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Государственный строй и право Пскова и Новгорода XII-XV вв.

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Eo?niaay ?aaioa ii

enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa

nooaeaioa I eo?na

cai/iiai ioaeaeaiey th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

Oeueyiianeiai oeeeaea IAO

Eey/eeia Aiae?ay Aeaaeeie?iae/a

(nooaeai/aneee aeeao ?054-95thc).

432017, a. Oeueyiiane,

oe. Ieiaaaa,

ae. 7, ea. 32

Eey/eei A.A.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie e i?aai Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa a XII-XV aa.:
eo?niaay ?aaioa. — Oeueyiiane: OoIAO, 1995. — 55 n.

A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaaaony oe?ieee e?oa aii?inia, naycaiiuo n i?aaii
Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa. Iieacuaathony ana iniaaiiinoe
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey Iiaai?iaeneie
?anioaeeee, iiae?iaii eceaaathony naaaeaiey i aunoeo i?aaiao aeanoe
Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony Ineianeie Noaeiie
A?aiioa, aiaeeco oaenoa eioi?ie iinayuai aanue o?aoee ?acaeae ?aaiou.
I?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea iniuneaiey enoi?e/aneeo i?aaeiinueie, nicaeathueo
o?oaeiinoe ia iooe iino?iaiey nia?aiaiiiai i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa a
?innee.

TOC \t “Caaieiaie aeaau;2;Iiaecaaieiaie aeaau;3;Caaieiaie /anoe;1”

Anooieaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037317 PAGEREF _Toc342037317 5

*anoue I. Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa GOTOBUTTON
_Toc342037318 PAGEREF _Toc342037318 6

1. Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037319 PAGEREF
_Toc342037319 6

1.1 A?aieoeu, oa??eoi?ey GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037320 PAGEREF
_Toc342037320 6

1.2 Ninaaee GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037321 PAGEREF _Toc342037321 7

1.3 Ineia GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037322 PAGEREF _Toc342037322 8

2. E?aoeay enoi?ey Naaa?i-Caiaaeiie ?one GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037323
PAGEREF _Toc342037323 8

2.1 Iiaai?iae IX-XII a.: no?aieaiea e iacaaeneiinoe GOTOBUTTON
_Toc342037324 PAGEREF _Toc342037324 8

2.2 Iiaai?iae eae iacaaeneiia ainoaea?noai GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037325
PAGEREF _Toc342037325 10

2.3 Iaaeaiea Iiaai?iaea GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037326 PAGEREF
_Toc342037326 11

2.4. Ineianeay ?anioaeeea GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037327 PAGEREF
_Toc342037327 14

Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037328
PAGEREF _Toc342037328 15

*anoue II. Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc342037329 PAGEREF _Toc342037329 16

1. Iauanoaaiiue no?ie. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037330 PAGEREF
_Toc342037330 16

1.1. Aiy?a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037331 PAGEREF _Toc342037331 16

1.2. AEeouee ethaee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037332 PAGEREF _Toc342037332
17

1.3. Naiacaioeu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037333 PAGEREF _Toc342037333 17

1.4. Eoia/anoai. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037334 PAGEREF _Toc342037334 18

1.5. Iieiaeoea ethaee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037335 PAGEREF
_Toc342037335 18

1.6. Nia?aeu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037336 PAGEREF _Toc342037336 19

1.7. Oieiiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037337 PAGEREF _Toc342037337 19

2. Aaeieieno?aoeaiia aeaeaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037338 PAGEREF
_Toc342037338 19

2.1. Noi?iiu e eiioeu Iiaai?iaea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037339 PAGEREF
_Toc342037339 19

2.2. Iyoeiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037340 PAGEREF _Toc342037340 20

2.3. Aieinoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037341 PAGEREF _Toc342037341 21

2.4. Iniaaiiinoe Ineiaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037342 PAGEREF
_Toc342037342 22

3. Aunoea i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037343
PAGEREF _Toc342037343 22

3.1. Aa/a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037344 PAGEREF _Toc342037344 22

3.2. Ainiiaea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037345 PAGEREF _Toc342037345 23

4. Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037346 PAGEREF
_Toc342037346 24

4.1. Eiycue. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037347 PAGEREF _Toc342037347 24

4.2. Iinaaeiee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037348 PAGEREF _Toc342037348 27

4.3. Ounyoeeee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037349 PAGEREF _Toc342037349 28

4.4. A?oeaieneii. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037350 PAGEREF _Toc342037350
28

5. Noaeaaiay aeanoue. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037351 PAGEREF
_Toc342037351 29

5.1. Iiaai?iae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037352 PAGEREF _Toc342037352 29

5.2. Ineia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037353 PAGEREF _Toc342037353 30

*anoue III. I?aai Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037354
PAGEREF _Toc342037354 31

1. Enoi/ieee i?aaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037355 PAGEREF _Toc342037355
31

1.1. ?onneay I?aaaea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037356 PAGEREF
_Toc342037356 31

1.2. Aeiaiai?u Iiaai?iaea n eiycueyie. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037357
PAGEREF _Toc342037357 32

1.3. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037358 PAGEREF
_Toc342037358 35

1.4. Noaeiua a?aiiou Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037359
PAGEREF _Toc342037359 37

2. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai ii Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc342037360 PAGEREF _Toc342037360 38

3. Iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia i?aai. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037361 PAGEREF
_Toc342037361 41

3.1. Aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037362 PAGEREF
_Toc342037362 41

3.2. Aeiaiai? aea?aiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037363 PAGEREF
_Toc342037363 42

3.3. Caeia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037364 PAGEREF _Toc342037364 42

3.4. Aeiaiai? caeia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037365 PAGEREF _Toc342037365
43

3.5. Aeiaiai? iieeaaee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037366 PAGEREF
_Toc342037366 44

3.6. Aeiaiai? iaeia eiouanoaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037367 PAGEREF
_Toc342037367 45

3.7. Aeiaiai? ee/iiai iaeia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037368 PAGEREF
_Toc342037368 45

4. Ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037369 PAGEREF
_Toc342037369 47

4.1. Ianeaaeiaaiea ii caaauaieth. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037370 PAGEREF
_Toc342037370 47

4.2. Ianeaaeiaaiea ii caeiio. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037371 PAGEREF
_Toc342037371 48

5. Oaieiaiia i?aai. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037372 PAGEREF _Toc342037372
48

5.1. I?anooieaiey i?ioea ainoaea?noaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037373
PAGEREF _Toc342037373 48

5.2. I?anooieaiey i?ioea noaeaaiuo i?aaiia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037374
PAGEREF _Toc342037374 48

5.3. Eiouanoaaiiua i?anooieaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037375 PAGEREF
_Toc342037375 48

5.4. I?anooieaiey i?ioea ee/iinoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037376 PAGEREF
_Toc342037376 49

6. Noaeaaiue i?ioeann. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037377 PAGEREF
_Toc342037377 50

6.1. ?acaeaeaiea noaea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037378 PAGEREF
_Toc342037378 50

6.2. I?ioeann. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037379 PAGEREF _Toc342037379 50

6.3. Aucia ioaao/eea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037380 PAGEREF
_Toc342037380 51

6.4. Naeaeaoaee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037381 PAGEREF _Toc342037381 51

6.5. Iiniaie/anoai. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037382 PAGEREF _Toc342037382
52

6.6. Eciaiaiea Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiiou. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037383
PAGEREF _Toc342037383 53

Caeeth/aiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037384 PAGEREF _Toc342037384 53

Eeoa?aoo?a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc342037385 PAGEREF _Toc342037385 54

Anooieaiea.

Iiiaea ec nia?aiaiiuo o/aiuo n/eoatho Iiaai?iae e aai i?aai i?eia?ii
iino?iaiey aeaiie?aoee a ?innee. N/eoath yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea
iaiainiiaaiiui, oae eae Iiaai?iae XV a. nei?ae i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay
/enoi aiy?neoth a?enoie?aoe/aneoth ?anioaeeeo n caeiiaie, iai?aaeaiiuie
ia iiaeaaeaiea aaaeiaeoeo e n?aaeieo neiaa ianaeaiey. Iaeiaei, oaeaea
aanii/aaiiu iiiuoee niaaoneeo o/aiuo ia?aianoe iiaiea i Iiaai?iaea eae i
aiy?neie ?anioaeeea e ia Ineia. Aua A.I. Eeth/aaneee ioiaoee ?acieoeo
iaaeaeo Iiaai?iaeii e Ineiaii: “Ia?aoiaey a eco/aiee enoi?ee aieueiuo
ai?iaeia io iiaai?iaeneeo eaoiienae e ineianeei, eniuouaaaoue /oanoai
oniieiaiey, oi/ii i?e ia?aoiaea n oieeo/aai ?uiea a oeoee ia?aoeie.” Oi
anoue aua a eiioea XIX a. auea ioia/aia aunieay noaaeeueiinoue iauanoaa
Ineianeie ?anioaeeee, a eae iu ciaai ec enneaaeiaaiee nioeeieiaia e
enoi?eeia iniiaie noaaeeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony n?aaeiee eeann, oi
anoue a ioee/ea io Iiaai?iaea Ineia aue ?anioaeeeie n?aaeieo eeannia e
aai i?aai auei iai?aaeaii ia nio?aiaiea ainoaea?noaa e aai
iniiaiiieaaathuae neeu — n?aaeiaai eeanna. N.O. Ieaoiiia ioia/ae: “Ana
iauanoai [Ineiaa] eiaei aieaa aeaiie?aoe/aneee neeaae [/ai
iiaai?iaeneia] n i?aiaeaaeaieai n?aaeieo eeannia iaae aunoeie.” Anee
Iiaai?iae iaiye eiycae, eae oioae, oi aeey Ineiaa eiycue aue “…
aeaaiui noaeueae e aa?aioii i?aaiii?yaeea aa/aaiai ai?iaea-caiee” A oi
aea a?aiy eiycue aue ia?aie/ai aa/aauie i?aaiaie, oi anoue a Ineiaa iu
aeaeei ianoiyuoth eiinoeoooeeiiioth iiia?oeth, aaea eiycue yaeyaony
aa?aioii ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, a oi a?aiy eae a Iiaai?iaea oaeei
aa?aioii aunooiaao aia?oe/aneia aa/a. Ec yoiai yaii neaaeoao, /oi Ineia
aieaa i?aaiia?ai n/eoaoueny aeaiie?aoe/aneii ainoaea?noaii, /ai
Iiaai?iae. Anee ?acaeaaoue enneaaeiaaiey E.I. Aoieeaaa, oi iiaeii i?eeoe
e auaiaeo, /oi aeaiie?aoey iiaeao auoue iino?iaia yoiinii,
ian/eouaathuai ieiei 1000 eao. Ii a oi aea a?aiy iinea ouny/aeaoey yoiin
ia/eiaao iiaeiaaeaoue iiae aeanoue noaianneiia?eaa, eioi?ua e aoayo yoio
yoiin. E Ineia, e Iiaai?iae aioee aianoa a ia?eiae aiiainoaca yoiina,
aai “?aaiii?aaey” n i?e?iaeie. Aeaeaa ana oei ii ?aciui noeaia?eyi.
Iiaai?iae noae ?aeeeoii — yoiinii, a eioi?ii noaianneiia?ee yaeyeenue
aeaaiie neeie. Yoi auei ia?aui oaaii e aeaiiioeyoeee — en/aciiaaieth
yoiina, eioi?ia i?iecioei a 70-o aiaeao XVI a., eiaaea oea?ue Eaai IV
A?iciue au?acae ni naieie ii?e/ieeaie aanue Iiaai?iae. Ineia aea noae
ia?nenoaioii — nenoaiie, eioi?ay niaethaeaea caeiiu, iaienaiiua
i?aaeeaie-ianneiia?eyie. Yoi iicaieeei Ineianeie ?anioaeeea nio?aiyoueny
aei 1510 a., eiaaea iia auea aeeth/aia a ninoaa Iineianeiai
ainoaea?noaa, ii eae noayoiin ineiaeoyia i?iaeieaeaee aeeoue aua a
eiioea XVI — ia/aea XVII aa., eiaaea iie ioaeee aoaee iieueneiai aienea
Noaoaia Aaoi?ey.

*anoue I. Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa

1. Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea

1.1 A?aieoeu, oa??eoi?ey

Iiaai?iaeneay ?anioaeeea yaeyeanue naiui aieueoei eiyaeanoaii Eeaaneie
?one. Aa oa??eoi?ey i?inoe?aeanue io Aaeiai ii?y ia naaa?a aei ?aee
Aieae ia thaa, io *oaeneiai ica?a ia caiaaea aei O?aea ia ainoiea. Ii
any yoa oa??eoi?ey auea aieioenoa e ia/a?iicaiia. Niioaaonoaaiii, a
Iiaai?iaea auei neaai ?acaeoi naeueneia oicyenoai, a ionthaea
i?ienoiaeeea caaeneiinoue Iiaai?iaea io “iecianeeo” ai?iaeia. Ii
Iiaai?iae eiiiaine?iaae neaaia ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?acaeoeai
oi?aiaee. Aua a IX a. Iiaai?iae iaoiaeeeny ia ciaiaieoii oi?aiaii iooe
“ec aa?ya a a?aee”. Iinea ia?ae?uoey iieiaoeaie oi?aiaiai iooe a
Aecaioeth, Iiaai?iae inoaeny aaeeinoaaiiui ai?iaeii, /a?ac eioi?ue auea
aiciiaeia oi?aiaey n Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie. Yoi i?eaaei e iaiaauaieth
Iiaai?iaeneiai ainoaea?noaa, a iioii, eae neaaenoaea ec yoiai, e e
ioaeaeaieth aai io ?one. Oi?aiaey n Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie a iniiaiii,
iaeiaei, iaiaauaea ia ana ianaeaiea, a oieueei iaeei eeann aiy?.
Inoaeueiua eeannu io yoie oi?aiaee a iniiaiii aaaeiaee e ?aci?yeenue. A
Iiaai?iaea oaeoe/anee auea naaaeaia ia iao ?ieue n?aaeiaai eeanna,
eioi?ue, eae ecaanoii ec enoi?ee, neoaeeo noaaeeueiinoe iauanoaa. Ec-ca
yoiai a Iiaai?iaea i/aiue /anoi aniuoeaaee ainnoaiey aaaeiuo, caaiai?u
aiaaoaeoae /anoe ianaeaiey e ae?oaea nioeeaeueiua iio?ynaiey.
Niioaaonoaaiii Iiaai?iae ?acaeaeeeny e ia ia?oee. Aiy?a iiaeaea?aeeaaee
a aieueoeinoaa naiai ia?oeth “caiaaeieeia” — noi?iiieeia ?acaeoey
oi?aiaee n Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie e eioaa?aoeee Iiaai?iaea a Aaicaeneee
Nithc, aieaa aeeceiai naeeaeaiey n Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie. Yoa ia?oey
ia?aiia/aeueii i?eaeaoaea eiycae ec eeiee Ieueaiae/ae, a iioii eeoianeeo
eiycae. Ieueaiae/e auee oaeiaiu oai, /oi iie oaeoe/anee ia iiaee
ieacaoue ieeaeiai aeeyiey ia Iiaai?iae, a niioaaonoaaiii i?aaenoaaeyee
aiy?ai naiei ?acae?aoueny n eo i?iaeaiaie. N?aaeiea e aaaeiua eeannu
i?eaea?aeeaaeenue aieaa “neaayiioeeueneie” eeiee, ii iie oaeaea
?acaeaeyeenue ii acaeyaeai. N?aaeiea eeannu iiaeaea?aeeaaee niieaineeo
Iiiiiaoiae/ae, eae niieieiuo e o?aaiiaaoaiiuo eiycae, niiniaiuo
i?ioeainoiyoue e aeaniioe/aneei ono?aieaieyi Aeaaeeie?a, e eae
caueoieeia i?aaineaaiie aa?u, i?ioeaieeia i?iieeiiaaiey eaoieeoeecia e
caiaaeiie eoeueoo?u ia ?onue. Aieaa aaaeiua eeannu iiaeaea?aeeaaee
aeaaeeie?neeo Iiiiiaoiae/ae ec-ca eo neeu e niiniaiinoe onie?youe aiy?.
Ei eacaeinue, /oi neeueiua aeaaeeie?neea eiycuey onoaiiayo naith
oe?aieth a Iiaai?iaea, oi yoi aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue iaaeaieth aiy? e
oeo/oaieth iieiaeaiey aaaeiuo neiaa ianaeaiey.

1.2 Ninaaee

A caaeneiinoe io iiaaaeu oie eee eiie ia?oee e neeaaeuaaeenue ioiioaiey
Iiaai?iaea n aai ninaaeyie. Eiaaea e aeanoe i?eoiaeeee Ieueaiae/e, oi
Iiaai?iae oaeoe/anee ieacuaaeny a aeieaaea, oae eae Aeaaeeie? e Niieaine
ioeacuaaee Iiaai?iaeo a iiaeaica oeaaa. Anee e aeanoe i?eoiaeeee
Iiiiiaoiae/e, oi iieiaeaiea noaiiaeeinue eo/oa n iiaeaicii oeaaa, ii iie
aieinoaaiii aaee naay ii ioiioaieth e Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, /oi ia
inoaaaeinue iacaiaoiui aeey iiaai?iaeneie oi?aiaee. Eeoianeia
eiyaeanoai, ia?aciaaaoaany a XIII a., auei iinoiyiiui a?aaii Iiaai?iaea.
Eeaiineee I?aeai ia ia?auo ii?ao oaeaea io?eoeaoaeueii ioiineeny e
Iiaai?iaeo, oioue e iaoiaeee naaa nithcieeia a n?aaea aiy?. Aue aua
iaeei ninaae Iiaai?iaea — Iieioeeia eiyaeanoai, ii iii iinea ?aca?iia
aai Inoeneaaii Aaeeeei, oaeoe/anee ieeaeeo ioiioaiee n Iiaai?iaeii, ie
a?aaeaeaaiuo, ie ie?iuo, ia eiaei. Aaeeinoaaiiue ?ac, eiaaea a
Iiaai?iaea i?aaee noianoaaeoee eiycue Inoeneaa O?aa?ue, ii ?aoee ia/aoue
aieio n Iieioeeii, iaianaiiua Iiaai?iaeo Ananeaaii Iieioeeei a 1065 a,
(yoi ca 115 eao aei yoiai !!!), ii oia?, ia oniaa iaianoue.

1.3 Ineia

Oa??eoi?ey Ineianeie ?anioaeeee auea cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa. E oiio aea
Ineia ia oae aeoeaii caieiaeny oi?aiaeae. Yoa i?eaiaeeei e aieueoaio
oneeaieth n?aaeiaai eeanna e aieueoae noaaeeueiinoe ineianeiai iauanoaa,
a ioee/ea io iiaai?iaeneiai. A Ineiaa ia aeaeii oaeeo ao?iuo aa/a,
ainnoaiee aaaeiiou, neeueiiai aiy?noaa. Ineianeay ?anioaeeea
ia?aciaaeanue a 1348 a., e niioaaonoaaiii o iaa a oi a?aiy oaea ia auei
oaeiai oe?ieiai auai?a eiycae. Ninaaee Ineiaa auee a aieueoeinoaa naiai
a?aaeaeaaiu aio: Iiaai?iae ia iia i?inoeoue ioniaaeeiaiey, I?aeai e
Eeoaa iuoaeenue, iaiai?io, i?eniaaeeieoue Ineia e naiei aeaaeaieyi. Yoi
i?eaiaeeei e oiio, /oi Ineia auioaeaeai aue eneaoue naaa eiycae
ecaeaeaea. Oaeeie eiycueyie auee eiycuey iineianeea. Ianiio?y ia eo
oe?aie/aneoth iieeoeeo, oianeaaeiaaiioth io Aiae?ay Aiaiethaneiai, Ineia
auioaeaeai aue i?eaeaoaoue eo, oae eae aaeeinoaaiiie aeueoa?iaoeaie auee
eeoianeea eiycuey, a yoi ?anniao?eaaeinue n?aaeiei eeannii oaeoe/anee
eae eciaia ?iaeeia. Eeoianeea eiycuey eiyaeeee a Ineiaa, ii oieueei ia
oneiaee, anee iie auee i?aaineaaiuie. Nithc n Iineaie niioaaonoaaiii e
i?eaae Ineia e iiae/eiaieth Iineaa.

2. E?aoeay enoi?ey Naaa?i-Caiaaeiie ?one

2.1 Iiaai?iae IX-XII a.: no?aieaiea e iacaaeneiinoe

Ii a?aaneei enoi/ieeai ia ?one a IX a. nouanoaiaaei 3 ainoaea?noaa:
Eoyaey (Eeaaneay caiey), Neiaaiey (Iiaai?iae) e A?na. Iiaai?iae, eee eae
ii oiaaea iacuaaeny Neiaaine, aue noieeoeae Neiaaiee. A 862 a., niaeanii
Iiaanoe A?aiaiiuo Eao, Iiaai?iae noae noieeoeae ainoaea?noaa
?th?eeiae/ae, ii oaea a 882 a. Ieaa Aauee ia?aiineo noieeoeo a oieueei
/oi caoaa/aiiue Eeaa. A Iiaai?iaea ii anae aeaeeiinoe ia caauee i aueie
iacaaeneiinoe, e a 970 a. aa/a i?enueaao a Eeaa e eiycth Nayoineaao
iineia, eioi?ua ai?aei cayaeee: “Aua ia iieaeaoa e iaiu, oi iae(cai
eiycy nia(“. Yoi aicuiaei aeaenoaea e a Iiaai?iae aue iineai eiyaeeoue
Aeaaeeie?, nui Nayoineaaa. Ii iiaai?iaeoeu ia inoaaeee naieo iuneae i
iacaaeneiinoe, e a 975 a. ia/eiaaony aieia iaaeaeo Iiaai?iaeii e
Ae?aaeyineie caieae n iaeiie noi?iiu e Eeaaii n ae?oaie. Ia?aue yoai
aieiu aue iaoaea/ai — a 977 a. ss?iiiee Eeaaneee i?enueaao naieo
iaianoieeia a Iiaai?iae, a Aeaaeeie? Nayoie aaaeeo e oaaaeai. Ii oaea
/a?ac 2 aiaea Aeaaeeie? aa?ioeny e niiaa ia/ae aieio. Ia yoio ?ac
Aeaaeeie? n iiiiuueth aa?yaia niia ?acaeoue e oaeoue ss?iiieea. Iiaaaea
Aeaaeeie?a oe?aieea iiceoeee ycu/aneiai Iiaai?iaea: Aeaaeeie?
iianaianoii aaiaeeo aieinoaaiiue eoeueo Ia?oia, ii anei?a Aeaaeeie? iiae
aeeyieai eeaaneeo aiy? ia?aoiaeeo a o?enoeaineoth aa?o. Yoio
iieeoe/aneee oaa i?eie?aiey n Eeaaii, aaea aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey aua n
na?aaeeiu IX a. auee o?enoeaiaie. Iiaai?iae io yoiai oieueei i?iea?ae.
Aeaaeeie?, eioi?ue n yoiai a?aiaie noae Nayoui, i?eneae a Iiaai?iae
iaianoieea Aeia?uith, eioi?ue e?anoee Iiaai?iae iaiai e ia/ii. Ii
iiaai?iaeoeu ia oa?yee iaaeaaeae. sscu/anoai inoaaaeinue neeueiui a
Iieioeeii, Iiaai?iaeneii e Nocaeaeueneii eiyaeanoaao. A Iieioeea eiyaeee
nui Aeaaeeie?a Ecyneaa, eioi?ue aue auaiai iooeii ec Eeaaa ca iiiuoeo
oaeenoaa Aeaaeeie?a. Aiciiaeii, ii nai aue ycu/ieeii, oae eae aua i?i
aai aioea Ananeaaa oiaeeee eaaaiaeu, /oi ii eieaeoi. A Nocaeaeueneie
caiea aua a 1071 a. i?ienoiaeeee ainnoaiey i?ioea eiyaeaneie aeanoe iiae
i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii aieoaia. Iiaai?iae, eae ?aniieaaaaoeeny naaa?iaa
ai?iae e, niioaaonoaaiii, aieaa aeaeaeee io eiyaeaneie aeanoe, oaeaea
inoaaaeny ycu/aneei. A Iiaai?iaea iinea nia?oe Auoaneaaa Aeaaeeie?iae/a
eiycai noae ss?ineaa Aeaaeeie?iae/. ss?ineaa ia ioee/aeny iineooiinoueth
naiaio iooeo e auno?i iaoae iauee ycue n iiaai?iaeoeaie. Aeaaeeie?
Nayoie auioaeaeai aue iineaoue a Ineia a i?ioeaiaan ss?ineaao ae?oaiai
naiaai nuia — Noaeeneaaa Aeaaeeie?iae/a. Yoi ia nianei aai iaeiaei io
ainnoaiey. A 1015 a. ss?ineaa ioeacaeny ieaoeoue aeaiue Eeaao. Aeaaeeie?
nia?aeny a iioiae ia Iiaai?iae, ii… nei?iiinoeaeii oia?. Aaeeeei eiycai
eeaaneeie aiy?aie aue i?iaicaeaoai Nayoiiiee, aioaaeoee a enoi?eth n
i?icaeuai Ieayiiiai. Neaaeii ca iooeii a iiaeeo nioee eiycuey Ai?en,
Aeaa e Nayoineaa Aeaaeeie?iae/e. Neaaeoy i?eioeeio “eiio yoi auaiaeii”
ai anai aue iaaeiai aaeeeee eiycue Nayoiiiee. Ii a “Naaa ia Yeioiaea”
nio?aieeinue i?aaeaiea, /oi ss?ineaa iineae Yeioiaea oaeoue aai a?aoueaa
Ai?ena e Aeaaa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a ?acoeueoaoa iiaai?iaenei-eeaaneie
aieiu 1015-19 aa. a aeeauo inoaeenue oieueei Noaeeneaa, ss?ineaa e
Inoeneaa. Inoeneaa aue neeoeii aeaeae io iieeoeee Eeaaa, e iiyoiio
inoaeny aeea. Noaeeneaa aue neeoeii aeecie e Iiaai?iaeo, e oaeenoai aai
ss?ineaaii iiaei canoaaeoue ia?iae niiiaaaoueny a oii, /oi yoi naeaeae
Nayoiiiee. ss?ineaa aea iiae eicoiaii ianoe ca naieo a?aoueaa-o?enoeai
aioae a Eeaa, a eioi?ii ethaee i?ioeaeeenue i?icaiaaeie/aneie iieeoeee
Nayoiiieea. A yoi aea a?aiy a Eeaaa “iiai?( oea?eae” — no?aiiia
niaiaaeaiea, ii e?aeiae ia?a oaeei iii iieacaeinue eeaaeyiai e iie
ecaiaee ss?ineaaa. Ii Nayoiiiee, aiiaue noaaoee eeaaneei eiycai iiaae
naay ia eo/oa: iieyee, i?eoaaeoea n iei e ?annaeaiiua ii aeiiai
ai?iaeai, ia/aee aan/einoaiaaoue. Yoi i?eaaei e ianniaiio iyoaaeo e
oaeenoao iieyeia. Ei?ieue Aieaneaa O?aa?ue aue inei?aeai e ioeacae a
iiaeaea?aeea Nayoiiieeo, eiaaea ia iaai niiaa iaiae ss?ineaa. Ia yoio
?ac ss?ineaa ia noae aea/ue oea?eae a Eeaaa, a, iaiai?io, aeaaea noae
?ani?ino?aiyoue o?enoeainoai. Yoi auei i/a?aaeiia ii?aaeaiea
iiaai?iaeoeaa, ii ooo iii auei niya/aii oai, /oi ss?ineaa aeae
Iiaai?iaeo caeii — “?onneoth I?aaaeo”, a iniiao eioi?ie eaaei ycu/aneia
i?aai — “Caeii ?onneee”.

Iiaai?iaeoeu, oai ia iaiaa, i?iaeieaeatho ai?ioueny ca nianoaaiioth
iacaaeneiinoue, ii oaea iiae yaeaeie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae. A 1040-o aa.
Aeaaeeie? ss?ineaae/ iino?iee a Iiaai?iaea oea?eiaue Na. Nioee, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i e?auaiee Iiaai?iaea. N yoiai a?aiaie Iiaai?iaeneay
caiey noaea iacuaaoueny Caieae NA. Nioee. A 1102 a. iiaai?iaeoeu
iniaeaee aei oiai, /oi iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoaii neeueiaeoaai eiycy ia ?one
Aeaaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa iio?aaiaaee io aaeeeiai eiycy Nayoiiieea II
inoaaeoue a Iiaai?iaea eiycai Inoeneaaa Aeaaeeie?iae/a e ia iinueaoue
nuia Nayoiiieea. A 1136 a. iiaai?iaeoeu ieii/aoaeueii ioaeaeeeenue io
Eeaaneie ?one, auaiaa eiycy Anaaieiaea-Aaa?eeea.

2.2 Iiaai?iae eae iacaaeneiia ainoaea?noai

A 1136 a., eae auei oaea neacaii, iiaai?iaeoeu i?iaiaee Anaaieiaea ii
neaaeothuei i?e/eiai: “1) ia aethaeao nia?aeia; 2) ca/ai oioae nanoue a
Ia?ayneaaea; 3) a aeoaa i?e AEaeaiiaie ai?a i?aaeaea anao iiaaaeae ec
iieeo; 4) aiaoeaaao Iiaai?iae a oniaeoeu: nia?aa aaeae i?enooieoue e
Ieueaiae/ai, a oaia?ue aaeeo ionooieoue.” Ec ia?aiai oneiaey iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi iniiaiie neeie ainnoaiey auee aaaeiaeoea neie
ianaeaiey. Ii aiy?a oaeaea aunoaaeee naia o?aaiaaiea Anaaieiaeo — ei ia
i?aaeeinue o/anoaiaaoue a ?onneeo oniaeoeao. Aaeeinoaaiiuie eeannaie, ia
i?aaeuyaeaoeie i?aoaicee e Anaaieiaeo, auee aeooiaainoai e n?aaeiea neie
ianaeaiey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, Anaaieiae iiaeaea?aeeaae eiaiii yoe aeaa
eeanna. Ii ia?iae aue auno?i iono?aiai io aeanoe: aiy?a i?eaeaneee eiycy
Nayoineaaa Ieueaiae/a. Iinea yoiai iiaai?iaeoeu niiaee ainnoaiiaeoue
i?ioea naay ana eiyaeanoaa, ie?oaeaaoea aai.

Caaiaaaa iacaaeneiinoue, iiaai?iaeoeu auioaeaeaiu auee caueuaoue aa. A
XII-XIII aa. iniiaiuie i?aoaiaeaioaie ia Iiaai?iae auee niieaineea,
aeaaeeie?neea e /a?ieaianeea eiycuey. A 1170 a. Aiae?ae Aiaiethaneee
niaa?oee iaoaea/iue iioiae ia Iiaai?iae, ii aai ieaaeoee a?ao Anaaieiae
Aieueoia Aiacaei a 1201 a. niia iiae/eieoue naaa Iiaai?iae, e ia/ae
iinueaoue ooaea oao eiycae, eioi?ua auee auaiaeiu aio. Ainiiaenoai
Aeaaeeie?neiai eiyaeanoaa i?iaeieaeaeinue iaaeieai. A 1212 a., iinea
nia?oe Anaaieiaea, ia/aeanue aieia, nia/aea ne?uoay, a iioii e n
ianoiyueie aiaiiuie aeaenoaeyie, iaaeaeo TH?eai e Eiinoaioeiii
Anaaieiaeiae/aie. A yoie aieia Eiinoaioeio iiiiaae iiaue eiycue
iiaai?iaeneee Inoeneaa Inoeneaae/ ec aeeianoee niieaineeo Iiiiiaoiae/ae.
A ?acoeueoaoa aeoau ia Eeieoea a 1216 a. Iiaai?iae ia?ae iacaaeneiinoue,
a Aeaaeeie?neia eiyaeanoai ieii/aoaeueii iioa?yei iaae iei eiio?ieue.
Iaeiaei iacaaeneiinoue Iiaai?iaea ia iiaea auoue iieiie, iiea n caiaaea
aio a?iceee aa?iiaeneea oaiaeaeu, iiei?eaoea i?eaaeoeeo. Aeey nianaiey
nianoaaiiuo aeeciae iiaai?iaeoeu i?eaeaneee eiycy Aeaenaiae?a
ss?ineaae/a, ?acaeaoaai a 1240 a. oaaaeia, a a 1242 a. — iaioeaa. Ca yoi
ei i?eoeinue a oa/aiea 20 n eeoiei eao oa?iaoue oe?aieth Iaaneiai.
Iiaai?iaeoeu naeaeaee ec yoiai niioaaonoaothuea auaiaeu e a 1265 a.,
i?eaeaoay eiycy ss?ineaaa ss?ineaae/a, caeeth/eee n iei aeiaiai?, a
eioi?ii, a /anoiinoe, o?aaoaony, /oiau ss?ineaa ia iiae?aaeae Iaaneiio.
Iicaeiaa iiaai?iaeoeu i?eciaaaee naiei eiycai Aaeeeiai Eiycy.
Aaeeinoaaiiue ?ac a 1314 a. iie ionooieeenue io yoiai i?aaeea, i?eaeanea
eiycy TH?ey Aeaieeiae/a Iineianeiai. Iinoaiaiii Iiaai?iae i?eoiaeee a
oiaaeie e a 1456 a. auioaeaeai aue iiae/eieoueny Iineaa, a a 1478 a. aue
ieii/aoaeueii aeeth/ai a ninoaa Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa.

2.3 Iaaeaiea Iiaai?iaea

Ai a?aiy oaiaeaeueiie aieiu XV a. iiaai?iaeneea aiy?a aeoeaii
iiaeaea?aeeaaee Aeieo?ey Oaiyeo, iaaeaynue nio?aieoue naith
yeiiiie/aneoth iiuue e iieeoe/aneoth iacaaeneiinoue. *anoue aiy?noaa e
aeooiaainoaa a ai?ueaa n Iineaie eneaea iiaeaea?aeee o eeoianeeo eiycae.
A 40-/ aa. iieueneee ei?ieue e aaeeeee eiycue eeoianeee Eaceie? IV
iieo/ee ii aeiaiai?o i?aai nai?a ia?aaoey?iie aeaie (“/a?iiai ai?a”) n
iaeioi?uo iiaai?iaeneeo aieinoae e i?aai aea?aeaoue a iiaai?iaeneeo
i?eai?iaeao naieo oeoiia. I?ieeoianeay ia?oey, ninoiyaoay a iniiaiii ec
aiy?, anoanoaaiii, auea iai?aaeaia ia oeo/oaiey iieiaeaiey aiy?,
oaaee/aiea eo i?eaeeaaee. Yoi oieeaei aaaeiaeoea iannu ianaeaiey a
ae?oaoth ia?oeth — i?iiineianeoth. Iiyoiio iau/ii a eaoiienyo
i?iiineianeoth ia?oeth iacuaaee “ieaaeoae /aaeueth”.

A 1456 a. iineianeea aienea ?aca?iieee iiaai?iaeneia iiie/aiea iiae
?onie. A ?acoeueoaoa aue caeeth/ai ssaeaeaeoeeee aeiaiai?. Ii yoiio
aeiaiai?o Iiaai?iae iaycuaaeny ia i?eieiaoue a?aaia Aaneeey II, eeoaeny
i?aaa aiaoieo niioaiee e caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aa, aunoae noaeaaiie
einoaioeeae noaiiaeeny eiycue, iiaai?iaeneay aa/aaay ia/aoue caiaiyeanue
ia/aoueth Aaeeeiai Eiycy.

N eiioea 60-o aa. ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Iineaie e Iiaai?iaeii noaee caiaoii
oooaeoaoueny. Iineaa iaaeiyea Iiaai?iae a ia?ooaiee aeiaiai?iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa, iaoieaoa iioeei, caoaaoa caiaeue, “aan/anoee” iineianeiio
iaianoieeo, iaiaaeaiee ia aeaaeaiey aaeeeiai eiycy.

5 iiya?y 1470 a. oia? iiaai?iaeneee a?oeaieneii Eiia. Iiaai?iaeoeu aac
niaeaney aaeeeiai eiycy iacia/eee eaiaeeaeaoaie aeey iinayuaiey
nayuaiiieiiea Oaioeea, nioeeneiai eacia/ay eeth/ieea Ieiaia e i?ioiiiia
Aeaenay. A?oeaieneiiii aue eca?ai Oaioee, a 8 iiya?y oiai aea aiaea a
Iiaai?iae i?eaue eiycue Ieoaee Ieaeueeiae/, i?eaeaoaiiue Iiaai?iaeii ec
Eeoau aac niaeaney Eaaia III. Yoe niauoey iaino?eee ianoaiiaeo a
Iiaai?iaea e ai?ueao iaaeaeo ia?oeyie. Eeoianeay ia?oey o?aaiaaea
ieii/aoaeueiiai ?ac?uaa n Iineaie e i?eiyoey oiee, /oi ?anoeaieaaeinue
eae i?anooieaiea i?ioea i?aaineaaiie aa?u. Yoi iooaeeeaaei iiiaeo io
yoie ia?oee. Eeoianeoth ia?oeth aicaeaaeyea aiy?uiy Ia?oa Enaaeiaia
Ai?aoeeay, aaeiaa iinaaeieea Enaaea Aiae?aaae/a. A yoo ia?oeth a
iniiaiii aoiaeeee e?oiiua caieaaeaaeaeueoeu, aiaaoaeoea ethaee ai?iaea.

Iniiaiie neeie iineianeie ia?oee aue “/a?iue ethae”. Yoio “/a?iue
ethae”, eae e 300 eao iacaae, aeaeae ecaaaeoueny io aiy?noaa
iin?aaenoaii neeueiiai eiycy — Eaaia III. Ionoonoaea n?aaeiaai eeanna a
ai?iaea aeaeaei iaaiciiaeiui noaaeeecaoeeth e i?iaeeaiea iacaaeneiinoe
Iiaai?iaea.

Aaniie 1471 a. iiaai?iaeoeu caeeth/eee n Eaceie?ii IV aeiaiai?, niaeanii
eioi?iio Iiaai?iae i?eciaaae aai naiei eiycai, i?eieiae aai iaianoieea,
a ei?ieue iaycaeny “ananoe ia eiiue” e “ai?iieoe Aaeeeee Iiaai?iae”,
anee “iieaeao eiycue aaeeeee ia Aaeeeee Iiaai?iae”. Yoi icia/aei
iauyaeaiea aieiu Iineaa. A ia?oa 1471 a. Eaai III nicaae niaao, ia
eioi?ii iauyaee i ia/aea aieiu n Iiaai?iaeii. A Iiaai?iae auee iineaiu
“?aciaoiua a?aiiou”. A eiioea iay e Ayoea ioi?aaeeinue aienei iiae
i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii Ai?ena Iaoaaaae/a Neaioea-Otho/aaa, eioi?ia iioii
aeieaeii auei eaeoe a Aeaeineoth caieth. Ia iiiiuue aio aeieaeii auei
iiaeieoe onothaeneia aienei. A ia/aea ethiy ec Iineau e ?ona aunooieei
aienei ai aeaaa n eiycueyie Aeaieeeii Aeieo?eaae/ai Oieineei e Oaaei?ii
Aeaaeaeiae/ai Iano?ui-Noa?iaeoaneei. E iei aeieaeiu auee
i?eniaaeeieoueny io?yaeu eiycae TH?ey e Ai?ena Aaneeueaae/ae. A
na?aaeeia ethiy e Aiei/eo auoee iiee eiycy Eaaia Aaneeueaae/a
No?eae-Iaieaineiai e io?yae oaoa?neiai oea?aae/a Aeaiea?a. 20 ethiy ai
aeaaa iniiaiuo nee iai?aaeeny e Oi?aeeo Eaai III.

Iiaai?iaeoeu aii?oaeeee aeaa aienea: iaeii ai aeaaa n eiycai
A?aaaieie-Ooeneei aeey caueou Caaiei/uey, a aoi?ia ai aeaaa n Aeieo?eai
Ai?aoeeei e Aaneeeai Eaceie?ii aeey ia?iiu Iiaai?iaea. Iniiaiia
n?aaeaiea i?iecioei ia ?aea Oaeiie. Ianiio?y ia ainueiee?aoiia
i?aainoiaenoai a neeao iiaai?iaeoeu auee ?acaeou iineianeei aieneii,
iioa?ya 14 oun.

Anei?a ia/aaoeany ie?iua ia?aaiai?u caeii/eeenue iiaeienaieai aeiaiai?a
a Ei?inouie, ii eioi?iio Iineaa iieo/eea io Iiaai?iaea aieueooth
eiio?eaooeeth, a iiaai?iaeoeu iaycaeenue aa?iooue Eaaio III caiee,
eioi?uie aeaaeae aai ioaoe, ieaoeoue “/a?iue ai?”, iinayuaoue a nai
a?oeaieneiia oieueei a Iineaa, ia niineoueny n ei?ieai iieueneei e
aaeeeei eiycai eeoianeei, ioiaieoue aa/aaua a?aiiou e ia ninoaaeyoue
noaeiuo a?aiio aac ooaa?aeaeaiey aaeeeiai eiycy.

Iinea ooiaea iineianeeo aiene ianoaiiaea a Iiaai?iaea niiaa noaea
oooaeoaoueny. Aaniie 1477 a. Eaai III iineae naieo iineia a Iiaai?iae
aeey auyniaiey ianoaiiaee. Ia aa/a, nia?aaoeiny ii yoiio iiaiaeo, auea
iaienaia a?aiioa, /oi Iiaai?iae ia caae Eaaia III e naaa ainoaea?ai. A
ieoya?a 1477 a. Eaai III ai aoi?ie ?ac iiaae naie aienea ia Iiaai?iae.
E 5 aeaeaa?y iineianeea aienea aeiee?iaaee Iiaai?iae, a /a?ac ianyoe
ai?iae eaieooee?iaae. N 13 ii 15 yiaa?y 1478 a. ana aeeoaee Iiaai?iaea
auee i?eaaaeaiu e i?enyaa Eaaio III. Iiaai?iaeneia aa/a i?ae?aoeei naia
nouanoaiaaiea, a aa/aaie eieieie aue ioi?aaeai a Iineao.

2.4. Ineianeay ?anioaeeea

Ineianeay ?anioaeeea ia?aciaaeanue a na?aaeeia XIVa. e i?inouanoaiaaea
iaiueoa, /ai iiaai?iaeneay. Ia?aui ineianeei eiycai aue Noaeeneaa
Aeaaeeie?iae/, aa?iyoii i?eneaiiue Na. Aeaaeeie?ii a 1012 a., /oiau
i?ioeainoiyoue naia?aoenoneei ono?aieaieyi Iiaai?iaea e aai eiycy
ss?ineaaa Aeaaeeie?iae/a. Anei?a iinea oiai, eae ss?ineaa Ioae?ue noae
aaeeinoaaiiui aeanoeoaeai a Eeaaneie ?one, ii iinaaeee Noaeeneaaa a
ii?oa, oae eae oio aa?iyoii ioeacaeny o/anoaiaaoue a aieiao ss?ineaaa
i?ioea eeaaneeo eiycae. Caeanue oaea caiaoiu ioee/ey Ineiaa io
Iiaai?iaea — Ineia aieaa “niieiai”, iineooai aaeeeei eiycueyi.

A 1137 a., iinea ioaeaeaiey Iiaai?iaea io Eeaaneie ?one, ineiaeoyia
i?eaeaneee e naaa eiyaeeoue auaoaai iiaai?iaeneiai eiycy
Anaaieiaea-Aaa?eeea, a iinea aai nia?oe — aai a?aoa Nayoiiieea
Inoeneaae/a, iieacuaay yoei, /oi iie ia niaeaniu n eeieae Iiaai?iaea. A
?acoeueoaoa a Ineiaa ooaa?aeeeanue aeeianoey niieaineeo Iiiiiaoiae/ae.
Oioy e iao yaiuo oeacaiee, /oi iie i?aaeee a Ineiaa aanue XII a.,
iaeiaei, a eaoiienyo nio?aieeenue aeaiiua, /oi a 1178 a. a Ineiaa
eiyaeee Ai?en ?iiaiiae/ ec yoie aeeianoee, a n ia/. XIII a. — iioiiee
niieaineiai eiycy Inoeneaaa O?aa?iai. A 1220-30-a aa. ineiae/e ecaiiytho
eiycy Aeaaeeie?a Inoeneaae/a ca aai i?iiaiaoeeoth iieeoeeo. Iinea yoiai
aei na?. XIII a. iao ieeaeeo naaaeaiee i ineianeeo eiycueyo. Oieueei a
1240 a., eiaaea iaioeu caoaaoeee Ineia, ineianeei eiycai aa?iyoii noae
ss?ineaa Aeaaeeie?iae/, auaoee ineianeee eiycue, aeeaoee a yoi a?aiy a
Eeaiineii I?aeaia. A 1266 a. oiiieiaaony ei. ineianeee Nayoineaa
ss?ineaae/, nui aaeeeiai eiycy Aeaaeeie?neiai e eiycy Iiaai?iaeneiai
ss?ineaaa ss?ineaae/a. Ec yoiai oaeoa iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a
Ineiaa a yoi a?aiy i?aaeee nuiiauey iiaai?iaeneeo eiycae. Yoio eiycue
Nayoineaa i?eiye aaaeaaoaai ec Eeoau eiycy Aeaoiiioana e e?anoee aai.
Iinea yoiai ineiae/e “iieacaee iooue” Nayoineaao e naeaeaee naiei eiycai
Aeiaiiioa.

Aeiaiiio oe?aiee Ineia e caueuae aai a oa/aiea 33 eao naiaai eiyaeaiey
io iaioeaa e eeoiaoeaa. Iinea nia?oe Aeiaiiioa a 1299 a. niiaa iao
ieeaeeo oiiieiaiee i ineianeeo eiycueyo. Oieueei a 1323 a. oiiieiaaony
ei. Aeaaeae Eeoianeee. N?aaee eeoianeeo eiycae Aaaeeieiiae/ae, a oaeaea
?iaenoaaiieeia e iioiieia Ieiaeiaaa, ia ano?a/aaony ie iaeiiai eiycy n
eiaiai Aeaaeae. Aiciiaeii, ii yaeyeny iioiieii ei. Aeiaiiioa-Oeiioay. A
1327 a. a Ineiaa iiyaeyaony eiycue Aeaenaiae? Oaa?neie, ecaiaiiue Eaaiii
I Eaeeoie ec Oaa?e. A iicaeiaeoeo aeoao ineiae/e anaaaea nnueaeenue ia
iaai. Ii aeae ineiae/ai noaeioth a?aiioo, /a?ac noi eao noaaooth
Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioie.

A 1348 a. Ineia ioeoeeaeueii noae iacaaeneiie ?nioaeeeie, i?eciaiiie
Iiaai?iaeii. Ii /a?ac noi n eeoiei eao Ineia noaiiaeony oaeoe/anee
/anoueth iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa — n 1462 a. Iineaa oieueei i?enueaao
naieo iaianoieeia a Ineia, a a 1510 a. Aaneeee III ieii/aoaeueii
i?eniaaeeiyao aai e Iineaa.

Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa

?acaeoea Iiaai?iaea ioee/aeinue io ?acaeoey ae?oaeo ?onneeo eiyaeanoa.
Ia?aie iniaaiiinoueth auei aieaa aunieia ?acaeoea ?aianea e oi?aiaee,
/ai a ae?oaeo ?onneeo eiyaeanoaao. Iaeay ieiaei?iaeiinoue iiaai?iaeneie
caiee ia iiaea aeaoue anai aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai oeaaa. Iiaai?iaeoeu
auioaeaeaiu auee aeinoaaaoue oeaa ec ae?oaeo ?onneeo eiyaeanoa, a
/anoiinoe ec Aeaaeeie?neiai e Niieaineiai. Ii Iiaai?iae eiae i?ae?aniia
aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia aeaaaei aio aiciiaeiinoue auoue
oi?aiaui iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo Caiaaeii e ?onneeie eiyaeanoaaie. E oiio
aea Iiaai?iae iia auaiceoue oeaiiua naaa?iua iaoa ia Caiaae, ecaeaeey
iiaai?iaeneeo ?aianeaiieeia. Yoi aeaaaei oie/ie e ?acaeoeth ?aianea a
iiaai?iaeneeo ai?iaeao e auno?iio i?iaeaeaeaieth iiaai?iaeneeo
ooeoeieeia ia naaa?i-ainoie a iienea iiauo iano aeiau/e iaoia.
Aiaaoathuay io oi?aiaee aiaiiay ciaoue caeoiaea caiee, noaiiaynue
e?oiiuie aio/eiieeaie e aeaaay eo a a?aiaeo iaeeei caieaaeaaeaeueoeai.
E?oiiia aiy?neia caieaaeaaeaiea auei aoi?ie iniaaiiinoueth ?acaeoey
Iiaai?iaea, ?aci?yaoae iaeeeo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e aaaeouae e iaieuaieth
n?aaeiaai eeanna, /oi, niioaaonoaaiii, i?eaiaeeei e iinoaiaiiiio
iaaeaieth Iiaai?iaea.

Ineia ii naiei iniaaiiinoyi aue iioiae ia Iiaai?iae, ii Ineianeay
?anioaeeea auea iaiueoa ii ieiuaaee, /ai iiaai?iaeneay, /oi ia aeaaaei
aiciiaeiinoe ?acaeoueny e?oiiiio aiy?neiio caieaaeaaeaiueth. Yoi
niinianoaiaaei oe?aieaieth n?aaeiaai eeanna e oaaee/eaaei noaaeeueiinoue
Ineianeie ?anioeeee. Ineianeay ?anioaeeea, a ioee/ea io Iiaai?iaeneie,
iiaeaea ia io nianoaaiiuo iao?yaeeoe, a ec-ca aiaoieo i?e/ei — oneeaiey
Iineau, /aio a naia a?aiy niinianoaiaaee naie inieae/e.

*anoue II. Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa.

1. Iauanoaaiiue no?ie.

1.1. Aiy?a.

Iiaai?iaeneia aiy?noai, a ioee/ea io aiy?noaa ae?oaeo eiyaeanoa,
yaeyeinue ia ae?oaeeiie eiycy, a e?oiiuie caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie. Aiy?noai
noyei ai aeaaa anaai iiaai?iaeneiai iauanoaa. Iii neiaeeeinue ec aiaiiie
noa?oeiu, oi?aaeyaoae Iiaai?iaeii aei iiyaeaiey ?th?eeiae/ae. “Ii ?aciui
ianoiyoaeuenoaai yoa ciaoue ia oo?aoeea naiaai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai
iieiaeaiey e i?e eiycueyo. Oaea a XI a. eiycuey, i?aaeaoea Iiaai?iaeii,
iacia/aee ia ianoiua i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aeieaeiinoe ethaeae ec ianoiiai
aea iauanoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaai?iaeneay aaeieieno?aoeey ii ee/iiio
ninoaao naiaio naeaeaeanue oocaiiie aua i?aaeaea, /ai naeaeaeanue
auai?iie.” Aiy?noai yaeyeinue iniiaiie iieeoe/aneie neeie Iiaai?iaea.
Iieo/ay ni naieo caiaeue eieinnaeueiua aeioiaeu, aiy?noai eiaei
aiciiaeiinoue iiaeeoiaoue ia aa/a “e?eeoiia” e i?iaiaeeoue ?aoaiey,
ioaeiua ei. E ia/aeo XII a. a Iiaai?iaea neiaeeeny ii?aaeaeaiiue e?oa
ciaoiuo oaieeee, eioi?ua ea?aee iioii aeaeiaeooth ?ieue a iieeoeea
Iiaai?iaea.

1.2. AEeouee ethaee.

N?aaeiee eeann iiaai?iaeneiai iauanoaa a iniiaiii i?aaenoaaeyeny
aeeoueeie ethaeueie. “AEeouee auee, ii-aeaeeiiio, ethaee n?aaeiaai
ninoiyiey, na?aaeiea aeeeaoeeea ii iineianeie nioeeaeueiie oa?ieiieiaee
— noiyaoea iaaeaeo aiy?noaii e iieiae/eie, eee /a?iuie ethaeueie”.
AEeouee ethaee i?aaenoaaeyee ec naay ?iae aeoeeiia?ia, aeeaaeuaathueo
aeaiueae a ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee. Iieo/ay ni naieo caiaeue
aeioiaeu, iie aeeaaeuaaee eo a eoia/aneea i?aaei?eyoey, n /aai e
iieo/aee i?eaueue. Eeth/aaneee oa?aeoa?ecoao eo, eae “eaieoaeenou
n?aaeiae ?oee e iinoiyiiua ai?iaeneea iauaaoaee, aeiiiaeaaeaeueoeu”. A
iieeoe/aneie aeecie ai?iaea yoio eeann eniieiye noaeaaiua e
aeeieiiaoe/aneea ii?o/aiey ainiiaeu, yaeyeny i?aaenoaaeoaeai eiioeia, a
eioi?uo i?iaeeaae.

1.3. Naiacaioeu.

A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo ?onneeo eiyaeanoa, a Iiaai?iaea nio?aieeny eeann
iaeeeo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa — naiacaioeaa. Ii aeaiiui iicaiaeueiie
iiaai?iaeneie eieae 1500 a. ia eaaeaeiai naiacaioea i?eoiaeeeinue ii 18
aeanyoei caiee. Ii caieaaeaaeaiea naiacaioeaa ianeieueei ioee/aeinue io
iau/iiai aiy?neiai caieaaeaaeaiey — naiacaioeu i/aiue ?aaeei aeaaeaee
caieyie a iaeeii/eo. Iau/ii naiacaioeu ia?aaaouaatho e i?eia?aoatho
caieth niiaua — iaeioi?ia iiaeiaea e?anoueyineie iaueiu. Niaacaioeu eeai
naie ia?aaaouaaee naith caieth, eeai naeaaaee aa a a?aiaeo e?anoueyiai.
Naiacaioeu ioee/aeenue io e?anoueyi oai, /oi eiaee iieiia i?aai ia
caieth. Naiacaioeu a aieueoeinoaa naiai auee ai?iaeneeie aeeoaeyie,
eoieaoeie caiaeueiua o/anoee — oeia nia?aiaiiuo aea/ieeia, oieueei caiee
naiacaioeaa auee aieueoa e a iniiaiii naeaaaeenue a a?aiaeo. Naiacaioeu
aianoa neeaaeuaaeenue a caieaaeaeue/aneea oiaa?euanoaa, iineaoea
iacaaiea nya?ia eee neeaaeieeia.

1.4. Eoia/anoai.

Eoia/anoai auei /enoi oi?aiaui eeannii, iuoaaoeiny ecaea/ue
iaeneiaeueiua i?eauee ec auaiaeiiai aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey
Iiaai?iaea. Eoioeu, a iniiaiii, ?aaioaee n iiiiuueth eaieoaeia aiy? e
aeeoueeo ethaeae. Iie a?aee aeaiueae a aeiea iiae i?aaei?eyoea e ia yoe
aeaiueae ioe?uaaee oi?aiaeth, auiea/eaay ii?aaeaeaiiua i?ioeaiou n
i?eauee. Iiaai?iaeneia eoia/anoai aaei e?oiioth o?aiceoioth oi?aiaeth e
eiaei nianoaaiiua caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey. Iinoaiaiii eoia/anoai ia/aei
?acaeaeyoueny ia “nioie”. Eaaeaeay nioiy eiaea naie onoaa, naie
i?eaeeaaee. Naiia i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia eoia/aneia iauanoai iineei iacaaiea
“Eaaiianeiai noa” e niae?aeinue i?e oea?eae Eiaiia I?aaeoa/e. Onoaa
yoiai iauanoaa aue aeai ei. Anaaieiaeii-Aaa?eeeii ieiei 1135 a. Ii yoiio
onoaao, /oiau noaoue iieiii?aaiui e iioiinoaaiiui /eaiii yoiai iauanoaa,
iaiaoiaeeii auei aianoe 50 a?eaai na?aa?a. Niaao iauanoaa, ninoiyuee ec
aeaoo eoia/aneeo noa?ino iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii ounyoeeiai, aaaeae
ana oi?aiaua aeaea e oi?aiaue noae a Iiaai?iaea, aia caaeneiinoe io
iinaaeieea e Ainiiaeu. E?iia “Eaaiianeiai noa” nouanoaiaaee “aeeueaeee”
eee nioie eiaeaaieeia, noeiiueeia, iynieeia.

1.5. Iieiaeoea ethaee.

A ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea, e?iia aiy?, aeeoueeo ethaeae e eoia/anoaa,
aoiaeeee oaeaea iieiaeoea eee /a?iua ethaee. Iieiaeoea ethaee
ninoaaeyee iniiaioth ianno ianaeaiey. A aieueoeinoaa naiai yoi auee
?aianeaiieee, iaeeea oi?aiaoeu. Iieiaeoea ethaee iaieiaeenue ia ?aaioo e
aiy?ai eee aeeoueei ethaeyi, eeai a?aee aeaiueae acaeiu. Iieiaeoea
ethaee yaeyeenue naiui yenieoaoe?oaiui eeannii. Iie ianee iiaeiiinoe ii
no?ieoaeuenoao e ?aiiioo iinoia e aei?ia, nii?oaeaieth oea?eaae e
ai?iaeneeo oe?aieaiee, a aiaiiia a?aiy i?ecuaaeenue a iiie/aiea. Ii
iieiaeoea ethaee, eae e ana naiaiaeiia ianaeaiea Iiaai?iaea eiaei i?aai
i?eieiaoue o/anoea a aa/ao. Iai?eia?, a 1136 a. i?e ecaiaiee eiycy
Anaaieiaea-Aaa?eeea ia?aui ioieoii iaaeiaiey noiyei — “ia aethaeao
nia?aeia”, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi eiaiii iieiaeoea ethaee
iiaeiyee oiaaea ainnoaiea i?ioea eiyaeaneie aeanoe e aeiaeeenue
iacaaeneiinoe Iiaai?iaea.

1.6. Nia?aeu.

Naeueneia iauanoai ninoiyei ec aeaoo eaoaai?ee caaeneiiai ianaeaiey —
nia?aeia e oieiiia. Iniiaiay ianna naeueneiai ianaeaiey yaeyeanue
nia?aeaie. Ia?aiia/aeueii iie eiaee naia nianoaaiiia oicyenoai e ieaoeee
aeaiue ainoaea?noao. N ?acaeoeai aiy?neiai caieaaeaaeaiey iie ana
aieueoa i?aa?auaeenue a yeiiiie/anee caaeneiia ianaeaiea. Iinoaiaiii
nia?aeu ?aniaeenue ia aeaa eaoaai?ee — iaueiieeia, ieaoeaoeo iaeiae
Iiaai?iaeo, e nia?aeia, eioi?ua aeaeeeenue ia caeeaaeieeia e iieiaieeia.
Caeeaaeieeaie yaeyeenue e?anoueyia, auoaaeoea ec iaueiu e iinooieaoea a
caaeneiinoue e aiy?ai. Iieiaieee — yoi e?anoueyia, neaeaaoea ia ciaeyo
/anoiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa. Naia iauaaiea iie iieo/eee io oeia a?aiaeiie
ieaou ca caieth — iieiaeiu o?iaeay. Ii a Iiaai?iaeneie caiea
nouanoaiaaee e aieaa eueaioiua oneiaey a?aiaeu — o?aoue eee /aoaa?oue
o?iaeay — ana caaenaei io oeaiiinoe caiee a aeaiiii ianoa. Iieiaieee
ioi?aaeyee iiaeiiinoe oieueei a iieueco nianoaaiiiai ainiiaeeia. Ii
?iaeo ?aaiou iieiaieee aeaeeeenue ia eci?ieeia (iaoa?ae), iai?iaeieeia e
ei/aoieeia (?uaieiaia). Iieiaiee eiae i?aai oeoe io naiaai ainiiaeeia
iaeei ?ac a aiaeo a onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiii n?ie — Oeeeiiiai caaiaaiuea.
Ia?aae ooiaeii iieiaiee aeieaeai aue iieiinoueth iiaaneoue naith
caaeieaeaiiinoue ainiiaeeio.

1.7. Oieiiu.

Naiie aani?aaiie a?oiiie ianaeaiey a Iiaai?iaea auee oieiiu. Oieiiu
iinoaiaiii n ?acaoeai aiy?neiai caieaaeaaeaiey oa?yee naie i?aaa.
Ia?aiia/aeueii oieiia iaeuecy auei noaeeoue aac aai ainiiaeeia. Aeiaiai?
iiaai?iaeoeaa n eiycai ss?ineaaii ss?ineaae/ai 1270 a. iinoaiiaee ia
aa?eoue aeiiino oieiiia ia naieo ainiiae. Aeiaiai? 1308 a. n Ieoaeeii
Oaa?neei o?aaoao auaea/e anao oieiiia aaaeaaoeo a Oaa?neia eiyaeanoai.

2. Aaeieieno?aoeaiia aeaeaiea.

2.1. Noi?iiu e eiioeu Iiaai?iaea.

Iiaai?iae aeaeeeny ia aeaa /anoe eee noi?iiu — Oi?aiaoth e Nioeeneoth.
Yoe aeaa noi?iiu iaoiaeeeenue ia aeaoo ?aciuo aa?aaao Aieoiaa e
niaaeeiyeenue oieueei iinoii, eioi?ue iacuaaeny Aaeeeei. Oi?aiaay
noi?iia iieo/eea iacaaiea io iaoiaeeaoaainy oai oi?aa. Ia oi?aa
iaoiaeeeny ss?ineaaia aeai?, o eioi?iai niae?aeenue aa/a, noaiaiue —
iiiino, n eioi?iai ia?auaeenue n ?a/aie ia aa/a. Ieiei noaiaie
iaoiaeeeanue aa/aaay aaoiy, ia aa?oo eioi?ie iaoiaeeeny aa/aaie eieieie,
aieco — aa/aaay eaioeaey?ey. Nioeeneay noi?iia iieo/eea iacaaiea io
iaoiaeyuaainy oai Nioeeneiai niai?a. Oai aea iaoiaeeeny Aeaoeiaoe.

Iiaai?iae oaeaea iiae?acaeaeyeny ia 5 eiioeia eee ?aeiia: Neaaaineee e
Ieioieoeeee ninoaaeyee Oi?aiaoth noi?iio, a Ia?aaneee, Caai?iaeneee e
Aii/a?neee (ethaeei) — Nioeeneoth noi?iio. Aeaeaiea ia eiioeu auei
enoi?e/aneei. “Iiaai?iae ninoaaeeny ec ianeieueeeo neiaiae eee iinaeeia,
eioi?ua nia/aea auee naiinoiyoaeueiuie iauanoaaie, a iioii niaaeeieeenue
a iaeio aieueooth ai?iaeneoth iaueio.” Neaaaineee eiiaoe ?aiueoa aue
ioaeaeueiui ai?iaeii — Neiaaineii. Niaeanii “Eaaaiaea i Neiaaia e ?ona”
Neiaai iniiaae yoio ai?iae e naeaeae aai naiae noieeoeae. Neiaaiey
ecaanoia a?aaneiio aaoi?o Ae-Ianoaee. A na?aaeeia IX a., n iiyaeaieai
?th?eeiae/ae, ?aceaeaioeeae eiycae noaiiaeony ?th?eeiai ai?iaeeua, a
iai?ioea Neiaainea no?ieony e?aiinoue Iiaay, anei?a noaaoay Iiaai?iaeii.
Iicaeiaa e?aiinoue caiaiee Aeaoeiaoe, ycu/aneea noaooe aiaia aioo?e
e?aiinoe — o?ai na. Nioee.

Caai?iaeneee eiiaoe, noaey ii iacaaieth, ia?aciaaeny iineaaeiei,
ecia/aeueii ii iaoiaeeeny ca ai?iaeii, e oieueei iinea iino?ieee
e?aiinoe niia aieoe a ninoaa ai?iaea. Eiioeu Ieioieoeeee e Aii/a?neee,
aa?iyoii, ?aiueoa ninoaaeyee ?aai/ea i?eai?iaeu Neiaainea, a eioi?uo
aeeee niioaaonoaaiii ieioieee e aii/a?u. Yoeiieiaey iyoiai eiioea —
Ia?aaneiai — iia ia ynia. Aiciiaeii, aai iacaaiea i?iecioei io neia “ia
?ao” — a ea/anoaa iaicia/aiey, /oi ii iaoiaeeony ia naiie ie?aeia
ai?iaea.

2.2. Iyoeiu.

Ca eaaeaeui eiioeii auea cae?aieaia ii?aaeaeaiiay caiey. Anaai iyoei
auei iyoue — ii eiee/anoao eiioeia: Aioueneay, eioi?ay i?inoe?aeanue ia
naaa?i-caiaae io Iiaai?iaea, iaaeaeo ?aeaie Aieoiaii e Eoaie ii
iai?aaeaieth e Oeineiio caeeao, iieo/eaoay naia iacaaiea io iaeoaaoaai
caeanue ieaiaie Aiaeue; Iaiiaaeneay ia naaa?i-ainoiea, ni?aaa io
Aieoiaa, ii iaa noi?iio Iiaaeneiai ica?a ii iai?aaeaieth e Aaeiio ii?th;
Aea?aaneay e thai-ainoieo, iaaeaeo ?aeaie Inoith e Eiaaoueth; Oaeiineay
e thai-caiaaeo , iaaeaeo Eiaaoueth e Eoaie, ii iaa noi?iiu ?aee Oaeiie;
Aaaeaoeeay — aeaeaei ia ainoie e thai-ainoie, ca iyoeiaie Iaiiaaeneie e
Aea?aaneie. Iyoeiiia aeaeaiea iaecaanoii ii iiaai?iaeneei a?aiioai. Ii
iiaai?iaeneei a?aiioai Iiaai?iaeneay caiey aeaeeeanue ia caiee, a a XII
a. ?yaeu, iineaoea iaeeiaeiaia iacaaiea n iyoeiaie — Aioueneay caiey,
Iaiiaaeneee e Aaaeaoeeee ?yae, Oaeiiue, Aea?aaa. I?enoonoaea neiaa
“?yae” — aeiaiai? — aiai?eo i oii, /oi, aa?iyoii, iiaai?iaeneea caiee
auee ?acaeaeaiu ia aa/a ii aeiaiai?o iaaeaeo eiioeaie ii eaeei-oi
i?e/eiai — aiciiaeii, aeey aieaa eo/oaai nai?a iaeiaia, iaeiaeaiey
iiaeiiinoae ia naeueneia ianaeaiea. A iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea yoie aa?nee a
aeeoee Aa?eaaia Aaaeneiai iaienaii: “Aunoue oiaaea (ieiei 1426 a.)
Aaeeeee Iiaa?aae ii ae?aaeyi ?acaeaeai, yaea ia?eoeathony iyoeiu”.
Aiciiaeii Iiaai?iae ?aaoey?ii ia?a?acaeaeye iyoeiu iaaeaeo ?aciuie
eiioeaie, /oiau nieceoue aa?iyoiinoue ei??oioeee.

2.3. Aieinoe.

E?iia iyoei a Iiaai?iaeneie caiea oaeaea noanoaiaaee aieinoe —
“aeaaeaiey, aieaa ioaeaeaiiua e iicaeiaa i?eia?aoaiiua …” E aieinoyi
ioiineeenue ai?iaea, iaoiaeeaoeany a niaianoiii aeaaeaiee n ae?oaeie
eiyaeanoaaie, oaeea eae Aieie-Eaineee, Aaaee/e, Oi?aeie, ?aeaa, Aaeeeea
Eoee n eo ie?oaaie. Aieie-Eaineee, Aaaee/e e Oi?aeie iaoiaeeeenue a
niaianoiii aeaaeaiee n aaeeeeie eiycueyie Aeaaeeie?neeie, a iioii —
Iineianeeie; a ?aeaa e Aaeeeea Eoee — n eiycueyie Niieaineeie. E
aieinoyi ioiineeanue iaoe?iay /anoue Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee,
iaoiaeeaoayny ia naaa?i-ainoie io iyoei Aaaeaoeeie e Iaiiaaeneie —
Aeaeineay caiey eee Caaiei/uea. Iacaaiea naia iia iieo/eea io iaoe?iiai
aiaei?acaeaea, ioaeaeythuaai aannaeiu Iiaae e Naaa?iie Aeaeiu io
aannaeia Aieae e iacuaaaoaainy Aieieii. Ia ?aea Au/aaaea n i?eoieaie
iaoiaeeeanue Ia?ineay caiey. Aeaeaa e naaa?i-ainoieo iaoiaeeeanue
aieinoue Ia/i?a ii iaaei noi?iiai iaeiieiaiiie ?aee, a ca O?aeueneeie
ai?aie — THa?a. Ia naaa?iii aa?aao Aaeiai ii?y iaoiaeeeanue aieinoue O?a
eee Oa?neee aa?aa. Aieueoeinoai yoeo aieinoae auei i?eia?aoaii
Iiaai?iaeii a XI-XII aa. Iiaai?iaeneay oa??eoi?ey ?acaeaaeanue ca n/ao
aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiie eieiiecaoeee. A Iiaai?iaea ninoaaeyeenue eiiiaiee
aii?oaeaiiuo i?iiuoeaiieeia, eioi?ua iai?aaeyeenue ii ?aeai a ?aciua
noi?iiu io ai?iaea, iniiauaay iinaeaiey e iaeaaay aeaiueth ianoiia
ianaeaiea.

2.4. Iniaaiiinoe Ineiaa.

Ineianeay ?anioaeeea auea aieaa oeaio?aeeciaaiiie, /ai Iiaai?iaeneay.
Yoi iauyniyeinue iaiueoae oa??eoi?eae e aieaa iianiui iieiaeaieai.
Aieinoaaiiua ninaaee canoaaeyee iaeaiueeoth Ineianeoth ?anioaeeeo
iinoiyiii niae?aoueny aianoa, /oiau aeaoue ei ioii?. A Ineianeie
?anioaeeea ia nouanoaiaaei iyoei eee aieinoae. Nai ai?iae Ineia aeaeeeny
eae e Iiaai?iae ia eiioeu, eioi?uo anaai auei oanoue. Eiioeu a naith
i/a?aaeue iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia nioie. Iaaeaeo eiioeaie auee
?ani?aaeaeaiu i?eai?iaeu: ii 2 ia eaaeaeue eiiaoe. I?eai?iaeaie
yaeyeenue iaaieueoea aiaiiua iinaeaiey, a iniiaiii ?aniieaaaaoeany ia
thai-caiaaea ?anioaeeee, aaea auea iaeaieaa iianiay a?aieoea n Eeaiieae
e Eeoaie. E eaaeaeiio i?eai?iaeo auea i?eienaia iaaieueoay naeueneay
aieinoue, aaniethoii ia iioiaeay ia ia?iiiith iiaai?iaeneoth aieinoue.
Ineianeea i?eai?iaeu iieueciaaeenue iaeioi?ie aeieae naiioi?aaeaiey, ii
ia iiaee iieo/eoue iacaaeneiinoe io Ineiaa, oae eae yaeyeenue aieueoa
no?aoaae/aneeie ioieoaie, a ia caineeie oeaio?aie.

3. Aunoea i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

3.1. Aa/a.

Aunoeie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a Iiaai?iaea yaeyeenue aa/a e
niaao ainiiae eee Ainiiaea. Ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth Iiaai?iaeneia
aa/a auei ai?iaeneei nia?aieai, iioiaeei ia inoaeueiua, i?ienoiaeeaoea a
ae?oaeo ai?iaeao ?one a XII a. Aa/a nicuaaeinue eiycai, iinaaeieeii eee
ounyoeeei. Ii eiaaea ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie ia?oeyie iniaaiii
iaeaeyeanue aa/a nicuaaee /anoiua eeoea eee a?oiiu iiaeaea?aeee oie eee
eiie ia?oee. Eiiaaea, iniaaiii ai a?aiy ainnoaiee, iaeiia?aiaiii
niae?aeinue aeaa aa/a: iaeii ia Oi?aiaie noi?iia, a aoi?ia ia Nioeeneie.
Aa/a ia auei iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuei i?aaiii, iii nicuaaeinue oieueei
oiaaea, eiaaea a iai auea aeaenoaeoaeueiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue. *aua anaai
yoi neo/aeinue ai a?aiy aiei, ainnoaiee, i?ecuaa eiycae e ae?oaeo
nioeeaeueiuo eaoaeeeciia. Aa/a niae?aeinue ii caiio aa/aaiai eieieiea ia
ieiuaaee, iacuaaaoaeny ss?ineaaiaui aeai?ii. Anee aa/a niae?aeinue aeey
auai?a a?oeaieneiia, oi iii niae?aeinue ia ieiuaaee o Nioeeneiai niai?a,
ia i?anoiea eioi?iai eeaee ecae?aoaeueiua ae?aaee. Aa/a ii naiaio
ninoaao ia auei i?aaenoaaeoaeueiui o/?aaeaeaieai e ninoiyei ia ec
aeaiooaoia, a ec anaai naiaiaeiiai ianaeaiey Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee.
Ii oaeoe/anee aa/a ninoiyei ec oao, eoi iia i?eeoe ia iaai, oi anoue a
iniiaiii aeeoaeae Iiaai?iaea, oae eae i nicuaa aa/a ia niiauaeinue
ca?aiaa. Ii eiiaaea ia aa/a i?enoonoaiaaee aeaeaaaou io e?oiiuo
i?eai?iaeia Iiaai?iaea, oaeeo eae Ineia, Eaaeiaa e ae?oaea. Iai?eia?, ia
aa/a 1136 a. i?enoonoaiaaee eaaeiaeaia e ineiae/e. *aua, iaeiaei,
aeeoaee i?eai?iaeia i?eacaeaee ia aa/a n aeaeiaie ia oi eee eiia ?aoaiea
iiaai?iaeoeaa. Oae, a 1384 a. aeeoaee I?aoiaa e Ei?aeu iineaee a
Iiaai?iae naieo aeaeaaaoia n aeaeiaie ia eeoianeiai eiycy Iao?eeey,
iinaaeaiiiai o ieo iiaai?iaeoeaie. Aii?inu, iiaeeaaeaaoea ianoaeaeaieth
aa/a, i?aaeeaaaeenue aio ni noaiaie eiycai, iinaaeieeii eee ounyoeeei.
Aa/a iaeaaeaei caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeaie, ?aoaei aii?inu aiaoiae
iieeoeee e aioo?aiiaai ono?ienoaa, a oaeaea noaeeei ii aaaeiaeoei
i?anooieaieyi. Aa/a eiaei i?aai i?eieiaoue caeiiu, i?eaeaoaoue e
ecaiiyoue eiycy, auae?aoue, noaeeoue e nieiaoue n aeieaeiinoe iinaaeieea
e ounyoeeiai, ?acae?aoue eo nii?u n eiycueyie, ?aoaoue aii?inu i aieia e
ie?a, ?acaeaaaoue aieinoe ia ei?ieaiea eiycueyi.

Aa/a ii naiaio ninoaao auei aia?oe/aneei. Ia aa/a ia auei iiiyoey
eai?oia, a ionthaea iaeei ?ac ia aa/a iiaei auoue ana ianaeaiea ai?iaea
e ia i?eiyoue caeiia, a ae?oaie ?ac — nioay /anoue ianaeaiey e i?eiyoue
oaeie caeii, eioi?ue aue auaiaeai oieueei yoie /anoe. ?acoeueoao
aieiniaaiea ii?aaeaeyeny ia ii eiee/anoao aieinia, a ii iiue aeioee
e?e/aueo: ca /oi a?ii/a e?e/aee, oi e n/eoaeinue i?eiyoui. Aeaiie?aoey
ia aa/a /aua iiaeiaiyeanue neeie: eaeay noi?iia iiaaaeeo i?ioeaieea, oa
e n/eoaeanue aieueoeinoaii. Eiiaaea aa/a ?acaeaeyeinue ia aeaa /anoe:
iaeia ia Nioeeneie noi?iia, ae?oaay ia Oi?aiaie. Oiaaea ia/eiaeanue
naaia?aciay a?aaeaeaineay aieia. A?aaeaeothuea noi?iiu noiaeeeenue ia
oceii iinoo /a?ac Aieoia e ae?aeenue. I?e yoii iieiaeia ae?aaueony
eaoaea /a?ac iino a Aieoia. ?aoaiea, iiyoue-oaee, i?eieiaeinue oai, eoi
iiaaeee e aieueoa ia?iaea na?inee n iinoa.

3.2. Ainiiaea.

Oae eae aa/a niae?aeinue ia iinoiyiii, a oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aai
nicuaaee, oi iaiaoiaeei aue iinoiyiiue i?aai aeanoe, eioi?ue au
caieiaeny oi?aaeaieai Iiaai?iaea. Oaeei i?aaiii aeanoe noae Niaao
ainiiae eee Ainiiaea. Yoio niaao ninoiye ec noa?uo e noaiaiiuo
iinaaeieeia, ounyoeeeo, nioneeo e a?oeaieneiia. Ainiiaea iineea /enoi
a?enoie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, /enei aa /eaiia a XV a. aeioiaeeei aei 50.
Ainiiaea ?acaeeanue ec ae?aaiaai einoeoooa aeanoe — aiy?neie aeoiu eiycy
n o/anoeai ai?iaeneeo noa?aeoei. A XII a. eiycue e naaa ia niaao ni
naieie aiy?aie i?eaeaoae ai?iaeneeo nioneeo e noa?ino. Ii ia?a oiai eae
eiycue oa?ye i?aaie/aneea nayce n ianoiui iiaai?iaeneei iauanoaii, ii n
aiy?aie aue iinoaiaiii auoaniai ec niaaoa. Aai caiaiee ianoiue aeaaeuea
— a?oeaieneii, eioi?ue noae iinoiyiiui i?aaenaaeaoaeai Ainiiaeu. A
iaycaiiinoe a?oeaieneiia aoiaeee nai? Ainiiaeu a aai iaeaoao. E?iia
a?oeaieneiia a Ainiiaeo aoiaeeee eiyaeaneee iaianoiee e ai?iaeneea
aeanoe: noaiaiiue iinaaeiee e ounyoeeee, eii/aineea noa?inou e nioneea.
Aianoa n ieie a Ainiiaea canaaeaee noa?ua iinaaeieee e ounyoeeea. *anoua
niaiu aunoeo /eiiaieeia Iiaai?iaea noaee i?e/eiie auno?iai ?ac?anoaiey
ninoaaa Ainiiaeu. Ana /eaiu Ainiiaeu, e?iia i?aaenaaeaoaey, iacuaaeenue
aiy?aie. Ainiiaea iiaeaioiaeyea e aiineea ia aa/a caeiiiaeaoaeueiua
aii?inu, i?aaenoaaeyea aioiaua caeiiii?iaeou, i?e yoii iia ia eiaea
nianoaaiiiai aieina a i?eiyoee caeiiia. Ainiiaea inouanoaeyea iauaa
iaaethaeaiea ca ?aaioie ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa e aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe
?anioaeeee, eiio?iee?iaaea aeayoaeueiinoue eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. Iia
aea niaianoii n eiycai, iinaaeieeii e ounyoeeei ?aoaea aii?inu i nicuaa
aa/a e aiineaaenoaee iai?aaeyea anth aai aeayoaeueiinoue. Ia naiii aeaea
Ainiiaea eiaea ia?iiiia cia/aiea a aeecie Iiaai?iaea. “Ninoiy ec
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aunoaai iiaai?iaeneiai eeanna, eiaaoaai iiauanoaaiiia
yeiiiie/aneia aeeyiea ia aanue ai?iae, yoio iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue niaao
/anoi e i?aae?aoae auiineiua ei ia aa/a aii?inu, i?iaiaey n?aaee
a?aaeaeai iiaeaioiaeaiiua ei naiei ioaaou. A enoi?ee iieeoe/aneie aeecie
Iiaai?iaea aiy?neee niaao eiae ai?acaei aieueoaa cia/aiea, /ai aa/a,
auaoaa iaueiiaaiii iineooiui aai i?oaeeai: yoi auea ne?uoay, ii i/aiue
aeayoaeueiay i?oaeeia iiaai?iaeneiai oi?aaeaiey.”

4. Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue.

4.1. Eiycue.

Eiycue n 1136 a., onoaiiaeaiey Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee, ia?anoae auoue
iineoaeai aa?oiaiie aeanoe. Eiycue yaeyeny a Iiaai?iaea aunoae noaeaaiie
e aiaiiie aeanoueth, ?oeiaiaeee e oi?aaeye noaeii, ne?aieye naeaeee e
ooaa?aeaeae a i?aaao. Eiycue i?eaeaoaeny iiaai?iaeneei aa/ai,i?e yoii ii
iaycai aue iiaeienaoue aeiaiai? n Iiaai?iaeii — ?yae. Ii yoei aeiaiai?ai
ii?aaeaeyeanue ?ieue eiycy a oi?aaeaiee Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeeie.
Ia?aua neaaeu oaeeo aeiaiai?ia iiayeythony a ia?aie iieiaeia XII a.
Iicaeiaa iie aieaa ynii iaicia/athony a eaoiienyo. A 1209 a.
iiaai?iaeoeu iiiiaee aaeeeiio eiycth Aeaaeeie?neiio Anaaieiaeo Aieueoia
Aiacaei a iioiaea ia ?ycaiue. A iaa?aaeo ca yoi Anaaieiae neacae
iiaai?iaeoeai: “Ethaeoa, eoi aai aeia?, e eacieoa ceuo.” I?e yoii
Anaaieiae aeae iiaai?iaeoeai “anth aieth e onoaau noa?uo eiycae, /aai
iie oioaee.” A 1218 a. aianoi eiycy Oi?iiaoeeiai Inoeneaaa Inoeneaae/a
Oaeaeiai, i?aaeaoaai a Iiaai?iaea, i?eoae aai ?iaenoaaiiee Nayoineaa
Inoeneaae/ Niieaineee. Ii iio?aaiaae niaiu iinaaeieea Oaa?aeeneaaa. “A
ca /oi, — ni?ineee iiaai?iaeoeu, — eaeay aai aeia?” “Oae, aac aeiu”, —
ioaaoee eiycue. Oiaaea Oaa?aeeneaa neacae, ia?auaynue e aa/o: “?aae y,
/oi iao ia iia aeiu, a au, a?aouey, e a iinaaeieeao, e a eiycueyo
aieueiu”. Oiaaea aa/a neacaei eiycth: “Aio ou eeoaaoue ioaea
aeieaeiinoe, a aaaeue ou iai e?ano oeaeiaae aac aeiu ioaea aeieaeiinoe
ia eeoaoue.” Ec i?eaaaeaiiiai auoa io?uaea aeaeii, /oi eiycue oaea a
ia/aea XIII a. ia?aae i?eacaeii a Iiaai?iae oeaeiaae e?ano — oi anoue
iiaeienuaae n iiaai?iaeoeaie ?yae, a eioi?ii ii?aaeaeyeenue eo
ioiioaiey. Eueaiou iiaai?iaeoeaa, eioi?ua auee iaycaiu niaethaeaoueny
eiycueyie, eceaaaeenue a ?yaeao. Ae?aaiaeoea ec aeioaaeoeo aei iaoaai
a?aiaie ?yaeia — aeaa aeiaiai?a eiycy ss?ineaaa ss?ineaae/a Oaa?neiai n
iiaai?iaeoeaie — 1265 a. e 1270 a. Iicaeiaeoea a?aiiou n iaeioi?uie
eciaiaieyie iiaoi?ytho yoe aeaa a?aiiou. Aeaaiui oneiaeai iiaai?iaeoeaa
auei, /oiau eiycue “aea?aeae Iiaai?iae a noa?eia ii iioeeia”, oi anoue
ii iiaai?iaeneei iau/ayi, ia ia?ooay eo. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi ana
eceiaeaiiua a ?yaeao ss?ineaaa ss?ineaae/a Oaa?neiai n iiaai?iaeoeaie
ioieou oi?ie?iaaeenue aua caaeieai aei iaai, ia i?ioyaeaiee XI-XII aa.
?yaeu n eiycueyie ii?aaeaeyee o?e aaaeiaeoeo aeiea ioiioaiee Iiaai?iaea
e eiycae: noaeaaii-aaeieieno?aoeaiue, oeiainiaue e oi?aiaue.

Eiycue ia eiae i?aaa noaeeoue aac iinaaeieea: “… aac iinaaeieea oe,
eiyaea, noaea ia noaeeoe, ie aieinoae ?acaeaaaoe, ie a?aiio oe
aeayoe…” Ia iecoea aeieaeiinoe a oi?aaeaiee Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeeie
eiycue eiae i?aai iacia/aoue ethaeae ec iiaai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, ii ia
eiae i?aaa iacia/eoue ethaeae ec naiae ae?oaeeiu eee naieo aiy?. I?e
yoii ia ana yoe aeieaeiinoe eiycue iia iacia/eoue ethaeae oieueei n
niaeaney iinaaeieea. Oaeaea eiycue ia iia aac niaeaney iinaaeieea
?acaeaaaoue aieinoe a ei?ieaiea. Eiycue ia iia ioiyoue aeieaeiinoue o
iiaai?iaeneiai /eiiaieea, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ia iauyaea aai aeiu ia aa/a.
Ana naie iaycaiiinoe eiycue iia eniieiyoue oieueei a naiii Iiaai?iaea: “
A ec Noaeaeaeueneie oe caiee Iiaai?iaea ia ?yaeeoe, ie aieinoee oe ia
?icaeaaaoe.”

Oeiainiaua ioiioaiey Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee e eiycy auee aua aieaa
iaauaiaeiu aeey eiycy. Eiycue ia eiae i?aaa niae?aoue aeaie n
iiaai?iaeneeo aeaaeaiee, ii iia oieueei iieo/eoue “aea?” n iiaai?iaeneeo
aieinoae, oaeeo eae Aieie, Oi?aeie, Aieiaaea e Caaiei/uea, oi anoue ia
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo e iiaai?iaeneei iyoeiai. Oaeaea ii iieo/ae “aea?”,
eiaaea aoae a Iiaai?iae, ii ia iieo/ae aai i?e naiai oacaea ec
Iiaai?iaea. Aiynue ioiaaeaiey Caaiei/uey iiaai?iaeoeu ia aeiioneaee
i?yiuo ioiioaiee eiycy n yoie aieinoueth, o?aaoy, /oiau eiycue naie
caaieioeeea nai?u ioaeaaae ia ioeoi iiaai?iaeoeai. Anee aea eiycue nai
oioae niae?aoue eo, oi ii aeieaeai aue iinueaoue iiaai?iaeneiai
/eiiaieea aeey nai?a iiaeaoae, a oio aeieaeai aue i?aaeaea, /ai
ioaiceoue aeaiue eiycth, ioaacoe aa a Iiaai?iae, ioeoaea oieueei eiycue
e iia iieo/eoue aeaiue n Caaiei/uey. Iinea iiiaiei-oaoa?neiai iaoanoaey
ia Iiaai?iae auea iaeiaeaia aeaiue — auoiae, eiiaaea iacuaaaiue /a?iui
nai?ii, oi anoue iiaaeueiui, iiaieiaiui iaeiaii. Nai? yoiai /a?iiai ai?a
iau/ii ii?o/aeny aaeeeiio eiycth Aeaaeeie?neiio, eioi?ue /aua anaai
oaeaea yaeyeny e eiycai Iiaai?iaeneei. Iiaai?iaeoeu naie niae?aee /a?iue
ai? e aeinoaaeyee aai aaeeeiio eiycth, a oio oaea ia?ai?aaeye aai a
I?aeo. E?iia yoiai, eiycue iieueciaaeny a Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeea
?acee/iuie noaeaaiuie e i?iacaeeie iioeeiaie, ?aciuie ?uaiuie eiaeyie,
naiieinaie, ai?oyie, caa?eiuie aiiaie. Ii iieueciaaiea yoei
i?ienoiaeeei ii no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeeai, a no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiia
a?aiy e a no?iai iaoneiaeaiiuo ?acia?ao. Eiycue ia iia eiaoue naieo
enoi/ieeia aeioiaea a Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeea, iacaaeneiuo io
Iiaai?iaea. Iniaui oneiaeai a ?yaeao iiaai?iaeoeaa n eiycueyie
cai?auaeinue eiycth, eiyaeia, eo aiy?ai e aeai?yiai i?eia?aoaoue eee
caaiaeeoue naea e neiaiaeu a Iiaai?iaeneie caiea e i?eieiaoue ethaeae a
caeeaae, oi anoue a ee/ioth caaeneiinoue.

Eiycue aue iaiaoiaeei Iiaai?iaeo ia oieueei aeey iai?iiu a?aieoe, ii e
aeey iaania/aiey oi?aiauo eioa?ania Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee. Eiycue
iaycuaaeny aeaaaoue iiaai?iaeneei eoioeai a naiai eiyaeanoaa aaciianiue
e naiaiaeiue i?iacae, ioneaoue eo a naie aeaaeaiey “ainoeoue aac
?oaaaea”, oi anoue aac caaea?aeee. Auei oi/ii ii?aaeaeaii, eaeea iioeeiu
aceiaoue n eaaeaeie iiaai?iaeneie eaaeuee eee aica, eioi?ua i?eacaeaee a
aai eayaeanoai. A Iiaai?iaea aua a XII a. iiyaeeenue eoioeu ec Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu. Ia?auie caeanue iainiiaaeenue eoioeu n ino?iaa Aioeaiae ec
ai?iaea Aenae, eioi?ue aue oeaio?ii anae aaeoeeneie oi?aiaee.
Aioeaiaeneea eoioeu iino?ieee a Iiaai?iaea ia Oi?aiaie noi?iia o oi?aa
aeai? n oea?eiaueth nayoiai Ieaoa, eioi?oth iacuaaee “aa?yaeneie
aiaeieoeae”. Iicaea eoioeu ec ae?oaeo iaiaoeeeo ai?iaeia iino?ieee a oie
aea /anoe Iiaai?iaea aua iaeei aeai?, ia eioi?ii a 1184 a. auea
iino?iaia oea?eiaue nayoiai Iao?a — “iaiaoeeay ?iiaoa”. N oneeaieai
Aaicu a XIV a. iaiaoeeea eoioeu a Iiaai?iaea auoanieee aioeaiaeneeo
eoioeia e noaee iaieiaoue eo iiaai?iaeneee aeai?. A yoi a?aiy aunoaa
?oeiaiaenoai iiaai?iaenei-caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie oi?aiaeae ia?aoei io
Aioeaiaea e aeaaa Aaicaeneiai nithca Ethaaeo. Iiaai?iaeneay ?anioaeeea
i/aiue aei?iaeeea naiae aaeoeeneie oi?aiaeae e aeaaaea ia?iiiua eueaiou
Aaicaeneiio nithco. Eiycue eiae i?aai o/anoaiaaoue ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea
oieueei /a?ac iiaai?iaeneeo iin?aaeieeia, ia eiae i?aaa cae?uaaoue
iaiaoeeee aeai?, noaaeoue e iaio naieo i?enoaaia, oi anoue iiaai?iaeneay
aiaoiyy oi?aiaey auea iaaeaaeii caueuaia io eiyaeaneiai i?iecaiea.

A aeiaiai?ao Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee n eiycueyie iaieaeaia iie/aieai
iaeia aaaeiay noi?iia acaeiiioiioaiee eiycy e Iiaai?iaea — iai?iia
Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee io eiicaiiuo caoaao/eeia. Eeoue a iicaeiaeoeo
a?aiioao oiiieiaaony, /oi a neo/aa iaiaaeaiey ia Iiaai?iae eiycue iaycai
iiii/ue Iiaai?iaeo “aac oeo?inoe”. I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe eiycy a a?aiioao
eceaaathony iaynii, iie oieueei i?aaeiieaaathony, i/a?/eaaaony eo e?oa e
neaaenoaey, oi anoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca eniieiaiea iaycaiiinoae.

4.2. Iinaaeiee.

Iinaaeiee — yoi aunoaa auai?iia aeieaeiinoiia eeoei, yaeyaoaany
eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiii aa/a, eioi?iio ia?aaeaaaeinue oi?aaeaiea aeaeaie
?anioaeeee. Ioeoeeaeueii ii ecae?aeny aa/ai ec /enea anao iieiii?aaiuo
a?aaeaeai Iiaai?iaea, ii oaeoe/anee iinaaeiee eca?aeny ec iaiiiaeo
ciaoiaeoeo ?iaeia Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee. Oae a oa/aiea XIII e XIV aa.
ec iaeiiai ?iaea iinaaeieea Ieoaeea Noaiaiiae/a auei eca?aii 12
iinaaeieeia. N?ie iinaaeie/anoaa ia aue ia?aie/ai, ii oaeoe/anee
iinaaeieee caieiaee naith aeieaeiinoue ii iaeiiio-aeaa aiaea.
Iinaaeieee, neiaeeaoea n naay iieiiii/ey, iacuaaeenue “noa?uie
iinaaeieeaie”, a ioee/ea io “noaiaiiuo iinaaeieeia”.

Iaeanoue aeayoaeueiinoe iinaaeieeia auea i/aiue iaoe?iie. Iie iai?aaeyee
aeayoaeueiinoue anao eeoe Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee, inouanoaeyee
eiio?ieue ca eo ?aaioie, niaianoii n eiycai aaaeaee aii?inaie oi?aaeaiey
e noaea, eiiaiaeiaaee aieneaie ai a?aiy iioiaeia, iaaethaeaee ca
no?ieoaeuenoaii iai?iieoaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee, aaee aeeieiiaoe/aneea
niioaiey n ae?oaeie ?onneeie eiyaeanoaaie e eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie,
?oeiaiaeeee canaaeaieyie Ainiiaeu e aa/aauie nia?aieyie. Iinaaeiee, eae
i?aaenoaaeoaeue ai?iaea, io?aiye eioa?anu Iiaai?iaea e anae
Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee ia?aae eiycai. Aac iaai eiycue ia iia noaeeoue
iiaai?iaeoeaa e ?acaeaaaoue iiaai?iaeneea aieinoe. A ionoonoaea eiycy
iinaaeiee oi?aaeye anai ai?iaeii. Iinaaeiee ia iieo/ae ii?aaeaeaiiiai
aeaeiaaiuey, ii iieueciaaeny iniaui iaeiaii n aieinoae, iacuaaaoeiny
“ii?aeuea”.

4.3. Ounyoeeee.

Ounyoeeee yaeyeny aoi?ui iinea iinaaeieea ii cia/aieth a Iiaai?iaeneie
?anioaeeee eeoeii. Ounyoeeee caieiaeny ?aaoee?iaaieai oi?aiauo
ioiioaiee, oi?aiaui noaeii, nicuaii iiie/aiey, iai?iiie ai?iaea e
?anioaeeee, eiae iieeoeaeneea ooieoeee. Ii oaeaea, eae e iinaaeiee
iieo/ae naie iieiiii/ey ia iaii?aaeaeiiue n?ie, eiae a iiae/eiaiee
oeaeue ooao iaeeeo aaaioia, eniieiyaoeo ?acee/iua noaeaaiua e
aaeieieno?aoeaii-iieeoeaeneea ?anii?yaeaiey, iauyaeyee ?aoaiey aa/a e
i?ecuaaee e noaeo, ecaauaee noae i i?anooieaiee, i?iecaiaeeee iaunee e
o.ae. E?iia yoiai ounyoeeee caieiaeny aiaiiui noaeii — noaeii iaae
nia?aiiuie iiie/aioeaie. Ii iiaieth N.O. Ieaoiiiaa ounyoeeee ecae?aeny a
i?ioeaiaan iinaaeieeo ec iecoeo eeannia iiaai?iaeneiai iauanoaa, ii yoi
iaei aa?iyoii. E oiio aea i?ioea yoiai iiaiey aiai?eo oi, /oi a ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XV a. ounyoeeei aue Aeieo?ee Ai?aoeeee, nui iinaaeieea
Enaaea Ai?aoeeiai e Ia?ou Ai?aoeeie, i?ienoiaeeaoee ec i/aiue ciaoiie e
aeeyoaeueiie naiuee.

4.4. A?oeaieneii.

Oaeaea iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo auai?iuo aeieaeiinoae a Iiaai?iaeneie
?anioaeeee aue a?oeaieneii, iacuaaaiue iiaai?iaeoeaie aeaaeueie. Iinea
ioniaaeeiaiey io Eeaaneie ?one a 1136 a. aieneii Iiaai?iaeneee noae
ecae?aoueny aa/ai. Aa/a auae?aei o?e eaiaeeaeaoo?u ia yoio iino e
aoiaaeee n yoeie eaiaeeaeaoo?aie eeaee ia i?anoie Nioeeneiai Niai?a, a
iioii neaiie eee iaeue/ee auae?ae iaeio ec aoiaaeae. *aeiaae, eiy
eioi?iai auei iaienaii a yoie aoiaaeea, noaiiaeeny aieneiiii
Iiaai?iaeneei, a n 1156 a. — a?oeaieneiiii Iiaai?iaeneei. Ec yoiai
i?aaeea auei iaeii eneeth/aiey: a?oeaieneii Iiaai?iaeneee A?eaaeee nai
iacia/ee naaa i?eaiieea. A?oeaieneii Iiaai?iaeneee
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaae ia canaaeaieyo Ainiiaeu, inouanoaeye i?aai
oea?eiaiiai noaea, iaaethaeae ca oi?aiauie ia?aie e aanaie, aue
o?aieoaeai ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciu. E aai aieino iinoiyiii
i?eneooeaaeenue aunoea /eiu iiaai?iaene?ie aaeieieno?aoeee. A?oeaieneii
yaeyeny e?oiiaeoei oaiaeaeii Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee, aeaaeae iaoe?iuie
caieyie, ia?aciaaaoeieny, a iniiaiii, ec eiioeneiaaiiuo aeaaeaiee eiycy.

5. Noaeaaiay aeanoue.

5.1. Iiaai?iae.

A Iiaai?iaea noaeaaiay aaoaue aeanoe ia auea ioaeaeaia io
eniieieoaeueii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie. Noaeaaiuie iieiiii/eyie iaeaaeaee ana
i?aaiu aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey: aa/a, a?oeaieneii, eiycue, iinaaeiee,
ounyoeeee. I?e anooieaiee a aeieaeiinoue auai?iua i?eiineee i?enyao
(“e?anoiia oeaeiaaiea”). Ecia?aaeaiea iiaai?iaeneiai noaea iiaeii iaeoe
a nio?aieaoaeny /anoe Iiaai?iaeneie Noaeiie A?aiiou. Enoi/ieii Noaeiie
A?aiiou yaeyeanue “noa?eia”, oi anoue th?eaee/aneea iau/ae
iiaai?iaeneiai noaea e aai i?aeoeea, aeiaiai?u n eiycueyie e
iinoaiiaeaiey aa/a. Noae ia nin?aaeioa/eaaeny a ioaeaeueiii aaaeiinoaa,
a aue ?ani?aaeaeai iaaeaeo ?aciuie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie aeanoyie. Noae
aue i/aiue aeioiaeiui, /oi e neoaeeei i?e/eiie aai ?acae?iaeaiey iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey. Aicieeiiaaiea iiauo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
einoeoooia aiineei ineiaeiaiey a nouanoaiaaaooth noaeaaioth nenoaio. Ii
aeiaiai?iui a?aiioai eiycae n Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeeie eiycue ia iiaeao
noaeeoue aac iinaaeieea. Oae e ii Iiaai?iaeneie Noaeiie A?aiioa
iinaaeiee noaeeo aianoa n iaianoieeii eiycy, a “aac iaianoieea noaea ia
eii/aao.” Ia i?aeoeea yoa niaianoiay th?enaeeeoeey iinaaeieea e
iaianoieea ?ac?aoaeanue oai, /oi oiieiiii/aiiua oiai e ae?oaiai, oeoiu,
eaaeaeue ioaeaeueii ?acae?aee iiaeeaaeaaoea eo ?anniio?aieth aeaea a
naieo “iae?eiao” i?e niaeaenoaee eca?aiiuo oyaeoueieny noi?iiaie
i?enoaaia, ii ia ?aoaee aeae ieii/aoaeueii, a ia?aiineee eo a aunooth
einoaioeeth eee ia aeieeaae, oi anoue aeey ninoaaeaiey ieii/aoaeueiiai
?aoaiey, eee ia ia?anoae, oi anoue ia i?iaa?eo, aeey ia?aniio?a aeaea e
ooaa?aeaeaiey iieiaeaiiiai oeoiii ?aoaiey. A noaea yoie aeieeaaeiie e
?aaeceiiiie einoaioeee n iinaaeieeii e iaianoieeii eee n eo oeoiaie
neaeaee 10 i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae, ii aiy?eio e aeeoueeio io eaaeaeiai
eiioea. Iie ninoaaeyee iinoiyiioth eieeaaeth aeieeaae/eeia, eae iie
iacuaaeenue, e niae?aeenue ia aeai?a iiaai?iaeneiai a?oeaieneiia “ai
aeaaeu/ia eiiiaoa” o?e ?aca a iaaeaeth iiae no?aoii aeaiaaeiiai oo?aoa
ca iayaeo. Noaeii?iecaiaenoai oneiaeiyeinue aua eiiaeiaoeeyie ?aciuo
th?enaeeeoeee a niaoaiiuo aeaeao, aaea ano?a/aeenue noi?iiu ?acee/iuo
iiaenoaeiinoae. A oyaeaa oea?eiaiiai /aeiaaea n ie?yieiii ai?iaeneie
noaeuey noaeee aianoa n aeaaeu/iui iaianoieeii eee aai oeoiii.
Eiyaeaneiai /aeiaaea n iiaai?iaeoeai noaeeea iniaay eiienney, ninoiyaoay
ec aeaoo aiy?, eiyaeaneiai e iiaai?iaeneiai, e, anee iie ia iiaee
niaeaneoueny a ?aoaiee, aeaei aeieeaaeuaaeinue naiiio eiycth, eiaaea ii
i?eacaeae a Iiaai?iae, a i?enoonoaee iinaaeieea. Ounyoeeee noaeee
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeaea iieeoeaeneiai oa?aeoa?a. Ii ii aea aue ia?aui ec
o?ao noa?oei a niaaoa, eioi?ue noiye ai aeaaa aicieeoaai a XII a. i?e
oea?eae na. Eiaiia I?aaeoa/e ia Iii/eao eoia/aneiai iauanoaa (“Eaaineia
noi”) e aaaeae oi?aiaue noae. Yoio aea niaao n o/anoeai iinaaeieea
?acae?ae aeaea iaaeaeo iiaai?iaeoeaie e eoioeaie iaiaoeeiai aeai?a a
Iiaai?iaea.

5.2. Ineia.

Ineianeay noaeaaiay nenoaia ianeieueei ioee/aeanue io iiaai?iaeneie. A
Ineiaa noae ?acaeaeyeny ia aeaa /anoe: oea?eiaiue e ie?neie. Oea?eiaiue
noae iaoiaeeeny a aaaeaiee iaianoieea iiaai?iaeneiai a?oeaieneiia.
Ie?neea aeaea ?aoaeenue niaoeeaeueiie noaeaaiie eieeaaeae, ninoiyaoae ec
eiycy eee aai iaianoieea, aeaoo noaiaiiuo iinaaeieeia, noa?uo
iinaaeieeia e nioneeo. Yoa eieeaaey canaaeaea a noaeaaia “o eiycy ia
naiao”. Ineianeay noaeaaiay nenoaia iienaia a Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa,
ninoaaeaiiie a 1467 a. Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa ninoaaeaia a iniiaiii
ec “ineianeeo iioeei” — th?eaee/aneeo iau/aaa. Ineianeay Noaeiay
A?aiioa o?oaeia aeey iauyniaiey: a nienea iaiaei ae?aaia?onneeo
oa?ieiia, ia ano?a/athueony a ae?oaeo i?aaiauo aeoao oiai a?aiaie,
iiiaea i?aaeoniao?eaaaiua caeiiii neo/ae ?anniao?eaathony i/aiue e?aoei,
iaiaeaie. Aianoa n Iiaai?iaeneie Noaeiie A?aiioie, Ineianeay Noaeiay
A?aiioa i/aiue iiiai ianoa oaeaeyao noaeiono?ienoao e
noaeii?iecaiaenoao, ii i?e yoii aeaao iaeeueiue caian ii?i e
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa, iniaaiii a?aaeaeaineiai. A Ineianeie Noaeiie
A?aiioa ano?a/athony ianoiyoaeueiua iinoaiiaeaiey i aeiaiai?ao
eoiee-i?iaeaaee, iaeia e caeia, i oi?aiauo e caieaaeaaeaeue/aneeo
oiaa?euanoaao, i naiaeiuo ioiioaieyo ii eiouanoao. Ineianeay Noaeiay
A?aiioa ?acee/aao th?eaee/aneea iiiyoey, o?aaiaaaoea ?acaeoiai
i?aainiciaiey, i?aaeoniao?eaaao th?eaee/aneea neo/ae, eaeea iiaee
aicieeiooue a aeeaii e neiaeiii a?aaeaeaineii iai?ioa oi?aiaiai ai?iaea.
“A aa ii?aaeaeaieyo eiouanoaaiiuo e iaycaoaeuenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee
neacuaaaony /oouea I?aaaeu, no?aieaoaany onoaiiaeoue ?aaiiaanea
ai?thueony /anoiuo eioa?ania e ia iai iino?ieoue ii?yaeie,
ia?aaeaeaaiue ia oieueei caeiiaie, ii e i?aaaie. Iiyoiio a ?yaeo
noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa iia aeaao i?aaeii/oeoaeueiia cia/aiea i?enyae,
ioaeaaay iaueiiaaiii ia aieth enooea ?aoeoue oyaeao yoei niiniaii:
“oi/ao, nai iioeaeoao eee o e?anoa iieiaeeo”, oi anoue i?aaeinoaaeo
oeaeiaaoue e?ano ioaao/eeo, iieiaeea o e?anoa nii?ioth aauue eee aa
oeaio.”

*anoue III. I?aai Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa

1. Enoi/ieee i?aaa

1.1. ?onneay I?aaaea.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa a Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa ia?aia a?aiy yaeyeanue
?onneay I?aaaea, aeaiiay Iiaai?iaeo ss?ineaaii Ioae?ui e aeiiieiaiiay
iicaea aai iioiieaie. Ii ?onneay I?aaaea, iaienaiiay aua a ia?aie
iieiaeia XI a., ia iiaea oaeiaeaoai?eoue anai o?aaiaaieyi iiaai?iaeoeaa,
aeeaoeo oaea a ae?oaii noieaoee. Iiyoiio ?onneay I?aaaea iinoaiaiii
iiaeiaiyeanue noaeaaiie i?aeoeeie iiaai?iaeoeaa. E?iia noaeaaiie
i?aeoeee enoi/ieeaie i?aaa neoaeeee ?aoaiey aa/a, aeiaiai?a n eiycueyie,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u. Ana yoi ?iaeaeaei ia?acaa?eoo a ?acee/iuo
noaeaaiuo aeaeao, oae eae aeiaiai? n eiycai iia i?eeoe a i?ioeai?a/ea n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ii eee n i?aeoeeie noaea. Yoi ana o?aaiaaei
eiaeeoeeaoeee, eioi?ay e auea i?iaaaeaia a XV a. ?acoeueoaoii yoie
eiaeeoeeaoeee yaeeenue Iiaai?iaeneay e Ineianeay Noaeiua A?aiiou,
ooaa?aeaeaiiua “anai Ainoaea?ai Aaeeeei Iiaai?iaeii ia aa/a” e “anai
Ineiaii ia aa/a”. Iiaai?iaeneay Noaeiay A?aiioa aeioea aei iaoaai
a?aiaie a aaeeinoaaiiii nienea iineianeie ?aaeaeoeee 70-o aa. XV a. A
yoii nienea niaea?aeeony oieueei /anoue Iiaai?iaeneie Noaeiie A?aiiou, a
eiaiii oieueei ii?iu i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa. Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa
aeioea aei ian iieiinoueth. Iia auea ooaa?aeaeaia ia aa/a a 1467 a. a
Ineiaa e ia?aiia/aeueii ninoiyea ec 108 noaoae, a iicaea auea aeiiieiaia
aua 12 noaoueyie.

1.2. Aeiaiai?u Iiaai?iaea n eiycueyie.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia i?aaa Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa yaeythony
aeiaiai?u ?anioaeee n eiycueyie. A yoeo a?aiioao ii?aaeaeyeenue
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eiycueyie e ?anioaeeeie. Ae?aaiaeoei ec aeioaaeoeo aei
ian aeiaiai?ia yaeyaony aeiaiai? aaeeeiai eiycy ss?ineaaa ss?ineaae/a
Oaa?neiai n Iiaai?iaeii 1264 a. A aeiaiai?a i?enoonoaoao n?iea “Ia nai
eiyaea, oeaeoe e?ano e anaio Iiaai?iaeo, ia oeai oi oeaeiaaee aeaaeu e
iooee”, iicaieythuay i?aaeiieiaeeoue nouanoaiaaiea e aieaa ?aiieo
aeiaiai?ia iiaai?iaeoeaa n eiycueyie. A ia?aaiaea Ea?aiceia oaeno
aeiaiai?a neaaeothuee: “Eiycue ss?ineaa! O?aaoai, /oiau ou, iiaeiaii
i?aaeeai oaiei e ?iaeeoaeth, ooaa?aeee e?anoiui oeaeiaaieai nayuaiiue
iaao i?aaeoue Iiauiai?iaeii ii ae?aaiaio iaueiiaaieth, a?aoue iaeie
aea?u n iaoeo iaeanoae, ii?o/aoue iiua oieueei iiaai?iaeneei, a ia
eiyaeaneei /eiiaieeai, ia ecae?aoue eo aac niaeaney iinaaeieea e aac
aeiu ia niaiyoue oao, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeaiu a?aoii oaiei Aeaenaiae?ii,
nuiii aai Aeeieo?eai e iiaiai?iaeoeaie. A Oi?aeea e Aieiea aoaeoo
eiyaeaneea e iaoe oeoiu (eee noaeee): ia?aua a oaiae /anoe, aoi?ua a
Iiaiai?iaeneie; a a Aaaeeoeao ie oaaa, ie eiyaeia, ie aiy?ai, ie
aeai?yiai oaiei nae ia eiaoue, ia iieoiaoue e ia i?eieiaoue a aea?,
?aaii eae e a ae?oaeo aeaaeaieyo Iiaaai?iaea: a Aieiea, Oi?aeea e i?i/.;
a oaeaea a Aieiaaea, Caaiei/uea, Eiea, Ia?ie, Ia/a?a, THa?a. A ?ono
iiaeaoue ou, eiycue, acaeeoue inaiueth, ia eaoii; a a Eaaeiao iinueae
naiaai ?uaieea e iaaeiaa?a ii a?aiioa iooea oaiaai, ss?ineaaa. Aeeieo?ee
e iiaiai?iaeoeu aeaee aaaee/aiai e iaiiaaeoeai ia o?e aiaea i?aai
noaeeoueny nianoaaiiui eo noaeii. Ia ia?ooae naai a?aiaiiiai onoaaa e ia
iinueae e iei noaeae. Ia auaiaee ia?iaea a naith caieth ec iaeanoae
iaoeo, ie i?eioaeaeaiii, ie aieath. Eiyaeiy, aiy?a e aeai?yia oaie ia
aeieaeiu a?aoue ethaeae a caeia ii aeieaai, ie eoioeia, ie
caieaaeaeueoeaa. Ioaaaeai naiiua iieinu aeey oaay e aiy? oaieo; ii ia
o?aaoe ioiyouo o ian eiycai Aeaenaiae?ii, e aiiaua ia iiae?aaeae aio a
aeaenoaeyo naiiaeanoey. Oeoiai e aea?yiai eiyaeaneei, iauacaeathuei
aieinoe, aeathony i?iaiiu, eae ecaea?aaea onoaiiaeaii, e oieueei iaeie
?aoiua aiioeu iiaoo a naeao o?aaiaaoue eioaaeae io eoioeia. *oi eanaaony
aei iioeei, oi eoioeu iaoe a oaiae e ai anae caiea Nocaeaeueneie iaycaiu
ieaoeoue ii aeaa aaeoe n eiaeee, aico e n ei?iaa eueio eee oiaey. Oae
auaaei, eiycue, i?e iooeao e aeaaeao oaieo e iaoeo. Oeaeoe aea nayoie
e?ano ai oaa?aiea, /oi eniieieoue naie oneiaey; oeaeoe ia /?ac
iin?aaeieeia, ii nai a i?enoonoaee iineia iiaiai?iaeneeo. A caoai iu
eeaiyainy oaaa, ainiiaeeio eiycth.” A yoii aeiaiai?a ?aca?aie/aiu
ioiioaiey Iiaai?iaea e eiycy. Oae eiycth cai?auaaony a?aoue iioeeiu n
iiaai?iaeoeaa, e?iia i?iaiiiuo aeaiaa e iioeei, oiea/eaaaiuo a
Aeaaeeie?i-Nocaeaeueneie caiea, ii ?ac?aoaaony i?eieiaoue aea?u io
iiaai?iaeoeaa. Oi?aaeaiea iiaai?iaeneeie iyoeiaie inouanoaeyeinue
oieueei iiaai?iaeoeaie, iacia/aiiuo eiycai n niaeaney iinaaeieea. Niaia
/eiiaieeia n ioaaonoaaiiuo iinoia ?ac?aoaeanue oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa
iaaeieoaeueiiai i?eaiai?a aa/a. Eiycth e aai aiy?ai cai?auaeanue iieoiea
caiaeue a Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeea, /oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue iinoaiaiiue
ia?aoiae caiee a nianoaaiiinoue aeaaeeie?oeaa e iineaaeothuaa
i?eniaaeeiaiea Iiaai?iaea e Aeaaeeie?neiio eiyaeanoao. Cai?auaeny
ia?aaiae iiaai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ec ?anioaeeee a Aeaaeeie?, eioi?ue
iicaea n oniaoii niaa?oaeny Eaaiii III e Eaaiii IV. Eiycth cai?auaeinue
iiae?aaeaoue a aeaenoaeyo naiaio i?aaeoanoaaiieeo Aeaenaiae?o Iaaneiio
(!).

Iineaaeothuea aeiaiai?u n eiycueyie aieioue aei ssaeaeaeoeeiai aeiaiai?a
1456 a. iineee oaeie aea oa?aeoa? ia?aie/aiey eiyaeaneie aeanoe. A
iaeioi?uo aeiaiai?ao iiyaeyeenue aeiiieieoaeueiua ioieou e oneiaey,
iai?eia?, ai a?aiy aieiu eiycy Ieoaeea Oaa?neiai n aaeeeei eiycai
Aiae?aai Aeaenaiae?iae/ai, iiaai?iaeou caeeth/eee n Ieoaeeii aeiaiai?,
ii eioi?iio iie acaeiii iaycuaaeenue iiiiaaoue ae?oa ae?oao a neo/aa
ooaniaiee io aaeeeiai eiycy eee oaia, iiaai?iaeoeu iaauaee i?aainoaeea
anai oaa?neei enooeai a Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeea, a Ieoaee iaauae
aica?aoeoue caeaaaeaiiuo aeieaeieeia iiaai?iaeneeo. Ii ssaeaeaeoeeiio
aeiaiai?o 1456 a. Iiaai?iae ioiaiee ana i?aaeiea aa/aaua a?aiiou,
oiaiueoaaoea aeanoue eiycae e oaeoe/anee auioaeaeai aue i?eniaaeeieoueny
e Iineaa. Ii n 70-o aa. XV a. iiaai?iaeoeu, iinni?eaoeany n Iineaie,
iiyoue noaee caeeth/aoue aeiaiai?a n eiycueyie. A 1471 a. iiaai?iaeoeu
caeeth/eee aeiaiai? n ei?ieai Iieueoe Eaceie?ii: “*anoiue ei?ieue
iieueneee e aaeeeee eiycue eeoianeee caeeth/ee ae?oaeanoaaiiue nithc n
ia?a/aiiui aeaaeueith Oaioeeii, n iinaaeieeaie, ouny/neeie
iiaiai?iaeneeie, n aiy?aie, ethaeueie aeeouie, eoioeaie e ni anai
Aaeeeei Iiauiai?iaeii; a aeey aeiaiai?a auee a Eeoaa iinaaeiee Aoaianee
Aanoaoeaae/, iinaaeiee Aeieo?ee Enaeiae/ (Ai?aoeeee)… io ethaeae
aeeouo Iaioee Naeeoiioiae/, Ee?eee Eaaiiae/… Aaaeaoue oaaa, /anoiiio
ei?ieth, Aaeeeee Iiaai?iae ii nae e?anoiie a?aiioa e aea?aeaoue ia
Ai?iaeeua naiaai iaianoieea a?a/aneie aa?u, aianoa n aeai?aoeeei e
oeoiii, eiei eiaoue i?e naaa ia aieaa iyoeaeanyoe /aeiaae. Iaianoieeo
noaeeoue n iinaaeieeii ia aeai?a a?oeaieneiineii eae aiy?, aeeouo
ethaeae, ieaaeoeo a?aaeaeai, oae e naeueneeo aeeoaeae, niaeanii n
i?aaaeith, e ia o?aaiaaoue ie/aai, e?iia noaeiie caeiiiie iioeeiu; ii a
noae ouny/neiai, aeaaeuee e iiianou?ae aio ia anooiaoueny. Aeai?aoeeiio
aeeoue ia Ai?iaeeua ai aeai?oea e niae?aoue aeioiaeu oaie aianoa n
iinaaeieeii; a oeoio aa?oeoue aeaea n iaoeie i?enoaaaie. Anee ainoaea?ue
Iineianeee iieaeao aieiie ia Aaeeeee Iiaai?iae, oi oaaa, ainiiaeeio,
/anoiiio ei?ieth, eee a oaia ionoonoaea ?aaea Eeoianeie aeaoue iai
nei?oth iiiiuue. — ?aeaaa, Aaeeeea Eoee e Oieiianeee iiaino inoathony
caieyie iiaiai?iaeneeie; ii ieaoyo aeaiue oaaa, /anoiiio ei?ieth. —
Iiaiai?iaeaoe noaeeony a Eeoaa ii aaoei, eeoaei a Iiaaai?iaea ii iaoei
caeiiai aac anyeiai i?eoaniaiey… A ?ona aoaeaoue eiaoue aeanyoue
nieyiuo aa?ieoe; a ca noae iieo/aaoue oai e a ae?oaeo ianoao, /oi
ecae?aaea onoaiiaeaii. Oaaa, /anoiiio ei?ieth, ia auaiaeeoue io ian
ethaeae, ia eoieoue ia nae, ie ?aaia e ia i?eieiaoue eo a aea?, ie
ei?ieaaa, ie iaiai eeoianeei; a iai ia oaeoue caeiiiuo iioeei. Iineai,
iaianoieeai e ethaeyi oaiei ia a?aoue iiaeaiae a caiea Iiaiai?iaeneie, e
aieinoe aa iiaoo auoue oi?aaeyaiu oieueei iaoeie nianoaaiiuie
/eiiaieeaie. — A Eoeao aoaeao oaie e iao oeoi: oi?iiaoeeiio ia noaeeoue
a iiaiai?iaeneeo aeaaeaieyo. A Oi?aeea e Aieiea eiae oeoia; n iaoae
noi?iiu aoaeao oai iinaaeiee. — Eoioeu eeoianeea oi?aotho n iaioeaie
aaeeinoaaiii /?ac iiaiai?iaeneeo. Aeai? iaiaoeeee oaaa ia iiaeaeanoai:
ia iiaeaoue caoai?eoue aai. — Ou, /anoiue ei?ieue, ia aeieaeai eanaoueny
iaoae i?aaineaaiie aa?u: aaea caoioei, oai e iinayoei iaoaai aeaaeueo (a
Iineaa eee a Eeaaa); a ?eineeo oea?eaae ia noaaeoue ieaaea a caiea
Iiaiai?iaeneie. — Anee i?eie?eoue ian n aaeeeei eiycai iineianeei, oi ec
aeaaiaea?iinoe onooiei oaaa anth ia?iaeioth aeaiue, niae?aaioth
aaeaaiaeii a iiaiai?iaeneeo iaeanoyo; ii a ae?oaea aiaeu ia o?aaoe iiie.
— A ooaa?aeaeaiea aeiaiai?a oeaeoe e?ano e Aaeeeiio Iiaoai?iaeo ca ana
naia eiyaeanoai e ca anth ?aaeo Eeoianeoth ai?aaaeo, aac ecaaoa; a iineu
iaoe oeaeiaaee e?ano iiaiai?iaeneith aeooith e /anoiiio ei?ieth ca
Aaeeeee Iiaai?iae”. A yoie a?aiioa ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Iiaai?iaeii e
ei?ieai ii?aaeaeiu ianeieueei eia/a, /ai a a?aiioa 1264 a. Oae eae
ei?ieue aue eaoieeeii, oi niaoeeaeueii iaiaa?eaaeinue, /oi iaianoiee
ei?iey aeieaeai auoue i?aaineaaiui, a iiaai?iaeneee a?oeaieneii iiaeao
auoue iinoaaeai a ethaie ec aeaoo ieo?iiieee — Iineianeie eee Eeaaneie,
cai?auaeanue iino?ieea eaoiee/aneeo oea?eaae. A a?aiioa ?acaeaeai noae
ia ianeieueei aeaeia — eiyaeaneee, ounyoeeiai, aeaaeuee e iiianou?ae,
oioy e ia iauyniaii, e eaeiio noaeo eaeea aeaea iiaeaeanoiu. A nayce n
iaeaaeie aiaoiaiieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaeie a Iiaai?iaea, a a?aiioa
iaiai?aia iiiiuue ei?iey a neo/aa aieiu n Iineaie, ii oaeaea iaiai?aia
i?aiey ei?ieth, anee ii niiaeao iiie?eoue Iineao n Iiaai?iaeii. Eae e a
aeiaiai?a n ss?ineaaii cai?auaii auaiaeeoue ethaeae ec Iiaai?iaeneie
caiee, iieoiaoue ?aaia e caiee, i?eieiaoue eo a aea?. Oi?aaeaiea
iyoeiaie oaea iieiinoueth cae?aieaii ca iiaai?iaeneeie /eiiaieeaie.
Ei?ieth aeioiae oae n noaeaaiuo iioeei, nieyiuo aa?ieoe a ?ona, n
ai?iaeia ?aeaa, Aaeeeea Eoee e n Oieiianeiai iiainoa. Oi?aeie e Aieie
noaiiaeeenue niaianoiuie aeaaeaieyie ei?iey e Iiaai?iaea: ei?ieue
iinueae ooaea oeoia, a iiaai?iaeoeu iacia/aee iinaaeieea. Oi?aiaua aeaea
ia auee iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiu ei?ieth, e ii ia iia cae?uoue iaiaoeeee aeai?
a Iiaai?iaea, a eeoianeea eoioeu n iaiaoeeeie a Iiaai?iaeneie caiea
auioaeaeaiu auee oi?aiaaoue oieueei /a?ac iin?aaenoai iiaai?iaeneeo
eoioeia.

1.3. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u a iniiaiii ?aaeaiaioe?iaaee i?aaeea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee e ?ac?aoaiea nii?iuo aii?inia. Oae eae iauaa
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?aai a oi a?aiy ionoonoaiaaei, oi a eaaeaeie no?aia
noaeeee ii-naiaio. Oae, iai?eia?, a Eeaiineii I?aeaia eoiaoe iia auoue
ii?aaaeai, a a Ineiaa eee Iiaai?iaea — iaaeiai. I?eia?ii oi?aiaiai
aeiaiai?a iiaeao neoaeeoue aeiaiai? niieaineiai eiycy Inoeneaaa
Aeaaeaeiae/a n ?eaie e Aioneei aa?aaii. A iai ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua ii?iu
?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoia. Yoio aeiaiai? onoaiaaeeaae ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
oaeeonai: “Aaea aioae(oue naiaiae(iue /aeiaae ioaeou 10 a?eaaiu na?aa?a
ca aieuao. Aaea aioae(oa oieuiu ioaeoue 1 a?eaia na?uea?a caieaoeoe.” Ca
/eaiia?aaeeoaeuenoai iieaaaeny oo?ao a 5 a?eaai: “Iei, ?ioea, iuaa eee
eiu /oi ethai ii iyoe a?eaueiu na?uea?a … ca cioa 3 a?eaiu na?aa?a.”
Ecaeaiea iaeacuaaeinue oo?aoii a iieoi?u a?eaiu: “Eoi aeaoue ae?ioaa
ae(?aauiue, a aioae(oa neiue, ethai e?iaaau, iieiooi?u a?eaiu na?aa?a
ieaoeoe aiio, ii ooo oaea?eoa 3 /aoaa?oe na?aa?a, iineo e iiio, /oi
o/eiyoue, ca aeaia oiai ocyoe, aeaa ieaoaaea. Aaea eiai o?aiyoue
iieooi?u a?eaiu na?aa?a.” Anee aeaei oeaaeeaaeinue ee/iui iooai, oi noae
ia eiae i?aaa ?acae?aoue oaeea aeaea: “Aaea ecaeieoueny ?onei … o
aeuao aai ia naaeaoe, aaea ecaeieoueny eaoeieiu … ia iueoaoe aai o
iia?aau.” Oaeaea noae ia eiae i?aaa noaeeoue aeae, a eioi?uo enooeii e
ioaao/eeii yaeyeenue a?aaeaeaia iaeiie no?aiu, aeaaea anee i?anooieaiea
niaa?oaeinue a ae?oaie no?aia: “Aaea eaoeianeee ainoue aeaoueny iueaeth
nuaith o ?oneie caiee, ethai iue/aiue,a ethai ae(?aauiue, eiycth oi ia
iaaeiaa, iueaeth nuaith noaeeoe. Oaei aaea ?onneee ainoue aeaoueny o
?eca eee ia Ai/eii aa?aca, eaoeia oi ia iaaeua(, aoa i?iiueaeth nuaith
o?yaeyoany.” E oaieiaiui i?anooieaieyi ioiineeinue i?aethaiaeayiea,
iaeacuaaaiia aeaiaaeiui oo?aoii: “Aaea canoaiaoa ?oneiu eaoeianeiai
/aeiaaea naiath aeaiuth ca oi ieaoeoe a?eaueiu 10 na?aa?a. Oaei o/eieoe
?oneio o ?eca e ia Ai/eiiue aa?uec(. Aaea eaoeianeee /aeiaaeu o/eieoue
ianeeea naiaiaeiue aeaia, a aioaeaoue iue?aea ia iae ia aue ni?iia, ca
oi ieaoeoe a?eaueiu 5 na?aa?a… Aaea aoae(oa iue?a(a ia i(e nu?uiu
aueu, acyoe ae a?eaia na?uea?a ca ianeeea.” Anee eoiaoe aue aeieaeai e
eiino?aiiiio, e ?onneiio ?inoiaueeai, oi nia/aea aeiea ioaeaaaeny
eiino?aioeo, a iioii oieueei ?onneiio. Aeaaea eiycue, ioae?ay eiouanoai
o eiai-eeai /aeiaaea, auioaeaeai aue auiea/eaaoue aai aeieae eiino?aiiui
eoioeai. Anee /aeiaae oie?ae, ia auieaoea aeieaa eiino?aioeo, oi
ianeaaeiee yoiai /aeiaaea aeieaeai aue auieaoeoue aeiea. Ia noaeaaiii
?acae?aoaeuenoaa io eaaeaeie oyaeouaeny noi?iiu aeieaeii auei auoue, eae
ieieioi, ii aeaa “iineooa” — naeaeaoaey: iaeei ?onneee, ae?oaie
eiino?aiaoe. Cai?auaeinue aac niaeaney iaaeo noi?ii i?enoaeaeaoue ei
“Aiaeee noae” — aie ia ia/ao eee eniuoaiea ai?y/ei aeaeacii. A
aeiaiai?ao ooaa?aeaeaeanue naiaiaea oi?aiaee: eoiaoe iia aoaoue eoaea
oaiaeii e oi?aiaaoue n eai oaiaeii, n eiino?aiiuo eoioeia nieiaeenue ana
oi?aiaua iioeeiu. I?e iioa?e ai a?aiy ?a/iiai iooe oiaa?a eiino?aiiui
eoioeii, eiycue iaycaeny iiii/ue aio iaeoe e aa?iooue aai oiaa?, i?e
iioa?a aea oiaa?a ia aieiea, aiceaaaeanue iaiy ia aeeoaeae aeaiiie
aieinoe.

I?e iaaiciiaeiinoe ?ac?aoeoue nii?u iaaeaeo eoioeaie, eiycuey ienaee
iaaeno?ai niaoeeaeueiua a?aiiou, a eioi?uo eceaaaeenue o?aaiaaiey a
ioiioaiee i?aainoaeey. I?eia?ii oaeie a?aiiou yaeyaony A?aiioa
ineianeiai eiycy Eaaia Aeaenaiae?iae/a 1463 a.: “Io eiyaea Ineiauneiai
Eaaia Aeaenaiae?iae/ e io iinaaeiee ineiaueneiai noaiaiiiai Iaeneia
Ea?eaiiiae/ e io anao iinaaeieeiau ineiauneeou e io aiy? ineiaueneeou e
io eoioeiau e io anaai Ineiaa nonaaeiiu iaoeiu iinaaeieeiiu ?eaeeeiu.
Caeana cyeotho ny iaiu iieiaeee ethaee eoioeeie Eaaia aea Eocia ia
aaoaai a?aoa ia Eaieoa, /oi oiou Eaieou, ia ciay Aiaa, aaea?aeyeu iaoeou
eoioeeiu Eaaia aea Eocio 5 aeiae, a eneaeu ia ieou aeeaioo a?aoa naiaai
Eaaia, /oi oaeeu a?aoa aai neoaa aai aeue. A eneae ia ieou /aie cieioie
aea aeao eiaoi au na?aa?yiuou aea e?oao aineo aea aaeea aacu /enea, aea
iieuo?ayaeue/yoe ai/aeu ieaa aea 4 e ai/aeu iaaeo i?aniiai, eii
iinaaeieee e ?aoiaie oiai ?iniio?eoa, iu oiio aaeie aeeaei ny, /oi oae
Eaieou ia i?aai /eieoue, /oi ia iaoeou i?aauou ethaeaou euaoue, oeaai o
a?aoa aai e ia auei. Auei oi , oae: eaeu a?a aai oaea, neoaa ooth aeue
iioeue aeaaaea, eii inoaeioue o iaai iieuo?aoueyaeue/youe aioeaeu ieaa,
aea 4 ai/ea iaaeo nuoeaiiai, eii oia ieai e iaaeu iieiaee iaoe ethaee,
eiio aueu Eaaia aeiiaaou, a aeeaiou aai ca ia/aoueth eaaeaeu ia ai?iaea.
Iioii i?eaoaau Eaieou i?ineeu o ianu eni?aaa aieiaieea e aeeaioo, e
ieaa, e iaaeo, e iu iauneaa aieiaieea auaeaee e aeeaioue a?aoa aai, e
iiu aua ii/ae i?ineoe ieaa e iaaeo, e iu iinoaaeee ia?aaeu Eaieoiiu ouou
ethaeae, eioi?ee eiaee ieai e iaaeu ca naie iaiaaee, Eaieou noiy
aiai?eeu oae: iie a?aou ia aeiiaa aueu ieeiio aeue, e iu ioaa/aee
Eaieoo: iu oiaa n ouie ethaeiu noaeu aeaaeeiu ii ineie iineeia, e iiu
ioaa/ae: ycu i?eaoaeu au Ineiau ia oyaaona. E au iinaaeieee ?eaeeee, e
?aoiaie ia aeaaaeoa aiee oaeeiu ca?iaeiyiu iaaeu iaoeiu eoioeeiaie, /oi
au iiyoue ia aea?aeaeu iaoeo eoioeeiu ieeiai, a iaaeiaii aio ia ouou
ethaeaou eneaoe, eioi?ee iieiaee ieai e iaaeu ca naie iaiaaee, e iiu
ionoue aaeaoue ei Ineiao, iu aio noaeu aeaaeeiu.” Eiycue aeaeoaony ia
iiionoeoaeuenoai eeaiineiai noaea e caaea?aeeo ?onneeo eoioeia
eeaiineei. A a?aiioa iiae?iaii eceaaaaony nooue aeaea, ec-ca eioi?iai
auee caaea?aeaiu ?onneea eoioeu, e i?aaeeaaaaony ?anniio?aoue aeaei e
iaeacaoue aeiiaiiai — eeaiineiai eoioea Eaieoa.

1.4. Noaeiua a?aiiou Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa.

Noaeiua a?aiiou Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa auee i?eiyou aa/aauie nia?aieyie
ai?iaeia a na?aaeeia XV a. Iie yaeyeenue iniiaiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa aeey
yoeo ai?iaeia aei eo i?eniaaeeiaiey e Iineaa. Iiaai?iaeneay Noaeiay
A?aiioa aeioea aei ian a aeaea io?uaea a iineianeie ?aaeaeoeee eiioea
70-o aa. XV a., niaea?aeauai oieueei ii?iu i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa.
Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa oaeaea ecaanoia a aaeeinoaaiiii nienea ec
nai?ieea, ninoaaeaiiiai a 1638 a. Iaoiaeyuayny oai eiiey Ineianeie
Noaeiie A?aiiou auea naeaeaia, ii anae aeaeeiinoe, n i/aiue ae?aaiae
?oeiiene, oae eae oaea ia?aien/ee XVII a. ia iia aini?iecaanoe iaeioi?ua
ianoa i?eaeiaea. Yoei iauyniyaony iayniinoue iiiaeo noaoae A?aiiou.
A?aiioa auea ninoaaeaia a 1467 a. “ii aeaaineiaaieth ioaoe naieo iiiia
anao 5 nuai?ia”. A?aiioa ninoieo ec 120 noaoae, 108 ec eioi?uo auee
i?eiyoua 1467 a., a inoaeueiua auee aeiienaiu iicaea ii ?aoaieth aa/a.
Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo noaoae auee i?eiyou e auiieiyeenue aua caaeieai aei
iiyaeaiey Noaeiie A?aiiou.: “Ny a?aiioa auienaia ec aaeeeaai eiycy
Aeaenaiae?iau a?aiiou e ec eiyae Einoyioeiiau a?aiiou…” Eiycue
Aeaenaiae? — yoi eiycue Aeaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/ Oaa?neie, ecaiaiiue ec
Oaa?e e eiyaeeaoee a Ineiaa n 1327 ii 1337 a., a “Einoyioei” —
Eiinoaioei Aeieo?eaae/, a?ao aaeeeiai eiycy iineianeiai Aaneeey I
Aeieo?eaae/a, eiyaeeaoee a Ineiaa a 1407 e 1412 aa. E?iia a?aiio yoeo
eiycae, Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa iniiauaaeanue ia noaeaaiie i?aeoeea e
aa/aauo aeieoiaioao, i?eiyouo ?aiaa: “… e eci anao i?eieneia
ineiauneeo iioeei.” Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa aiciiaeii aia?aea a naay
aua iaeei iaiyoiee i?aaa — Ineianeoth I?aaaeo. Ia yoii iaiyoieea
oiiieiaaony a aeiaiai?iie a?aiioa 1440 a. Eaceie?a Iieueneiai n Ineiaii:
“aaea a/uieoueny iaiy iaoui … eii/aoe ii Ineiauneie I?aaaea e ii
oeaeiaaieth.”

2. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai ii Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa.

A?aaeaeaineia i?aai caieiaao aaaeiia ianoi a ii?iao Ineianeie Noaeiie
A?aiiou. I?aai nianoaaiiinoe ciaao aeaeaiea aauae ia iaaeaeaeeiua
(“io/eia”) e aeaeaeeiua (“aeeaio”). E iaaeaeaeeiui ioiineeenue caiee,
?uaieiaiua o/anoee, i/aeueieee (“ai?oe”). Caueoa caiaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe — iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo /anoae Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiiou. A
noaouea 9 INA aiai?eony: “A eiee aoaeao n eai noae i caiee i iieiae, eee
i aiaea, a aoaeao ia oie caiee aeai?, eee ieae ?icno?aaeie, a no?aaeao e
aeaaeaao oith caieath eee aiaeith eao 4 eee 5, eii oiio enoeth nuneaony
ia ninaae /aeiaae 4 eee ia 5. A nonaaee noaa, ia eieo oethony, aea
neaaeoo eae i?aa i?aae Aiaii, /oi /eno, e oie /aeiaae eioi?ue iineaeny
no?aaeao e aeaaeaao oith caieath eee aiaeith eao 4 eee 5, a noi?ioeaaiue
a oa eaoa, ie aai noaeee ie ia caieth ianooiaeny, eee ia aiaeo, eii
caiey aai /enoa eee aiaea, e oeaeiaaiea aio iao, a oaei ia aeieneaeny
eoi ia noaeee, ie ianooiaeny a ou eaoa.” Oi anoue caiey i?eiaaeeaaeaea
oiio, eoi ae aeaaeae ia iaiaa 4 eao, e i?e yoii ia auei ieeaeeo iiiuoie
yoo caieth o iaai ioia?aoue. Noaouey 10 INA aiai?eo i ?acai?a aeae i
iai?eaiaeiie aeey ia?aaioee caiee: “I eaoae caiee aoaeao noae, a
iieiaeao a?aiiou e aeaie ia iaeio caieth, a caeaeoo a?aiiou ca a?aiiou,
a enoea iaa aicioo iaaeieeia, aea iaa ecaaaeoooea ii naiei a?aiioai, aea
i?aae ainiiaeith noaaoe iaaeieeii iaaeie/anoai nueeioo eii ei i?enoaeaoe
iiea.” I?eiaiaiea yoie noaouee iieacaii a aeoa 1483 a. ia enea
Niaoiai?neiai iiianou?y e eiiiaiee nya?ia, niaeaaeaeueoeaa-oiaa?euae,
eioi?ua niiaua aeaaeaee caieae ii ?aea Ia?a?aa. Yoe nya?u auee
i?eoiaeaia na. Aai?ey e aua oeaeiai iiianou?y A?aiy/eineiai ia A?aiy/ae
ai?a. Niaoiai?neiio iiianou?th i?eiaaeeaaeaea oanoay /anoue ?aee
Ia?a?au, i?eia?aoaiiay ei aeey i?iacaea. Noae i?ienoiaeee ia naiyo
ia?aae eiycai Ineiaa ss?ineaaii, aeaoiy noaiaiiuie iinaaeieeaie e ia?aae
nioneeie. O Niaoiai?neiai iiianou?y nya?u ioiyee yoo oanooth /anoue.
Enooeu, noa?oeu Niaoiai?neiai iiianou?y, iieiaeeee ia?aae noaeii
“a?aiiou eoi/ea” ia i?eiaaeeaaeaaooth ei iieino a ?aea Ia?a?aa. Noaeuee
ni?ineee nya?ia, ca/ai iie ioiyee caieth o noa?oeaa. Nya?u ioaa/aee: “Oi
… o ian ia Ia?a?aa-?aea, a a oie ?aea o ian aiaea eiiaiay, a any aiaea
iaoa: a eaoiaio Oa?anueth e noa?oeai niaoiai?neei a oie aiaea o ian
oanoie /anoe iao, e iu ei iioiio i?iacaea ia aeaaeei”. “Aea iieiaeeee e
naie a?aiiou ia?aae niiiaeith”. Cia/eo, th?eaee/aneee eacon ninoiye a
oii, /oi nya?u inia?eaaee o Niaoiai?neiai iiianou?y 1/6 /anoue eaiaea,
i?iaaaeaiiiai eie ii caiea, 1/6 /anoue eioi?ie aei i?i?uoey eaiaea
i?eiaaeeaaeaea Niaoiai?neiio iiianou?th. Nya?u, aa?iyoii, aeoiaee, /oi
oeo/oay caieth eaiaeii, iie oai naiui i?eia?aoaee i?aai ia anth caieth.
I?i/eoaa a?aiiou, noaeuee aeaee eo nioneiio Eeeiaioo e iineaee aai n
eiyaeei aiy?eiii *aoii “aiaeu a Ia?a?aa ?aea aeiniio?aoe”. Oi anoue
aeiniio?aee, “aea e ia eoa auienaee e ia?aae iniiaeith iieiaeeee, aea e
aaeenue ii eoao.” Noae ni?inee iaa noi?iiu: “Nieiaaoa eue n iaaeieeia
iaaeie/uenoaa?” — “Nieiaai, ainiiaeeia.” Ia yoii caeii/eeinue
neaaenoaea. Iinea yoiai ia/aeny nai noaeaaiue i?ioeann. Noae ni?inee
noa?oeaa niaoiai?neeo: “anoue ee o aan, noa?eeia, eoi, eiio oi aaaeiii,
/oi aai a Ia?a?aa ?aea oanoay /anoue i?iacaea aeaey?” Noa?oeu oeacaee
noa?eea Oa?aioey Eoaeaoiaa, ia iaai nineaeenue e nya?u; oaeei ia?acii,
yoi auea nnueea iauay nnueea iaieo enooeia ia iaeiiai noa?iaeeea. Iinea
aeii?ina iineaaeiaai eii/eeinue aeaei. Noa?oeaa niaoiai?neeo
“ii?aaeoii”, nya?ia “iiaeieoii e aeaoii” Niaoiai?neiio iiianou?th
i?aaoth a?aiioo (“noaeieoeo”). Iinea yoiai auee iineaiu iaaeieee
auaeaeeoue oanooth /anoue ?aee Ia?a?au ia i?iacae Niaoiai?neiio
iiianou?th. Noaouey 10 INA a aeaiiii neo/aa iaycuaaao caeii/eoue aeaei
noaeaaiui iiaaeeieii. Iiaeiaiie aea yaeyaony noaouey 106 INA: “106. A
eoi n eei ?inoyaeoony i caiee eee i ai?oe, aea iieiaeao a?aiiou noa?ua e
eoieaiioth naith a?aiioo, e aai a?aiiou caeaeoo iiiauo ai nya?ia caiee e
ai?oe e nya?u ane noaioo ia noae a iaeiii ianoa, ioaa/ath/e eoi ae ca
naith caieth, eee ca ai?oue, aea e a?aiiou i?aae ainiiaeith iieeaaeoo,
aea e iaaeieeia aicioo, e oie ioaaaeoo o noa?eeia ii naiae eoiiie
a?aiioa naith /anoue, eii aio i?aaaea aeaoe ia naiae /anoe. A
oeaeiaaiueth auoue iaeiiio, a iioeaeoao ai anao nya?ia, eii aio e
noaeieoea aeaoue ia /anoue, ia eioi?ie iioeaeoao.” Noaouee 11-12
?anniao?eaatho, /oi aeaeaoue iinea noaeaaiiai iiaaeeiea: “11. A eioi?ie
naiaai enooea ia?aiiae(ao)… 12. A eioi?ie enoaoeue … oai. Eii oiai
/aeiaaea iiaeieoe, e a?aiiou aai iinoaeeoue, a i?aaiio /aeiaaeo ia oo
caieth e noaeieoea aeaoe; a iiaenoaeie/uea eiycth e iinaaeieeii e nue
nioneeie acyoe 10 aeaiaa.”

E?iia ianeaaenoaaiiie aio/eiu, Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa ?aaoee?oao e
aeaaeaiea “ei?ieyie” — caieyie, iieo/aiiuie io ?anioaeeee eee io /anoiuo
eeoe a iiaeeciaiiia (ii ia ianeaaenoaaiiia) aeaaeaiea. Ei?iee
cai?auaeinue i?iaeaaaoue (noaouey 72 INA): “72. A eioi?iio /aeiaaeo
aoaeao ei?iey iaienaiia a ?oeiienaiee, e aea a?aiioaie aeaaeaoue
caieaiuie o/iao eee enaaeneeie, a i?iaeano ooth caieth eee (e)naae, eee
eiia /oi, a aeiee/ao oiai /aeiaaea, eii aio caiey oa, eee enaae, eee
eiia aueoieoue, a naith e?uieth iie?ae.” Eae aeaeii ec noaouee, a neo/aa
i?iaeaaee ei?iee, aa iaiaoiaeeii auei aueoieoue e aa?iooue aeaaeaeueoeo,
a auaoee aeaaeaeae ei?iee eeoaeny ia iaa i?aaa.

3. Iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia i?aai.

Ii n?aaiaieth n ?onneie I?aaaeie a Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa aieaa
?acaeoay nenoaia iaycaoaeuenoaaiiiai i?aaa. Aio iinayuaii ieiei o?aoe
noaoae iaiyoieea. INA auee ecaanoiu aeiaiai?u eoiee-i?iaeaaee, aea?aiey,
caeiaa, caeia, iaiu, iieeaaee, iaeia iiiauaiee, ee/iiai iaeia e
eci?ie/anoaa.

3.1. Aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee.

Aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa caeeth/aeny oieueei a
ienueiaiiie oi?ia (noaouee 10 – 13). Eoiey — i?iaeaaea, caeeth/aiiay a
iao?acaii ninoiyiee iiaea auoue i?eciaia iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie ii
o?aaiaaieth iaeiie ec noi?ii: “114. A eoi n eei ia iueyie iaieony /ei,
eee /oi eoieo, a iioii i?iniyony e iaeiiio enoeo ia ethai aoaeao, eii ei
?aciaieony, a a oii oeaeiaaiea iao, ia i?enoaeaoe.” Eae aeaeii ec
aeaiiie noaouee, oaeia aea i?aaeei aeaenoaiaaei e ai a?aiy iaiaia. A
noaouea 101 ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi eoieaiiia iaeuecy aa?iooue i?iaeaaoeo e
iaeuecy ia?auaoueny a noae ii yoiio iiaiaeo: “101. I oi?aiaea e i
ii?oea. A eoi eiao ia eii oi?aiaee eneaoue, eee ii?oeu, eee eiaiiiai
/aai, eii oiai noaeeoue ia oiai aieth, ia eii ni/ao, oi/ao ia iiea
eacaoue, eee o e?anoa iieiaeeo.” Ii a noaouea 118 aeaeaeinue eneeth/aiea
ec iauaai i?aaeea — iaeuecy auei i?iaeaaaoue aieueiie e?oiiue ?iaaoue
neio: “118. A ei?iao eoieoue ca nethaeaii, a ii oi?aiaee oaeyo ia
ni/eoue, a oieea ei?iaa e?iaueth iiia/eaaaony eiao eii oay ei?iaa iacaae
ai?ioeoue, /oiau e aeaiae caiea/aiu auee.”

3.2. Aeiaiai? aea?aiey.

I aeiaiai? aea?aiey aiai?eo oieueei iaeia noaouey Ineianeie Noaeiie
A?aiiou — noaouey 100. A iae aiai?eony: “100. A eioi?ie /aeiaae i?e
naiai aeeaioa, eee i?aae nia?oeth a /oi aeanoue naiath ?oeith ieaiyiieeo
naiaio ieaoii eee eiia aeeaioiia, eee io/eio, aea e a?aiiou aeano i?aae
iiiii, eee i?aae noi?iiiuie ethaeie, eii oiio oai aeaiueai aeaaeaoue,
/oiau e ?o(ei)ienaiea ia auei.” Oi anoue aea?aiey i?eciaaaeinue oieueei
a oii neo/aa, anee iii auei i?iecaaaeaii ia?aae nayuaiieeii eee ia?aae
ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Aeiaiai? aea?aiey iia caeeth/aoueny a ienueiaiiie
eee onoiie oi?ia.

3.3. Caeia.

Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa i?iaiaeeo /aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo caeiaii
iaaeaeaeeiiai e aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa (“caeeaaeii”). A iae eiaaony
oeaeue ?acaeae (noaouee 28 — 33), ioiinyueeny e acuneaieth aeaiaaeiuo
nnoae ii “caeeaaeo” e “aeineai”, oi anoue ii ?anieneai e /anoiui aeoai.
Aac caiene e caeeaaea enee i?eciaaaeenue ia noiio aei 1 ?oaey i?e
oneiaee i?aaeuyaeaiey “aeinie”. I?e nnoaeao nauoa 1 ?oaey iaaei auei
ninoaaeyoue caienue eeai i?eieiaoue caeeaae, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue a iniauo
caeeaaeiuo aeineao. A noaouea 28 INA aiai?eony: “28. A eoi ia eii eiao
ni/eoue nunoaeiaai na?aa?a ii aeineai, a naa?o oiai e caeeaae iieiaeeo,
eii aiey oiai /aeiaaea, eoi eiao na?aa?a ni/eoue ii caeeaaeo, oi/ao nai
iioeaeoao aea naia na?aa?i aiciao, a oi/ao caeeaae aio o e?anoa
iieiaeeo, e ii iioeaeiaaa aea naie caeeaae aiciao, a iiea /a?ac caeeaae
ia i?enoaeaoe, a caeeaaeiuo aeine ia iinoaeaoe.” Oi anoue anee /aeiaae
niiaeao aeieacaoue i?e iiiiue “aeinie” e caeeaaea, /oi ii
aeaenoaeoaeueii aeaaae eiouanoai eee aeaiueae a aeiea, oi ii eiaao i?aai
acyoue n ioaao/eea nnoaeaiiua aio aeaiueae, ioaeaa i?e yoii caeeaae. A
aeaeao iiaeiaiiai ?iaea cai?auaeinue i?enoaeaeaoue noaeaaiue iiaaeeiie.
Ii Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa ?ac?aoaeinue aicaoaeaeaoue oaieiaiua aeaea
i caeiaa aac iaee/ey “aeinie” eee caeeaaea ia noiio ia aieaa 1 ?oaey:
“30. A eoi eiao aeaaao na?aa?i a caei, eii aeaoe aei ?oaey aac caeeaaea
e aac caiene a aieoe ?oaee ia aeaaaoe aac caeeaaea e aac caiene. A eoi
eiaoue … oe nnoaea na?aa?a ii aeineai aac caeeaaea aiea ?oaey, eii
oiai aeinea iiaeieoe, a oiai i?aaa, ia eii ni/ao.” A noaouea 31
aiai?eony i oii, /oi aeieaeiee iiaeao ioeacaoueny ioaeaaaoue aeiea a oii
neo/aa, anee noieiinoue aaue, ioaeaiiie a caeia, ?aaiicia/ia eee aieueoa
nnoaeaiiie noiiu: “31. Ooi ia eii eiao nnoaeiaai na?aa?a ii aeineai, a
naa?o oiai e caeeaae iieiaeeo ia iaai ieaoiie eee aeiniao, eee eiiue,
eee eiia ooi iac?y/aa e aeeaioiia, a oio caeeaae oiai na?aa?a ia noaeeo,
/aai euao, ioii?aony naiaai caeeaaeo, a iieaeo oae: o oaaa anie oiai ia
caeeaaeae, a o oaaa anie ia aceiae ie/aai ae, eii eoi euao oiio /aeiaaeo
oai caeeaaeii aeaaeaoe, a oio i?aa, ia eii ni/ao.” Caeiiaeaaoeai
i?aaeinoaaeyeenue eueaiou ii n?aaiaieth n aeieaeieeaie. Iai?eia?, anee
ca aeieaeieea ii?o/eony /aeiaae, a iioii caeiiaeaaaoe ia/iao o?aaiaaoue
aeaiueae n ii?o/eoaey, oi aeiea n/eoaaony auiea/aiiui oieueei a oii
neo/aa, anee a ai?iaeneii a?oeaa anoue ia yoii caienue: “32. A eioi?ie
/aeiaae ii?o/eony ca ae?oaa a na?aa?a, a eiao oio /aeiaae ni/eo ia
ii?o/ieea naiaai na?aa?a, e oio enoaoe ii eii ?oea aeaia, auiao i?ioea
naiaai enoea ?yaeieoeo, a iieaeo oae: ac, a?aoa, oiaa caieaoee oi
na(?a)a?i ca oith ?oeith, a o iaia e ?yaeieoea ooi aio ia ni/eoue
enoueoeo ia enoea oiai na?aa?a, ie ia ii?o/ieee, eii oay ii?yaeiy
iiaeieoue, aaea a ea?u ia aoaeao a ou ae ?a/e, a enoeo ciaoe ii?o/ieea a
naiai na?aa?a, eoi ii eii ?oeo aeae.” E oiio aea cai?auaeanue ii?oea ca
aeieaeieea, aeiea eioi?iai i?aauoaao 1 ?oaeue: “33. A ii?oea auoue aei
?oaey, a aieoe ia auoe ?oaey.” Iiaeiaiui aea ia?acii ?aoaeenue aeaea i
aeaiueaao, ioaeaiiuo aeey oi?aiauo iai?ioia, anee a ai?iaeneii a?oeaa ia
auei eiiee ?anienee, i?aeuyaeaiiie noaeo: “38. A eoi eiao ia eii ni/eo
oi?aiauo aeaiaa ii aeineai, oio /aeiaae i?ioeao iieiaeeo ?yaeieoeo, a a
?yaeieoeu aoaeao iaienaii i oi?aiaee aea, a i?ioeao oie ?yaeieoeu ia
aoaeao ai Nayoae O?ieoeu a ea?e a oa ae ?a/e ae?oaie, eii oay ?yaeieoea
iiaeieoe.”

3.4. Aeiaiai? caeia.

Aeey i?eciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiui aeiaiai?a caeia ia noiio aieueoa 1 ?oaey
iaiaoiaeeii auei, /oiau ii aue caeeth/ai a ienueiaiiie oi?ia e
iaania/eaaeny caienueth e caeeaaeii: “30. A eoi eiao aeaaao na?aa?i a
caei, eii aeaoe aei ?oaey aac caeeaaea e aac caiene a aieoe ?oaee ia
aeaaaoe aac caeeaaea e aac caiene. A eoi eiaoue … oe nnoaea na?aa?a ii
aeineai aac caeeaaea aiea ?oaey, eii oiai aeinea iiaeieoe, a oiai i?aaa,
ia eii ni/ao.” Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa aue ecaanoai einoeooo ii?oee,
ii ii?o/aoueny iiaeii auei oieueei ca nnoaeo ia aieueoa 1 ?oaey: “33. A
ii?oea auoue aei ?oaey, a aieoe ia auoe ?oaey.” A Ineianeie Noaeiie
A?aiioa anoue ?yae iinoaiiaeaiee, eioi?ua eanathony i?ioeaioia ii caeio
e oeacuaatho ia ?acaeooth nenoaio ?inoiaue/aneeo ioiioaiee. A noaouea 73
oeacuaaeinue, /oi caeiiaeaaaoe eiae i?aai acyoue i?ioeaiou n aeieaa
oieueei iinea oiai, eae i?aaenoaaeo noaeo ?anieneo i nnoaea aeaiaa: “73.
A eioi?iio /aeiaaeo ia eii aoaeao eiaiea ii caiene, aea e ainoeiaoe
aoaeao ienai ia caiene, a i?eeaeao ca?ie, eii aio yaeo ainiiaea i naiai
ainoeioea, eii e ii ca?iee aio acyoue naie ainoeiaoeue; a oieei ia yaeo
ca?ie ainiiaea, ainoeioea eii aio ia acyoue ii ca?iea.” Caeiiaeaaoeai
cai?auaeinue ?aiueoa n?iea a?aoue i?ioeaiou n nnoaeu, anee yoi ia auei
aeaeaieai aeieaeieea: “74. A eoi ii/iao eiaoue naiaai enoea a naiai
n?aa?a aei ca?iea, eii aio ainoeioea ia acyoue. A ia eiai n?aa?i eiaoe,
e oio /aeiaae aei ca?ieo o/iao n?aa?i ioaeaaaoue, eiio aeiiaao, eii
ainoeioea aeaoue, ii n/aoo aio acyoue.” Anee aeieaeiee ia niia eee ia
caoioae aia?aiy caieaoeoue i?ioeaiou ii aeieao, oi ana noaeaaiua
ecaea?aeee aeieaeai aue auiea/eaaoue ii: “93. A o eiai nooeeony
aeieaeiee a caiene, a ia ca?ie ia noaiao, eee eci?iee a caiene aoaeao, a
o/iao ooeeony, a /oi o/eieony i?ioi?u eee i?enoaaiia, eee caiiaaaeue,
eii ana ieaoeoue aeiiaaoiio, eoi ooeeony, e aeaeaciia.”

3.5. Aeiaiai? iieeaaee.

Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa aue ecaanoai “aeiaiai? iieeaaee” — o?aiaiey
eiouanoaa. Noaeaaiua ?acae?aoaeuenoaa ii yoei noaoueyi i?iecaiaeeeenue
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee i?aoaicee auee iiaee?aieaiu ”caienyie” —
th?eaee/anee caaa?aiiuie aeoaie: “19. A eoi eiao eneaoe caethaeaiea ii
aeineai aaceiaii, noa?eia, eii oio ia aeieneaeny.” I?e ioaea/e eiouanoaa
ia o?aiaiea ii yeno?aiiui i?e/eiai — iouacaea ca a?aieoeo, iiaea?a eee
?aca?aaeaiee aeiia “ii a?aoii … ?iae iiie/eony” — /aeiaae aeieaeai aue
ia iicaea, /ai /a?ac iaaeaeth iinea i?eacaea ec-ca a?aieoeu eee iiaea?a,
iiaeaoue ene a noae i aica?aoa eiouanoaa: “16. A i caethaeaiee, eiio …
a iiaea?o eee ii a?aoii ia eiai ?iae iiie/eony, a o oiai a?aiyie /oi
eiio aeano ia caethaeaiea, a eiao i?ineo naiaai, e oio /aeiaae cai?aony,
o iaai acai, eii eiio eneao, yaeoe aio. 17. … /thaeie caiee i?eaoaa
eee iiae iiaea? ca iaaeaeth eee ii a?aaaaeo, e oio eiao caienaony, eii
oio noae noaeeoue ia oiai aieth … oi/ao nai iioeaeoao, eee ia iiea
eacaoue, eee o e?anoa iieiaeeo naiaio enoeo.”

3.6. Aeiaiai? iaeia eiouanoaa.

A Ineiaa, eae a e?oiiii oi?aiaii ai?iaea, aue ?acaeo aeiaiai? iaeia
eiouanoaa — neeaaeneeo iiiauaiee, aiaa?ia, eaa?oe? aeey i?eacaeeo
eoioeia e i?i/aai. Anoanoaaiii, /oi ana yoi aeieaeii auei iaeoe
io?aaeaiea a Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa. Ii ec anao noaoae Ineianeie
Noaeiie A?aiiou oieueei iaeia iai?yioth ioiineony e aeiaiai?o iaeia
eiouanoaa: “103. A iiaenonaaeiee ia ainoaea?e (n)noaeuee eee eiiai /aai
aieii eneaoe. A eioi?iio n eei noieaoea auea caienueth eee caeeaaeii, e
iioii oio /aeiaae, eioi?ie a caiene aue eee caeeaae caeeaaeuaae eiio,
aea o/iao ia oii aea /aai eneaoue, nnoaeuey eee caethaeaiuey, eee eiiai
/aai, ii aeineai, eee oi?aiaee, eii oi noaeeoue noaeii ii ineianeie
iioeeia.”

3.7. Aeiaiai? ee/iiai iaeia.

A Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa oaeaea anoue noaouee i ee/iii iaeia,
caeeth/aaoainy n ?acee/iuie ?aaioieeaie. Iaai ?aianeaiieeia a XIV-XV
aa. iieo/ee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. A Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa anoue
ianeieueei noaoae, ?aaoee?othueo ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iaieiaoaeyie e
iaeieoaie. A noaouea 39 aiai?eony, /oi iaeieo iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai
iieo/eoue ieaoo ca naith ?aaioo, a anee ii aa ia iieo/aao, oi eiaao
i?aai iieo/eoue aa /a?ac noae: “39. A eioi?ie ianoa? ieioiee eee iaeieo
ionoieo naie o?ie e ieioiee eee iaeieo … naia aeaei ioaeaeaao … ia
ainoaea?ao e acaeee/ue ni/eo naiaai iaeia.” Iaeieo eiae i?aai eneaoue
ieaou ca naith ?aaioo aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee ii ?anoi?aioe aeiaiai? n
iaieiaoaeai, ii a yoii neo/aa aio aeieaeiu auee caieaoeoue iaiueooth
noiio: “40. A eioi?ie iaeieo aeai?iie iieaeao i?i/ue io ainoaea?y, ia
aeinoiya naiaai o?iea, eii aio iaeio acyoe ii n/aoo, a ni/eo aio iaeia
naiaai ca aiae, /oiau 5 aiaeia, eee 10 aiae noiyaoe, e anao ouo aio aiae
noiyaoe iaeia ni/eoue eae ioeaea ca aiae ni/eoue, oieei aoaeao iaeia
iaeiae o ainoaea?y, a oieei iieaeao aieoe aiaea, eii ei ia ni/eoe ia
ainoaea?ao.” Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiie noaouee iaeieo oa?ye yoi i?aai,
anee ia ia?auaeny a noae a oa/aiea aiaea. Anee iaeieo, ?aci?aaa aeiaiai?
n iaieiaoaeai ?aiueoa a?aiaie, cayaeo a noaea, /oi ii auiieiee anth
?aaioo, ia eioi?oth iaieiaeny, oi oaeia aeaei ?aoaeinue ?anniio?aieai
aeiaiai?a i iaeia: “41. A eioi?ie iaeieo ieioiee, a ii/eao ni/eoue iaeia
naiaai ia ainoaea?e, a aeaea aai ia ioaeaeaao, a iieaeao i?i/ue, a ?eo/e
oae ainoaea?th, o oaaa anie ioaeaeae aeaei naia ana, e ainoaea?ue
iieaeo: ia ioaeaeae ane anaai aeaea naiaai, eii ainoaea?th o e?anoa
iieiaeuoue /aai ni/eoue, eee ainoaea?ue nai iioeaeoao, aaea o ieo caiene
ia aoaeao.”

Iiiai noaoae a Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa iinayuaii ?aaoee?iaaieth
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie e a?aaeaoi?aie-eci?ieeaie.
Iai?eia?, a?aiaeo cai?auaii auei i?ae?auaoue a ethaie aeaiue aiaea,
e?iia Oeeeiiiaa caaiaaiuey. Anee aea caieaaeaaeaeaoe caoi/ao i?ae?aoeoue
a?aiaeo ?aiueoa eee iicaea Oeeeiiiaa caaiaaiuey, oi ii eeoaeny ia aiae
iieiaeiu a?aiaeiie ieaou, a eci?iee iia aua aiae i?iaeieaeaoue
a?aiaeiaaoue caieth: “42. A eioi?ie ainoaea?ue caoi/aoue io?ie aeaoe
naiaio (e)ci?ieeo eee iai?iaeiaeo, eee ei/aoieeo, eii io?ie auoe i
Oeeeiiaa caaiaaeia, oaeiae caoi/ao eci?iee i(o)?a/eny n naea, eee
iai?iaeieeo, eee (ei)/aoiee, eii oiio ae io?ieo auoe, a eiiio io?ieo ia
auoe, ie io ainoaea?y, ie io eci?ieea, ie io ei/aoieea, ie io
iai?iaeieea, a cai?aony eci?iee eee iai?iaeiee, eee ei/aoiee io?iea
ainoaea?aaa, eii aio i?aaaea aeaoue, a ainoaea?ue ia aeieneaeny
/aoaa?oe, eee iai?iaeiie /anoe, eee n unaaeu ?uaii(e) /anoe.”
Caieaaeaaeaeaoe aeaaea iinea i?ae?auaiey a?aiaeu eiae i?aai eneaoue ia
a?aaeaoi?a naiae nnoaeu, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iauyaea ia yoii ia ?uiea: “44.
A ainoaea?th ia eci?ieee eee ia iai?iaeieee, eee ia ei/aoieee aieii e
acaeee/ue naiae iie?oou e ni/eoue na?aa?a e anyeie aa?oe ii eiaie, eee
ioaieoea y?ie eee iceiie, e ii io?oeo ainoaea?aao eee nai io?a/aony.”
I?e yoii a?aiaeaoi? iia cayaeoue, /oi ii ia iieo/ae nnoaeu io
caieaaeaaeaeueoea. Anee caieaaeaaeaeaoe iia i?e yoii i?aaeinoaaeoue
naeaeaoaeae, eioi?ua a noaea cayaeee au, /oi a?aiaeaoi? eiae onaaeueao
eee a?ae nnoaeo o caieaaeaaeaeueoea, oi a?aiaeaoi? i?enoaeaeaeny e
auieaoa nnoaeu, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa — ene caieaaeaaeaeueoea iauyaeyeny
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui: “51. A eiee eci?iee eiao caie?aoueny o ainoaea?y
iie?oou, a iieaeo oae: o oaay anie ia naea aeeaae, a oaaa anie ia
aeiiaao, eii ia oi ainoaea?th oiio iinoaaeoue ethaee noi?iiiea /aeiaaee
4 e(ee) 5, a oui ethaeai neacaoe eae i?yii i?aae Aiaii, eae /enoi ia
naea naaeae, eii ainoaea?th i?aaaea aeaaoe acyoue naia, eee ici?ieeo
aa?eo, oi aiey ainoaea?aaa. A oieei ainoaea?ue ia iinoaaeo ethaeae ia
oi, /oi eci?iee ia naea naaeae, eii oio /aeiaae iie?oou naiae ia
aeieneaeny.” A?aiaeaoi?ai cai?auaeinue noaeeoueny ni naiei
caieaaeaaeaeueoeai i nnoaea, acyoie caieaaeaaeaeueoeai o a?aiaeaoi?a:
“75. A eioi?ie eci?iee ia ainoaea?y iieiaeeo a /ai aeineo, eii oa aeinea
iinoaeeoue. A noa?iio eci?ieeo aice aanoe ia ainoaea?y.” A neo/aa
aaanoaa a?aiaeaoi?a ca a?aieoeo, caieaaeaaeaeaoe eiae i?aai i?iaeaoue n
oi?aia eiouanoai a?aiaeaoi?a e acyoue n iieo/aiiuo aeaiaa a?aiaeioth
ieaoo e nnoaeu. Anee aea aeaiaa ia oaaoaei, oi caieaaeaaeaeaoe eiae
i?aai iiaeaoue a noae ia a?aiaeaoi?a, eiaaea oio aa?iaony ec-ca
a?aieoeu: “76. A eioi?ie eci?iee n naea caaaeeo ca ?oaaae eee eiaea
aaea, a eci?ie/ aeeaio ia naee inoaiaony ainoaea?th iie?ooa eiaoue ia
eci?ieee, eii ainoaea?th o eiycy e o iinaaeieea acyoue i?enoaa, aea e
noa?inoue aoaueneeo iicaaoe e noi?iiieo ethaeae, aea oio aeeaio eci?ie/
i?aae i?enoaau e i?aae noi?iiiuie ethaeie ainoaea?th iii?iaeaoe aea e
iieiaoe ca naith iie?ooo, a /aai ia aeinoaiao, a ii oii a?aiaie yaeony
eci?iee, eii ainoaea?th aeia?iaieii eneaoue inoaoea naiaai iie?oou, a
ainoaea?th iaie iao, a eci?ieeo ia ainoaea?e aeeaioa ia ni/eo, a ni/eo
ineianeei.”

4. Ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai.

4.1. Ianeaaeiaaiea ii caaauaieth.

Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa ciaao aeaa aeaea ianeaaeeiaaiey eiouanoaa:
ianeaaeiaaiea ii caaauaieth e ianeaaeiaaiea ii caeiio. Caaauaiea
i?eciaaaeinue aeaenoaeoaeueiui, anee iii auei iaienaii e naeaii a
ai?iaeneie a?oea (noaouey 14 INA).

4.2. Ianeaaeiaaiea ii caeiio.

A Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa iaicia/ai e?oa eeoe-ianeaaeieeia ii caeiio.
E iei ioiinyony: ioaoe, iaoue, nui, a?ao, nano?a (noaouey 15). Ii aeaoe
eeoaeenue i?aaa ianeaaenoaa ii caeiio, anee ioaeaeyeenue io ?iaeeoaeae:
“53. Aaea nui iooea eee iaoa?ue ia nei?ieo aei nia?oe, a iieaeao ec
aeiio, /anoe aio ia acyoue.” Ioae eee aeaia, iinea eii/eiu noi?oaa,
eiaee i?aai iieueciaaoueny aai eiouanoaii aei anooieaiey ai aoi?ie a?ae
eee aei naiae nia?oe.

5. Oaieiaiia i?aai.

5.1. I?anooieaiey i?ioea ainoaea?noaa.

A Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa ecaanoai iiaue ?iae i?anooieaiee, eioi?uo ia
auei a ?onneie I?aaaea — ainoaea?noaaiiay eciaia. Ca ainoaea?noaaiioth
eciaio iieaaaeanue aunoay ia?a iaeacaiey — nia?oiay eaciue (noaouey 7
INA).

5.2. I?anooieaiey i?ioea noaeaaiuo i?aaiia.

Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa oaeaea i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaeacaiey ca
i?anooieaiey i?ioea noaeaaiuo i?aaiia. Ca aoiae a cae noaea ianeeueii
eee oaea? “iiaeaa?ieea” iieaaaeny oo?ao: 1 ?oaeue eiycth e 10 aeaiaa
iiaeaa?ieeo(noaouey 58). Cai?auaeinue ecaeaaoue enooea eee ioaao/eea:
“111. A eoi i?aae ainiiaeith oaea?eo ia noaea naiaai enoueoea, eii aai a
?oaee auaeaoue oiio /aeiaaeo, a eiycth i?iaeaaea.”

5.3. Eiouanoaaiiua i?anooieaiey.

Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa ii n?aaiaieth n ?onneie I?aaaeie onoaiaaeeaaao
aieaa ?acaeooth nenoaio iaeacaiee ca eiouanoaaiiua i?anooieaiey. E?aaea
aeaeeeanue ia i?inooth (e?aaea ec eeaaeiaie, n aico, eiaeee, neioa) e
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiioth (iiaeaeia, eiiie?aaenoai, e?aaea oea?eiaiiai
eiouanoaa). Ca i?inooth e?aaeo iieaaaeny oo?ao a ?acia?a io 4 aeaiaa aei
70 a?eaai (noaouey 1). Ca eaaeeoeoee?iaaiioth e?aaeo iieaaaeanue
nia?oiay eaciue (noaouey 7). Anee ai?a o?eaeaeu eiaeee ca e?aaeo, oi aai
eacieee (noaouey 8). Anee /aeiaae oaeaeao o eiai-ieaoaeue naith
e?aaeaiioth aauue, oi ii eiae i?aaa iio?aaiaaoue aica?aoa aa. Anee
ioaao/ee i?enyaae, /oi ii eoiee aa ia ?uiea, oi enoaoe iieo/ae /anoue
e?aaeaiiiai eiouanoaa, a neo/aa aea, anee enoaoe ia aa?ee i?enyaa
ioaao/eea e ia iia aeieacaoue, /oi ioaao/ee oe?ae yoo aauue, oi enoaoe
oa?ye naia eiouanoai (noaouey 46). Anee e?aaeaiiay aauue ia?aoea ii
ianeaaenoao e /aeiaaeo, o eioi?iai aa iaia?oaeeee, oi ii eiae i?aai,
aunoaaea /aou?ao naeaeaoaeae ia i?enyaaoue ii o?aaiaaieth enooea, a
enoaoe oa?ye naie ene (noaouey 55). Ineianeea /eiiaieee, i?aauneaoea
naie iieiiii/ey e neeie ioiyaoea o inoaeaeaiiiai eiouanoai, noaeeeenue
ii INA eae ca a?aaaae (noaouey 48). Iieacaiey ai?a ia i?eieiaeenue
naaaeaieth, anee ii iaaeiye eiai-ieaoaeue a nio/anoee. O iaaiai?aiiiai
/aeiaaea ia aeiio i?iecaiaeeeny iaune, e oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee oai
/oi-ieaoaeue iaoiaeeee, ioiinyuaany e aeaeo, oi yoiai /aeiaaea iaaeiyee:
“60. A oaoth aa?u ia iyoue, a ia eiai aiceeaieao, eii aeii aai iauneaoue
e ciaeaeooue a aeiio aai /oi iieeoiia, e ii oio aea oaoue, a ia iaeaeoo
a aeiio aai, e ii naiaiaeai.”

5.4. I?anooieaiey i?ioea ee/iinoe.

E i?anooieaieyi i?ioea ee/iinoe ii Ieianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa ioiineeenue
oaeenoai, iaianaiea iiaiaa e inei?aeaiey aeaenoaeai. A neo/aa oaeenoaa n
i?anooiieea acuneeaaeny oo?ao a ?acia?a 1 ?oaey a iieueco eiycy e iniaia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea naiuea oaeoiai. Iaianaiea iiaiaa (noaouey 27) eee
au?uaaiea ai?iaeu (noaouey 11?) eaaeeoeoee?iaaeinue eae inei?aeaiea
aeaenoaeai. Iaianaiea iiaiaa a iauanoaaiiii ianoa iaeacuaaeinue oo?aoii
a iieueco eiycy, a ca au?uaaiea ai?iaeu iieaaaeny oo?ao a 2 ?oaey.
Noaouey 58 iaeacuaaea ecaeaoaai naiaai enooea ia?aae noaeii oo?aoii a
?acia?a 1 ?oaey a iieueco eiycy.

6. Noaeaaiue i?ioeann.

6.1. ?acaeaeaiea noaea.

Noae ii Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa ?acaeaeyeny ia noae eiyaeaneee e noae
oea?eiaiue. E eiyaeaneiio noaeo ioiineeenue: “iae eeaoue iie?aaeoo ca
ciieii eee naie iiae iienoueth eee aic iiae oeoyaith eee eiaeueth iiae
iieoau, eee aue yia eee neioa oe?aaeatho eee naii naa?oo noiaa eiaoue,
oi ana noae eiyaeie, a i?iaeaaee 9 aeaiaa, a ?acaie, iaoiae, a?aaaae 70
a?eaai…”. Noaouey 2 Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiiou oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaea
ioaeaeueiue noae iaianoieea a?oeaieneiia. A yoio noae caiauaeinue
aiaoeaaoueny eiyaeaneiio iaianoieeo eee ainiiaea, a iaianoieeo
a?oeaieneiia cai?auaeinue aiaoeaaoueny a naaoneee noae: “2. E aeaaeu/ith
iaianoieeo noae e ia noae ia noaeeoue, ie noaeeyi ie iaianoieeo eiyaea
noaea ia noaeeoa.” A noaouea 109 auei caienaii eaeea aeaea ioiinyony e
eaeiio noaeo. Noae, eiaaea e enoaoe, e ioaao/ee yaeyeenue aeooiaiuie
eeoeaie, ioiineeny e eiiiaoaioeee oea?eiaiiai noaea. Anee aea e enoaoe,
e ioaao/ee yaeyeenue ie?yiaie, oi noae ioiineeny e eiiiaoaioeee ie?neiai
noaea — Ainiiaeu. Anee iaeei yaeyeny ie?yieiii, a aoi?ie — aeooiaiui
eeoeii, oi niae?aeanue iniaay eieeaaey, ninoiyaoay ec eiycy, iinaaeieea
e iaianoieea a?oeaieneiia: “109. A iiiu e aeeyeiiu e i?ineo?ieoea e
/a?iueoea e /a?ieoea noaeeoue iaianoieeo aeaaeu/ueith. Aaea iii, eee
aeeaeii eee i?ioeao /a?iueoea, eee /a?ieoeu ae, a aoaeao iaae ia i?inoua
ethaee oea?eiaiua, eii ia noaeeoue eiycth, ie iinaaeieeo, ie noaeeai ia
noaeeoue, caiaaea noae aeaaeu/iy iaianoieea, a aoeao iaeei /aeiaae
i?inoie enoaoe ie?yiei, aaea oea?eiaiue /aeiaae n oea?eiaiui, oi
noaeeoue eiycth e iinaaeieeo n aeaaeu/iei iaianoieeii aii/e, oaeiae e
noaeeyi.”

6.2. I?ioeann.

Noaeaaiue i?ioeann ii Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa iinee ninoycaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, ?ieue noaea ii n?aaiaieth n ?onneie I?aaaeie auea ai?acaei
aieueoa. Aucia ioaao/eea i?iecaiaeeeny naiei noaeii ii ioeoeeaeueiie
iiaanoea /a?ac noaeaaiiai eniieieoaey. Oeeiiaiea io yaee a noae aeaeei
ioeoeeaeueiia iaeacaiey — io aeaiaaeiiai oo?aoa aei i?eaea/aiey e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe eae ca oaeenoai. Cai?auaeinue ia?aniao?eaaoue aeaea,
?anniio?aiiua ?aiiaa, iinaaeiee, neiaeeaoee n naay iinaaeie/anoai,
iaycai aue nai ieii/eoue ia/aoua ei aeaea (noaouey 6). Noae niae?aeny o
eiycy a ia?aaeiae, noaeueyi cai?auaeinue aoiaeeoue a oaeiua naeaeee n
oyaeoueieny eee iiiiaaoue iaeiie ec noi?ii ia iniiaaiee ?iaenoaa eee
ae?oaeau (noaouee 3-4). *aeiaae, caieiaaoee ioaaonoaaiiue
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue iino ia iia oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue ia?aae noaeii i
niya/aiee iaeacaiey, anee aeaei ia cao?aaeaaei aai naiueth eee aeeceeo
(noaouee 68-69).

6.3. Aucia ioaao/eea.

Aucia ioaao/eea ia noae ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeny noaoueyie 25, 26, 57. A
noaouea 25 aiai?eony i oii, eae aucuaaoue ioaao/eea ia noae: “25. A
eioi?ie iiciaiee iieaeao enoea caaoe ia noae, e oio iicaaiue ia iieaeao
ia iiaino e oea?eae iicuaieoeu /anoe, eee nooeeony io iicuaieoeu, eii
iicuaieoea i?i/anoe ia iiainoa i?aae iiiii; eee iaeu oie ae iicaaiue
iicuaieoeath, ia aiey ia?ieo aea ia noaiao ia noae i?aae ainiiaeith, eii
ainiiaea aeaoue ia iaai a?aiioa ia aeiiaaoiai ia 5 aeai iiciaieeii.” A
neo/aa, anee ioaao/ee ne?uaaeny io “iiciaieoeu” — noaeaaiiai
eniieieoaey, i?ecaaiiiai aeinoaaeyoue a noae enooea e ioaao/eea — oi
“iiciaieoea” iaycai aue “i?i/anoe ia iiainoa a?aiioo i?aae iiiii.”
Iiciaieeai cai?auaeinue neeie i?eaiaeeoue enooeia ia noae, anee aea iie
i?eiaiyee neeo, oi eo aeieaeai aue noaeeoue noae: “26. A eoi aiciao
a?aiioo ia naiaai enoea, e iii ia?aii/iiio iieiaa ii a?aiioa ia io/eo,
ie aeoue, iinoaaeoue i?aae ainiiaeith; a ia?aii/iiio i?ioea naiaai enoea
ia aeoeny, ia eieioeny, a oieei eiao na/eny, eee eieioeny, aea o/eieo
aieiaoeio, eii auoe aio naiiio a aieiaoeia.”

6.4. Naeaeaoaee.

A Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa anoue o?e noaouee, iai?yioth ioiinyueany e
naeaeaoaeyi eee “iineooai”, eae iie eiaiiaaeenue ?aiueoa. A noaouea 22
aiai?eony i oii, /oi anee iineoo ia i?eaeao ia noae eee neaaeao ia?aoiia
oiio, /oi aeieacuaaao enoaoe, aucaaaoee aai, oi yoio naeaeaoaeue
ia?anoaao auoue naeaeaoaeai, a enoaoe n/eoaaony i?iea?aaoei noaeaaiia
?acae?aoaeuenoai: “22. A ia eioi?iai iineooa enoaoe iineaony, e iineoo
ia noaiao, eee noaa ia noaea ia aeiaiai?eo a ou ae ?a/e, eee
ia?aaiai?eo, eii oio iineoo ia a iineoo, aoio ia aeieneaeny.” Oaeaea
naeaeaoaeai ia n/eoaeny /aeiaae, caeioa?aniaaiiue a aeaiiii aeaea: “23.
Eee eioi?ue enoaoe iioeaony … ia iineooa, a ia eioi?ii ni/ao … a
?eo/e: oio iaia nai aee n oui naiei iineooii, a iiia/a ia iaai ae
oeaony, eii oio iineoo a iineoo, eioi?iai ia noaea iaeiyiotho.” Noae
eiae i?aai i?eaiai?eoue naeaeaoaey e noaeaaiiio iiaaeeieo. Ia yoii
noaeaaiii iiaaeeiea i?ioeaiee naeaeaoaey iia iaiyoue naaa iaeieoa, anee
aue “noa? eee ieaae, eee /ai aacaa/ai, eee iii, eee /a?iaoe”, a oi a?aiy
eae iineoo ia eiae i?aaa iaieiaoue naaa iaeieoa.

6.5. Iiniaie/anoai.

INA aeiioneaea noaeaaiua iiaaeeiee iaaeaeo enooeii e ioaao/eeii, eee
iaaeaeo enooeaie, ii oa?ieiieiaee INA, e “iineooaie” — naeaeaoaeyie. Oae
eae ia eaaeaeue iia aueoe ae?aoueny ia iiea, oi a?aiioa onoaiaaeeaaei
aiciiaeiinoue iiiiue oaeei ethaeyi — “iiniaie/anoai”. A noaouea 21, a
/anoiinoe, aiai?eony: “A i?ioea iineooa… noa? eee ieaae, eee /ai
aacaa/ai, eee iii, eee /a?iaoe eii i?ioea iineooa iaiyoue aieii iaeieo,
a iineooo iaeieoa iao.” A yoie noaouea cae?aieaia aiciiaeiinoue iaeia
aieoea i?ioea iineooa, i?e yoii iineoo ia eiae aiciiaeiinoe iaiyoue naaa
aieoea. Iaei aieoea ?ac?aoaeny oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee enoaoe aue ec
aeooiaainoaa, eiaaeeaeii eee neeoeii noa?ui eee iieiaeui. A noaouea 119
oeacuaaaony: “A aeiiee c aeiieith i?enoaeaoue iiea, a iaeieoo io aeiiee
ia auoe ie n iaeio noi?iio”, oi anoue anee enooeii e ioaao/eeii
yaeyeenue aeaiueiu, oi ei ?ac?aoaeinue i?enoaeaeaoue noaeaaiue
iiaaeeiie, i?e yoii ie iaeia ec ieo ia iiaea iaiyoue aieoea. Anee aea
iaeiie noi?iiie aue ioae/eia, a ae?oaie — aeaiueia, e ei aue iacia/ai
noaeaaiie iiaaeeiie, oi niaeanii noaouea 58 aeaiueia eiaea i?aai iaiyoue
aieoea: “… a iiniaieeia au ia auei ie n iaeiie noi?iiu, ii?e/ue
aeiiee, eee ca aeaoeio, eee ca /a?iueoea eee ca /a?ieoeo, eee eioi?ue
/aeiaae noa? aaeie eee aeoo, eii ca oao iiniaieeo auoe.” Ioaeaeueii
iaiaa?eaaeinue a noaouea 36 i?aai ia iaei aieoea i?e aeaeao, naycaiiuo n
caeeaaeaie e caeiaaie: “A ia eioi?ii /aeiaaea eiooue ni/eoe aeieao ii
aeineai, eee aeiiea, eee aeaoeia, eee noa?a, eee iaiiuia, eee /ai
aacaa/ai, eee /a?iaoe, eee /a?ieoea, eii ei iaeieoa aieii iaiyoe, a
enoeii oeaeiaaoe, a iaeieoii aeoenue, a i?ioea iaeieoa enoeo naiaai
iaeieoa aieii, eee nai eacao.” Ii nooe, caeanue iiyoue iaiaa?eaaeinue
i?aai enooea, anee ii yaeyeny ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei, eeoeii aeooiaiiai
nineiaey, aeaineiai iiea eee eiaaeeaeii, ia iaei aieoea. Ii a yoie
eaoaai?ee aeae, a neo/aa, anee iaeei enoaoe iieuecoaony iaaiiui aieoeii,
oi e ae?oaie eiae i?aai ia iaei aieoea, oiaaea eae a ae?oaeo aeaeao
yoiai ia aeiioneaeinue. Ii aieoeai-”iiniaieeai” cai?auaeinue a aeaiue
aeoueny n?aco aea ia aeaoo noaeaaiuo ?acae?aoaeuenoaao (noaouey 71): “A
iaeiiio iiniaieeo iaeiiai aeie ca 2 i?oaeea ia oyaaony.”

6.6. Eciaiaiea Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiiou.

A Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiioa a noaouea 108 cae?aieaia aiciiaeiinoue
eciaiaiey niaea?aeaiey noaoae e aeiiieiaiea aa iiauie noaoueyie: “A
eioi?ie no?iea iioeeiiie a?aiiou iao, e iinaaeieeii aeieiaeeoue
ainiiaeeia Ineiaa ia aa/e, aea oay no?iea iaienaoue. A eioi?ay no?iea a
nae a?aiioa iaethaa aoaeao ainiiaeeio Ineiao, eii oa no?iea aieii
auienaoue aiiue ec a?aiiou.” A yoie noaouea cae?aieaii, /oi noaouee ec
a?aiiou iiaeii ecuyoue, eciaieoue eee aeiiieieoue oieueei ii
i?aaenoaaeaieth iinaaeieea n niaeaney aa/a. Noaouee 109 — 120 n/eoathony
eiaiii oaeeie, iaienaiiuie iicaeiaa noaoueyie, iioiio /oi iaoiaeyony
iinea noaouee, aiai?yuae i aiciiaeiinoe eciaiaiey a?aiiou, eioi?ay, ii
eaeaa, aeieaeia auea caaa?oaoue anth a?aiioo.

Caeeth/aiea.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa y iinoa?aeny ?anniio?aoue iniiaiua yoaiu enoi?ee
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa Naaa?i-Caiaaeiie ?one. Aiaeec caeiiiia?iinoae
?acaeoey Ae?aaiae ?one iicaieyao iauynieoue e iiiaea niauoey nia?aiaiiie
aeecie — ia yoii y aiai?ee ianeieueei eao iacaae a aanaaea n
ei??aniiiaeaioii aacaou “E aeinea”. ss oaaaeeeny a yoii aua aieueoa,
iiae?iaii eco/ea i?aai Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa. Ii iiaio ee/iiio iiaieth,
Iiaai?iae e Ineia yaeythony aioaaiienoaie, ii ia oaeeie, eae Iiaai?iae —
Iineaa, oi anoue ?anioaeeea — oe?aiey, a noaaeeueiinoue e ?anoeaao
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiu ianoaaeeueiinoe e oiaaeeo. E Iiaai?iae, e Ineia
yaeythony iaeeiaeiai ?anioaeeeaie, ii ?anioaeeee auaatho ?aciua.
Iaiieaii noae iiioey?ai n?aaee o?aioeocia, caiaiea a eicoiaa “Naiaiaea,
?aaainoai, a?aonoai” neiai “a?aonoai” ia neiai “nianoaaiiinoue” e
iinoaaea aai ia ia?aia ianoi. Oae e a Ineianeie ?anioaeeea ia ia?aii
ianoa noiyea /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue, /oi iaania/eaaei oaa?aiiinoue
n?aaeiaai eeanna a naiai caao?aoiai aeia, a niioaaonoaaiii e
noaaeeueiinoue iauanoaa. A Iiaai?iaeneie ?anioaeeea ia ia?aia ianoi
noaaeeenue ee/iua eioa?anu a?oiiu aiy?, /oi i?eaiaeeei e iaieuaieth
aieueoae /anoe ianaeaiey e iaiaauaieth yoie a?oiiu. Ionoonoaea
n?aaeiaai eeanna a Iiaai?iaea aeaeaei i?iecaie aiy? iaia?aie/aiiui, /oi
niioaaonoaaiii i?eaiaeeei e iinoiyiiui eiioeeeoai iaaeaeo aeaoiy
aioaaiienoe/aneeie eeannaie, a iioii i?eaaei e i?eniaaeeiaieth
Iiaai?iaea e Iineaa. Ineianeay ?anioaeeea iiaeaea ii ae?oaei i?e/eiai —
ec-ca /?acia?iiai oneeaiey Iineau, ii iia inoaaeea a ianeaaenoai
caia/aoaeueiue iaiyoiee aeaiie?aoe/aneiai i?aaa — Ineianeoth Noaeioth
A?aiioo.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. Aeaenaaa TH.A. Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa e aa a?aiy: ?acaeoea
oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee ia ?one a XIV-XV aa. I., 1980.

2. A?aiiou Aaeeeiai Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa. — I.-E., 1949.

3. Aoieeaa E.I. Ae?aaiyy ?onue e Aaeeeay Noaiue. — I.: Oiaa?euanoai
Eeuoieeia, Eiia?ia e E(, 1992. — 510 n.

4. Aoieeaa E.I. Io ?one e ?innee: i/a?ee yoie/aneie enoi?ee. /
Iineaneiaea N.A. Eaa?iaa. — I.: Yeii?in, 1992. — 336 n.

5. Cae/eei E.A., Ii/eaaa E.I. ?onneay enoi?ey: iiioey?iue i/a?e. IX —
na?aaeeia XVIII a. — I.: Iuneue, 1992. — 797 n.

6. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa NNN?: O/aaiee *.1. / iiae ?aaeaeoeeae
TH.I.Oeoiaa. — I.: TH?eaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a, 1988. — 544 n.

7. Enoi?ey NNN? n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei eiioea XVIII a.: O/aaiee / iiae
?aaeaeoeeae A.A. ?uaaeiaa. — 2-a ecaeaiea, ia?a?aaioaiiia e
aeiiieiaiiia. — I.: Aunoay oeiea, 1983. — 415 n.

8. Ea?aicei I.I. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai: a 6 eieaao / a 12
aaoi?neeo oiiao I.I. Ea?aiceia, ii 2 oiia a iaeiie eieaa / Eieae 1-3
(oo. I-VI). — I.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai “Eieaeiue Naae”, 1993. — 432 n.

9. Ea?aicei I.I. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai a 12 oiiao. O. II-III
/ iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.I. Naoa?iaa. — I.: Iaoea, 1991. — 832 n.

10. Eaoaiaaoc A.A. Ae?aaiee Ineia. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee oaiaeaeueiie
?anioaeeee. — I., 1969.

11. Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ineianeay I?aaaea // Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ni/eiaiey. A
9 O. O. VII. Niaoeeaeueiua eo?nu (i?iaeieaeaiea). — I.: Iuneue, 1989. —
508 n.

12. Eeth/aaneee A.I. Eo?n ?onneie enoi?ee // Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ni/eiaiey.
A 9 o. O. I-V. — I.: Iuneue, 1987.

13. Ieaoiiia N.O. Eaeoeee ii ?onneie enoi?ee. A 2 /anoyo. *anoue I. —
I.: AEAAeIN, 1994. — 480 n.

14. Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa // O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa NNN?. Aeiieoya?ueneee ia?eiae / iiae ?aaeaeoeeae TH.I.Oeoiaa,
I.E.*enoyeiaa. — I.: TH?eaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a, 1990. — 480 n.

15. Ineianeea eaoiiene. Auione 2. / iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Ianiiiaa A.I. — I.:
Ecaeaoaeuenoai AI NNN?, 1955.

16. Nieiaueaa N.I. Ni/eiaiey. A 18 ei. Ei. 1-3. O. 1-5. Enoi?ey ?innee n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. — I.: Aiein, 1993. — 768 n.

17. Oi?ioeaae/ A.E. Oi?aiaey Aaeeeiai Iiaai?iaea I?eaaeoeeie e Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiie a XIV — XV aa. — I., 1963.

18. O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee ?onneiai ycuea: O/aaiia iiniaea aeey
nooaeaioia iaaeaaiae/aneeo einoeoooia ii niaeaeueiinoe ?2101 “?onneee
ycue e eeoa?aoo?a” / Aaoi?u-ninoaaeoaee A.A. Eaaiia, O.A. Noiieeiaa,
I.I. Iaie?aoiaa. — I.: I?inaauaiea, 1990. — 496 n.

19. ssiei A.E. Iiaai?iaeneea iinaaeieee. — I., 1962.

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Eo?n ?onneie enoi?ee // Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ni/eiaiey. A
9 o. O. 2. — I.: Iuneue, 1987. — N. 87.

Ieaoiiia N.O. Eaeoeee ii ?onneie enoi?ee. A 2-o /anoyo. *. 1. — I.:
AEAAeIN, 1994. — N. 139.

Aeaenaaa TH.A. Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa e aa a?aiy: ?acaeoea
oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee ia ?one a XIV-XV aa. — E., 1980. — N. 13.

Aoieeaa E.I, Ae?aaiyy ?onue e Aaeeeay Noaiue. I., 1992. n. 107

“Neiai i Iieeo Eai?aaa” — ionooieaiea i?i Ananeaaa: “naiu au ii/ue
aeueiiu ?uneaoa”.

Iiaanoue A?aiaiiuo Eao iiae 6579 a.

A 1012 a. ii Oaoeuaaneie “Enoi?ee ?inneeneie” (O.II)

Nieiaueaa N.I. Ni/eiaiey. I., 1993. Ei.1, N. 405

“Ia iiae?aaeae aio (Aeaenaiae?o — A.E.) a aeaenoaeyo naiiaeanoey.” —
Ea?aicei I.I., Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai. Ei. 2. — I.: “Eieaeiue
naae”, 1993. N.219

Cae/eei E.A., Ii/eaaa E.I. ?onneay enoi?ey: iiioey?iue i/a?e. IX — na?.
XVIII a. — I.: Iuneue, 1992. N. 212

Cae/eei E.A., Ii/eaaa E.I. ?onneay enoi?ey: iiioey?iue i/a?e. IX — na?.
XVIII a. — I.: Iuneue, 1992. N.219

A ?onneeo eaoiienyo ii iacuaaaony eeai Aeiaiiioii, eeai eiaiai, aeaiiui
aio i?e e?auaiee — Oeiioae.

Ineianeea eaoiiene. Auione 2 /iiae ?aae. Ianiiiaa A.I. — I.:
Ecaeaoaeuenoai AI NNN?, 1955. — N. 89

Ia/aei Ineianeie Noaeiie A?aiiou — “Ny a?aiioa auienaia ec aaeeeaai
eiycy Aeaenaiae?iau a?aiiou…”. O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa NNN?. Aeiieoya?ueneee ia?eiae /iiae ?aae. Oeoiaa TH.I., *enoyeiaa
I.E. — I.: TH?eaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a, 1990. — N. 25

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee. A 9 o. O. 2. Eo?n ?onneie enoi?ee.
*. 2. — I.: Iuneue, 1987. — N. 74.

Ib. — N. 75.

Ib. — N. 75.

Ib. — N. 77.

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee. A 9 o. O. 2. — N. 52.

Aeoaia E.A. Iiaua enoi/ieee ii enoi?ee Ae?aaiae ?one: O/aaiia iiniaea.
— E.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai Eaieia?aaeneiai oieaa?neoaoa, 1990. — N.47.

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ni/eiaiey. A 9 o. O. 2. Eo?n ?onneie enoi?ee. *. 2. —
I.: Iuneue, 1987. — N. 54.

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ni/eiaiey. A 9 o. O. 2. Eo?n ?onneie enoi?ee. *. 2. —
I.: Iuneue, 1987. — N. 58.

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ni/eiaiey. A 9 o. O. 2. Eo?n ?onneie enoi?ee. *. 2. —
I.: Iuneue, 1987. — N. 59.

Ieaoiiia N.O. Eaeoeee ii ?onneie enoi?ee. A 2-o /anoyo. *anoue I. — I.:
AEAAeIN, 1994. — N. 135.

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ni/eiaiey. A 9 o. O. 2. Eo?n ?onneie enoi?ee. *. 2. —
I.: Iuneue, 1987. — N. 91.

Nieiaueaa N.I. Ni/eiaiey. A 18 ei. Ei. II. O. 3 — 4. Enoi?ey ?innee n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. — I.: Aiein, 1993. — N. 372, i?ei. 311

Ea?aicei I.I. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai: a 6 eieaao. Ei. 2. —
I.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai “Eieaeiue naae”, 1993. — N. 218-219.

Oai aea, N. 253.

Ea?aicei I.I. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai: a 6 eieaao. Ei. 3. —
I.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai “Eieaeiue naae”, 1993. — N. 244-245.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u iiaai?iaeneeo eiycae niaea?aeao, a iniiaiii,
ana oa aea iieiaeaiey. Eniieuecoaony aeiaiai? niieaineiai eiycy, oae eae
ii aeioae aei iaoaai a?aiaie a eo/oai aeaea e aieaa oaeiaai aeey
iiieiaiey. Aeiaiai? acyo ec eieae: O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee ?onneiai
ycuea: o/aaiia iiniaea aeey iaae. einoeoooia / Aao.-nino. Eaaiia A.A.,
Noiieeiaa O.A., Iaie?aoiaa I.I. — I.: I?inaauaiea, 1990 a. — N. 60.

O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa NNN?. Aeiieoya?ueneee
ia?eiae / iiae ?aaeaeoeeae TH.I.Oeoiaa, I.E.*enoyeiaa. — I.:
TH?eaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a, 1990. — N. 25.

Oai aea. — N. 25.

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ineianeay I?aaaea // Ni/eiaiey. A 9 o. O. VII.
Niaoeeaeueiua eo?nu (i?iaeieaeaiea). — I.: Iuneue, 1989. — N. 102.

Oai aea. — N. 102.

Eeth/aaneee n/eoaao, /oi a aeaiiie a?aiioa eaeao ?a/ue i Ineianeie
Noaeiie A?aiioa, iaeiaei caeanue iieo/aaony iano?aceoea — eae Eaceie?
iia ciaoue i nouanoaiaaiee INA ca 27 eao aei aa iiyaeaiey??? Caeanue
aiciiaeiu aeaa aa?eaioa — eeai INA auea iaienaia ?aiueoa, /ai a 1467 a.,
eeai nouanoaiaaea eaeay-oi aua noaeiay a?aiioa, eioi?ay iacuaaeanue
Ineianeie I?aaaeie. Oae eae y ia iiao ia niaeaneoueny n Eeth/aaneei a
aii?ina i aeaoa ninoaaeaiey INA (yoio aii?in o iaai aeieacuaaaony i/aiue
oaaaeeoaeueii), oi aiciiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue nouanoaiaaiea ioaeaeueiie
Ineianeie I?aaaeu, iniiaaiiie, aiciiaeii, ia ?onneie I?aaaea eee ia
?aoaieyo ineianeeo noaeae. Noaouey 4 INA, i?eaiaeeiay Eeth/aaneei, eae
aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi INA iacuaaee Ineianeie I?aaaeie, oaeaea
iiaeao ioiineoueny e e ioaeaeueiiio aeieoiaioo. Ii aii?in yoio ia iiaeao
auoue ?aoai iaeiicia/ii, oae eae ia auei iaeaeaii ie iaeiiai nai?ieea
Ineianeeo caeiiia, aeaoe?iaaiiiai ?aiaa, /ai INA, ia?aien/ee aea XVII a.
iniiaaoaeueii ana caiooae…

Ineianeay Noaeiay A?aiioa // O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa NNN?. Aeiieoya?ueneee ia?eiae / iiae ?aaeaeoeeae TH.I. Oeoiaa,
I.E. *enoyeiaa. — I.: TH?eaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a, 1990. (aeaeaa — INA) —
N. 26.

INA. — N. 27.

Aeou th?eaee/aneea. NIa., 1838. ? 2.

INA. — N. 38.

INA. — N. 27.

INA. — N. 34.

INA. — N. 39.

INA. — N. 37.

INA. — N. 39.

INA. — N. 29.

INA. — N. 29.

INA. — N. 29.

INA. — N. 29.

INA. — N. 30.

INA. — N. 30.

INA. — N. 29.

INA. — N. 30.

INA. — N. 34.

INA. — N. 34.

INA. — N. 37.

INA. — N. 28.

INA. — N. 27.

INA. — N. 30.

INA. — N. 30.

INA. — N. 30.

INA. — N. 31.

INA. — N. 31.

INA. — N. 32.

INA. — N. 34.

INA. — N. 34.

INA. — N. 32.

INA. — N. 33.

INA. — N. 28, 39.

INA. — N. 26.

INA. — N. 26.

INA. — N. 38.

INA — N. 28.

INA — N. 28.

INA — N. 28.

INA — N. 28.

INA — No. 21, N. 28.

INA — N. 28.

INA. — N. 39.

INA. — N. 33.

INA. — N. 34.

INA. — N. 38.

“Neaaenoaea aaaeoo ciaoiee … enoi?ee” // aacaoa “E aeinea”, 9 ai?aey
1992 a., no?. 1

PAGE 19

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