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История государства и права Англии

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ENOI?Ess AINOAeA?NOAA E I?AAA AIAEEE

Niaea?aeaiea

1. ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiia ainoaea?noai

2. ?anoeaao oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee

3. Nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiay iiia?oey

4. Aaniethoiay iiia?oey

1. ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiia ainoaea?noai

Ecaeaaia oa??eoi?eth ino?iaa A?eoaiey ianaeyee eaeueoneea ieaiaia. N 43
a. i. y. A?eoaiey aoiaeeea a ninoaa ?eineie eiia?ee, ii ainiiaenoai
?eieyi ia i?eaaei e ?iiaiecaoeee eaeueoia, eioi?ua niiaee nio?aieoue
naith naiiauoiinoue. A IV a. ?eineea eaaeiiu iieeioee ino?ia,
iaia?aaaynue aa?iooueny nthaea iicaeiaa. Iaeiaei iaaeaiea ?eineie
eiia?ee naeaeaei yoe ieaiu ianauoi/iuie.

A V a. A?eoaiey iiaeaa?aeanue iaoanoaeth aa?iaineeo ieaiai aiaeia e
naenia. *anoue eaeueoia auea ia?aaeoa, /anoue ia?anaeeeanue ia naaa?
ino?iaa, aaea auea nio?aiaia iacaaeneiinoue, /anoue iiae/eiaia
aa?iaioeai e a eiia/iii n/aoa neeeanue n ieie. E caaiaaaoaee, e
iiei?aiiua ieaiaia iaoiaeeeenue ia noaaeee ?aceiaeaiey
ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy. Anei?a ia oa??eoi?ee A?eoaiee ia?aciaaeinue
naiue aiaei-naeniineeo ei?ieaanoa. Iniiaiia ianaeaiea yoeo ainoaea?noa
ninoaaeyee naiaiaeiua e?anoueyia-iaueiieee (ea?eu). ?iaeiaay ciaoue
(y?eu) nia/aea caieiaea iniaia iieiaeaiea, ii iinoaiaiii auea iooaniaia
ae?oaeeiieeaie, ia eioi?uo iie?aeny ei?ieue, ooaa?aeaeay naith aeanoue.
A aeaaiaea?iinoue ca neoaeao ae?oaeeiieee iieo/aee io ei?iey a aea?
iaueiiua caiee aianoa n aeeaoeie ia ieo e?anoueyiaie. Ni a?aiaiai
ei?ieaaneea iiaeaeiaaiey i?eia?aee oe?ieee ?aciao. Iaeiia?aiaiii iiaua
caiaeueiua nianoaaiieee iieo/aee io ei?iey anth iieiioo aeanoe a naieo
caieyo. E?anoueyia ianoo a iieueco caiaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia
iiiai/eneaiiua iiaeiiinoe e noaiiayony ee/ii caaeneiuie io naieo
ainiiae. Oa e?anoueyia, eioi?ua inoaaaeenue naiaiaeiuie, auiieiyee
?aaoey?iua iiaeiiinoe a iieueco ainoaea?noaa. Oae iinoaiaiii iaueiiua
ioiioaiey auee caiaiaiu oaiaeaeueiuie, eioi?ua e XI a. ainiiaenoaiaaee
ia oa??eoi?ee Aiaeee.

Aiaei-naeniineea ei?ieaanoaa i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiua
iiia?oee, ii?yaeie oi?aaeaiey a eioi?uo aue oeie/ai. Aaeieieno?aoeaiie
aaeeieoeae yaeyeinue a?aonoai. Ii ia?a noaiiaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee ia?iaeiua nia?aiey auee caiaiaiu nia?aieyie a?aonoa, ia
eioi?uo i?enoonoaiaaea naaoneay e aeooiaiay a?enoie?aoey. Aianoi
ecae?aaiuo i?aaeaea yeueaei?iaiia nia?aiey aicaeaaeyeenue ei?ieaaneeie
/eiiaieeaie (oa?eoaie). A VII—IX aa. aaaeioth ?ieue a ainoaea?noaaiiii
oi?aaeaiee ea?ae niaao ciaoe (oeoaiaaaiio). Iaeaieaa aaaeiua aii?inu —
i?eiyoea iiauo caeiiia, ?acaeae caiee, aaaeaiea aieiu e caeeth/aiea ie?a
— ei?ieue ?aoae n o/anoeai yoiai niaaoa.

A 827 a. oa?ica iaiaaeaiey aeao/ai canoaaeea aiaei-naeniineea
ei?ieaanoaa iauaaeeieoueny iiae aeanoueth Yeaa?oa, ei?iey Oynnaena. N X
a. yoi aaeeiia ainoaea?noai iacuaaaony Aiaeeae. A eiioea IX a. ei?ieai
aaeeiiai ainoaea?noaa noae Aeueo?aae Aaeeeee, eioi?ue, iniciaaay
neaainoue naiaai ainoaea?noaa e iaaiciiaeiinoue caueoeoue aai io
aeao/ai, aeiaiai?eeny n ieie i i?aaeinoaaeaiee ei ainoi/iie /anoe
ei?ieaanoaa. Ioiuia aeanoue Aeueo?aaea ?ani?ino?aiyeanue oieueei ia
caiaaeioth /anoue Aiaeee. A?aiy i?aaeaiey Aeueo?aaea ioia/aii
oe?aieaieai ainoaea?noaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee: aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoae
ei?ieaaneee aeai?, iiyaeeanue ei?ieaaneay eaioeaey?ey, aeoeaiia o/anoea
a oi?aaeaiee aeai?oeiaui oicyenoaii e ainoaea?noaii a oeaeii i?eieiatho
e?aa/ee, yeiiii, eacia/ae, eaiaeeai. Ei?ieue aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeye
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, noaeii?iecaiaenoao, a?iee. Noaeaaiee Aeueo?aaea —
iaeei ec aaaeiuo i?aaiauo iaiyoieeia ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiiai ia?eiaea.
Aeueo?aae nicaeae neeueiia ainoaea?noai, n eioi?ui a X a. neeeinue
aeaoneia ainoaea?noai (ainoi/iay /anoue ino?iaa), e Aiaeey aiiaue noaea
aaeeiie.

A XI a. aeao/aiai niiaa oaeaeinue caaiaaaoue Aiaeeth, e iaeioi?ia a?aiy
ainoaea?noaii i?aaee aeao/aiei Eioo Aaeeeee, inoaaeaoee ecaanoiua Caeiiu
Eiooa, a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeao iau/ae aiaeeeneiai ainoaea?noaa.
I?aaeaoee iinea Eiooa Yaeoa?ae Eniiaaaeiee inoaeny a iaiyoe
iineaaeothueo iieieaiee eae ni?aaaaeeeaue ei?ieue, i «aeia?uo» caeiiao
eioi?iai aniiieiaee a ?aciua a?aiaia, au?aaeay iaaeiaieuenoai
nouanoaothuae aeanoueth.

2. ?anoeaao oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee

Ii?iaiaeneia caaiaaaiea. A 1066 a. Aiaeey aiiaue iiaeaa?aaaony caoaaoo,
ia yoio ?ac ii?iaiaeneei aa?oeiaii Aeeueaaeueiii Caaiaaaoaeai.
Aiaei-naeniineay ciaoue, ieacaaoay nii?ioeaeaiea caaiaaaoaeyi, auea
aieueoae /anoueth eno?aaeaia, a aa caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey noaee aiaiiie
aeiau/ae Aeeueaaeueia e aai aa?iiia.

Ana, eoi iieo/ee caieth, noaiiaeeenue aannaeaie ei?iey. N?aaee ieo
?acee/aeenue aaeeeea aa?iiu, auaoea e?oiiuie caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie, iaeua
aa?iiu, eee ?uoea?e, iieo/eaoea caieth ia oneiaeyo aiaiiie neoaeau a
iieueco ei?iey, e eeoea, iieo/aaoea caieth io aa?iiia. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio
ianoiyoaeuenoao oaiaeaeueiue no?ie aue aieaa /aoei i?aaieciaai, /ai,
iai?eia?, ai O?aioeee. A Aiaeee aeaenoaiaaei i?aaeei «aannae iiaai
aannaea — iie aannae». Yoi niinianoaiaaei cia/eoaeueiiio oneeaieth
oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe e a oi aea a?aiy i?aiyonoaiaaei ?acaeoeth
aeaoeaio?aeecaoi?neeo no?aieaiee.

Yoi iauyniyaony aeaaiui ia?acii oai oii?iui e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiui
nii?ioeaeaieai, eioi?ia ieacaei aiaei-naeniineia ianaeaiea caoaaoo e
?aca?aaeaieth aai caiaeue ii?iaiaeneie ciaoueth. A yoeo oneiaeyo aa?iiu
Aiaeee auee auioaeaeaiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ei?ieaaneoth aeanoue e oa?iaoue
aa oneeaiea, /oiau aea?aeaoue a iiaeiiaaiee ii?aaiuaiiue ia?iae. E?iia
oiai, caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey ii?iaiaeneie ciaoe ia ninoaaeyee aaeeiuo,
neeoiuo ianneaia, iie auee ?aca?inaiu ii anae no?aia, /oi i?aiyonoaiaaei
ia?aciaaieth iacaaeneiuo oaiaeaeueiuo naiuei?ee.

Oneeaieth ei?ieaaneie aeanoe a Aiaeee niinianoaiaaee ia?iiiue caiaeueiue
oiiae ei?iey, ninoaaeaoee ieiei 1/7anae iaoioiie caiee Aiaeee, a oaeaea
iaee/ea iinoiyiiuo iaeiaia. Iaeiiaoe, a ioee/ea io ii?yaeeia,
nouanoaiaaaoeo ia eiioeiaioa, aannaeu aiaeeeneiai ei?iey auee iaycaiu ii
ioiioaieth e iaio ia oieueei aiaiiie neoaeaie, ii e aeaiaaeiuie
aciinaie.

*oiau ia aeiionoeoue i?aa?auaiey a?aonoa a aaoiiiiiua eiyaeanoaa,
ei?ieue cai?aoee oa?eoai a?aonoa eiaoue a naiai aeieaeiinoiii ie?oaa
e?oiiua caieaaeaaeaiey — iaii?u. E?iia oiai, ei?iee niaethaeaee ana
noa?eiiua iau/ae e nio?aieee aiaei-naeniineea o/?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ua
niinianoaiaaee oeaio?aeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

*a?ac 20 eao iinea caaiaaaiey, a 1086 a., a Aiaeee auea i?iecaaaeaia
ia?aienue ianaeaiey, caiee, neioa, i?oaeee o?oaea, iieo/eaoay iacaaiea
Eieae No?aoiiai noaea. (Iia oae iacaaia iioiio, /oi ieeiai ia iiuaaeeea,
eae ia iiuaaeeo ieeiai e aeaiue No?aoiiai noaea.) Ia?aienue
i?aneaaeiaaea aeaa oeaee: iieo/eoue naaaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey nai?a
aaeueaea — iieiouanoaaiiiai iaeiaa, e eioi?ie?iaaoue ei?iey i ?acia?ao e
?ani?aaeaeaiee aiaaonoa, caiaeue e aeioiaeia aai aannaeia. Yoio
aeieoiaio aeaao oi/ioth ea?oeio nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u Aiaeee e
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iieiie oaiaeaeecaoeee iauanoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?iaiaeneia caaiaaaiea eiaei aieueoia cia/aiea aeey
Aiaeee, iineieueeo niaeaenoaiaaei ieii/aoaeueiiio caaa?oaieth i?ioeanna
oaiaeaeecaoeee; oneeeei ei?ieaaneoth aeanoue e cae?aieei iieeoe/aneia
aaeeinoai no?aiu; niinianoaiaaei oneeaieth naycae Aiaeee n eiioeiaioii.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie. A XII a. ei?ieaaneay aeanoue oi?i/eeanue.
Iiaeaea?aeeo ei?ieth ieacuaaee ana neie ianaeaiey, caeioa?aniaaiiua,
eaaeaeue ii naiei i?e/eiai, a oe?aieaiee aai aeanoe.

Ii aeieai oae i?iaeieaeaoueny ia iiaei. Iiaua aa?iiu, oneeea naie
iiceoeee eae caiaeueiua nianoaaiieee, noaee no?aieoueny e
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. Ia?aia aa?iineia aunooieaiea i?ioea ei?ieaaneie
aeanoe i?iecioei a i?aaeaiea Aai?eoa I (1100—1135), auioaeaeaiiiai
aeaoue aa?iiai Oa?oeth aieueiinoae, iineoaeeaooth ia/aeii
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a aiaeeeneii oaiaeaeueiii ainoaea?noaa. Ni
noi?iiu ei?ieaaneie aeanoe auee naeaeaiu na?ueaciua onooiee, oeaia
eioi?uo — ioiineoaeueiia niieienoaea a ainoaea?noaa.

A i?aaeaiea Aai?eoa I aue cia/eoaeueii oniaa?oainoaiaai oeaio?aeueiue
ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao. Ei?ieaaneay eo?ey ?acaeaeeeanue ia aieueoie
niaao e iinoiyiiue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue i?aai (iaeoth eo?eth). Aieueoie
niaao nicuaaeny o?e ?aca a aiae (ia ?iaeaeanoai, Ianoo e O?ieoeo) a
ninoaaa naiiaieeia ei?iey, aeaaiuo aai neoaeaueo e e?oiiaeoeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ciaoe no?aiu. A aai eiiiaoaioeeth aoiaeeei aeaaaoue
ei?ieth niaaou ii anai aii?inai, auiineaoeiny ia ianoaeaeaiea, e
caneooeaaoue, ?aoaiey e caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou ei?iey. Iaycaoaeueiie
neeu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee niaaoa ia eiaee. Iaeiaei ei?ieue aue caeioa?aniaai a
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee yoiai o/?aaeaeaiey, iineieueeo oaeei iooai ii iia
aeiaeoueny i?eciaiey aeeyoaeueiuie oaiaeaeaie naieo iieeoe/aneeo
aeaenoaee.

Iaeay eo?ey inouanoaeyea aunooth noaeaaii-aaeieieno?aoeaioth e
oeiainiaoth aeanoue. A aa ninoaa aoiaeeee ei?ieaaneea naiiaieee:
ei?ae-eaioeea?, ei?ae-eacia/ae, eaia?aa?, notha?ae aeai?oea, o?aieoaeue
ee/iie ei?ieaaneie ia/aoe e neoaeauea aeai?a, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueii
i?eaeaoaaiua i?aeaou e aa?iiu. I?e Aai?eoa I iaeay eo?ey ?aniaeanue ia
nianoaaiii Ei?ieaaneoth eo?eth, auiieiyaooth ooieoeeth aa?oiaiiai
noaeaaii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaia, e N/aoioth iaeaoo (iaeaoo «oaoiaoiie
aeinee»), aaaeaaooth oeiainiauie aeaeaie ei?iey. Canaaeaiey eo?ee
aicaeaaeye ei?ieue, a a aai ionoonoaea — aunoee thnoeoeeoa?ee. Aeaeiia
ianoi a oi?aaeaiee caieiaee eaioeea?, auiieiyaoee ?ieue
ainoaea?noaaiiiai nae?aoa?y, e eacia/ae, caaaaeiaaaoee ei?ieaaneie
eaciie e aicaeaaeyaoee N/aoioth iaeaoo. E aunoae naiiaiie ciaoe
i?eiaaeeaaeaee oaeaea eiiiaoaaeue e ia?oae (ia?aue inouanoaeye
th?enaeeeoeeth ii aiaiiui aeaeai, aoi?ie o/anoaiaae a canaaeaieyo
eacia/aenoaa e noaeaaiuo nia?aieyo eo?ee).

Ia?yaeo n oe?aieaieai oeaio?aeueiiai aiia?aoa i?e Aai?eoa I oneeeeanue
oaeaea aeanoue ia ianoao. Yoo aeanoue inouanoaeyee oa?eou.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao, nicaeaiiue Aai?eoii I, iieo/aao aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea a oea?noaiaaiea Aai?eoa II (1154—1189).

?aoi?iu Aai?eoa II. Aeaaiia iai?aaeaiea ?aoi?iaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe
Aai?eoa II auei naycaii n oe?aieaieai ainoaea?noaaiiie th?enaeeeoeee ca
n/ao ia?aie/aiey noaeaaii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie aeanoe e?oiiuo oaiaeaeueiuo
nianoaaiieeia.

Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia (iaeaieaa aaaeiay aeey aeaeueiaeoae enoi?ee Aiaeee)
i?iaiaeeeanue i?aaeoaeuenoaii Aai?eoa II iinoaiaiii, iooai ecuyoey
ioaeaeueiuo eneia ec naiuei?eaeueiuo noaeia e ia?aaea/e eo noaeo
Ei?ieaaneie eo?ee. Ei?ieai a ?aciia a?aiy auee ecaeaiu annecu (annecie
iacuaaee ene, a oaeaea ?anii?yaeaiea i ?anneaaeiaaiee enea): Aaeeeay
anneca, anneca i nia?oe i?aaeoanoaaiieea, anneca i iiaii caoaaoa, anneca
i iineaaeiai i?aaenoaaeaiee ia i?eoiae. Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo ?a/ue eaeao
i caiea, yoi caiaeueiua enee. Oae, niaeanii Aaeeeie anneca
caeioa?aniaaiiay noi?iia eiaea i?aai ia?aianoe naie ene ioiineoaeueii
naiaiaeiiai aeaaeaiey (o?eaieueaea) ec ianoiiai noaea a Ei?ieaaneoth
eo?eth, caieaoea ca yoi niioaaonoaothuoth noiio.

Annecaie Aai?eoa II ec naiuei?eaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee auee eneeth/aiu ana
oaieiaiua aeaea, a oaeaea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eneia i caiaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe e eaiiii aeaaeaiee. Yoi iaianei /oanoaeoaeueiue oaea? ii
eiioieoaoiui i?eaeeaaeyi oaiaeaeueiuo iaaiaoia. Oneoaaie ei?ieaaneeo
noaeia iiaee iieueciaaoueny ana naiaiaeiua ethaee, ii iie nio?aiyee ca
niaie i?aai ia?auaoueny ii-i?aaeiaio e a iau/iua nioaiiua e
iaii?eaeueiua noaeu. Ei?ieaaneee noae, oioy e aue ieaoiui, eiae yaiua
i?aeiouanoaa. A iai i?aeoeeiaaeinue eieaeceoeeiiiia noaeii?iecaiaenoai
(i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ?anneaaeiaaiea aeaea), a ioee/ea io iau/iuo noaeia,
aaea onoaiiaeaiea enoeiu i?e ionoonoaee aeinoaoi/iuo naeaeaoaeueneeo
iieacaiee i?iecaiaeeeinue n iiiiuueth i?aeaeee (eniuoaiee). Anoanoaaiii,
/oi a ei?ieaaneee noae ia?auaeenue ioioiaa, e naiuei?eaeueiay
th?enaeeeoeey a ioiioaiee naiaiaeiuo ethaeae iaoeeiiii naa?ouaaeanue.

Ei?ieaaneay eo?ey, noaaoay iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuei aa?oiaiui noaeaaiui
i?aaiii, canaaeaea a ninoaaa iyoe th?enoia — o?ao ie?yi e aeaoo
eee?eeia. Iia caieiaeanue aeaeaie eannaoeeiiiiai ii?yaeea, a oaeaea
iaeioi?uie eaoaai?eyie eneia i nianoaaiiinoe. Iiae aa th?enaeeeoeeae
iaoiaeeeenue ana iaiin?aaenoaaiiua ei?ieaaneea aannaeu. A ia/aea XIII a.
Ei?ieaaneay eo?ey ?acaeaeeeanue ia noae ei?ieaaneie neaiuee, aaaeaaoee
oaieiaiuie aeaeaie e ?acai?ii aiaeeyoeee, e noae iaueo oyaea, aaaeaaoee
aeaeaie iauaai oa?aeoa?a.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XII a. ioi?ieeny einoeooo ?acuacaeiuo noaeae. Auacaeu
i?aaenoaaeoaeae Ei?ieaaneie eo?ee aeey eiio?iey iaae noaeaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth oa?eoia i?aeoeeiaaeenue oaea i?e Aai?eoa I. N 1176 a.
ei?ieaaneea noaeuee ia/aee aaeaaiaeii auacaeaoue a noaeaaiua ie?oaa,
/oiau ?acae?aoue enee, i?aeiouanoaaiii naycaiiua n eioa?anaie ei?iiu
(«oyaeau ei?iiu»). E?iia oiai, iie inouanoaeyee, ?aaeceth ianoiiai
oi?aaeaiey.

Neaaeothuei oaaii a ?acaeoee ei?ieaaneie th?enaeeeoeee auei aaaaeaiea
einoeoooa i?enyaeiuo iaaeieoaeae. Niaeanii annecai, a eaaeaeie nioia
iacia/aeenue 12 iieiii?aaiuo ethaeae e, e?iia oiai, /aou?a naiaiaeiuo
/aeiaaea ec eaaeaeie aea?aaie, eioi?ua iiae i?enyaie aeieaeiu auee
oeacaoue oa?eoo eee ei?ieaaneiio noaeuea anao ?acaieieeia, a?aaeoaeae,
oaeeoe, oaeueoeaiiiiao/eeia e iiaeaeeaaoaeae, a oaeaea eo iiniaieeia e
oe?uaaoaeae, iaoiaeyueony a i?aaeaeao aeaiiie nioie. Ei?ieaaneea noaeuee
e oa?eou ia iniiaaiee yoeo aeaiiuo aaee ?anneaaeiaaiea, a caoai auiineee
i?eaiai?.

I?enyaeiua a?aiaie Aai?eoa II — yoi ia noaeuee, yoi i?inoi naaaeouea
ethaee, aeathuea iiae i?enyaie iieacaiey i i?aaao naieo oyaeoueony
ninaaeae. Iie eee auee naeaeaoaeyie oaeoa, eee eiaee i iai aeinoiaa?ioth
eioi?iaoeeth io eeoe, auaoeo naeaeaoaeyie. Iinoaiaiii i?enyaeiua
noaiiayony noaeueyie, ninoaaeythueie i?eaiai?, a eo ooieoeey ia?aoea e
ae?oaei eeoeai. I?eioeei ?anneaaeiaaiey /a?ac i?enyaeiuo aue i?eiaiai
Aai?eoii II e e oaieiaiui e e a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai.

Aiaiiay ?aoi?ia auea i?iaaaeaia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XII a. Nouiinoue
?aoi?iu naiaeeeanue e oiio, /oi aeey oaiaeaeia acaiai aiaiiie neoaeau
aue onoaiiaeai iaeia, aceiaaiue n ?uoea?ae eaaeaeue ?ac, eiaaea
i?aaenoiyea eaeay-eeai aiaiiay eaiiaiey. Ia yoe «ueoiaua aeaiueae»
niaea?aeaeinue iaaiiia ?uoea?neia aienei. A oi aea a?aiy Aai?eo II
ainnoaiiaee i?eoaaeoaa a oiaaeie ia?iaeiia iiie/aiea. A niioaaonoaee n
annecie i aii?oaeaiee ana naiaiaeiia ianaeaiea Aiaeee iaycuaaeinue
iacaaanoenue i?oaeeai niia?acii n?aaenoaai. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiie
?ai?aaiecaoeee aiaiiuo nee ineaaea caaeneiinoue ei?ieaaneie aeanoe io
aiee oaiaeaeia a aiaiiie iaeanoe, /oi niinianoaiaaei oeaio?aeecaoeee
ainoaea?noaa.

A 1164 a. Aai?eo II i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo oi?acaeieoue i?eaeeaaeth
aeooiaainoaa a noa?a th?enaeeeoeee. Eea?aiaeiineea iinoaiiaeaiey
ia?aie/eaaee i?a?iaaoeau oea?eiaiuo noaeia e oneeeaaee caaeneiinoue
oea?eae io ainoaea?noaa. Ianiio?y ia oi /oi yoe iinoaiiaeaiey ia auee
i?iaaaeaiu a aeeciue ec-ca iiiiceoeee aunoaai aeooiaainoaa, ei?ieth
oaeaeinue aaanoe a naith eiiiaoaioeeth iacia/aiea aieneiiia e ianeieueei
ia?aie/eoue oea?eiaioth th?enaeeeoeeth ii aeaeai i ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?anooieaieyo aeooiaiuo eeoe.

Aaeeeay oa?oey aieueiinoae. A XIII a. a Aiaeee ?acaa?ioeanue ino?ay
iieeoe/aneay ai?ueaa, ii?aaeaeeaoay aa iineaaeothuaa iieeoe/aneia
?acaeoea. Neeueiie ei?ieaaneie aeanoe i?ioeainoiyee ioi?ieaoeany
nineiaey.

Yoi auei a?aiy ?anoeaaoa oaiaeaeueiiai no?iy. Oeaio?aeecaoeey eaiiuo
ioiioaiee a Aiaeee aeinoeaea oaeiai o?iaiy, eioi?iai ia ciae
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneee oaiaeaeeci oiai a?aiaie. Ei?ieaaneay aeanoue
inouanoaeyea iieeoe/aneia ainiiaenoai iaae cia/eoaeueiui aieueoeinoaii
ianaeaiey. I?ioeaieeaie neeueiie ei?ieaaneie aeanoe auee oaiaeaeueiua
iaaiaou, eioi?ua oioy e ia iaeaaeaee a Aiaeee oaeei iiaouanoaii, eae a
eiioeiaioaeueiuo no?aiao, ii n oniaoii iiaee i?ioeainoiyoue ei?ieaaneie
aeanoe. I?e Eiaiia Aaccaiaeueiii (1199—1216) ai?ueaa aa?iiia i?eia?aea
iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? e iieo/eea iiaeaea?aeeo ae?oaeo aeoeaiuo
iieeoe/aneeo nee no?aiu — aeai?yinoaa e ai?iaeneie aa?oooee. A no?aia
ia?aciaaeny iauee aioeei?ieaaneee o?iio, aicaeaaeyaiue aa?iiaie e aunoei
aeooiaainoaii. Neooaoeey iaino?eeanue a nayce n iaoaea/iie aioo?aiiae e
aiaoiae iieeoeeie. Eiaii aae aania?niaeoeaioth aieio ai O?aioeee e
anooiee a eiioeeeo n iiaouanoaaiiui iaiie ?eineei, caeii/eaoeeny
iiaaaeie iineaaeiaai. Iaaeiaieuenoai aucuaaee e iiiai/eneaiiua iiai?u,
aceiaaiua aii?aee oaiaeaeueiui iau/ayi.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo aa?iiu aianoa n ?uoea?yie e eiiaeiineie aa?oooeie
canoaaeee Eiaiia Aaccaiaeueiiai 15 ethey 1215 a. iiaeienaoue Aaeeeoth
oa?oeth aieueiinoae. Ia?acoeii aeey iaa iineoaeeea Oa?oey aieueiinoae
Aai?eoa I, iaeiaei ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth Oa?oey 1215 a. aiaa/a e oe?a.

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a oa?oee caieiatho noaouee, au?aaeathuea eioa?anu
aa?iiia, aicaeaaeyaoeo aeaeaeaiea. Aa?iineea eaiu iauyaeyeenue naiaiaeii
ianeaaeoaiuie aeaaeaieyie. Ei?ieue ia eiae i?aaa o?aaiaaoue io
anooiaaoaai a ianeaaenoai iieiaeiai aa?iia aieueoa onoaiiaeaiiiai
ennoa?e a oaiaeaeueiii aeiaiai?a ieaoaaea — ?aeueaoa e iaauae ia
ceioiio?aaeyoue i?aaii iiaee iaae ianiaa?oaiiieaoieie aannaeaie. Oa?oey
ainnoaiaaeeaaea iaeioi?ua naiuei?eaeueiua i?aaa aa?iiia, ouaieaiiua a
?acoeueoaoa ?anoe?aiey ei?ieaaneie th?enaeeeoeee; oae, cai?auaeinue
ia?aiineoue ii ei?ieaaneiio i?eeaco enee i nianoaaiiinoe ec eo?ee aa?iia
a ei?ieaaneoth eo?eth. Ei?ieue iaauae ono?aieoue anyeee i?iecaie i?e
iaeiaeaiee aa?iiia aeaiaaeiuie iiaeiiinoyie. Oieueei a o?ao neo/ayo
aa?iiu auee iaycaiu aeaaaoue ei?ieth oia?aiioth aeaiaaeioth iiiiuue: i?e
aueoia ei?iey ec ieaia, i?e iinayuaiee a ?uoea?e aai noa?oaai nuia, a
nayce ni naaaeueaie noa?oae aei/a?e io ia?aiai a?aea.

Aianoa n oai iaeioi?ua iinoaiiaeaiey oa?oee caueuaee eioa?anu ae?oaeo
o/anoieeia aeaeaeaiey. Oae, iiaeoaa?aeaeaeenue nouanoaiaaaoea ?aiaa
i?eaeeaaee e naiaiaeu oea?eae e aeooiaainoaa, a /anoiinoe naiaiaea
oea?eiaiuo auai?ia.

A ioiioaiee ?uoea?ae a oa?oee auei i?aaeoniio?aii iaauaiea aa?iiia ia
a?aoue ni naieo aannaeia eaeeo-eeai nai?ia aac eo niaeaney, e?iia
iau/iuo oaiaeaeueiuo iiniaee, a oaeaea ia iiioaeaeaoue eo e auiieiaieth
iiaeiiinoae a aieueoai ?acia?a, /ai oio, eioi?ue neaaeoao ii iau/ath.

Oa?oey iiaeoaa?aeaeaea ae?aaiea aieueiinoe Eiiaeiia e ae?oaeo ai?iaeia,
a oaeaea i?aai eoioeia, a oii /enea eiicaiiuo, naiaiaeii auacaeaoue ec
Aiaeee e auacaeaoue a iaa, aanoe oi?aiaeth aac eaeeo-eeai noaniaiee. A
oa?oee auei onoaiiaeaii iaiaoiaeeiia aeey oi?aiaee aaeeinoai ia? e
aania.

Naiaiaeiui e?anoueyiai auei iaauaii ia ia?aiaiyoue eo iaiineeueiuie
iiai?aie, ia ?aci?youe oo?aoaie.

Iaeioi?ua iieiaeaiey oa?oee nua?aee cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a iieeoe/aneie
yaiethoeee Aiaeee. ?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea anaai i no. 12 e 14. A no. 12
oeacuaaaony: «Ie “ueoiaua aeaiueae”, ie (eaeia-eeai eiia) iiniaea ia
aeieaeiu aceiaoueny a ei?ieaanoaa iaoai eia/a, eae ii iauaio niaaoo
ei?ieaanoaa iaoaai». Noaouey 14 ii?aaeaeyao ninoaa yoiai niaaoa: «A aeey
oiai /oiau eiaoue iauee niaao ei?ieaanoaa i?e iaeiaeaiee iiniaeai a
ae?oaeo neo/ayo, e?iia auoaiacaaiiuo, eee aeey iaeiaeaiey “ueoiauie
aeaiueaaie”, iu iiaaeei iicaaoue a?oeaieneiiia, aieneiiia, aaaaoia,
a?aoia e noa?oeo aa?iiia iaoeie ienueiaie eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueii e, e?iia
oiai, iiaaeei iicaaoue iaoeii, /a?ac oa?eoia e aaeeeoia iaoeo, anao oao,
eoi aea?aeeo io ian iaiin?aaenoaaiii». Oaeei ia?acii, niaao ei?ieaanoaa
— yoi nia?aiea anao ei?ieaaneeo aannaeia, eioi?ia iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue
eae i?ioioei iaeaou ei?aeia. Anee e yoiio nia?aieth ei?ieaaneeo aannaeia
aeiaaaeoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae io a?aonoa e ai?iaeia, oi iaeeoei aiaeeeneee
n?aaeiaaaeiaue ia?eaiaio. Oaeei ia?acii, Aaeeeay oa?oey aieueiinoae auea
i?ieiaii a enoi?ee aiaeeeneiai ia?eaiaioa.

Aieueoia aieiaiea caneoaeeaatho no. 39 e 40 oa?oee. Ia?aay aeaneo: «Ie
iaeei naiaiaeiue /aeiaae ia aoaeao caaea?aeai eee caeeth/ai a oth?ueio,
eee eeoai eiouanoaa, eee iauyaeai noiyuei aia caeiia, eee ecaiai, eee
eaeei-eeai eiui niiniaii iaacaeieai, e iu ia iieaeai ia iaai e ia iioeai
ia iaai eia/a, eae ii caeiiiiio i?eaiai?o ?aaiuo aai (aai iy?ia) e ii
caeiio no?aiu». A oi a?aiy iiiyoeai «naiaiaeiue /aeiaae» iaicia/aeny
oaiaeae. Iaeiaei a aeaeueiaeoai iiae «naiaiaeiui /aeiaaeii» oi?iaeueii
noaee iiieiaoue anyeiai naiaiaeiiai aeeoaey Aiaeee. Niaea?aeaiea no. 39
oa?oee auei aiineaaenoaee ?acaeoi a Iaoeoeee i i?aaa 1628 iea Oaaaan
Ei?ion Aeoa 1679 a. Noaouey 40 oa?oee, a eioi?ie aiai?eony: «Ieeiio ia
aoaeai i?iaeaaaoue ni?aaaaeeeainoue e i?aainoaeea, ieeiio ia aoaeai
ioeacuaaoue a ieo eee eo caoyaeaaoue»,— oanii naycaia ii naiae nooe ni
no. 39.

Eiaii Aaccaiaeueiue, aiineaaenoaee ionooiea ia?aae aii?oaeaiiie neeie
naieo iiaeaeaiiuo, aiineaaenoaee ioeacaeny io oa?oee. Niiaa ia/aeanue
aii?oaeaiiay ai?ueaa, ii nia?oue Eiaiia (1216 a.) iiiaoaea aeiaanoe aa
aei eaeiai-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?acoeueoaoa.

3. Nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiay iiia?oey

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OIII a. a Aiaeee ioi?ieyaony
nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiay iiia?oey.

A ?yaea no?ai aicieeiiaaiea nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ia
auei naycaii n eaeeie-eeai cia/eoaeueiuie iieeoe/aneeie iio?ynaieyie.
Ei?ieaaneay aeanoue ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa ia?auaeanue e nineiaiiio
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoao. A Aiaeee, aaea aanueia ?aii oe?aieeanue ei?ieaaneay
aeanoue, eeoeaoay oaiaeaeueioth ciaoue aa iieeoe/aneie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiay nenoaia neiaeeeanue a
?acoeueoaoa ino?ie ai?ueau oaiaeaeia n ei?ieai e iciaiaiiaaea
iieeoe/aneoth iiaaaeo nineiaee iaae iiia?oeae.

Iaeiie ec i?aaeiinueie aicieeiiaaiey nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie
iiia?oee auei ioi?ieaiea oaiaeaeueiuo nineiaee. A Aiaeee i?ioeann
niei/aiey oaiaeaeia a nineiaey i?ienoiaeee a niaoeeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo:
eaiiay ea?a?oey ia iieo/eea caeanue oe?ieiai ?acaaoaeaiey;
nineiaii-iieeoe/aneea ioiioaiey a ia?aia a?aiy ineiaeiyeenue yoie/aneeie
?acee/eyie (iie en/acee e eiioeo XII a.); oaiaeaeueiay ciaoue ni a?aiaie
caaiaaaiey iaoiaeeeanue a neeueiie caaeneiinoe io ei?ieaaneie aeanoe e
ia iiaea nicaeaoue caieioouo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aeaaeaiee; oneeeaoayny
ei?ieaaneay aeanoue ?aii eeoeea iaaiaoia eiioieoaoiuo i?eaeeaaee. Ii
aunoay oaiaeaeueiay ciaoue aeiaeeanue o nineiaiie iiia?oee
ianeaaenoaaiiiai iy?noaa. A /enei iy?ia aioee e e?oiiaeoea i?aeaou
aiaeeeneie oea?eae.

Aiaeeeneia aeai?yinoai oaea a XIII a. ea?aei aieueooth ?ieue a
yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu. Iii ?aii iioa?yei aiaiiia
cia/aiea, caoi i?eia?aei aieueoie aan a ianoiie iieeoe/aneie aeecie.
Eioa?anu aeai?yi — ?uoea?ae e aeaeaio?e (iiaia aeai?yinoai)— naeeceeenue
n eioa?anaie ai?iaeneie aa?oooee e iaeeeo aea?aaaineeo nianoaaiieeia. A
?acaa?ioaoaeny iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaa aeai?yinoai e aa?oooea ai?iaeneiai e
naiaiaeiiai naeueneiai ianaeaiey aunooiaee caiaeii.

Ia/aaoayny i?e Eiaiia Aaccaiaeueiii ai?ueaa oaiaeaeueiuo nineiaee i?ioea
ei?iey aeinoeaea iniaiai iai?yaeaiey a 50—60-a aa. XIII a. Iieeoeea
Aai?eoa III aucuaaea iiiiceoeeth, iiaeaea?aeaiioth anaie nineiaeyie.
Iiaiaeii e ioe?uoiio aunooieaieth iineoaeee nicua Aieueoiai niaaoa a
1258 a., ia eioi?ii ei?ieue iio?aaiaae ia?iiioth noiio aeaiaa aeey
iie?uoey aeieaa iaineie eo?ee (?a/ue oea i nai?a a eacio o?aoe aeioiaeia
io aeaeaeeiie e iaaeaeaeeiie nianoaaiiinoe).

11 ethiy 1258 a. aii?oaeaiiua aa?iiu nuaoaeenue a Ienoi?ae, aaea ia
ao?iii nia?aiee, iieo/eaoai iacaaiea «aaoaiiai ia?eaiaioa», i?aaeuyaeee
ei?ieth iaoeoeeth ec 29 ioieoia. I?aaenoaaeaiiue i?iaeo ia?aono?ienoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey aue i?eiyo ia?eaiaioii e iacaai
Ienoi?aeneeie i?iaeceyie. Yoio aeo ia?aaeaaae anth aeanoue a ?oee 15
aa?iiia, iieiinoueth eiio?iee?iaaaoeo ei?iey e iacia/aaoeo e niauaaoeo
anao aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. O?e ?aca a aiae aeieaeai aue nicuaaoueny
ia?eaiaio, a eioi?ii, e?iia «niaaoa iyoiaaeoeaoe», aeieaeiu auee
canaaeaoue 12 aa?iiia a ea/anoaa auai?iuo io iaueiu (iiae iaueiie
iiae?acoiaaaeenue oa aea aa?iiu).

Nithcieeai ii aeaeaeaieth auee naeaeaiu ie/oiaeiua onooiee: aeaii
iaauaiea i?iaanoe ii anae no?aia ?anneaaeiaaiey i ceioiio?aaeaieyo
ei?ieaaneeo /eiiaieeia, cai?aoeoue noaeueyi a?aoue acyoee, iaania/eoue
auai?iinoue oa?eoia, iiaa?oiinoii auei neacaii ia oeo/oaiee iieiaeaiey
Eiiaeiia e ae?oaeo ai?iaeia.

Eoae, a 1258 a. aa?iiai oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny oiai, /aai iie ia niiaee
naeaeaoue a 1215 a.,— onoaiiaeoue naia ainiiaenoai. Yoi aucaaei
iaaeiaieuenoai ?uoea?ae, ai?iaeai e ae?oaeo neiaa ianaeaiey. A
i?ioeaiaan Ienoi?aeneei i?iaeceyi iie, nia?aaoenue a Aanoieinoa?a,
i?iaicaeaneee Aanoieinoa?neea i?iaecee. Yoio aeieoiaio onoaiaaeeaae
aa?aioee i?aa iaeeeo aannaeia ii ioiioaieth e eo naiuei?ai e
i?aaeoniao?eaae iaeioi?ua oeo/oaiey aeayoaeueiinoe ianoiuo i?aaiia e
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi auea ia?aay naiinoiyoaeueiay iauaiieeoe/aneay
i?ia?aiia ?uoea?noaa e i?eiueathueo e iaio o?eaieueaea?neeo neiaa,
ioee/iay io i?ia?aiiu aa?iiia.

?aaeei aa?iineie ieeaa?oee i?eaae e oaiaeaeueiie aia?oee a no?aia.
Iaaeaeo ei?ieai e aa?iiaie ia/aeanue a?aaeaeaineay aieia (1258—1267).

Neiii aea Iiioi?, aicaeaaeyaoee aienei aa?iiia, iaea?aeae aa?o iaae
ei?ieai e, aeaeay ca?o/eoueny iiaeaea?aeeie ?uoea?ae e ai?iaeai, nicaae
a 1265 a. ia?eaiaio, eioi?ue n/eoaaony ia?aui ia?eaiaioii Aiaeee,
iineieueeo ii ioiineoaeueii iieii i?aaenoaaeye anth no?aio. A ia?eaiaioa
canaaeaee ii aeaa ?uoea?y io eaaeaeiai a?aonoaa e ii aeaa i?aaenoaaeoaey
io eaaeaeiai ai?iaea. Ia/aaoeany aieiaiey n?aaee e?anoueyinoaa i?eaaee e
?aneieo n?aaee noi?iiieeia Iiioi?a: /anoue ec ieo ia?aoea ia noi?iio
ei?iey. Aiaiiua aeaenoaey aiciaiiaeeenue, e Iiioi? iiaea. Ianiio?y ia
aiaiiua oniaoe, ei?ieue aue auioaeaeai iieoe ia eiii?iienn n aa?iiaie,
?uoea?yie e ai?iaeaiaie. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai auei o/?aaeaeaiea
ia?eaiaioa.

A 1295 a. ei?ieue Yaeoa?ae I nicaae ia?eaiaio, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea
«ia?acoeiaiai». E?iia i?aeaoia e aa?iiia, i?eaeaoaiiuo ee/ii, auee
eca?aiu ii aeaa ?uoea?y io eaaeaeiai a?aonoaa e ii aeaa ai?iaeaieia io
eaaeaeiai iieo/eaoaai ia oi i?aai ai?iaea. A yoii ia?eaiaioa auei
i?aaenoaaeaii e aeooiaainoai.

Ia?aiia/aeueii ia?eaiaioa eae aaeeiiai iinoiyiii aeaenoaiaaaoaai i?aaia
ia nouanoaiaaei. Ii ia?a oiai eae ei?iia ioaeaeaeanue a aeaiueaao,
nicuaaeenue nia?aiey aa?aiia, i?aeaoia, i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?uoea?ae e
ai?iaeai. Nineiaey canaaeaee ?acaeaeueii, e iaeiae aeey eaaeaeiai
nineiaey onoaiaaeeaaeenue ?aciua. A ia?aie iieiaeia XIV a. i?e ei?iea
Yaeoa?aea III ia?eaiaio noaiiaeony aaeeiui o/?aaeaeaieai, ninoiyuei ec
aeaoo iaeao: aa?oiae — iaeaou ei?aeia e ieaeiae — iaeaou iauei. A iaeaoa
ei?aeia canaaeaee i?aeaou e aa?iiu. N XV a. yoa iaeaoa noaea
oi?ie?iaaoueny i?aeiouanoaaiii ec ianeaaenoaaiiuo iy?ia. A ieaeiae
iaeaoa canaaeaee ?uoea?e e i?aaenoaaeoaee ai?iaeia (ecae?aeenue ii aeaa
?uoea?y io eaaeaeiai a?aonoaa e ii aeaa i?aaenoaaeoaey io ai?iaea).
I?i/iue nithc aeai?yinoaa e ai?iaeai iaania/ee iaeaoa iauei aieueoaa
iieeoe/aneia aeeyiea, /ai nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo nia?aiee a ae?oaeo
no?aiao. Aeooiaainoai a aiaeeeneii ia?eaiaioa ia auei iniai auaeaeaii
eae nineiaea — i?aeaou aioee a iaeaoo ei?aeia. Inoaeueiia aeooiaainoai
ia iieo/eei i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa aiiaua, ii nicuaaeenue iniaua nia?aiey
aeooiaainoaa — eiiaieaoeee.

Ia?aie e aaaeiaeoae ooieoeeae ia?eaiaioa auea oeiainiaay — enoi/iee aai
iieeoe/aneiai aeeyiey e iiaouanoaa. A 1297 a. noaooo «I iaiaeiaeaiee
iiaeaoae» onoaiiaee, /oi iaeiaeaiea i?yiuie iaeiaaie aeiioneaaony
oieueei n niaeaney ia?eaiaioa. A XIV a. auei iinoaaeaii a caaeneiinoue
io niaeaney ia?eaiaioa aceiaiea e einaaiiuo iaeiaia. Oiaaea aea Yaeoa?ae
III ooaa?aeee i?aaeei, /oi i?e onoaiiaeaiee iaeiaia ?aoathuei aieinii
iaeaaeaao iaeaoa iauei. Ieii/aoaeueii aaaeouay ?ieue a yoii aii?ina
ieaeiae iaeaou ooaa?aeaeaaony a 1407 a. Oaia?ue iaeaoa iauei
?anniao?eaaaony eae nia?aiea i?aaenoaaeoaeae anae iaoeee.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n oeiainiaie ooieoeeae ia?eaiaio i?eia?aoaao noaeaaioth.
Aunieee noae ia?eaiaioa aue ieeoeaoai?aieai ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Noaeaaiay
ooieoeey iaeaou iauei au?aaeaeanue a aiciiaeiinoe iaaeiyoue aunoeo
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ainoaea?noaa a ceioiio?aaeaiee naieie iaycaiiinoyi.
Oaeea aeaea ?anniao?eaaeenue iaeaoie ei?aeia, noaaoae e eiioeo XIV —
ia/aeo XV a. aunoae noaeaaiie einoaioeeae no?aiu.

Iniiaiie oi?iie ia?eaiaioneie aeayoaeueiinoe auee iaoeoeee. A ieo iaeaoa
iauei eceaaaea i?inueao ia eciaiaiee nouanoaothueo i?aa eee ia
onoaiiaeaiee iiauo. I?e iiaeaea?aeea iaoeoeee iaeaoie ei?aeia e ei?ieai
iie noaiiaeeenue iniiaie aeey ecaeaiey niioaaonoaothuaai caeiia. I?e
oaeii ii?yaeea iaeuecy aiai?eoue ia aeoeaiii o/anoee ieaeiae iaeaou a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii i?ioeanna. Iinoaiaiii iiae aeaaeaieai iaeaou iauei
i?ioeaaeo?a i?eiyoey caeiia auea eciaiaia. Io iaoeoeee ia?aoee e aeeeyi.
Oaia?ue iaeaoa iauei ia i?ineea, a i?aaeeaaaea aioiaue caeiiii?iaeo.

Iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey aeeeae iaeaoie ei?aeia e iiaeienaieai eo ei?ieai iie
noaiiaeeenue caeiiaie (noaoooaie). Oae iaeaoa iauei i?eia?aea aua iaeio
ooieoeeth — caeiiiaeaoaeueioth.

Ia?eaiaio aiaoeaaeny e a iaeanoue aiaoiae iieeoeee: aai niaeanea
o?aaiaaeinue i?e ?ac?aoaiee aii?inia aieiu e ie?a.

Eoae, e XV a. neiaeeeanue no?oeoo?a aiaeeeneiai ia?eaiaioa, iinoiyiiie
noaea aeieaeiinoue nieea?a (i?aaenaaeaoaey ieaeiae iaeaou),
ii?aaeaeeeenue ooieoeee ia?eaiaioa, ooaa?aeeeenue iaeioi?ua i?ioeaaeo?u
aai ?aaiou. Iai?eia?, aue onoaiiaeai i?eioeei naiaiaeu neiaa, ei?iee ia
aiaoeaaeenue a aeaaaou, i?ienoiaeeaoea a iaeaoao. *eaiu ia?eaiaioa
iaeaaeaee iai?eeiniiaaiiinoueth, iie ia iiaee auoue a?anoiaaiu a oa/aiea
nannee e 40 aeiae iinea aa ieii/aiey.

Ana auoaneacaiiia iicaieyao ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aiaeeeneee ia?eaiaio aue
cia/eoaeueii niaa?oaiiaa ae?oaeo nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia
aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa.

4. Aaniethoiay iiia?oey

A Aiaeee aaniethoeci neiaeeeny a i?aaeaiea aeeianoee Othaei?ia.
Iniiaaoaeue yoie aeeianoee — Aai?eo XII Othaei? — caiye aiaeeeneee
i?anoie a 1485 a., iinea aieiu Aeie e Aaeie ?ic. Yoa aieia aaaeoueo
a?enoie?aoe/aneeo eeaiia Eaieanoa?ia e Ei?eia cia/eoaeueii ineaaeea
ei?ieaaneoth aeanoue. Aai?eo VII, eiay iiaeaea?aeeo a eeoea aieueoae
/anoe a?enoie?aoee, ?uoea?noaa, ai?iaeai, i?iaae ?yae ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo
ia oneeaiea ei?ieaaneie aeanoe. A ioiioaiee iiiiceoeee auee i?eiyou
aeanoeea ia?u: caiee iiiiceoeeiia?ia auee eiioeneiaaiu, caiee n?uou,
aiaiiua ae?oaeeiu ?aniouaiu. Aa?iiu eeoaeenue i?eaeeaaee e noaeaaiie
th?enaeeeoeee, aeey ai?ueau n caaiai?ueeaie auea nicaeaia Caacaeiay
iaeaoa, oe?aieyeenue i?aaiu oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey. Iieeoeea ei?iey
iieo/eea iiaeaea?aeeo ni noi?iiu ia?eaiaioa.

Aeaeueiaeoaa oneeaiea ei?ieaaneie aeanoe i?iecioei a i?aaeaiea Aai?eoa
VIII (1509—1547). Aai aeoeaiay aiaoiyy iieeoeea iicaieeea Aiaeee aieoe a
/enei aaeeeeo aa?iiaeneeo iiia?oee.

Aaaeiui niauoeai yaeeanue ?aoi?iaoeey oea?eae, i?iaaaeaiiay Aai?eoii
VIII. Ioeac iaiu ?eineiai ?anoi?aiooue a?ae ei?iey Aiaeee n i?eioeannie
Aeaoa?eiie A?aaiineie i?eaae e ?ac?uao Aiaeee n ?einei-eaoiee/aneie
oea?eiaueth. A 1534 a. aue ecaeai Aeo i noi?aiaoee, i?iaicaeaoaaoee
ei?iey aeaaie oea?eae. Oea?eiaiia eiouanoai auei naeoey?ece?iaaii,
iiianou?e cae?uou. Oea?eiaiay i?aaiecaoeey aioea ninoaaiie /anoueth a
ainoaea?noaaiioth. Iiaay ?aeeaey ?anniao?eaaea ei?iey eae aiieiuaiea
aiaeanoaa ia caiea, /oi niinianoaiaaei oe?aieaieth aaniethoecia.

Neaaeothuee aaaeiue yoai a enoi?ee Aiaeee naycai n 45-eaoiei i?aaeaieai
Aeecaaaou (1558—1603). Yoi aue «cieioie aae». Iieeoeea i?ioaeoeeiiecia
iicaieeea aiaeeeneei iaiooaeoo?ai aueoe ia ie?iaie ?uiie a ?aciuo /anoyo
naaoa. Aiaeey noaea e?oiiaeoae ii?neie aea?aeaaie. Ieii/aoaeueii
ooaa?aeeeinue aiaeeeainoai. A 1559 a. ia?eaiaio iiaeoaa?aeee, /oi
ei?ieaaa yaeyaony aeaaie oea?eae.

Othaei?u noiaee oe?aieoue ei?ieaaneoth aeanoue, noaoue aaniethoiuie
iiia?oaie e i?e yoii nio?aieoue noa?ua aiaeeeneea o?aaeeoeee.

A Aiaeee oeaio?aeecaoeey oi?aaeaiey ia aeinoeaea oaeiai aunieiai o?iaiy,
eae a ae?oaeo aaniethoenoneeo ainoaea?noaao, ia auei e ?acaeooiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa. Ia ianoao nio?aiyeinue aeai?yineia
naiioi?aaeaiea. Auai?iua ie?iaua noaeuee ia oieueei ioi?aaeyee
i?aainoaeea, ii e neaaeeee ca ii?yaeeii, i?eaiaeeee a eniieiaiea caeiiu.
Yoe iaycaiiinoe ?anniao?eaaeenue eae ii/aoiue aeiea ia?aae ainoaea?noaii
e ie/aai ia noieee ainoaea?noaaiiie eacia.

Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth aiaeeeneiai aaniethoecia auei oaeaea niaea?aeaiea
iaiiiai/eneaiiie iinoiyiiie a?iee. Nio?aiyeanue noa?eiiay nenoaia
ia?iaeiiai iiie/aiey.

Iaeiei ec y?eeo i?iyaeaiee aiaeeeneeo o?aaeeoeee auei niaianoiia
i?aaeaiea ei?iey e ia?eaiaioa. I?e Othaei?ao /enei /eaiia iaeaou iauei
aic?inei n 296 aei 462. Ai?iaeaia auee caeioa?aniaaiu a oaaee/aiee naieo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae a ia?eaiaioa. Ei?iia niaethaeaea oio ii?yaeie ?aaiou
ia?eaiaioa, eioi?ue neiaeeeny e XVI a. I?aaaea, ia?eaiaio ia?anoae
aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa ia?aie/eoaey ei?ieaaneie aeanoe, noae iineooiui
i?oaeeai a aa ?oeao. A 1539 a. ia?eaiaio i?e?aaiye ei?ieaaneea oeacu e
noaoooai, i?eciaa oai naiui aeanoue ei?iey iaae niaie. Ei?ieaaneea
ieieno?u, auaoea iaeiia?aiaiii /eaiaie iaeaou iauei, ieacuaaee aieueoia
aeeyiea ia aa ?aaioo. Aeecaaaoa inouanoaeyea iieiue eiio?ieue ca
ia?eaiaioii, aeoeaii aiaoeaaynue a aai ?aaioo.

E ana-oaee nai oaeo nouanoaiaaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe ia?eaiaioa ia?yaeo n
oaeeie iniaaiiinoyie, eae ionoonoaea oeaio?aeueiiai ath?ie?aoe/aneiai
aiia?aoa e iinoiyiiie neeueiie a?iee, iicaieyao aiai?eoue ia aiaeeeneii
aaniethoecia, eae eiathuai iacaaa?oaiiue oa?aeoa?.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu i?aaeaiey Aeecaaaou iaiaoeeny eiioeeeo iaaeaeo
iauanoaii e ei?iiie. Ii aue aucaai oeiainiauie i?iaeaiaie. Aeoeaiay
aiaoiyy iieeoeea iionoioeea ainoaea?noaaiioth eacio, /oi i?eaaei e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, n iaeiie noi?iiu, nie?aoeoue oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo
a?enoie?aoee, a n ae?oaie — oaaee/eoue iiai?u, aaanoe i?eioaeeoaeueiua
caeiu, eiaeeaoeany ia oi?aiai-i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea e?oae.
Iaaeiaieuenoai iieeoeeie i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?iyaeyeinue ni noi?iiu
?acee/iuo neiaa ianaeaiey. Oeaio?ii iiiiceoeee noaiiaeony iaeaoa iauei,
a eioi?ie ana a?ii/a ?acaeathony aieina i ia?ooaiee ia?eaiaioneeo
i?eaeeaaee, i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aie/eoue aiaoaoaeuenoai ei?iiu a aeaea
ia?eaiaioa. A 1601 a. iiae aeaaeaieai iiiiceoeee auee ioiaiaiu iaeioi?ua
iiiiiieueiua i?eaeeaaee a i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaea, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii e?ecena. Aioo?aiiyy e aiaoiyy
iieeoeea Notha?oia i?eaaea e ?ac?anoaieth yoiai e?ecena.

Iiaay aeeianoey — Notha?oia aioea?eeanue ia aiaeeeneii i?anoiea a 1625
a. iinea nia?oe Aeecaaaou. I?aaeaiea sseiaa I e Ea?ea I ioia/aii
?aeeaeiciie e iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaie. I?eaa?aeaiiinoue eaoieeoeecio,
i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea e ia?eaiaioo, iai?eciaiea aai aeanoiuo
ooieoeee, onoaiiaeaiea a iaoiae iaai iaeiaia, iaauaiaeiay aeey Aiaeee
aiaoiyy iieeoeea — ana yoi ioee/aao i?aaeaiea Notha?oia. Ie?iia
ninouanoaiaaiea ia?eaiaioa e ei?iiu eii/eeinue. Nnueaynue ia
i?aoeaaeaiou XIV—XV aa., iie?aynue ia iiaeaea?aeeo ianaeaiey, ia?eaiaio
iiaae ai?ueao ca ainnoaiiaeaiea naieo i?eaeeaaee. A eiioea eiioeia yoa
ai?ueaa aueeeanue a ao?aeoacioth ?aaiethoeeth.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae ?acaeoey Aiaeee a ia?eiae aaniethoecia, neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi yoio enoi?e/aneee yoai iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa caiaoii
ioee/athueony ae?oa io ae?oaa. Aaniethoiay iiia?oey a eeoea Othaei?ia
niinianoaiaaea niei/aieth ainoaea?noaa, i?aiaeieaieth oaiaeaeueiie ?icie
e oniaoiiio yeiiiie/aneiio e iieeoe/aneiio ?acaeoeth ainoaea?noaa.
Aaniethoeci Notha?oia oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie oaiaeaioeeyie —
yoi ?ino iiai?ia n ianaeaiey, iaiaaenoue e io?eoaiai, ?anoe?aiea
ooieoeee Aunieie eiiennee e Caacaeiie iaeaou, iaaeaeaiea eaeoe ie ia
eaeea eiii?iiennu.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie. Aunoei i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey ia?eiaea aaniethoecia
aue Oaeiue niaao, a ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeeee i?aaenoaaeoaee e
oaiaeaeueiie ciaoe, e iiaiai aeai?yinoaa, e ao?aeoacee. Oaeiue niaao
iaeaaeae aeiaieueii oe?ieie eiiiaoaioeeae: ii oi?aaeye caii?neeie
eieiieyie, ?aaoee?iaae aiaoithth oi?aiaeth, i?e aai o/anoee ecaeaaaeenue
i?aeiiainu, ii ?anniao?eaae iaeioi?ua noaeaaiua aeaea a ea/anoaa noaea
ia?aie einoaioeee e a aiaeeyoeeiiiii ii?yaeea.

N?aaee aiiaue nicaeaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee neaaeoao i?aaeaea anaai iacaaoue
Caacaeioth iaeaoo, yaeyaoothny ioaeaeaieai Oaeiiai niaaoa. Caacaeiay
iaeaoa, o/?aaeaeaiiay aeey ai?ueau n i?ioeaieeaie ei?ieaaneie aeanoe, e
auea naiaai ?iaea iieeoe/aneei o?eaoiaeii. I?ioeann iinee
eieaeceoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?, aeiioneaeinue i?eiaiaiea iuoie. Caacaeiay
iaeaoa inouanoaeyea oaeaea oeaico?o ia/aoiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. Iiaeiaiui
o/?aaeaeaieai yaeyeanue e Aunieay eiienney, nicaeaiiay i?e Aeecaaaoa e
i?ecaaiiay ?anniao?eaaoue aeaea i i?aaiia?ooaieyo i?ioea oea?eae.
Iicaeiaa ooieoeee aa auee ?anoe?aiu, e iia noaea ?acae?aoue aeaea i
a?iaeyaao, caieiaeanue oeaico?ie. Aeey ?anniio?aiey a?aaeaeaineeo aeae
auea nicaeaia Iaeaoa i?ioaiee. Iia, eae e Caacaeiay iaeaoa,
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie ioaeaeaiea Oaeiiai niaaoa.

Ia?yaeo n oeacaiiuie oeaio?aeueiuie i?aaiaie neaaeoao iacaaoue e
ia?eaiaio, i?iaeieaeaaoee ?aaioaoue i?e Othaei?ao e ii/oe ia
niae?aaoeeny i?e Notha?oao.

A eiioea XIV a. auea nicaeaia aeieaeiinoue ei?ieaaneiai nae?aoa?y, a
aaaeaiee eioi?iai iaoiaeeeenue iaeaieaa aaaeiua ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea.
E XVI a. iacia/athony aeaa nae?aoa?y.

Aaaeiaeoeie noaeaaiuie einoaioeeyie ia?eiaea aaniethoecia auee Noae
ei?ieaaneie neaiuee, Noae iaueo oyaea e Noae eaioeea?a.

Iaeioi?ua eciaiaiey i?iecioee a ianoiii oi?aaeaiee. No?aiynue
iiae/eieoue aai naiaio eiio?ieth, i?aaeoaeuenoai nicaeaei a a?aonoaao
aeieaeiinoue ei?ae-eaeoaiaioa, aicaeaaeyaoaai ie?iauo noaeae e
iieeoeeth. A XVI a. i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeoea iecoae naiioi?aaeythuaeny
aaeeieoeu — i?eoiaea. I?eoiae yaeyeny iaeiia?aiaiii e oa??eoi?eaeueiie,
e oea?eiaiie aaeeieoeae. Ia i?eoiaeneii nia?aiee, a eioi?ii iiaee
i?eieiaoue o/anoea oieueei eeoea, aiineaoea iaeiae ia ioaeaeu oea?eae,
i?ienoiaeeee auai?u aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe — noa?inou, iaaece?aoaey ca
aaaeiuie. Oaeei ia?acii, ia ianoao aeaenoaiaaee aeaa nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey:
auae?aaiay ianoiui ianaeaieai e iacia/aaiay ei?ieai.

A?iey. Aaeeinoaaiiuie iinoiyiiuie /anoyie aiene auee iaaieueoea
aa?ieciiu e?aiinoae e io?yae ei?ieaaneie aaa?aeee. Iniiao nooiiooiie
a?iee ninoaaeyei iiie/aiea a aeaea io?yaeia ieeeoeee. Aeaaeaeueoeu
aeaeaeeiiai e iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa caiineeenue a ii?aaeaeaiiue
?ac?yae e a niioaaonoaee ni naiei eiouanoaaiiui iieiaeaieai aeieaeiu
auee eiaoue aii?oaeaiea. A eaaeaeii a?aonoaa io?yaeu ieeeoeee
iiae/eiyeenue ei?ae-eaeoaiaioo. Aieueoia aieiaiea i?aaeoaeuenoai
oaeaeyei aiaiii-ii?neiio oeioo, eioi?ue e noae iniiaie Aii?oaeaiiuo nee
Aiaeee.

5. Oaiaeaeueiia i?aai a Aiaeee

*anoi aiai?yo, /oi aiaeeeneia i?aai n?aaeieo aaeia ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo
au?aaeaao aeoo aiaeeeneiai ia?iaea, e a yoii iao niiiaiey. No?aieaiea
nicaeaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueioth e aa?iiie/ioth i?aaiaoth nenoaio, ea?aei
aaaeioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee aiaeeeneiai i?aaa. Aiaeeeneay i?aaiaay nenoaia
iaeaaeaao iaeiie ainoiaeyuae e ia?eiaeo oaiaeaeecia iniaaiiinoueth,
eioi?ay ioee/aao aa ii/oe io anao i?aaiauo nenoai no?ai ie?a:
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?aaiauo aeoia ia ooaa?aeaeaeanue ieeaeei
ia?eaiaioii.

Aaeeeay oa?oey aieueiinoae auea i?eiyoa a ?acoeueoaoa aunooieaiey
aa?iiia i?e o/anoee ?uoea?noaa e ai?iaeai i?ioea ei?iey Eiaiia
Aaccaiaeueiiai. Ioeoeeaeueii a Aiaeee yoio aeieoiaio n/eoaaony ia?aui
eiinoeoooeeiiiui aeoii.

Aieueoeinoai noaoae Oa?oee eanaaony aannaeueii-eaiiuo ioiioaiee ei?iey e
aa?iiia e no?aieony ia?aie/eoue i?iecaie ei?iey a eniieueciaaiee aai
naiuei?eaeueiuo i?aaa, naycaiiuo n caiaeueiuie aeaaeaieyie. Yoe noaouee
?aaeaiaioe?otho ii?yaeie iiaee, iieo/aiey ?aeueaoa e o.i. (no.2-11 e
ae?.).

Aianoa n oai, n?aaee /enoi “aa?iineeo” noaoae Oa?oee auaeaeythony oaeea,
eioi?ua eiaee iauaiieeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. Iaeaieaa ioe?iaaiii
iieeoe/aneea i?aoaicee aa?iinoaa au?aaeaiu a no. 61 – no?aieaiea e
nicaeaieth aa?iineie ieeaa?oee iooai o/?aaeaeaiey eiieoaoa ec 25 aa?iiia
n eiio?ieueiuie ooieoeeyie a ioiioaiee ei?iey.

Noaouee 12 e 14 i?aaeoniao?eaaee nicaeaiea niaaoa ei?ieaanoaa,
ia?aie/eaathuaai aeanoue ei?iey ii aceiaieth “ueoiauo aeaiaa”.

Noaouee 21 e 34 auee iai?aaeaiu ia ineaaeaiea noaeaaiuo i?a?iaaoea
ei?iiu. Noaouey 21 i?aaeoniao?eaaea iiaenoaeiinoue a?aoia e aa?iiia
noaeo “?aaiuo”, ecuiay eo ec-iiae aeaenoaey ei?ieaaneeo noaeia n
o/anoeai i?enyaeiuo.

Eioa?anu ?uoea?noaa a iaeaieaa iauai aeaea au?aaeaiu a no. 16 e 60, aaea
aiai?eony i ianaiee ca ?uoea?neee eai oieueei iieiaeaiiie neoaeau e i
oii, /oi iieiaeaiey Oa?oee, eanathueany acaeiiioiioaiee ei?iey n aai
aannaeaie, ioiinyony e e ioiioaieyi aa?iiia n eo aannaeaie.

I/aiue neoii aiai?eony a Oa?oee i i?aaao ai?iaeai e eoioeia. Noaouey 13
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao ca ai?iaeaie ae?aaiea aieueiinoe e iau/ae, no. 41
?ac?aoaao anai eoioeai naiaiaeiia e aaciianiia ia?aaeaeaeaiea e
oi?aiaeth aac aceiaiey n ieo iacaeiiiuo iioeei. Iaeiiaoe, no. 35
onoaiaaeeaaao aaeeinoai ia? e aania, aaaeiia aeey ?acaeoey oi?aiaee.

Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaea iiiai/eneaiiay a?oiia noaoae, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
oii?yaeioi/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe ei?ieaaneiai noaeaaii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
aiia?aoa. Aeaiiay a?oiia noaoae (no. 18-20, 38, 39, 40, 45 e ae?.)
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao e cae?aieyao neiaeeaoeany n XII a.
noaeaaii-aaeieieno?aoeaiua e i?aaiaua einoeooou, ia?aie/eaaao i?iecaie
ei?ieaaneeo /eiiaieeia a oeaio?a e ia ianoao.

Iiiaea ii?iu aiaeeeneiai i?aaa niaea?aeaony ia a ia?eaiaioneeo aeoao, a
a noaeaaiuo io/aoao ii aeaeai, ?aoaiey ii eioi?ui auiineeenue noaeueyie
Aunieiai noaea, Aiiaeyoeeiiiiai noaea e iaeaou ei?aeia.

I?aeoeea i?ioieieueiuo caienae ?aoaiee ei?ieaaneeo noaeae eiaao
ae?aaiaeoaa i?ienoiaeaeaiea e ioiineony e a?aiaiai Yaeoa?aea I.

Auei i?eciaii, /oi ?aoaiea, auianaiiia ii eaeiio-eeai aeaeo, nicaeaao
iaycaoaeueiue i?aoeaaeaio. Yoi icia/aei, /oi noaeuey i?e ?ac?aoaiee
eaeiai-eeai aii?ina, iaycai aue i?eiaieoue ii?io i?aaa, eioi?oth ae?oaie
noaeuey noi?ie?iaae a ?aoaiee ii i?aaeuaeouaio aeaeo.

Aiaeeeneia n?aaeiaaaeiaia i?aai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue
i?aoeaaeaioiiai e noaoooiiai i?aaa.

Aieueooth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee i?aaiaie nenoaiu Aiaeee nua?aea Aaeeeay
oa?oey aieueiinoae. Yoa oa?oey n/eoaaony a Aiaeee ia?aui
Eiinoeoooeeiiiui aeoii.

A ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiuo ainoaea?noaao iniiaiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa yaeyeny
iau/ae.

Enoi/ieeii aiaeeeneiai oaiaeaeueiiai i?aaa yaeyeenue noaooou, caeiiiua
aeou oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe. Ia?aiia/aeueii e iei ioiineeenue aeou
ei?ieaaneie aeanoe, iineaoea ?acee/iia iacaaiea – noaoonu, annecu,
i?aeiiainu, oa?oee. N ioi?ieaieai caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo iieiiii/ee
ia?eaiaioa iiae noaoooaie noaee iiieiaoue caeiiiua aeou, i?eiyoua
ei?ieai e ia?eaiaioii. Aeou, i?eiyoua ia?eaiaioii e ooaa?aeaeaiiua
ei?ieai, n/eoaeenue aunoei i?aaii no?aiu, niiniaiuie i?eiyoue e
aeiiieiyoue “Iauaa i?aai”. Niaieoiiinoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia ei?iey
e aeoia, i?eiyouo ei?ieai e ia?eaiaioii, iieo/eei iacaaiea noaoooiiai
i?aaa.

Ia/eiay n OIV aaea, a Aiaeee oi?ie?oaony oae iacuaaaiia “i?aai
ni?aaaaeeeainoe”. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oi eee eiia eeoei ia iaoiaeeei
caueou naieo ia?ooaiiuo i?aa a noaeao “iauaai i?aaa”, iii ia?auaeinue e
ei?ieth ca “ieeinoueth” ?ac?aoeoue aeaei ii “niaanoe”. “I?aai
ni?aaaaeeeainoe” auei aieaa aeaeei, aieaa iiaeaeaeiui e eeoaiiui
oi?iaeecia.

“Iauaa i?aai” i?eciaaaei no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiue e?oa iaycaoaeuenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, auoaeathueo ec aeiaiai?ia. Aeiaiai?u oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue
no?iaie oi?iaeueiinoueth, caeeth/aeenue a ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia e
iiaeeaaeaee ?aaeno?aoeee a noaea iooai caianaiey eo a naeoee oyaea.

A OII-OIII aaeao a aiaeeeneii i?aaa aiciee einoeooo “aeiaa?eoaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe” o?ano.

Aicieeiiaaiea yoiai einoeoooa naycaii n ia?aie/aieyie ?anii?yaeaiey
caieae, onoaiiaeaiiia “iauei i?aaii”. E oaeiio n?aaenoao i?eaaaaee
ioi?aaeythueany a iioiaeu no?ainoaothuea ?uoea?e, eioi?ua ia?aaeaaaee.

Aii?inu, o?aaoee?iaaiiua a?aaeaeaineei i?aaii Aiaeee, iaei /ai
ioee/aeenue io oaeiai ai O?aioeee.

“Iauaa i?aai” o?aaoee?iaaei aii?inu, naycaiiua oieueei ni naiaiaeiui
aea?aeaieai caiee. Nouanoaiaaee “aieiaiua” aea?aeaoaee oaiaeee (aa?iiu,
ei?aeu) e “?uoea?neea” aea?aeaiey. Ana iie n/eoaeenue aannaeaie ei?iey.
Ai?ueaa ca i?aai naiaiaeiiai ?anii?yaeaiey caieae io?aceeanue a ?yaea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia OIII aaea.

“Noaoon i ia?oaie ?oea” (1279 a.) cai?aoee aeaaeaeueoeai oaiaeia aac
niaeaney eo naiuei?ia io/oaeaeaoue caieth oea?eae e aeooiaiui eeoeai.

O?aoee Aanoieinoa?neee noaooo iicaieye eaaeaeiio naiaiaeiiio /aeiaaeo
?anii?yaeaoueny naiae caieae ii naiaio oniio?aieth.

1. Aea?aeaiea “o?e-neiie” – naiaiaeiia i?inoia aea?aeaiea.

2. Oneiaiua caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey. Aica?auaiea caiee aea?eoaeth, anee
/aeiaae, eioi?iio iiaea?aia caiey, ia eiae iioiinoaa. “Caiiaaaeiua”
aea?aeaiey – oieueei ii ianeaaenoao; iau/ii noa?oaio nuio (iaei?aou).

Iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia i?aai. Iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie iaycaoaeuenoa yaeyeenue
aeiaiai?u e i?aaiia?ooaiey (aeaeeeou). “Iauaa i?aai” i?eciaaaei oieueei
no?iai ia?aie/aiiue e?oa iaycaoaeuenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, auoaeathueo ec
aeiaiai?ia. Yoe aeiaiai?u oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue no?iaie oi?iaeueiinoueth:
iie caeeth/aeenue a ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia e iiaeeaaeaee ?aaeno?aoeee a
noaea iooai caianaiey a naeoee oyaea. A neo/aa iaeniieiaiey aeiaiai?a
i?aaeoniao?eaaeanue neiaeiay e aeeeoaeueiay i?ioeaaeo?a acuneaiey
i?e/eiaiiiai oua?aa.

Ii “iauaio i?aao” aiciiaeii auei acuneaoue oieueei i?e/eiaiiue oua?a, ii
iaeuecy auei i?eioaeeoue e ?aaeueiiio eniieiaieth iaycaoaeuenoaa, oiaaea
ia iiiiuue iiaei i?eeoe “i?aai ni?aaaaeeeainoe”.

Naiaeii-a?a/iia e ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai. Aii?inu, naycaiiua n
caeeth/aieai a?aea e aai ?anoi?aeaieai, n ee/iuie ioiioaieyie noi?oaia,
ioiineeenue e eiiiaoaioeee eaiiie/aneiai i?aaa. Eiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey
noi?oaia ?aaoee?iaaeenue “iauei i?aaii”. I?eaeaiia, i?eiineiia aeaiie,
ia?aoiaeeei a ?anii?yaeaiea ioaea, eioi?ue aue ai?aaa naiaiaeii
?anii?yaeaoueny aeaeaeeiui eiouanoaii e aeaaeaieai, e iieueciaaieai
iaaeaeaeeiui eiouanoaii. Ioae iia aeaaeaoue e iieueciaaoueny
iaaeaeaeeiui eiouanoaii e iieueciaaoueny eiouanoaii oia?oae aeaiu, anee
o ieo inoaeenue aeaoe.

TH?eaee/aneay ee/iinoue aeaiu ?anoai?yeanue a ee/iinoe ioaea. A iaeanoe
ianeaaenoaaiiiai i?aaa iniiaiui aeaeii ianeaaeiaaiey yaeyeinue
ianeaaeiaaiea ii caeiio. Ia?aiia/aeueii caiaeueiua aea?aeaiey
iiaeeaaeaee aica?aoo iinea nia?oe aannaea naiuei?o, n OII aaea
onoaiaaeeaaaony iaycaiiinoue caieaoeoue ianeaaeieeii ainoaea?noaaiioth
iioeeio-?aeueao.

Ionoonoaea i?aaa ia?aaeaaaoue ianeaaenoai ii caaauaieth iiaei auoue
iaieaeaii i?e aeecie iooai oneiaiiai aea?aiey, eeai ia?aaea/e a
aeiaa?eoaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue.

?acaeoea oaieiaiiai i?aaa Aiaeee i?ienoiaeeei iiae aicaeaenoaeai
noaoooia, oae e noaeaaiie i?aeoeee ei?ieaaneeo noaeia. Iai?eia?,
Ii?oaaiioiineay anneca niaea?aeeo ia?a/aiue iaeaieaa oyaeeeo
i?anooieaiee: oaeiia oaeenoai, a?aaaae, ?acaie, oe?uaaoaeuenoai e ae?.

A OIII aaea ana i?anooieaiey auee ?acaeaeaiu ia 3 a?oiiu:

1) i?anooieaiey, eanathueany ei?iey;

2) i?anooieaiey, eanathueany /anoiuo eeoe;

3) i?anooieaiey eeoe, eanathueany ei?iey e /anoiuo eeoe. Iaeiaei yoa
eeanneoeeaoeey ia oaea?aeaeanue a aiaeeeneii i?aaa, a neiaeeeanue
o?ao/eaiiay nenoaia: (o?ecu – eciaia, oaeiiey – oyaeeia oaieiaiia
i?anooieaiea, ienaeeieii? – i?inooiee).

Noaooo 1352 aiaea auaeaeee 2 aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaiu: “aunoay
eciaia”, “iaeay eciaia”.

E ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaia ioiineeenue:

1) caiuoeaiea oaeenoaa eee oaeenoai ei?iey, ei?ieaau, eo noa?oaai nuia e
ianeaaeieea;

2) ecianeeiaaiea ei?ieaau, noa?oae iacaioaeiae aei/a?e ei?iey eee aeaiu
e ae?oaea iinooiee.

Iie eanaeenue eioa?ania oieueei /anoiuo eeoe. Iaeacaiey a aiaeeeneii
oaiaeaeueiii i?aaa oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue /?acau/aeiie aeanoieinoueth.

Aiaeeeneay oaiaeaeueiay i?aaiaay nenoaia oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue aaeeinoaii,
oae eae Aiaeey, oae e ia ociaea oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe, a auea
oeaio?aeeciaaiiui ainoaea?noaii n neeueiie oeaio?aeueiie aeanoueth.

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