie einiaeoeee e oieueei iinea yoiai aiineony a
niaoeeaeueiua nienee ?ac?aoaiiiai yenii?oa. Ea/anoaaiiua ia?aiao?u
yenii?oiie i?iaeoeoeee, eae e iaoiaeu i?iaa?ee, ooaa?aeaeathony
niioaaonoaothueie ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie.

Iiae yaeaeie Ieienoa?noaa aiaoiae oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy nicaeaia oeaeay naoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia einiaeoeee, e?iia
oiai, eiio?ieue ca ea/anoaii oiaa?ia aiceiaeai ia ?yae (ieiei 40)
“eca?aiiuo” /anoiuo eiiiaiee. Ana eiiiaiee e eeoea, aeiiaiua a ia?ooaiee
i?aaee eiio?iey ca ea/anoaii, i?eaeaeathony e noaeo, iaeacuaathony
cia/eoaeueiuie oo?aoaie.

Aua a 1973 a. aue i?eiyo ainoaea?noaaiiue 8-eaoiee ieai niaeaenoaey
i?iiuoeaiiie noaiaea?oecaoeee a ssiiiee a oeaeyo niaa?oainoaiaaiey e
oieoeeaoeee iaoeeiiaeueiuo noaiaea?oia. Yoio ieai aioae ninoaaiie
/anoueth a no?aoaae/aneoth i?ia?aiio ?acaeoey yiiineie yeiiiieee iiae
iacaaieai “Aeieain?i/iay ia?niaeoeaa no?oeoo?u i?iiuoeaiiinoe”,
?ac?aaioaiioth i?aaeoaeuenoaii a 1974 a. A ea/anoaa aeaaiuo iai?aaeaiee
?acaeoey a i?ia?aiia auee auaeaeaiu: “?acaa?ouaaiea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
ianooaaa no?oeoo?u i?iiuoeaiiinoe”, oi anoue ?ann?aaeioi/aiea a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao yiiineeo i?aaei?eyoee oyaeaeie e oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea a naiie ssiiiee iaoeiaieeo
io?aneae i?iecaiaenoaa, oi anoue io?aneae n aunieie ii?iie aeiaaai/iie
noieiinoe.

ssiiineia “yeiiiie/aneia /oaei” (ssiiiey oaea a 70-o aa. auoea ia 2-a
ianoi a ie?a ii ?acia?ai aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa) a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a e iauyniyaony oai, /oi ssiiiey i?aainoiaeeo ana
ae?oaea no?aiu a niiniaiinoe oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai yooaeoeaiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. Yoi aaeeinoaaiiay no?aia a ie?a, eioi?ay
inouanoaeyao anaiauaiethuoth eiiieaenioth no?aoaaeth iaania/aiey naiae
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe.

A aeinoeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo oniaoia no?aiu ea?aao ia iineaaeithth ?ieue
e nio?aieaoayny o?aaeeoeeiiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ia iee?io?iaia, oi
anoue o?iaia ioaeaeueiuo oe?i, iniiaaiiay ia acaeiiuo iaycaoaeuenoaao
(“ieiio”) i?aaei?eieiaoaey e ?aaioieea, ia eaeayo “iiaeeciaiiiai iaeia”
n iieaoie o?oaea ii noa?oeinoao, /oi iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iuia e yiiineeie
i?ionithcaie. O?oae ia aeaai naiae eiiiaiee aeey iiiaeo yiiioeaa
yaeyaony ia noieueei n?aaenoaii iieo/aiey aeaiaa, neieueei n?aaenoaii
aeinoeaeaiey “ii?aeueiiai aeieaieaoey”. O?aaeeoeeiiiua i?aaeienaiey,
ii?iu ii?aee i?iaeieaeatho ieacuaaoue nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia i?ioeannu
?aaoee?iaaiey iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a ssiiiee. I?anoeae, nio?aiaiea
?aiooaoeee, no?aieaiea “ia iioa?youe eeoei”, auiieieoue naie aeiea
(“aeio”) i?aaeaiiinoe eiia?aoi?o, ainoaea?noao e iaoeee, iaycaoaeuenoaa
ia?aae oicyeiii, ?iaeeoaeyie, i?aaeeaie inoathony aaaeiaeoeie noeioeaie
iioeaaoeee iiaaaeaiey yiiioeaa ii ioiioaieth e o?oaeo.

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