.

Гражданское право

Язык: русский
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1476
Скачать документ

Aaaaeaiea

Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue – i/aiue oiieay iaoa?ey. Eaeae aeoatho
a aicaeooa. “Neiai ia ai?iaae – aueaoeo, ia iieiaaoue”, – aeaneo ?onneay
iineiaeoea. Io, a anee yoi “neiai” ia naiii aeaea – iao/iay eaeay, eeth/
e caaiaaaieth ?uiea eee aiiaua ethaay eiioeaioeey?

Nianoaaiiinoue caueuaee ana oeeaeeecaoeee, ana iauanoaaiiua nenoaiu,
iacaaeneii, auea ee yoa nianoaaiiinoue iaoa?eaeeciaaia.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey canoaaeea ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia ”
iaaeaeeioth ?oeo” i?ia?anna /aeiaa/anoaa. Eioaeeaeo i?aa?auaaony a
iaoa?eaeueioth neeo, iuneue iaoa?eaeecoaony a eiie?aoiua ecia?aoaiey.

Ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, niaeanii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao,
ia io/oaeaeaaiu e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia ia?aoeiu. Aianoa n oai iaeuecy
neacaoue, /oi iie ia eiatho oeaiiinoe. Iai?eia?, i?aai ia eiy iiaeao
eiaoue aiieia ?aaeueioth oeaiiinoue, eae aeey aaoi?a, oae e aeey
?aaioiaeaoaey, eioi?ue ioioii au aueoiee au eiy o aaoi?a i?aai ia eiy,
aoaeue oaeay aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeoniio?aia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.
Iineieueeo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao,
?aaioiaeaoaeue auioaeaeai eneaoue aieaa oeo?ua i?eaiu, iicaieythuea
iaania/eoue oaeia eniieueciaaiea aaoi?ii naiaai i?aaa ia eiy e ae?oaeo
ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa, eioi?ua auaiaeiu ?aaioiaeaoaeth. I?e yoii
aaoi? iieo/aao niioaaonoaothuoth eiiiainaoeeth. Eia/a aiai?y, aeaaea
ee/iui iaeiouanoaaiiui i?aaai iiaeii i?aaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth
iai?ioiniiniaiinoue. A aeiaiai?ao, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeo
ia?aaea/a i?aa eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, iaycaoaeueii io?aaeaaony
ioeaiea ia?aaeaaaaiuo i?aa e ii?yaeie ?an/aoia iaaeaeo noi?iiaie.

Aaoi?neia i?aai – iaeei ec einoeoooia a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa. ?aaoee?oaiua
ei eiouanoaaiiua e ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey naycaiu n nicaeaieai
e eniieueciaaieai i?iecaaaeaiee eeoa?aoo?u, iaoee e eneonnoaa. Aaoi?neia
i?aai eae naiinoiyoaeueiue einoeooo ?aoaao eiie?aoiua caaea/e, eioi?ua
aeeth/atho a naay anaie?ioth io?aio eiouanoaaiiuo e ee/iuo
iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania aaoi?ia; iaania/aiea i?aaiauie
n?aaenoaaie iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey nicaeaiey iao/iuo e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee; oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea eo iauanoaii.

A niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O aaoi?neia i?aai ?ani?ino?aiyaony
ia i?iecaaaeaiey:

– iaia?iaeiaaiiua e ia iaia?iaeiaaiiua, ii iaoiaeaeaieth a iauaeoeaiie
oi?i ia oa??eoi?ee ?O, iacaaeneii io a?aaeaeainoaa aaoi?ia e
i?aaii?aaiieeia;

– ia i?iecaaaeaiey, iaia?iaeiaaiiua e ia iaia?iaeiaaiiua ii
iaoiaeaeaieth a eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia ca i?aaeaeaie ?O, e
i?eciaaony ca aaoi?aie – a?aaeaeaiaie ?O, e eo i?aaii?aaiieeaie;

– ia i?iecaaaeaiey, iaia?iaeiaaiiua eee ia iaia?iaeiaaiiua, ii
iaoiaeyueany a eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia ca i?aaeaeaie ?O, e
i?eciaaony ca aaoi?aie e eo i?eaiieeaie, – a?aaeaeaiaie ae?oaeo
ainoaea?noa a niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeiaiai?aie ?O.

I?iecaaaeaiea oae aea n/eoaaony iioaeeeiaaiiui a ?O, anee a oa/aiea 30
aeiae iinea aeaou ia?aiai iioaeeeiaaiey ca aa iii auei iioaeeeiaaii ia
oa??eoi?ee ?O.

I?e i?aaenoaaeaiee ?O i?aaiaie io?aiu i?iecaaaeaieth a niioaaonoaee n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeiaiai?aie ?O aaoi? i?iecaaaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony ii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ainoaea?noaa, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?iai eiae ianoi
th?eaee/aneee oaeo, iineoaeeaoee iniiaaieai aeey iaeaaeaiey aaoi?neei
i?aaii.

Aaoi?neea i?aaa ?ani?ino?aiythony ia i?iecaaaeaiey:

– iaoee;

– oioia?aoe/aneea;

– aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa;

– a?oeoaeoo?u;

– noeaiia?aoe/aneiai eneonnoaa;

– aeeaiiene;

– neoeueioo?u;

– a?aoeee;

– aeecaeia;

– a?aoe/aneeo ?anneacia;

– aoaeeiaecoaeueiua, iocueaeueiua (n oaenoaie e aac oaenoia);

– oi?aia?aoee e iaioiieiu;

– ae?aiaoe/aneea e iocueaeueii-ae?aiaoe/aneea;

– ia?aaiaeu;

– eeoa?aoo?iua;

– aeey YAI;

– i?iecaiaeiua, nai?ieee e o.ae.

A iauaeoeaiii niunea aaoi?neia i?aai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue
i?aaiauo ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo nicaeaiey
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa.

A noauaeoeaiii niunea aaoi?neia i?aai – oa ee/iua eiouanoaaiiua e
iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeao eeoeai, nicaeaaoei
i?iecaaaeaiey eeoa?aoo?u, iaoee e eneonnoaa.

Ii?iu e i?eioeeiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Eae e anyeee ae?oaie i?aaiaie einoeooo, aaoi?neia i?aai eiaao i?eioeeiu:

Naiaiaea oai?/anoaa. Iicaieyao aaoi?o auae?aoue eioa?anothuoth aai oaio,
oi?io aoaeouaai i?iecaaaeaiey, iaoiae nicaeaiey, eniieueciaaoue
i?iecaaaeaiey anaie aeicaieaiiuie caeiiii niiniaaie. Eiinoeoooeeiiiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aa?aioe?oao naiaiaeo iao/iiai, oaoie/aneiai e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa iooai oe?ieiai ?acaa?ouaaiey iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee, ecia?aoaoaeueneie e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neie ?aaiou, ?acaeoey
eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa. A Eiinoeoooeee ?O cae?aieaii:

1. Eaaeaeiio aa?aioe?oaony naiaiaea eeoa?aoo?iiai, iao/iiai,
oaoie/aneiai e ae?oaeo aeaeia oai?/anoaa, i?aiiaeaaaiey.
Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue io?aiyaony caeiiii.

2. Eaaeaeue eiaao i?aai ia o/anoea a eoeueoo?iie aeecie e iieueciaaieai
o/?aaeaeaieyie eoeueoo?u, ia aeinooi e eoeueoo?iui oeaiiinoyi.

3. Eaaeaeue iaycai caaioeoueny i nio?aiiinoe enoi?e/aneiai e
eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey. Aa?a/ue iaiyoieee enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u.

I?eioeei ni/aoaiey ee/iuo eioa?ania n eioa?anaie anaai iauanoaa.

I?eioeei ii?aeueiie e iaoa?eaeueiie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a eniieueciaaiee
i?iecaaaeaiee. Iaoa?eaeueiia iiiu?aiea: ainoaea?noaaiiua e eiaiiua
i?aiee.

I?eioeei anaie?iie io?aiu i?aaa e caeiiiiai eioa?ana aaoi?ia. Io?aaeai
ia oieueei a ii?iao i?aaa, ii e a ii?iao, iaania/eaathueo caueoo
ia?ooaiiuo aaoi?neeo i?aa.

Ii?iu aaoi?neiai i?aaa niaea?aeaoueny a ?acee/iuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao oaaea?aeueiiai e ?anioaeeeaineiai cia/aiey. Iniiau
a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa onoaiaaeeaatho i?eioeeieaeueiua
iieiaeaiey ii aii?inai, o?aaothuei aaeeiiia?aciiai ?aoaiey ai anao
?anioaeeeao. Oaeia aaeeinoaa i?aaeii?aaeaeaii e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
o/anoey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiiaaioeeyo ia io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa Aianoa n
oai Eiinoeoooeey ?O ioiineo “i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe” e niaianoiiio aaaeaieth Oaaea?aoeee e ?anioaeee a aa
ninoaaa.

I?aaa aaoi?ia e eo caueoa.

I?aaa aaoi?ia, eo niaea?aeaiea e inouanoaeaiea.

Aaoi?o i?iecaaaeaiey eeoa?aoo?u, iaoee e eneonnoaa i?eiaaeeaaeao
neaaeothuea i?aaa:

– i?aai aaoi?noaa (ia aaoi?noai);

– i?aai ia eiy;

– ia iioaeeeiaaiea e eiia eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey;

– ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey ae?oaeie eeoeaie.

( i.2 no.135 Iniia a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa).

Iniiaiia i?aai eeoea, caieiathuaainy iao/iie eee ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, – i?aai ia aaoi?noai. Iii yaeyaony iniiaiiieaaathuei
a oii eiiieaena i?aa, eioi?ui iieuecoaony aaoi?.

A th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a auneacuaathony i?aaeeiaeaiey i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
cae?aieaiey yoiai i?aaa a caeiia.

A niaea?aeaiea i?aaa ia aaoi?noai aoiaeeo ia oieueei i?aai eeoea
n/eoaoueny oai?oeii nicaeaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, ii e o?aaiaaoue nnueee ia
aaoi?a i?e aai eniieueciaaiee. I?aai aaoi?noaa nio?aiyaony o eeoea
iacaaeneii io oi?iu, iacia/aiey e aeinoieinoaa i?iecaaaeaiey. Ia eiaao
cia/aiey, auiouaii i?iecaaaeaiea a naao eee ia auiouaii.

N oeaeueth eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee eeoe, nicaeathueo i?iecaaaeaiey
eeoa?aoo?u, iaoee e eneonnoaa, ei i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai ia eiy. Aaoi?
iiaeao auionoeoue, a naao i?iecaaaeaiea iiae nianoaaiiui eiaiai, iiae
inaaaeiieiii eee aiiieiii.

Ii ?aaeecoao i?aai ia eiy a neo/ayo eniieueciaaiey aai i?iecaaaeaiey,
eiaaea anooiaao a aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey n ae?oaeie eeoeaie e
i?aaiecaoeeyie.

Caeii ?ac?aoaao anaie aeicaieaiiuie niiniaaie iioaeeeiaaiea,
aini?iecaaaeaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?iecaaaeaiey. Iiae iioaeeeiaaieai
iiieiaaony anyeia niiauaiea i?iecaaaeaiey iaii?aaeaeaiiiio e?oao eeoe
ethaui onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiii niiniaii, oi anoue iooai ecaeaiey,
ioaee/iiai eniieiaiey, ioaee/iiai iieaca, ia?aaea/e ii ?aaeei,
oaeaaeaeaieth e oae aeaeaa.

I?aai aaoi?a ia aini?iecaaaeaiea icia/aao aiciiaeiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey n iiiiuueth niyoey n iaai eiiee eee eiui niiniaii. E
iioaeeeiaaiea, e aini?iecaaaeaiea inouanoaeythony ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a,
eioi?ue caeeth/aao aaoi? n i?aaiecaoeeae (ecaeaoaeuenoaii, oaao?ii,
eeiinooaeeae e oae aeaeaa). Aini?iecaaaeaiea, eae e iioaeeeiaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey, o?aaoao niaeaney aaoi?a.

Eneeth/aiea ec i?aaeea ia eniieueciaaiee i?iecaaaeaiey ia iniiaa
aeiaiai?a cae?aieaii a caeiia. Noaouey 492 AE i?aaeoniao?eaaao neo/ae
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey aac niaeaney aaoi?a e aac oieaou aaoi?neiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, a no. 495 AE – eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey aac
niaeaney aaoi?a, ii n auieaoie aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey (no.138
Iniia). I?aai aaoi?a ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey naaiaeiy
i?eia?aoaao oio niune, eioi?ue caeeaaeuaae caeiiiaeaoaeue, cae?aieyy aai
ca oai?oeii i?iecaaaeaiey. Neiaeeaoayny a iineaaeiea aiaeu i?aeoeea
ecaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiee ca n/ao n?aaenoa aaoi?a i?aaeinoaaeea aio
aiciiaeiinoue naiiio ?ani?ino?aiyoue naie i?iecaaaeaiey. Iiyoiio naie
niaie ioiaee ooaa?aeaeaiey o/aiuo-th?enoia i oii, /oi aaoi? ia iaeaaeaao
i?aaii ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey, oae eae ia ?aniieaaaao
ia/aoiuie n?aaenoaaie, aoiaaie e oae aeaeaa.

I?aai ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey icia/aao cai?ao aianaiey
eciaiaiee a naii i?iecaaaeaiea, aai niaeaney i?e ethaii niiniaa
eniieueciaaiey (ecaeaiea, ioaee/iia eniieiaiea, ioaee/iue iieac e oae
aeaeaa).

Noaouey 480 AE cai?auaao aac niaeaney aaoi?a niaaaeaoue i?iecaaaeaiea
i?e aai ecaeaiee eeethno?aoeeyie, i?aaeeneiaeyie, iineaneiaeyie,
eiiiaioa?eyie e eaeeie au oi ie auei iiyniaieyie. Oiiieiaaony eeoue
iaeei ec niiniaia eniieueciaaiey – ecaeaiey, ii yoio ii?yaeie aeieaeai
nio?aiyoueny i?e anao eiuo niiniaao eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey.

A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo noauaeoeaiuo i?aa aaoi?a, i?aaenoaaeythueo ia?o
aiciiaeiiai iiaaaeaiey, i?aai ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey e
eiaie aaoi?a eceiaeaii eae cai?ao, aae?aniaaiiue o?aoueei eeoeai.

I?aaeaeu iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey ia iiaoo auoue aaca?aie/iuie.
Aaoi?, anooiay a aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey n ecaeaoaeuenoaii, oaao?ii e
ae?oaeie i?aaiecaoeeyie-iieueciaaoaeyie, aeiioneaao, /oi a oiaea
iiaeaioiaee i?iecaaaeaiey e auioneo a naao aoaeoo aiineoueny
ii?aaeaeaiiua iii?aaee. ?aaeaeoi? eee ?aaeenna?, niaa?oainoaoy
i?iecaaaeaiea, ia ai?aaa ia?ooeoue caiunae aaoi?a, iniaaiiinoe aai noeey
e oae aeaeaa. Aiineiua eie a i?iecaaaeaiey aeieaeiu niaeaniauaaoueny n
aaoi?ii.

E /eneo i?aa aaoi?a, cae?aieaiiuo caeiiii, ioiineony i?aai ia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca ?ac?aoaiea eniieueciaaoue i?iecaaaeaiea. Yoi –
eiouanoaaiiia i?aai.

Iniaaiiinoe aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeythony niaoeeoeeie
oai?/aneiai o?oaea. Oaeo nicaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey aua ia ii?iaeaeaao o
aaoi?a aiciiaeiinoe ?aaeeciaaoue i?aai ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.
Inouanoaeaiea aeaiiiai i?aaa n eniieueciaaieai i?iecaaaeaiey ae?oaeie
eeoeaie, eiuie neiaaie, eiaaea onoaiiaeaia iauanoaaiiay iieaciinoue
i?iecaaaeaiey.

Noaaee aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee
o/eouaatho aeae, oa?aeoa? i?iecaaaeaiey, aai iauai, neiaeiinoue,
eiee/anoaaiiua e?eoa?ee. I?e ecaeaiee iao/iiai eee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey aiciaa?aaeaeaiea auiea/eaathony, enoiaey ec noaaee ca
iaeei aaoi?neee eeno. Iiyoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey iiea/eaathony ii noaaeai
ca iaeio no?ieo. Ioaeaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey – ?anneac, yiea?aiia,
noeoioai?aiea aei 30 no?ie – iiea/eaathony aeei?aeii, oi anoue ca
i?iecaaaeaiea a oeaeii.

Noaaee aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca ecaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiee eeoa?aoo?u,
iaoee e eneonnoaa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu a caaeneiinoe io aeaea
i?iecaaaeaiey (ooaeiaeanoaaiiay i?ica, iaeiiaeoiay iueana,
eeoa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/aneea, eeoa?aoo?iaaae/aneea ?aaiou, iao/ii-iiioey?iay,
o/aaiay eeoa?aoo?a e oae aeaeaa).

I?e ecaeaiee i?iecaaaeaiey eeoa?aoo?u, iaoee e eneonnoaa aaoi? iieo/aao
100% aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Eaaeaeia iineaaeothuaa ecaeaiea iau/ii
iiea/eaaaony a oiaiueoaiiii ?acia?a: aoi?ia e o?aouea ecaeaiea
eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiea – a ?acia?a 60% io ia?aiai
ecaeaiey; /aoaa?oia – 40%; iyoia – 30% e oae aeaeaa.

I?e ecaeaiee ia?a?aaioaiiiai aaoi?ii i?iecaaaeaiey aaoi?neia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea auiea/eaaaony a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea: iiaue iaoa?eae
iiea/eaaaony, eae ia?aia ecaeaiea – 100%, ?aiaa iioaeeeiaaiiue iaoa?eae
– a i?ioeaioiii en/eneaiee n o/aoii ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a ecaeaiey.

Ioiaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieee a ecaeaoaeueneii aeaea i?eaaei e
oo?aoa iaycaoaeueiie neeu oeiiauo aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia e
i?aaeoniao?eaaaoeony ?aiaa noaaie aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Iaeiaei
iiiaea ecaeaoaeuenoaa i?eaioe?othony ia i?aaeiea i?eioeeiu en/eneaiey
aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, iaeiia?aiaiii aeiiieiyy eo nia?aiaiiuie
(iai?eia?, aiciiaeiinoueth iieo/aiey aaoi?ii /anoe aeioiaea, iieo/aiiiai
ecaeaoaeuenoaii io ?ani?ino?aiaiey oe?aaea aai i?iecaaaeaiey).
Aiaeiae/iui a i?eioeeia ia?acii no?ieony ?an/ao aaoi?neiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca ioaee/iia eniieiaiea ae?aiaoe/aneeo,
iocueaeueii-ae?aiaoe/aneeo, iocueaeueiuo e ae?oaeo i?iecaaaeaiee. Iaeie
noaaee i?eiaiythony i?e iieaoa ioaee/iiai i?iecaaaeaiey, nicaeaiiiai ii
caeaco c?aeeuiiai i?aaei?eyoey, ae?oaea – ioaee/iiai eniieiaiey oaea
iioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee.

Ca i?iecaaaeaiea, auiieiaiiia ii caeaco, eeai ca i?aai ia?aie iinoaiiaee
iaiioaeeeiaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey aaoi?o auiea/eaaaony aaeeiia?aiaiiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. E?iia oiai, c?aeeuiia i?aaei?eyoea, ioaee/ii
eniieiythuaa i?iecaaaeaiea, auiea/eaaao aaoi?o aiciaa?aaeaeaiea a aeaea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?ioeaioa io noiiu aaeiaiai nai?a, iinooieaoaai io
i?iaeaaee aeeaoia. Ioaee/iia eniieiaiea oaea iioaeeeiaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee iiea/eaaaony a aeaea i?ioeaioia io iiniaeoaeeueiuo nai?ia.

?anniio?aiiua auoa i?aaa aaoi?ia i?iecaaaeaiee eeoa?aoo?u, iaoee e
eneonnoaa aeaeyony ia ee/iua e eiouanoaaiiua. Ee/iua i?aaa ioaaouaatho
i?aai ia aaoi?noai, ia aaoi?neia eiy, ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue
i?iecaaaeaiea e eiaie aaoi?a, i?aai ia iioaeeeiaaiea. Eiouanoaaiiui
n/eoatho i?aai ia aini?iecaaaeaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?iecaaaeaiey, ia
aaoi?neia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.

Ee/iua e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa oanii ia?aieaoaiu, eaaeaeia i?eiaaeeaaeauaa
aaoi?o i?aai i?ecaaii a oie eee eiie ia?a io?aiyoue eae aai
eiouanoaaiiua, oae e iaeiouanoaaiiua eioa?anu.

I?eaaaeai ianeieueei i?eia?ia. I?aai aaoi?a ia eiy, eioi?ia yaeyaony
ee/iui i?aaii aaoi?a, a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo cao?aaeaaao aai
eiouanoaaiiua eioa?anu. Anee ia oeacai iaeei ec niaaoi?ia, oi ii
eeoaaony aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Eeoei, auaeaaoaa /oaeia
i?iecaaaeaiea ca naia, ia?ooaao i?aai ia aaoi?noai e i?aai ia eiy
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai aaoi?a, a oaeaea aai i?aai ia aaoi?neia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, A aeaiiii neo/aa oanii ia?aieaoaiu ee/iua e
eiouanoaaiiua eioa?anu aaoi?a.

I?aai ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey oiaea iiaeao ii?iaeaeaoue
aeey aaoi?a eiouanoaaiiua iineaaenoaey. I?aai ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue
i?iecaaaeaiey oiaea iiaeao ii?iaeaeaoue aeey aaoi?a eiouanoaaiiua
iineaaenoaey. Iai?eia?, eneaaeaiea oaao?ii iueanu i?e iinoaiiaea iiaeao
nieceoue iinauaaiinoue c?aeeuiiai o/?aaeaeaiey eee i?eaanoe e
eneeth/aieth iueanu ec ?aia?ooa?a oaao?a. A naith i/a?aaeue yoi
i?eaaaeao e oiaiueoaieth ?acia?a aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eee i?ae?auaieth aai
auieaou.

I?aeoe/anee o?oaeii auaeaeeoue ee/iua e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa a /enoii
aeaea, iineieueeo iaeii e oi aea i?eiaaeeaaeauaa aaoi?o i?aai iiaeao
io?aiyoue aai eiouanoaaiiue e iaeiouanoaaiiue eioa?anu.

I?aai ia aaoi?noai, aaoi?neia eiy e iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey
io?aiythony aann?i/ii (no. 137 Iniia a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa).

Iniiaiua niiniau caueou aaoi?neeo i?aa. I?e ia?ooaiee ee/iuo
iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa aaoi? iiaeao o?aaiaaoue ainnoaiiaeaiey ia?ooaiiiai
i?aaa iooai aianaiey niioaaonoaothueo eni?aaeaiee, niiauaiey a ia/aoe
eee eiui niiniaii i aeiiouaiiii ia?ooaiee.

Ia?ooaiea eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa (no. 500 AE) iiaeao auoue naycaii n
ia?ooaieai ae?oaeo eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa aaoi?a. Iai?eia?, i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia iauaeo, a eioi?ii iaoa?eaeeciaaii i?iecaaaeaiea
(ea?oeia, ?oeiienue, eeaae? e o. i.). Aiciauaiea noieiinoe oo?a/aiiie
eee iia?aaeaeaiiie aaue ia eeoaao aaoi?a i?aaa ia aiciauaiea oauoeia,
naycaiiuo n ia?ooaieai aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Ec iaueo ia? caueou a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa ia i?eiaiyaony e aaoi?neei i?aaai
i?enoaeaeaiea e eniieiaieth iaycaiiinoe a iaoo?a. Iaaiciiaeii canoaaeoue
aaoi?a iaienaoue i?iecaaaeaiea ii aeiaiai?o caeaca, anee ii ia auiieiee
acyoiai ia naay iaycaoaeuenoaa. I?aai ia aaoi?noai, i?aai ia aaoi?neia
eiy, ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey caueuathony iacaaeneii io
enoa/aiey n?iea eneiaie aeaaiinoe.

I?aaiu caueou aaoi?neeo i?aa. Noaeaaiue ii?yaeie caueou aaoi?neeo i?aa
iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai. Aai iniiao ninoaaeyao eneiaia i?iecaiaenoai.

A eneiaii cayaeaiee oeacuaaaony, eaeea i?aaa aaoi?a ia?ooaiu (ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua eee eiouanoaaiiua). Eneiaua o?aaiaaiey iaeiouanoaaiiiai
oa?aeoa?a naycaiu n ainnoaiiaeaieai ee/iuo i?aa aaoi?a, a eneiaua
o?aaiaaiey eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a – ni acuneaieai aaoi?neiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eee oauoeia. Aiciiaeiu enee, a eioi?uo iaeiia?aiaiii
cayaeaiu o?aaiaaiey i ainnoaiiaeaiee ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo eioa?ania e
eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa.

Ia?ooaiea eiouanoaaiiuo eioa?ania aaoi?a a ?yaea neo/aaa ia cao?aaeaaao
aai ee/iuo i?aa. Iii aiciiaeii i?e i?aaiia?iii eniieueciaaiee
i?aaiecaoeeae i?iecaaaeaiey, a oaeaea i?e aacaeiaiai?iii eniieueciaaiey.
A ia?aii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao ia ii?aaeaeaiee aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ieaea
i?aaeoniio?aiiiai, ianiaethaeaiee ii?yaeea e n?ieia auieaou
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e o. ae.; ai aoi?ii — ia ioeaca i?aaiecaoeee auieaoeoue
aaoi?o i?e/eoathueeny aio aiii?a?.

I?aaa aaoi?ia aioo?e no?aiu e ca aa i?aaeaeaie aei 1990 aiaea
io?aiyeenue Ananithciui aaaionoaii ii aaoi?neei i?aaai (AAAI). Iii auei
nicaeath a 1973 aiaeo ii eieoeeaoeaa oai?/aneeo nithcia, Aeaaeaiee iaoe
NNN?, Aaaionoaa ia/aoe “Iiainoe” e ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee. Io?aiyy i?aaa e
caeiiiua eioa?anu aaoi?ia e eo i?aaii?aaiieeia, AAAI iaania/eaaei
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai, i?eieiaei iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u ii i?aaeioa?auaieth
ia?ooaiee eee ainnoaiiaeaieth ia?ooaiiiai i?aaa. AAAI aaei aeae; aaoi?ia
a aaeieieno?aoeaiuo e noaeaaiuo i?aaiao, auiieiyei ooieoeee ii nai?o e
auieaoa aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

Aianoa n oai, AAAI iaeaaeaei iiiiiieeae ia caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?ia,
ia?aaeei aac eo ia oi niaeaney. Oaeoe/anee iii auiieiyei ooieoeee i?aaia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey a noa?a aaoi?neeo ioiioaiee. Iiyoiio
i?ienoiaeyuea i?ioeannu ?aaeeeaeueiiai iaiiaeaiey nouanoaaiii
io?aceeenue ia aai aeayoaeueiinoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iii i?aia?aciaaii a
?inneeneia aaaionoai eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe (?AEN) i?e
I?aceaeaioa ?O. ?AEN yaeyaony oaaea?aeueiui aaaeiinoaii,
?ac?aaaouaathuei e inouanoaeythuei ainoaea?noaaiioth iieeoeeo a noa?a
io?aiu aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa. ?AEN ioeacaeinue io iiiaeo
iiiiiieueiuo ooieoeee, nio?aiea ca niaie, a /anoiinoe, ooieoeee
niaeaenoaey iaeaaeaoaeyi aaoi?neeo i?aa a ?aaeecaoeee eo i?aaiii/ee,
aeeth/ay i?aai ia ia?auaiea a noae e ia caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?ia ia
eniieueciaaiee aaoi?neeo i?aa a ?O e ca ?oaaaeii eneeth/eoaeueii ii
ii?o/aieyi aaoi?ia eee eiuo i?aaiiaeaaeaoaeae, a oaeaea iieo/aiea e
auieaoo aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca ioaee/iia eniieueciaaiea
(eniieiaiea) iaeioi?uo i?iecaaaeaiee e aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey,
iinooiathuaai ec-ca ?oaaaea a aaethoa. ?AEN ai?aaa ecaeaaaoue
eino?oeoeee e ?acuyniaiey ii aaeeiiia?aciiio i?eiaiaieth aaoi?neiai
i?aaa, iaycaoaeueiua aeey anao aaaeiinoa, i?aaiecaoeee e eiuo
iieueciaaoaeae i?iecaaaeaiee.

Io?aia i?aa ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e iaaeaaniiniaiuo aaoi?ia.

Ia?aaeei oai?/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey nicaeathony a?aaeaeaiaie, ia
aeinoeaoeie niaa?oaiiieaoey eeai i?eciaiiuie a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii
ii?yaeea iaaeaaniiniaiuie eee ia?aie/aiii aeaaniiniaiuie. Iai?eia?,
Iaaey ?ooaia, ca naie 17 eao, nicaeaea ieiei 11 oun. ?enoieia. I?e
aeecie Iaaee ninoiyeinue 15 aunoaaie aa ?aaio, a oii /enea ca ?oaaaeii.
Ia?aue iiyoe/aneee nai?iee Ieee Oo?aeiie auoae a naao, eiaaea thiie
iiyoanna auei anaai 8 eao. A ?innee e ca ?oaaaeii oe?iei ecaanoiu eiaia
ae?oaeo thiuo aea?iaaiee.

Aiciiaeiinoue ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e iaaeaaniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai eiaoue
i?aaa aaoi?ia ia aucuaaao eaeeo-eeai niiiaiee ie a th?eaee/aneie iaoea,
ie ia i?aeoeea. Naia yoa aiciiaeiinoue aoiaeeo a niaea?aeaiea
a?aaeaeaineie i?aainiiniaiinoe, a iineaaeiyy ia caaeneo ie io aic?anoa,
ie io ninoiyiey caei?iauey /aeiaaea. Aeey i?aa?auaiey yoie aano?aeoiie
aiciiaeiinoe a eiie?aoiia noauaeoeaiia aaoi?neia i?aai iaiaoiaeei
th?eaee/aneee oaeo. ?ieue oaeiai oaeoa auiieiyao nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey
iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa, o. a. aeaenoaea oaeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, a
ia naeaeea. Ii iineieueeo oaeoe/aneea aeaenoaey iiaoo niaa?oaoueny e
iaaeaaniiniaiuie eeiaie, eiie?aoiua noauaeoeaiua aaoi?neea i?aaa
aicieeatho iacaaeneii io aic?anoa e ninoiyiey aeaaniiniaiinoe. Iiyoiio
iineoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa a ioiioaiee nicaeaiiuo eie i?iecaaaeaiee
yaeythony naie ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea e iaaeaaniiniaiua eeoea.

A?aaeaeaia, eioi?ua aneaaenoaea ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie iaieoeaie eee
ia?eioe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie noaayo naith naiueth a oyaeaeia iaoa?eaeueiia
iieiaeaiea e i?eciaiu a nayce n yoei ia?aie/aiii aeaaniiniaiuie, iiaoo
inouanoaeyoue naie aaoi?neea i?aaa eeoue n niaeaney iiia/eoaeae (no.16
AE). Yoi icia/aao, /oi aaoi?, aeaaniiniaiinoue eioi?iai ia?aie/aia ii
noaeo, nai inouanoaeyao naie aaoi?neea i?aaa, ii iiae eiio?ieai
iiia/eoaey, caaea/ae eioi?iai yaeyaony ia?aaeaeaiea iiaeiia/iiai io
ceioiio?aaeaiee ni noi?iiu o?aoueeo eeoe, a oaeaea io aai nianoaaiiuo
a?aaeiiiniuo aeaenoaee. Iiia/eoaeue ia ono?aiyao aeaenoaee naiiai
iiaeiia/iiai, a aeaenoaoao aianoa n iei e a aai eioa?anao.

Ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea, o. a. eeoea a aic?anoa io 15 aei 18 eao,
inouanoaeytho niie aaoi?neea i?aaa niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueii (no. 13
AE). Yoi eneeth/aiea ec iauaai i?aaeea, niaeanii eioi?iio a?aaeaeaia
iiaoo naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyoue naie a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa eeoue n 18
eao, anee oieueei caeiiii ia oeacaii eiia. Iaee/ea oaeiai ionooieaiey
aiieia ii?aaaeaii, oae eae a aeaiiii aic?anoa iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue
aeinoaoi/ioth c?aeinoue ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeey ?acoiiiai ?anii?yaeaiey
aeinoeaioouie eie oai?/aneeie ?acoeueoaoaie.

Aaoi?neea i?aaa th?eaee/aneeo eeoe.

Ia?yaeo n oece/aneeie eeiaie iaeaaeaoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa ia
i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa ii ?inneeneiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao aunooiatho th?eaee/aneea eeoea. Anee iineaaeiea
yaeythony i?aaii?aaiieeaie nicaeaoaeae i?iecaaaeaiee, eo aiciiaeiinoue
auoue iineoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa ia aucuaaao ieeaeeo niiiaiee. Oae,
th?eaee/aneia eeoei iiaeao i?eia?anoe ioaeaeueiua aaoi?neea i?aaiii/ey
ii aeiaiai?o n aaoi?ii, a neeo oiai, /oi i?iecaaaeaiea nicaeaii aaoi?ii
a ii?yaeea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey, aaoi?neia i?aai iiaeao
ia?aeoe e th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo ii caaauaieth aaoi?a e o. ae. Ii anao
yoeo neo/ayo th?eaee/aneia eeoei noaiiaeony iaeaaeaoaeai i?iecaiaeiiai
aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eioi?ia ia?aiia/aeueii aicieeei ia noi?iia aaoi?a, ii
ia?aoei e th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo ii oeacaiiui a caeiia iniiaaieyi.

Aii?in i oii, iiaeao ee th?eaee/aneia eeoei auoue iaeaaeaoaeai
ia?aiia/aeueiiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa, o. a. I?eia?aoaoue i?aaa ia
i?iecaaaeaiea iin?aaenoaii naieo nianoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, aeieaea aiaeu
inoaaaeny a niaaoneie iaoea aaoi?neiai i?aaa nii?iui. Iiiaea o/aiua,
iniiauaaynue ia oao iieiaeaieyo niaaoneiai aaoi?neiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui i?aaa ia iao/iua nai?ieee,
neiaa?e, yioeeeeiiaaee/aneea ecaeaiey, aeo?iaeu, eeiioeeueiu e o. i.
aicieeaee o auionoeaoeo eo a naao i?aaiecaoeee, iieaaaee, /oi aaoi?neia
i?aai th?eaee/aneeo eeoe aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa eo oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey iauaaeeiaiey naiinoiyoaeueiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo aaoi?ia a aaeeiia oeaeia i?iecaaaeaiea. Eiuie
neiaaie, iie n/eoaee, /oi th?eaee/aneea eeoea yaeyeenue iieiioeaiiuie
iaeaaeaoaeyie ia?aiia/aeueiiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa, /oi e iaoiaeeei i?yiia
io?aaeaiea a aaoi?neii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Ii iiaieth ae?oaeo o/aiuo, th?eaee/aneia eeoei ii naiie naiae i?e?iaea
ia iiaeao noaoue noauaeoii ia?aiia/aeueiiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iie
enoiaeeee ec oiai, /oi oai?eoue, nicaeaaaoue iiaia iiaoo eeoue aeeaua
ethaee. Iiyoiio eae au ie iiaeeyei th?eaee/aneia eeoei ia nicaeaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey, naii nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey yaeyaony aeaeii ioaeaeueiuo
oece/aneeo eeoe. Auyaeoue aea eaeoth-eeai iniaoth oai?/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, ia ioaaouaaaioth oai?/anoaii
eiie?aoiuo oece/aneeo eeoe, iaaiciiaeii. I?aaiia?ii eeoue aiai?eoue ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, i nicaeaiee ei
iaoa?eaeueiie aacu aeey oai?/anoaa oece/aneeo eeoe e o. ae., iaeiaei
oeacaiiua aeaenoaey ia yaeythony iniiaaieai aeey i?eciaiey ca
th?eaee/aneei eeoeii ia?aiia/aeueiiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iiyoiio n eo
oi/ee c?aiey iaaeaeaiea iaeioi?uo th?eaee/aneeo eeoe aaoi?neeie i?aaaie
ia?aiia/aeueiiai oa?aeoa?a yaeyeinue ia aieaa /ai caeiiiaeaoaeueiui
i?eaiii, i?aneaaeothuei ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee. Oae, eiino?oeoeey
ia?aiia/aeueiiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa th?eaee/aneiai eeoea niinianoaiaaea
ono?aiaieth i?aaiaie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, aicieeathuae a neeo ionoonoaey o
iaeaaeaoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia ana i?iecaaaeaiea, a /anoiinoe iaeaa/aea
eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee. Aeaiiia iauyniaiea i?aaenoaaeyaony
aeinoaoi/ii oaaaeeoaeueiui. Aieueoie, a eiiaaea e iaaeinoaoi/ii
ii?aaeaeaiiue e?oa eeoe, aianoeo oai?/aneee aeeaae a nicaeaiea neiaeiiai
ninoaaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey aeoia n ionoonoaeai i?aaiauo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
eiie?aoiuie aaoi?aie, o/anoaiaaaoeie a aai nicaeaiee, aeaeatho
oeaeaniia?aciui i?eciaiea iaeaaeaoaeai aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaiea
a oeaeii iaeiiai eeoea. A naiii aeaea, yoi eeoei (eeiinooaeey,
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?aaiecaoeey, ecaeaoaeuenoai e o. i.) eeoue
oneiaii iiaeao auoue i?eciaii aaoi?ii i?iecaaaeaiey, oae eae a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aai oai?oeaie yaeythony eiie?aoiua oece/aneea eeoea.
Iaeiaei oaeie th?eaee/aneee i?eai, yaeythueeny naiaia?aciie
th?eaee/aneie oeeoeeae, aiieia ii?aaaeai ii eceiaeaiiui auoa
niia?aaeaieyi.

Caeii ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao”, iaeiaei, aiiaua
ioeacaeny io aeaiiie th?eaee/aneie eiino?oeoeee. A ea/anoaa aaoi?ia
i?iecaaaeaiee ei i?eciathony eeoue oece/aneea eeoea, oai?/aneei o?oaeii
eioi?uo iie nicaeaiu (no. 1). Oaeie iiaeoiae, aaconeiaii, aieaa oi/ii
io?aaeaao aeaenoaeoaeueiia iieiaeaiea aeae, ii ianeieueei ii niaeanoaony
n iio?aaiinoyie i?aeoeee, iieaaeao aoaeouaa. Ai anyeii neo/aa iiaeii
eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey aeaenoaothuaai aaoi?neiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa o oaeeo ninoaaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, eae yioeeeeiiaaeee,
i?iaeieaeathueany nai?ieee iao/iuo o?oaeia, ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey e o.
i. aiiaua iao aaoi?ia, a aaoi?aie aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee
i?eciaiu ia ana eeoea, aianoea oai?/aneee aeeaae a eo nicaeaiea, a
oieueei ?aaeenna?-iinoaiiauee, noeaia?eno e eiiiiceoi? (no. 11, 13
Caeiia). I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea aeaiiie i?iaeaiu ai iiiaii nieiaaony
aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea
?anniao?eaaaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ii-i?aaeiaio i?eciathony ca eo ecaeaoaeyie
e ecaioiaeoaeyie.

Eiino?aiiua aaoi?u.

Noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?eciathony ia oieueei a?aaeaeaia ?innee, ii
e eiino?aioeu, a oaeaea eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa. Iaeiaei anee
i?iecaaaeaiey ?inneeneeo aaoi?ia io?aiythony iacaaeneii io ianoa eo
iaia?iaeiaaiey eee iaoiaeaeaiey a eiie iauaeoeaiie oi?ia, oi io?aia
i?iecaaaeaiee eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia caaeneo io ?yaea cae?aieaiiuo a caeiia
oneiaee. I?aaeaea anaai, i?eciathony e io?aiythony aaoi?neea i?aaa
eiino?aioeaa ia oa eo i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua iaia?iaeiaaiu ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee, eeai ia iaia?iaeiaaiu, ii iaoiaeyony ia aa oa??eoi?ee a
eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia (i. 1 no.5 Caeiia «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao»). A aeaiiii neo/aa i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea eiino?aiiuo
aaoi?ia ia eiaao ieeaeeo ioee/ee io i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiey ?inneeneeo
aaoi?ia. Oeacaiiia i?aaeei au?aaeaao oa??eoi?eaeueiue i?eioeei,
ecaanoiue aaoi?neiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao iiiaeo no?ai e cae?aieaiiue
aaaeiaeoeie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie eiiaaioeeyie.

Anee i?iecaaaeaiea eiino?aiiiai aaoi?a iaia?iaeiaaii eee iaoiaeeony a
iauaeoeaiie oi?ia ca i?aaeaeaie ?O, aai io?aia a iaoae no?aia
inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeiaiai?aie ?innee.
Oae, niaeanii Anaie?iie eiiaaioeee ia aaoi?neii i?aaa ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee io?aiythony ana i?iecaaaeaiey a?aaeaeai no?ai—o/anoieoe Anaie?iie
eiiaaioeee, a oaeaea ethaua i?iecaaaeaiey, aia?aua iioaeeeiaaiiua ia eo
oa??eoi?ee. Aaaeii eeoue, /oiau iie auoee a naao iinea 27 ethey 1973a.
—aeaou i?eniaaeeiaiey NNN? e Anaie?iie eiiaaioeee.

Caeii ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao” aaae i?aaeei, ?aiaa
niaaoneiio aaoi?neiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ia ecaanoiia, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ui i?iecaaaeaiea oaeaea n/eoaaony iioaeeeiaaiiui a ?O, anee a
oa/aiea 30 aeiae iinea ia?aiai iioaeeeiaaiey ca i?aaeaeaie ?O iii auei
iioaeeeiaaii ia oa??eoi?ee ?O.

I?eniaaeeiaiea ?innee e Aa?ineie eiiaaioeee.

A oa/aiea iiiaeo eao Niaaoneee Nithc, a iioii e ?inney, ia iiaee noaoue
o/anoieeaie Aa?ineiai Nithca a neeo ianiioaaonoaey i?aaeinoaaeyaiie ii
iaoeeiiaeueiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao io?aiu i?iecaaaeaieyi “o?iaith
Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee”.

Ii, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi Caeii, i?eiyoea eioi?iai iicaieeei au
i?eniaaeeieoueny e Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee, anooiee a neeo oieueei 3 aaaonoa
1993 aiaea, iaeioi?uie i?aaiaaaeaie oaea a 1992 aiaeo iiaeieiaeny aii?in
i niiniaa aiciiaeiiai i?eniaaeeiaiey ?innee. A /anoiinoe, iaeei ec ieo
ioia/ae, /oi noaouey 18 Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee ia niaea?aeeo iaycaoaeuenoaa
iaania/aiey io?aiu n ia?aoiie neeie, e, iiyoiio ia eneeth/aii, /oi
?inneeneay oaaea?aoeey i?e i?eniaaeeiaiee e Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee au?aceo
eiaiii oaeoth oi/eo c?aiey. Iicaeiaa yoei aea niaoeeaeenoii ia ?ac
auneacuaaeinue iiaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eniaaeeiaiey ?innee e
Eiiaaioeee aac ia?aoiie neeu, /oi “aeey ?innee, aeey ?inneeneeo
i?aaiecaoeee, eniieuecothueo eiino?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey” ieacaeinue au
“iaeaieaa auaiaeiui e aacaieaciaiiui, iniaaiii a oa/aiea ia?auo eao
iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey”.

13 ia?oa 1995 aiaea i?iecioei aeieaiaeaeaiiia niauoea – ?inney,
iaeiiaoe, noaea iieiii?aaiie o/anoieoeae Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee ia io?aia
eeoa?aoo?iuo e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. I?e iiaea/a
aeeieiiaoe/aneie iiou i i?eniaaeeiaiee ?inney oaaaeiieea ae?oaeo
o/anoieeia Eiiaaioeee i oii, /oi “aeaenoaea Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua ia aeaoo anooieaiey yoie
Eiiaaioeee a neeo aeey ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee oaea yaeythony ia aa
oa??eoi?ee iauanoaaiiui aeinoiyieai”.

A niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 28 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao” i?iecaaaeaiea ia?anoaao io?aiyoueny, e ia?aoiaeeo a iauanoaaiiia
aeinoiyiea, a ?acoeueoaoa enoa/aiey n?iea aeaenoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa.
Eae, oaea ?aiaa ioia/aeinue, a neo/aa, anee no?aia i?aaeinoaaeyao io?aio
iaiioaeeeiaaiiui i?iecaaaeaieyi eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia, n?ie io?aiu
enoaeaao ia iiiaio iioaeeeiaaiey yoiai i?iecaaaeaiey a no?aia, ia
naycaiiie n iae eaeei-eeai niaeaoaieai ia io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa.

?anniio?ei, eae a ?innee ?aoaaony noaeueaa eiino?aiiuo iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee.

Niaeanii noaouea 5 Caeiia “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao”, io?aia
ii aaoi?neiio i?aao i?aaeinoaaeyaony iaiioaeeeiaaiiui i?iecaaaeaieyi
eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia neaaeothuei ia?acii:

– anee iie iaoiaeyony a eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee, oi iie io?aiythony ii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ai anao
neo/ayo;

– anee iie iaoiaeyony a eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia ca i?aaeaeaie
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, oi iieo/atho io?aio ia iniiaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeiaiai?ia.

*oi eanaaony ia?aie a?oiiu iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, auaeaeaiiie
caeiiiaeaoaeai, caeanue neooaoeey aiieia iiiyoia: iaiioaeeeiaaiiua
eiino?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee,
io?aiythony ii ?inneeneiio aaoi?neiio i?aao. Iineieueeo naii
i?iecaaaeaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiie iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia iaoiaeeony ia
?inneeneie oa??eoi?ee, ana i?ioeaii?aaiua aeaenoaey a ioiioaiee yoiai
i?iecaaaeaiey (iai?eia?, iaia?iaeiaaiea aac niaeaney aaoi?a, ieaaeao,
ia?a?aaioea e i?.) oaeaea iiaoo eiaoue ianoi ia aa oa??eoi?ee, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiiaaeatho iiae ?inneeneoth th?enaeeeoeeth. Io?aia,
i?aaeinoaaeaiiay oaeiio i?iecaaaeaieth, iineo oneiaiue oa?aeoa?, oae eae
iia iinoaaeaia a caaeneiinoue io ianoa iineaaeothuaai iioaeeeiaaiey. A
neo/aa anee ioaeeeaoeey aoaeao eiaoue ianoi a ?innee, iii aoaeao
i?iaeieaeaoue iaoiaeeoueny iiae io?aiie. Anee aea iii aoaeao
iaia?iaeiaaii ca ?oaaaeii, oaeia i?iecaaaeaiea ?inneeneei aaoi?neei
i?aaii io?aiyoueny ia aoaeao aneaaenoaea enoa/aiey n?iea
i?aaeinoaaeyaiie io?aiu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey ?innee e
Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee, a neo/aa, anee aei 13 ia?oa 1995 aiaea oaeia
i?iecaaaeaiea auei aia?aua iioaeeeiaaii ca ?oaaaeii e aneaaenoaea yoiai
oo?aoeei i?aaiaoth io?aio, ?inney, niaeanii ioieoo 2 noaouee 18 Aa?ineie
Eiiaaioeee, ia iaycaia aiiaue noaaeoue yoi i?iecaaaeaiea iiae io?aio.

Aii?in aea a ioiioaiee iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee eiino?aiiuo
aaoi?ia, iaoiaeyueony a eaeie-eeai iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia ca ?oaaaeii,
e?aeia neiaeai. ?inneeneei Caeiiii i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi io?aia oaeei
i?iecaaaeaieyi i?aaeinoaaeyaony eeoue ia iniiaaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeiaiai?ia. Anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi Caeii aaeaeaaoii io?aaeaao
?inneeneith i?aeoeeo io?aiu iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee eiino?aioeaa,
oi ana eiino?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, iaoiaeyueany a iauaeoeaiie oi?ia ca
?oaaaeii, iacaaeneii io oiai, auee ee iie iaia?iaeiaaiu eee iao aei 13
ia?oa 1995 aiaea, iiaeeaaeao io?aia ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee n yoie aeaou.
E, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ae?oaea /eaiu Aa?ineiai Nithca iiaee au auaeaeiooue
ni?aaaaeeeaua aic?aaeaiey i?ioea o/anoey ?innee a Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee
aac ia?aoiie neeu.

Caiyoay ?inneeneei caeiiiaeaoaeai iiceoeey a ioiioaiee io?aiu
eiino?aiiuo iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee auea iiaeaa?aiooa e?eoeea
niaoeeaeenoaie, eioi?ua oeacuaaee ia oi, /oi iia neoaeeo enoi/ieeii
aicieeiiaaiey iiiaeanoaa i?iaeai ia i?aeoeea. Iai?eia?, aoaeao ee
io?aiyoueny i?iecaaaeaiea, iaeei yecaiiey? eioi?iai iaoiaeeony ca
a?aieoeae, a ae?oaie – ia ?inneeneie oa??eoi?ee? Eee, n eaeiai iiiaioa
iiaeeaaeao io?aia nicaeaiiua ca ?oaaaeii i?iecaaaeaiey: n iiiaioa
nicaeaiey eaee n iiiaioa ia?ana/aiey a?aieoeu?

Ia iineaaeiee aii?in i?aeoeea, i?e/ai oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiay aeaao
neaaeothuee ioaao: eiaaea iaiioaeeeiaaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea eiino?aiiiai
aaoi?a iiiaaeaao ia oa??eoi?eth ?innee, iii iiaeeaaeeo io?aia ii
?inneeneiio aaoi?neiio i?aao n iiiaioa aai nicaeaiey. E, oioy iiaeoiae
caeiiiaeaoaey, io?aaeaiiue a Caeiia ia eciaieeny ii n?aaiaieth n
iiceoeeae noaouee 478 A?aaeaeaineiai Eiaeaena ?NON? e noaouee 136 Iniia
a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa 1991 aiaea. Yoi ia icia/aao, /oi
iaiioaeeeiaaiiua eiino?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, iaoiaeyueany a iaoa?eaeueiie
oi?ia ca i?aaeaeai ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee, ia io?aiythony ii ?inneeneiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.

A eeoa?aoo?a ioia/aeinue, /oi “iaiioaeeeiaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey
eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia, iaoiaeyueany ca ?oaaaeii, ia iiaoo
?anniao?eaaoueny” a ?innee eae i?iecaaaeaiey, “iinoiyiii iaoiaeyueany a
noa?a iauanoaaiiiai aeinoiyiey”, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeeaaeao io?aia
ia?aaia n i?iecaaaeaieyie, iaoiaeyueieny ia aa oa??eoi?ee.

Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi ia?aaeei i?e caeeth/aiee aeaonoi?iiieo
aeiaiai?ia io?aia iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee aiiaua ia
iaiaa?eaaeanue, iai?eia?, noaouey 2 Niaeaoaiey n Iieueoae ia io?aia
aaoi?neeo i?aa aeaneo:

“Eaaeaeay aeiaiaa?eaathuayny Noi?iia i?eciaao aaoi?neea i?aaa a?aaeaeai
e i?aaiecaoeee ae?oaie aeiaiaa?eaathuaeny Noi?iiu eo i?aaii?aaiieeia ia
i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u eneonnoaa, iacaaeneii io ianoa eo
ia?aiai iioaeeeiaaiey, a oaeaea aaoi?neea i?aaa a?aaeaeai o?aoueeo no?ai
e eo i?aaii?aaiieeia ia i?iecaaaeaiey, aia?aua auiouaiiua a naao ia
oa??eoi?ee Niaaoneiai Nithca eee Iieueneie Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee…”. Ec
i?eaaaeaiiie oeeoaou aeaeii, /oi ii?aaeaeyaony noaeueaai eeoue
iioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. Ia iie acaeyae, oaeay oi?ioee?iaea – yoi
?acoeueoao oiai, /oi ia auei iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaeoniao?eaaoue acaeiiuo
iaycaiiinoae ii io?aia iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, oae eae
i?iecaaaeaiey eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia e oae iiaeeaaeaee io?aia a iaieo
aeiaiaa?eaathueony ainoaea?noaao.

Eoae, ?inneeneia (a aei 25 aeaeaa?y 1991 aiaea niaaoneia) aaoi?neia
i?aai oaeoe/anee io?aiyei, e io?aiyao ethaua iaiioaeeeiaaiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia n iiiaioa eo nicaeaiey. Ii, anee yoi
i?iecaaaeaiea aia?aua ioaeeeoaony ia a ?innee e ia a no?aia, naycaiiie n
?inneae iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ii, oi oaeia i?iecaaaeaiea noaiiaeony a
?innee iauanoaaiiui aeinoiyieai, oae eae ?aiaa i?aaeinoaaeaiiue n?ie
io?aiu enoae. Eiaiii iiyoiio ?inney niiaea i?eniaaeeieoueny e Aa?ineie
Eiiaaioeee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi a ioiioaiee a?aaeaeai no?ai, o/anoaothueo
e a Aa?ineie, e ai Anaie?iie Eiiaaioeee, a ?innee aoaeoo io?aiyoueny
oieueei oa i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua aoaeoo iioaeeeiaaiu iinea 26 iay 1973
aiaea (aeaoa i?eniaaeeiaiey NNN? e Anaie?iie Eiiaaioeee). *oi eanaaony
a?aaeaeai ainoaea?noa, o/anoaothueo oieueei a Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee, oi a
?innee aoaeoo iinoaaeaiu iiae io?aio oieueei oa eo i?iecaaaeaiey,
eioi?ua aia?aua iioaeeeiaaiu a yoeo no?aiao iinea 13 ia?oa 1995 aiaea.

A i?anna auneacuaaeenue ?acee/iua ioeaiee i?eiyoiai ?aoaiey i
i?eniaaeeiaiee aac ia?aoiie neeu. Iaeie niaoeeaeenou oeaeeeii e
iieiinoueth iiaeaea?aeaea aai, ae?oaea aea inoaeaeay aai, ooaa?aeaeaee,
/oi “ii nooe aea ieacaeinue, /oi e Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee ?inney ia
i?eniaaeeieeanue”. Caeioa?aniaaiiua aea eeoea – ecaeaoaee, aaeeiiaeooii
iiaeaea?aeeaay i?eniaaeeiaiea e Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee, oaeaea ?acioeenue a
ioeaiea ii?yaeea oaeiai i?eniaaeeiaiey, e?oiiua ecaeaoaee, eioi?ua
“i?eniaaeeieeenue e Aa?io a iaeiinoi?iiiai ii?yaeea” aua a 1993 aiaeo
eeai oaeeaeaiu oaeei iiaeoiaeii, eeai iieiinoueth ioaa?aatho aai,
?anniao?eaay ?aoaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa eae “aicaaaeaiea ai?ianoaa a
ainoaea?noaaiioth iieeoeeo” e “eaaaeecaoeeth ie?aonoaa”. Auneacuaaeinue
iiaiea, /oi i?eniaaeeiaiea ?innee e Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee n ia?aoiie neeie
ioaa/aei au eioa?anai ?inneeneeo ecaeaoaeae, oae eae ei “auaiaeii
iieoiaoue i?aaa e ieaoeoue eiino?aiiui aaoi?ai”, /oi iicaieeo ei “eiaoue
aiciiaeiinoue, i?iaeaaaoue i?aaa ia eieae ?inneeneeo aaoi?ia”.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi e?oiiui ecaeaoaeuenoaai iiae neeo auiea/eaaoue ia?iiiua
aiii?a?u ca i?eia?aoaiea eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
i?iecaaaeaiee eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee. Yoi ei
aeaenoaeoaeueii auaiaeii, oae eae eo cao?aou ieoiyony /a?ac ?aaeecaoeeth
eieaeiie i?iaeoeoeee, a noieiinoue eioi?ie aeeth/athony e noiiu
aaoi?neeo aiii?a?ia, e ia?aaea/a iaeneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia
eniieueciaaiea ae?oaei ecaeaoaeuenoaai, a eiia/iii eoiaa ca n/ao
?inneeneeo /eoaoaeae. I?eniaaeeiaiea n ia?aoiie neeie e Eiiaaioeee, ii
iiaieth eiuo ecaeaoaeae, oaeaea ia “iicaieeei au anoaoue ia iiae
iieiaeui ecaeaoaeyi”, ia eiathuei aieueoiai noa?oiaiai eaieoaea. Ia iie
acaeyae, yoi oaeaea i?ae?aoeei au i?eoie a ?inneth iiiaeanoaa
i?iecaaaeaiee ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?u, /oi, a eiia/iii n/aoa, io?aceeinue
au eae ia ?acaeoee oieueei iiyaeaoaany eieaeiie eiaeono?ee, oae e ia
eoeueoo?ii-aeooiaiie noa?a iaoaai iauanoaa.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?e i?eiyoee ioaaonoaaiiuo i?aaiauo ?aoaiee, eaeei
yaeyaony ?aoaiea i i?eniaaeeiaiee e Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee, iaiaoiaeeii
enoiaeeoue ec eioa?ania anaai iauanoaa, a ia ioaeaeueiuo aai a?oii.
O/eouaay oi, /oi ii?iu Eiiaaioeee aeaenoaotho ia a eaeaaeueiuo, a
?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo, aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny ai aieiaiea e oa yeiiiie/aneea
iineaaenoaey, eioi?ua iiaei au iiaea/ue i?aaeinoaaeaiea io?aiu
i?iecaaaeaieyi, ?aiaa n/eoaaoeiny a ?innee iauanoaaiiui aeinoiyieai.

Eae auei iieacaii auoa, e?eoeea i?eniaaeeiaiey aac ia?aoiie neeu iineo a
iniiaiii yeiiiie/aneee oa?aeoa?. Aii?in i naiie oi?ioee?iaea
iinoaiiaeaiey ia iiaeieiaeny. Niaoeeaeenou, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a i?anna
e auei ioiaiaii, /oi oi?ioee?iaea ia ynia, ia?aie/eeenue eeoue
eiinoaoaoeeae oiai, /oi iia icia/aao, /oi ?inney i?eniaaeeieeanue e
Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee aac ia?aoiie neeu, aeoiaaony, /oi iaiaoiaeeii
?anniio?aoue iinoaiiaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa eiaiii n oi/ee c?aiey aeaiiie
ei oi?ioee?iaee, eioi?ay aeiioneaao iaiaeiicia/iinoue aa oieeiaaiey.

Eoae, iinoaiiaeaiea niaea?aeeo oeacaiea ia oi, /oi i?iecaaaeaieyi,
noaaoei ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee iauanoaaiiui ianoiyieai ia
iiiaio i?eniaaeeiaiey e Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee, io?aia aiiaue
i?aaeinoaaeaia ia aoaeao. ?anniao?eaay iainiiaaiea aiciiaeiinoe
i?eniaaeeiaiey ?innee aac ia?aoiie neeu, iaie i?eaiaeeeinue iieiaeaiea
noaouee 28 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa niaaeiuo i?aaao”, niaeanii
eioi?iio i?e/eiie ia?aoiaea i?iecaaaeaiey a iauanoaaiiia aeinoiyiea
neoaeeo enoa/aiea n?iea io?aiu. Iaeiaei noaouey 28 i?aaeoniao?eaaao e
eioth i?e/eio: ia?aoaaeoeie a iauanoaaiiia aeinoiyiea oaeaea n/eoathony
i?iecaaaeaiey, io?aia eioi?ui ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee ieeiaaea ia
i?aaeinoaaeyeanue. A oi?ioee?iaea, aeaiiie i?aaeoaeuenoaii, ia
oeacuaaaony, ii eaeie eiaiii i?e/eia ia aoaeoo io?aiyoueny
i?iecaaaeaiey, noaaoea ia oa??eoi?ee ?O iauanoaaiiui aeinoiyieai, oioy
oaeie i?e/eiie yaeyaony enoa/aiea n?ieia io?aiu. Iaie auei ioia/aii, /oi
ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiii o?iaia io?aia i?aaeinoaaeyaony eeoue oai
eiino?aiiui iaiioaeeeiaaiiui i?iecaaaeaieyi, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony ia
?inneeneie oa??eoi?ee, oioy i?aeoeea e eia/a ?aoaao yoio aii?in.
Iaeiaei, eiaiii oi, /oi ia i?aeoeea io?aiyeenue, e io?aiythony ana
iaiioaeeeiaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia, iicaieeei
enoieeiaaoue noaoueth 18 Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee eae ia iaycuaathuoth,
i?aaeinoaaeyoue io?aio n ia?aoiie neeie. Oai ia iaiaa, ca?oaaaeiua
niaoeeaeenou, ia ciaeiiua n ?inneeneie i?aeoeeie, iiaoo i?iaanoe aiaeec
ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiii o?iaia e naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ?inney,
i?eniaaeeiyynue e Eiiaaioeee, i?eiyea ?aoaiea ia io?aiyoue eiino?aiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey, noaaoea ia aa oa??eoi?ee iauanoaaiiui aeinoiyieai a neeo
oiai, /oi iie ieeiaaea ia io?aiyeenue. Ii oaeia ?aoaiea i?ioeai?a/eei au
ioieoo 2 noaouee 18 Eiiaaioeee, eioi?ie ana i?e/eiu iaio?aiyaiinoe,
e?iia enoa/aiey n?iea io?aiu, aac?acee/iu. Anee oi?ioee?iaea
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aoaeao enoieeiaaia oaeei ia?acii, yoi iiaeao iineoaeeoue
iniiaaieai aicieeiiaaiey nii?ia n ae?oaeie /eaiaie Eiiaaioeee ii iiaiaeo
i?eiaiaiey Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee.

Aeoiaaony, /oi eo/oei niiniaii ono?aieoue eiathuaany i?ioeai?a/ea aei
i?eniaaeeiaiey e Eiiaaioeee auei au i?eaanoe aeaenoaothuaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aaoi?neii i?aaa a niioaaonoaea n i?aeoeeie,
cae?aiea, /oi io?aia ii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i?aaeinoaaeyaony
anai eiino?aiiui iaiioaeeeiaaiiui i?iecaaaeaieyi, iacaaeneii io oiai, ia
oa??eoi?ee eaeiai ainoaea?noaa iie iaoiaeyony. Yoi cia/eoaeueii
oi?inoeei au a?aoiaioaoeeth i?eiyoiai ?inneae ?aoaiey i i?eniaaeeiaiee
aac ia?aoiie neeu. Eia/a yoo i?iaeaio iiaeii auei au ?aoeoue, oeacaa i?e
iiaea/a iiou, /oi aeaenoaea Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee ia aoaeao
?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua ia aeaoo anooieaiey
Eiiaaioeee a neeo aeey ?innee oaea yaeythony ia aa oa??eoi?ee
iauanoaaiiui aeinoiyieai aneaaenoaea enoa/aiey ?aiaa i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai
n?iea io?aiu. Naaiaeiy aea, ia iie acaeyae, aaeeinoaaiiue niinia
ono?aieoue anyeoth aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey nii?iie neooaoeee –
aeiiieieoaeueii oaaaeiieoue no?aiu Nithca i i?e/eiao, ii eioi?ui
eiino?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey ia?aoee a noa?o iauaai aeinoiyiey.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi
“iai?aaenoaaeaiea ia?aoiie neeu aiiaua eeoaao Eiiaaioeeth niunea”, y
?anniao?eaath i?eniaaeeiaiea ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee e Aa?ineie
Eiiaaioeee eae /?acau/aeii cia/eoaeueiia niauoea. Ai-ia?auo, oaia?ue
?inney naycaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ii ni iiiaeie no?aiaie,
ioiioaiey n eioi?uie ii aaoi?neiio i?aao ieeae ia ?aaoee?iaaeenue.
Ai-aoi?uo, i?iecaaaeaiey eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia oao no?ai, n eioi?uie
?inney auea naycaia Anaie?iie Eiiaaioeeae, iieo/atho io?aio oaeaea ii
Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee, o?iaaiue eioi?ie iaiiiai auoa. *oi aea eanaaony
no?ai, naycaiiuo n ?inneae ii Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee, oi eo eioa?anu,
eiia/ii, cao?iioou i?eniaaeeiaieai aac ia?aoiie neeu. Iaeiaei, o/eouaay
oi, /oi i?iecaaaeaiey a?aaeaeai aieueoeinoaa ainoaea?noa-/eaiia
Aa?ineiai Nithca oaea io?aiyeenue ii Anaie?iie Eiiaaioeee e ii
aeaonoi?iiiei niaeaoaieyi, ia?ooaiea eioa?ania yoeo ainoaea?noa ia
noieue nouanoaaiii. Aeoiaaony, /oi ii enoa/aiee iaeioi?iai ia?aoiaeiiai
ia?eiaea “i?eaueaiey” e caueoa aaoi?neeo i?aa a?aaeaeai no?ai-o/anoieoe
Aa?ineie Eiiaaioeee, ?inney iieaeao ii iooe caeeth/aiey aeaonoi?iiieo
niaeaoaiee n ioaeaeueiuie no?aiaie, eae yoi aeaeaaony nae/an a NOA, ii
eioi?ui io?aia aoaeao i?aaeinoaaeyoueny n ia?aoiie neeie. Iaeiaei yoi ia
iiaeao i?iecieoe ?aiueoa, /ai ?inney aeaenoaeoaeueii aoaeao e yoiio
aioiaa.

Niaaoi?noai.

Oneiaey aicieeiiaaiey niaaoi?noaa.

Aaoi?neia i?aai ia i?iecaaaeaiea, nicaeaiiiai niaianoiui o?oaeii aeaoo e
aieaa eeoe (niaaoi?noai), i?eiaaeeaaeeo niaaoi?ai niaianoii, iacaaeneii
io oiai, ia?acoao ee oaeia i?iecaaaeaiea iaeii ia?ac?uaiia oeaeia eee
ninoieo ec /anoae, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo eiaao oaeaea e naiinoiyoaeueiia
cia/aiea (no. 10 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»).
Aicieeiiaaiea niaaoi?noaa aeieo?eia e noaeaaiay i?aeoeea naycuaatho n
?yaeii oneiaee, eioi?ua auaiaeyony ec aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.
I?aaeaea anaai, i niaaoi?noaa iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee
a ?acoeueoaoa niaianoiuo oneeee ianeieueeeo eeoe nicaeaii aaeeiia
eieeaeoeaiia i?iecaaaeaiea. Ia aucuaaao niiiaiee, /oi oaeia eieeaeoeaiia
i?iecaaaeaiea nicaeaaony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?iecaaaeaiea nicaeaaony
a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?iecaaaeaiea ia?acoao iaeii ia?ac?uaiia oeaeia
(iai?eia?, ?iiai eee ea?oeio, nicaeaiiua ianeieueeeie eeoeaie). Neiaeiaa
ianoieo aeaei a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eaaeaeay /anoue i?iecaaaeaiey eiaao
naiinoiyoaeueiia cia/aiea e iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia naiinoiyoaeueii
(iai?eia?, noeoe e iocuea a iania, aeaau o/aaieea, iaienaiiiai
eieeaeoeaii niaaoi?ii). ssnii, /oi eieeaeoeaiia i?iecaaaeaiea ia iiaeao
auoue nicaeaii a ?acoeueoaoa i?inoiai iaoaie/aneiai niaaeeiaiey
i?iecaaaeaiee aaoi?ia. Iaiaoiaeeia oaeay acaeiiay oaycea eo aioo?aiiae
oi?iu e niaea?aeaiey, /oiau iie aini?eieiaeenue ioaeeeie eae aaeeiia
i?iecaaaeaiea. Eiuie neiaaie, eciaiaiea eee ecuyoea eaeie-eeai /anoe
eieeaeoeaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey aeieaeii aea/ue ca niaie niioaaonoaothuaa
eciaiaiea ae?oaeo /anoae eee iaaiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai. Iai?eia?, anee ecuyoue ec o/aaieea
ii a?aaeaeaineiio i?aao ethaoth ec aeaa, iinayuaiiuo, iai?eia?,
naeaeeai, th?eaee/aneei eeoeai, eneiaie aeaaiinoe e o. ae., oi aeaiiue
o/aaiee a?yae ee iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae caaa?oaiiia eieeaeoeaiia
i?iecaaaeaiea, niiniaiia auiieiyoue naie ooieoeee. Oi/ii oae aea
eciaiaiea iocueaeueiiai oaenoa iia?u aeieaeii aea/ue ca niaie
niioaaonoaothuaa eciaiaiea eea?aooi. Iai?ioea, ecuyoea ec eieae
eeethno?aoeee ia iiaeao iiaeeyoue ia eeoa?aoo?iua aeinoieinoaa
iioaeeeiaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, iineieueeo oaeno e eeethno?aoeee e iaio
ia ninoaaeytho ni naiae niaieoiiinoe aaeeiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. Iiyoiio
ienaoaeue e ooaeiaeiee ia aunooiatho a aeaiiii neo/aa eae niaaoi?u. Oi
aea naiia iiaeii neacaoue e iai anao ae?oaeo ninoaaiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo,
iai?eia? nai?ieeao, aeo?iaeao e o. i.

.Aoi?ui iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai aicieeiiaaiey niaaoi?noaa yaeyaony
nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey niaianoiui oai?/aneei o?oaeii ianeieueeeo eeoe.
I?e yoii iiae niaianoiui oa?aeoa?ii o?oaea iiieiaaony, eiia/ii, ia
niaianoiue i?ioeann o?oaea, a niaianoii aeinoeaiooue ?acoeueoao.
Niaaoi?u iiaoo ?aaioaoue iaae i?iecaaaeaieai niiaua io ia/aea aei
eiioea; eaaeaeue ec ieo iiaeao nicaeaoue eaeoth-eeai iainiaeaiioth
/anoue i?iecaaaeaiey; iaeei ec ieo iiaeao aei?aaioaoue ?acoeueoao
ae?oaiai e o. i. Aaaeii ia oi, eae, a eaeie oi?ia o?oaeeeenue iaae
i?iecaaaeaieai aai nicaeaoaee, a oi, /oi i?iecaaaeaiea yaeeinue
?acoeueoaoii eo niaianoiuo oneeee. Iieacaoaeueiui a yoii ioiioaiee
yaeyaony neaaeothuaa aeaei, ?anniio?aiiia Aa?oiaiui Noaeii ?NON?. E.
i?aaeuyaee ene e O. e I. i i?eciaiee aai niaaoi?ii iiaanoe “Eiaaea
iocaaiae iaeeiiaue caii”, auiouaiiie a naao ecaeaoaeuenoaii ” Iieiaeay
aaa?aeey “. ?inoianeee iaeanoiie noae a enea E. ioeacae. ?anniio?aa
aeaei ii eannaoeeiiiie aeaeiaa enooea, Aa?oiaiue Noae ?NON? inoaaee
?aoaiea ?inoianeiai iaeanoiiai noaea a neea, a aeaeiao aac
oaeiaeaoai?aiey. A ii?aaeaeaiee Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ioia/aeinue, /oi enoaoe
aeaoaeueii inaaaeiieai i ?aaioa ioaao/eea O., eioi?ue eo eniieueciaae.
Iaeiaei yoiai niaa?oaiii iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey i?eciaiey oai?/aneiai
o/anoey enooea a iaienaiee iiaanoe. Aei auoiaea eieae a naao ie o
enooea, ie o ioaao/eea ia aicieeaei iaia?aiey nicaeaoue eieeaeoeaiia
i?iecaaaeaiea.

Ionoonoaoao niaianoiay oai?/aneay ?aaioa iaae i?iecaaaeaieai e a ?yaea
ae?oaeo neo/aaa, eiaaea iaeii eeoei a neeo naieo neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae
eee ii ae?oaei iniiaaieyi ieacuaaao E. iiiiuue nicaeaoaeth
i?iecaaaeaiey, ii ?acoeueoaou aai o?oaea ia iaoiaeyo i?yiiai io?aaeaiey
a i?iecaaaeaiee. Oae, ieeoi ia noaaeo iiae niiiaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoue,
iieaciinoue e aeaaea oai?/aneee oa?aeoa? o?oaea ?aaeaeoi?a. Iaeiaei,
anee ?aaeaeoi? ia auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu naieo iaycaiiinoae, ii ia iiaeao
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia niaaoi?noai. ?aaeaeoi? i?ecaai iiii/ue aaoi?o
oeo/oeoue naia i?iecaaaeaiea, eni?aaeoue aai ioaeaeueiua iaaeinoaoee,
ono?aieoue iiaoi?u e o. i. Ii ana eciaiaiey a i?iecaaaeaiea aiinyony
naiei aaoi?ii, eioi?ue iiaeao niaeaneoueny eee ia niaeaneoueny n
?aaeaeoi?ii.

Aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai niaaoi?noaa yaeyaony oaeaea oi, /oi aeeaae eeoe,
i?aoaiaeothueo ia niaaoi?noai, aeieaeai iineoue oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?.
Aa?oiaiue Noae iaiaeiie?aoii oeacuaae, /oi “ia aeaao iniiaaiee aeey
i?eciaiey niaaoi?noaa ieacaiea aaoi?o eee niaaoi?ai. oaoie/aneee iiiiue
(iiaeai? iaoa?eaeia, au/a?/eaaiea noai, aeeaa?aii, a?aoeeia e o. i.)”4.
Iiyoiio i?e ?ac?aoaiee nii?ia i niaaoi?noaa iaeiei ec aeaaiuo aii?inia,
noiyueo ia?aae noaeii, yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea oa?aeoa?a o?oaea,
aeiaeaiiiai a i?iecaaaeaiea eaaeaeui ec aai nicaeaoaeae. Ia?aaeei
?aoeoue yoio aii?in auaaao iai?inoi. Oae, iiiai nii?ia aicieeaao ii
iiaiaeo aaoi?noaa ia i?iecaaaeaiey, nicaeaiiua ia iniiaa ainiiieiaiee
oae iacuaaaiuo “auaaeuo ethaeae”, ia?aaioie iaeiaeee ia?iaeiuo iaaoeia e
o. ae. Ia i?aeoeea yoe i?iecaaaeaiey /aua anaai auoiaeyo a naao iiae
eiaiai aaoi?a ainiiieiaiee, /oi, iiaeao auoue, iaania/eaaao eo/oaa
aini?eyoea i?iecaaaeaiey ioaeeeie, ii ia anaaaea i?aaeeueii io?aaeaao
aeeaae aaoi?a. Oae, anee ?anneac/ee eeoue niiauaao ienaoaeth eaeea-eeai
enoi?e/aneea oaeou eee aeaoaee naiae aeia?aoee, ia iniiaa eioi?uo
iineaaeiee nicaeaao nenoaio ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ia?acia e iaeaeaao
?ac?iciaiiua ainiiieiaiey a aaeeiia i?iecaaaeaiea, noauaeoii aaoi?neiai
i?aaa aeieaeai i?eciaaaoueny nicaeaoaeue ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey. Iiyoiio iooe eaeao noaeaaiay i?aeoeea. I?eia?ii iiaeao
neoaeeoue neaaeothuaa aeaei. A., i?iaeeaoee aiaaooth niauoeyie aeeciue,
niae?aeny aiieioeoue naie ainiiieiaiey a eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea.
Iaeiaei nai inouanoaeoue naie caiunae ii ia niia e iiyoiio ia/ae
nio?oaeie/aoue n eeoa?aoi?ii N. Ia i?ioyaeaiee aeaoo eao A. e N.
nenoaiaoe/anee ano?a/aeenue ii 2 – 3 ?aca a ianyoe, e A. ?anneacuaae N.
yieciaeu ec naiae aeecie. Eniieuecoy yoe ?anneacu, N. iaienae ?iiai
«Iaeaioia». A. i?aoaiaeiaae ia niaaoi?noai e auieaoo aio iieiaeiu
aiii?a?a. Aeaei iaiaeiie?aoii ?anniao?eaaeinue noaeaaiuie einoaioeeyie,
e a eoiaa ene A. aue ioeeiiai. Aa?oiaiue Noae enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi
ainiiieiaiey ia auee iaea/aiu a eeoa?aoo?ioth oi?io, ii ia o/anoaiaae a
?ac?aaioea ieaia i?iecaaaeaiey, a ninoaaa nenoaiu ia?acia e
aeaenoaothueo eeoe, oi anoue, ia o/anoaiaae a nicaeaiee iiiaiieaiiaiai
eeoa?aoo?iiai i?iecaaaeaiey, a aue eeoue ?anneac/eeii ioaeaeueiuo
yieciaeia ec naiae aeecie.

Iai?ioea, aaoi?ii i?iecaaaeaiey aeieaeai auoue i?eciai ?anneac/ee, anee
eeoei, caienaaoaa aai ainiiieiaiey, ia aianei ie/aai iiaiai ie a
niaea?aeaiea, ie ai aioo?aiithth oi?io i?iecaaaeaiey, a eeoue auiieiyei
oaoie/aneoth e ?aaeaeoi?neoth ?aaioo. Anee aea a nicaeaiee
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oi?iu i?iecaaaeaiey i?eieiaee o/anoea e ?anneac/ee, e
ia?aaio/ee aai ainiiieiaiee, anoue ana iniiaaiey aiai?eoue i
niaaoi?noaa. Ai anao yoeo. neo/ayo e?eoa?eai, iiiiaathuei onoaiiaeoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai aaoi?a i?iecaaaeaiey, yaeyaony oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?
aianaiiiai a nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey aeeaaea.

Iaeiiaoe, oneiaeai i?eciaiey oao eee eiuo eeoe niaaoi?aie i?iecaaaeaiey
yaeyaony iaee/ea niaeaoaiey i aicieeiiaaiee niaaoi?noaa. I?e yoii iiae
niaeaoaieai neaaeoao iiieiaoue acaeiiia aieaecuyaeaiea aaoi?ia,
iai?aaeaiiia ia niaianoioth oai?/aneoth ?aaioo iaae i?iecaaaeaieai. Iii
iiaeao auoue au?aaeaii a ethaie oi?ia e ia ethaie noaaeee ?aaiou iaae
i?iecaaaeaieai. Aieaa oiai, i?aaeiaoii niaeaoaiey iiaeao auoue
aei?aaioea oaea caeii/aiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, anee aicieeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aianoe a iaai eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey oai?/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a. Aaaeii eeoue, /oiau niaaoi?noai auei aeia?iaieueiui e ia
ia?ooaei ie/ueeo io?aiyaiuo caeiiii aaoi?neeo i?aa

Niaeaoaiea i niaaoi?noaa ia neaaeoao, iaeiaei, iiieiaoue eae
aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey niaaoi?noaa aac niaianoiie oai?/aneie ?aaiou
iaae i?iecaaaeaieai. A neeo iaeiiai niaeaoaiey niaaoi?noai aicieeiooue
ia iiaeao. A /anoiinoe, niaeaoaiea i niaianoiie oai?/aneie ?aaioa iaae
aoaeouei i?iecaaaeaieai inoaaony eeoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
aeiaiai?aiiinoueth, ia eiathuae th?eaee/aneiai cia/aiey, anee aaoi?aie a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia aoaeao i?iaeaeaia niaianoiay oai?/aneay ?aaioa ii
nicaeaieth eieeaeoeaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. Eiia/ii, a ?aaeueiie aeecie
ano?a/athony neo/ae, eiaaea a /enei niaaoi?ia aeeth/athony eeoea,
eioi?ua ia i?eieiaee ieeaeiai o/anoey a ?aaioa iaae i?iecaaaeaieai eeai
eo aeeaae ia iinee oai?/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Aaconeiaii, yoi yaeyaony
ia?ooaieai caeiia, e a neo/aa auyaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa
oaeea eeoea iiaeeaaeao eneeth/aieth ec /enea niaaoi?ia.

Aiai?y i niaeaoaiee, eae oneiaee aicieeiiaaiey niaaoi?noaa, neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi ie a i?aaeiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ie a Caeiia ?O «Ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» oaeia o?aaiaaiea ia caoeene?iaaii.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaeaoaiey i niaaoi?noaa onoaiiaeaia Aa?oiaiui Noaeii
NNN? a iinoaiiaeaiee io 18 ai?aey 1986 a. «I i?eiaiaiee noaeaie
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?e ?anniio?aiee nii?ia, aicieeoeo ec aaoi?neeo
i?aaiioiioaiee» Aa?oiaiue Noae oeacae, /oi ii niuneo caeiia «niaaoi?noai
aeaoo e aieaa eeoe ia i?iecaaaeaiea iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa
aicieeaao a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eaaeaeue ec ieo ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth
aian a yoi i?iecaaaeaiea naie oai?/aneee aeeaae. Niaeaoaiea i
niaaoi?noaa iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi a ethaie noaaeee nicaeaiey
eieeaeoeaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey eee iinea aai caaa?oaiey. A neeo caeiia
niaaoi?noai ia eieeaeoeaiia i?iecaaaeaiea iiaeao aicieeiooue e i?e
ionoonoaee oaeiai niaeaoaiey». Eae aeaeei, aii?in ?aoai aeinoaoi/ii
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii, ia inoaaeythuei eaeeo-eeai niiiaiee a iiceoeee
Aa?oiaiiai Noaea.

Yoi, iaeiaei, ia iiiaoaei oiio, /oi a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a aie?oa
?anniao?eaaaiiai aii?ina aieaa o?ao aeanyoeeaoee aaaeoony nii?u.
Aieueoeinoai o/aiuo n/eoaao niaeaoaiea iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai niaaoi?noaa
e iiaeaea?aeeaaao ?acuyniaiea Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ia yoio n/ao. *anoue
o/aiuo n/eoaao aeaiiia ?acuyniaiea ioeai/iui, ia auoaeathuei ec caeiia e
ia niaeanothueiny n oaie iiiai/eneaiiuie neooaoeeyie, eiaaea niaaoi?noai
aicieeaao aac niaeaney nicaeaoaeae i?iecaaaeaiee. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
iau/ii nnueathony ia aei?aaioeo i?iecaaaeaiee oia?oeo aaoi?ia. Oae,
oai?/aneay aei?aaioea ?inneeneei eiiiiceoi?ii ?. Uaae?eiui i?iecaaaeaiey
o?aioeoceiai eiiiiceoi?a 19 a. AE. Aeca i?eaaea e nicaeaieth
eieeaeoeaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, iacaaiiiai ei «Ea?iai-ntheoa». N iiceoeee
noi?iiieeia niaeaoaiey i niaaoi?noaa, i?eciaiea a iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo
niaaoi?noaa i?eioeeieaeueii iaaeiionoeii, iineieueeo yoi iiaeao
niaa?oaiii eneaceoue oai?/aneee caiunae aaoi?a aei?aaaouaaaiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey. Iiyoiio n eo oi/ee c?aiey, eeoei, aianoaa naie oai?/aneee
aeeaae a /oaeia i?iecaaaeaiea, i?eia?aoaao naiinoiyoaeueiia aaoi?neia
i?aai ia ?acoeueoao naiaai oai?/anoaa, ia noaiiaynue niaaoi?ii
i?eaeiaea. Aeaiiay oi/ea c?aiey caneoaeeaaao iiaeaea?aeee eae
ioaa/athuay niuneo caeiia, eiathuay iiae niaie eaaaeueioth aaco e
niaeanothuayny n noaeaaiie i?aeoeeie.

Inouanoaeaiea aaoi?neeo i?aa ia eieeaeoeaiia i?iecaaaeaiea.

Aaoi?neia i?aai ia eieeaeoeaiia i?iecaaaeaiea i?eiaaeeaaeeo anai aaoi?ai
niiaua, iacaaeneii io noaiaie oai?/aneiai aeeaaea eaaeaeiai ec niaaoi?ia
e oa?aeoa?a i?iecaaaeaiey. Caeii oa?aeoa?ecoao i?aaa niaaoi?ia eae
niaianoiua (i.1 no.10 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»),
/oi niioaaonoaoao onoaiiaeaoaiony a iaoea acaeyaeo ia aaoi?neia i?aai
niaaoi?ia eae iaaeaeeiia i?aai.

Ec yoiai auoaeaao aaaeiue i?aeoe/aneee auaiae. Aii?in ia eniieueciaaiee
eieeaeoeaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey ?aoaaony ai anao neo/ayo anaie niaaoi?aie
niiaua, ia iniiaaiee aaeeiiaeaney, a ia ii aieueoeinoao aieinia. Anee
niaaoi?u ia iiaoo aeinoeaiooue a yoii aii?ina niaeaney, ii ia?aaeaaony
ia ?ac?aoaiea noaea. I?eioeei niaianoiiai ?anii?yaeaiey i?iecaaaeaieai
ia i?aiyonoaoao, iaeiaei, niaaoi?ai caeeth/eoue iaaeaeo niaie
niaeaoaiea, onoaiaaeeaathuaa eiie ii?yaeie inouanoaeaiey eo aaoi?neeo
i?aa. Iai?eia?, niaaoi?u iiaoo ii?o/eoue inouanoaeaiea aaoi?neeo i?aa
iaeiiio ec aaoi?ia, iiaoo aeiaiai?eoueny i i?eioeeiao ?ani?aaeaeaiey
aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, ii?yaeea iaicia/aiey eiai niaaoi?ia e oae
aeaeaa. Aaoi?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia onoaiaaeeaaao a ioiioaiee
niaeaoaiee niaaoi?ia ieeaeeo i?aaee, ia?aaeaaay ?aoaiea yoiai aii?ina
iieiinoueth ia oniio?aiea noi?ii. A th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ai
ecaaaeaiea nii?ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony caeeth/aoue iiaeiaiua niaeaoaiey a
ienueiaiiie oi?ia, eeai a aeaea ioaeaeueiiai aeieoiaioa, caiieiyaiiai
niaaoi?aie, eeai a aeaea niaoeeaeueiie iaiai?ee a aaoi?neii aeiaiai?a,
caeeth/aiiiai niaaoi?aie n i?aaiecaoeeae, eniieuecothuae eo
i?iecaaaeaiey. *aua anaai ia i?aeoeea oaeea niaeaoaiey ii?aaeaeytho
ii?yaeie ?ani?aaeaeaiey aaoi?neiai aiii?a?a e ii?yaeie oeacaiey eiai
niaaoi?ia. Ii naiae th?eaee/aneie i?e?iaea niaeaoaiea niaaoi?ia yaeyaony
iaeiie ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae aeiaiai?ia i ii?yaeea iieueciaaiey aeeeie
ieiuaaee e oae aeaeaa. Ii iiaieth Y.I.Aaa?eeiaa, niaeaoaiea i niaianoiii
eniieueciaaiee i?iecaaaeaiey yaeyaony aeiaiai?ii i niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, n /ai o?oaeii niaeaneoueny aaeaeo ionoonoaey o niaaoi?ia
iauae oicyenoaaiiie oeaee.

A neo/aa, anee iaaeaeo niaaoi?aie ie eaeiai iniaiai niaeaoaiey i
ii?yaeea eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey ia caeeth/aeinue, ana i?aaa
inouanoaeythony ii acaeiiiai niaeaneth. A /anoiinoe, i?aaeiieaaaaony,
/oi niaaoi?u eiatho ?aaiua i?aaa ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, eo eiaia
oeacuaathony a aeoaaeoiii ii?yaeea e oiio iiaeiaiia. Anee i?iecaaaeaiea
niaaoi?ia ia?acoao iaeii ia?ac?uaiia oeaeia, oi ie iaeei ec niaaoi?ia ia
ai?aaa aac aeinoaoi/iuo e oiio iniiaaiee cai?aoeoue eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey.

Aeaeu niaaoi?noaa.

Caeii auaeaeyao aeaa aeaea eieeaeoeaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee e, niioaaonoaaiii,
aeaa aeaea niaaoi?noaa – ia?acaeaeueiia e ?acaeaeueiia. I?e
ia?acaeaeueiii niaaoi?noaa i?iecaaaeaiea, nicaeaiiia aeaoiy e aieaa
niaaoi?aie, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeiia ia?ac?uaiia oeaeia, /anoe
eioi?iai ia eiatho naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey. Oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey
ano?a/athony a eeoa?aoo?a (?iiaiu E.Eeueoa e A.Iaoi?aa), a aeeaiiene
(ea?oeia E.?aieia e E.Aeaacianeiai «Iooeei a E?uio»), a iaoea
(iiiia?aoee). I?e ia?acaeaeueiii niaaoi?noaa ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneiai
o?oaea eeoe, i?eieiaaoeo o/anoea a nicaeaiee i?iecaaaeaiey, ia iiaoo
auoue i?aeoe/anee auaeaeaiu ec aaeeiiai iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

I?e ?acaeaeueiii niaaoi?noaa eieeaeoeaiia i?iecaaaeaiea yaeyaony
aaeeiui, iaeiaei, iii ninoieo ec /anoae, eiathueo naiinoiyoaeueiia
cia/aiea, e i?e yoii ecaanoii, eai ec aaoi?ia nicaeaiu yoe /anoe.
I?eia?ii ?acaeaeueiiai niaaoi?noaa iiaeao neoaeeoue
iocueaeueii-ae?aiaoe/aneia i?iecaaaeaiea, o/aaiee eee eieeaeoeaiay
iiiia?aoey, iaienaiiua ianeieueeeie eeoeaie n oeacaieai aaoi?ia
ioaeaeueiuo aeaa. ?aca?aie/aiea ?acaeaeueiiai e ia?acaeaeueiiai
niaaoi?noaa eiaao aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. I?eciaiea niaaoi?noaa
ia?acaeaeueiui icia/aao, /oi aaoi?neea i?aaa eae ia i?iecaaaeaiea a
oeaeii, oae e ia ethaoth aai /anoue inouanoaeythony niaaoi?aie niiaua. O
eaaeaeiai ec niaaoi?ia iao a yoii neo/aa naiinoiyoaeueiiai iauaeoa,
eioi?ui au ii iia ?anii?yaeeoueny ii naiaio ee/iiio oniio?aieth. Eae
i?aaeei, anee niaaoi?noai yaeyaony ia?acaeaeueiui, n nicaeaoaeyie
i?iecaaaeaiey caeeth/aaony aaeeiue aaoi?neee aeiaiai?. Iaeiiaoe, anee
eoi-eeai ec niaaoi?ia ia?ooaao naie iaycaoaeuenoaa ii nicaeaieth
i?iecaaaeaiey, ana noi?iiu ianoo ca yoi ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

I?e ?acaeaeueiii niaaoi?noaa eniieueciaaiea eieeaeoeaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey
a oeaeii oaeaea inouanoaeyaony ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth anao niaaoi?ia.
Iaeiaei, eaaeaeue niaaoi? ai?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii, aac niaeaney ae?oaeo
niaaoi?ia, ?anii?yaeeoueny naiae /anoueth i?iecaaaeaiey. Niaaoi?u
ioaa/atho, eae i?aaeei, eeoue ca naith /anoue eieeaeoeaiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey e ia aeieaeiu ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea
iaycaoaeuenoa ae?oaeie niaaoi?aie. N eaaeaeui ec niaaoi?ia iau/ii
caeeth/aaony ioaeaeueiue aaoi?neee aeiaiai?, a nicaeaiiua niaaoi?aie
/anoe eieeaeoeaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey iaicia/athony eo eiaiaie.

Io ?acaeaeueiiai niaaoi?noaa iaiaoiaeeii ioee/aoue niaianoiia
eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua nicaeaiu iacaaeneii ae?oa io
ae?oaa e oioy e acaeiinaycaiu, ii ia ia noieueei, /oiau ninoaaeoue
aaeeiia i?iecaaaeaiea. Iai?eia?, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ienaoaeue e
ooaeiaeiee ia noaiiayony niaaoi?aie io oiai, /oi eieaa niaaaeaaony
eeethno?aoeeyie, anee oieueei ?a/ue ia eaeao i niaoeeaeueiuo
eieaeeao-ea?oeieao aeey aeaoae. Iai?ioea, oioii/a?e, ?enoiee e
ea?eeaoo?u n iiynieoaeueiui oaenoii ia?acotho aaeeiia i?iecaaaeaiea, e
iioiio anee nieiie (?enoiie) e oaeno naeaeaiu ?aciuie eeoeaie, iie
i?eciathony niaaoi?aie.

I?e ionoonoaee niaianoiiai oai?/aneiai o?oaea ia aicieeaao niaaoi?noaa e
a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea a ?acoeueoaoa niaaeeiaiey i?iecaaaeaiee,
nicaeaiiuo ?aciuie aaoi?aie, iiyaeyaony iiaue iauaeo aaoi?neiai i?aaa.
Oae, yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue, aeo?iae, iao/iue nai?iee
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaua i?iecaaaeaiey eae ?acoeueoao oai?/aneie ?aaiou
ii iiaeai?ea e nenoaiaoecaoeee iaoa?eaea. Iaeiaei, aaoi?u i?iecaaaeaiee,
niaaeeiaiiuo a nai?ieea eee aeo?iaea, ia i?eciathony niaaoi?aie, oae eae
iiaia oai?/aneia i?iecaaaeaiea auoiaeeo a naao a ?acoeueoaoa oai?/aneeo
oneeee ae?oaeo eeoe.

Iaeiiaoe, ia aicieeaao niaaoi?noaa a neo/ayo aeicaieaiiiai caeiiii
eniieueciaaiey /oaeiai iioaeeeiaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey aeey nicaeaiey
iiaiai, oai?/anee naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. Oae, ia yaeythony
niaaoi?aie aaoi? ?iiaia e aaoi? nicaeaiiiai ia aai iniiaa noeaia?ey,
aaoi? i?eaeiaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey e ia?aaiae/ee. I?aoaicee eeoe,
no?aiyueony a yoeo neo/ayo aeieacaoue naia i?aai ia niaaoi?noai,
ioeeiiythony noaeaaiuie i?aaiaie. Iai?eia?, oe?iei eiiiaioe?iaaeinue a
th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ?aoaiea ii eneo ianeaaeieeia iiyoa ?. e A. e
A., aaoi?ai oaenoa iiioey?iie iocueaeueiie eiiaaeee «Naaanoiiieueneee
aaeuen». Ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeaea oaeiau. Iiyo ?. yaeyeny aaoi?ii oaenoa
ecaanoiie ianie «Naaanoiiieueneee aaeuen». Aiineaaenoaee auea nicaeaia
iocueaeueiay eiiaaeey iiae oaeei aea iacaaieai, i?e/ai a aa oaenoa
ianeieueei ?ac iiaoi?yeenue neiaa i?eiaaa ianie, /anoe/ii eciaiaiiiai
ioaao/eeaie. Iniiauaaynue ia yoii, ianeaaeieee ?. o?aaiaaee i?eciaoue
aai niaaoi?ii oaenoa iocueaeueiie eiiaaeee. ?anniio?aa ianoiyoaeuenoaa
aeaea, noae i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i aeaoo
oai?/anee naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo, e ia yoii iniiaaiee ioeacae a
enea.

Aaoi?nei-i?aaiaay io?aia i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee YAI.

Iiiyoea i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

A iaoae no?aia a iineaaeiea aiaeu ao?ii ?acaeaaaony eioi?iaoeea – iiaia
iai?aaeaiea /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n o?aiaieai,
ia?aaioeie e ia?aaea/ae eioi?iaoeee n iiiiuueth YAI. Aaaeiie
ninoaaeythuae eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea YAI,
nicaeaiea e ?aaeecaoeey eioi?iai a ea/anoaa oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee
inouanoaeythony a a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo oi?iao.

Eae e ai anyeie iaoea, iaoiaeyuaeny a i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey, a
eioi?iaoeea aua ia onoiyeenue iniiaiua iiiyoey e ia iieo/eee eaaaeueiiai
cae?aieaiey a iaoeeiiaeueiuo e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiauo aeoao.

Niioaaonoaaiii eiathony ?acee/iua o?aeoiaee iiiyoey «i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea» YAI. Niaeanii Oeiiaiio iieiaeaieth ii io?aia i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei, ?ac?aaioaiiiio eiinoeueoaoeaiie
a?oiiie Anaie?iie i?aaiecaoeee eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a 1977
aiaeo, i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aeeth/aao a naay a ea/anoaa
iniiaiiieaaathueo eiiiiiaioia (yeaiaioia) i?ia?aiio aeey YAI, iienaiea
i?ia?aiiu e aniiiiaaoaeueiue iaoa?eae.

Oa?iei “i?ia?aiia aeey YAI” icia/aao iaai? eiiaiae, eioi?ua, aoaeo/e
caienaiu ia iaoeii/eoaaiii iineoaea, iiaoo canoaaeoue iaoeio, niiniaioth
ia?aaaouaaoue eioi?iaoeeth, auiieieoue ecaanoioth ooieoeeth, ?aoeoue
caaea/o eee aeinoe/ue eiie?aoiiai ?acoeueoaoa.

Iiae “iienaieai i?ia?aiiu” iiieiaaony iieiia iiiia?aoeeiiiia eceiaeaiea
aeai?eoia a neiaaniie, noaiaoe/aneie eee ae?oaie oi?ia,
aeaoaeece?iaaiiia a noaiaie, aeinoaoi/iie aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaai?a
eiiaiae, ninoaaeythueo niaea?aeaiea niioaaonoaothuae i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI.

«Aniiiiaaoaeueiue iaoa?eae» aeeth/aao a naay ethaie iaoa?eae, e?iia
naiie i?ia?aiiu e aa iienaiey, nicaeaiiue n oeaeueth iaeaa/aiey
iiieiaiey eee i?eiaiaiey i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI (iai?eia?, eino?oeoeey aeey
iieueciaaoaey).

I?e yoii ethaie ec o?ao yeaiaioia nai ii naaa eee a eiiaeiaoeee
ianeieueeeo ec ieo iiaeao auoue iaicia/ai oa?ieiii “i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea”. Iaeiaei a i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee, i?iecaiaenoaa e
eniieueciaaiey i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey YAI ie iaeiiio ec oeacaiiuo auoa
eiiiiiaioia (yeaiaioia) i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ia i?eaeaaony cia/aiey
naiinoiyoaeueiuo iauaeoia a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Oaeei
iauaeoii noaiiaeony i?ia?aiiiia n?aaenoai.

Ii?iaoeaiay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ia?aii aeey YAI e aac aeaiiuo aeaaony a
Caeiia «I i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii aeey yeaeo?iiiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo
iaoei e aac aeaiiuo».

Iniiauaaynue ia yoie oa?aeoa?enoeea, niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi
i?ia?aiiiia n?aaenoai – i?iaeoeo iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaea
iaoeii/eoaaiiai iineoaey eioi?iaoeee e i?aaenoaaeaiiie a iai i?ia?aiiie
a iaoeii/eoaaiie oi?ia. Aiai?y eia/a, i?ia?aiiiia n?aaenoai — i?ia?aiia
aeey YAI a iauaeoiii eiaea (o. a. ia ycuea, iiiyoiii iaoeia) n
oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeeae.

N aeaiiui iauaeoii naycaiu aii?inu ii i?iecaiaenoao, oe?aaee?iaaieth,
ia?aaea/a e eniieueciaaieth, ioaeaeathueany a ii?iaoeaiie
?aaeaiaioaoeee.

E aeinoieinoaai aaoi?nei-i?aaiaie io?aiu i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey YAI
ioiineony oi, /oi aaoi?neia i?aai niiniaii ioaaoeoue naiae io?aiie
aieueoeinoai yeaiaioia i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Io?aia aaoi?neei i?aaii
iineo aaoiiaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, i?inoa, eaaeiaeinooiia e aeaoaaa. Ii?iu
aaoi?neiai i?aaa oi?ioi ?ac?aaioaiu e niaea?aeao /aoeoth ?aaeaiaioaoeeth
niioaaonoaothueo ioiioaiee. Aaoi?neia i?aai iaania/eaaao io?aio e ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia (ii Aa?ineie eiiaaioeee e Anaie?iie eiiaaioeee
ii aaoi?neei i?aaai).

Iaiaeiaaaeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaii yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi aaoi?neia i?aai
(eae ioa/anoaaiiia, oae e ca?oaaaeiia) ia aeaao ii?aaeaeaiey io?aiyaiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey. Ia?a/aiue io?aiyaiuo iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa iineo
i?eia?iue oa?aeoa?. Niioaaonoaaiii aeey i?eciaiey i?ia?aii aeey YAI
iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa aeinoaoi/ii oeacaiey eo a i?eia?iii ia?a/ia
iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Ec yoeo iieiaeaiee ia io?aiyaiinoe i?ia?aii aeey YAI ii?iaie aaoi?neiai
i?aaa

n?aaenoa aeey ia?niiaeueiuo YAI ii aaoi?neei aeiaiai?ai, a oaeaea
Oeiiaie aaoi?neee aeiaiai? ia nicaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoa aeey ia?niiaeueiuo YAI. Ana yoi iaeaa/eei aini?eyoea
aaoi?nei-i?aaiaie eiioeaioeee io?aiu i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey YAI.

N o/aoii iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa i. 2 no. 134 Iniia
a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?yii aeeth/ee i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI a
iauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Oai naiui onoaiiaeaia e aaoi?nei-i?aaiaay
io?aia i?aa ?ac?aaio/eeia i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

A ?aieao aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aaioee
niaoeeaeueiuo ii?i, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia niaoeeoeeo io?aiyaiiai noauaeoa.
I?e ethaii ae?oaii niiniaa, ioee/iii io aaoi?nei-i?aaiaiai, ia?niaeoeau
iineaaeothueo aeaenoaee a nicaeaiee iaoaiecia i?aaiaie io?aiu i?ia?aii
aeey YAI iiea aua iayniu. Aieaa oiai, ethaie ae?oaie niinia io?aiu
aoaeao i?aiyonoaiaaoue au?aaioea i?aaiauo iniia aeey o/anoey a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii iaiaia i?ia?aiiaie aeey YAI.

Aaoi?nei-i?aaiaie io?aiie, noiaeiie n i?aaiaie io?aiie i?ia?aii aeey YAI
e aac aeaiiuo, oaia?ue iieuecothony oaeaea oiiieiaee eioaa?aeueiuo,
iee?inoai.

A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua niiniau io?aiu i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee

I?aaeiinueeie ii?iaoeaiie ?aaeaiaioaoeee ioiioaiee ii io/oaeaeaieth,
?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony ?aaeaiaioaoeey ioiioaiee ii
nicaeaieth i?ia?aii aeey YAI e io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa eo ?ac?aaio/eeia.

Neiaeiinoue ?aoaiey oeacaiiuo i?iaeai iaoneiaeeaaaony aeaienoaaiiie
i?e?iaeie naiiai iauaeoa io?aiu: ii aiaoiaio aeaeo i?ia?aiia aeey YAI –
aauue (iaaieoiua eaiou, aeenee), ii nooe aea – iaiaoa?eaeueiia aeaai a
aeaea eiiieaena iia?aoeee, nin?aaeioi/aiiuo a aeai?eoia, a caoae
aiieiuaiiuo a i?ia?aiia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?ia?aiia
aeey YAI – iauaeo a?aaeaeaineiai, eiiia?/aneiai iai?ioa e a aeaiiie
nayce e iae i?eiaiyaony oa?iei “i?iaeoeoeey”, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoi
?acoeueoao oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iauaeo “eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe”.

A oie ia?a, a eaeie i?ia?aiiiay i?iaeoeoeey aiaeaeaaony a a?aaeaeaineee
iai?io, aa ?aaeei onoaiaaeeaaaony aeiaiai?ii (a /anoiinoe, aeiaiai?ii
iinoaaee i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, aeiaiai?ii ia nicaeaiea (ia?aaea/o)
iao/ii- oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee e oae aeaeaa.)

Ioiioaiey ii nicaeaieth i?ia?aii aeey YAI e io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa eo
?ac?aaio/eeia ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiii o?iaia a ?aieao
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee ii nicaeaieth e
eniieueciaaieth ?acoeueoaoia oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ioa/anoaaiiie th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ianoaeaeaeenue /aou?a aa?eaioa
aiciiaeiie io?aiu: 1) io?aia ecia?aoaoaeueneei i?aaii; 2) io?aia
aaoi?neei i?aaii; 3) io?aia niaoeeaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii; 4)
eniieueciaaiea ae?oaeo oi?i io?aiu: “iio-oao”, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i
oiaa?iuo ciaeao e o. i.

Oi?iaeueiui i?aiyonoaeai ia iooe io?aiu i?ia?aii aeey YAI ii?iaie
ecia?aoaoaeueneiai i?aaa yaeeinue ?acuyniaiea ?4 Aineiieoaoa ii aeaeai
ecia?aoaiee e ioe?uoee io 13 iiya?y 1975 aiaea «I i?eciaiee
ecia?aoaieyie iauaeoia au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, oa?aeoa?ecoaiuo
iaoaiaoe/aneei iaania/aieai YAI», eioi?ui i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue, /oi «ia
i?eieiathony e ?anniio?aieth cayaee ia auaea/o aaoi?neiai
naeaeaoaeuenoaa e iaoaioa ia ecia?aoaiea, anee cayaeyaiue iauaeo
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoaiaoe/aneia ?aoaiea caaea/, a /anoiinoe,
aeai?eoiu, i?ia?aiio aeey YAI».

Ia?ani?ino?aiaiea ii?i ecia?aoaoaeueneiai i?aaa ia i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI
iaoneiaeeaaaony oai, /oi iaoaioiay io?aia i?eiaieoaeueii e i?ia?aiiiie
i?iaeoeoeee eiaao iaaeinoaoee. I?ioeann iaoaioiaaiey yaeyaony
aeeeoaeueiui e aei?iainoiyuei, a oi a?aiy eae aeanoeei e?eoa?eyi
iaoaioiniiniaiinoe iiaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue eeoue iacia/eoaeueiay /anoue
i?ia?aii aeey YAI. Aeey i?ioiaeaeaiey yenia?oecu a iaoaioiii aaaeiinoaa
o?aaoaony ouaoaeueiay iiaeaioiaea cayai/iie aeieoiaioaoeee. N iiiaioa
iiaea/e aeieoiaioaoeee aei auaea/e iaoaioa a n?aaeiai i?ioiaeeo o?e
aiaea. Oieueei iinea oaeiaeaoai?aiey cayaee ia iaoaio ia/eiaaony io?aia
iaoaioa. I?e yoii n?ie io?aiu iaoaioa ia niioaaonoaoao “eiiia?/aneie
aeecie” i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Aianoa n oai, ii iiaieth ?yaea niaoeeaeenoia, oeacaiiua iaaeinoaoee
aiieia ono?aieiu, iniaaiii anee o/eouaaoue aannii?iua i?aeiouanoaa
iaoaioiie oi?iu i?aaiaie io?aiu. Aeaaiui i?aeiouanoaii yaeyaony oi, /oi
iaoaioiay io?aia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia nouiinoue, iniiaiiieaaathuoth
eaeath i?ia?aiiu, aiieiuaiioth a aeai?eoia.

Ii ?aaeecaoeey aeaiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyaony i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie,
iineieueeo a noa?a aeaenoaey ecia?aoaoaeueneiai (iaoaioiiai) i?aaa aua
ia iieo/eee iieiiai ?ac?aoaiey oaeea oceiaua i?iaeaiu, eae iiene
aiaeiaia cayaeaiiiai aeai?eoia, iaia?oaeaiea aai i?ioioeia, ninoaaeaiea
iienaiey e oi?ioeu, ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeciu aeai?eoia e aa ea/anoaaiiua
ioeaiee, onoaiiaeaiea oaeoa i?ioeaii?aaiiai eniieueciaaiey aeai?eoia. A
yoeo oneiaeyo oeaeaniia?acii eaeoe ii iooe i?eiaiaiey ii?i aaoi?neiai
i?aaa, eae a aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a.

Anaiauay aeaeea?aoeey ia aaoi?neii i?aaa.

?O o/anoaoao a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nenoaia io?aiu aaoi?neeo i?aa, /oi
naycaii n i?eniaaeeiaieai e Anaie?iie (AEaiaaneie) eiiaaioeee ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa n 27 iay 1973 aiaea – iiiainoi?iiiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
aeiaiai?u, onoaiaaeeaathuea iaycaiiinoe ainoaea?noa, eo o/anoieeia ii
io?aia aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaiey i?eiaaeeaaeauea a?aaeaeaiai
ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa-o/anoieoe eee aia?aua iioaeeeiaaiiua a yoeo
ainoaea?noaao. Anaie?iay eiiaaioeey enoiaeeo ec i?eioeeia
iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?aaeeia. A neeo yoiai i?eioeeia a eaaeaeie
no?aia-o/anoieoea i?iecaaaeaieyi eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia i?aaeinoaaeyaony
oaeay aea io?aia, eae e i?iecaaaeaieyi naieo a?aaeaeai. Iiae?iaii ?aoai
aii?in i eeoeao, eiathueo i?aai ia io?aio. Niaeanii aa i?aaeeai,
io?aiythony aaoi?neea i?aaa:

-a?aaeaeai ainoaea?noa, ia o/anoaothueo a Eiiaaioeee, i?iecaaaeaiey
eioi?uo aia?aua auoee a naao ia oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noaa – o/anoieea
Eiiaaioeee.

-a?aaeaeai ainoaea?noa, o/anoaothueo a Eiiaaioeee.

Anaie?iay Eiiaaioeey oaeaeyao aieiaiea oneiaeyi i?aaeinoaaeaiey io?ai
aaoi?neeo i?aa:

– niaoeeaeueiia iaicia/aiea ia anao yecaiiey?ao i?iecaaaeaiey ia/eiay n
ia?aiai ecaeaiey N ;

– eiy iaeaaeaoaey aaoi?neei i?aaii;

– aiae ia?aiai auionea ecaeaiey a naao;

– niaoeeaeueiua i?ioeannoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey;

– i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue n?iea io?aiu.

A 1991 aiaeo iiyaeeanue oaiaeaioeey ii ?anoe?aieth io?aiu aaoi?neiai
i?aaa, o/eouaay iiiaea iieiaeaiey Eiiaaioeee ia io?aia eioa?ania
a?oenoia-eniieieoaeae, ecaioiaeoaeae oiiia?aii e aauaoaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeee (?eineay Eiiaaioeey)

Ii ?aoaieth Aaia?aeueiie Annaiaeae III, iiaeienaiiie 10 aeaeaa?y 1948
aiaea, auea nicaeaia Anaiauay aeaeea?aoeey i?aa /aeiaaea. Noaouey 27
AAeI* aeaneo:

Eaaeaeue /aeiaae eiaao i?aai naiaiaeii o/anoaiaaoue a eoeueoo?iie aeecie
iauanoaa, ianeaaeaeaoueny eneonnoaii, o/anoaiaaoue a iao/iii i?ia?anna e
iieueciaaoueny aai aeaaaie.

Eaaeaeue /aeiaae eiaao i?aai ia caueoo aai ii?aeueiuo e iaoa?eaeueiuo
eioa?ania, yaeythueony ?acoeueoaoii iao/iuo eeoa?aoo?iuo eee
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, aaoi?ii eioi?iai ii yaeyaony.

Caeeth/aiea.

A caeeth/aiee oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue, /oi nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
io?aiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa a iniiaa naiae no?ieony ia i?aaa
aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiii. Aa?ineay, Anaie?iay e ?eineay eiiaaioeee
iino?iaiu ii i?eioeeio iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey n aa?aioe?iaaieai
iaycaoaeueiiai ieieioia io?aiu. Ia niio?y ia i?eniaaeeiaiea e Aa?ineie
eiiaaioeee a ?innee i?iaeieaeaaony ?ino ia?ooaiee a iaeanoe aaoi?neeo
i?aa, 09.07.1993 aiaeo aue i?eiyo ia iie acaeyae iaieioie Caeii ?O «Ia
io?aia aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa», ii e yoi ia niiaei iiaeeyoue ia
aaaenoaaiiia iieiaeaiea io?aiu aaoi?neeo i?aa a iaoae no?aia.

ss n/eoath, /oi ia naaiaeiy a iaoae no?aia nouanoaoao aeinoaoi/ii
e?aieay caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca aeey ?aaeueiie io?aiu e ?aaoee?iaaiey
aii?inia a noa?a aaoi?noaa. Ii e niaeaeaieth yoe caeiiu ia iiaee?aieaiu
?aaeueiuie aeaenoaeyie ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa, iaoa ainoaea?noai i?inoi
cae?uaaao aeaca ia oio aani?aaeae, ii i?e/eia eioi?iai io iaoae no?aiu
ioai?a/eaathony iiiaea ia?niaeoeaiua eiino?aiiua ia?oi??u.

Aieueoay ?ieue a ?aaoee?iaaiee aii?inia io?aiu, ia iie acaeyae aeieaeia
ioaiaeeony i?aaiai IAAe, iniaaiii a nayce n oai, /oi n yiaa?y 1996
aiaea, a oaieiaiii caeiia iiyaeony iiaue ninoaa i?anooieaiey (no.146 OE
?O «Ia?ooaiea aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa.»). Ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a, a
i?aaiao iieeoeee e i?ieo?aoo?u nouanoaotho niaoeeaeueiua ioaeaeu eioi?ua
caieiathony oieueei aii?inaie io?aiu eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Ainoaea?noai ia aeieaeii oioneaoue oa ia?iiiua noiiu aeaiaa, eioi?ia iii
iaaeiiieo/aao a aeaea iaeiaia, ec-ca ia?ooaiee a iaeanoe io?aiu
aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

Eiinoeoooeey ?O

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?O

Caeii «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» io 9 ethey 1993a. ?5351-1

«A?aaeaeaineia i?aai» Neiaa?ue-ni?aai/iee

A.I.Eicu?aa «Ioeaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe»

A.A.Nooaiia «A?aaeaeaineia i?aai»

A.I.Oaoaainyi «Ana ia aaoi?neeo i?aaao»

A.I.Na?aaaa «Aaoi?neia i?aai ?inee»

ss.A.Eiian «E?eoa?ee oai?/anoaa a aaoi?neii i?aaa e noaeaaiie i?aeoeea»

I?aaiaay caueoa i?annu e eieaiecaeaiey

Aaoi?neia i?aai e niaaeiia i?aai a Aa?iiaeneii nithca e ?O

Oaeno Aa?ineie eiiaaioeee

Anaiauay aeaeea?aoeey i?aa /aeiaaea

Niaea?aeaiea:

Aaaaeaiea no?.1

Ii?iu e i?eioeeiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa no?.2

I?aaa aao?ia e eo caueoa no?.3

Io?aia i?aa ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e iaaeaaniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai no?.7

Aaoi?neia i?aai th?eaee/aneeo eeoe no?.8

Eiino?aiiua aaoi?u no?.9

I?eniaaeeiaiea ?innee e Aa?ineie eiiaaioeee no?.10

Niaaoi?noai no?.14

Aaoi?nei-i?aaiaay io?aia i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee YAI no?.20

A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua niiniau caueou i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee no?.22

Anaiauay aeaeea?aoeey ia aaoi?neii i?aaa no?.23

Caeeth/aiea no?.24

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u no?.25

PAGE

PAGE 5

PAGE 17

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019