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История государства и права Древней Греции

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ENOI?Ess AINOAeA?NOAA E I?AAA Ae?AAIAE A?AOeEE

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Ia?eiaeecaoeey

2. Aiia?ianeay A?aoeey

3. ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia ainoaea?noai a Aoeiao

4. Aoeineia ainoaea?noai a V a. aei i. y

5. ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia ainoaea?noai a Nia?oa

6. Iniiaiua /a?ou i?aaa

1. Ia?eiaeecaoeey

Ii aeaiiui nia?aiaiiie iaoee, ia?aua ainoaea?noaaiiua ia?aciaaiey ia
oa??eoi?ee Aaeeaineiai iieoino?iaa auee ecaanoiu oaea a na?aaeeia 3-ai
oun. aei i. y. ?aiueoa eeanniaia iauanoai e ainoaea?noaaiiay
i?aaiecaoeey neiaeeeenue ia ino?iaa E?eo e a Ieeaiao. Iiyoiio ia?eiae
nicaeaiey ia?auo ainoaea?noa a A?aoeee iacuaatho e?eoi-ieeaineie
oeeaeeecaoeeae. Ii?yaeie oi?aaeaiey ia E?eoa e a Ieeaiao iaiiieiae
ainoi/iua ainoaea?noaa: oaie?aoey, aeai?oeiaay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey.
Eiiaoe e?eoi-ieeaineie oeeaeeecaoeee aue iieiaeai i?eoiaeii ia tha
A?aoeee n naaa?a ieaiai aei?eeoeaa. A ?acoeueoaoa ia anae oa??eoi?ee
A?aoeee aiiaue onoaiaaeeaathony ia?aiauoiiiaueiiua ioiioaiey, iinea
?aceiaeaiey eioi?uo a enoi?ee A?aoeee ia/eiaaony iiaue yoai:
oi?ie?iaaiea e ?anoeaao iieenia, ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneeo ioiioaiee
eeanne/aneiai oeia.

Iieeniue yoai enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee aeaeeony ia o?e ia?eiaea:

Aiia?ianeee ia?eiae (XI—IX aa. aei i. y.), oa?aeoa?ecothueeny
ainiiaenoaii ?iaeiieaiaiiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?ua ia/eiatho ?aniaaeaoueny e
eiioeo yoiai ia?eiaea.

A?oae/aneee ia?eiae (VIII—VI aa. aei i. y.), a ?aieao eioi?iai
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea eeanniaiai iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa a oi?ia
iieenia.

Eeanne/aneee ia?eiae (V—IV aa. aei i. y.) iciaiaiiaai ?anoeaaoii
ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai ainoaea?noaa, iieeniiai no?iy.

A?a/aneee iieen eae noaa?aiiia ainoaea?noai ni naiaia?aciie
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie e IV a. aei i. y.
en/a?iae naie aiciiaeiinoe e anooiee a iieino e?ecena, i?aiaeieaiea
eioi?iai auei aiciiaeii eeoue iooai nicaeaiey iiauo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
ia?aciaaiee. Eie noaee aicieeoea a eiioea IV a. aei i. y.
yeeeienoe/aneea ainoaea?noaa. Iie ia?aciaaeenue a ?acoeueoaoa caaiaaaiey
Aooeee Aeaenaiae?ii Iaeaaeiineei e aeaeueiaeoaai ?aniaaea aai «ie?iaie»
eiia?ee. Oaeei ia?acii, yeeeienoe/aneea ainoaea?noaa ni/aoaee ia/aea
a?a/aneiai iieeniiai no?iy e ae?aaiaainoi/iiai iauanoaa e ioe?uee iiaue,
aeoaiei ioee/iue io i?aaeuaeouaai iieeniiai, yoai ae?aaiaa?a/aneie
enoi?ee.

2. Aiia?ianeay A?aoeey

I?aaenoaaeaiea i aeaiiii yoaia a enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee iiaeii
ninoaaeoue ii iiyiai ecaanoiiai iiyoa «Eeeaaea» e «Iaeennay». A yoi
a?aiy ianaeaiea auei iauaaeeiaii a aeiaieueii i?eieoeaiua naeueneea
iaueiu, caieiaaoea iaaieueooth oa??eoi?eth e ii/oe eciee?iaaiiua io
ninaaeneeo iauei. Iieeoe/aneei e yeiiiie/aneei oeaio?ii iaueiu auei
iinaeaiea, iacuaaaiia ai?iaeii. Iniiaiay ianna ianaeaiey ai?iaea —
caieaaeaeueoeu, neioiaiaeu, aanueia iaiiiai/eneaiiua ?aianeaiieee e
oi?aiaoeu.

A yoi a?aiy caiey aua ninoaaeyea ieaiaiioth nianoaaiiinoue e
i?aaeinoaaeyeanue /eaiai ?iaeia oi?iaeueii eeoue a iieueciaaiea ia
oneiaeyo ia?eiaee/aneiai ia?aaeaea. Iaeiaei iaaeaeu i?aaenoaaeoaeae
ciaoiuo e aiaaouo ioee/athony ii naiei ?acia?ai e ea/anoao, a aaceeaanu
(?iaeiieaiaiiua aiaeaee) iieo/atho aua iniaue iaaeae — oaiaiin. A oi aea
a?aiy enoi/ieee iacuaatho e oaeeo e?anoueyi, o eioi?uo caiee ia auei
nianai. Aiciiaeii, /oi, ia eiay n?aaenoa aeey aaaeaiey oicyenoaa, yoe
iaueiieee ioaeaaaee naith caieth aiaaoui.

Aiia?ianeee, ia?eiae—yoi ia?eiae aiaiiie aeaiie?aoee. Ainoaea?noaa aua
ia auei, a oi?aaeaiea iauanoaii inouanoaeyeinue n iiiiuueth neaaeothueo
i?aaiia.

Iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuei i?aaiii aeanoe yaeyeny niaao noa?aeoei — aoea.
Ii yoi aue niaao ia noa?eeia, a iaeaieaa aeaeiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
?iaeiaie ciaoe. Ia?aiauoiay aeaiie?aoey aua nio?aiyeanue, e Ia?iaeiua
nia?aiey ea?aee a iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue.
I?aaiecaoeeth aicaeaaeye aaceeaan — iaeiia?aiaiii aiaia/aeueiee ieaiaie,
aa?oiaiue noaeuey e aa?oiaiue ae?aoe. Oaeoe/anee ii aeaenoaiaae
niaianoii n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?iaeiieaiaiiie ciaoe. Aeieaeiinoue
aaceeaana auea auai?iie, ii ni a?aiaiai i?e aa caiauaiee noaee
ioaeaaaoue i?aaeii/oaiea nuio oia?oaai aaceeaana, e aeieaeiinoue
cae?aieeanue eae ianeaaenoaaiiay.

Oaeei ia?acii, aiia?ianeay A?aoeey auea ?acae?iaeaia ia iiiaeanoai
iaeeeo naiioi?aaeythueony ie?oaia; eiaiii ec ieo aiineaaenoaee
ia?aciaaeenue ia?aua ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa — iieenu.

Enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea Ae?aaiae A?aoeee ia ?oaaaea IX—VIII aa. aei i. y.
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeoaieeie eciaiaieyie. Ia niaio ?iaeiaiio no?ith
i?eoiaeeo ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneee, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?acaeoeai einoeoooa
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Iiiaea ?yaeiaua caieaaeaeueoeu eeoathony naieo
iaaeaeia, eioi?ua nin?aaeioi/eaathony a ?oeao ?iaeiaie ciaoe.
Oi?ie?oaony e?oiiia caieaaeaaeaiea. Ii?iaeaeaaony aeieaiaay eaaaea.
?acaeoea ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaee onei?yei i?ioeann
nioeeaeueii-eiouanoaaiiiai ?anneiaiey.

Ae?aaiyy iaueiiay i?aaiecaoeey, nio?aiyaoay e?iaii?iaenoaaiiua nayce
iaaeaeo naieie /eaiaie, ia?anoaao ioaa/aoue iio?aaiinoyi a?aiaie.
Iianthaeo a A?aoeee VIII—VI aa. aei i. y. i?ienoiaeeo neeyiea
ianeieueeeo iaeeeo ?aiaa iainiaeaiiuo iauei, ?aniieiaeaiiuo iiaeecinoe
ae?oa io ae?oaa (neiieeeci). Ae?aaiea oi?iu iauaaeeiaiey ?iaeia — oeeu e
o?ao?ee — aua iaeioi?ia a?aiy i?iaeieaeatho nio?aiyoue naia cia/aiea a
yoeo iauaaeeiaieyo, ii anei?a onooiatho ianoi iiaui aeaeaieyi,
iniiaaiiui ia eiouanoaaiiuo e oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?eciaeao. Oae, ia aaca
?iaeiauo e naeueneeo iauei aicieeee iiaua nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea
i?aaieciu — iieenu. Ia?aciaaiea ?aiia?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai iauanoaa e
ainoaea?noaa a oi?ia iieeniiai no?iy ninoaaeyao niaea?aeaiea
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey Ae?aaiae A?aoeee a a?oae/aneee ia?eiae.

A enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee aaaeioth ?ieue nua?aee aeaa iieena: . Aoeiu e
Nia?oa. I?e yoii ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie Aoei iiaeii iacaaoue i?eia?ii
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie aeaiie?aoee, a oi a?aiy eae yoaeiiii ieeaa?oee noaea
iieeoe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey Nia?ou.

3. ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia ainoaea?noai a Aoeiao

?aoi?iu Oacay. Ia?aciaaiea Aoeineiai ainoaea?noaa eaaaiaea naycuaaao n
eiaiai a?a/aneiai aa?iy Oacay. N?aaee ia?ii?eyoee, inouanoaeaiiuo Oacaai
e iiaeaeoeo ia?aciaaiea ainoaea?noaa, ia?aui auei iauaaeeiaiea o?ao
ieaiai n oeaio?ii a Aoeiao. Aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa iaueie aeaeaie iiaiai
ia?aciaaiey aue nicaeai niaao, e eioi?iio ia?aoea /anoue aeae,
iaoiaeeaoeony ?aiaa a aaaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo ieaiai.

Neaaeothuea i?aia?aciaaiey au?aceeenue a ioi?ieaiee iainiaeaiiuo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. ?iaeiaay ciaoue, ieii/aoaeueii cae?aieaoay ca niaie
i?eaeeaaee, nicaeaea iniaoth a?oiio ianaeaiey — yaiao?eaeia, eioi?ui
auei i?aaeinoaaeaii eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia caiauaiea aeieaeiinoae.
Aieueooth /anoue ianaeaiey ninoaaeyee aaiii?u (caieaaeaeueoeu),
auaeaeyeanue a?oiia ?aianeaiieeia — aeaieo?aia. Cia/eoaeueioth /anoue
ianaeaiey ninoaaeyee iaoaee — auoiaeoeu ec ae?oaeo iauei, i?iaeeaathuea
a Aoeiao. Aoaeo/e ee/ii naiaiaeiuie, iie ia iieueciaaeenue iieeoe/aneeie
i?aaaie e auee ia?aie/aiu a yeiiiie/aneeo i?aaao (ei cai?auaeinue
aeaaeaoue caieae ia oa??eoi?ee Aooeee e eiaoue nianoaaiiua aeiia, e?iia
oiai, iie auiea/eaaee iniaue iaeia).

Oeacaiiua i?aia?aciaaiey yaeyeenue ia?auie oaaaie e nicaeaieth Aoeineiai
ainoaea?noaa. Aaconeiaii, yoi auee iinoaiaiiua e aeeeoaeueiua i?ioeannu.

A?oiiou e a?aiiaa. Neaaeothuei oaaii e ia?aciaaieth ainoaea?noaa auei
oie/oiaeaiea aeanoe aaceeaana a aa i?aaeiai cia/aiee e o/?aaeaeaiea
iiaie aeieaeiinoe — a?oiioa. Aia/aea a?oiiou ecae?aeenue iiaeeciaiii,
caoai ia 10 eao. N 683 a. aei i. y. aaeaaiaeii noaee ecae?aoue 9
a?oiioia. Iaeei ec ieo — ia?aue a?oiio, ii eiaie eioi?iai iacuaaeny
aiae, noiye ai aeaaa eieeaaee e eiae iieiiii/ey ii iaaeci?o ca
aioo?aiiei oi?aaeaieai e noaeaaiua iieiiii/ey ii naiaeiui aeaeai.
Aaceeaan, noaaoee aoi?ui a?oiioii, eniieiye ae?a/aneea, a oaeaea
noaeaaiua ooieoeee ii ?aeeaeiciui aeaeai. E o?aoueaio a?oiioo —
iieeia?oo ioioea aiaiiay aeanoue. Inoaeueiua oanoue a?oiioia-oaniioaoia
auiieiyee aeaaiui ia?acii noaeaaiua ooieoeee.

Ii ieii/aiee n?iea iieiiii/ee a?oiiou anooiaee a a?aiiaa — aunoee
ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, caiaieaoee niaao noa?aeoei. A?aiiaa aue
o?aieoaeai o?aaeeoeee, aunoei noaeaaiui e eiio?iee?othuei i?aaiii.
A?oiioaie e /eaiaie a?aiiaaa iiaee auoue oieueei yaiao?eaeu. Oaeei
ia?acii, yoi auee a?enoie?aoe/aneea o/?aaeaeaiey.

Iicaeiaa, n ia?aciaaieai oeioa, no?aia auea ?acaeoa ia iaaieueoea
oa??eoi?eaeueiua ie?oaa — iaoe?a?ee, ec eioi?uo eaaeaeay aeieaeia auea
nia?yaeaoue iaeei ei?aaeue aeey oeioa. Ai aeaaa iaoe?a?ee noiye i?eoai.
Oaeei ia?acii, i?ienoiaeeo aeaeaiea ianaeaiey ii oa??eoi?eaeueiiio
i?eciaeo e aicieeaao iiaue i?aai aeanoe, ia naycaiiue n ?iaeiieaiaiiie
i?aaiecaoeeae.

Eoae, a?oae/aneee ia?eiae iciaiaiiaai nicaeaieai Aoeineiai ainoaea?noaa.
Yoio i?ioeann nii?iaiaeaeaeny ?inoii i?ioeai?a/ee eae yeiiiie/aneiai,
oae e iieeoe/aneiai ii?yaeea. E VII a. aei i. y. a Aoeiao oi?i/eeanue
aeanoue ?iaeiaie a?enoie?aoee. Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea neieueei-ieaoaeue
caiaoiie ?iee ia ea?aei. Ana aaaeiaeoea aii?inu ?aoaee eieeaaey a?oiioia
e a?aiiaa. Eo/oea e aieueoea iaaeaeu caiee auee nin?aaeioi/aiu a ?oeao
a?enoie?aoee. Iiiaea e?anoueyia iiiaee a caaeneiinoue io e?oiiuo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa. Iauanoai ?aneieieinue ia a?enoie?aoeth e aeaiin
(ethaeae iaciaoiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey), n?aaee eioi?uo auei iaiaei ethaeae
ninoiyoaeueiuo: aiaaouo noaeiaeaaeaeueoeaa, nianoaaiieeia ?aianeaiiuo
ianoa?neeo, oi?aiaoeaa, aaiee?ia. Eeoaiiua iieeoe/aneeo i?aa, iie
ia/eiatho ai?ueao ca o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth
iauanoaaiiiai ie?a, e, eiaaea aanii?yaeee caoiaeyo neeoeii aeaeaei,
iacia/aaony oe?ai, iaeaaeathuee anae iieiioie aeanoe. Oae, a 621 a. aei
i. y. oe?aiii aue i?iaicaeaoai Ae?aeiio, i?ineaaeaoeeny naieie
aeanoieeie caeiiaie. Caienue Ae?aeiioii iau/iiai i?aaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
ia onooiea ni noi?iiu a?enoie?aoee, eniieueciaaaoae iaienaiia i?aai a
naieo eioa?anao.

E ia/aeo VI a. aei i. y. i?ioeai?a/ey a iauanoaa caoee oae aeaeaei, /oi
aicieeea oa?ica a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. A yoeo oneiaeyo a 594 a. aei i. y.
a?oiioii-iieaia?oii ecae?aaony Nieii. Ii i?ienoiaeee ec ciaoiiai, ii
iaaaeiaaoaai ?iaea. Caieiaynue oeaaiie oi?aiaeae, Nieii iaaeee
cia/eoaeueiia ninoiyiea. Oaeei ia?acii, yoio /aeiaae aue aeecie e e
a?enoie?aoee (ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth), e e aeaiino (ii ?iaeo
caiyoee). Oa e ae?oaea aiceaaaee ia iaai naie iaaeaaeaeu.

?aoi?iu Nieiia. Nieii iieo/ee /?acau/aeiua iieiiii/ey ii eciaiaieth
nouanoaothuaai ii?yaeea.

Ia?aie e naiie e?oiiie ?aoi?iie Nieiia auea nenaooey («no?yoeaaiea
a?aiaie»). Iia inaiaiaeeea ianno aeieaeieeia, eioi?uo a Aooeea auei a
aieueoii eiee/anoaa. E?iia oiai, ai?aaeue cai?auaeenue ee/iay eaaaea,
i?iaeaaea ianinoiyoaeueiuo aeieaeieeia ca aeieae a ?aanoai. Aeieaeieee,
i?iaeaiiua a ?aanoai ca i?aaeaeu Aooeee, aeieaeiu auee auoue aueoieaiu
ca iauanoaaiiue n/ao e aica?auaiu ia ?iaeeio. Enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea
ioiaiu aeieaiaie eaaaeu caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
?aanoaa i?ienoiaeeei oaea ia ca n/ao nie?auaiey /enea naiaiaeiuo /eaiia
iauanoaa, /oi iiae?uaaei iniiau aai nioeeaeueiie e yeiiiie/aneie aeecie,
a ca n/ao aaica ?aaia-eiicaioeaa.

A aeiiieiaiea e nenaooee Nieii ecaeae caeii, ia?aie/eaathuee
caieaaeaaeaiea (aue onoaiiaeai iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? caiaeueiuo
o/anoeia). A oi aea a?aiy i?iaicaeaoaeanue naiaiaea caaauaiee. Oaia?ue
caieth iiaeii auei caeeaaeuaaoue e io/oaeaeaoue ia caeiiiii iniiaaiee
iiae aeaeii caaauaiey. Yoi niinianoaiaaei ?acaeoeth /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeei e aeaeueiaeoaio
iaaccaiaeeaaieth aaaeiiou.

Nieii inouanoaee ?yae ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oeo/oaiea
iaoa?eaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aeaiina: aue ?ac?aoai auaic ieeaeiaiai ianea
ca a?aieoeo e cai?auai auaic oeaaa, iiiu?yeinue ?acaeoea ?aianea,
i?iaaaeaia aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia.

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi n?aaee i?aia?aciaaiee Nieiia caieiatho iieeoe/aneea
?aoi?iu, eioi?ua iaianee aua iaeei oaea? ?iaeiaiio no?ith. Aaaeiaeoae ec
ieo yaeyaony oeiie?aoe/aneay, eee oeaiciaay, ?aoi?ia. Ana aoeineea
a?aaeaeaia iacaaeneii io i?ienoiae-, aeaiey auee ?acaeaeaiu ii
eiouanoaaiiiio iieiaeaieth ia /aou?a ?ac?yaea. A ea/anoaa aaeeieoeu
aeioiaeia auea i?eiyoa ia?a aieinoe, i?eiaiyaoayny aeey ca?ia,— iaaeeii
(52,5 ea).

Anyeee, eoi ni naiae caiee iieo/ae 500 iaaeeiiia a niaieoiiinoe nooeo e
aeeaeeeo i?iaeoeoia, aue ioianai e ia?aiio ?ac?yaeo —
iaioaeineiiaaeeiiia (iyoenioieeia); iieo/athuea 300 iaaeeiiia aiaeiaiai
aeioiaea eee niiniaiua niaea?aeaoue aiaaiai eiiy, ioiineeenue e
anaaeieeai. E ?ac?yaeo caaaeoia i?eiaaeeaaeaee oa, eoi iieo/ae 200
iaaeeiiia aiaeiaiai aeioiaea. Caaaeou (e?anoueyia) auee naiie
iiiai/eneaiiie a?oiiie. Iie ninoaaeyee iniiao aoeineiai iiie/aiey. Ana
inoaeueiua auee ioianaiu e oaoai. Yoa ?aoi?ia caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieea
oaea neiaeeaoaany e oiio a?aiaie ?acaeaeaiea iauanoaa.

Aeaeaiea ianaeaiey ia ?ac?yaeu ii eiouanoaaiiiio i?eciaeo eiaei
iieeoe/aneia cia/aiea, iineieueeo eaaeaeiio ?ac?yaeo i?aaeinoaaeyeny
ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue iieeoe/aneeo i?aa. A iaeaieaa iieiii iauaia
iieeoe/aneea i?aaa eiaee i?aaenoaaeoaee ia?aiai ?ac?yaea: iie iiaee
caieiaoue ethaoth aeieaeiinoue. Anaaeieee e caaaeou ia iiaee ecae?aoueny
a a?oiiou. Oaou iaeaaeaee oieueei i?aaii ecae?aoue aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe a
Ia?iaeiii nia?aiee, ii naie ia iiaee auoue eca?aiu. I?iii?oeeiiaeueii
i?aaai ?ani?aaeaeyeenue e iaycaiiinoe. Aue onoaiiaeai iaeia n aiaeiaiai
aeioiaea. *ai auoa aue eeann, oai aieaa aunieee iaeia oiea/eaaeny a
ainoaea?noaaiioth eacio. Oaou io iaeiaa auee inaiaiaeaeaiu.

Nieii nio?aiee aeaeaiea aoeineiai iauanoaa ia /aou?a ieaiaie — oeeu e
nicaeae ia aaca yoiai aeaeaiey iiaue ainoaea?noaaiiue i?aai — Niaao
/aou?aonio. Ii ecae?aeny aaeaaiaeii ec a?aaeaeai ia?auo o?ao ?ac?yaeia
ii 100 /aeiaae io eaaeaeiai ieaiaie. Niaao /aou?aonio ?oeiaiaeee
iiaeaioiaeie aeae aeey ianoaeaeaiey Ia?iaeiui nia?aieai, ?anniao?eaae
iaeioi?ua oaeouea aeaea oi?aaeaiey. Aeayoaeueiinoue Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey
aeoeaece?oaony; iii ianoaeaeaei ana aaaeiua ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea,
i?eieiaei caeiiu. A aai ?aaioa iiaee i?eieiaoue o/anoea ana ac?ineua
aoeineea a?aaeaeaia. Nieii nio?aiee a?aiiaa — iieio ?iaeiaie
a?enoie?aoee, eioi?ue eiae i?aai iaaeci?a ca niaethaeaieai caeiiia e
eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey.

Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaei nicaeaiea Nieiiii iienoeia aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
i?aaia — aaeeye. Ia?aiia/aeueii yoi aue noae i?enyaeiuo, /eaiaie
eioi?iai iiaee auoue a?aaeaeaia anao /aou?ao ?ac?yaeia. Ni a?aiaiai
iieiiii/ey aaeeye aoaeoo ?anoe?aiu, e iia noaiao naiui ianniaui e
aaaeiui iieeoe/aneei i?aaiii.

Ii iiaieth nia?aiaiieeia, ?aoi?iu Nieiia iineee iieiaei/aoue,
eiii?iienniue oa?aeoa?. Ie aeaiin, ie yaiao?eaeu ia auee eie
oaeiaeaoai?aiu. Nai Nieii, ioeaieaay nianoaaiiua ?aoi?iu, ooaa?aeaeae,
/oi «a yoeo aaeeeeo aeaeao o?oaeii anai oaiaeeoue».

Naaiaeiy, ioeaieaay ?aoi?iu Nieiia, ioaeii ioiaoeoue eo aaaeioth ?ieue a
noaiiaeaiee Aoeineiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa.

Oe?aiey Ieneno?aoa. Iinea 22 eao i?aaeaiey Nieii iieeioe naie iino e,
ca?o/eaoenue eeyoaie aoeiyi, /oi iie a oa/aiea 10 eao ia eciaiyo aai
caeiiu, ioaue ec Aoei. Iinea aai iouacaea aiciaiiaeeanue iieeoe/aneay
ai?ueaa. A?enoie?aoey ia iiaea nie?eoueny n aeiioneii e aeanoe ethaeae
oioy e aiaaouo, ii ia ciaoiuo. Aua aei i?eoiaea e aeanoe Nieiia a Aoeiao
neiaeeeenue o?e naiinoiyoaeueiua iieeoe/aneea ia?oee: i?ea?aaeiua —
aeeth/aee noaeiaeaaeaeueoeaa, oi?aiaoeaa, ii?oiaia ianaeaiea; ai?iua —
e?anoueyia e iaaiiua ?aai/ea; ?aaieiiua — aiaaoua caieaaeaaeaeueoeu.
Iacaaiey ii?aaeaeyee ianoa i?iaeeaaiey. Iinea ooiaea n iieeoe/aneie
a?aiu Nieiia noa?ua ia?oee aiciaiiaeee ai?ueao. Ai aeaaa ai?iuo noae
Ieneno?ao — a?enoie?ao ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth. Iicaeiaa aio oaeaeinue
i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio e i?ea?aaeiuo. Yoi iauaaeeiaiiia aeaeaeaiea
aeaoo a?oiie?iaie iicaeiaa aoaeao iacaaii aeaiie?aoe/aneei. Iie?aynue ia
aeaiin, Ieneno?aoo oaeaeinue ooaa?aeeoue naith aeanoue e noaoue oe?aiii
ia 19 eao.

Ieneno?ao nio?aiee nieiiianeoth Eiinoeoooeeth. Ana i?aaiu aeaenoaiaaee
ii-i?aaeiaio. Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea Ieneno?aoa aeaaii?eyonoaiaaea
eeanno iaeeeo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa: aaaeiyeai ?acaeaaaeanue caiey
ainoaea?noaaiiay e ecaiaiiuo a?enoie?aoia, i?aaieciauaaeenue
iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou, e?anoueyiai aeaaaeny aeaoaaue e?aaeeo, aue aaaaeai
einoeooo ?acuacaeiuo noaeae, caeeth/aeenue oi?aiaua aeiaiai?u ni iiiaeie
ainoaea?noaaie. Ieneno?aoii aue aaaaeai iinoiyiiue iiaeioiaeiue iaeia,
eioi?ue ninoaaeye 10% o?iaeay, a caoai aue nieaeai aei 5%. A oeaeii
iieeoeea Ieneno?aoa ieacaea iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
aoeineiai iauanoaa, iineieueeo auea iai?aaeaia ia iiaeaea?aeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ii?yaeea, nioeeaeueiiai niieienoaey, noeioee?iaaea
yeiiiie/aneee e eoeueoo?iue i?ia?ann.

Iinea nia?oe Ieneno?aoa aeanoue ia?aoea e aai nuiiaueyi, i?iaeieaeeaoei
iieeoeeo iooea. Iaeiaei iono?aiaiiua io aeanoe a?enoie?aou, eae
ecaiaiiua ec Aoei, oae e inoaaoeany a ieo, ia inoaaeyee iunee i
naa?aeaiee oe?aiee. A eiioea VI a. aei i. y. neiaeeeanue iaaeaaii?eyoiay
aeey Aoei aiaoiyy ianoaiiaea. Iia e niinianoaiaaea ?aaeecaoeee
i/a?aaeiiai caaiai?a e iaaeaieth ?aaeeia Ieneno?aoia.

?aoi?iu Eeenoaia. Ia i?iaaaeaiiuo auai?ao aeaaiui a?oiioii aue eca?ai
Enaai? — i?aaenoaaeoaeue a?enoie?aoee. I?iea?aaoee aio Eeenoai, iiiai
naeaeaaoee aeey iaaeaiey oe?aiee Ieneno?aoia, iiaeiye ia?iae ia
ainnoaiea, ieceiaeee Enaai?a e i?enooiee e ooaa?aeaeaieth aeaiie?aoee. N
yoiai a?aiaie ia/eiaaony iiaaaeiia oanoaea aoeineie aeaiie?aoee. Iaeiaei
nioeeaeueiay aaca aa iinoaiaiii noaeaaony. Ca a?aiy i?aaeaiey Ieneno?aoa
eeann iaeeeo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa ie?ai e noae iooiaeeoue io iieeoeee.
Oaia?ue aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey aeeth/aea aeaaiui ia?acii i?ea?aaeiuo.
E?iia oiai, aeaiin ii-i?aaeiaio eniuouaae ia naaa aeaaeaiea
a?enoie?aoee, iineieueeo nia?aiey i?ienoiaeeee ii ?iaeiaui oeeai.
?iaeiaay i?aaiecaoeey iauaaeeiyea eeoe, ?aciuo ii naiaio nioeeaeueiiio
iieiaeaieth e eiathueo niaa?oaiii ?aciua eioa?anu. Eeenoai iinoaaee
caaea/o ?ac?ooeoue yoe nayce, ecaaaeoue aeaiin io eaeiai-eeai aeeyiey ni
noi?iiu a?enoie?aoia. E?iia oiai, ii eiae a aeaeo ?ac?ooaiea e noa?uo
iieeoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie. Yoe caaea/e auee ?aoaiu aaaaeaieai iiaiai
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aeaeaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa ?aoi?iu Aooeea auea iiaeaeaia
ia o?e oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ie?oaa: ai?iae Aoeia n i?eai?iaeaie, aioo?aiiyy
oeaio?aeueiay iieina e aa?aaiaay iieina. Eaaeaeue ie?oa ninoiye ec 10
?aaiuo /anoae — o?eooee (anaai ian/eouaaeinue 30 o?eooee). O?e o?eooee,
ii iaeiie ec eaaeaeiai ie?oaa, iauaaeeiyeenue a oeeo, e oaeei ia?acii
auei nicaeaii 10 oa??eoi?eaeueiuo oee. Naiuie iaeeeie aaeeieoeaie auee
aeaiu, ia eioi?ua ?aniaaeaeenue o?eooee. Eaaeaeay oeea aeeth/aea
ai?iaeneea, i?ea?aaeiua, naeueneea aeaiu. Auai?u oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia
oi?aaeaiey i?ienoiaeeee ii oeeai. I?aaiecaoeey iiauo oee ono?aieea
anyeia cia/aiea ?iaeiieaiaiiiai aeaeaiey aeey ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee e i?aaeii?aaeaeeea caiaio Niaaoa /aou?aonio ia Niaao
iyoenio (ii 50 /aeiaae io eaaeaeie oeeu).

A aeaiao aeaenoaiaaea nenoaia naiioi?aaeaiey. Ai aeaaa aeaia noiye
auai?iue noa?inoa, eioi?ue nicuaae nia?aiea a?aaeaeai aeaia e ?oeiaiaeee
yoei nia?aieai, eniieiye ?aoaiey nia?aiey, caaaaeiaae ianoiie eannie e
niae?ae ?acee/iua aciinu, ii enoa/aiee n?iea iieiiii/ee (1 aiae)
io/eouaaeny ia?aae nia?aieai. Nienee a?aaeaeai ninoaaeyeenue ii aeaiai.
Oaeei ia?acii, naiaiaeiua /oaeano?aioeu, i?iaeeaathuea ia oa??eoi?ee
oiai eee eiiai aeaia, aaoiiaoe/anee noaiiaeeenue a?aaeaeaiaie Aoei.
Aeaiie?aoey i?eia?aea iiaoth iii?o, ?anoe?eea naith aaco ca n/ao iaoaeia
— /oaeacaioeaa, i?iaeeaaaoeo a Aoeiao.

Eeenoaiii aue nicaeai iiaue i?aai — eieeaaey no?aoaaia, a eioi?oth
aoiaeeei ii iaeiiio i?aaenoaaeoaeth io eaaeaeie oeeu.

Aeey oiai /oiau nio?aieoue iiaue ii?yaeie io iieooaiee ia iaai ni
noi?iiu a?aaia, auea aaaaeaia oaeay ia?a, eae ino?aeeci («noae
/a?aieia») — ecaiaiea ioaeaeueiuo a?aaeaeai, ii?aaeaeaiiuo iooai oaeiiai
aieiniaaiey. I?e yoii eaaeaeue, eiathuee i?aai aieina, ienae ia /a?aiea
eiy /aeiaaea, eacaaoaainy aio iianiui aeey ia?iaea. Anee eiy iaeiiai
/aeiaaea iiaoi?yeinue 6 ouny/ ?ac, oi iineoaeue yoiai eiaie iiaeaa?aaeny
ecaiaieth n?ieii ia 10 eao aac eiioeneaoeee eiouanoaa. A aeaeueiaeoai
ino?aeeci oe?iei i?eiaiyeny a iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaa.

?aoi?iu Eeenoaia auee aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiu, /ai ?aoi?iu Nieiia, e
caaa?oeee aeeeaoeeny aieaa /ai noieaoea ia?eiae ai?ueau iaaeaeo ?iaeiaie
a?enoie?aoeae e aeaiinii, caeii/eaoaeny iiaaaeie iineaaeiaai. A
?acoeueoaoa a Aoeiao neiaeeeinue ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia ainoaea?noai a
oi?ia aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee.

4. Aoeineia ainoaea?noai a V a. aei i. y.

Aoeineee ii?neie nithc. Iyoue aae aei i. y. ia/aeny a?aei-ia?neaeneeie
aieiaie. Eiia?ey Aoaiaieaeia, naiia e?oiiia e neeueiia ainoaea?noai oiai
a?aiaie, oa?iaeaea naiiio nouanoaiaaieth a?a/aneeo iieenia. Aieueoia
cia/aiea aeey iiaaaeu iaae ia?naie e i?aa?auaiey Aoei a ii?neoth
aea?aeaao nua?aee ii?neay e oeiainiaay ?aoi?iu a?oiioa Oaienoieea. Ai
a?aiaia aai i?aaeaiey (a ia/aea V a. aei i. y.) aue iieo/ai aieueoie
aeioiae io na?aa?yiuo ?oaeieeia. Iau/ii yoe n?aaenoaa ?ani?aaeaeyeenue
iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie. Oaienoiee i?aaeeiaeee yoe aeaiueae ia?aaeaoue
ainoaea?noao aeey iino?ieee ei?aaeae. Oae auei iieiaeaii ia/aei
aoeineiio athaeaeaoo e e?oiiiio aiaiiiio oeioo.

Iiaaaea iaae ia?naie noaea aiciiaeia oaeaea aeaaiaea?y iauaaeeiaieth
a?a/aneeo iieenia. I?aaenoaaeoaee ?yaea a?a/aneeo ai?iaeia ia ino?iaa
Aeaein caeeth/eee nithc, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea Aeaeinneiai aiaiiiai
nithca. Auea o/?aaeaeaia aaeeiay eacia, nicaeaiu aaeeiua nooiiooiua neeu
e oeio. Aeaeaie Nithca oi?aaeye niaao ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae anao ai?iaeia —
/eaiia Nithca. Aanueia nei?i iaicia/eeinue aeaaainoai Aoei a yoii
Nithca, iiyoiio ii iieo/ee iacaaiea Ia?aiai Aoeineiai ii?neiai nithca.

Iinoaiaiii o/anoea ae?oaeo ai?iaeia a aeaeao Nithca ia?aie/eeinue
aianaieai ii?aaeaeaiiiai aciina. Yoe n?aaenoaa ia?aaeaaaeenue aoeiyiai,
eioi?ua oi?ie?iaaee nooiiooiia aienei e oeio. Aoeiyia iaea?aeaee iaae
ia?naie ?yae aeanoyueo iiaaae, /oi oneeeei eo iiuue e iaania/eei
aaaeouoth ?ieue a Nithca. Aoeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaee aeaiie?aoe/aneea
ii?yaeee e a nithciuo iieenao. A ai?iaeao, aoiaeeaoeo a Aoeineee ii?neie
nithc, nouanoaiaaee iaeeiaeiaua nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.

A 454 a. aei i. y. ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Aoeiaie e eo nithcieeaie
oooaeoeeenue. Iauay eacia, o?aieaoayny i?aaeaea ia ino?iaa Aeaein, auea
ia?aianaia a Aoeiu e noaea /anoueth nianoaaiii aoeineie eaciu. Aoeiu
noaee o?aoeoue nithcie/aneea aeaiueae ia nianoaaiiua ioaeaeu, ia
n/eoaynue n iiaieai nithcieeia, iineaaeiea, ii nooe aeaea i?aa?aoeeenue
a iiaeaeaiiuo Aoei. Iaeioi?ua /eaiu Nithca aunooiaee i?ioea aaaaiiiee
Aoei, ii yoe ainnoaiey auee iiaeaaeaiu.

A 449 a. aei i. y. aue caeeth/ai iiaaaeiue aeey a?aeia Eaeeeaa ie?,
iieiaeeaoee eiiaoe a?aei-ia?neaeneei aieiai. Oaeei ia?acii, Aoeineee
ii?neie nithc auiieiee noiyaooth ia?aae iei aiaiioth caaea/o. Ii Nithc
ia ia?aie/eaaeny aiaiiuie caaea/aie. Yoi auei iauaaeeiaiea ia oieueei
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneia, ii e yeiiiie/aneia, a /anoiinoe, a ?aieao Nithca
oniaoii ?acaeaaeanue oi?aiaey.

A 412 a. aei i. y. ?yae ai?iaeia auoae ec Aoeineiai ii?neiai nithca.
*oiau ia aeiionoeoue aai iieiiai ?aniaaea, Aoeiu i?eiyee ?yae ia?:
iaeioi?ua ai?iaea iieo/eee aaoiiiieth, aue ioiaiai iaycaoaeueiue aciin a
iauoth eacio, ii yoi iaiaaeieai i?iaeeeei aeeciue Nithca. Ii?aaeaiea
Aoei a Iaeiiiiianneie aieia i?eaaei e i?ae?auaieth nouanoaiaaiey Ia?aiai
Aoeineiai ii?neiai nithca.

Iaeiiiiianneay aieia, ii?aaeaeeaoay aioo?eiieeoe/aneia ?acaeoea A?aoeee
ai aoi?ie iieiaeia V a. aei i. y.,— yoi aieia aeaoo nithcia: Aoeineiai
ii?neiai e Iaeiiiiianneiai, aicaeaaeyaiiai Nia?oie. Anee Aoeiu auee
neiaieii aeaiie?aoee, oi Nia?oa ieeoeaoai?yea ainiiaenoai a?enoie?aoee.
?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo aeaoiy e?oiiaeoeie a?a/aneeie ainoaea?noaaie
eanaeenue e yeiiiie/aneeo, e iieeoe/aneeo, e nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai.
Iaeiiiiianneay aieia, iaeia ec naiuo e?iaii?ieeoiuo aiei ia a?a/aneie
caiea, caaa?oeeanue iiaaaeie Nia?ou. Yoi iaania/eei aa aaaaiiieth n?aaee
a?a/aneeo ainoaea?noa. N oeaeueth i?ioeainoiyiey Nia?oa a 378 a. aei i.
y. aue nicaeai Aoi?ie Aoeineee ii?neie nithc. *eaiu yoiai Nithca
nio?aiyee naith aaoiiiieth e ia aeia?iaieueiuo ia/aeao aeaeaee aciinu a
iauoth eacio. I?aaiii oi?aaeaiey Nithca yaeyeinue nia?aiea, a eioi?ii
eaaeaeue ai?iae eiae iaeei aiein. Ooaa-eaa?oe?a nia?aiey auea a Aoeiao.
Aoeiu acyee ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai ia aiaoeaaoueny ai aioo?aiiea aeaea
nithcieeia. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaue Nithc aue iino?iai ia ia/aeao
?aaainoaa.

A 60—50-a aa. IV a. aei i. y. Aoi?ie Aoeineee ii?neie nithc noae e?oiiie
iieeoe/aneie neeie a A?aoeee, ii Aoeiu aiiaue i?aaei?eiyee iiiuoeo
aic?iaeeoue naia ainiiaenoai a Nithca. Yoi i?eaaei e Nithcie/aneie
aieia, e ana iiiuoee Aoei iiaeaaeoue ainnoaiey naieo nithcieeia
iioa?iaee iaoaea/o. Aoi?ie Aoeineee ii?neie nithc ?aniaeny.

?aoi?iu Oaienoieea, Yoeaeueoa, Ia?eeea ii aeaeueiaeoae aeaiie?aoecaoeee
Aoeineiai ainoaea?noaa. A ia/aea V a. aei i. y. ii i?aaeeiaeaieth
Oaienoieea, noiyaoaai ai aeaaa aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, i?yiua
auai?u eieeaaee a?oiioia auee caiaiaiu aea?aaueaaeie. I?aai auoue
eca?aiiuie a a?oiiou iieo/eee anaaeieee. Caaaeou auee aeiiouaiu e yoie
aeieaeiinoe a 457 a. aei i. y. Aeaiiay ?aoi?ia auea naycaia n
aicauoaieai a ia?eiae aiei eieeaaee no?aoaaia. Cia/aiea eieeaaee
a?oiioia auei i?eieaeaii, iia oo?aoeea naie a?enoie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Aaeeinoaaiiui i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui i?aaiii inoaaaeny a?aiiaa, e
ieeaa?oe/aneay ia?oey iuoaeanue eniieueciaaoue aai aeey oe?aieaiey naieo
iiceoeee. *oiau ineaaeoue yoio i?aai, Yoeaeueo aicaoaeee aeaei i
ei??oioeee iaeioi?uo /eaiia a?aiiaaa. Oaeou iiaeoaa?aeeeenue, e
Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea a 462 a. aei i. y. i?eiyei caeii i eeoaiee a?aiiaaa
iieeoe/aneie aeanoe. I?aai aaoi ia iinoaiiaeaiey Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey
auei ia?aaeaii aaeeya, i?aai eiio?iey ca aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie e
iaaeci?a ca eniieiaieai caeiiia ia?aoei e Niaaoo iyoenio e Ia?iaeiiio
nia?aieth, ii aeaaiui ia?acii e aaeeya.

Yoeaeueo eciaiee nenoaio io/aoia aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. Oaia?ue ethaie
a?aaeaeaiei Aoei iia iinea i?aaeinoaaeaiey iaaeno?aoii io/aoa
ia?aoeoueny n aeaeiaie ia ooiaeyuaai a ionoaaeo. N eiaiai Yoeaeueoa
naycuaatho onoaiiaeaiea iau/ay aunoaaeyoue caeiiu aeey anaiauaai
iciaeiieaiey.

Iinea oaeenoaa Yoeaeueoa aoeineoth aeaiie?aoeth aicaeaaee Ia-?eee. I?e.
Ia?eeea i?ienoiaeeo aieaa /aoeia ?acaeaeaiea iieiiii/ee: Ia?iaeiia
nia?aiea yaeyaony caeiiiaeaoaeueiui i?aaiii, ooieoeee ii oi?aaeaieth
inouanoaeytho Niaao iyoenio e iaaeno?aou, noaeaaiua iieiiii/ey
i?eiaaeeaaeao aaeeya e ae?oaei noaeaaiui i?aaiai. I?eioeei aea?aaueaaee
?ani?ino?aieeny ia aieueoeinoai ?aiaa auai?iuo aeieaeiinoae. Ii
i?aaeeiaeaieth Ia?eeea noaei iiea/eaaoueny auiieiaiea iauanoaaiiuo
iaycaiiinoae. I?aaeaea anaai auea onoaiiaeaia ieaoa noaeueyi, a caoai e
ae?oaei aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai. Yoi iiaoanoai ioe?uaaei aei?iao aeey
o/anoey a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee cia/eoaeueiiio e?oao ?yaeiauo
aoeineeo a?aaeaeai.

Ia?eee i?iaae a?aaeaeaineoth ?aoi?io. Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi iieiii?aaiui
a?aaeaeaieiii Aoei yaeyaony eeoue oio, /uee iaoue e ioaoe auee
aoeiyiaie. Yoa ?aoi?ia auea aucaaia /?acia?iui oaaee/aieai a?aaeaeaineie
iaueiu e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nicaeaiey iioeiaeueiiai ii /eneaiiinoe
a?aaeaeaineiai eieeaeoeaa, niiniaiiai inouanoaeyoue oi?aaeaiea
ainoaea?noaii:

Ia?eee iiiai naeaeae e aeey i?aa?auaiey Aoei a ii?neoth aea?aeaao.
Oneeaiea ii?neie iiue Aoei, ?anoe?aiea oi?aiauo naycae auaeaeioee ia
ia?aue ieai neie ianaeaiey, naycaiiua n ii?ai; oe?aieeenue iiceoeee
i?ea?aaeiuo. Nioeeaeueioth aaco aoeineie aeaiie?aoee oaia?ue ninoaaeyei
aeaaiui ia?acii ii?oiaia ianaeaiea. A ai aeaaa aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee
noiyee /anoi a?enoie?aou, iniciathuea, /oi ieeaa?oe/aneay ia?oey — yoi
ia?oey eiina?aaoi?ia, eaeouay ia a iiao ni naiei a?aiaiai.

Iauanoaaiiue no?ie Aoei a V a. aei i. y. Aeaiie?aoecaoeey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy ia ono?aieea i?enoueo aoeineiio iauanoao
nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee. ?acaeoea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe i?eaaei e
cia/eoaeueiie eiouanoaaiiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee. N?aaee naiaiaeiuo
aoeineeo a?aaeaeai auaeaeyeanue iaaieueoay a?oiia e?oiiuo nianoaaiieeia,
iniiaioth ianno ianaeaiey ninoaaeyea aaaeiioa. *enei naiaiaeiuo auei
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai ?aaia. ?acee/aeenue ?aau /anoiuo eeoe e ?aau
ainoaea?noaaiiua. ?aaneee o?oae oe?iei eniieueciaaeny a aeiiaoieo
?aaioao, a naeueneii oicyenoaa, no?ieoaeuenoaa e o. i. ?aau /anoiuo eeoe
caieiaee iieiaeaiea aaue, iiyoiio ia iiaee eiaoue nianoaaiiinoe. Ii ca
ainoaea?noaaiiuie ?aaaie i?eciaaaeinue i?aai i?eia?aoaoue nianoaaiiinoue
e ?aniieaaaoue ath.

Iieiii?aaiua aoeineea a?aaeaeaia (o eioi?uo e iaoue e ioaoe auee
a?aaeaeaiaie Aoei) ii aeinoeaeaiee 18 eao ca/eneyeenue a nienee /eaiia
aeaia. A?aaeaeaineia iieiii?aaea aeeth/aei niaieoiiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aa e iaycaiiinoae. Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie a?aaeaeaieia auee
i?aai ia naiaiaeo e ee/ioth iacaaeneiinoue io eaeiai-eeai ae?oaiai
/aeiaaea, i?aai ia caiaeueiue o/anoie ia iieeniie oa??eoi?ee e
yeiiiie/aneoth iiiiuue io ainoaea?noaa a neo/aa iaoa?eaeueiuo
cao?oaeiaiee, i?aai ia iioaiea i?oaeey e neoaeao a iiie/aiee, i?aai ia
o/anoea a aeaeao ainoaea?noaa (o/anoea a Ia?iaeiii nia?aiee, auai?iuo
i?aaiao), i?aai ia ii/eoaiea e caueoo ioa/aneeo aiaia, ia o/anoea a
iauanoaaiiuo i?acaeianoaao, i?aai ia caueoo e iie?iaeoaeuenoai aoeineeo
caeiiia. Iaycaiiinoe aoeineeo a?aaeaeai caeeth/aeenue a oii, /oi
eaaeaeue aeieaeai aue aa?a/ue naia eiouanoai e o?oaeeoueny ia caiaeueiii
o/anoea, i?eoiaeeoue ia iiiiuue iieeno anaie naieie n?aaenoaaie a
/?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, caueuaoue ?iaeiie iieen io a?aaia n
i?oaeeai a ?oeao, iiaeiiaaoueny caeiiai e eca?aiiui aeanoyi, i?eieiaoue
aeoeaiia o/anoea a iauanoaaiiie aeecie, ii/eoaoue ioa/aneeo aiaia.
Niaieoiiinoue a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa ninoaaeyea /anoue a?aaeaeaieia. Ca
i?anooieaiea a?aaeaeaia ii noaeo iiaee auoue ia?aie/aiu a i?aaao, o. a.
iiaeaa?aiooueny aan/anoueth. N 18 aei 60 eao a?aaeaeaia n/eoaeenue
aiaiiiiaycaiiuie. Ia aiaaouo a?aaeaeai aiceaaaeanue eeoo?aey —
iiaeiiinoue a iieueco ainoaea?noaa. Yoi auei naiaai ?iaea ia?aie/aiea
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe a eioa?anao anaai eeanna ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa.

Iaoaee (/oaeacaioeu, i?iaeeaathuea a Aoeiao) ia iaeaaeaee i?aaii
a?aaeaeainoaa. Iie ia iiaee i?eia?aoaoue iaaeaeaeeiinoue, a?aee iaoaeia
n aoeineeie a?aaeaeaiaie n/eoaeenue iacaeiiiuie. Eaaeaeue iaoae aeieaeai
aue aua?aoue naaa i?inoaoa — iin?aaeieea iaaeaeo iaoaeaie e
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie. N iaoaeia aceiaeanue iniaay
iiaeaoue, iie ianee e ae?oaea iiaeiiinoe, i?eaeaeaeenue e aiaiiie
neoaeaa.

E iaoaeai ii naiaio iieiaeaieth i?e?aaieaaeenue aieueiiioiouaiieee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao aoeineie aeaiie?aoee ninoiye ec neaaeothueo
i?aaiia aeanoe: Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey, aaeeye, Niaaoa iyoenio, eieeaaee
no?aoaaia e eieeaaee a?oiioia.

Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea (yeeeaney) yaeyeinue aeaaiui i?aaiii. I?aai o/anoey a
Ia?iaeiii nia?aiee eiaee ana iieiii?aaiua aoeineea a?aaeaeaia
(ioae/eiu), aeinoeaoea aeaaaeoeaoeeaoiaai aic?anoa, iacaaeneii io eo
eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey e ?iaea caiyoee.

Iieiiii/ey Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey auee i/aiue oe?iee e ioaaouaaee ana
noi?iiu aeecie Aoei. Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea i?eieiaei caeiiu, ?aoaei aii?inu
aieiu e ie?a, ecae?aei aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, caneooeaaei io/aou
iaaeno?aoia ii ieii/aiee n?ieia iieiiii/ee, ?aoaei aeaea ii
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiio niaaaeaieth ai?iaea, ianoaeaeaei e ooaa?aeaeaei
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao, inouanoaeyei eiio?ieue ca ainieoaieai
thiioae. A eiiiaoaioeeth Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey aoiaeeei oaeia ia?ii?eyoea,
eae ino?aeeci. Niaoeeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiaee i?aaa Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey
ii io?aia iniiaiuo caeiiia. Auea o/?aaeaeaia niaoeeaeueiay eieeaaey aeey
io?aiu caeiiia (iiiioeeaeia), eioi?ay, iieo/ea iieiiii/ey io Ia?iaeiiai
nia?aiey, iaaethaeaea ca no?iaei auiieiaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie
i?aaiaie anao iniiaiuo caeiiia Aoeineiai ainoaea?noaa. E?iia oiai,
ethaie /eai Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey eiae i?aai aunooieoue ia iai n
/?acau/aeiui cayaeaieai i ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?anooieaieyo, a oii /enea n
ienueiaiiuie aeaeiaaie ia eeoe, aianoeo a Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ua ia?ooatho nouanoaothuea caeiiu (oae iacuaaaiay
aeaeiaa ia i?ioeaicaeiiea — a?aoy ia?aiiiii). Einoeooo «aeaeiau ia
i?ioeaicaeiiea» iaa?aaae iacuaeaiinoue iniiaiuo caeiiia io” iiiuoie
eciaiaiey eee ia?aie/aiey eo a oua?a i?aaai ia?iaea iooai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia. I?aai eaaeaeiai aoeineiai a?aaeaeaieia
aicaoaeaeaoue «aeaeiau ia i?ioeaicaeiiea» noaei iiaeeeiiie, iniiaiie
iii?ie aoeineie aeaiie?aoe/aneie Eiinoeoooeee.

Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea ?aaioaei ii aeiaieueii aeaiie?aoe/aneei i?aaeeai.
Aunooieoue iia ethaie aai o/anoiee. Ii a naiae ?a/e ii ia aeieaeai aue
iiaoi?youeny, inei?aeyoue naiaai iiiiiaioa e aiai?eoue ia ii nouanoao.

Yeeeaney nicuaaeanue aanueia /anoi. Iau/ii eaaeaeay i?eoaiey (o. a.
aeaaeo?noai e n?ie aeaaeo?noaa aeanyoie /anoe Niaaoa iyoenio, eioi?ay
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?oeiaiaeeea oaeouae ?aaioie Niaaoa) nicuaaea /aou?a
Ia?iaeiuo nia?aiey /a?ac 8—9 aeiae. E?iia i/a?aaeiuo canaaeaiee,
ia?aaeei ii iaioeiaeiui aeaeai nia?aiea nicuaaeinue aia i/a?aaee.

I?aaenaaeaoaeai Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey yaeyeny i?aaenaaeaoaeue i?eoaiia.

A eiioea V a. aei i. y. auea aaaaeaia ieaoa ca iinauaiea Ia?iaeiiai
nia?aiey: aia/aea a ?acia?a iaiea (aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea), a caoai —
oanoe iaieia. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio noaei ?aaeueiui o/anoea a nia?aiee
oe?ieeo ia?iaeiuo iann.

Niaao iyoenio (aoeey), aoaeo/e iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
einoeoooia aoeineie aeaiie?aoee, ia iiaeiaiye Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea, a aue
aai ?aai/ei i?aaiii. Niaao iyoenio ecae?aeny iooai aea?aaueaaee ec /enea
iieiii?aaiuo a?aaeaeai, aeinoeaoeo o?eaeoeaoeeaoiaai aic?anoa, ii 50
/aeiaae io eaaeaeuo 10 oee. A Niaao iyoenio iiaee aieoe i?aaenoaaeoaee
anao ?ac?yaeia ianaeaiey.

A eiiiaoaioeeth Niaaoa aoiaeeei iiiai aii?inia. I?eoaiu nicuaaee
Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea, i?e/ai iaeei ec ieo i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaae. Niaao
iiaeaioaaeeaae e ianoaeaeae ana aeaea, eioi?ua auiineeenue ia
ianoaeaeaiea e ?aoaiea Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey, ninoaaeye i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia
caeeth/aiea aeey aianaiey a Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea, aac eioi?iai ia?iae ia
iia auianoe iinoaiiaeaiey ii ?anniao?eaaaiiio aii?ino.

E?iia oiai, Niaao neaaeee ca eniieiaieai iinoaiiaeaiee Ia?iaeiiai
nia?aiey, eiio?iee?iaae aeayoaeueiinoue anao aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
caneooeaae io/aou iiiaeo ec ieo. Aaaeiay ooieoeey Niaaoa caeeth/aeanue a
i?aaiecaoeee no?ieoaeuenoaa oeioa.

Niaao i?iecaiaeee i?iaa?eo (aeieeianneth) aeaayoe a?oiioia e
eaiaeeaeaoia a /eaiu Niaaoa ia aoaeouee aiae, iaaethaeae ca anaie
iauanoaaiiuie caeaieyie e ?anii?yaeaeny aieueoeinoaii iauanoaaiiuo e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae niaianoii n inoaeueiuie aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie.
Niaao eiae i?aai i?eaeaeaoue e noaeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue aeiiaiuo a iai?aaeeueiii ?anoiaeiaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo
n?aaenoa. I?eaiai?u Niaaoa iiaee auoue iaaeaeiaaiu a aaeeyth.

Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii e iaiin?aaenoaaiiui iaaethaeaieai Niaaoa iyoenio
aeaenoaiaae aanue oeiainiaue e aaeieieno?aoeaiue aiia?ao Aoeineiai
ainoaea?noaa. Oe?ieee e?oa aii?inia, ianoaeaeaaiuo ia Niaaoa, aeaeae
iaiaoiaeeiui aai aaeaaeiaaiua canaaeaiey, e?iia iai?enoonoaaiiuo aeiae.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii iianaaeiaaiuie aeaeaie ?oeiaiaeeea ii i/a?aaee aeanyoay
/anoue Niaaoa, o. a. iaeia oeea. Aa /eaiu, i?eoaiu, aaeaaeiaaii ecae?aee
ec naiae n?aaeu iooai aea?aaueaaee i?aaenaaeaoaey, eioi?ue
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaae e a Ia?iaeiii nia?aiee.

Ii enoa/aiee n?iea iieiiii/ee (1 aiae) /eaiu Niaaoa aeaaaee io/ao
ia?iaeo. Iiaoi?iia eca?aiea ?ac?aoaeinue oieueei /a?ac ianeieueei eao e
eeoue iaeei ?ac, o. a. eaaeaeue aiae Niaao iaiiaeyeny. *eaiu Niaaoa
iieo/aee aeaeiaaiuea a ?acia?a 5—6 iaieia.

A nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia nio?aieeny oaeie i?aai, eae a?aiiaa.
A iaai eiiioe?iaaeenue ia iiaeeciaiiue n?ie i?aaenoaaeoaee aoeineie
a?enoie?aoee. A oiaea ai?ueau a?enoie?aoee e aeaiina ooieoeee a?aiiaaa
eae ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia auee neeueii ia?aie/aiu. A V a. aei i. y.
a?aiiaa aunooiae eae noaeaaiay einoaioeey (ii aeaeai ia oaeenoaao,
iiaeaeiaao, oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaieyo, ia?ooaiee ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaeienaiee)
e iaaethaeae ca ninoiyieai i?aaia.

N?aaee i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe a Aoeiao neaaeoao ioiaoeoue aeaa
eieeaaee — no?aoaaia e a?oiioia.

Eieeaaey no?aoaaia. No?aoaae caieiaee iniaia iieiaeaiea n?aaee ae?oaeo
aeieaeiinoae. Iie auee ia oieueei aiaia/aeueieeaie, ii e aeeieiiaoaie,
oeiainenoaie. Iiyoiio no?aoaaia auae?aee ia Ia?iaeiuo nia?aieyo ec
iaeaieaa auaeathueony ethaeae iooai ioe?uoiai aieiniaaiey (iiaeiyoeai
?oe). Iineieueeo no?aoaae, a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, ia
iieo/aee aeaeiaaiuey, caieiaoue yoo aeieaeiinoue iiaee oieueei aanueia
ninoiyoaeueiua ethaee. Aieia n ia?naie o?aaiaaea nin?aaeioi/aiey aeanoe
a iaeieo ?oeao. Oae auaeaeaaaony aeieaeiinoue ia?aiai no?aoaaa, noaaoaai
e ia?aui aeieaeiinoiui eeoeii a ainoaea?noaa. No?aoaaii iiaeii auei
auoue iiiai eao iiae?yae. I/aiue /anoi no?aoaa aue e eeaea?ii oie eee
eiie ia?oee.

A aaaeaiee eieeaaee a?oiioia iaoiaeeeenue ?aeeaeiciua e naiaeiua aeaea,
a oaeaea aeaea, eanathueany i?aanoaaiiinoe.

Aeaayoue a?oiioia (oanoue oaniioaoia, a?oiio-yiiiei, aaceeaan e
iieaia?o) e nae?aoa?ue ecae?aeenue n iiiiuueth ae?aaey ii iaeiiio io
eaaeaeie oeeu. Caoai a?oiiou, e?iia nae?aoa?y, iiaeaa?aaeenue i?iaa?ea
(aeieeiannee) a Niaaoa iyoenio. Aoi?oth i?iaa?eo a?oiiou i?ioiaeeee a
aaeeya, aaea aieiniaaiea i?ienoiaeeei iooai iiaea/e eaiaoeia.
A?oiio-yiiiei, aaceeaan e iieaia?o eiaee ?aaioth aeanoue, e eaaeaeue ec
ieo ecae?ae naaa ii aeaa oiaa?eua.

Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii eieeaaee a?oiioia aeaenoaiaae aunoee noaeaaiue i?aai
— aaeeyy. Iiieii /enoi noaeaaiuo ooieoeee, iia auiieiyea ooieoeee a
iaeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Aaeeyy ninoiyea ec 6 oun. /aeiaae (ii 600 io
eaaeaeie oeeu), aaeaaiaeii ecae?aaoeony ii ae?aaeth a?oiioaie ec /enea
iieiii?aaiuo a?aaeaeai ia iieiaea 30 eao. Ooieoeee aaeeye auee naycaiu
ia oieueei n noaeaaiui ?acae?aoaeuenoaii. O/anoea a io?aia Eiinoeoooeee
e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?eaeaaaei aaeeya aieueoie iieeoe/aneee aan. Iia
?acae?aea iaeaieaa aaaeiua /anoiua aeaea aoeineeo a?aaeaeai,
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea, nii?iua aeaea iaaeaeo nithcieeaie e ana aaaeiua
aeaea a?aaeaeai nithciuo ainoaea?noa.

E?iia aaeeye, a Aoeiao aeaenoaiaaei aua ianeieueei noaeaaiuo eieeaaee,
eioi?ua ?acae?aee ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaea,— a?aiiaa, /aou?a eieeaaee yoaoia,
noae aeeyoaoia, eieeaaey ni?iea.

Aoeineay aeaiie?aoey a V—IV aa. aei i. y. i?aaenoaaeyea niaie oi?ioi
?ac?aaioaiioth iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio. Caiauaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeieaeiinoae no?ieeinue ia i?eioeeiao auai?iinoe, n?i/iinoe,
eieeaaeaeueiinoe, iiaeio/aoiinoe, aiciacaeiinoe, ionoonoaey ea?a?oee.

Aoeineia ainoaea?noai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aue a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa
iiuo aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee. Yoa aeaiie?aoey eiaea ia?aie/aiiue
oa?aeoa?. Ai-ia?auo, iia iaania/eaaea iieiii?aaea oieueei naiaiaeiiai
ianaeaiey. Ai-aoi?uo, iia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue oieueei ia oao, o eiai
?iaeeoaee auee aoeiyia, i?aaeoi?aaeaeay i?iieeiiaaiea a ?yaeu aoeineeo
a?aaeaeai /oaeaeia. Ii e n?aaee oao, eoi eiae noaoon aoeineiai
a?aaeaeaieia, ia ana iieueciaaeenue i?aaii aieina e i?eieiaee aeoeaiia
o/anoea a iieeoe/aneie aeecie. Aanueia eiina?aaoeaiuie auee e?anoueyia,
eioi?ui neiaeii auei aeiae?aoueny a Aoeiu ec ai?iuo ?aeiiia e aeey
eioi?uo caaioa i nianoaaiiii o?iaeaa auea aaaeiaa canaaeaiee a Ia?iaeiii
nia?aiee. Ec 43 oun. iieiii?aaiuo a?aaeaeai ia nia?aiey yaeyeenue 2—3
oun. Oi?aaeaiea iauanoaii inouanoaeyeinue ia?oeyie e eo aiaeaeyie —
aeaiaaiaaie. E V a. aei i. y. aianoi i?aaeieo ia?oee neiaeeeenue aeaa:
ieeaa?oe/aneay ia?oey, i?aaenoaaeyaoay eioa?anu caieaaeaaeaeue/aneie
a?enoie?aoee e aiaaoiai eoia/anoaa, e aeaiie?aoe/aneay, iie?aaoayny ia
iaeeeo aeaeueoeia, iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, ii?yeia.

I?e anao iaaeinoaoeao aoeineie aeaiie?aoee iia eiaea aeey naiaai a?aiaie
naiia ia?aaeiaia ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai, eco/aiea eioi?iai eiaao
aieueoia enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea.

5. ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia ainoaea?noai a Nia?oa

Nia?oaineia ainoaea?noai aicieeei a IX a. aei i. y. a ?acoeueoaoa
caaiaaaiey aei?eeoeaie iaoe?iie oa??eoi?ee Eaeiieee, aaea i?iaeeaaee
aoaeneea ieaiaia. Onoaiiaeaiea iauanoaaiiuo ii?yaeeia e
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy Nia?ou naycuaaaony n eiaiai eaaaiaea?iiai
caeiiiaeaoaey Eeeo?aa. I?eienuaaaiia aio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iiyaeeinue a
ianoaiiaea ino?ie nioeeaeueiie ai?ueau a nia?oaineii iauanoaa.
Ii-aeaeeiiio, eiouanoaaiiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey, aucaaaoay ia?aciaaiea
aeaeaiey ia eeannu, i?eaaea e aieiaieyi e ioe?uoui aunooieaieyi
aaaeiiou, iiyoiio caeiiu yaii iai?aaeaiu ia niya/aiea nioeeaeueiuo
i?ioeai?a/ee.

Iauanoaaiiue no?ie. Aeey iauanoaaiiiai no?iy Nia?ou oa?aeoa?iu
nio?aiaiea ia?aaeeoeia ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy e aiaiiay i?aaiecaoeey
iauanoaa. Caaioie i nio?aiaiee nieeaea?iinoe n?aaee iaaieueoie /anoe
iieiii?aaiuo a?aaeaeai Nia?ou, ainiiaenoaiaaaoeo iaae ia?iiiie iannie
ii?aaiuaiiiai ianaeaiey, iauyniyaony no?aieaiea i?aaeioa?aoeoue ?aceoth
eiouanoaaiioth aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth n?aaee «?aaiuo», eae iacuaaee naay
nia?oeaou.

Yoo oeaeue i?aneaaeiaaee i?eienuaaaiua Eeeo?ao caeiiu i?ioea ?ineioe,
cai?auaiea nia?oeaoai caieiaoueny oi?aiaeae, eiaoue a ee/iii
iieueciaaiee cieioi e na?aa?i.

Iieeoe/aneeie i?aaaie iieueciaaeenue eeoue nia?oeaou. Ana iie auee
iaania/aiu caiaeueiuie iaaeaeaie, eioi?ua ia?aaeaaaeenue ei aianoa n
ia?aaaouaathueie caieth ainoaea?noaaiiuie ?aaaie — eeioaie.
Ia?aiia/aeueii yoe iaaeaeu auee iaeeiaeiau, ii iicaeiaa aicieeei
eiouanoaaiiia ia?aaainoai nia?oeaoia. Ianiio?y ia yoi, nia?oeaou
eiaiiaaeenue «?aaiuie». Ec /enea ?aaiuo eneeth/aeenue a?aaeaeaia,
eioi?ua ia iiaee aeaeaoue aciinu aeey i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiuo o?aiac;
iie ia?aoiaeeee a ?ac?yae aeiiiaeaiia — «iionoeaoeony».

Ia?eyee auee ee/ii naiaiaeiuie, ii ia eiaee iieeoe/aneeo i?aa, oioy a
ae?oaeo ioiioaieyo auee i?aainiiniaiu: iiaee i?eia?aoaoue nianoaaiiinoue
e niaa?oaoue naeaeee, ianee aieineoth iiaeiiinoue. Ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa iaae ia?eyeaie aue onoaiiaeai iaaeci?, inouanoaeyaiue
niaoeeaeueiuie aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie.

Eeiou — i?aaenoaaeoaee iiaaaeaeaiiuo ieaiai, i?aa?auaiiua a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aaia. Naiae caiee iie ia eiaee, ?aaioaee ia o/anoea,
i?aaeinoaaeaiiii nia?oeaoo ainoaea?noaii. Iaeiaei o eeioia auee naie
oicyenoai e i?oaeey i?iecaiaenoaa. Io o?iaeay, iieo/aiiiai n caiee,
ieiei 50% eeiou ieaoeee ainiiaeeio a aeaea ia?iea. Eeiou ianee oaeaea
aiaiioth neoaeao. Naia ainiiaenoai iaae eeioaie nia?oeaou
iiaeaea?aeeaaee iaoiaeaie aeanoieiai oa??i?a. Eeiou iiaee auoue ioiouaiu
ia aieth ainoaea?noaii.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie. Nia?oa auea i?eia?ii ainiiaenoaa
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie a?enoie?aoee. Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea (aiaeea) ia ea?aei
cia/eoaeueiie ?iee a iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu. Nicuaaeinue iii io
neo/ay e neo/ath ii ?aoaieth aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. A nia?aiee o/anoaiaaee
nia?oeaou, aeinoeaoea 30-eaoiaai aic?anoa e nio?aieaoea naie iaaeaeu.
I?e /?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao nicuaaeenue aiai/a?aaeiua nia?aiey, a
eioi?uo i?eieiaee o/anoea i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeaieaa ciaoiuo e aeeyoaeueiuo
oaieeee.

E aaaeaieth Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey ioiineeenue oaeea aii?inu, eae eca?aiea
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, i?eiyoea ?aoaiey a neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey nii?a i
i?anoieiianeaaeee, auai? aeaau aiaiiiai iioiaea. Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea
o/anoaiaaei a caeiiioai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?aoaei aii?inu aieiu e
ie?a, nithca n ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaie.

Aianoa n oai aaaeaieth Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey ia iiaeeaaeaee oeiainiaua
aii?inu, eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth iaaeno?aoia, noaeaaiua aeaea.
Nia?aiea ia ianoaeaeaei caeiiia: iie eeai i?eieiaeenue, eeai
ioaa?aaeenue. Ana ?aoaiey nia?aiey iaoiaeeeenue iiae eiio?ieai niaaoa
noa?aeoei (aa?onee): ?aoaiea nia?aiey, aa?oneae i?eciaiiia iai?eaieaiui,
eanne?iaaeinue.

Ii?yaeie aeayoaeueiinoe Ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey aeaaae aiciiaeiinoue
nia?oaineie ieeaa?oee aeeyoue ia aai aa aeayoaeueiinoue a ioaeiii
iai?aaeaiee.

Ai aeaaa ainoaea?noaa noiyee aeaa oea?y, eioi?ua auiieiyee ooieoeee
aiaiiuo aiaeaeae, auee aa?oiaiuie ae?aoeaie, inouanoaeyee noaeaaioth
aeanoue. Iaeiaei oaeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai ainoaea?noaii i?eiaaeeaaeaei
yoi?ai, e eioi?ui iinoaiaiii ia?aoee iieiiii/ey, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea
oea?yi.

Yoi?u caieiaee eneeth/eoaeueiia iieiaeaiea a ainoaea?noaa. Naiei
aicauoaieai yoi?u iaycaiu ciaoe, iianaaoaeny oneeaiey oea?neie aeanoe.
Yoi?ia auei iyoue, eo aaeaaiaeii ecae?aei Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea ec /enea
anao a?aaeaeai. Yoi?u ninoaaeyee aaeeioth eieeaaeth e auiineee naie
?aoaiey aieueoeinoaii aieinia. Yoi?u nicuaaee aa?oneth e Ia?iaeiia
nia?aiea e ?oeiaiaeeee eo aeayoaeueiinoueth. A eo aaaeaiee auee aii?inu
aiaoiae iieeoeee, aioo?aiiaa oi?aaeaiea no?aiie, a /anoiinoe iaaeci? ca
i?aaaie e niaethaeaieai aeenoeeieeiu, eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
anao aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, aeeth/ay i?iaa?eo eo aaeaaiaeiuo io/aoia. A
?oeao yoi?ia iaoiaeeeanue a?aaeaeaineay th?enaeeeoeey. Iaeiie ec aaaeiuo
ooieoeee yoi?ia aue eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth oea?ae aieioue aei
i?eaea/aiey eo e noaeo aa?onee, /oi iicaieyei ia?aie/eoue eo aeanoue. A
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe yoi?u aeaaaee io/ao oieueei naiei i?aaiieeai.

Eieeaaey yoi?ia auea i?aaiii nia?oaineie ieeaa?oee, ?oeiaiaeeaoei anaie
noi?iiaie aeecie nia?oaineiai iauanoaa. Aaneiio?ieueiinoue yoi?ia,
iaaiciiaeiinoue i?eaea/aiey eo e noaeaaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe
niinianoaiaaee ceioiio?aaeaieyi eie naiae aeanoueth.

Aa?oney (niaao noa?aeoei) — i?aai, nio?aieaoeeny io ?iaeiieaiaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee. Iia ninoiyea ec 28 aeaeiaeoeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae nia?oeaoia,
e?iia oiai, a ninoaa aa?onee aoiaeeee aeaa oea?y. *eaiu aa?onee
(aa?iiou) ecae?aeenue Ia?iaeiui nia?aieai iiaeeciaiii. Aa?oney
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ianoaeaeaea aii?inu, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee
?anniao?eaaoueny Ia?iaeiui nia?aieai. Ia?aiia/aeueii aa?oney ?aniieaaaea
i?aeoe/anee iaia?aie/aiiie eiiiaoaioeeae e yaeyeanue noaeaaiie
einoaioeeae i?ioea oea?ae. Ia naieo aaeaaeiaaiuo canaaeaieyo iia
ianoaeaeaea aiaiiua, oeiainiaua, noaeaaiua aii?inu. N oneeaieai aeanoe
yoi?ia cia/aiea aa?onee oiaiueoaeinue.

Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey Nia?ou iaoneiaeee canoie a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie ainoaea?noaa. Iaeiaei
iiaaaea iaae Aoeiaie a Iaeiiiiianneie aieia noeioee?iaaea ?acaeoea
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee a Nia?oa, /oi i?eaaei e eiouanoaaiiie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee e ?inoo nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee, ineaaeaoeo
ainoaea?noai. Eae e ae?oaea a?a/aneea ainoaea?noaa, Nia?oa a na?aaeeia
II a. aei i. y. ieacaeanue iiae aeanoueth ?eia.

6. Iniiaiua /a?ou i?aaa

Iaeaieaa ?acaeooth i?aaiaoth nenoaio a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee eiaee Aoeiu.
Ae?aaiaeoei enoi/ieeii i?aaa a Aoeiao aue iau/ae. A 621 a. aei i. y.
iiyaeyaony ienaiia i?aai a aeaea Caeiiia Ae?aeiioa. Yoi auei e?oiiie
iiaaaeie aeaiina, oae eae ii o?aaeeoeee oieeiaaiea iau/iiai i?aaa
i?eiaaeeaaeaei a?enoie?aoee e i?eaiaeeei e /anoui ceioiio?aaeaieyi, a
caienue aeaenoaothueo ii?i i?aaa iicaieeea ia?aie/eoue i?iecaie a
oieeiaaiee th?eaee/aneeo i?aaee.

Ae?aeiio aeeth/ee a caeiiu ?yae nouanoaaiiuo iieiaeaiee, eioi?ua
io?aaeaee iiaoth nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth neooaoeeth. Iai?eia?,
ioiaiyeanue e?iaiay ianoue, aaiaeeeenue iiaua i?aaeea
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Caeiiu ioi?ieyee i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
onoaiaaeeaay i?e yoii no?iaia iaeacaiea ca iinyaaoaeuenoai ia /anoioth
nianoaaiiinoue.

A ia/aea VI a. aei i. y. aieueoay caeiiiaeaoaeueiay ?aaioa a Aoeiao auea
i?iaaaeaia Nieiiii. A V—IV aa. aei i. y. caeiiu noaiiayony aeaaiui
enoi/ieeii i?aaa.

Eiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Aoeineia i?aai ia ciaao /aoeiai ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo aauaie. Iaeiaei i?aaiaie noaoon iaaeaeaeeiinoe eiae naie
iniaaiiinoe. Auei ecaanoii oaeaea aeaeaiea eiouanoaa ia aeaeaeeiia
(caiey, ?aau, neio) e iaaeaeaeeiia (aeaiueae, ae?aaioeaiiinoe). N?aaee
aauiuo i?aa auee ecaanoiu aeaaeaiea e nianoaaiiinoue, i?e/ai /anoiay
nianoaaiiinoue n/eoaeanue i?iecaiaeiie io ainoaea?noaaiiie.
I?aaenoaaeaiey i oe?ieeo i?aaao nianoaaiieea aua ia neiaeeeinue.

Iaycaoaeuenoaaiiua ioiioaiey aicieeaee eeai ec aeiaiai?a eeai ec
aeaeeeoa. Iniiaaieai aeiaiai?a neoaeeei anyeia niaeaoaiea ethaiai
niaea?aeaiey. Aeiaiai?u caeeth/aeenue /aua anaai a ienueiaiiii aeaea,
oioy iaycaoaeueiie oi?iu ia nouanoaiaaei. Oi?iaeeci ia aue i?enou
aoeineiio i?aao ia ia?aiia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo aai ?acaeoey. Aei ?aoi?iu
Nieiia iaeniieiaiea aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa aeaeei ca niaie ee/ioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeieaeieea. Iinea ?aoi?iu a ea/anoaa n?aaenoa
iaania/aiey aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa aunooiatho caaeaoie, caeia e
ii?o/eoaeuenoai. Aoeineiio i?aao auee ecaanoiu ?acee/iua aeaeu
aeiaiai?ia: eoiee-i?iaeaaee, iaeia, nnoaeu, iiae?yaea, caeia, o?aiaiey
aauae, oiaa?euanoaa, ii?o/aiey, eiienneiiiue aeiaiai?.

Iaycaoaeuenoaa ec aeaeeeoia aicieeatho a neo/aa i?e/eiaiey eiouanoao
ethaiai a?aaea.

Naiaeiia e ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai. Anooieaiea a a?ae a Aoeiao n/eoaeinue
iaycaoaeueiui, iaeiaei aaca?a/ea ia aeaeei iaeacaiee. A?ae i?aaenoaaeye
niaie aeiaiai?, caeeth/aaiue aeaaie naiuee. ?acaiae aeey ioae/ei aue
naiaiaeai, aeey aeaiuei, caieiaaoeo a naiuea iiae/eiaiiia iieiaeaiea,
?acaanoenue auei neiaeii. ?iaeeoaeueneay aeanoue, ia?aiia/aeueii i/aiue
oe?ieay, ineaaeyaony n oa/aieai a?aiaie.

Ianeaaeiaaiea inouanoaeyeinue ii caeiio e ii caaauaieth. Ii caeiio
ianeaaeieeaie ia?aie i/a?aaee yaeyeenue nuiiauey. Aei/a?e iiaee
iieo/eoue ianeaaenoai eeoue i?e ionoonoaee nuiiaae oia?oaai iooea.
Aiaa?a/iua aeaoe ianeaaeieeaie iooea ia yaeyeenue. I?e ionoonoaee i?yiuo
ianeaaeieeia ianeaaeiaaee ae?oaea ?iaenoaaiieee. Ianeaaeiaaiea ii
caaauaieth aaiaeeony ?aoi?iie Nieiia. Caaauaiea n/eoaeinue
aeaenoaeoaeueiui, anee i?e aai ninoaaeaiee caaauaoaeue iaoiaeeeny a
cae?aaii oia e ia iiaeaa?aaeny oece/aneiio eee ineoe/aneiio ianeeeth.
Caaauaoue eiae i?aai eeoue oio, o eiai ia auei caeiiiuo aeaoae ioaeneiai
iiea. Ia iiaee caaauaoue ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea, aeaiueiu, i?eaiiue nui.

Oaieiaiia i?aai. Aoeineiio i?aao auee ecaanoiu neaaeothuea aeaeu
i?anooieaiee: ainoaea?noaaiiua, i?ioea naiuee, i?ioea ee/iinoe, i?ioea
nianoaaiiinoe. ?acee/aeenue oiuoeaiiua e iainoi?iaeiua i?anooieaiey (a
/anoiinoe, oaeenoaa). Auei ecaanoii iiiyoea naiiiai?iiu, i?iaiaeeeinue
?acee/ea iaaeaeo iiaeno?aeaoaeai e eniieieoaeai i?anooieaiey.

N?aaee iaeacaiee neaaeoao ioiaoeoue nia?oioth eaciue, i?iaeaaeo a
?aanoai, oo?ao, eiioeneaoeeth, aan/anouea (aoeieth). Iaeacaiea aeey
?aaia e naiaiaeiuo auei ?acee/iui. A iaeanoe oaieiaiiai i?aaa Caeiiu
Ae?aeiioa ioee/aeenue iniaie aeanoieinoueth. Oeaeue iaeacaiey
caeeth/aeanue a i?e/eiaiee no?aaeaiee i?anooiieeo.

Noaeaaiue i?ioeann. Ia/eiaoue noaeaaiua aeaea iiaee oieueei iieiii?aaiua
aoeineea a?aaeaeaia. Ca aeaiueio e ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai aeaenoaiaae aeaaa
naiuee, ca iaoaea — aai i?inoao, ca ?aaa — aai ainiiaeei.

Aeieaeiinoiia eeoei, iieo/eaoaa aeaeiao, i?iecaiaeeei i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia
?anneaaeiaaiea. I?e yoii iaaeiyaiue eee ioaao/ee eiae i?aai
i?aaenoaaeoue ienueiaiiua aic?aaeaiey i?ioea ?anniio?aiey aeaea ii
nouanoao. Anee oaeea aic?aaeaiey ia iinooiaee, noaeuee ia?aoiaeeee e
?anniio?aieth aeaea ii nouanoao. Noi?iiu i?aaenoaaeyee ana iaiaoiaeeiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa ii aeaeo. Ii ieii/aiee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
?anneaaeiaaiey iacia/aeny aeaiue noaeaaiiai canaaeaiey. ?aoaiea
i?eieiaeinue oaeiui aieiniaaieai. Ia noaeaaiua ?aoaiey e i?eaiai?u
aeiioneaeanue aiaeeyoeey e aaeeya. ?aoaiey aaeeye auee ieii/aoaeueiuie e
iaaeaeiaaieth ia iiaeeaaeaee.

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