.

История государства и права Франции

Язык:
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1694
Скачать документ

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ENOI?Ess AINOAeA?NOAA E I?AAA O?AIOeEE

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Ia?eiae oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe

2. Ia/aei iauaaeeiaiey no?aiu

3. Ia?eiae nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie iiia?oee (XIV-XV aa.)

4. Ia?eiae aaniethoiie iiia?oee (XVI – XVIII aa.)

5. Iniaaiiinoe noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey i?aaa ai O?aioeee

Aaaaeaiea

O?aioeocneia ei?ieaanoai aicieeei iinea ?aniaaea eiia?ee Ea?ieeiaia. Aai
iiyaeaiea ia aianei nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iaeanoae, aioaaeoeo a aai ninoaa.
I?iaeieaeaeinue ?acaeoea oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, ii?aaeaeyaoaa a
eiia/iii eoiaa ?acaeoea oaiaeaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Caeanue
neaaeoao auaeaeeoue 3 ia?eiaea: oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe (IX—XIII
aa.), nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie iiia?oee (XIV—XV aa.), aaniethoiie
iiia?oee (XVI—XVIII aa.).

1. Ia?eiae oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe

Iniiaiua /a?ou iauanoaaiiiai no?iy. A IX—XIII aa. aue caaa?oai caoaao
naiuei?aie e?anoueyineeo caiaeue. Ioiuia a iinoiyiiii iieueciaaiee, a a
?yaea neo/aaa aeaaeaiee e?anoueyi iaoiaeeeenue eeoue n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoea o/anoee (ia?oeaeeu) ainiiaeneie caiee. Yeni?ii?eaoeey
e?anoueyineeo caiaeue nii?iaiaeaeaeanue aeaeueiaeoei ii?aaiuaieai
e?anoueyi, i?aa?auaieai eo a oaiaeaeueii caaeneiuo. Oi?iu e noaiaiue
yoie caaeneiinoe auee aanueia iiiaiia?aciu. Aieueoeinoai e?anoueyi noaee
na?aaie eee aeeeaiaie.

Oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe aeeeaia ia auee naycaiu n aai ee/iie
caaeneiinoueth. Aeeeai iia ia?aaeaoue (i?iaeaoue) naith ia?oeaeeo
ae?oaiio eeoeo. Yoi inaiaiaeaeaei aai io naiuei?eaeueiuo iiaeiiinoae,
eioi?ua ia?aoiaeeee ia iiaiai aeaaeaeueoea. Anee aeeeai auiieiye ana
oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe, naiuei? ia eiae i?aaa ioiyoue o iaai iaaeae,
eioi?ue a oaeii neo/aa ia?aoiaeee e ianeaaeieeai aeeeaia.

Aieaa oyaeaeui auei iieiaeaiea na?aia, iaoiaeeaoeony a ee/iie
ianeaaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe io naiaai ainiiaeeia. A aai iieueco iie
ianee ?yae iiaeiiinoae, auiea/eaaee cia/eoaeueiia /enei ?acee/iuo
iiaeaoae e ieaoaaeae. ?aci?eoaeueiuie aeey e?anoueyi (eae na?aia, oae e
aeeeaiia) auee aiiaeeoaou — iiiiiieueiia i?aai nianoaaiiinoe naiuei?ia
ia oeaaiua ia/e, iaeueieoeu e o. ae., nii?yaeaiiia n iaycaiiinoueth
e?anoueyi iieueciaaoueny eie ca ieaoo, onoaiiaeaiioth ainiiaeeiii.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue e?anoueyinoaa, o. a. iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
ianaeaiey no?aiu, ana iaiaoiaeeiia i?iecaiaeeea a naiai oicyenoaa eee a
e?aeiai neo/aa a i?aaeaeao naeueneie iaueiu, i?eaaaay e iiiiue
naeueneiai eociaoea, oea/a, aii/a?a e o. ae. Yoie i?iaeoeoeeae
aeiaieuenoaiaaeenue e i/aiue iiiaea naiuei?u. Oaeei ia?acii, oicyenoai
eiaei y?ei au?aaeaiiue iaoo?aeueiue oa?aeoa?. Noaaeeueiuo, onoie/eauo
yeiiiie/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ?aeiiaie no?aiu aua ia auei.

AEanoieay yenieoaoaoeey e?anoueyi auioaeaeaea eo iiaeieiaoueny ia
ai?ueao i?ioea naieo oaiaoaoaeae. Ianniaua aii?oaeaiiua e?anoueyineea
aunooieaiey eiaee ianoi a Ii?iaiaeee (X a.), A?aoaie (X a.), ai
Oeaiae?ee (XI a.).

A ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae ianeieueei oaaee/eeanue /eneaiiinoue
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey. Iieo/eei iaeioi?ia ?acaeoea ai?iaeneia
?aianeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. Ii yoi auee eeoue ia?aua e i/aiue ne?iiiua
oniaoe.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie. Ei?ieaanoai ninoiyei ec iiiaeanoaa oueaoia —
oaiaeaeueiuo aeaaeaiee (aa?oeianoa, a?aonoa e o. ae.), eioi?ua
oi?iaeueii n/eoaeenue aai /anoueth, a oaeoe/anee i?aaenoaaeyee niaie
iieiinoueth eee ii/oe iacaaeneiua iieeoe/aneea ia?aciaaiey. Nianoaaiii
aeanoue ei?iey ia ianoao auea i/aiue neaaie eee ionoonoaiaaea nianai.
Aieaa eee iaiaa oaa?aiii ei?ieue /oanoaiaae naay eeoue a naieo ee/iuo
aeaaeaieyo — ei?ieaaneii aeiiaia. Ciaoue oii?ii nii?ioeaeyeanue ethaui
iiiuoeai oneeeoue iiia?oeth. Aianoa n oai iia ieeiaaea ia aunooiaea
i?ioea ei?ieaaneie aeanoe eae oaeiaie. Iiia?oey ieeoeaoai?yea
iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio, a nio?aiaiee

eioi?ie naiuei?u auee aeeciaiii caeioa?aniaaiu. Iiae ciaiaiai ei?iey iie
iauaaeeiyee naie aii?oaeaiiua neeu, eiaaea ioaeii auei aanoe aieueooth
aiaoithth eee aioo?aiithth (i?ioea «naieo» e?anoueyi) aieio.
I?aaenoaaeoaee ciaoe iaiaeiie?aoii iiae/a?eeaaee, /oi O?aioeee ioaeai
ei?ieue, ii ei?ieue neaaue. Yoei iie ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue, eiaaea a nayce
n i?ae?auaieai aeeianoee Ea?ieeiaia eca?aee ia o?aioeocneee i?anoie
a?aoa Aoai Eaiaoa (eiiaoe X a.). Ia?aua Eaiaoeiae ii nouanoao ia eiaee
ieeaeie aeanoe a ei?ieaanoaa, ca eneeth/aieai naiaai iaaieueoiai
aeiiaia.

Ionoonoaeth aaeeinoaa no?aiu, iaoneiaeaiiiio a eiia/iii eoiaa
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie, aeaaii?eyonoaiaaea e ia
i?aiaeieaiiay iieiinoueth aa yoie/aneay ?aciauaiiinoue. Ianaeaiea aua ia
/oanoaiaaei naay i?eiaaeeaaeauei e iaeiie ia?iaeiinoe. Naaa?iua e
naaa?i-ainoi/iua iaeanoe (ianoa iaeaieaa ianniaiai ?annaeaiey o?aieia)
yaeyeenue yae?ii oi?ie?iaaiey naaa?io?aioeocneie ia?iaeiinoe. Ia thaa e
a oeaio?a neeaaeuaaeanue ?iaenoaaiiay ae thaeiio?aioeocneay ia?iaeiinoue
(caeanue aeiieie?iaaee iioiiee ?iiaiece?iaaiiuo aaeeia). A A?aoaie aeeee
eaeueou, aunaeeaoeany ec A?eoaiee iinea caoaaoa aa aiaeaie e naenaie.
Aua ia neiaeeeny aaeeiue ycue, oioy ainiiaenoaiaaaoea aeeaeaeou
(naaa?iue e thaeiue) auee i/aiue aeecee.

Oaiaeaeueiay ea?a?oey. No?oeoo?a ainiiaenoaa a eiia/iii eoiaa
ii?aaeaeyeanue oaiaeaeueiuie iicaiaeueiuie ioiioaieyie, ooaa?aeeaoeieny
a yoio ia?eiae ai O?aioeee. Iiieiaeueii aa?oiaiui nianoaaiieeii anae
caiee a ainoaea?noaa n/eoaeny ei?ieue. Iaeiaei aieueoay /anoue yoie
caiee iaoiaeeeanue ai aeaaeaiee o e?oiiuo oaiaeaeia a ea/anoaa oueaoa.
Iie n/eoaeenue aannaeaie ei?iey, a ii eo naiuei?ii.

Iau/ii ia?aaea/a oueaoa e onoaiiaeaiea a nayce n yoei ioiioaiee
aannaeeoaoa oeene?iaaeenue iniaui aeiaiai?ii. Aai caeeth/aiea
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue neiaiee/aneei ia?yaeii — iiiaaeai. Aannae
oi?aeanoaaiii i?eciaaae naay «/aeiaaeii» naiaai naiuei?a e i?eiinee
i?enyao ia aa?iinoue aio. A naith i/a?aaeue naiuei? niaa?oae ia?yae
a?o/aiey eiaanoeoo?u: aannaeo ia?aaeaaaeny neiaie aeanoe iaae oueaoii
(ia/, ia?/aoee — naaoneei oaiaeaeai, neeiao?— aeooiaiui). Aannae
aeieaeai aue ianoe aiaiioth neoaeao a iieueco naiaai naiuei?a aianoa n
iiae/eiaiiuie aio ethaeueie. A eiioea XII a. aiaiiay neoaeaa aannaea
ia?aie/eaaeanue 40 aeiyie a aiaeo. Aannae aeieaeai aue auiea/eaaoue
naiuei?o ?acee/iua «iiiiue» ii neo/ath iinayuaiey a ?uoea?e aai noa?oaai
nuia, naaaeueau noa?oae aei/a?e, aueoia naiuei?a ec ieaia e iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea. Aannae o/anoaiaae a noaea naiaai naiuei?a, anee iiaenoaeeiui
aue aannae ?aaiiai n iei ?aiaa. Niioaaonoaaiii ii ia eiae i?aaa a naiai
noaea ?acae?aoue aeaea, iiaeeaaeauea eneeth/eoaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee
naiaai naiuei?a. Aannae i?eieiae o/anoea a niaauaoaeueiii niaaoa (eo?ee)
naiuei?a.

A naith i/a?aaeue naiuei? a?ae iaycaoaeuenoai ieacuaaoue naiei aannaeai
aiaiioth iiiiuue i?e iaiaaeaiee ia ieo e a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo
iaoa?eaeueioth iiiiuue- Anee aannae ia ia?ooae acyouo ia naay
iaycaoaeuenoa, naiuei? ia iia ioia?aoue o iaai oueao.

Iaaeaiea ?iee ei?ieaaneie aeanoe. Oaiaeaeueiue aeiaiai? i?aeoe/anee ia
ia?aie/eaae i?aaiii/ey aannaea a oi?aaeaiee naiei aeiiaiii. Ia neo/aeii,
/oi eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae eiioieoaoiua i?aaa naiuei?ia aeinoeaee
iaeneioia. Eiioieoao i?aaeinoaaeye oaiaeaeo i?aai, a i?aaeaeao naieo
/anoiuo aeaaeaiee inouanoaeyoue aaeieieno?aoeaiia e iieeoeaeneia
oi?aaeaiea, oai?eoue noae a iauaia i?aaeinoaaeaiiie aio th?enaeeeoeee,
aceiaoue ieaoaaee e eiua iiai?u.

Ioiioaieyie aannaeeoaoa auee ioaa/aiu ana i?aaenoaaeoaee
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna. Aannaeu ei?iey — aa?oeiae Ii?iaiaeneee,
Ao?aoiaeneee, Aeaeoaineee, a?ao Ooeocneee e ae?., inoaaeyy naaa aeiiai,
ia?aaeaaaee cia/eoaeueioth /anoue naieo aeaaeaiee a ea/anoaa oueaoia
ieaeanoiyuae a?oiia oaiaeaeia (aeeiioai, aa?iiai e ae?.). Oaeei ia?acii,
aannaeu ei?iey naie noaiiaeeenue naiuei?aie ii ioiioaieth e naiei
aannaeai. Iineaaeiea auee naycaiu iiaeiaiuie aeiaiai?aie n ieaeanoiyuae
a?oiiie oaiaeaeia, e oae aieioue aei naiie iiiai/eneaiiie a?oiiu iaeeeo
oaiaeaeia — «iaeiiueoiauo» ?uoea?ae.

Ioiioaiey aannaeeoaoa /anoi ia niaiaaeaee n oaeoe/aneei ii?yaeeii
ainiiaenoaa e iiae/eiaiey, ooaa?aeeaoeiny a no?aia. Naiuei?u auee
caeioa?aniaaiu a nio?aiaiee aannaeeoaoa a iniiaiii oiaaea, eiaaea eo
nineiaiui eioa?anai oa?iaeaea na?ueaciay iianiinoue e ioaeii auei
iauaaeeiyoue neeu. A iau/iia a?aiy oaiaeaeueiue aeiaiai? niaethaeaeny
eeoue a oie ia?a e iauaia, a eaeie naiuei? eiae ?aaeueioth neeo
canoaaeoue naieo aannaeia aio iiaeiiaaoueny.

Ia?aua o?aioeocneea ei?iee ia iaeaaeaee iiaeiaiuie aiciiaeiinoyie.
Iiyoiio eo iiaouanoaaiiua aannaeu /oanoaiaaee naay aiieia
naiinoiyoaeueiuie ainoaea?yie. Iie caeeth/aee niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo niaie e
n eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie, ia?aaeei a oua?a e i?ioea naiaai ei?iey,
aaee aieiu ae?oa n Ae?oaii e i?ioea naiaai ei?iiiaaiiiai naiuei?a.
Iaeaieaa e?oiiaa naiuei?u eiie?iaaee a naieo aeaaeaieyo ei?ieaaneoth
nenoaio oi?aaeaiey. E?oiiaeoea ec ieo aeaaea /aeaieee naith iiiaoo.

Aiaeiae/iia iieiaeaiea iaaethaeaeinue e ia ieaeanoiyueo nooiaiyo
oaiaeaeueiie ea?a?oee. ?acieoea auea eeoue a ianooaaao e aiciiaeiinoyo.
A iaiaeie noaiaie yoiio niinianoaiaae i?eioeei «aannae iiaai aannaea ia
iie aannae», o. a. aannae ian iaycaiiinoe oieueei ii ioiioaieth e oiio
naiuei?o, io eioi?iai ii iaiin?aaenoaaiii aea?aeae oueao.

A oneiaeyo oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe no?aio iio?ynaee iai?a?uaiua
oaiaeaeueiua ?ani?e, eioi?ua aeiiieieoaeueiui oyaeeei a?aiaiai
eiaeeeenue ia iea/e ia?iaea.

Ana yoi ii?aaeaeyei a aeaaiii no?oeoo?o e i?aaiii/ey ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaa.

Ei?ieue aue auai?iui. Iinea nia?oe aeaau ainoaea?noaa iiaue ei?ieue
auae?aeny aai aannaeaie e aunoeie ea?a?oaie o?aioeocneie oea?eae.

Ei?ieaaneay eo?ey, eee Aaeeeee niaao, auea ii nouanoao aaeeinoaaiiui
iauaainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii, eiaaoei aiciiaeiinoue ieacuaaoue aeeyiea
ia iieiaeaiea aeae a aieueoae /anoe no?aiu. Aaeeeee niaao i?aaenoaaeye
niaie nuacae e?oiiaeoeo oaiaeaeia no?aiu. Ii yieciaee/anee niae?aeny
iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii ei?iey. Caeanue ?anniao?eaaeenue e a ?yaea
neo/aaa ?aoaeenue aaaeiaeoea aii?inu aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee,
i?e/ai i/aiue /anoi aannaeu iaaycuaaee ei?ieth naith aieth.

Oi?aaeaiea ia ianoao aua ai iiiaii iiaoi?yei nenoaio oi?aaeaiey a?aiai
o?aieneie iiia?oee. Aeiiai ei?iey aue n?aaieoaeueii iaaaeee e ii/oe
niaiaaeae oa??eoi?eaeueii n aai ee/iuie oicyenoaaiiuie aeaaeaieyie.
Iiyoiio aeai?oeiaua oi?aaeythuea, aaaeaaoea ei?ieaaneeie eiaieyie, auee
iaeiia?aiaiii e ieie-noa?eaeaie, caaaaeiaaaoeie aeaeaie aeiiaia. Aeiiai
aue oa??eoi?eaeueii ?acaeaeai ia i?aaioaaee (ie?oae), ai aeaaa eioi?uo
iaoiaeeeenue i?aai — oi?aaeythuea aeaaiiai a yoii ie?oaa ei?ieaaneiai
eiaiey. Ieienoa?eaeu (a oeaio?a) e i?aai (ia ianoao) iacia/aeenue
ei?ieai e auee ioaaonoaaiiu oieueei ia?aae iei.

Noae. Aio auee i?enoue ana oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou n?aaeiaaaeiaie thnoeoeee.
Eaaeaeue naiaiaeiue aeieaeai aue noaeeoueny «noaeii ?aaiuo».
Iiaenoaeiinoue eaaeaeiai eeoea caaenaea io oie nooiaie ea?a?oee, ia
eioi?ie iii iaoiaeeeinue. Niioaaonoaaiii aannae ei?iey iia auoue noaeei
oieueei aio ?aaiuie — aannaeaie ei?iey. Oaeei noaeii noaiiaeeanue
Ei?ieaaneay eo?ey.

Aiaeiae/iue ii?yaeie ooaa?aeeeny e ia ieaeanoiyueo nooiaiyo oaiaeaeueiie
ea?a?oee. I?e/ai naiuei? eeoue i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaae, iaaethaeay ca
i?aaeeueiinoueth noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, noaeeee aannaeu, ?aaiua ii ?aiao
iiaenoaeeiiio. Ia?aaeei oaiaeaeu ?aoaee naie nii?u iooai aii?oaeaiiie
ai?ueau («/anoiua aieiu»).

A i?eioeeia «noae ?aaiuo» aeieaeai aue aeaenoaiaaoue e a ioiioaiee anao
inoaeueiuo iai?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo, a /anoiinoe ai?iaeai. Ii a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naiuei?u ia?aaeei ia?ooaee yoio ii?yaeie, no?aiynue
i?ea?aoue e ?oeai ianoioth thnoeoeeth. A iaiaeie noaiaie e yoiio eo
iiaoaeaeaea aiciiaeiinoue i?enaaeaaoue noaeaaiua iioeeiu.

Ianaiaiaeiia ianaeaiea e i?aaeaea anaai na?au noaeeeenue eo naiuei?aie
eee eo ieienoa?eaeaie e i?aai. Caeanue aac?acaeaeueii ainiiaenoaiaaea
naiuei?eaeueiay thnoeoeey. Naiuei?u aeaeeee iaaeaeo niaie noaeaaioth
aeanoue a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie oaiaeaeueiiai aeiaiai?a. Noaeaaiua
i?aaiii/ey ioaeaeueiuo naiuei?ia ia aeieaeiu auee i?aauoaoue iauai i?aa,
onoaiiaeaiiuo eiioieoaoii. Oaeei ia?acii, naiuei?u aunoeo ?aiaia eiaee
aieueooth noaeaaioth aeanoue («aunooth thnoeoeeth»), /ai ieaeanoiyuea,
eioi?ua auee iaaeaeaiu «iecoae thnoeoeeae». E eiiiaoaioeee ia?aie
ioiineeinue aeaaiui ia?acii ?anniio?aiea aeae e auianaiea i?eaiai?ia ii
i?anooieaieyi, iaeacuaaaiui nia?oiie eaciueth (oaeenoaa, iiaeaeiae e o.
i.), ?aaii eae e ii ae?oaei iaiaa na?ueaciui i?anooieaieyi. E
eiiiaoaioeee aoi?ie «iecoae thnoeoeee» oaeaea ioiineeenue ana
i?anooieaiey, e?iia iaeacuaaaiuo nia?oiie eaciueth. Eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeye ?acaie, eioi?ue aue a aaaeaiee «iecoae thnoeoeee», oioy
iaeacuaaeny nia?oiie eaciueth. Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi iiae ?acaiai
iiae?acoiaaaee e aii?oaeaiiua aunooieaiey e?anoueyi, aeiaaaeaiiuo aei
io/ayiey i?iecaieii naiuei?ia.

A ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiao no?aiu ii ianoiui iau/ayi (eoothiu) anai naiuei?ai
a?o/aeanue «aunoay» e «iecoay» thnoeoeey. Ia i?aeoeea aea aiaiiay neea,
eioi?ie ?aniieaaae naiuei?, ii?aaeaeyea a eiia/iii eoiaa iauai aai
?aaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae a iaeanoe oi?aaeaiey e noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.
A?aieoeu iaaeaeo i?aaii e i?iecaieii caeanue ieii/aoaeueii noe?aeenue.
Noaeaaiay aeanoue ia auea ioaeaeaia io aaeieieno?aoeaiie. Noaeaaiua
i?aaiu aua ia neiaeeeenue i?aaiecaoeeiiii a iainiaeaiioth nenoaio. A
eiiiaoaioeeth noaeaaiuo i?aaiia aoiaeeee i?aaiii/ey, ioiineaoeany e
ainoaea?noaaiiiio oi?aaeaieth. Oae, Ei?ieaaneay eo?ey auea ia oieueei
«noaeii ?aaiuo» aeey aannaeia ei?iey, ii e niaauaoaeueiui i?aaiii, aaea
ianoaeaeaeenue aaaeiaeoea aii?inu aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee.
Ieienoa?eaeu e i?aai iaeiia?aiaiii inouanoaeyee ooieoeee
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e noaea.

Aieueoeie noaeaaiuie i?aaiii/eyie auea iaaeaeaia oea?eiaue. Iiieii
iau/iie naiuei?eaeueiie thnoeoeee a naieo aeaaeaieyo, oea?eiaue
?anniao?eaaea aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?niiaeueiie e i?aaeiaoiie
iiaenoaeiinoe. Eneeth/eoaeueii oea?eiaiie th?enaeeeoeee iiaeeaaeaee
oaieiaiua e a?aaeaeaineea aeaea aeooiaainoaa, a oaeaea eeoe iaaeooiaiiai
caaiey, ii ii neoaeaa naycaiiuo n oea?eiaueth. E?iia oiai, oea?eiaiua
noaeu ?anniao?eaaee aeaea a ioiioaiee anao iinyaioaoeo ia iacuaeaiinoue
aeiaiaoia ?aeeaee e aaoi?eoao oea?eae (a?ane, iaaey, eieaeianoai,
ineaa?iaiea oea?eiaiuo caeaiee e ?aeeaeiciie neiaieeee). Aaaeaieth
oea?eae iiaeeaaeaee oaeaea i?anooieaiey, naycaiiua n «a?aoii»
(aiaa?a/iia niaeeoaeuenoai, eaeanaeaeaoaeuenoai, ia?ooaiea
iaycaoaeuenoa, ne?aieaiiuo eeyoaie ia e?anoa, e o. i.). Ia?a/aiue
iiaeiaiuo aeae ieeiaaea ia aue oi/ii onoaiiaeai.

Aii?oaeaiiua neeu. Eo iniiao ninoaaeyei iiie/aiea ?uoea?ae-aannaeia. A
aai no?oeoo?a nio?aieeenue ioiioaiey aannaeeoaoa — naiuei? aue aeaaie
a?oiiu ?uoea?ae-aannaeia. N yoei io?yaeii ii, a naith i/a?aaeue, aoiaeee
a iauaaeeiaiea, aicaeaaeyaoaany aai naiuei?ii. Aeenoeeieeia a oaeii
aienea i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaiaaea. E oiio aea iii auei ioiineoaeueii
iaaaeeei, oioy e iaaeaaeii a eeanniaii ioiioaiee. Ai a?aiaia iaeaieaa
oyaeaeuo aiaoieo aiei nicuaaeinue iiie/aiea ec ai?iaeai e aeeeaiia. Ii
yoiio aieneo naiuei?u ieeiaaea ia aeiaa?yee. Ei?ieue e iaeaieaa
iiaouanoaaiiua oaiaeaeu niaea?aeaee iaaieueoea io?yaeu iaaiieeia.

2. Ia/aei iauaaeeiaiey no?aiu

A eiioea ia?eiaea oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe (iniaaiii a XIII a.)
iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey e oneeaieth ei?ieaaneie aeanoe, eioi?ay iieo/eea
iiaeaea?aeeo ai?iaeai. E yoiio a?aiaie ai?iaea noaiiayony oeaio?aie
?aianae e oi?aiaee. A nioeeaeueiii ioiioaiee ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea ia
auei iaeii?iaeiui: aiaaoua eoioeu-?inoiaueee, ninoiyoaeueiua
nianoaaiieee ianoa?neeo, ?yaeiaua ?aianeaiieee e ai?iaeneay aaaeiioa.
Iaaeaeo ai?iaeneei iao?eoeeaoii e ?yaeiauie ai?iaeaiaie eiaee ianoi
na?ueaciua i?ioeai?a/ey. Ii ii ?yaeo aaaeiuo aii?inia ai?iaea aunooiaee
ii/oe eae aaeeiia oeaeia. Ana ai?iaeaia auee i?ioeaieeaie aioo?aiieo
oaiaeaeueiuo aiei, nii?iaiaeaeaaoeony ?acaiai oaiaeaeia. ?acaeoeth
?aianae e oi?aiaee iaoaee a?aieoeu iiiai/eneaiiuo naiuei?eaeueiuo
aeaaeaiee, ia eioi?uo iiae/an onoaiaaeeaaeenue ?acee/iua i?iaiciua
iioeeiu. Aieaa oiai, ai?iaea auee iiooaiu iiiai/eneaiiuie iiai?aie e
iiaeiiinoyie a iieueco oaiaeaeia, ia caiea eioi?uo iie iaoiaeeeenue.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo ai?iaea ia/aee ana aieaa ?aoeoaeueii aunooiaoue i?ioea
i?iecaiea naiuei?ia ca ai?iaeneia naiioi?aaeaiea — eiiioio. Yoa ai?ueaa
anei?a neeeanue n aeaeaeaieai i?ioea oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe. A
oiaea iai?yaeaiiiai i?ioeaiai?noaa, eioi?ia ia ?ac i?eia?aoaei oi?io
aii?oaeaiiuo aunooieaiee, ?yaeo ai?iaeia a eiioea eiioeia oaeaeinue
aeiaeoueny io naieo naiuei?ia ai?iaeneiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Aeanoue a
eiiioia iieo/ee ai?iaeneie iao?eoeeao.

I?aaa ai?iaeneiai naiioi?aaeaiey ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue iniauie
aeieoiaioaie — oa?oeyie, oeene?iaaaoeie ai?iaeneea aieueiinoe.
Oeiainiaua e eiua iiaeiiinoe ai?iaeia auee no?iai ii?aaeaeaiu, iiaiaeia
aeey ceioiio?aaeaiee ni noi?iiu naiuei?ia noaei iaiueoa. Iieiii?aaiuo
ai?iaeai noaee iacuaaoue ao?aeoa (io noa?iaa?iaineiai «ao?a» —
oe?aieaiiue ai?iae). Eeoue aiineaaenoaee yoi neiai i?eia?aei nia?aiaiiia
cia/aiea.

Eiiioiu aeiaeaaeenue i?aaa eiaoue naith aii?oaeaiioth neeo — ai?iaeneia
iiie/aiea. Caueuaynue io iaiaaeaiey /oaeeo e «naieo» naiuei?ia, ai?iaea
iiiynaeenue iiuiuie ai?iaeneeie noaiaie.

Ai?iaeaia aeaeaee a neeueiie ei?ieaaneie aeanoe ?aoathuee oaeoi?
i?aiaeieaiey oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe. Ei?iee oaeaea auee
caeioa?aniaaiu a ai?iaeao, eioi?ua aeaaaee ei aeaiueae, nia?aiaiiia
aii?oaeaiea e aeiiieieoaeueioth aiaiioth neeo (ai?iaeneia iiie/aiea).
Nithc iiia?oee e ai?iaeia ia/ae ioi?ieyoueny aua a X a., ii iniaie
cia/eiinoe aeinoea a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae, noeioee?oy oneeaiea
ei?ieaaneie aeanoe.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo i?iyaeaiee yoiai oneeaiey yaeeanue ioiaia auai?iinoe
ei?iey (ia/aei XIII a.). Ioiuia i?anoie ia?aoiaeee ii i?aao
ianeaaeiaaiey e noa?oei nuiiaueyi ei?ieae ec aeeianoee Eaiaoeiaia.

Caoai iinoaiaiii eeeaeaee?iaaeny i?eioeei «aannae iiaai aannaea ia iie
aannae». I?enyao aa?iinoe aannaeu anao ?aiaia noaee i?eiineoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ei?ieth.

Iiia?oey, iie?aynue ia iiaeaea?aeeo ai?iaeai, n?aaeiaai e iaeeiai
aeai?yinoaa, ia/aea ?anoe?youe naie aeiiai. Oaea e eiioeo XIII a.
ei?ieaaneee aeiiai, oaaee/eaoenue a ianeieueei ?ac, noae naiui aieueoei
oaiaeaeueiui aeaaeaieai O?aioeee, a ei?iee — naiuie iiaouanoaaiiuie
n?aaee naiuei?ia. A eo ?oeao nin?aaeioi/eeanue aeinoaoi/iay neea aeey
oiai, /oiau i?eioaeaeaoue aieueooth /anoue naieo aannaeia e iiaeiiaaieth
e i?aaeioa?auaoue iiiuoee ae?iaeaiey ei?ieaaneiai aeiiaia.

?aoi?iu Ethaeiaeea IX. A XIII a. (1226—1270) auee i?eiyou aaaeiua ia?u,
eiathuea oeaeueth ineaaeoue naia?aoeci oaiaeaeueiie ciaoe. N?aaee ieo
iniaia cia/aiea eiaee ?aoi?iu Ethaeiaeea IX (na?aaeeia XIII a.).

Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia. A ei?ieaaneii aeiiaia auea cai?auaia /anoiay aieia,
o. a. ?ac?aoaiea nii?ia iaaeaeo naiuei?aie iooai aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueau.
Niia?ieee aeieaeiu auee ia?auaoueny a ei?ieaaneee noae. A inoaeueiuo
naiuei?eyo auee aaaaeaiu oae iacuaaaiua «40 aeiae ei?iey». A oa/aiea
yoiai n?iea oaiaeaeu ia iiaee ia/eiaoue /anoioth aieio. Iie auee iaycaiu
ia?aoeoueny a ei?ieaaneee noae, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaae eo nii? ii
nouanoao. Oieueei ii enoa/aiee 40 aeiae, anee a noaea oaeaaaeinue
?ac?aoeoue aeaei (iiaeiaiuo neo/aaa n eaaeaeui aiaeii noaiiaeeinue ana
iaiueoa/), noi?iiu iiaee i?enooiaoue e aieia.

Aeey i?aoai?aiey a aeeciue yoiai ?aoaiey ii/oe ai ana iaeanoe no?aiu
auee iai?aaeaiu ei?ieaaneea noaeuee. Ee/ii caeioa?aniaaiiua a noaeaaiuo
oo?aoao e iioeeiao, iie aeoeaii aiaoeaaeenue a th?enaeeeoeeth oaiaeaeia.
A eoiaa eo cia/aiea aic?inei ianoieueei, /oi e iei ia?auaeenue ia
oieueei naiuei?u, ii e ana naiaiaeiua, ia aeiaieueiua ?aoaieai
naiuei?eaeueiiai noaea. Anei?a ?anniio?aiea aeae «aunoae thnoeoeee»
noaei eneeth/eoaeueiie eiiiaoaioeeae ei?ieaaneeo noaeae.

Oneiaeieaoeany ooieoeee ei?ieaaneie thnoeoeee iio?aaiaaee aa
i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai iainiaeaiey. Ec Ei?ieaaneie eo?ee auea auaeaeaia
iniaay noaeaaiay iaeaoa — Ia?eaeneee ia?eaiaio. Yoi o/?aaeaeaiea,
noaaoaa aunoae aiaeeyoeeiiiie einoaioeeae (ca iei auee nio?aiaiu e
iaeioi?ua aaeieieno?aoeaiua ooieoeee), a iniiaiii ninoiyei ec
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo th?enoia.

Oeiainiaay ?aoi?ia. A ei?ieaaneii aeiiaia a ea/anoaa aeaaiie ?an/aoiie
aaeeieoeu auea aaaaeaia ei?ieaaneay cieioay iiiaoa. Anei?a aeaaiaea?y
naiaio aunieiio ea/anoao iia noaea naiie aaoi?eoaoiie iiiaoie a no?aia e
auoanieea ianoiua aeaiueae ec ia?auaiey. Ec Ei?ieaaneie eo?ee
auaeaeeeinue aua iaeii o/?aaeaeaiea — N/aoiay iaeaoa. Aaaey o/ao
iinooieaiee noaeaaiuo iioeei, iia aia?aua a enoi?ee ei?ieaanoaa iieo/eea
?aaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii «i?eeiniooueny» e oeiainai
ioaeaeueiuo naiuei?ee, a aeaaiia — niinianoaiaaoue oaaee/aieth aeioiaeia
ei?iiu.

3. Ia?eiae nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie iiia?oee (XIV—XV aa.)

Iniiaiua /a?ou iauanoaaiiiai no?iy. Yoio ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony
cia/eoaeueiui ?acaeoeai ai?iaeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee. Aic?inea
yeiiiie/aneay ?ieue ai?iaeia ia thaa O?aioeee (Ia?naey, Ooeocu, Ai?aei e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo). Aaaeiuie oeaio?aie ai?iaeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe noaee
Ia?eae e I?eaai (naiua e?oiiua ai?iaea ei?ieaaneiai aeiiaia).

Yeiiiie/aneea nayce iaaeaeo ai?iaeii e aea?aaiae i?eia?aoatho
onoie/eaue, noaaeeueiue oa?aeoa?. Iaiaoeaoayny niaoeeaeecaoeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai e ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiia
e ai?iaeia aaea e iinoaiaiiiio oi?i/iaieth oi?aiauo naycae iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie ai?iaeaie ei?ieaanoaa. A yoeo oneiaeyo oaaee/eeanue
/eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ai?iaeia e oneeeeinue eo aeeyiea ia iieiaeaiea
aeae a no?aia.

A nayce n ?acaeoeai oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee oaiaeaeu ia/aee
caiaiyoue /anoue iaoo?aeueiuo iiaeiiinoae e ieaoaaeae aeaiaaeiui
ia?ieii. Aeey naiuei?ia yeiiiie/anee iaeaieaa ?acaeouo iaeanoae aue
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ee/ii naiaiaeiue e?anoueyiei — aea?aeaoaeue
ianeaaenoaaiiiai caiaeueiiai iaaeaea — oeaiceau. Oeaiceoa?ee aue iaycai
auiea/eaaoue naiaio ainiiaeeio oaa?aei oeene?iaaiiue aaeaaiaeiue
aeaiaaeiue ieaoaae — oeaic, auiieiyoue ii?aaeaeaiiua iiaeiiinoe. I?e
niaethaeaiee yoeo oneiaee e?anoueyiei eiae i?aai ia?aaeaaaoue ii
ianeaaenoao naith oeaiceao e aeaaea i?iaeaoue aa n niaeaney naiuei?a.
Aoaeo/e ee/ii naiaiaeiui, ii iia niaieoue ianoiaeeoaeuenoai e i?ioanneth
(oeoe a ai?iae e o. ae.). Ii ia iiaiai aea?aeaoaey oeaiceau aiceaaaeenue
ana niioonoaothuea ae oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe.

Oeaiceaa, anei?a noaaoay iniiaiie oi?iie e?anoueyineiai
caieaiieueciaaiey, niaeaenoaiaaea ii/oe iieiiio en/aciiaaieth na?aaaea.
Ii, ?acoiaaony, a inaiaiaeaeaiee na?aia io i?aeoe/anee e?aiinoiie
caaeneiinoe ia?iiioth ?ieue nua?aea iiiaiaaeiaay ai?ueaa o?aioeocneiai
e?anoueyinoaa, eioi?iio a iniiaiii oaeaeinue ionoiyoue aaoiiiiiinoue
naiaai oicyenoaa. Aieueoia /enei na?aia aueoieeinue ia naiaiaeo.
Oaiaeaeueiay yenieoaoaoeey, ianeieueei eciaiea oi?iu, oai ia iaiaa
inoaaaeanue aeanoieie, /oi aucuaaei iaino?aiea nioeeaeueiie ai?ueau a
aea?aaia. A na?aaeeia XIV a. no?aia auea ioaa/aia AEaea?eae —
e?anoueyineie aieiie.

Nineiaey. A ?anniao?eaaaiia a?aiy caaa?oeeinue th?eaee/aneia ioi?ieaiea
nineiaee. Ana ianaeaiea no?aiu aeaeeeinue ia o?e nineiaey: ia?aia —
aeooiaainoai, aoi?ia — aeai?yinoai, ana inoaeueiua naiaiaeiua- ninoaaeee
o?aouea nineiaea, eioi?ia a eaaaeueiie iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaenoaaeye aeaaiui ia?acii ai?iaeneie iao?eoeeao. Ia?aua aeaa
n/eoaeenue i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuie, /oi i?aaeaea anaai inaiaiaeaeaei eo io
iaeiaia e iiaeiiinoae, eioi?ua auee aiceiaeaiu ia o?aouea nineiaea.

Iniiaiua /a?ou ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy. Aaaeiua naeaeae a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo iaoneiaeee nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a
ainoaea?noaa. Aii?aee nii?ioeaeaieth e?oiiaeoeo oaiaeaeia a iniiaiii
i?aiaeieaaaaony oaiaeaeueiay ?acae?iaeaiiinoue. N caaa?oaieai ia?eiaea
oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe ainoaea?noai i?eiyei oi?io
nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie iiia?oee. Ioiineoaeueii neeueiay ei?ieaaneay
aeanoue ni/aoaeanue n i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaii io nineiaee — Aaia?aeueiuie
ooaoaie (iauaiaoeeiiaeueiui i?aaiii, eiaaoei i?aai ?ac?aoaoue aaaaeaiea
iiauo iaeiaia). Nicaeaaaeenue aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey aaeeiiai iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai ?uiea e aeaeueiaeoaai
yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey no?aiu.

I?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Ei?ieaaneay aeanoue. I?ioeann ioi?ieaiey
nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie iiia?oee aue neiaeiui e i?ioeai?a/eaui. Ii
ia/aeny n oneeaieai ei?ieaaneie aeanoe, ia?ac?uaii naycaiiui n
i?aiaeieaieai oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe. Yoi noaei aiciiaeiui a neeo
?yaea i?e/ei.

Ai-ia?auo, aua aieaa oe?aieeenue nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iniiau nithca
ei?ieaaneie aeanoe e ai?iaeia, aeaaiaea?y ?inoo ai?iaeneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee ai?iaea niiaee ieacuaaoue iiia?oee iiiiuue,
cia/eoaeueii aieueooth, /ai ?aiueoa.

Ai-aoi?uo, aie?oa ei?ieaaneie aeanoe nieioeeenue iniiaiua a?oiiu
n?aaeiaai e iaeeiai aeai?yinoaa, o. a. iiaeaaeythuay /anoue
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna. A oneiaeyo iiaeuaia aioeoaiaeaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey e?anoueyinoaa aeai?yia oaea ia auee a ninoiyiee caueoeoue
naie eioa?anu n iiiiuueth eieaeueiuo ?uoea?neeo iiie/aiee.

A neeueiie ei?ieaaneie aeanoe iie aeaeaee aaeeinoaaiiue iieio nio?aiaiey
naiaai i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiai iieiaeaiey. Iiia?oey iiaea oaeaea aeaoue ei
iiaua enoi/ieee aeioiaea, i?aaeinoaaea neoaeao a a?iee e
ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa.

A-o?aoueeo, neeueiay ei?ieaaneay aeanoue auea ioaeia aeey ai?ueau n
aiaoiei a?aaii. A yoio ia?eiae O?aioeey iiaeaa?aaeanue eiino?aiiui
iaoanoaeyi, noaaeaoei aa iiae/an ia a?aiue iaoeeiiaeueiie eaoano?iou.
Iniaaiii oyaeaeie aeey o?aioeocneiai ia?iaea auea aieia n Aiaeeae e
iiaeaea?aeeaathueie aa iaeioi?uie e?oiiuie o?aioeocneeie oaiaeaeaie
(Noieaoiyy aieia, ia/aei XIV — na?aaeeia XV aa.). Oieueei aeaaiaea?y
eneeth/eoaeueiui oneeeyi anaai ia?iaea, auaeaeioaoei ec naiae n?aaeu
oaeeo auaeathueony ai?oeia ca iaoeeiiaeueiia inaiaiaeaeaiea, eae AEaiia
ae’A?e, auea iaea?aeaia iiaaaea.

Eeeaeaeaoeey oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe e oneeaiea ei?ieaaneie aeanoe
oioy e aeinoeaaee cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia, ii auee aua aeaeaee io naiaai
caaa?oaiey. Nio?aieeenue aieueoea, oaeoe/anee iacaaeneiua oaiaeaeueiua
aeaaeaiey, oaeea, iai?eia?, eae, aa?oeianoai Ao?aoiaeneia (aai i?aaeoaee
iaiaeiie?aoii aiaaaee ni naieie nthca?aiaie — o?aioeocneeie ei?ieyie).
Iiiaea iiaouanoaaiiua aannaeu oioy e iiei?eeenue ei?ieth, ii i?e
oaeiaiii neo/aa iuoaeenue ainnoaiiaeoue oo?a/aiioth iacaaeneiinoue.

I?iaeioeeaeueiua ooaou. Iauaaeeiaiea no?aiu iiaei auoue oniaoii
caaa?oaii eeoue a iaiiaeaiiie ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia,
iaania/eaathuae eiinieeaeaoeeth anao nee, aunooiathueo ca aaeeiia
ainoaea?noai. Ia/eiatho nicuaaoueny nia?aiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae io
nineiaee. Ei?iee iieo/eee aiciiaeiinoue ia?auaoueny ca iiaeaea?aeeie e
nineiaeyi, ieioy i?aaeoaeae e?oiiaeoeo naiuei?ee. Ia ianoaeaeaiea
nia?aiee auiineeenue aaaeiaeoea aii?inu aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee e
i?aaeaea anaai iaeiaia. Auee aia?aua aaaaeaiu iinoiyiiua
iauaainoaea?noaaiiua iaeiae. ?aaoey?iua aeaiaaeiua iinooieaiey iicaieeee
i?aaeoaeuenoao noi?ie?iaaoue iinoiyiioth iaaiioth a?ieth acaiai
?uoea?neiai iiie/aiey, a oaeaea oeaio?aeeciaaiiue ath?ie?aoe/aneee
aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey.

Ia?aua nia?aiey nineiaiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa — ooaou (io o?aioe. etat
— nineiaea) aicieeee a ioaeaeueiuo i?iaeioeeyo aua a XIII a. Yoi auee
ia?eiaee/anee nicuaathueany nia?aiey aunoaai aeooiaainoaa, naiuei?ia,
iy?ia ai?iaeia niioaaonoaothuae i?iaeioeee. Ooaou ?anniao?eaaee
?acee/iua aii?inu, aeaaiui ec eioi?uo auei ooaa?aeaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo
nai?ia — «iiiiuae». Ia ia?auo ii?ao i?iaeioeeaeueiua ooaou nicuaaeenue
ianoiuie i?aaeoaeyie e niaeaenoaiaaee eiinieeaeaoeee ioaeaeueiuo
iaeanoae. Ii i/aiue nei?i iie ieacaeenue iiae eiio?ieai ei?iey.

Aaia?aeueiua ooaou. A 1302 a. aia?aua auei nicaaii iaua-o?aioeocneia
nia?aiea nineiaee. Aai noaee iacuaaoue Aaia?aeueiuie ooaoaie a ioee/ea
io ooaoia a ioaeaeueiuo i?iaeioeeyo. Niauoey iineaaeothueo aeanyoeeaoee
(Noieaoiyy aieia, e?anoueyineea e ai?iaeneea ainnoaiey) i?aa?aoeee
Aaia?aeueiua ooaou a aaaeiaeoee i?aai ainoaea?noaa. Oiaaea e neiaeeeanue
eo no?oeoo?a.

Eaaeaeia nineiaea auei i?aaenoaaeaii ioaeaeueiie iaeaoie. Ia?aay iaeaoa
ninoiyea ec aunoaai aeooiaainoaa. Ai aoi?oth iinueaee auai?iuo io
aeai?yinoaa. I?e/ai iaeaieaa ciaoiua (aa?oeiae, a?aou) a ninoaa iaeaou
ia aoiaeeee. Iie eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiua aannaeu ei?iey i?eieiaee o/anoea
a au?aaioea ?aoaiee a ninoaaa Ei?ieaaneie eo?ee. O?aouea nineiaea
auae?aei naieo aeaiooaoia. Eae i?aaeei, a auai?ao o/anoaiaae ai?iaeneie
iao?eoeeao, aeaiooaoaie auee iy?u e yoaaiu (/eaiu ai?iaeneeo niaaoia).
Ana aii?inu ?anniao?eaaeenue ?acaeaeueii ii iaeaoai, aaea ?aoaiea
auiineeinue i?inoui aieueoeinoaii aieinia. ?aoaiea ooaa?aeaeaeinue anaie
iaeaoaie, i?e/ai eaaeaeay iaeaoa eiaea oieueei iaeei aiein. Oaeei
ia?acii, i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua nineiaey anaaaea eiaee aa?aioe?iaaiiia
aieueoeinoai. Aaia?aeueiua ooaou nicuaaeenue ii oniio?aieth ei?iey. Ii
iineieueeo aaaaeaiea iiauo iaeiaia e aaeeiia?aiaiiuo nai?ia o?aaiaaei
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaney Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia e, a /anoiinoe, niaeaney
o?aoueaai nineiaey, ei?iee auee auioaeaeaiu ia?auaoueny e iei aeiaieueii
/anoi. Aeooiaainoai e aeai?yinoai io iaeiaia auee inaiaiaeaeaiu (eiaee
«iaeiaiaue eiioieoao») e eeoue aeaaaee niaeanea ia iaeiaeaiea o?aoueaai
nineiaey.

Aaeeeee ia?oianeee i?aeiiain e aai ioiaia. Ei?ieaaneay aeanoue /anoi
aeiaeaaeanue io Aaia?aeueiuo ooaaia ioaeiiai ae ?aoaiey. Ii auee
iiiaiou, eiaaea o?aouea nineiaea iiaei aeiaeoueny aieueoeo i?aa, /ai
i?aai ooaa?aeaeaiey iiauo iaeiaia. A 1357 a., eiaaea no?aia ia?aaeeaaea
iaeei ec iaeaieaa aeoaieeo iieeoe/aneeo e?ecenia a naiae enoi?ee, aue
ecaeai i?aeiiain (oeac), noaaoee aiineaaenoaee ecaanoiui eae Aaeeeee
ia?oianeee i?aeiiain 1357 a. A niioaaonoaee n yoei aeieoiaioii nannee
Aaia?aeueiuo ooaaia aeieaeiu auee i?iaiaeeoueny aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
naieoeee ei?iey. Aaia?aeueiua ooaau ia oieueei eiaee eneeth/eoaeueiia
i?aai ia aaaaeaiea iiauo iaeiaia, ii e eiio?iee?iaaee ?anoiaeu
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Eeoue n eo niaeaney iiaeii auei caeeth/eoue ie? e
iauyaeoue aieio. Iie iacia/aee niaoeeaeueiuo niaaoieeia ei?iey.

Aaeeeee ia?oianeee i?aeiiain aue aa?oeiie a?aiaiiiai ?inoa i?aaiii/ee
Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia. Aeiaeaoenue io ieo niaeaney ia aaaaeaiea iinoiyiiuo
iaeiaia, i?aaeoaeuenoai naeaeaei ana, /oiau i?aeiiain ia aue i?aoai?ai a
aeeciue. E yoi aio oaeaeinue.

Iineaaeiaaaoaa anei?a iiaaaeiiiniia caaa?oaiea Noieaoiae aieiu
niaeaenoaiaaei aeaeueiaeoaio oe?aieaieth ei?ieaaneie aeanoe.

A aa ?anii?yaeaiee auee iiiai/eneaiiay iaaiiay a?iey, ath?ie?aoe/aneee
aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ua niaea?aeaeenue ca n/ao iinoiyiiuo iaeiaia,
iacia/aaiuo oaia?ue aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iaeia?aiey Aaia?aeueiuo
ooaoia. Any aeanoue ei?iey ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia oa??eoi?eth, ii/oe
?aaioth nia?aiaiiie O?aioeee. N oi/ee c?aiey i?aayueo e?oaia,
Aaia?aeueiua ooaou auiieieee i?aaeiacia/aaoothny ei ?ieue. Ia/eiay n XV
a. Aaia?aeueiua ooaou ia?anoatho nicuaaoueny (a XVII a. auee nicaaiu
iaeei ?ac, a XVIII a.— oiaea iaeei ?ac). Acaiai eo i?aaeoaeuenoai
ia/eiaao ec?aaeea, ii naiaio oniio?aieth, nicuaaoue nia?aiea iioaaeae
(eiaiiuo iiaeaeaiiuo). Ii yoi o/?aaeaeaiea eiaei /enoi aauaoaeueiua
ooieoeee.

I?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. E oeaio?aeueiui i?aaiai
ioiineeenue: Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, eioi?ue inouanoaeye ii oeacaieyi
ei?iey ?oeiaiaenoai ioaeaeueiuie caaiueyie oi?aaeaiey e eiio?ieue ca eo
aeayoaeueiinoueth, e N/aoiay iaeaoa — oeiainiaia oi?aaeaiea.

N?aaee aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiaee: eaioeea?,
inouanoaeythuee oaeouaa oi?aaeaiea aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie e eiio?ieue ca
eo aeayoaeueiinoueth, ai a?aiy ionoonoaey ei?iey ii
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaae a Ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa, iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii
ninoaaeyeenue i?iaeou i?aeiiainia; eiiiaoaaeue — eiiaiaee? eiiiiai
?uoea?neiai aienea, n XIII a.— eiiaiaee? ei?ieaaneie a?iee; eaia?a?ee —
eacia/ae; iaeaoeiu — ei?ieaaneea niaaoieee, auiieiyaoea ioaeaeueiua
iniai aaaeiua ii?o/aiey ei?iey.

Aeieaeiinoiua eeoea, ninoaaeaoea iniiaiua eaae?u iiaiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, auee, eae i?aaeei, ethaee iaciaoiua,
iaycaiiua naiei aicauoaieai ei?ieth. N?aaee ieo auei iaiaei ieii/eaoeo
oieaa?neoaoneee eo?n th?eni?oaeaioeee, aeeth/ay ?eineia i?aai. Eo
iacuaaee eaaenoaie (io eao. «caeii»). Iie ca?aeiiaiaeiaaee naay eae
iaeaieaa ?aaiinoiua e iineaaeiaaoaeueiua noi?iiieee oeaio?aeecaoeee e
oneeaiey ei?ieaaneie aeanoe e ninoaaeee iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueioth a?oiio
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. N eo iiiiuueth ei?iee iooanieee eiaieooth ciaoue io
iniiaiuo ?u/aaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.

Ianoiua i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Ioiioaiey aannaeeoaoa
iinoaiaiii niaieeenue ioiineoaeueii oeaio?aeeciaaiiui iiiaicaaiiui
ath?ie?aoe/aneei aiia?aoii. Yoi nii?iaiaeaeaeinue oneeaieai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe iaae
naiuei?aie-caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie e niioaaonoaaiii ia?aie/aieai eo
eiioieoaoiuo i?aa.

Oi?aaeaiea aieueoei ei?ieaaneei aeiiaiii oaea ia iiaei inouanoaeyoueny,
eae ?aiueoa, aeai?oeiauie neoaeaueie, niaiauaaoeie caaaaeiaaiea ee/iuie
ei?ieaaneeie eiaieyie n ainoaea?noaaiiui

oi?aaeaieai. Iineaaeiaa noaei eneeth/eoaeueiie eiiiaoaioeeae ei?ieaaneeo
/eiiaieeia.

Aianoa n oai ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea ai aiiaue i?eniaaeeiaiiuo
i?iaeioeeyo ia auei aaeeiiia?aciie nenoaiie. A oao ec ieo, eioi?ua aioee
a ninoaa ei?ieaanoaa ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a (ia auee caaiaaaiu), no?oeoo?a
aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey, eae i?aaeei, ia iaiyeanue, iioiio /oi
i?aaeoaeuenoai iaycuaaeinue niaethaeaoue ianoiua eoothiu (iau/ae). I?e
yoii iiiaea ianoiua naiuei?u aeiaeaaeenue ii?aaeaeaiiuo eueaio ia
caiyoea ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeieaeiinoae. Ei?ieue ia anaaaea eiae
aiciiaeiinoue n?aco iacia/eoue ia aaaeiaeoea iinou a ianoiii oi?aaeaiee
naieo ethaeae. Naia?aoenoneea oaiaeaioeee, aua ia ecaeeoua iieiinoueth,
i?iyaeeenue i?aaeaea anaai a no?aieaiee ioaeaeueiuo a?oii ei?ieaaneeo
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe caiyoue aieaa iacaaeneiia iieiaeaiea ii ioiioaieth e
oeaio?o, oe?aieoue naith ei?ii?aoeaioth aaoiiiieth.

Ana yoi oneiaeiyei e caiaaeeyei i?ioeann nicaeaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, ii ia iiaei eciaieoue eee oai aieaa
ioiaieoue aai.

Ei?ieaaneee aeiiai aue ?acaeaeai ia ii/oe ?aaiua aaeieieno?aoeaiua
aaeeieoeu — aaeueyaee. Eie oi?aaeyee aaeuee — /eiiaieee, eioi?ua
iacia/aeenue ei?ieai. Ia ieo auei aiceiaeaii oaeouaa oi?aaeaiea — nai?
iaeiaia, iaaethaeaiea ca aeayoaeueiinoueth aaeieieno?aoeaii-noaeaaiuo
i?aaiia e o. ae.

Aaeueyaee aeaeeeenue ia i?aaioaaee ai aeaaa n i?aai. Yoe aeieaeiinoiua
eeoea, iaeiaaea yaeyaoeany oi?aaeythueie ei?ieaaneeie eiaieyie, auee
iaaeaeaiu aiaiiie, aaeieieno?aoeaiie, oeiainiaie e noaeaaiie aeanoueth a
ie?oaa. Ia?aaeei o/?aaeaeaeenue iiaua aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiua
ie?oaa, a?aieoeu eioi?uo ia niaiaaeaee n aaeueyaeaie.

Ia thaa oeaio?aeecaoeey e oieoeeaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa auea
au?aaeaia ianeieueei neaaaa. Aeaaaie thaeiuo ie?oaia (eo /aua iacuaaee
naiaoaeaie) yaeyeenue i?aaenoaaeoaee ianoiie ciaoe.

I?aaeoaeuenoai, no?aiynue ca?o/eoueny iiaeaea?aeeie nineiaee a ai?ueaa
i?ioea naia?aoecia ianoiie a?enoie?aoee, iiiu?yei aeayoaeueiinoue
i?iaeioeeaeueiuo ooaoia, eioi?ua ooieoeeiie?iaaee a Ii?iaiaeee, I?iaaina
e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo i?iaeioeeyo no?aiu e caieiaeenue ?ani?aaeaeaieai
iaeiaiaiai iaeiaeaiey, eiio?iee?iaaee i?iaaaeaiea iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio —
no?ieoaeuenoai aei?ia, eaiaeia e o. ae. I?aaiecaoeeiiii i?iaeioeeaeueiua
ooaou ia eiaee ieeaeie nayce n Aaia?aeueiuie ooaoaie, ii oae aea, eae e
iie, iiae/an auoiaeeee ec-iiae eiio?iey i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iineaaeiaa
ie?eeinue n yoei, iiea ia oe?aieeinue ia ianoao e ia iieo/eei
aiciiaeiinoe niae?aoue iaeiae aac eo iiiiue. Ia/eiay n XV a.
aieueoeinoai i?iaeioeeaeueiuo ooaoia ia nicuaaeinue.

I?aaeoaeuenoai oneeeei naie eiio?ieue e iaae ai?iaeneei naiioi?aaeaieai
— eiiioiaie. E yoiio a?aiaie eo eiee/anoai cia/eoaeueii aic?inei.
Eiiioiu inouanoaeyee aaeieieno?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea e noae, eiaee i?aai
ecaeaaaoue iinoaiiaeaiey, iaycaoaeueiua aeey ai?iaeai. Auai?iue i?aai
ai?iaeneiai naiioi?aaeaiey — ai?iaeneie niaao — ninoiye ec yoaaaiia e
iiaeeciaiii eca?aiiiai ai?iaeneiai aeaau — iy?a. Eie, eae i?aaeei, auee
ninoiyoaeueiua ai?iaeaia.

E?anoueyinoai ii-i?aaeiaio iaoiaeeeinue iiae aeanoueth «naieo»
naiuei?ia, nio?aieaoeo (ianeieueei ia?aie/aiiua) iieeoeaeneea e
noaeaaiua i?aaiii/ey. Naiuei?u eiio?iee?iaaee aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia
iaueiiiai naiioi?aaeaiey — noiaea e aai eniieieoaeueiiai i?aaia —
neiaeeea, a eioi?ue aoiaeeee iaeaieaa caaeeoi/iua e?anoueyia. Neiaeeee
aaaeaee aioo?aiieie aeaeaie iaueiu, aeeth/ay ?aneeaaeeo iiaeaoae,
iiaeiiinoae e o. ae.

Noae. A ?acaeoee noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee iaicia/eeenue neaaeothuea
oaiaeaioeee. Ai-ia?auo, iaeioi?ua noaeaaiua i?aaiii/ey ecuiaeenue o
oaiaeaeia e oea?eae e ia?aaeaaaeenue ei?ieaaneie thnoeoeee.
Niioaaonoaaiii th?enaeeeoeey ei?ieaaneeo noaeia cia/eoaeueii
?anoe?eeanue: iie iiaee ia?aniio?aoue ethaia ?aoaiea naiuei?eaeueiiai
noaea. Ai-aoi?uo, iaiaoeeinue iinoaiaiiia, ii ia noaaoaa iieiui,
iainiaeaiea noaeia io aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia e niioaaonoaaiii
oi?ie?iaaiea noaeaaiie nenoaiu oeaio?aeeciaaiiie iiia?oee.

Ia?eaiaiou. Aua i?e Ethaeiaeea IX ia aaca Ei?ieaaneie eo?ee aue nicaeai
aunoee noae ei?ieaanoaa — ia?eaiaio. Aia/aea a iai aeiieie?iaaea
oaiaeaeueiay ciaoue, ii anei?a iia onooieea ianoi ei?ieaaneei eaaenoai.
Ia?eaiaio noae aunoei aiaeeyoeeiiiui noaeii. Aai ?acaeaeeee ia iaeaou:
aieueooth (noaeaaioth), ianeieueei neaaenoaaiiuo, a /a?ac iaeioi?ia
a?aiy — ia ianeieueei iaeao i?ioaiee. Ia?eaiaio ?anniao?eaae iaeaieaa
aaaeiua oaieiaiua e a?aaeaeaineea aeaea, iia ia?aniao?eaaoue ?aoaiey e
i?eaiai?u ieaeanoiyueo noaeia n iiaie i?iaa?eie anao ?aiaa ?anniio?aiiuo
eee aiiaue i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. Onoaiiaeaiiue ii?yaeie
ia?aniio?a noaeaaiuo aeae ii nouanoao, eioi?ue noae iacuaaoueny
aiaeeyoeeae, aaiaeee eiio?ieue oeaio?aeueiiai noaea iaae ianoiuie
noaeaie.

Ia?eaiaio nua?ae aaaeioth ?ieue a oi?i/iaiee ei?ieaaneie thnoeoeee. Ii,
oe?aieaoenue, ii no?aieeny caiyoue aieaa iacaaeneiia io ei?ieaaneie
aeanoe iieiaeaiea. Iiaeiaiua iiiuoee i?aaei?eieiaeenue, eiaaea aeanoue
a?aiaiii ineaaaaaea. Oiaaea ia?eaiaio oe?iei eniieueciaae
i?aaeinoaaeaiiua aio i?aaiii/ey a iaeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e i?aaeaea
anaai ?aaeno?aoeee ei?ieaaneeo i?aeiiainia (oieueei iinea yoiai iie
n/eoaeenue iiaeeaaeaueie e eniieiaieth). Oaeay i?ioeaaeo?a, aiaoia
eacaaoayny /enoi oaoie/aneie, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeaaaea aiciiaeiinoue
oi?iiceoue aaaaeaiea a aeaenoaea iiauo oeacia e oai naiui ieacuaaoue
ne?uoia aeeyiea ia caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa. A
iiiaio iaeiiai ec a?aiaiiuo ineaaeaiee ei?ieaaneie aeanoe ia?eaiaio
aeiaeeny i?aaa «?aiiino?aoeee», o. a. i?aaa auai?i/iie ?aaeno?aoeee
ei?ieaaneeo i?aeiiainia. A neo/aa, anee ia?eaiaio n/eoae, /oi i?aeiiain
ia niioaaonoaoao iauaio aeooo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa no?aiu, ii iia
ioeacaoue a aai ?aaeno?aoeee e niioaaonoaaiii ia?aie/eoue i?aoai?aiea
aai a aeeciue. Eeoue i?enoonoaea ei?iey ai a?aiy ?aaeno?aoeee i?aeiiaina
eeoaei ia?eaiaio aiciiaeiinoe ainiieueciaaoueny naiei i?aaii. A aeaaiii
ia?eaiaio aue eiyeai e i?aaeoaeuenoao, e, aeaeeii, eiaiii iiyoiio ai
aiiaue i?eniaaeeiaiiuo i?iaeioeeyo o/?aaeaeaeenue ianoiua ia?eaiaiou.
Auei nicaeaii 13 i?iaeioeeaeueiuo ia?eaiaioia, ?anniao?eaaaoeo iaeaieaa
na?ueaciua aeaea ia o?iaia i?iaeioeee e eeoaiiuo i?aa «?aiiino?aoeee».

Iniiaioth ianno oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo aeae a ea/anoaa ei?ieaaneeo
noaeae ia ianoao ?anniao?eaaee aaeuee, naiaoaee (ia thaa) e i?aai. Ia
yoii o?iaia thnoeoeey aua ia ioaeaeeeanue io aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia.

Oea?eiaiue noae a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a oo?aoee /a?ou naiuei?eaeueiie
thnoeoeee. Ii o?ainoi?ie?iaaeny a niaoeeaeueiue noae ii aeaeai iniaie
i?aaeiaoiie e ia?niiaeueiie iiaenoaeiinoe (a?ane, eieaeianoai,
niaeeoaeuenoai, ?inoiaue/anoai e o. ae.). Neiaeeeanue einoaioeeiiiay
nenoaia oea?eiaiuo noaeia. Iecoae einoaioeeae aue noae ioeoeeaeia —
niaoeeaeueiuo oiieiiii/aiiuo aieneiia, aoi?ie einoaioeeae — noae
a?oeaieneiia, neaaeothuae — noae ea?aeeiaea. Aunoae einoaioeeae,
?anniao?eaaaoae iaeaieaa aaaeiua aeaea, iineaoea eaiiie/aneee oa?aeoa?,
a oaeaea iaeioi?ua a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua aeaea, aeaaiui ia?acii
naiaeiua, aue noae ?eineie eo?ee.

A XIV a. nicaeaaony niaoeeaeueiue i?aai i?aneaaeiaaiey e iaaeiaiey —
i?ieo?aoo?a. Ia?aiia/aeueii yoi auea a?oiia iniai aeiaa?aiiuo ethaeae
ei?iey — i?ieo?aoi?ia, ioeoeeaeueii oiieiiii/aiiuo neaaeeoue ca
niaethaeaieai eioa?ania ei?iiu i?e noaeaaiii ?anniio?aiee
iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo, ianoiuo e aeaaea /anoiuo aeae. Anei?a eo ooieoeee
?anoe?eeenue. Ei?ieaaneea i?ieo?aoi?u noaee aunooiaoue a noaeao eae
iaaeieoaee ii aeaeai, eioi?ua cao?aaeaaee i?yii eee einaaiii eioa?anu
iiia?oee, ioiaeaeanoaeyaiua n eioa?anaie ainoaea?noaa.

Aiaiiua ?aoi?iu XIV — XV aa. Nicaeaaony ?aaoey?iay ei?ieaaneay a?iey; Aa
iniiau auee caeiaeaiu a oiaea aiaiiuo ?aoi?i aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIV a. e
ia?aie iieiaeiu XV a. E yoiio a?aiaie i?aaeoaeuenoai iinea aaaaeaiey
iinoiyiiuo iaeiaia eiaei a naiai ?anii?yaeaiee cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa,
aieueoay /anoue eioi?uo ai iiiaii eniieueciaaeanue aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
a?iee. Iia auea cia/eoaeueiie ii /eneaiiinoe e ninoiyea ec iaaiieeia.
Oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaeanue aa?aiaea eiino?aioeaa. Aeai?yinoai iieo/eei
i?aeiouanoaaiiia i?aai ia caiyoea ioeoea?neeo aeieaeiinoae. Iacia/aiea
ioeoea?ia, eo ia?aiauaiea ii neoaeaa auee eneeth/eoaeueii eiiiaoaioeeae
i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Ai?iaea niaaaeeee ei?ieaaneoth a?ieth nia?aiaiiui aii?oaeaieai e
i?aaeaea anaai a?oeeea?eae. N aa iiiiuueth auee acyou iaeiaaea
iai?anooiiua caiee iaiiei?iuo aannaeia. Oaiaeaeueiia iiie/aiea
iinoaiaiii oo?a/eaaao aueia cia/aiea.

4. Ia?eiae aaniethoiie iiia?oee (XVI — XVIII aa.)

Iniiaiua /a?ou iauanoaaiiiai no?iy. A XVI a. ai O?aioeee iiyaeeanue
iaiooaeoo?a — ia?aay noaaeey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaiooaeoo?a /anoe/ii iioanieea ?aianeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai
a oaeeo e?oiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oeaio?ao, eae Ia?eae, Ia?naeue, Eaii,
Ai?aei. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee i?eaaei e
oi?ie?iaaieth aaeeiiai iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai ?uiea.

Oe?aieaiea yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
i?iaeioeeyie no?aiu niaeaenoaiaaei ieii/aoaeueiiio ioi?ieaieth aaeeiie
iaoeee.

?acaeoea eaieoaeecia aucaaei aaaeiua naeaeae a nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?a
iauanoaa. Iiieii iniiaiiai ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna — oaiaeaeia,
iiyaeeny iiaue eeann e?oiiuo nianoaaiieeia — ao?aeoacey. Aa
ia?aiia/aeueiia yae?i ninoaaee ai?iaeneie iao?eoeeao — aiaaoua eoioeu,
?inoiaueee, aaiee?u, i/aiue /anoi noaiiaeaoeany nianoaaiieeaie
iaiooaeoo?. Ii yoie ia/aeueiie noaaeee o?aioeocneie ao?aeoacee auee
i?enoue iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe. Iiiaea ao?aeoa n/eoaee auaiaeiui aeey
naay eoieoue aeieaeiinoue a noaeao (ia?eaiaioao) eee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
i?aaiao. I?aaeoaeuenoai, iinoiyiii ioaeaeaaoaany a n?aaenoaao, ia/aei
i?iaeaaaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe, o. a. i?aai ia caiyoea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iinoa a aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey e noaea (eoieaiiay
aeieaeiinoue iiaea ia?aaeaaaoueny ii ianeaaenoao niaeanii yaeeeoo 1604
a.). Aeaaeaeueoeu aeieaeiinoae ni?aaaaeeeai iieaaaee, /oi aeaeiaaiuea e
ae?oaea «aeioiaeu» aiieia ii?aaaeuaatho aeiaeaiiue eaieoae. Iaeioi?ua
aeieaeiinoe aeaaaee i?aai ia aeai?yineee oeooe. Eo iineoaee iieoiaee
caieth e oi?iaeueii ie/ai ia ioee/aeenue io iioiinoaaiiuo aeai?yi
(«aeai?yinoaa oiaae»). A eoiaa iiyaeeanue iniaay i?ineieea aeai?yi —
auoiaeoeaa ec o?aoueaai nineiaey («aeai?yinoai iaioee»). Aa
i?aaenoaaeoaee aaee ia?ac aeecie ?iaeiaiai aeai?yinoaa, ii aianoa n oai
ia ii?uaaee naieo iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo naycae n iniiaiie
/anoueth ao?aeoacee. Iie i/aiue /anoi a?aee ia naay caueoo aa eioa?ania
a ainoaea?noaa.

Iaeiaei iiyaeaiea iiauo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee ia eciaieei
oaiaeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a o?aioeocneiai iauanoaa.

Ii aue aeiieie?othuei, iniaaiii a aea?aaia, aaea i?iaeeaaea
iiaeaaeythuay /anoue ianaeaiey no?aiu. Caiey ia i?aaao nianoaaiiinoe
i?eiaaeeaaeaea aeaaiui ia?acii aeai?yinoao,. aeeth/ay «aeai?yinoai
iaioee». Aianoa n oai aieaa iieiaeiu naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue
iaoiaeeeinue a aea?aeaiee e?anoueyi-oeaiceoa?eaa. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
inoaeueiie ainiiaeneie caiee naeaaaeanue e?anoueyiai a a?aiaeo.

N ?acaeoeai oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee aieueoay /anoue e?anoueyineeo
iiaeiiinoae auea caiaiaia aeaiaaeiuie ieaoaaeaie. Aeai?yinoai, ia
aeiaieuenoaoynue yoei, aaiaeeei aeiiieieoaeueiua iiai?u, ia?auaeinue e
i?aaeoaeuenoao n i?inueaie oaaee/eoue iaeiaiaia iaeiaeaiea e?anoueyinoaa
n iineaaeothuae ia?aaea/ae nia?aiiuo n?aaenoa i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui.
Eueaeiay aeiey iaeiaia ooiaeeo ia niaea?aeaiea aeai?a e aai ie?oaeaiey
(aeaeiaaiuea, noaneaeee, iiaea?ee, iainee). A eoiaa ?acei aic?anoaao
?ieue ei?ieaaneiai oenea a yenieoaoaoeee e?anoueyinoaa.

Eae e ?aiueoa, ianaeaiea no?aiu aeaeeeinue ia o?e nineiaey. Aeooiaainoai
e aeai?yinoai nio?aieee ana naie i?eaeeaaee, aeeth/ay «iaeiaiaue
eiioieoao». A ninoaa o?aoueaai nineiaey aioei e?anoueyinoai.

Iniiaiua /a?ou ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy. Eciaiaiey a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?a o?aioeocneiai iauanoaa iaoneiaeee e
o?ainoi?iaoeeth ainoaea?noaa. E ia/aeo XVI a. aaniethoiay iiia?oey a
iniiaiii ioi?ieeanue. A oiaea naiaai ?acaeoey iia i?eia?aea ai O?aioeee
iaeaieaa caeii/aiioth, iineaaeiaaoaeueioth oi?io. Aaniethoeci
oa?aeoa?eciaaeny i?aaeaea anaai oai, /oi any iieiioa caeiiiaeaoaeueiie,
eniieieoaeueiie, aiaiiie e noaeaaiie aeanoe nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue a ?oeao
ianeaaeiiai aeaau ainoaea?noaa — ei?iey. Niioaaonoaaiii aio iiae/eiyeny
aanue oeaio?aeeciaaiiue ainoaea?noaaiiue iaoaieci — a?iey, iieeoeey,
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oeiainiaue aiia?ao, noae. Ana o?aioeocu, aeeth/ay
aeai?yi, ?anniao?eaaeenue eae iiaeaeaiiua ei?iey, iaycaiiua aio
aani?aeineiaii iiae/eiyoueny.

Iniiaiay /anoue aeai?yinoaa, i?iaeieaeaaoaai inoaaaoueny
ainiiaenoaothuei eeannii, ia oieueei nie?eeanue n oaeei iieiaeaieai, ii
e neoaeeea iii?ie o?iio. Aeaei a oii, /oi aaniethoiay iiia?oey iaoeeiiii
e iineaaeiaaoaeueii caueuaea ei?aiiua, iauaeeanniaua eioa?anu
aeai?yinoaa. Eeoue n iiiiuueth oeaio?aeeciaaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeiu
aaniethoecia iiaeii auei iaania/eoue iiaeaaeaiea oneeeaaaoaeny
aioeoaiaeaeueiie ai?ueau e?anoueyinoaa. E oiio aea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
n?aaenoa, auaeeiaaiuo ec no?aiu n iiiiuueth oeneaeueiiai aiia?aoa
iiia?oee, oea ia niaea?aeaiea aeai?yinoaa.

Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, ai iiiaii niinianoaiaaaoei oneeaieth ioiineoaeueiie
iacaaeneiinoe ei?ieaaneie aeanoe, yaeeinue iniaia niioiioaiea eeanniauo
nee, neiaeeaoaany ai O?aioeee. A no?aia ooaa?aeeeinue naiaia?aciia
?aaiiaanea aeaoo eeannia — aeai?yinoaa, ia/aaoaai ineaaaaaoue, ii aua
e?aiei aea?aeaaoaainy ca naie i?eaeeaaee e eiiaiaeiua iinou a
ainoaea?noaa, e ao?aeoacee, ana aieaa iaae?aaoae neeo. Ao?aeoacey aua ia
iiaea i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iieeoe/aneoth aeiieie?othuoth ?ieue a no?aia, ii
a yeiiiie/aneie iaeanoe e io/anoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa iia
oniaoii i?ioeainoiyea aeai?yinoao. Eniieuecoy a naiae iieeoeea
i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy eeannaie, ei?ieaaneay aeanoue
aeiaeeanue cia/eoaeueiie ioiineoaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee aaniethoecia nua?ae ea?aeeiae ?eoaeuea. A
oa/aiea ii/oe aeaaaeoeaoe eao (1624—1642) ii, iiae/eiea naiaio aeeyieth
ei?iey Ethaeiaeea XIII, oaeoe/anee aac?acaeaeueii oi?aaeye no?aiie. Aai
iieeoeea iauaeoeaii auea iai?aaeaia ia caueoo eioa?ania aeai?yinoaa.
Iooue e aeinoeaeaieth yoie aeaaiie oeaee ?eoaeuea aeaeae a oe?aieaiee
aaniethoecia. Iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii auea ?acei oneeaia oeaio?aeecaoeey
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aiia?aoa, noaea, oeiainia.

I?e Ethaeiaeea XIV (aoi?ay iieiaeia XVII — ia/aei XVIII a.) o?aioeocneee
aaniethoeci aeinoea aunoae noaiaie naiaai ?acaeoey.

Cia/aiea aaniethoecia aeey no?aiu ia auei iaeiicia/iui. N XVI a. ii
ia?aoth iieiaeio XVII a. aaniethoiay iiia?oey ea?aea ioiineoaeueii
i?ia?anneaioth ?ieue. Iia aaea ai?ueao i?ioea ?aneiea no?aiu, nicaeaaay
oai naiui aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aa iineaaeothuaai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Ioaeaeaynue a iiauo
aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoaao, aaniethoeci niaeaenoaiaae ?inoo
eaieoaeenoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee! Iieo/eee ?acaeoea
yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea e niioaaonoaothuaa yeiiiie/aneia o/aiea, noaaoaa
ecaanoiui eae ia?eaioeeeci. Aai iineaaeiaaoaee n/eoaee iniiaiui
enoi/ieeii aiaaonoaa iaeanoue aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey (iaeiieaiea a no?aia
ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia, aeaaiui ia?acii a ?acoeueoaoa i?aauoaiey iauaia
auaica oiaa?ia ca a?aieoeo iaae eo aaicii). Iaeiei ec aa?eaioia
ia?eaioeeecia yaeeanue yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea, i?iaiaeeiay oaeoe/aneei
aeaaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa Eieueaa?ii. I?aaeoaeuenoai iiiu?yei no?ieoaeuenoai
iiauo iaiooaeoo?, aaiaeeei aunieea oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu ia aaiceiua a
no?aio eiino?aiiua oiaa?u, aaei aieiu i?ioea eiino?aiiuo aea?aeaa —
eiieo?aioia a oi?aiaea, iniiauaaei eieiiee.

Eieueaa? oiaiueoee i?yiie iaeia (oaeueth), ii oaaee/ee einaaiiua iaeiae,
nie?aoee ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea. Aio oaeaeinue ianeieueei
naaeaine?iaaoue athaeaeao. O?aioeocneay ao?aeoacey, aua ia eiay nee e
aiciiaeiinoae aeiaeoueny yoiai naiinoiyoaeueii, i?eaaonoaiaaea iiaeiaiua
ia?ii?eyoey, oioy ae i?eoiaeeeinue ?aniea/eaaoueny ca ieo aanueia
aei?iaie oeaiie: aaiaeeeenue iiaua i?eioaeeoaeueiua ieaoaaee e caeiu.
Iiceoeaiua ?acoeueoaou iieeoeee Eieueaa?a ieacaeenue a?aiaiiuie. Aiiaue
?acei aic?in aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa. E ai iiiaii i?e/eiie oiio yaeeenue
iiiai/eneaiiua aieiu e aaneiio?ieueiua o?aou ei?ieaaneiai aeai?a.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVII a. eaieoaeeci aeinoea oaeiai o?iaiy, /oi aai
aeaeueiaeoaa aeaaii?eyoiia ?acaeoea a iaae?ao oaiaeaeecia noaei
iaaiciiaeiui. Aaniethoiay iiia?oey, caueuay oaiaeaeueiue no?ie, oo?aoeea
ana ?aiaa i?enouea ae i?ia?anneaiua /a?ou.

I?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Eiioeaio?aoeey anae iieiiou
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a ?oeao iiia?oa i?eaaea e i?ae?auaieth
aeayoaeueiinoe Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia. Auee ?acei ia?aie/aiu i?aaa
ia?eaiaioia e i?aaeaea anaai Ia?eaeneiai ia?eaiaioa. Ethaeiaee XIV
(1643—1715) oaeoe/anee ieii/aoaeueii oi?acaeiee einoeooo
«?aiiino?aoeee». Ia?eaiaio aue iaycai aani?aiyonoaaiii ?aaeno?e?iaaoue
ana i?aeiiainu e ae?oaea ii?iaoeaiua aeou, enoiaeyuea io ei?iey. I?e/ai
aeey yoiai oaea ia o?aaiaaeinue aai ee/iiai i?enoonoaey. Ia?eaiaioo auei
cai?auaii i?eieiaoue e ?anniio?aieth eaeea-eeai aeaea, eanaaoeany
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aiia?aoa.

Naaoneay aeanoue a eeoea ei?iey oneeeea naie eiio?ieue iaae oea?eiaueth
oaea a ia/aea XVI a. Aieiineee eiiei?aeao 1516 a. i?aaeinoaaee ei?ieth
eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai iacia/aoue eaiaeeaeaoia ia iinou aunoeo ea?a?oia
eaoiee/aneie oea?eae ai O?aioeee. I/aiue nei?i iineaaeothuaa
ooaa?aeaeaiea yoeo eaiaeeaeaoo? i?aa?aoeeinue a oi?iaeueiinoue. A
?acoeueoaoa auaeaeaeaiea ia aunoea oea?eiaiua aeieaeiinoe oaeoe/anee
noaei iaeiei ec aeaeia ei?ieaaneiai iiaeaeiaaiey.

Oe?aieaiea aeanoe ei?iey nii?iaiaeaeaeinue ?aceei ?inoii
ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa e oneeaieai aai aeeyiey.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa ai O?aioeee ?anniao?eaaaiiai
ia?eiaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?yaeii iniaaiiinoae. Ai-ia?auo, iiiaea
aeieaeiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaeaaaei, /oi i?eiineei iaiaeue aeioiae
iiia?oee, ii eiaei e io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey. Aaeeeia iiiaeanoai
/eiiaieeia caiieiieei no?aio. Aea?aeaoaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeieaeiinoae
/oanoaiaaee naay ioiineoaeueii iacaaeneii ii ioiioaieth e iiia?oee,
eioi?ay ia iiaea oaieeoue eo n ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau (iocua aue
aiciiaeai, anee /eiiaiee niaa?oee aeieaeiinoiia i?anooieaiea,
onoaiiaeaiiia a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea).

Ai-aoi?uo, a ia?eiae iieeoe/aneeo e?ecenia XVI a., iniaaiii ai. a?aiy
?aeeaeiciuo aiei, i?aaeoaeuenoai n oeaeueth i?eaea/aiey ia naith noi?iio
ciaoe auioaeaeaii auei ia?aaeaoue aa i?aaenoaaeoaeyi iaeioi?ua aaaeiua
iinou a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa: aoaa?iaoi?ia, aaeuee, i?aai e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo. Yoe aeieaeiinoe caoai ii o?aaeeoeee noaee aeinoiyieai
ioaeaeueiuo a?enoie?aoe/aneeo naiae.

A eoiaa /anoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, nicaeaiiiai a ia?eiae
nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie iiia?oee, ia niioaaonoaiaaea naiaio
ia?aiia/aeueiiio iacia/aieth. Iia ieacaeanue a ?oeao oao e?oaia, eioi?ua
no?aieeenue aic?iaeeoue i?iaeioeeaeueiue naia?aoeci, oe?aieoue naith
ei?ii?aoeaioth aaoiiiieth.

A i?eioeeia i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaei iaiiaeoue eaae?iaue ninoaa ioaeaeueiuo
caaiueaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, eciaieoue iniiau aai
eiiieaeoiaaiey. Ii yoi iaecaaaeii aucaaei au iiaoth aniuoeo
iaaeiaieuenoaa «aeai?yinoaa oiaae» e «aeai?yinoaa iaioee». Ei?iia ia
iiaea oaeaea aueoieoue ana i?iaeaiiua aeieaeiinoe (ia yoi o iaa ia
oaaoeei au n?aaenoa).

I?iaeaia auea ?aoaia eiui iooai. Noa?ue ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao aue
nio?aiai, ii ia?yaeo n iei noaee nicaeaaaoue iiaoth nenoaio
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. Aaaeiaeoea iinou a iae noaee caieiaoue eeoea,
iacia/aaiua i?aaeoaeuenoaii, eioi?ia a ethaia a?aiy iiaei eo ioicaaoue.
Eae i?aaeei, yoi auee ethaee iaciaoiua, ii iaeaaeathuea niaoeeaeueiuie
ciaieyie, a aeaaiia, i?aaeaiiua iiia?oee. A eo aaaeaiea auee ia?aaeaiu
aaaeiaeoea oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee. A eoiaa a no?aia iaeiia?aiaiii
aeaenoaiaaee ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu, eioi?ua oneiaii iiaee auoue
?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa eaoaai?ee. E ia?aie ioiineeenue o/?aaeaeaiey,
oianeaaeiaaiiua io i?ioeiai, n nenoaiie i?iaeaaaaiuo aeieaeiinoae e
/anoe/ii eiio?iee?oaiua ciaoueth. A eo aaaeaiee a eiia/iii eoiaa
ieacaeanue ioiineoaeueii aoi?inoaiaiiay noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey. Aoi?oth eaoaai?eth i?aaenoaaeyee i?aaiu, nicaeaiiua
aaniethoeciii e ninoaaeaoea iniiao oi?aaeaiey. Iie eae au
iaeeaaeuaaeenue ia nenoaio oi?aaeaiey ia?aie eaoaai?ee. *eiiaieee yoeo
o/?aaeaeaiee iacia/aeenue i?aaeoaeuenoaii, aeieaeiinoe ia i?iaeaaaeenue.

A oeaeii ath?ie?aoe/aneee iaoaieci aaniethoecia aue /?acau/aeii
neiaeiui, a?iiicaeeei; ?acaoooei io ia?iiiiai /enea iiae/an iaioaeiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee. Iiiaea i?aaiu ia eiaee /aoei i/a?/aiiie eiiiaoaioeee e
ia?aaeei aeoaee?iaaee ae?oa ae?oaa. Ana yoi niinianoaiaaei ?inoo
aieieeou, ei??oioeee e eiuo ceioiio?aaeaiee, eioi?ua a iineaaeiaa
noieaoea aaniethoecia i?eiyee iaaeaeaiiua ?aiaa ?acia?u.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao noiee no?aia ia?iiiuo n?aaenoa.

Oeaio?aeueiua i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyee niaie
?yae ?acee/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee, nicaeaiiuo a ?aciua ia?eiaeu.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao. A aai ninoaa aoiaeeee i?aaenoaaeoaee aunoae
i?eaeai?iie a?enoie?aoee e «aeai?yinoaa iaioee». Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao
i?aeoe/anee i?aa?aoeeny a aunoee niaauaoaeueiue i?aai i?e ei?iea. Aai
aeiiieiyee niaoeeaeueiua niaaou: niaao oeiainia, niaao aeaiao (niiauaiey
n iano) e o. ae.

Cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa iieo/aee n iiiiuueth ?acee/iuo oaiiaeaiiuo
nai?ia, eioi?ua niae?aeenue ia oieueei ia a?aieoeao, ii e aioo?e no?aiu.
Oioy ?acae?iaeaiiinoue O?aioeee auea eeeaeaee?iaaia, i?aaeoaeuenoai,
?oeiaiaenoaoynue aeaaiui ia?acii oeneaeueiuie niia?aaeaieyie, nio?aieei
aioo?aiiea oaiiaeie. Ia neo/aeii oiaaea aiai?eee, /oi aeaoaaea i?eaacoe
nieue ec Eeoay, /ai i?iaacoe aa aioo?e no?aiu n thaa ia naaa?.

A iieueco ei?iiu oee noaeaaiua iioeeiu e oo?aou, aeeueaeeeneea e
?aianeaiiua nai?u, au?o/ea io i?iaeaae ei?ieaaneeo ?aaaeee, o. a.
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ei?iey ia i?iecaiaenoai e i?iaeaaeo ii?aaeaeaiiiai
aeaea i?iaeoeoeee (ii?ioa, niee e o. ae.).

Noae. Iaeiia?aiaiii ooieoeeiie?iaaei ianeieueei noaeaaiuo nenoai. Auee
noaeu ei?ieaaneea, naiuei?eaeueiua, ai?iaeneea, oea?eiaiua. Noaeu
ia?aaeei aeoaee?iaaee ae?oa ae?oaa, oneeeaay yoei aieieeoo. Aaneiia/ii
oyioeenue nii?u i iiaenoaeiinoe.

A ?anniao?eaaaiia a?aiy i?iaeieaeaeinue oneeaiea ei?ieaaneeo noaeia. A
niioaaonoaee n I?eaaineei i?aeiiainii (1560 a.) e Ioeeineei i?aeiiainii
(1566 a.) ei noaei iiaenoaeii aieueoeinoai oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo
aeae. Yaeeeo 1788 a. inoaaee naiuei?eaeueiui noaeai a iaeanoe oaieiaiiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa eeoue ooieoeee i?aaiia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aeiciaiey.
Ei auee iiaenoaeiu a?aaeaeaineea aeaea n iaaieueoie noiiie enea, ii iie
iiaee ii oniio?aieth noi?ii n?aco aea ia?aaeaaaoueny a ei?ie?aneea
noaeu. Ei?ieaaneay thnoeoeey iieo/eea i?aai yaieaoeee, o. a. i?eiyoey e
naiaio ?anniio?aieth ethaiai aeaea ec iaei?ieaaneiai noaea, ia eaeie au
noaaeee noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa iii ie iaoiaeeeinue. Eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeyee iaeioi?ua oea?eiaiua aeaea.

Iaeiaei yoe ia?u ia i?eaaee e oeo/oaieth aeayoaeueiinoe noaeia, oae eae
naia no?oeoo?a ei?ieaaneie thnoeoeee auea e?aeia neiaeiie e
i?ioeai?a/eaie. Iauea ei?ieaaneea noaeu ninoiyee ec o?ao einoaioeee:
noaeia i?aaioaeueiuo, aaeueyaeiuo e noaeia ia?eaiaioia. Iniauie
i?aaiii/eyie iieueciaaeny Ia?eaeneee ia?eaiaio, a ninoaa eioi?iai
ia?yaeo n niaaoieeaie (noaeueyie ii i?ioannee) aoiaeeee 160 iy?ia
O?aioeee. I?e ?anniio?aiee iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aeae aai canaaeaiey
aicaeaaeye ei?ieue.

Ia iaiueoaa cia/aiea eiae Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, eioi?ie aue
iaeiia?aiaiii aunoei i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey e aunoei noaeii, iaaeaeaiiui
i?aaii ecuyoey ethaiai aeaea ec aaaeaiey ia?eaiaioia aeey i?iaa?ee
i?aaeeueiinoe i?eiaiaiey eie ii?i i?aaa; Ainoaea?noaaiiui niaaoii
?ac?aoaeenue nii?u i iiaenoaeiinoe.

Iiieii iaueo noaeia ooieoeeiie?iaaee noaeu niaoeeaeueiua. Oaeoe/anee
eaaeaeia aaaeiinoai eiaei naie noae, aaea ?anniao?eaaeenue aeaea,
cao?aaeaaaoea aaaeiinoaaiiua eioa?anu. Oae, noaeaaiuie ooieoeeyie auee
iaaeaeaiu N/aoiay iaeaoa, iaeaoa einaaiiuo iaeiaia, oi?aaeaiea iiiaoiiai
aeai?a. Iniaoth cia/eiinoue eiaee aiaiiua noaeu. Auee noaeu ii?neea e
oaiiaeaiiua. Aa?oeiie anae yoie noaeaaiie ie?aieaeu aue ei?ieue, eioi?ue
iia i?eiyoue e naiaio ee/iiio ?anniio?aieth eee ii?o/eoue naiaio
aeiaa?aiiiio eeoeo ethaia aeaei ethaiai noaea.

Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue eiiiaoaioeee, iaaeaeaiea noaeaaiuie ooieoeeyie
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia, iiiaicaaiiinoue thnoeoeee nicaeaaaee
aeaaii?eyoioth ii/ao aeey oea?eaoeo a noaeao i?iecaiea e aieieeou. Oii a
yoii caaeaaaee i?aaeoaeuenoai e nai ei?ieue.

Ia/eiay n i?aaeaiey ?eoaeuea a iinoiyiioth i?aeoeeo aioei aann?i/iia
oth?aiiia caoi/aiea ii i?eeaco ei?iey. Ei?iee auaeaaaee naiei
i?eaeeaeaiiui aeaiee i?eeacia, aaea ia auee oeacaiu eiaia. Iaeaaeaoaeue
oaeiai aeieoiaioa iia aienaoue oaieeeth iaoaiaeiiai aio eeoea e
oi?yoaoue aai a oth?ueio. Aeaiee i?eeacia i/aiue /anoi ieacuaaeenue a
?oeao oaai?eoia e oaai?eoie ei?iey, eioi?ua, eniieuecoy eo, naiaeeee
n/aou n iaoaiaeiuie ei eeoeaie. I?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey oaeeo i?eeacia
(«eao? aea eaoa») i?eiyea ianniaue oa?aeoa?. Ai a?aiaia ?eoaeuea eo auei
eniieueciaaii aieaa 50 oun.

A?iey. I?e aaniethoecia caaa?oeeinue nicaeaiea ?aaoey?iie a?iee. ?ino
yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia ainoaea?noaa iicaieee cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eoue aa
/eneaiiinoue e oeo/oeoue iniauaiiinoue.

A?iey ii-i?aaeiaio eiaea y?ei au?aaeaiiue nineiaiue oa?aeoa?. A
i?eioeeia i?enaiaiea ioeoea?neeo caaiee aeiioneaeinue anai ioee/eaoeiny
a aiyo iacaaeneii io eo nineiaiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Ii ia i?aeoeea
iiaeiaiua neo/ae auee e?aeia ?aaeee, a caoai oaeie ii?yaeie aiiaua
ioiaieee. A niioaaonoaee n caeiiii 1681 a. eaiaeeaeaoo ia aeieaeiinoue
ioeoea?a neaaeiaaei aeieacaoue naia aeai?yineia i?ienoiaeaeaiea ia iaiaa
/ai a /aou?ao iieieaieyo.

N?aaee caaa?aiaaiiuo a nieaeaou auei iaiaei aeaeeanne?iaaiiuo,
ioe?iaaiii oaieiaiuo yeaiaioia. Oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaeny iaai eiino?aioeaa.
Ana yoi aua aieaa oaaee/eaaei ecieyoeeth a?iee io ia?iaea. A aieineeo
/anoyo ainiiaenoaiaaea iooieythuay iooo?a. A ea/anoaa ia?u iaeacaiey
nieaeao oe?iei i?eiaiyeanue ii?ea. Eaciie?aaenoai e i?iecaie, oea?eaoea
a a?iee, yaeyeenue io?aaeaieai aeoaieiai e?ecena, ioaaoeaoaai anth
nenoaio o?aioeocneiai aaniethoecia a oeaeii. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVII a.
aianiiniaiinoue a?iee ?acei iiieceeanue.

Aaniethoeci aue iineaaeiei yoaiii a enoi?ee o?aioeocneiai oaiaeaeueiiai
ainoaea?noaa. A oiaea Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee eiioea XVIII a.
oaiaeaeeci e aai iniiaiua ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaua einoeooou auee
ieni?iaa?aioou.

5. Iniaaiiinoe noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey i?aaa ai O?aioeee

IO-OI aaeao ai O?aioeee onoaiaaeeaaaony i?eioeei oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
aeaenoaey i?aaa, o.a. ianaeaiea iiae/eiyeinue oai ii?iai i?aaa, eioi?ua
neiaeeeenue ia oa??eoi?ee aai i?iaeeaaiey.

Iiyaeaiea yoiai i?eioeeia iauyniyeinue:

1) ainiiaenoaii iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa, iainiaeaieai ioaeaeueiuo
oaiaeaeueiuo naiuei?ee;

2) nin?aaeioi/aieai a ?oeao naiuei?ia iieeoe/aneie, noaeaaiie aeanoe.

Oaeia iieiaeaiea niinianoaiaaei caiaia ieaiaiiuo iau/aaa ianoiuie
iau/ayie – eoothiaie. A ia?eiae oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe
ainoaea?noaa iau/ae yaeyeenue iniiaiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa. O?aioeey
aieioue aei eeeaeaeaoeee oaiaeaeecia ia ciaea aaeeiie i?aaiaie nenoaiu.
A caaeneiinoe io enoi/ieeia i?aaa any no?aia aeaeeeanue ia 2-a /anoe,
i?eaeeceoaeueiie a?aieoeae iaaeaeo eioi?uie yaeyaony ?aea Eao?a.
Oa??eoi?ey thaeiaa yoie a?aieoeu iacuaaeanue “no?aiie ienaiiai i?aaa”
eai ia iae aeaenoaiaaei ?eineia i?aai, i?eniiniaeaiiia iiae aeeyieai
iau/aaa e iiaui oneiaeyi, ca iei i?eciaaaeinue cia/aiea “iauaai iau/ay”.
Naaa? O?aioeee n/eoaeny no?aiie “iau/iiai i?aaa” eai oa??eoi?eaeueiua
iau/ae – eoothiu yaeyeenue iniiaiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa.

A ia?eiae oi?ie?iaaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa nineiaii
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie iiia?oee i?aaei?eieiathony iiiuoee nenoaiaoecaoeee e
caiene eoothiia.

Ethaeiaee IO i?aaeienae naie aaeuee nicaeaoue iau/ae ie?oaia,
io?aaeaeoe?iaaoue e i?eneaoue eo a ia?eaeneee ia?eaiaio.

A 1453 a. Ea?e VII i?aaeienae nia?aoue eoothiu, iaueiiaaiey, ?acee/iua
oi?ioeu, i?eiaiyaiua noaeaie, a oaeaea n iiiiuueth ciathueo ethaeae
caienaoue iau/ae e aanue iaoa?eae i?aaenoaaeoue a ia?eaiaio, eioi?ue
aeieaeai aai eco/eoue, io?aaeaeoe?iaaoue e i?aaenoaaeoue ia
ooaa?aeaeaiea ei?iey. Oaeei ia?acii, auei caienaii e iieo/eei neeo
caeiia ieiei 300 ianoiuo eoothiia e 60 aieueoeo eoothiia, o.a. iau/aaa,
aeaenoaea eioi?uo ?ani?ino?aiyeinue ia aieueoie oa??eoi?ee.

A ia?eiae aaniethoiie iiia?oee i?e Ethaeiaeea OIV auei cai?auaii
auyaeyoue a noaeao iau/ae iooai ii?ina ciathueo ethaeae e anyeia
eciaiaiea iau/aaa eee aaaaeaiea iiauo iau/aaa iiaei eiaoue oieueei ii
oeaco ei?iey. Ecaanoiu ianeieueei nai?ieeia iau/aaa, ninoaaeaiiuo a
iaioeoeeaeueiii ii?yaeea. A 1389 a. aaeuee AEae Ae.Aaeaea ninoaaee
“Aieueoie nai?iee iau/aaa O?aioeee”. Oae, ei?ieaaneee aaeuee e naiaoae
Oeeeii Aiiaioa? ninoaaee “Eoothiu Aiaace”, ioaaouaaaoea iau/ae naiaoaeia
O?aioeee.

Iaeiaei nai?ieee eoothiia, ninoaaeyaiua eae ii ei?ieaaneiio aaeaieth,
oae e a /anoiii ii?yaeea, ia nicaeaaaee iauaai i?aaa aeey anaai
ainoaea?noaa. I?aai i?iaeieaeaei nio?aiyoue naie ia?oeeoey?enoneee
oa?aeoa?.

Ia?aay aeaaa i?aaiaiai iaiyoieea cae?aieea i?eioeei i?acoiioeee
iaaeiiaiinoe, e a oi aea a?aiy iauaeoeaiiai aiaiaiey.

Aoi?ay aeaaa i?aaiaiai iaiyoieea i?aaeoniao?eaaea aii?inu
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, yaee ia noae.

Aeaaa o?aouey “Eoothiia Aiaace” cae?aieyea i?eioeei iaeacoaiinoe. Ia?a
iaeacaiey aeieaeia caaenaoue io i?inooiea, a oaeaea io oiai, eoi aai
niaa?oee e eiio iaianai oua?a.

“Eoothiu Aiaace” eiaiiaaee oaeenoai eae oiuoeaiiia aeaenoaea, iaia?aiea
niaa?oeoue oaeenoai, i?e/ai i?aaeiaia?aiii. ?acee/aeinue oaeenoai a
nni?a, oaeenoai a ninoiyiee neeueiiai aeooaaiiai aieiaiey. Auaeaeyeenue
aeaau i aeieacaoaeuenoaao e aai aeaeao.

Ienaiuie enoi/ieeaie i?aaa yaeyeenue aeou ei?ieaaneie aeanoe: oeacu,
yaeeeou, i?aeiiainu.

Ia?aiia/aeueii aeou ei?ieaaneie aeanoe eiaee ?aaeueioth neeo oieueei ia
oa??eoi?ee ei?ieaaneiai aeiiaia, ii ii ia?a oneeaiey ei?ieaaneie aeanoe
eo iauaiaycaoaeueiia cia/aiea ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia anth oa??eoi?eth
no?aiu.

A OVI aaea aicieeaao iau/ae i?aaenoaaeyoue ei?ieaaneea aeou a ia?eaeneee
ia?eaiaio n oeaeueth caianaiey eo a ?aano?, /oi auei ?aaiicia/ii eo
iioaeeeiaaieth.

Enoi/ieeii i?aaa, aiineaoei iauea ia/aea, aaeeiiia?acea a iano?oth
nenoaio iau/iiai i?aaa yaeyeinue ?eineia i?aai.

Anee ia thaa iii aunooiaei a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai enoi/ieea i?aaa, oi ia
naaa?a ainiiaenoaiaaei iau/iia i?aai.

?eineia i?aai aunooiaei a ea/anoaa iauaaeeiythuaai oaeoi?a. Ia?yaeo n
iei, a ea/anoaa aeiiieieoaeueiiai enoi/ieea aeaenoaiaaei iiiaeanoai
ianoiuo eoothiia.

Ia?yaeo n i?aeiiainaie nouanoaiaaee ?anii?yaeaiey e?oiiuo naiuei?ia,
eiaiiaaaoeony “annecaie”.

Iniaia ?acaeoea e cia/aiea ai O?aioeee iieo/eei ai?iaeneia i?aai.

Iniaia ?acaeoea a oaiaeaeueiie O?aioeee iieo/eee einoeooou oeeaeeueiiai
i?aaa: aauiia i?aai, iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia i?aai, a?a/ii-naiaeiia i?aai.

A?a/ii-naiaeiia i?aai O?aioeee ia?eiaea oaiaeaeecia ?aaoee?iaaei aii?inu
caeeth/aiey a?aea, ioiioaiey ?iaeeoaeae e aeaoae, aii?inu ?anoi?aeaiey
a?aea.

Oneiaeyie aeey anooieaiey a a?ae yaeyeenue aeinoeaeaiea a?a/iiai
aic?anoa: aeey ioae/ei – 30 eao, aeey aeaiuei – 25 eao, niaeanea
?iaeeoaeae a?a/othueony.

A?ae o?aaiaae oea?eiaiiai niaauaiey. Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie i?eciaaaeenue
a?aee iaaeaeo ?iaenoaaiieeaie e eeoeaie ia iieo/eaoeie e?auaiey,
caeeth/aiiua iiae aeeyieai iaiaia, ianeeey eee ioeaee, iiae
i?eioaeaeaieai aeooiaainoaa. Ioae ai o?aioeocneie naiuea yaeyeny aeaaie
naiuee e iie?iaeoaeai aeaiu.

A iaycaiiinoe aeaiu aoiaeeei iiaeiiaaoueny ioaeo e iianthaeo neaaeiaaoue
ca iei, iia ia eiaea i?aaa aac niaeaney ioaea niaa?oaoue th?eaee/aneea
aeaenoaey.

Ia naaa?a O?aioeee i?eciaaaeanue iauiinoue eiouanoaa a a?aea, ia thaa
?acaeaeueiue ?aaeei eiouanoaa ioaea e aeaiu.

Ia thaa O?aioeee iiae aeeyieai ?aoeaioeee ?eineiai i?aaa ioaoe naiaenoaa
inouanoaeye aeanoue iaae aeaoueie ni anae no?iainoueth. A?ae i?ae?auaeny
nia?oueth ioaea eee aeaiu, a oaeaea ?acaiaeii.

Aaeeei auei aeeyiea ii?i ?aeeaee ia ii?iu i?aaa, ?aaoee?othuea aii?inu
anooieaiey a iiaoi?iue a?ae.

Iniiaie yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee oaiaeaeueiie O?aioeee yaeyeinue i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe eae einoeooo aauiiai i?aaa.

I?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth yaeyeinue iniiaiui einoeoooii
oaiaeaeueiiai i?aaa, eai th?eaee/anee cae?aieyei nianoaaiiinoue
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna ia iniiaiia n?aaenoai i?iecaiaenoaa ia caieth.
Ai O?aioeee iii i?eiyei iaeaieaa eeanne/aneoth oi?io, naienoaaiioth
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiio oaiaeaeecio.

Oaiaeaeueiia i?aai nianoaaiiinoe oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue: a) ea?a?oe/aneie
no?oeoo?ie; a) oneiaiinoueth; a) ia?aie/aiiui oa?aeoa?ii. E?oiiia
caieaaeaaeaiea aunooiaei a oi?ia aeeiaea e aaiaoeoeey. A IO aaea
aaiaoeoeee noaiiaeony ianeaaenoaaiiui aea?aeaieai, iacaaiiui a O aaea
oaiaeii, eaiii, oaiaeii. A O-OI aaeao ?ani?ino?aiyaony eioaiaeaoeey,
o.a. ia?aaea/a aeeiaeia eo nianoaaiieeai ei?ieth, e?oiiui oaiaeaeai eee
ia?aoii a aeaea oaiaea.

Ia?yaeo n e?oiiui oaiaeaeueiui caieaaeaaeaieai, nouanoaiaaei
e?anoueyineia caieaaeaaeaiea: caieaaeaaeaiea na?aia e caieaaeaaeaiea
aeeeaiia. E?anoueyineee iaaeae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue na?ao, iaoiaeeeny a aai
aeaaeaiee e iieueciaaiee. Yoio o/anoie iaoiaeeeny a “ia?oaie ?oea” (a
ninoiyiee ieiii?oa), eai na?a ia iia niaa?oaoue n iei ieeaeeo naeaeie
aac niaeaney ainiiaea?y.

Ii iau/iiio i?aao aieioue aei OIII aaea ana eiouanoai na?aa iinea aai
nia?oe ia?aoiaeeei aai ainiiaeeio.

Caoai iaaeae noae ia?aaeaaaoueny ii ianeaaenoao i?e oneiaee oieaou
ainiiaeeio iniaiai aciina, ninoiyaoaai ec /anoe eiouanoaa, a n ?acaeoeai
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiui ioiioaiee – ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo aciinia.

Ca i?aai aeaaeaiey e iieueciaaiey iaaeaeii na?a aeieaeai aue aaeaaiaeii
ieaoeoue ainiiaeeio, ?acia? eioi?iai onoaiaaeeaaeny ii oniio?aieth
ainiiaeeia.

Iaaeaeu i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ee/ii naiaiaeiui e?anoueyiai (aeeeaiai)
?anniao?eaaeenue eae iacaaeneiia aea?aeaiea caiee io naiuei?a e
eiaiiaaeenue oeaiceaa.

Oeaiceaa – yoi ianeaaenoaaiiia aeaaeaiea caiaeueiui o/anoeii e
iaycaiiinoueth ianoe no?iai oeene?iaaiiua iau/iui i?aaii iiaeiiinoe a
iieueco naiuei?a. Iia i?aaeinoaaeyeanue eae ioaeaeueiiio eeoeo, oae e
e?anoueyineei iaueiai. O oeaiceau auei ?yae iaueo /a?o n oaiaeii: aeey
aa io/oaeaeaiey o?aaiaaeinue niaeanea naiuei?a e i?e ia?aoiaea aa ii
ianeaaenoao oiea/eaaeny ii?aaeaeaiiue iaeia; oeaiceau ioee/aeenue io
oaiaea oai, /oi e?anoueyineia aea?aeaiea ia caaiaaaei i?aa, naycaiiuo n
aea?aeaieai oaiaea, o.a. ia aeeth/aei e?anoueyieia a oaiaeaeueioth
ea?a?oe/aneoth eanoieoeo.

Anee iaeaaeaiea oaiaeii n/eoaeinue i?eaeeaaeae aeai?yinoaa, oi
iaeaaeaiea oeaiceaii n/eoaeinue i?eaeeaaeae e?anoueyinoaa.

Iau/iia oaiaeaeueiia i?aai O?aioeee ia ciaei oaeiai caiyoey, eae i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe.

Caiooaiiinoue caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee, iaoneiaeaiiay ea?a?oe/aneie
no?oeoo?ie nianoaaiiinoe, auaeaeioea ia ia?aia ianoi i?e ?anniio?aiee
nii?ia i i?aaao ia iaaeaeaeeiinoue oaeia iiiyoea, eae naceia
(aeaaeaiee).

Iiae naceaie iiieiaeinue oaeia ainiiaenoai eeoea iaae aauueth, eioi?ia,
a neo/aa aai ia?ooaiey, aeieaeii caueuaoueny a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea.

Iiiaea iau/ae iicaeiaeoaai a?aiaie i?aaeoniao?eaaee ia?aaea/o naceiu
iooai i?inoie o?aaeeoeee e ioi?ieaieai niioaaonoaothuaai aeiaiai?a eee n
caianaieai cayaeaiey i?iaeaaoea i ia?aaea/a naceiu a noaeaaiue ?aano?.
Naceia iiaea i?eia?aoaoueny a ?acoeueoaoa aeaaiinoe aeaaeaiey. A ?aiieo
eoothiao n?ie i?eia?aoaoaeueiie aeaaiinoe en/eneyeny 1 aiaeii ni aeiy
i?eia?aoaiey.

A aieaa iicaeieo eoothiao iiae aeeyieai ?eineiai i?aaa n?ie
i?eia?aoaoaeueneie aeaaiinoe oaaee/eaaaony aei 10 eao.

Iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia i?aai. A oneiaeyo ainiiaenoaa iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa
ia auei iniiau aeey ?acaeoey iaycaoaeuenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Iaeaieaa
ecaanoiui aeiaiai?ii, ii?iaeaeaaoei iaycaoaeuenoai a ?aiiee ia?eiae
oaiaeaeecia, yaeyeny aeiaiai?, onoaiaaeeaathuee ioiioaiey aannaeeoaoa
iaaeaeo naiuei?ii e aannaeii.

N ?acaeoeai oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee ia/eiaaony ?acaeoea aeiaiai?ia,
ii?iaeaeaaoeo iaycaoaeuenoaaiiua i?aaiioiioaiey.

A neo/ayo, neiaeeaoeony aei ia?aie iieiaeiu OIV aaea, aeiaiai?
eoiee-i?iaeaaee n/eoaeny caeeth/aiiui n iiiaioa oieaou, n iiiaioa
ia?aaea/e iieoiaoaeth naceiu.

Iicaea aicieeaao a?ae, niaeanii eioi?iio aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee ia
iiaeaeaeiua aaue anooiae a neeo n iiiaioa caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a,
iacaaeneii io oiai, auea ee a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aauue ia?aaeaia.
Ieii/aoaeueii oaeia iieiaeaiea auei cae?aieaii i?aeiiainii 1566 a.,
niaeanii eioi?iio aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee iaaeaeaeeiuo aauae, aeieaeai
aue niaa?oaoueny a iioa?eaeueiii ii?yaeea. Aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee
aeaeaeeiuo aauae anooiae a neeo n iiiaioa ia?aaea/e aaue.

Oaiaeaeueiia i?aai O?aioeee yaeyeinue niaie niaieoiiinoue i?aaiauo
iau/aaa (eoothiia), eioi?ua a iaaeinoaoi/iie ia?a ?aaoee?iaaee
iiiaiia?acea iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019