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Иные преступления в сфере безопасности движения и эксплуатации транспорта

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N????a

A???a

A?? 1. I?y?a ?????ey, ??y ???a???a ?????? ??? ?????? ???ey e y?????e
?????

1.1 I?y?a e ???? ?????ey

1.2 I?ay ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???ey e y?????e ?????

A?? 2. I???? ??? ????i ??a?y e y?????e ?????? ???a

2.1 I???? ??? ?????i ???ey e y?????e ????????, ????? ?e ???i ?????

2.2 I???? ??? ????i ???ey e y?????e ?????? ???a

2.3 I????????? ??? ?????? ???a e ??? ? a y??o??eth n ?????? ??????y?

2.4 I???? ???, ?????th?o ????oth ??? ?????

A?? 3. E?a ?????ey a ??a ?????? ???ey e y?????e ?????

3.1 I????a a ????? ?????? n??? ?e ??e ????y

3.2 I???? ??? ?????? ?e ??????a, y?????e ?e ???a ??????o ??????a

3.3 I????a ????i ??a ??? ??y?i ????

3.4 I???? ??? ??????o ???a

C?eth??a

N??e ?????

A???a

O???i-???? ??u, ??????ath?a ???????ue e ????a ? ????a ?? ?????i ???o
?y?e, a ??e ?????? ???tho I???oth ??ue ?????i ????? ??a. A?e ??u I?? ??e
a ??i ???eytho ????, ????y e ???u ???????e ?oe, ????? ????e a ?????
????o ??a ??????, ? ??u I???? ??e ???? ????? ????-???? ???u e ?????atho
?? ????? ????y, ???y?? ? ? ?????. I?ay e I???ay ??e ???eytho ??? ????a
??i ???e, ???? ???i ??? ?? e ??? ???ea e ?????, ??????e, ??????i ??y?a e
?????? ?c????e, ???th?e ??u, ???????? ??y ?????e O??a?e ? ?????
?ny????a, ?????y ?? e ?????? ??a???a, a ??a ??????ey ??????.

ssaeyy? ?????? y????e ??e ???u, I?ay e I???ay ??e ????? ??a ?????e
????y??, ????????u e ??aeyony a ?????i ????. A ???? ??e ??u I?? e I????
??? ?????otho ??? ????i. I????a ??u I???? ??e ???o ????y e ??? I?? ??e,
e ????. I???ey I?? ??e i??y?y ? ?? ?c ??th??y ???, ?????ny a I???? ??e
o????i ??a, ?e ???oth?y ??c ??u I???? ??e e ????i n ??.

Ae??e ??? ??? e ?????? ???i ? ??? ?????? e????o (A????, A.A. O???? ??i
???e; A?????, A.A. O???? ??i ???e; O??, A.I. O???? ??i ???e).

A?????ue ???i ???a ?????? ??? ?? ??e ??? «Ia???a ??? ????i ???ey e
y?????e ?????? ????.

Oe?ue: ?y?? ???? ????e ??? ????i ???ey e y?????e ?????? ???a.

C??e:

– ???ue e ???????? ?????? ????e ? ???o ???o;

– ?y?? e ???ue ?iy?a ?????ey, ??th ??????? i?????e ??? ?????? ???ey e
y?????e ???i?a;

– ?y?? e ???ue ????a ??? ????i ???ey e y?????e ?????? ???a;

– ?y?? e ???ue ?? ?????ey a ??a ?????? ???ey e y????oe? ?????.

A?? 1. I?y?a ?????ey, ??y ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???ey e y?????e
?????

1.1 I?y?a e ???? ?????ey

I????? ?????ey ????ny a no. 14 OE, a ?????? n ???e ??????i ????ny ???i
?????a ?????i ???a ?y?a, ?????a O???? ???? ?ae o??? ????y. A ???
????ath? ???u ???? ?????ey: ?????ay ????ue, ??????i?ue, ????? e ??????.
A? y? ???? ?y???? ??? ?? ???e ?????? ?y?th, ??i???? ??????i.

Aeay?a — y? ??????e ???, ????th?e ???e ?o ?????i ???? ????y ????. I?
?eth?? ?a ???th??y ? ???? ????th ??u ?????i ???? ????y. A /. 2 ?. 14 OE
?y??i, ?i ?y?a ??o ??ue ??o ???ey (o. a. ????i ????y) ?? ?????y (o. a.
????? ????y, ???th??ny a ?????? ?????i ae???y, ???a ?? ?y?? e ??i
????ue).

E? e ?a ???? (????a) ????, i????a ?y?a ????ey? ??e ?????????? y???. A?
???????y ???a ???????y ???? ?e ????i ??ae??i. A ??? ???????e ???????
eth?? ?y?y ??o ?i????ue. N?????ue y?o ?? ??????e ?y?y ???y? ???ue ?yae
????, ??a ????? ??e ? ?o ??th?? ????a ?yiey ?e ?????i. I????, ?e ?????
?????e ?? a ????? ??????e ?? (?y?a ???????i a ?? ? ????ey a ?ith ??ue
?-? ???ey ???; ?????, ??y??oth?a ??o ???ue ??? ????; ??? ???) ???e ??i
????? ?????e ?????ue. A ?? ???eyo o ?? ??o ??????ue ?????? ?i?i ????y
(????, ?????? ???ey, ???ey ???y??i e?i ??, ? ????? ???? ????e ???????e).

A??n i ????e ?y?y ?????, ??a ?? ??iy?? ????i ???i ?????? ????yi ???y?ny
?e ?????i ?????e, ? ?e y?i ?? ??o ?????ue ?e???ue ??? ???ey? (?. 40 OE),
???ny n ??? ????e ?. 39 OE i ???e ??????e.

C?????ue, ??? e ???????? ?iyo ? ???e ????y ????? ??? ?y?y (???ey,
?????y), ? ??e ? «??? ???», ????e, ?????o ? ????o ?a??a, ????e, «????
??iy?y» ? ?o ??, ?? ?e ? ???y?y ? ???e ?o ?????i ???? ????y ????. O?
????? ?????a ??? (?? ?????? ??i ???? i ????e ????? ???o ? ???) ??i ?
???? ???e ????ey ?????ey. I??i a ?o ??ayo, ??a ?i ????o ?????? ???e
??n???e ????e, ??? ?i ??o ??th ????ue ?? ??iy?? ?i??? ???i ?????? ????yi
e ?iy?y?ny a ????i ???? ????e ??a, ?????? ???? ?i a ?? ?????ey. O?,
????, ???? ?????e y?yth?y ??? ????i (?. 119,296, 309 OE), ??? ????ey
???y ?e ??????e (?. 131 OE).

I?????y ????ue — ?????? ???e ?????ey, ????th?e ?i ????oth ????. I?
?iy?y?ny a ?i, ?i ?????i ???a ?y?a ???y? ?? ?e ???o ??? ????ey ??a ????,
???? ?e ?????o. A ???a ? ?. 7 OE ?NON? ?. 14 OE ? ???? ??i??i ???y ?o
??i ?????? ????e, ???a ?y? ?ae ??oo ????? ???. I????u ??? ??i ???u a ?.
2 OE: ??? ?aa e ??? ???? e ?????, ??????e, ??????i ??y?a e ??????
??????, ???th?e ??u, ???????? ??y ?????e O???? ? ????? ?ny????a, ?????a
?? e ?????? ??????, a ??a ??????? ??????. Ia ??ia ??i ??e ??iy?? ????i
???i ?????? ????e ?n???a ???? ????.

I???? a ?. 2 OE ???u ???? ??? a ?????? n E?????e ?O y?yth?y ????e ????
??? ???. I??i, ??a ? ??? ????y ????ue, ?????i ???y? ?? ????-???? ???.

I?????y ????ue y?y?ny ?????e ?????, a ??????, ?y?yy ?????i ???a ?y?y, ?e
??e E. I??, «? ??? ???a, ? ia ????? ?, a ??? ??????.

I??o??ay ????ue ???????y ?????? e ??????e ?????.

E ??? ???o ???e: ????, ??e??ue ???a ?????ey; ???? e ???ue ??a, ?????? ?e
o??ath?? ???o; ??? ????ey ?????ey (??i, ???a); ?e?ey ??a e ???e ?i
????ey (???a ??y ?e ??ay ????? e ?.). Ei ??? — ??o ??; ???a ????????
???a e ??e (e???, ?????y, ???y, ??????ay ????ue); ??????? ?????e ??,
?????? ?????? (???a, ????? ??o???y ???a e o. i.).

I?????y ????ue ?y?y ?????. Y? ? ?????? ??, ?i ? ?????ey ???o ????a ?????
?y?e e ????e ?????. Aeay?a ??? ? ???, ?i ?i ?e ??? ?i-?, a ???, ?i ?i ?
??e ????? ?? ??i ????a?o ????i ????, ???? e ?????a.

E?a ?????i ???o ?y?e ??iya?y a ?y? n ????i ?????a, ????y? a y????, ????.
I?e ?????i ???a ?y?y ??????oth?y, o. a. ? ? ????? ???????y ????y
???????ue (?. 23 OE «I?????y ??ea ????a ??? a ?????? e ?? ?????y?, ?. 28
OE «I???e?ey a ??a ??ueth??? ?????»), ??? — ???????oth?y, o. a. ? ?
????? ????y ???????ue ??th??ny (a ????o?e n O????? ???i ? 8 ???y 2003 a.
? 162-OC ?????????u, ????, ?y?y, ?????????y ?. 182 (???? ??ay ???a), ?.
200 (?i? ??????), ?. 265 (????? ??a ???i-??????i ????o?y) OE). A?????
???? e ???????ey ??o ?y?e — y? ?i???ey ?????ey. I??i ???????y ????? ????
?i???a e ?????????o ???a ??? ?iy? a y?o ????o ia ????a ??i.

I???????ue (????????ue) ???? ??????ue ?y?y ????i ???i. A ????? ????i ??a
??????i ???i nullum crimen sine lege (?o ?????ey, ?? ? y?i ? ???i a
???). I???????ue ????ny a ?i, /? ?y?a ???? ???? ?????i ???a ?????ey,
???i? a ??a I???? ??e OE, ?a ???u ?a ?y?y, ?????? a ??iy?a ??y ?????ey?.

O?? ??? ?? ??i ? ???. I??i?, ?. 7 OE ?NON? 1926 a. ???????a ?????ue
????ey ?? ????? ??? ???i-???????i, ?????? ?? ???-????/??? ????a ? ??? a
????e ?oe, ?????o ?????a ?e?? ????? ?y?a, ? e a ????e ?o, ?i ?e ??? ?-?
??o ?y?e n ????? ??? ?e ????? ??e ???e ?y????e.

C???a ???? ???????? ?n?? a ?i, ?i ? ?i ??th??y ???o ????ey ???????? a OE
???? ????? (?. 3). I?? ?? ?e I??u ????? ???????? Nith? NN? e ?th?? ????e
1958 a. ????e ????? ????????e ?y?y, ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ? ????, o.
a. ????? ??? OE a ????e ?o ?y?e, ???a ? ????o?? ???i. A ???oth?i OE
????a i ???a ???? ???i a ??a ????a ????? ??? (/. 2 ?. 3).

I???????ue ?y?? n ?????ie ????ueth ?e ??a n ?????i e y?y?ny th?????,
???????i ????? ?????? ????e — ?????? ??????? ?y?? ?????ey. «A??????????
?????? ???n? e ???????? — ???eyth?e ??? a ????e ??, ?i ??a? ??????
?????».

A ?y? n ??i ????? ?????y i?????e ????e e ???????? ?e ????a ?????ey
(?????? ???? ?? A. A. I?????e, I. Ae. Ae???a) ???? ?i?????? (????????)
????e i ????? ???i ? y?o ????a ?????ey.

A ?????e ? ??, ???? ?????? a ?????e ?????ey ?????oth ????ue ?e ????????
a ???? ???? ??o???y ?e ?o, a ??a ????? ??a ??y? ???? i ?????ii, ????? ??
?????i-????? ?????e ?????ey. A i?????i ?????e ?????ey ?y???? ???a
?????ay ????ue ?y?y e ?????o ???? ? ????????. A ??a??i ?????e ?????ey
????y i ?y?e, ?????i ????i ???i, a ?????ay ????ue ?e ???e ?????ey ?
??i??a. A ?. 14 OE ?? ?????i-????? ?????a ?????ey: a ?i ?????tho ?a
??????o ????. O?? ?????a, ???ay ? ??i ?e ? ???? ????y ?y?e ??????i,
?uy?y? ????y ????y ? e ???? ??????? ?y?yi — ?????ie ????ueth ?y ????,
????, ?????a. E?? ??, ?i ??o ???a ?????? ????: ???? ?e ?????a, a ??
????e????e ? ????eyth?a ?????? ????e, ?oy ????i e n????a ???? ????????
OE ?????ey, ???i ? y?ya?y (/. 2 ?. 14 OE).

*?? 2 no. 14 OE ??o ???a ???? ?y ??????? ??????i ???ea (?????ay ????ue).
A ?????? n ?e ?y?a, ???a ? ????i ??????i ??a ???o, ??iy??o ????i ???i,
?e ? o???i ?????i ??a, a ?? ????????? ? ???? ??a??? ?y ?????ey ???ueth
?????? ????e e ?y?? ? ???????ny a ???? ?????ey. A??a n ?i ??a ?y?a ??ii
????i ????ue ?ae ???? ????? a OE ?????ey. A??n i ????????? ?y?y ???ny n
??? ?????o ??iy??n? e ????y e ?????e ????y e ??. Ii y?? ???? N???y ???ey
? ????i ??i AN ?O a ??y?a ???a ????? ?? a i???? A., ?????i ? /. 1 ?. 222
OE. Ae???y A. a ?? ????????? ? ????ey? ?????? ????e, ????o ? ? ?? oe?e
?????ey ??y e ???? ?y ?ay, a ???y ??????ue ?????? A., ???e ???e oy??th
??? ?????? e ????? ??e i ??????, a ?y? n ?i ?? A. ????a A. ???? ???ue
?ae? o ??.

I??e ????a ????y ?y?y ??c?????i ??? ???u ?y y?????i ????ey ????? ?e?a.
N??? ?????y n I. O. E????e a ?i, ?i a ??? ????y ?y?y ???????? ??? ?? e
?????a, e ?????? ???u, o. a. «??a ?? ??? ????ue ??? ???????? ?y?a, a ?
???, ?i ? ? ??ny?i ? ?? ??iy????i ?e a ????? ?o?a ?????.

O???? ?? i ???????? ?y?e ? ??o ?? ?????, a ?????? ?? ???? ?????th ?
?????i ???a ?????ey ? ????e i. 2 /. 1 ?. 24 OIE ?O.

A????ue ?e ???e ?????ey ? ?????ue a ?. 7 OE ?NON?. O???a ? ?a a ?. 14 OE
??????, ?i ????? ?????? n?? ? ???e ??????i, a ? ?????? ???ey. Y? ????,
?i ?????i ???a ?y?a ????ny ??????i ?? n ??? ?????? ????y ?? e ???eth
(?????th) e ????? ??a??eyi a ??a ??? ?e ??????? (?. 24—27 OE).

I??????i ????y ????? ??????i ???ey a ????? ?????? ???eth y?y?ny ???? a
OE ?????e ??a ??u i ????? ????? ??a. Aeay?a ????ny ?????, a ??????i,
??????, ?? ???? ?c??? a ?. 28 OE ???y (?????? ?????? ????a e ?y?th, i???
y?????? ???e ?e ???-?????o ?????).

I???? ????? ???iy???i i???? ?????ey, ????y ? ?y?a ???? ? y? a ???,
????ny ????? ???e, ???a ??atho ?i ?????i ? ???? ????????.

I?????ue, ?e e ????????, ???a a ?. 14 OE ???a. Oi?? ?????a ????i ???i
«?ae ???e ????y» ?y?a ?e???y ??????i. Y? ????, ?i a ??o ??ayo ????a
??a??ny ???i a ?????? n ???? ????? ??u I???? ??e OE, a a ??? ??ayo ??
??o ?? ?????i ? ????e ??o????? ?e ????? ????y (?. 75-85 OE).

N??? ????, ?i ?yae ??? ???atho ??? ????y ? ??????th ???? ???iy???? ????
?????ey (I. N. O???a, I. Ae. Ae???a, I. O. E????).

I?y?a «??????» ???o ??????? n ?iy?? «?????o?. Eo ?????a ? ???? ?????y
????? e ???, o. a. ??o???ue ? y?y?ny ??? ??????th ??????. I?y?a ?????ey,
???ey??i a ???? ?????i ???? ?y?y, ?????, ??o a ????? ?????y ?????? e
y?y?ny ?????e?? ????? ???ey e ???????y ??????. I?????ue a ???a ? ?????ey
????ey? ??e ????? y???, ?eth/ath?a a ?ay ?????? ??????, ?????o ? ??????
???, ? ?????? ????? e ?????oth??y ??????e (????a, ????) e ???????e
(??iy?a, ????) ????ey?.

1.2 I?ay ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???ey e y?????e ?????

I??i-?????e ????, ?????, y?y?ny ????? ??????i ???ey e ????o ??ae ???/???
???? ?????e a ????? ?????i ???? ??e.

A??a n ?i ? ????o ??? ?? (?e ????? ????e ????? ????e), y?????y ???o ??o
???ue ????? ????? ??a ??e e ???ueth eth?e. E ???i, a ????e, ??ny?y
?????? ????. Aeey ??????ey ??oe???? ?????e ? ??????y ?????ath?y ???a
?????? e y?????e. Ca ???? ???a ????y ??o ??? ??o???? ????y ???????ue
???e ??u 27 OE ?O (?e ????ua ?????? ?????ey).

O?? ???i, ???i ???? ?????? ?????? y?y?ny ?????? ???ey e y?????e ??n??a
(?????, ???i, ????????, ???????i).

I????ay ???a ?????a ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?e ?????y. I???? ?
y?o ?????? ??o ?? ????u ??? ??i ??o?y (?. 267 OE ?O), ??? — ??? ??????
(?. 270 OE ?O).

O????? ??? ?????a ???ia ??????, ???????o a ??? 27 OE ?O, y?y?ny ??????
eo ?????. Iiy?? ?y oy??ey ? ????ey ????? ????ny e ?i ???i e ??? ?????i
???? ??i, ???a ??????tho ?????oth?a ???a.

N??? ?????a ?????? ??o???e ??????? ? ?? ??????i, o. a. ??????atho a ????
?y????? ???? ?????e ???u ?????a ?????i ???o ?????e. E?ue ?a ???a (?.
270,271 OE ?O) ? ??e ?????e ?????.

No????ay ???a ?????? n ?????? ???? ???????y ??e a ??a ???????, a ?ath?o
????? ??? — a ??a ???.

N??? ???????o ?????? — ??y?? ??, ????a 16-???i ????. E?eth??a ???ey? ?.
267 OE ?O, ????i ???e ????ny 14-e??e. A ????o ???? ??????a ???????ue
?????ai ???? (?. 263, 266, 270 OE ?O).

O?? ???i, ?????ey ??? ?????? ???ey e y?i???? ?????? ???a — y? ?????i
???a ?y?y, ?ny?th?a ? ?????? ???ey e y?????e ????? e ???yth?a ?e n????
????ue ?? ??e e ???ueth ???i, a ??a ???e ?????? ??a.

A? ?????ey, ???????a ??ie 27 OE ?O, ??i ???i ????ue ? ?a ???:

1) ?????ey, ???????i ?y??? n ????? ??? ?????? ???ey e y?????e ????? (?.
263, 264, 266, 268 OE ?O);

2) ?? ?????ey a ?a? ?????? ???ey e y?????e ????? (?. 267, 269—271 OE
?O).

A?? 2. I???? ??? ????i ???ey e y?????e ?????? ???a

2.1 I???? ??? ?????i ???ey e y?????e ????????, ????? ?e ???i ?????

I???i ???? ???i ?????ey y?y?ny ?????? ???ey e y?????e ????????, ??o??i
?e ???i ?????. Ae???o??? ??? — ???? e ??ue ????.

AE??????? ????o a ?????? ? ?. 1 O?????i ??? ? 10 y??y 2003 a. ? 17-OC «I
???????i ????? a ?????e O????» ???o ? ???????? ????? ??? ?????y,
???????? ????? ???? ?????y, a ??a ???????? ???????? ????? ?????e,
???????? ?y ?????y ???a ? ????eyo ????o ??i??? e ????ey ????-???? ???? n
???????i ????i ???? ?y ?????o ?? y?o ?????e.

I? ??? ?????i ????ny ??e?, ??? e ???e ????o ????? ? ?i ??????e ???????
(? ??th??? ???o ????) e ??u ??????e ?????e, ???y ?i y??????.

E ????? ????? ??ny?y ??e?u, ????u, ???u e ??? ?????a ????, ??????a
?a????o ????? ??o, ????i ?????yi e ????i ????i.

N ?????e ???u ???????a i?????a ???o a ????e ??? ?????? ???ey e y??o???
????????, ?????, ???i (???? ?e ???i) ?????, ?????e ????o a ??? ?????e e
????e ?y? ??o ??? ????y ????o ??? e ?????? ???? ???n?ey?.

I???? ????o ??? ??o ?? ????i ?e ??i ???ey (????, ????? ??????e ???oe
???ey, ?????? ???????? ???a ? ?????o ???a), ?e e ?????y (????, ???????y
??? ?????ath?? ???a, ???y?a ?? e ????eth ??????e ???????ai ??, ???a ?y?
?e ??????). N??a ?????ey ?????ue.

I?????a, ???????a /. 1 ?. 263 OE ?O, ?????? ?????a ?????e a ?? ????ey
oy??i ?a? ???ueth ????.

Aeey ????y ?????ey ????? i????i ???? ?????a ????o ?????e.

No. 263 OE ?O — ??a ????ay. I???? i?????e ???, ????th?? ?????? ???ey
???????? e ????? ?????, y?yth?y: O????? ??i 10 y??y 2003 a. ? 17-OC «I
???????i ????? a ?????e O????» e A???? e??n ?O, ??y?e 19 ???y 1997 a.
(??a — AE ?O).

A?????ue ? ???i ????? ???????ny, a ????e, E????e III ? ???? ??o (1982
a.) e I??i???e ????? ? ??? ?????? ??e ? ?? (1974 a.). I??? ?c????
??????y ???i ????? ?????u E???i ?????? ???i ????? ?O (??a — EAAO ?O).

N ?????? ???u ?????? ???????ny ?????? ??e: ?? ????o ?????ue ????ey ???o
?????e a ?? oy??i ??a ???ueth, ? ????y?i ?n????o ? ? ??????? (?????
?????a), ?? ? ???ae? y? ?????y, ?oy ??? ?? e ??i ? ????? (????ay
?????ue).

No???i ?????ey (???o ?????e) ??o ?? ??? ???? ae???????i, ???i ?e ?????
?????, ? ???? ???????i ????a ?y???? ? ??th??th ??? ?????? ?e??y e
y?????e y?? ?????. Y? ??? ??i ??, ???????i ???yth?a ?????? ????i (????u,
???? ??a, ???), a ??a ?? ?oea, ???th?a ? ??th??a ??? ?????? ???ey e
y?????e ????? (?????, ?????e, ????).

*?? 2 ?. 263 OE ?O ???????o ???o???? ? ? ? ?y?a, ????a ? ??????? ???
????, a /. 3 -??? ?? ?e ??a ?oe.

2.2 I???? ??? ????i ???ey e y?????e ?????? ???a

I???e ??? ?????ey — ?????? ????i ???ey e y?????e ?????? ???a. Ae??????e
??? — ???? e ??ue /???a.

N ?????e ???u ??? ?????? ???o a ????e ??? ????? ???ey ?e y?????e ??????
???a, ???? ??o??? ?o ?e ?? (??????o /. 1, 2 e 3 ?. 264 OE ?O) ?????i
???o ?????e. I?? ?y?? e ?????y? ??? ?? ?????a ??e?ay ?y?. N??a ?????ey
??????.

N??y 264 ??o ????oth ????eth. Iiy?? ?y oy??ey ????a ???a ???????? ath
?????ey ????? ????ny e ???, ?????ath?i ???a ????i ?e??y e y?????e ??????
???a. E ?i ??? ??i ??ny?y: I??? ????i ???ey ?O e I???a ????y ? ???o
?????? ???a e y?????e e ?y???? ?????o ?oe ? ????i?e ????i ???ey, ??????
??????? N??a I???? — I?????? ?O ? 23 ?oy?y 1993 a. ? 1090 «I ??? ? ????i
???ey».

N??a ?????ey ????? ???i? ??? ???ey e y?????e ?????? ??a ?????? ?a????o
???a. E ?i ??ny?y ?????, ???e ?? ??? ??i???a ?????? ????. I? ???e
??????e ??????e ????? ???? ????eth e ?. 264 OE ?O ???th?y ?????u, ????,
????? ???, ????u e ?? ?????? ?????? n???a. E?a ?????? ?????? ???? — y?
eth?a ????, ??????, ?????y????a e ??? ?????a ??? (y?????, ????, ????,
????, ??????e e o. i.).

E ????th ??? ????i ???ey ??ny?y, ???? ????? ??????e ????, ?????? ?a?,
??ae I. ????th ???, ????? ?????i a ??iyi? ?uey??y I???ey ??? y?????e
?????? ???a ??aeatho a ??? ? ????? ?????i ?????? ????, ????a eth?e ?
???????i ?y y?? ?????, ????? ???a e ????a ?????o ??? e o. i.

I??????? ? ?. 264 OE ?O ?????a ?????? oy??i ??a ???ueth ??????. O???
????ny eth?e ???? ????i ???ey (? ??th??? ??, ???yth?? o?????i ????i). I?
????? y?o ?????e ??? ???i??y ?????o, ??? ???? ?????a ??, ?????? ??, e
????????, ???????, a ??a ?????-???? ???????e.

A ??? ????ey ????o ????a? a ????? ????y ?? ???, ???? ???? ?e ???? ???,
???a ??????i ????, ?????? ??????, ??ae?o, ?????y????o e ?? ??o, ??y?? ?
??? ?????i??ny ? ?. 264 OE ?O. I???a ?y?y a ?????e ? ??u ?? ???o ???????
?e ?????oth?a ?????ey ??? ???? ?? ?e ????a ??? ?e ?????? ????? ?? ??o
(?. 216 OE ?O).

I??a ???? ?e ???a ???a ?a????y, ???????? ?. 264 OE ?O, ???o ???? ?
?????? ????e ?y? ??o ????? ????o ??? e ?????? ???o ?????e. I???????? y??
???i ??iy???? ??i?o e ???i a ??????.

N?????y ???a ?????ey — ?? a ??a ???????. I???yth?i ???? ?e ?????? ??????
???u ???a ?????ey y?y?ny ?????a ????a ??, ???yth?? ?????? ????i, e
?????i ???i ?????yi. I?????a ??o ?? ????i a ????? ?e ?????i ?????y, ?e e
????? ?????e.

N??? ?????ey ?????e — ??y?? ??, ??e?? 16 ?o, ???yth?a ?????? ????i (????
?????, ?oei, ???th?a ??????e ???e ?e ? ?ath?a ???o, ?? ???ia ?, ????
??????i ???? ?e ??, ????? ?i ????o?).

*??th 2 ?. 264 OE ?O ??????a ???????ue ? ? ? ???ey, ????a ? ??????? ???
??????, a ? /. 3 — ? ????? ??oe ?? ?e ??a ??i.

2.3 I????????? ??? ?????? ???a e ??? ? a y?????th n ?????? ??????y?

I???e ??? ?????ey — ?????? y?????e ?????? ???a. Ae??????e ??? — ???? e
??ue ????. I??? ?a????y — ?a ?? ????? (???????e, ??????e, ??e?, ??? e
????e), ?? ????y, ???? ?????? ?e ?y? e? ?? ?????? ??????.

I????ay ???a ?????ey ??o ??th??ny a eth?i ? ?? ?a??? a ??? ???? ?i
????ey, a ???:

a) a ?????????i ???a ?????? ???a, ??e ????y, ???a ?????? ?e ?y? ?? ?i?
??????i ?????ey;

a) a ???a a y?????th ????? ?????o ?????? ???a.

I? ?????????i ???o ???? ??e ???, ??a ???? ?????? ????, ?? ????y, n???a
?y? e ?????? ??uy?yth?y ????o n ??????? ??????y?, ??y??oth?? ?i ??????th
? ????eth. I? ???? ??????i ???? a y?????th ????ny ??? ?????? ??i, ????
???? i ??????e ??????i ??n?a, ????ey ?e ?????y ???ue a ??, ?? ??th??y i
?i ?o???? ?????e, ???y?a ?? e ????eth ?i y?????e. Oi a?ue ?????, ??u
?????? ???? ?? ?????i. I???ue ???????, ?e ???o ?????y y?????y ??????
?a??, ???????y ??????y? I?????? ?O e ???e ?????? ????e ???, a ????e
I???? ????y? ? ???o ?????? ???a e y?????e e ?y???? ?????o ?oe ? ?????th
?????? ????i ???ey, ??????e ????e??i I?????? ?O ? 23 ?oy?y 1993 a. ?
1090.

Iay????? ????? ???a ??i?????i ?????ey y?yth?y ?????y a ?? oy??i ??a
???ueth, a ??a ????y ?y? ??o ?y?? e y?? ?????y?. N??a ?????ey ??????.

N?????y ???a ?????ey ???????y ?????? ??e a ?? ?????y ?e ?????e.

N??? ?????ey ?????e — ??y?? ??, ??e?? 16 ?o, ???????i ??????a ???, a ??a
??, ????a?? ? ??? a y?????th ?????? ???a (a ?i ??a e ???? ??????i ????,
?????e ???o ?? y?????th ????? ?????? ??????i ????).

*?? 2 ?. 266 OE ?O ???????o ???????ue ? ? ? ?y?y, ???o? ??? ????, a /. 3
y?e ??? — ??? ?? e ??a ?oe.

2.4 I???? ???, ?????th?o ????oth ??? ?????

Ae??y ??uey ??????o ???????ue ????a, ????, ???i ????a ???ey (??a ?oe,
????o a ?. 263 e 264 OE ?O) ? ????a ??? ?????? ???ey ?e y?????e eth?o
??a ?????, ?? y? ???? ????? ??a ???ueth ?e ??? ??? ?e ????? ?oe.

I???e ??? ?????ey — ?????? ???ey e y?????e ?????. Ae??????e ??? — ???? e
??ue ????.

Ae????y ?. 268 OE ?O — ????ay: a ?e ? ????ny ????? ???? ???, ????a ???o
??? ?a??????. Y? ???a ?????ath?y ?????? ?????? i???? ???, e ??o ???o
??ny?y, ????, I??? ????i ???ey ?O, a ??a ???a ????y ????? ? ????o ??o
?a???a.

I????ay ???a ?????ey ???o a ????e ????o ??? e ??o ????ny, ????, a ????
??u a ???????i ??a e? ? ???ath?e ??? ????a, ???a ?e ???a ????? ?e ae???e
?????, ?? ? ????? ?c ???? ?e n ?????i ??????? ???y?y ? ???u (????) e o.
i.

O???ay ???????ue ????o ?e ???e ????o a ??? ?????e a ?? oy??i ??a ???ueth
/???a, a ??a ????e ?y? ??o y?? ?????y? e ????? ????? ???oth?o ??? ??????
???ey ?e y?????e ?????. N??a ?????ey ??????.

N?????y ???a ?????ey ???????y ??e a ??a ??????? (?e ??????, ?e e
?????ueth).

N???? ?????ey (???o ?????e) y?yth?y ??o?u, ????u, ??????u, ????e ??a e
?? ??, ? ??th??ai ??????o a ?. ?. 263 e 264 OE ?O.

Ii /. 2 ?. 268 OE ?O ???????y ? ? ?y?a, ????a ? ??????? ??? ????, a ? /.
3 — ??? ?? e ??a ?oe.

A?? 3. E?a ?????ey a ??a ?????? ???ey e y?????e ?????

3.1 I????a a ????? ?????? ???a ?e ??e ????y

I???e ??? ?????ey — ?????? ???ey e y?????e ?????. Ae??????e ??? — ???? e
??ue ????, ????y n??????.

I???? ?????ey ??o ?? ??n???a ????, ?? ????y, ???? ?????? ?e ?y? ?? ae??a
?????? ??????, a ??a ?????? ??????.

N ?????e ???u ?????? ????ny:

a) a ?????;

a) ?????e;

a) ????? ?? ???? a ???? ?y y?????e ??iy?a ??????i ????, ??e ????y, ???a
?????? ?e ?y? ?? ???i ??????i ?????ey;

a) ?????? ?????? ??????.

?????a ????, ?i ?????? ????, ?? ????y, ???? ?????? ?e ?y? ?? ??? ??????
??????, a ??a ?????? ?????? ????u a ??oth ??????ue, ??a ?? ?e ? ??o ??
??????u e ?????? ? ????eth.

I????? ? — y? ??y ??a (???a), a ????? ???e ?e ???y?y ?? a ????th ?????,
???yy a ????e ?? ?ith ?cy????th ???? e ?????.

?????a e ?????a ????o ????a ??o ?????y ????? ????e (???, ?????? ?c???a,
?????, ???? ???a e o. i.). Y? ???u ? ?eytho ? ?????eth, ? ??o ?? ??? ?e
????? ????y.

I? ?? ???? ????ey a ????oue ????a ?????ey ????ny ????? ????, ???a ? ?? ?
y?yth?y ? ?????i, ? ??????, ? ???yo e ??????e ? ??????y ? ????eth (????,
???? ????? ??ia, ???????o ?y ?????y ?????? ???ey).

A?????a ?????? ?????ee ????ey? ??e ???? ? ?oyo e ????o ???ey ?????? ???a
?????? ??y???, ??th?th?o ? ????? ????????. Aeey y?? ??o ?? ?????? ??a
??? ????, a o? ??a e ?? ?????? ????. A?????? y?y?ny ??a ?????a ??????
???e eth?e.

Ii ??e ?????e ??? ?????a??i ?????ey ??????. A? ?y????? ????? y?yth?y
?????a ????o a ??? ?????e a ?? oy??i ??a ??i?th ???? ?? ???? ???, a ??a
????y ?y? ??o ???i?i ?y?? e ?????? ?????y?.

E ?????yi ?????ey a /. 1 ?. 267 OE ?O ??i ???o ???e ??a. I??? y?o —
????e. Ii ??o ??th/??y, ????, a ?????e ?????? ???a e (?e) ?????o a??a,
????? ???? a ???? ?????, ???????i ???a ???a e o. i.

N?????y ???a — ?? a ??a ???????.

N??? ?????ey ??e — ?e ????e ?????, ?e e ??? ??, ??e?? 14 ?o.

Ea????oth?i ????i ???i ?????ey (/. 2 ?. 267 OE ?O) y?y?ny ?n???? ???
????, a ??i ?????oth?i (/. 3 ?. 267 OE ?O) — ??? ?? e ??a ?oe.

3.2 I???? ??? ?????? ?e ???a???, y?????e ?e ???a ??????o ??????a

I???i ???? ?????ey y?y?ny ?????? ??????o ??????a a ???? ??????a, ???a e
y?????e. Ae??????e ??? — ??ue e ???? ????.

I??? ?????ey — ??????e o?????, ? ???? ????ny ????a ??a (??ue, ??
??????u, ?c), a ??a ??????? ??? ?y??? n ?i ????a ???u e ????ey, ????
????? e ?y?.

O??????e ????o, ???????e ?y ???? ? ???y?a ????o ??? e ?????? ???a?a,
???e a ????a ??y ?????? ????. A???? ?i ? n?iy a ????? ????y ????o ???
?????? ??o ??a?e e ??? eth?e, ????th ???th?e ??u e ????o ??????o ???.

I????ay ???a ?????ey ??th??ny a ????e ??? ??i???e ?e ??????a, y?????e e
???a ??????o ??i????. Ae????y ??? — ????ay, ?y?? ?y oy??ey ???e? ???a
?????ey ????? ????ny e ?????i ???? ??i ??????? ????a.

Ia???a ????o ??? ??o ?? ???? ??????i ?? ?e ???e, ?? ?i ???? ????? oy??i
???ueth. Iay????i ????i ?????e ???u y?y?ny ??a ???a ????e ?y? ??o ???
????y ?????oth?o ??? e ?????? ?????y?.

N??a ?????ey ??????.

N?????y ???a ?????ey ???????y ?????? ??ie ?? ? ????th e ?????i ?????yi.

N???? ?????ey, ???????? ?. 269 OE ?O, y?yth?y ????e, ?????th?a ?y????ue
??????o ??????a (n??? ?????e).

*?? 2 ?. 269 OE ?O ???? ????????e ??? e ??????o ???????ue ? ? ? ???ey,
????a ??? ????, a /. 3 ?. 269 OE ?O — ??i ????????e ???, ????th?e ??? ??
e ??a ?oe.

3.3 I????a ????i ??a ??? ??y?i ????

I???i ?????ey y?y?ny ?????? ???ey ???? e ???i ?????.

I????ay ???a ?????ey ???o a ?????e — ????? ????i ??a ??? ethaeyi, ??y?i
???? ? ?? ?e ? ?? ??? ??.

Iay???? ???? ??y? ????i? ?? ?y ???ey ??y?o ???? eth?e ???? ? ?y? ????i??
????e (????, E???? III ? ???? ??o) e ?????uo ?????o ???? ??a (????, EAAO
?O).

I??????? ????o ? ???y?a ?? ? ???eth ??? ??? ethaeyi, ??y?i ???? ??? n
??? ?? ?a ?i. I?? ????ey ?????ey — ? ??? ?? (????y, ???, ??), ? e ?? ???
??.

O???i ?????y ???????e y?y?ny ?, ?i ??? ??y?i ???? ethaeyi ??a ?? ???a ?c
????e ????e ?y ?????? ??a, ?i y??? e ?????. I?i? ????? ?????y ????? e
?????? ???? ? ??a?th ??? ?????ny ??i y????u n ??? ?????oth?o ?ae???o
???, ???????? e ????o ??, a ??a ???o ??a?.

I????ey ????ey ??? ? ?????eth ?ey?y ? ???atho. Ii ?????e ??? ????????
?????ey ?????.

I?????a ????y ????? n ?i?? ???y?y ?????o ??i ???eth ??? ethaeyi, ??y?i
????.

N ?????? ???u ?????? ??o ?? ????i ??? ????i. A???e ???o, ?i eth? ??yo
????, ? ?-???? ???, ???ay ??o ?? ???a ?c ????e ????e ?y ?????? ??a,
ye??a e ?????, e ???o ?? ? ???eth ??? ? ??????o.

N??? ?????ey — ?????e. Ei ??o ?? ??? e??? ??a ?e ??, a ??????i ??y?a
???yth?a ?i ?y??i?e.

3.4 I???? ??? ??????o ??o?

I??o i?????y — ??????e ??y?e ??????o ???a, ????aath?e ?????? ???ey ?????
?????.

I?????? ???i ????ny ??o, ? ??y ???? ??i ???????i ????y a ????i ???a??a
??a ?i ??? ?????a. I??? ??????o ???a ???? a AE ?O, a ??a ??????o ????o i
????i ????e, ??th??? ?????e O????e n ???e ??????e.

I????ay ???a ?????ey ??o ?? ????a ?e ??i ???ey, ?e ??i ?????y e
???????y:

a) ???th??? ????o a ???? ???e ????a, ?? ???e, ????o ??o, ??? ???;

a) ?? ????? ??? ??????o ???a.

E ?? ????yi ???o ???e, ??e??, ??o ???i ?? ????? ??a, ??? ????? a ?????;
????? ????? ???????o ???; ?????a ? ??th ?c ?????oth?? ????ey ??? ?e
??oth??? e o. ae.

N??a ?????ey ? ??e ?????e ?????.

I????i ?????? ??o ????y n ???a ????ey eth?? ? ??????o ????.

I???? ??? ??? a ?? ???e i??????, ???? a ?y? n ????????e ?????e ?e
?e?????th ????? ??a, ? ???? ???a ???i ?????ey.

N ?????? ???u ?????? ??o ?? ????i ??? n ?y?i ???i.

N??? ?????ey ?????e — ??, ???yth?a ????i ??? (??u y???).

C?eth??a

E?e, i?????? ??? ?????? ???ey ?e y?????e ????? (?????? ??????i) ????ny
?????i ???a ???? ?ny????? ? ?????? ?????, ?e???? ???????a ????-????e
???e ???a ?????y. I? ??????th ????? ?e ???????i ?i ????i ???o i???ue ??a
??iy?a ???????ey ?????? ???u, ???a ?????? ????????? ??e e ???uey eth?e,
?????ue, ?????ue ?????? ????e, ???th?e ??u, ?????? ???a e ??????.

TH????? ??? ?????y ???n??e ???????ey ????? ????? O?????e ???? io 20
ethey 1995 a. «I ?????i ???????i ?????», ? 10 ???y 1995 a. «I ??????
????i ???ey», ???e ???? e ?????? ???. A ?????? n ?? ?????i ??????o ????
?? ??????i, y??????i, ???????? e ????i ????a, ?i????e ? ?????a ??iy?y
?????? ???ey e y????oe? ????? ?e ???? ??? ??e e ???uey ???i, ?????e
?????? ????e, ??????ey ?????? ??????, ?a?e, ???? e ????o, ????ey ? ????o
?????e.

N??e ?????

1. A????, A.A. O???? ??i ???e. *a?e ??y e ????y [O??]: ??. ???a / A.A.
A????, A.A. A?????. – I.: I???o, 2009. – 1232n

2. Ae????a, A.Ae. O???? ??i ???e. *?? ??y e ????y [O??]: o?a. ???a /
A.Ae. Ae????a, A.A. A?????. – I.: I???o, 2009. – 849n

3. AE???a, Y.I. O???? ??i ???e. I???ay ??ue [O??]: ??. ??a? / Y.I.
AE???a, A.A. A?????. – I.: I???o, 2008. – 475n

4. C???, A.TH. O???? ??i ???e. I???ay ??ue [O??]: ??. ???a / A.TH. C???,
A.I. O??. – I.: THIEOE, 2009. – 511n

5. E???, I.A. *?? ??y e ????y [O??]: ??. ???a / I.A. E???, A.Ae. Ae????.
– I.: I???o, 2009. – 935n

6. E????, A.I. O???? ??i ???e. I???ay ??ue [O??]: ??. ???a / A.I. E????,
I.A. A??. – I.: I???o, 2008. – 877n

7. E????, E.A. O???? ??i ???e. I???ay ??ue [O??]: ??. ???a / E.A. E????,
Y.I. AE???a. – I.: THIEOE, 2008. – 501n

8. I????i, TH.A. O???? ??i ???e. I???ay ??ue [O??]: ??. ?n?? / TH.A.
I????i, A.TH. C???. – I.: I???o, 2009. – 491n

9. O??, A.I. *?? ??y e ????y [O??]: ??. ???a / A.I. O??, A.A. A?e???a. –
I.: I???o, 2009. – 998n

10. ss?, I.N. O???? ??i ???e. I???ay ??ue [O??]: ??. ???a / I.N. ss?,
I.A. E??a. – I.: I???o, 2009. – 356n

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