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Деятельность корпативных организаций России в XX веке

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AAOIIIIIAss IAEIIIA?*ANEAss I?AAIECAOeEss AUNOAAI I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI
IA?ACIAAIEss

OeAIO?INITHCA ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

«?INNEENEEE OIEAA?NEOAO EIIIA?AOeEE»

AIEAIA?AAeNEEE EIIIA?AOEAIUE EINOEOOO (OEEEAE)

Eaoaae?a iaiaaeaeiaioa

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii aeenoeeieeia: «Oai?ey e i?aeoeea eiiia?aoeee» ia oaio:
«Aeayoaeueiinoue eiiia?aoeaiuo i?aaiecaoeee ?innee a 20aaea.»

Auiieiee

nooaeaio 1 eo?na

a?oiiu 1TH?-71nae

Iiianou?iue A.A.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue: ?aaeueeeia I.TH.

Aieaia?aae 2008

NIAeA?AEAIEA

AAAAeAIEA

1. ENOI?Ess NICAeAIEss EIIIA?AOEAIIAI AeAEAEAIEss E AAI ?IEUe A
YEIIIIEEA NO?AIU

1.1 Iniiaiay eaeay nicaeaiey eiiia?aoeaa a ?innee

1.2 ?ieue eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey a yeiiiieea ?innee

2. EIIIA?AOEAU ?INNEE A XXI AAEA

2.1 Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia

2.2 Eiioeaioeey, niinianoaothuay aeaaii?eyoiiio ?acaeoeth eiiia?aoeaia a
nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo

3. AEEssIEA AINOAeA?NOAA IA ?ACAEOEA EIIIA?AOeEE ?O

CAEETH*AIEA

EEOA?AOO?A

AAAAeAIEA

?acaeoea eiiia?aoeey naaiaeiy yaeyaony ia iaeiaaaeiui, oae-oae yoi
i?aeoe/anee aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee oeiaine?iaaiey aeey e?anoueyineeo
(oa?ia?neeo) oicyenoa, ee/iuo iiaeniaiuo oicyenoa a?aaeaeai, iaeiai
naeueneiai aeciana e ioaeae aeeoaeae naea. Iie iiaoo noaoue, iaaeaaeiui
i?iaiaeieeii athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?acaeoey
naeueneie ianoiinoe. A iineaaeiea aiaeu e?aaeeoiay eiiia?aoeey
eioaineaii ?acaeaaaony, nicaeaaay naie i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a naeueneeo
ianaeaiiuo ioieoao e, oaeei ia?acii, i?eaeeaeay i?aaeinoaaeaiea naieo
oneoa iaiin?aaenoaaiii e ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa /eaiia eiiia?aoeaa.

Iiuo ?aaiou naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee iieacuaaao, /oi naeueneea
e?aaeeoiua eiiia?aoeau yaeythony yooaeoeaiui iaoaieciii oeiainiaie
iiaeaea?aeee yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe naeueneiai ianaeaiey. E?aaeeoiua
eiiia?aoeau ioe?uaatho aeinooi naeueneei oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyi, e
oeiainiaui ?ano?nai e aeatho aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeaaoueny e?anoueyineei
(oa?ia?neei) e ee/iui .iiaeniaiui oicyenoaai. ?ino /enea /eaiia
naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aioiaiinoe
naeueneeo aeeoaeae ?acaeaaoue ?acee/iua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eiiia?aoeey a iineaaeiea aiaeu ana aieueoa aeeyao ia ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa, niinianoaoao iaania/aieth aeeoaeae naea ?aai/eie ianoaie,
?aoaieth nioeeaeueiuo aii?inia a ?aeiia e a ?aaeiia, oai naiui nieiay
/anoue iaa?ocee n ianoiiai athaeaeaoa.

Iiith i?aaenoaaeaiiay ?aaioa ?ane?uaaao ea?oeio ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeee a
?innee, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aaeaeaaoii ioeaieoue nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea
e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee e aa aeeyiea ia ?uii/ioth yeiiiieeo.

I?iaiaeece?iaaa ?acee/iua iaoa?eaeu aeaiiie oaiu e iiiya, /oi a
i?aaeaeao eo?niaie ?aaiou anth aa ioaaoeoue aiciiaeii oieueei
iiaa?oiinoii, iinoa?athnue eceiaeeoue ia iie acaeyae naiia aeaaiia.

Iiith noaaeeanue oeaeue: ?anniio?aoue e i?iaiaeece?iaaoue eiiia?aoeeth a
?innee, a oae aea ioeaieoue aa aeeyiea ia ?uii/ioth yeiiiieeo.

I?e iaienaiee iiith noaaeeenue neaaeothuea caaea/e

1. ?anniio?aoue eiiia?aoeeth a enoi?e/aneii aniaeoa

2. I?iaiaeece?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue eiiia?aoeaia ?innee e ia?niaeoeau
eo ?acaeoey.

3. Ii?aaeaeeoue, eae aeeyao ainoaea?noai ia ?acaeoea eiiia?aoeee

Oi/o oaeaea ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi a i?ioeanna eco/aiey e
iaienaiey iiith eniieueciaaeenue iaoa?eaeu e naaaeaiey oieueei ec
iiaaeoeo enoi/ieeia. Eo?niaay ?aaioa ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, o?ao aeaa,
caeeth/aiey e nienea eeoa?aoo?u.

1. ENOI?Ess NICAeAIEss EIIIA?AOEAIIAI AeAEAEAIEss E AAI ?IEUe A
YEIIIIEEA NO?AIU

1.1 Iniiaiay eaeay nicaeaiey eiiia?aoeaa a ?innee

Iniiaiiieiaeieeii naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee iauai?eciaiii
n/eoaaony noa?inoa iaiaoeeie aea?aaooee ?aeooaecai, i?aaieciaaaoee a
na?aaeeia XIX aaea naeueneea e?aaeeoiua oiaa?euanoaa, eioi?ua iieo/eee
iacaaiea “?aeooaecaiianeea” e iieiaeeee ia/aei ?acaeoeth anao inoaeueiuo
aeaeia e?anoueyineie eiiia?aoeee. Nai ii, aoaeo/e ia?aaiiaeooiui e
aaaeiinoe naieo naeyi, iaienae eieao “E?aaeeoiua oiaa?euanoaa eae
n?aaenoai oie/oiaeeoue ieuaoo” e aioae a enoi?eth eae “ioaoe” e?aaeeoiie
eiiia?aoeee.

Ai a?aiaia ?aeooaecaia a Aa?iaiee ooieoeeiie?iaaea oi?ioi ioeaaeaiiay
aaieianeay nenoaia n aeinoaoi/ii aieueoei eiee/anoaii aaieia, a eioi?uo
iiaee iieo/eoue e?aaeeou ana aeaeathuea. Ii ia naiii aeaea aeey
e?anoueyieia yoio aaieianeee e?aaeeo aue iaaeinooiai ii aeaoi iniiaiui
i?e/eiai. Ai-ia?auo, iaeeea e?anoueyineea oicyenoaa ioaeaeaeenue a
iaaieueoeo noiiao e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaaeaeiio
e?anoueyieio ii ioaeaeueiinoe iaauaiaeii auei aoaoue a ai?iae aeey eo
iieo/aiey. Ai-aoi?uo, aaie ia oioae nio?oaeie/aoue n oaeei “iaeeei”
eeeaioii, aeeaouei a aieueoii ioaeaeaiee io e?oiiiai ai?iaea, aea e oiio
aea aua e ia iaeaaeathuei caeiaii, aeinoaoi/iui aeey aa?aioe?iaaiiiai
aica?aoa iieo/aiiiai e?aaeeoa.

Iiyoiio iniiaiay eaeay ?aeooaecaiiaeeo eiiia?aoeaia caeeth/aeanue a oii,
/oiau acyoue a aaiea iaeei aieueoie e?aaeeo ia ana oiaa?euanoai, eioi?ia
iau/ii nicaeaaaeinue ia aaca iaeiiai naea, a caoai oaea auaeaaaoue
e?aaeeou iaeeeie noiiaie n?aaee /eaiia yoiai oiaa?euanoaa. *oiau
caeioa?aniaaoue aaiee a ?aaioa n e?aaeeoiuie oiaa?euanoaaie e
aa?aioe?iaaoue ei aica?aoiinoue eo aeaiaa, ?aeooaecai a iniiao naieo
eiiia?aoeaia iieiaeee iyoue i?eioeeiia:

1. E?oaiaay ioaaonoaaiiinoue anao /eaiia oiaa?euanoaa anai naiei
eiouanoaii ii aeieaai oiaa?euanoaa.

2. Auaea/a nnoae oieueei /eaiai oiaa?euanoaa.

3. I?iecaiaenoaaiiia iai?aaeaiea nnoaeu.

4. Iaeue ?aeii aeayoaeueiinoe oiaa?euanoaa.

5. ?aaioa i?aaeaiey i?eciaaony ii/aoiie e, iiyoiio, iia aanieaoiay.

A iineaaeiae /aoaa?oe XIX aaea, e eiioeo aeecie ?aeooaecaia, a Aa?iaiee
nouanoaiaaei oaea 400 e?aaeeoiuo oiaa?euanoa. Aeayoaeueiinoue
nia?aiaiiuo naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia a yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo
no?aiao aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie no?ieony ia yoeo i?eioeeiao,
noi?ioee?iaaiiuo 150 eao iacaae, e anoue e?aaeeoiua eiiia?aoeau, eioi?ua
ooieoeeiie?otho n oao ii?, ia iaiyy naiae yeiiiie/aneie nooe. Anee aea
eaeie-eeai e?aaeeoiue eiiia?aoea i?ae?aoee naia nouanoaiaaiea, oi yoi ia
icia/aao, /oi aeaiiua i?eioeeiu ieioe, i?inoi eaeie-oi iaeei ec ieo aue
ia?ooai, /oi ii aeoaieiio oaaaeaeaieth ?aeooaecaia n/eoaeinue
iaaeiionoeiui.

A ?innee ia/aeii e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee i?eiyoi n/eoaoue 1865 aiae,
eiaaea aue ooaa?aeaeai onoaa ia?aiai nnoaeii-naa?aaaoaeueiiai
oiaa?euanoaa, i?aaieciaaiiiai a Eino?iineie aoaa?iee. Ii n?aco iinea
ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa yeiiiie/aneie ii/au aeey eiiia?aoeaiiai
aeaeaeaiey aua ia auei, iineieueeo e?anoueyineia oicyenoai inoaaaeinue
iaoo?aeueiui, aacaeaiaaeiui. Iaiaoiaeeii auei a?aiy, a oa/aiea eioi?iai
eiiia?aoeey aeieaeia auea noaoue ?acoeueoaoii naiiaeayoaeueiinoe e
eieoeeaoeau naiiai e?anoueyinoaa, eoeueoo?iue o?iaaiue eioi?iai au?in au
aei iiieiaiey aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Oieueei e eiioeo noieaoey a aea?aaia
ia/eiatho auc?aaaoue oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey, e e?anoueyineia
oicyenoai i?eia?aoaao /a?ou oiaa?iinoe, iuouay ino?oth ioaeaeo a
aeaiueaao.

I?eiyoea Caeiia i iaeeii e?aaeeoa a 1895 aiaeo auei ia/aeii ?acaeoey a
?innee e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee ia iniiaa eaieoaeia, nnoaeaaiuo
ainoaea?noaii, iineieueeo aeey n?aaeiaai ?inneeneiai e?anoueyieia
oneiaea iaaaiai aciina auei iaiineeueii. Yoe eiiia?aoeau auee
iaaeecianiiniaiu, eae e ana, /oi iaaycuaaaony “naa?oo”. Ii iie,
i?inouanoaiaaa ieiei 5 eao, nua?aee naith ?ieue eae a ?anoe?aiee
aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa a aea?aaia, oae e a ?inoa eiiia?aoeaiiai niciaiey
e?anoueyi”. E a ia/aea XX aaea a ?innee ia/aeinue ?acaeoea naeueneie
e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee “nieco”, oi anoue oaea ii eieoeeaoeaa naieo
e?anoueyi, yeiiiie/anee ie?aioeo e niiniaiuo nia?aoue iaiaoiaeeiue aeey
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eiiia?aoeaa iaaaie oiiae.

?inoo /eneaiiinoe e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia niinianoaiaaei ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eioi?iaoeee i ieo, a oaeaea iiyniaiea i?eioeeiia aeayoaeueiinoe oaeeo
i?aaiecaoeee. N?aaee ?inneeneeo e?anoueyi a oi a?aiy ?ani?ino?aiyeanue
Iaiyoea, eioi?ay ia iioa?yea naiae aeooaeueiinoe e a iaoa a?aiy. Iia
auaeyaeaea oae:

• Nnoaeo ia aeaei aicueiaoue – eaaei aa aa?iaoue.

• Ieaoe a n?ie. N?ie niaethaeaoue, naaa e?aaeeo naa?aaeaoue.

• I?in?i/ea e ia?aienea aeey /eaiia ooaea o?yneiu e iaoee: eiaioue oayc,
anae ioe/ea i?iianoue – oiaa?euanoao ooaeay neaaa (ooaeay neaaa ii
aei?iaeea aaaeeo, oi?ioay ia iiei/ea eaaeeo) – i?aaeaieth oei?, io
ninaaeae iaiai?.

• Aieueoa, /ai aeaiueaaie, e?aiiao oiaa?euanoai niaeaneai, e niaaoii
/eaiia, oaa?aeinoueth i?aaeaiey, i?aaeeueiinoueth n/aoiaiaeia.

• A i?aaeaiea oao auae?ae, o eiai ?acoia e niaanoe aieueoa.

• I?aaeaieth a aeaeao iiiiaae: ia oeaue oo eioaaeue, eioi?ay aacao.

• Ia iaee aac oieeo ycueii: aeaei ociae – oiaaea i?aaaeo niaei iauyaeye.

• Iauaa nia?aiea – anaio aeaeo e i?aaeaieth – oicyei. Iaueo nia?aiee ia
i?iioneae, oiaa?euanoai ia a noiaeoea, a a iauai aeaea.

• Iniiaaoaey ia?aiai ia naaoa e?aaeeoiiai oiaa?euanoaa ?aeooaecaia ia
caauaae, naie iunee aai caaaoaie i?iaa?ye.

A 1908a. ninoiyeny ia?aue Ana?inneeneee eiiia?aoeaiue nuacae, i?eiyaoee
?aoaiea i nicaeaiee oeiainiaiai oeaio?a ?inneeneie eiiia?aoeee –
Iineianeiai Ia?iaeiiai Aaiea (IIA), ioe?uaoaainy a 1912a., a e 1914a.
eiaaoaai iai?io iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee ieiei 45 iei. ?oa. ?inneeneay
e?aaeeoiay eiiia?aoeey ia?aae ?aaiethoeeae i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
na?ueacioth yeiiiie/aneoth e iieeoe/aneoth neeo. E oiio a?aiaie a no?aia
ian/eouaaeinue nauoa 27 oun. naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaia
?acee/iiai aeaea, iauaaeeiyaoeo aieaa 50% anao e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa.
Naiui aeaaiui auei oi, /oi eiiia?aoeey noaea nianoaaiiui, iiiyoiui
aeaeii aeey e?anoueyi, oae eae ec 990 iei ?oa. e?aaeeoiuo e
nnoaei-naa?aaaoaeueiuo n?aaenoa, o/anoaiaaaoeo a oi a?aiy a iai?ioa, 711
iei ?oa., eee 75% , auee i?eaea/aiu a aeaea e?anoueyineeo aeeaaeia”‘.

Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea aa?a?iiai naeoi?a ?innee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oae?o/athuoth ea?oeio, iaiiieiathuoth oo neooaoeeth a Aa?iaiee, eiaaea
?aeooaecai ienae naith eieao, /oiau iiii/ue naeyiai iiai?ioue ieuaoo.
?anniio?ei, eaeea o?oaeiinoe oa?aeoa?iu aeey oeiainiaie noa?u yeiiiieee
naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia aeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai iauanoaa.

Naeueoicoiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaee a nayce n naciiiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaa
auioaeaeaiu a?aoue e?aaeeou. Ii aunieea i?ioeaioiua noaaee eiiia?/aneeo
aaieia a iaoae no?aia i?eaioe?iaaiu nae/an ia aieueooth i?eaueue
oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneeo eiiiaiee, a nayce n /ai naeyia, ia auaea?aeeaay
oaeiai i?anna e?aaeeoiuo noaaie, eniuouaatho iaoaaoeo aeaiaaeiuo
?ano?nia. E oiio aea aaieianeay nenoaia eae yeaiaio ?uii/iie
eio?ano?oeoo?u niioaaonoaoao e?oiiui oi?iai i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Noauaeou “iaeiai” e?aaeeoiaaiey eiatho
ia?aie/aiiue aeinooi e e?aaeeoiui ?ano?nai, iineieueeo o aaiea
ionoonoaoao eioa?an ?aaioaoue n naeueneeie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie a neeo
oeiainiaie iaonoie/eainoe iineaaeieo e aieueoie cao?aoiaieinoe eo
e?aaeeoiaaiey.

Neaaeothuay na?ueaciay i?iaeaia caeeth/aaony a ooa/ea aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa ec ianoiiai iai?ioa naeueneeo oa??eoi?ee. Iai?eia?, ii aeaiiui
Aineiinoaoa a Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe a 1999 a. 62% i?iaeoeoeee naeueneiai
oicyenoaa auei i?iecaaaeaii a /anoiii naeoi?a i?e aai oiaa?iinoe 20-25%.
Au?o/ea ca yoo i?iaeoeoeeth, oaeei ia?acii, ?ann?aaeioi/eaaaony iaaeaeo
aieueoei eiee/anoaii iaeeeo oicyenoa, ia iai?aaeyynue i?e yoii a
i?iecaiaenoai. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo
iaeiieaiee naeueneiai ianaeaiey aeeoioee?oaony a Naa?aaiea, e, eae
i?aaeei, ioaeaeaynue ec aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee,
eniieuecoaony a ae?oaeo io?aneyo. e noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yoe aeaiaaeiua iaeiieaiey iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae enoi/iee
e?aaeeoiaaiey oie /anoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, eioi?ua
?anoe?ytho i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iai?io e eniuouaatho iaaeinoaoie a
oeiainiauo n?aaenoaao. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iaeoe iaoaieci aiaea/aiey
aeaiaaeiuo iaeiieaiee a?aaeaeai a oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue
naeueoic oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae. Oaeei iaoaieciii, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
aiaeec ie?iaiai iiuoa ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeee, yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey
naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia, iicaieythueo oaea?aeeaaoue aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa ia naiae oa??eoi?ee e ia yoie aaca ?aoaoue yeiiiie/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu naea.

Iiuo ?aaiou e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia a no?aiao n ?acaeoie yeiiiieeie
aeaao iniiaaiey n/eoaoue, /oi oeaeueth eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yaeyaony ia
ecaea/aiea aiciiaeii aieueoae i?eauee ia eaieoae, a oeo/oaiea e
iaeaa/aiea oneiaee i?aaeinoaaeaiey caeiia naiei /eaiai aeey ?acaeoey eo
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?eioeeiu, ia eioi?uo aace?oaony
e?aaeeoiay eiiia?aoeey: acaeiiiiiiuue, i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iai?aaeaiea
nnoaeu, naiiieoiaaiinoue e naiioeiaine?iaaiea, ?aaiii?aaea, aeiaa?ea e
ee/iui ea/anoaai caaiueea, aeinooiiinoue aeey anao /eaiia eioi?iaoeee i
aeayoaeueiinoe eiiia?aoeaa, yaeeenue iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie ooaa?aeaeaiey
yoie oi?iu e?aaeeoiaaiey naeueneiai ianaeaiey eae iaeaieaa iaaeaaeiie e
noaaeeueiie.

1.2 ?ieue eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey a yeiiiieea ?innee

Eiiia?aoeaiia aeaeaeaiea niiniaii nua?aoue iniiaioth ?ieue e a
oi?ie?iaaiee nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie yeiiiieee a ?innee. Aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeia ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey
no?aiu. A iniiaa ?ac?aaioee oaeie no?aoaaee aeieaeia eaaeaoue
iniiaiiieaaathuay enoeia: io?aiaiea eiiia?aoeee ia naiioeaeue,
eiiia?aoeaiay oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee – eeoue n?aaenoai aeinoeaeaiey oeaee,
eniieuecoaiia ethaeueie aeey oeo/oaiey naiaai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
iieiaeaiey.

Eiiia?aoeaiua oi?iu naiii?aaiecaoeee ethaeae aicieeatho oai e oiaaea,
aaea e eiaaea iiyaeyaony aeeciaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iae, eiaaea ethaee
ia iiaoo ?aoeoue i?iaeaiu naiae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe naiinoiyoaeueii eee
i?e iiiiue ainoaea?noaa.

Auyaeaiea yoie iaiaoiaeeiinoe yaeyaony iniiaiiieaaathuei i?e ?ac?aaioea
no?aoaaee ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiiai e ie?iaiai eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey.
Eiiia?aoeaiua oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee eiiaiaioii i?enoue ?uii/iie
yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia e iiaoo yooaeoeaii aeaenoaiaaoue eiaiii a ?uii/iie
yeiiiie/aneie n?aaea. I?e yoii neaaeoao iiiieoue i oii, /oi
oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue eiiia?aoeaia aeinoeaaao iaeaieueoae
yooaeoeaiinoe a neo/aa iauaaeeiaiey ethaeae n oeaeueth ?aoaiey aeeciaiii
aaaeiuo i?iaeai, eioi?ua eia/a ?aoeoue e?aeia cao?oaeieoaeueii. Iiyoiio
i?eioeeieaeueiui aii?inii oniaoiiai ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey
yaeyaony iiene e auyaeaiea eiaiii yoeo i?iaeai.

Aiaeec i?aeoeee eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae i
oii, /oi a iniiaa no?aoaaee aai ?acaeoey aeieaeia eaaeaoue
o?ainoi?iaoeey eiiia?aoeee a noa?a iio?aaeaiey a eiiia?aoeeth a noa?a
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey n oeaeueth iaania/aiey ni?aaaaeeeaiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeeciaiiuo. ?ano?nia e ia iniiaa i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee
i?aeiouanoa eiiia?aoeaiie oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
niinianoaiaaoue iiauoaieth o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey. Iaeiei ec
iai?aaeaiee no?aoaae/aneiai ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeee iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaiea
eiiia?aoeaiuo oi?i aeey i?aiaeieaiey e?ecena aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena
e ia yoie iniiaa ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu iaania/aiey i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie
aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaa e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie i?iaeaiu a oeaeii.
?aoaieth i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie i?iaeaiu iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue
aeayoaeueiinoue eiiia?aoeaia, i?iecaiaeyueo naeueneioicyenoaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, ?acaeaathueo caeoiee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia e
nu?uey, ?anoe?ythueo i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, a oaeaea
?acaa?ouaathueo oi?aiaeth eie. Eiaiii a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii naeoi?a
nin?aaeioi/aiu aeaaiua i?ioeai?a/ey iaoeeiiaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey.

2. EIIIA?AOEAU ?INNEE A XXI AAEA

2.1 Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia

Ie?iaay i?aeoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue iaeuo oi?i
oicyenoaiaaiey ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee
oa??eoi?ee, ?aaeiiia, no?ai. Iaeiie ec oi?i iee?ioeiainiauo i?aaiecaoeee
yaeyaony naeueneay e?aaeeoiay eiiia?aoeey, eioi?ay n iiiaioa aa
aic?iaeaeaiey a iaoae no?aia n eaaeaeui aiaeii noaiiaeony aieaa caiaoiie
oeiainiaie no?oeoo?ie a naeueneie ianoiinoe. Aa ?ieue ana aieueoa
iuouaaony a naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, nicaeaiee iiauo ?aai/eo
iano, ?acaeoee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ?aoaiee nioeeaeueiuo
i?iaeai naeueneiai ianaeaiey. I?aeoe/anee iia noaiiaeony aaaeiaeoae
ninoaaeythuae oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu a ?inneeneii naea.

Naaiaeiy naeueneay e?aaeeoiay eiiia?aoeey ooieoeeiie?oao a 59 ?aaeiiao
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eiee/anoai naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia
i?aauneei 800, eioi?ua n aaaonoa 2004 ii aaaono 2005 a. i?aaeinoaaeee
oeiainiaoth iiiiuue naeueneei aeeoaeyi ia noiio nauoa 1,8 ie?ae. ?oaeae.
Iaeue e n?aaeiee aa?iaecian a oaeouai aiaeo aiiaue iuooee
iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee.

Oai ia iaiaa, ii-i?aaeiaio iniiaiui iieacaoaeai aeayoaeueiinoe naeueneie
e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee inoaaony aeaeueiaeoee ?ino iauaia oeiainiauo
naeueneiio ianaeaieth. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iinoaiaiii oi?ie?oaony
i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a nenoaiu naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee a
?innee. Ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia aeaenoaotho Nithc naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo
eiiia?aoeaia, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oeiainiaua no?oeoo?u,
o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneay, aoaeeoi?neay neoaeau. Oioy e iaaeeaiii,
i?aiaeieaaay ?acee/iiai aeaea i?aiyonoaey, a ?aaeiiao ?acaeaaaony
aeaooo?iaiaaay no?oeoo?a naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy oaeay nenoaia nicaeaia a 25 ?aaeiiao: a ?anioaeeeao Aaeuaay,
Ia?ee-Ye, Oaoa?noai, Naoa-sseooey, Oaeio?oey, *oaaoey, E?aniiaea?neee,
Noaa?iiieueneee, Aeoaeneee e?ay, Ano?aoaineie, Aieiaiaeneie,
Aieaia?aaeneie, Eaieia?aaeneie, Ia?ineie, Iiaineae?neie, I?aiao?aneie,
?inoianeie, Na?aoianeie, Naia?neie, Oiineie, *aeyaeineie, *eoeineie,
ss?ineaaneie e ae?oaeo iaeanoyo. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a ioaeaeueiuo
?aaeiiao inouanoaeyaony nicaeaiea ?acaaoaeaiiie naoe no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee eiiia?aoeaia ia?aiai o?iaiy a naeueneeo iinaeaieyo. Yoi
ia neo/aeii, aaaeue eiaiii naia i?e?iaea e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee
iicaieyao ae nicaeaaaoue oaeea no?oeoo?u. Oieueei a Aieaia?aaeneie
iaeanoe eo nicaeaii 175 aaeeieoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, nenoaia naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee ec anao
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ?aaioathueo a naeueneii oicyenoaa,
iinoaiaiii noaiiaeony naiie i?eaeeaeaiiie no?oeoo?ie e iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
iio?aaeoaeyi oeiainiauo oneoa ia naea.

Eiiia?aoea ooieoeeiie?oao eae naiinoiyoaeueiay oeiainiaay i?aaiecaoeey e
eae iauaaeeiythuee i?aai yoeo eiiia?aoeaia, niinianoaothuee auaeeaaieth,
?acaeoeth, niaa?oainoaiaaieth eaaeaeiai eiiia?aoeaa e anae ?aaeiiaeueiie
nenoaiu a oeaeii. Eniieuecoy ?u/aae ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey,
iaaeeiiia?aoeaiiai caeia, ii aeeyao ia iiaeaea?aeaiea eeeaeaeiinoe
eaaeaeiai eiiia?aoeaa, aoiaeyuaai a nenoaio. Iiyoiio ia neo/aeii a
eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee a ?innee
iiae/a?eeaaeinue, /oi noaiiaeaiea e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia’ icia/aao
aaaeiue yoai a oi?ie?iaaiee iaoaieciia naii?aaoee?iaaiey a nenoaia
e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee. Aio ii/aio Nithc naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo
eiiia?aoeaia a naiae ?aaioa ii-i?aaeiaio nin?aaeioa/eaaao aieiaiea ia
nicaeaiee e ?acaeoee oaeeo eiiia?aoeaia.

A oaeouai aiaeo i?enooiee e naiae aeayoaeueiinoe e?aaeeoiue eiiia?aoea
«Ia?iaeiue e?aaeeo», eioi?ue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iauaaeeiyao 11
?aaeiiaeueiuo eiiia?aoeaia ?innee. Yoi aunoaa caaii nenoaiu e?aaeeoiie
eiiia?aoeee, eioi?ia aeieaeii eiaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiue auoiae ia
iaoeeiiaeueiue oeiainiaue ?uiie. A aai caaea/o aoiaeeo i?eaea/aiea
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a nenoaio naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee io
?acee/iuo eiaanoi?ia, a oii /enea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo, n?aaenoa
oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. Yoi iicaieeo a ia?niaeoeaa e?aaeeoiie
eiiia?aoeee noaoue aaaeiaeoae ninoaaeythuae eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna a
naeueneie ianoiinoe no?aiu.

A oi aea a?aiy neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi yoio eiiia?aoea iaaeeaiii iaae?aao
oaiiu naiaai ?acaeoey. I?aaeaieth eiiia?aoeaa iaiaoiaeeii
aeoeaece?iaaoue naith ?aaioo ii oaeiaeaoai?aieth oeiainiauo iio?aaiinoae
naieo iaeueeia.

Nouanoaaiiui oaeoi?ii, niinianoaothuei noaiiaeaieth e ?acaeoeth
e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee eae iieiii?aaiiai o/anoieea oeiainiaiai ?uiea,
yaeyaony nicaeaiea ea/anoaaiiie ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie aacu, ?aaoee?othuae
aeayoaeueiinoue e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia ?acee/iiai o?iaiy. Ca iineaaeiea
aiaeu Nithcii naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia, ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie e
niaoeeaeenoaie ?yaea ?aaeiiaeueiuo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia i?iaeaeaia
aieueoay ?aaioa, iicaieeaoay nicaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth i?aaiaoth iniiao
aeayoaeueiinoe naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia. I?aaeaea anaai, yoi
aianaiea eciaiaiee a Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii «I naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
eiiia?aoeee», eanathueony aii?inia ?aaoee?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia, iicaieeaoeo eaaaeeciaaoue
aeayoaeueiinoue iiiaeo NEIE ia naea. Iaeiaei, iiieiay, /oi yoi eeoue
a?aiaiiay ia?a, /oi nouanoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia aeinoaoi/ii
aeey ?acaeoey e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia eae oeiainiauo i?aaiecaoeee, Nithc
aeoeaii ?aaioaao iaae i?iaeoii ?aii/iiai oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia «I
e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee». Aeaiiue caeiiii?iaeo, eae aai ecaanoii, i?eiyo
a ia?aii /oaiee Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie ?O.

Aianoa n oai, ianiaeaniaaiiua aeaenoaey ioaeaeueiuo aeaia?oaiaioia ?yaea
ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa, iaaeiioeaiea aeaiooaoaie Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu
aaaeiinoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai iaania/aiey e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee,
ioe?uoia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea iaeioi?uo aaieianeeo no?oeoo? e e?oiiuo aaieia
ianniaiio ?acaeoeth e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee a no?aia, ia aeatho
aiciiaeiinoe ?aoeoue iiiaea i?iaeaiu naeueneie aeecie naieie naeyiaie..
Aaaeue naeueneay e?aaeeoiay eiiia?aoeey a ?innee ca yoe aiaeu iaeiieea
cia/eoaeueiue iiuo eae naeoi? oeiainiaiai ?uiea ia naea, niiniaiue
?aoaoue ia oieueei yeiiiie/aneea, ii e nioeeaeueiua aii?inu, Yoi
iniaaiii aaaeii a ?aoaiee caaea/, noiyueo ia?aae naeueneie e?aaeeoiie
eiiia?aoeeae a nayce n i?eiyoeai iaeaoa nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii,
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo I?aceaeaioii ?innee. A yoeo oneiaeyo oaaea?aeueiue caeii
aeieaeai io?aceoue e ii?aaeaeeoue i?aaiaua, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua,
yeiiiie/aneea iniiau ia ioaeaeueii aeaenoaothueo eiiia?aoeaia, a
oeaeinoiie nenoaiu e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee. Iiyoiio ?aaioa iaae
niaa?oainoaiaaieai oaaea?aeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aeieaeia
ii-i?aaeiaio i?iaeieaeaoueny.

2.2 Eiioeaioeey, niinianoaothuay aeaaii?eyoiiio ?acaeoeth eiiia?aoeaia a
nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo

Aeaeueiaeoaa ia?aueaaiea iauaiia oeiainiauo oneoa aeeoaeyi naea,
niinianoaothueo ?acaeoeth naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iaeiai e
n?aaeiaai aeciana, ?aoaieth nioeeaeueiuo aii?inia, nicaeaieth ?aai/eo
iano a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa,
iinooiathueo a eiiia?aoeau, eo ?acia?ia e oneiaee i?eaea/aiey. Iniiaiui
ec ieo yaeythony naiaiaeiua n?aaenoaa iaeueeia. Eo iauaiu ec aiaea a
aiae ?anooo e a iaiaeuo ?acia?ao. Yoio enoi/iee e ai?aaeue aoaeao
inoaaaoueny iniiaiui, eai a i?ioeaiii neo/aa oa?yaony niune
aeayoaeueiinoe e?aaeeoiiai eiiia?aoeaa, ninoiyuee a oii, /oiau ca n/ao
n?aaenoa iaeieo iaeueeia ieacuaaoue oeiainiaoth iiiiuue ae?oaei. A oi
aea a?aiy aeaeueiaeoee ?ino oaeiai enoi/ieea o?aaoao i?eiyoey ia?
e?aaeeoiuie eiiia?aoeaaie ii aa?aioeeiiio iaania/aieth eo aica?aoa iooai
nicaeaiey niaoeeaeueiuo oiiaeia e ?aca?aia. Aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea
aeiee naiaiaeiuo n?aaenoa iaeueeia a iauai iauaia auaeaiiuo caeiia aac
nicaeaiey oaeeo no?aoiauo oiiaeia noaiiaeony iianiui. Iiyoiio e?aaeeoiui
eiiia?aoeaai iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue a naiae i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe iiaua oaoiieiaee aaieianeeo no?oeoo?, a o./. no?aoiaaiea
naiaiaeiuo n?aaenoa iaeueeia a eiiia?aoeaa.

A oi aea a?aiy, nouanoaotho e ae?oaea n?aaenoaa, i?eaeaeaaiua
eiiia?aoeaaie a oiiaeu oeiainiaie acaeiiiiiiue: n?aaenoaa O?NEE,
e?aaeeou aaieia, athaeaeaoiua n?aaenoaa. Oai ia iaiaa, neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi aaiee ii-i?aaeiaio ia ?aaioatho na?ueacii n e?aaeeoiuie
eiiia?aoeaaie. Eiathuayny i?aeoeea a yoii ieaia a ?innee iacia/eoaeueia.
Aeiey i?eaeaeaaiuo e?aaeeoia aaieia a eiiia?aoeau eieaaeaony io 0 aei 5
i?ioeaioia io iauaai iauaia enoi/ieeia caeiia. A nayce n yoei aicieeaao
aii?in, eaeoth iiiiuue iiaee ieacaoue n?aaenoaa, auaeaeaiiua ec
oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ia ?acaeoea e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee a 2005
aiaeo e iai?aaeaiiua niaeanii iinoaiiaeaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa ia
noaneaee?iaaiea i?ioeaioiie noaaee ii caeiai, auaeaiiui e?aaeeoiuie
eiiia?aoeaaie ca n/ao e?aaeeoia aaieia? Ai-ia?auo, eae auei neacaii
auoa, oaeeo n?aaenoa a e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaao i/aiue iaei, a a
ioaeaeueiuo aiiaua iao, ai-aoi?uo, aaiee aeaaea i?e anai aeaeaiee ia
eiatho aiciiaeiinoe ?acaeaaoue nio?oaeie/anoai n e?aaeeoiuie
eiiia?aoeaaie, iiae/eiyynue nouanoaothuae eino?oeoeee Oeaio?iaaiea ?
254, ia aeathuae ei oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue. A i?iaeoa athaeaeaoa 2006 a.
i?aaeoniio?aii auaeaeaiea n?aaenoa ia ?acaeoea e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee,
eioi?ua ieaie?oaony iai?aaeoue /a?ac ?innaeueoicaaie. Eae aea e?aaeeoiua
eiiia?aoeau niiaoo iieo/eoue e?aaeeou ca n/ao yoeo n?aaenoa, anee yoa
eino?oeoeey Oeaio?iaaiea i?iaeieaeaao aeaenoaiaaoue, eaeea au iu
iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ia ?ac?aaaouaaee. Iieo/aaony ia?aaeien:
e?aaeeou eiiia?aoeau iieo/eoue a aaiea ia iiaoo, a noaneaee?iaaiea ii
yoiio enoi/ieeo i?aaeoniao?eaaaony.

A nayce n yoei Nithco, ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia
iaiaoiaeeii ianoie/eai aanoe ia?aaiai?u n Oeaio?aeueiui Aaieii ?O i
ia?aniio?a ioaeaeueiuo iieiaeaiee naieo eino?oeoeee, eanathueony
e?aaeeoiaaiey aaieaie e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia. Yoi iicaieeo oniaoii
?aoaoue aii?inu acaeiiaeaenoaey e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee n e?aaeeoiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, iaia/aiiua Eiioeaioeeae ?acaeoey naeueneie e?aaeeoiie
eiiia?aoeee.

?ino iauaiia caeiia, naa?aaeaiee a e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee o?aaotho
niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu eiio?iey, iaaeci?a e aoaeeoa, niaethaeaiey
e?aaeeoiuie eiiia?aoeaaie aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, nieaeaiee
?eneia, iiauoaieai oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe. A yoii ieaia iaiaeoth ?ieue
aeieaeiu nua?aoue niaoeeaeenou ii iiieoi?eiao, iiaeaioiaeaiiua
Ye-Ne-Aee-Ae/AIEA a ?aaeiiao, a oaeaea aeaenoaothuea aoaeeoi?neea Nithcu
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaia. Caaea/ae eiiia?aoeaia yaeyaony
iianaianoiia aiaae?aiea ?aeoeiaiaie nenoaiu iaaeaaeiinoe NEE.E ia iniiaa
yeiiiie/aneeo e oeiainiauo ii?iaoeaia.

Ca ia?eiae aeayoaeueiinoe naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee iiaeaioiaeaiu
aeinoaoi/ii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua eaae?u eae ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, oae e
niaoeeaeenoia naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia. Aeaaioth ?ieue caeanue
nua?aee iaoe ca?oaaaeiua ia?oia?u: Ye-Ne-Aee-Ae/AIEA, Aa?iaineee
Eiiia?aoeaiue Nithc ?aeooaecai, Oiiae Aa?acey, OANEN e ae?oaea, a oaeaea
Nithc naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia, O?NEE, O/aaiue oeaio?. A oi aea
a?aiy aaeaaiaeii iu ia iiaeai ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia /anoi i?iaiaeeoue
naieia?u, eioi?ua ioaaouaaee au ana e?aaeeoiua eiiia?aoeau. Aea a yoii e
iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Oaaea?aeueiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua no?oeoo?u naeueneie
e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee eiatho naaiaeiy aeinoaoi/ii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoia, o/aiuo, caieiathueony eco/aieai i?iaeai e?aaeeoiie
eiiia?aoeee, eioi?ua iiaee au ecaeaaaoue iaoiaee/aneea iaoa?eaeu ii
?acee/iui aii?inai aeayoaeueiinoe e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia. Aeaeaa a
?aaeiiao, eniieuecoy aeaiioth eeoa?aoo?o, iiaeii i?aaieciaaoue iao/aiea
?oeiaiaeeoaeae e niaoeeaeenoia eae aeaenoaothueo, oae e aiiaue
nicaeaaaaiuo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia.

Eiioeaioeey ?acaeoey naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee a ?innee auea
iaeia?aia 6-ie eiioa?aioeeae Nithca naeueneeo e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia 25
aaaonoa 2002 a. a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa. Oai ia iaiaa, oi/aony iiae/a?eiooue,
/oi iniaia aieiaiea neaaeoao oaeaeeoue o?ai iai?aaeaieyi, ?aaioa ii
eioi?ui aei neo ii? aaaeaony iaeaieaa neaai.

Ai-ia?auo, iaiaoiaeeii nin?aaeioi/eoue oneeey ia niaa?oainoaiaaiee
no?oeoo?u nenoaiu naeueneie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee. A yoii neea,
eiieo?aioiia i?aeiouanoai a niia?ie/anoaa n ae?oaeie
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauie einoeoooaie.

Ai-aoi?uo, aeoeaece?iaaoue ?aaioo ii acaeiiaeaenoaeth n OeA ?O,
iai?aaeaiiiio ia eciaiaiea eino?oeoeee, eanathueony aani?aiyonoaaiiiai
aeinooia e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia e ?ano?nai eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Yoi
iicaieeo oaaee/eoue ioaao naeueneiai ianaeaiey iee?ioeiainiauie
oneoaaie, oaaee/eoue iauaiu iee?ie?aaeeoiaaiey, nieceoue i?ioeaioiua
noaaee ii caeiai.

A-o?aoueeo, i?iaeieaeeoue ?aaioo ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie aacu n oai, /oiau aeayoaeueiinoue naeueneeo
e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia inouanoaeyeanue a i?aaiaii iiea, ioaa/athuai
o?aaiaaieyi ie?iauo noaiaea?oia.

3. AEEssIEA AINOAeA?NOAA IA ?ACAEOEA EIIIA?AOeEE ?O

I?iaaaeaiiue a aeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee aiaeec iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae i
oii, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiiia?aoeaiia aeaeaeaiea a no?aia ?acaeoi
i/aiue neaai e noieo ia a?aie iioa?e naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey eae
naeoi?a yeiiiieee.

Neiaeeeanue ia?aaeienaeueiay neooaoeey, i?e eioi?ie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, a
?innee noi?ie?iaaeenue yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua i?aaeiinueee
oe?ieiai ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey, a, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
eiiia?aoeaiia aeaeaeaiea ia?aaeeaaao ia?eiae oiaaeea. Oaeay neooaoeey
iauyniyaony aeeyieai ?yaea aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia.

Oi?ie?othuayny aiaoiyy n?aaea aa?anneaia ii ioiioaieth e eiiia?aoeaiui
oi?iai naiii?aaiecaoeee ianaeaiey. Eiiiaiee eiaanoi?iiai oeia ?acee/iie
noaiaie eiioeaio?aoeee eaieoaea no?aiyony cae?aieoue neiaeeaoothny oi?io
i?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaa, aeoeaii i?iiaaaiaee?oy i?aeiouanoaa
eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai oicyenoaa.
A?iiaaeiua oneeey iai?aaeaiu ia oi?ie?iaaiea iaioaeeoaoa ianaeaiey,
auaiaeiiai e?oiiui eaieoaeenoe/aneei iauaaeeiaieyi, no?aiyueiny
ooaa?aeeoue nia?aiaiioth nenoaio oi?ie?iaaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia.

I?aaeoaeuenoai no?aiu ia ?anniao?eaaao eiiia?aoeeth eae
naiinoiyoaeueioth yeiiiie/aneoth neeo, niiniaioth ieacaoue
neieueei-ieaoaeue nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia oiae yeiiiie/aneeo
i?aia?aciaaiee. Ainoaea?noai caeiiiaeaoaeueii eaii?e?oao
?aciinoi?iiiinoue eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey, ia?aie/eaaao eiee/anoai
aeaeia eiiia?aoeee. A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?O i?eciaao eeoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e iio?aaeoaeueneea eiiia?aoeau, auaiaey ca ?aiee
i?aaiaiai iiey e?aaeeoiua, no?aoiaua, aeeeeuiua, aeeeeuii-no?ieoaeueiua,
aa?aaeiua e iiiaea ae?oaea aeaeu eiiia?aoeaiuo i?aaiecaoeee11. Iii
aiineo ?aneie a eiiia?aoeaiia aeaeaeaiea, i?aaeinoaaeyy iaeiaiaua e eiua
eueaiou iaeiei aeaeai eiiia?aoeaia e iiaeaa?aay ae?oaea cia/eoaeueiui
i?aaiaui ia?aie/aieyi. Iai?eia?, i?aaiecaoeeyi iio?aaeoaeueneie
eiiia?aoeee nenoaiu Oeaio?inithca ?O i?aaeinoaaeythony iaeiaiaua e
ae?oaea eueaiou, a naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ianeoaeeaathuea eiiia?aoeau
noaeeeaathony n na?ueaciuie i?aiyonoaeyie i?e iiiuoea
ca?aaeno?e?iaaoueny eae iio?aaeoaeueneea eiiia?aoeau. Ai anao noa?ao
yeiiiieee eiiia?aoeaiua i?aaiecaoeee eniuouaatho aeanoeoth eiieo?aioeeth
ni noi?iiu eiiiaiee e oe?i eiaanoi?iiai oeia. Aieaa oiai, aeaaea naie
eiiia?aoeau eiieo?e?otho iaaeaeo niaie, iaiiny a?aae ia oieueei niiei
iaeueeai, ii aeaeaeaieth a oeaeii. O/anoea a yoie eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa
ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeee, a oneiaeyo aa ?aciauaiiinoe
i?eaiaeeo eeai e aaie?ionoao eiiia?aoeaia, eeai auioaeaeaao eiiia?aoeau
eaii?e?iaaoue iniaaiiinoe eiiia?aoeaiie oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee e
eniieueciaaoue iaoiaeu e i?eioeeiu ?aaiou eiiiaiee eiaanoi?iiai oeia.

Iiaua aeaeu eiiia?aoeaia iaoiaeyony ia noaaeee noaiiaeaiey. Yoe
iai?aaeaiey eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey ianoieueei neaau, /oi iiaeii
aiai?eoue eeoue i oi?ie?iaaiee oaiaeaioeee eo ?acaeoey. I eaeie-eeai
na?ueaciie eo ?iee a yeiiiieea no?aiu aiai?eoue e?aeia i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii.
Iie ioaeaeathony a cia/eoaeueiie aiaoiae iiaeaea?aeea. Ca?iaeaeathueany
eiiia?aoeaiua oi?iu naiii?aaiecaoeee ianaeaiey ano?a/atho ia naiai iooe
iiiai/eneaiiua o?oaeiinoe, aaaeiaeoae ec eioi?uo yaeyaony neaaia
?acaeoea eee aeaaea iieiia ionoonoaea nenoaiiinoe a eo aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ianiio?y ia nicaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo nithcia ioaeaeueiuo ec ieo,
naaiaeiy i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii cayaeyoue i nouanoaiaaiee nenoai eiiia?aoeaia
?acee/iuo aeaeia. Nicaeaiiay Annioeeaoeey eiiia?aoeaiuo i?aaiecaoeee
?innee ieacaeanue ianiiniaiie ?aaeeciaaoue iinoaaeaiiua ia?aae iae oeaee
e caaea/e, iineieueeo ia eiaao no?aoaaee ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeaiiai
aeaeaeaiey.

A niioaaonoaee n iaoiaeieiaeae nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea nenoaiu auaeaeythony
ec aiaoiae n?aaeu naieie ienneyie, oeaeyie. E?iia oiai, aaaeiie
iniaaiiinoueth nenoaiu yaeyaony iaee/ea aioo?aiiae i?aaiecaoeee,
acaeiiaeaenoaea aoiaeyueo a iaa ia?ae/iuo e eiuo caaiueaa ia ?acee/iuo
o?iaiyo oi?aaeaiey. Eiiia?aoeau ii naiae nouiinoe au?aaeatho naiae
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth nioeeaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue ?acee/iuo
aeaeia eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey e ia?acotho eo nioeeaeueioth aaco. Eo
aeayoaeueiinoue a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu ia
iiaeao auoue oniaoiie aac iauaaeeiaiey ae?oa n ae?oaii, ia?aciaaiey
aa?oeeaeueiuo e ai?eciioaeueiuo nithcia ?acee/iuo o?iaiae. Iauaaeeiaiea
eiiia?aoeaia a nithcu ioe?uaaao ia?aae ieie aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?uie iie
ia ?aniieaaatho eaaeaeue a ioaeaeueiinoe. Nithciay ?aaioa n?aaee
ca?iaeaeathueony aeaeia eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey oaeaea iaoiaeeony
eeoue a noaaeee noaiiaeaiey e inouanoaeyaony e?aeia iaaeeaiiuie oaiiaie.
?yae iaoeeiiaeueiuo eiiia?aoeaiuo nithcia aiiaua ia eiaao aa?oeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?u, ?aaeiiaeueiuo eee iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo nithcia, iauaaeeiythueo
ia?ae/iua eiiia?aoeau. Iai?eia?, iaeiiia?/aneia ia?oia?noai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaia, iauaaeeiythuaa ieiei 15 ouny/
eiiia?aoeaia, oaeie aa?oeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u ia eiaao, /oi aeaeaao
i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeiui ?aaeecaoeeth noiyueo ia?aae iei oeaeae e
caaea/.

A oi aea a?aiy aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth aieueoeinoaa aiiaue nicaeaaaaiuo
eiiia?aoeaia yaeyaony iaee/ea o ieo caeioa?aniaaiiuo, yooaeoeaiuo
nianoaaiieeia. Neaaie eo noi?iiie yaeyaony ?aciauaiiinoue, ionoonoaea
?acaeoie eio?ano?oeoo?u, ionoonoaea yeiiiie/aneie, eioi?iaoeeiiiie,
iaoiaee/aneie iiiiue ec aia e o.ae.

Aaeeinoaaiiie eiiia?aoeaiie nenoaiie, ?aniieaaathuae aioo?aiiae
ea?a?oe/aneie no?oeoo?ie, neiaeeaoaeny a ia?eiae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
oeaio?aeeciaaiii-oi?aaeyaiie yeiiiieee yaeyaony nenoaia iio?aaeoaeueneie
eiiia?aoeee ?O. A oi aea a?aiy, ianiio?y ia nio?aiaiea yoiai iai?aaeaiey
eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey eae nenoaiu, i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeoaeueneie
eiiia?aoeee onoie/eai oa?ytho naie iiceoeee ia ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa.
Nio?aiaiea neiaeeaoeony oaiaeaioeee eciaiaiey iauaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo
iieacaoaeae iauaeoeaii i?eaiaeeo e aa ?ac?ooaieth e eeeaeaeaoeee
aieueoeinoaa aeaenoaothueo eiiia?aoeaia. Ioaeaeueiua iiceoeaiua i?eia?u
?aaiou ia?ae/iuo eiiia?aoeaiuo i?aaiecaoeee ia iaiytho ea?oeiu a oeaeii.
Oniaoii ?aaioathuea eiiia?aoeau iiaoo nio?aieoueny a oa/aiea aeinoaoi/ii
aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie, ii ia iiaoo nio?aieoue nenoaio a oeaeii.
Yeiiiie/aneea iioa?e nenoaiu iio?aaeoaeueneie eiiia?aoeee a iineaaeiaa
aeanyoeeaoea n?aaieiu n iioa?yie, eioi?ua iia iiianea a ia/aeueiue
ia?eiae oi?ie?iaaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiii-oi?aaeyaiie yeiiiieee. Ianiio?y ia
yoi nenoaia iio?aaeoaeueneie eiiia?aoeee ?innee ana aua ?aniieaaaao
cia/eoaeueiui yeiiiie/aneei iioaioeeaeii, iicaieythuei ae aicaeaaeoue
i?ioeann aic?iaeaeaiey eiiia?aoeee a no?aia, niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth
anao iai?aaeaiee eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey e ia yoie iniiaa
noi?ie?iaaoue eiiia?aoeaiue naeoi? iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, niiniaiue
nua?aoue aaaeioth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie
?uii/iie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu.

CAEETH*AIEA

Ia iniiaaiee oai?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea
auaiaeu:

1. Iiiaieaoiee iiuo ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeee a iaoae no?aia e ca ?oaaaeii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi eiiia?aoeey – i?aaie/iue no?oeoo?iue
yeaiaio aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie iaeio ec
oi?i nioeeaeueiie caueou e yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey.
Ooieoeeiiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea eiiia?aoeee, iai?aaeaiii a iniiaiii ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey. I?e yoii oeaeaaay yeiiiie/aneay
ooieoeey eiiia?aoeee caeeth/aaony a aeiaaaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa aei
iio?aaeoaey.

2. Nia?aiaiiay ?inneeneay eiiia?aoeey ?anniao?eaaaony eae niaieoiiinoue
iio?aaeoaeueneeo iauanoa e eo nithcia, nicaeaiiuo a oeaeyo
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaoa?eaeueiuo, nioeeaeueiuo e eiuo iio?aaiinoae eo
/eaiia. I?e/ai eiiia?aoeey – yoi ia i?inoi iio?aaeoaeueneia eee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneia oicyenoai, a cia/eoaeueii aieaa neiaeiia
yeiiiie/aneia e nioeeaeueiia ia?aciaaiea, iiyoiio aa nouiinoue a
aa?a?iii naeoi?a ninoieo a iaania/aiee oneiaee aeey iauaaeeiaiey
ethaeae, iinoaaeaoeo ia?aae niaie oeaeue oeo/oeoue naia yeiiiie/aneia e
nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea.

3. Enoi?e/anee neeaaeuaaaony oae, /oi a ioee/ea io iiaeaaeythuaai /enea
no?ai, oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeey a iaoae no?aia i?eaiaeyo e aa
?ac?ooaieth e eeeaeaeaoeee aieueoeinoaa aeaenoaothueo eiiia?aoeaia. Eae
iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, ?aaioathuea eiiia?aoeau iiaoo nio?aieoueny a
oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie, ii ia iiaoo nio?aieoue nenoaio a
oeaeii. Yeiiiie/aneea iioa?e nenoaiu iio?aaeoaeueneie eiiia?aoeee a
iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea n?aaieiu n iioa?yie, eioi?ua iia iiianea a
ia/aeueiue ia?eiae oi?ie?iaaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiii-oi?aaeyaiie yeiiiieee.

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