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Антикризисное государственное управление

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Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

1. Aioee?eceniia ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea a no?aiao n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie

1.1. Iiiyoea e nouiinoue aioee?eceniiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey

1.2. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aioee?eceniiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey a
?acaeouo no?aiao

1.3. I?aaaioeaiua aioee?eceniua ia?u

2. I?ia?aiiu i?aiaeieaiey yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a no?aiao n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie

2.1. NOA: «Iiaue eo?n» O.Ae. ?ocaaeueoa

2.2. O?A: Aioee?eceniay iai?aaeaiiinoue ?aoi?i E. Y?oa?aea

3. Iaoaieci naiaoeee e aaie?ionoaa a no?aiao ?acaeoiai ?uiea

3.1. Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu ii aaie?ionoao a no?aiao n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie

3.2. «Neeueiay» aioee?eceniay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa a noa?a i?ioeaaeo?
ianinoiyoaeueiinoe (aaie?ionoaa) a ?acaeouo no?aiao

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

Enoi?ey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iiiaeo, a oii /enea
e?oiiaeoeo, no?ai ie?a naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ei i?eoiaeeeinue
ia?aaeeaaoue aeoaieea niaaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, oeiainiaua iio?ynaiey,
ianniaoth aac?aaioeoeo, ino?ua nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea eiioeeeou.

Iaeie no?aiu n aieueoei o?oaeii e cia/eoaeueiuie ecaea?aeeaie
i?aiaeieaaaee o?oaeiinoe, aucaaiiua, i?aaeaea anaai, e?ecenii yeiiiieee,
ae?oaea aeiaieueii oniaoii ni?aaeyeenue n yeiiiie/aneeie e nioeeaeueiuie
iio?ynaieyie e a aeiaieueii ei?ioeea n?iee auaiaeeee naie yeiiiie/aneea
e nioeeaeueiua nenoaiu ec ino?uo e?eceniuo ninoiyiee.

Aeinoeaeaiea onoie/eaiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e iaania/aiey
aeaaininoiyiey ianaeaiey ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneei
iieiaeaieai i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo io?aneae, oaie aiciiaeiinoyie
?acaeoey, eioi?uie iie ?aniieaaatho a neiaeeaoeony oneiaeyo
oicyenoaiaaiey.

Iiuo, iooe, iaoiaeu e oi?iu auoiaea ec /?acau/aeiie, e?eceniie
neooaoeee, iaeaeaiiua i?aayueie e?oaaie yoeo no?ai, iiaoo auoue aanueia
iieaciu aeey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee.

Eco/aieth i?iaeai aioee?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey iinayuaiu iiiaea ?aaiou
?iaeiia/aeueieeia oai?ee oi?aaeaiey e?eceniuie i?ioeannaie e nia?aiaiiuo
enneaaeiaaoaeae. Enneaaeiaaieth eeanneoeeaoeee e?eceniuo yaeaiee e
i?iaeaiai oi?ie?iaaiey eiiieaeniuo nenoai aioee?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey
iinayuaiu ?aaiou A.A.THia, A.Ae. *a?iyaneiai, Y.A.Ooeeia, I.I.
Oaeoa?iaa, I.E. Oa?aaaa, A.TH. Oaoneiai, ?.A. Oiaeiaa e ae?.

1. Aioee?eceniia ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea a no?aiao n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie

1.1. Iiiyoea e nouiinoue aioee?eceniiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey

Aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea – yoi iai?a?uaiue i?ioeann, iaiouaieaiue
yeaiaio iauae nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai, inouanoaeyaiiai a
oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiee ii a?aiaie e oeiainai, eioi?ue aeeth/aao a naay
naiaa?aiaiioth aeeaaiinoeeo e?eceniie neooaoeee, aiaeec i?e/ei aa
aicieeiiaaiey, ii?aaeaeaiea nenoaiu ia? ii ooieoeeiie?iaaieth
i?aaei?eyoey a e?eceniuo oneiaeyo, ?ac?aaioeo ieaia auoiaea ec iaa.

E?ecen – yoi yaeaiea, a oiaea eioi?iai i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey a ?acaeoee
nenoaiu, ?acoeueoaoii /aai iiaeao noaoue ia?ooaiea ?acaeoey eee ia?aiaiu
aioo?e nenoaiu. A niioaaonoaee n aeaiiui ii?aaeaeaieai iniiaiuie
caaea/aie oi?aaeaiey e?ecenaie yaeythony aeeaaiinoeea e?ecena, auyaeaiea
aai i?e/ei e ninoaaeaiea ieaia ia?ii?eyoee ii auaiaeo i?aaei?eyoey ec
aeaiiiai ninoiyiey.

A eiathueony ii?aaeaeaieyo aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea o?aeooaony eae
nenoaia ia? ii aeeaaiinoeea e?ecena, aiaeeco aai neiioiiia e i?e/ei,
au?aaioea eiiieaena ia? ii ooieoeeiie?iaaieth i?aaei?eyoey a e?eceniie
neooaoeee e i?ia?aiiu ii auaiaeo i?aaiecaoeee ec yoiai ninoiyiey. Oai
naiui aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea naiaeeony e oi?aaeaieth i?aaei?eyoeai,
iaoiaeyueiny ia a?aie aaie?ionoaa. I?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo iiaeiaia oacena
– aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea noaiiaeony ?acoeueoaoii aeayoaeueiinoe
aioee?eceniuo oi?aaeythueo, /oi nieaeaao niuneiaoth oeaiiinoue
?anniao?eaaaiiai iiiyoey, oae eae aeaeaei ia ana aicieeathuea ia
i?aaei?eyoee e?ecenu iiaoo i?eaanoe aai e ianinoiyoaeueiinoe.

Aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea eiaao naie niaoeeoe/aneea caaea/e ia oieueei a
oaca e?ecena, ii e a oaca ?inoa, e a oaca c?aeinoe. Yoi ninoaaeythuay
i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey, a ?aieao eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony aeeaaiinoeea
e?eceniie neooaoeee, i?iaiaeeony aa aiaeec e enneaaeiaaiea i?e/ei aa
aicieeiiaaiey, ii?aaeaeyaony nenoaia ia? ii ooieoeeiie?iaaieth
i?aaei?eyoey a nicaeaaoeony oneiaeyo e au?aaaouaaaony i?ia?aiia auoiaea
ec e?ecena.

?aciiia?acea e?ecenia ii?iaeaeaao ?aciiia?acea i?ioeannia aioee?eceniiai
oi?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei ethaia aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea aeieaeii auoue
nenoaiiui, iaeaaeaoue naienoaaie aeaeinoe e aaeaioeaiinoe, auoue
iano?iaiiie ia aeeaa?neoeeaoeeth oi?aaeaiey, oneeaiea eioaa?aoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia. Aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea oaeaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iiaeeueiinoueth e aeeiaie/iinoueth a eniieueciaaiee ?ano?nia,
i?eiaiaieai i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaiai iiaeoiaea a ?ac?aaioea e i?eiyoee
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee, iiauoaiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e oaeoi?o
a?aiaie e i?enoaeueiui aieiaieai e ioeaiea aa?eaioia iiaaaeaiey ia
eaaeaeii yoaia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia aioee?eceniia ?aaoee?iaaiea yaeyaony aacie aeey
i?eiyoey aioee?eceniuo i?ia?aii a i?aaiecaoeeyo e aai aeaaiuie caaea/aie
ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia yaeythony:

– niaa?oainoaiaaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i aaie?ionoaa (?anoe?aiea
eniieueciaaiey ?acee/iuo eino?oiaioia oeiainiaiai ?uiea, ooi/iaiea
i?ioeaaeo? aaie?ionoaa, a /anoiinoe, oeiainiaiai icaei?iaeaiey,
eciaiaiea iiaeoiaeia e iiaeaioiaea e?eceniuo oi?aaeythueo); ?

– ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii iiaeaea?aeee aeey ?acee/iuo oeiia iayooaeoeaii
?aaioathueo i?aaiecaoeee, i?eiaiaiea niaoeeoe/aneeo ia? ?aaeiiaeueiiai
aioee?eceniiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e eiio?iey (iaania/aiea
ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiiai yooaeoa ca n/ao iiiiue eeth/aaui i?iecaiaenoaai.

1.2. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aioee?eceniiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey a
?acaeouo no?aiao

Enoi?ey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iiiaeo, a oii /enea
e?oiiaeoeo, no?ai ie?a naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ei i?eoiaeeeinue
ia?aaeeaaoue aeoaieea niaaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, oeiainiaua iio?ynaiey,
ianniaoth aac?aaioeoeo, ino?ua nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea eiioeeeou.

Iaeie no?aiu n aieueoei o?oaeii e cia/eoaeueiuie ecaea?aeeaie
i?aiaeieaaaee o?oaeiinoe, aucaaiiua, i?aaeaea anaai, e?ecenii yeiiiieee,
ae?oaea aeiaieueii oniaoii ni?aaeyeenue n yeiiiie/aneeie e nioeeaeueiuie
iio?ynaieyie e a aeiaieueii ei?ioeea n?iee auaiaeeee naie yeiiiie/aneea
e nioeeaeueiua nenoaiu ec ino?uo e?eceniuo ninoiyiee.

Iieiaeaiea yeiiiieee ?innee a 90-a aiaeu XX a. ia?aaeei n?aaieaatho n
iieiaeaieai yeiiiieee NOA 30-o aiaeia (Aaeeeay aeai?anney) e yeiiiieee
iineaaiaiiuo 40-o aiaeia XX a. Aa?iaiee e ssiiiee.

A NOA aioee?eceniia ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea i?iyaeyaony a
niaa?oainoaiaaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe caiyoinoe, oaaee/aiee
?aai/eo iano, iniaaiii aeey iieiaeaaee, ?ac?aaioea ?aaeiiaeueiuo
no?oeoo?iuo i?ia?aii e ae?. Oae, a ia?aa?aoa 310 ae. 58 Naiaea caeiiia
NOA oeacuaaaony, /oi yooaeoeaiua ia?ii?eyoey i?aaeoaeuenoaa aeieaeiu
aeeth/aoue niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiua i?ia?aiiu ii nieaeaieth aunieiai
o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu, ii oiaiueoaieth no?oeoo?iie aac?aaioeoeu a
ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao e n?aaee ioaeaeueiuo a?oii ?aaioieeia; oaeaeyoue
aeieaeiia aieiaiea oaaee/aieth ?iee yenii?oa e oeo/oaieth
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa,
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aaoiiiaeeano?iaiey.

A NOA caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaia (ia?aa?ao 311 oiai aea Naiaea caeiiia)
aioeoeeeee/aneay iieeoeea ii aii?inai caiyoinoe. A ?aieao aa i?iaaaeaiey
i?aaeoniao?eaathony onei?aiiia oeiaine?iaaiea ainoaea?noaii
no?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio, oaaee/aiea caiyoinoe a ainnaeoi?a, oaaee/aiea
?acia?ia e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe no?aoiauo auieao ii aac?aaioeoea,
i?ioanneiiaeueiia iao/aiea a /anoiii e ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?ao eae
ia?a iauaai icaei?iaeaiey yeiiiieee e eae aeiiieiaiea e no?aoiaaieth ii
aac?aaioeoea. Yoa iieeoeea aeeth/aao oaeaea ?aaeecaoeeth i?ia?aii
iaania/aiey iieiaeaaee ?aai/eie ianoaie e i?ia?aii ?acaeoey, iaoeaeaiiuo
ia nicaeaiea ?aai/eo iano a io?aneyo, eiathueo aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey
ooaoia, ianaeaiiuo ioieoia (aeeth/ay naeueneea ?aeiiu) e aeey no?aiu a
oeaeii.

Ii iiaieth Eiia?anna NOA, ia iieiaeaaeue i?eoiaeeony aieueoay aeiey
eiathueony a no?aia aac?aaioiuo, e yoi a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
niinianoaoao ?inoo i?anooiiinoe, aeeiaieecia, ia?eiiaiee e o. i.

I?e au?aaioea ia?ii?eyoee e i?ia?aii ii iaania/aieth ?aaioie iieiaeaaee
aia?eeaineea caeiiiaeaoaee i?aaeeaaatho i?aaeoaeuenoao i?aaeoniio?aoue
?aoaiea oaeeo caaea/, eae ?ac?aaioea i?aeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia ni/aoaiey
?aaiou n i?ioanneiiaeueiui iao/aieai, noeioee?iaaiea /anoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, i?aeoeee iieo/aiey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey
aac io?uaa io i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aoi?ui aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai niaa?oainoaiaaiey aioee?eceniiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey a NOA yaeyaony ananoi?iiiyy iao/ii
iainiiaaiiay eii?aeeiaoeey oneeee ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aaaeiinoa
ii ?ac?aaioea e i?iaaaeaieth yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. A yoeo oeaeyo a
1984 a. nicaeai I?aceaeaioneee niaao ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth oi?aaeaiey.
Aai aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae yaeyaony au?aaioea ?aoaiey i?iaeai, anoathueo
ia?aae ainaiia?aoii. A aai aeayoaeueiinoe auaeaeythony neaaeothuea
i?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey:

niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?aaeaiey oeiainiauie ?ano?naie;

?aoeeiiaeecaoeey oi?aaeai/aneeo eino?oiaioia e i?ioeaaeo?;

eii?aeeiaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe aaia?aeueiuo einiaeoi?ia;

oneeey ?acee/iuo aaaeiinoa ii nie?auaieth /enea i?anooieaiee e ae?.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aioee?eceniia ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea
cia/eoaeueii oneeeaaaony a ia?eiaeu yeno?aiaeueiiai ?acaeoey – io
oneeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey iaae io?aneyie e i?aaei?eyoeyie a
ia?eiae e?ecena aei oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey a noa?ao
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee.

Iai?eia?, a ssiiiee a iineaaiaiiua aiaeu yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci
oa?aeoa?eciaaeny i?yiui ainoaea?noaaiiui oi?aaeaieai iiaeaaeythuaai
aieueoeinoaa io?aneae e i?aaei?eyoee, nenoaiie oiiaeiaiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey, aeanoeiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannia ia?auaiey,
oeaiiia?aciaaiey, iieeoeee aeioiaeia.

Oneeey ainoaea?noaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ssiiiee oiai ia?eiaea
auee iai?aaeaiu i?aaeaea anaai ia nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey ?uii/iie
eiieo?aioeee. A 1947 a. auee i?eiyou caeiiu i eeeaeaeaoeee ecauoi/iie
eiioeaio?aoeee yeiiiie/aneie iiue, i ?ai?aaiecaoeee oe?i, i /anoiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu (1949-1950
aa.) i?iaeieaeeeanue aeoeaiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa ii aeaiiiiiieecaoeee
yeiiiieee, e eeoue iinea aeinoeaeaiey iaeioi?uo onoie/eauo iiceoeaiuo
eciaiaiee a yoii iai?aaeaiee iiyoaiii ioiaiyaony ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea oeai.

Aieia ?aceeo ia?aiai a yiiineii oi?aaeaiee auea naycaia n onei?aiiui
inaiaieai iaoiaeia aia?eeaineiai iaiaaeaeiaioa a ia?eiae iinea ieii/aiey
aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Eieoeeaoeaa a eco/aiee e aiaae?aiee aia?eeaineeo
iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey enoiaeeea eae io yiiineeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia,
oae e io aia?eeaineie aaeieieno?aoeee ieeoiaoeeiiiuo aiene. A 1950 a.
Ieienoa?noai o?oaea ssiiiee acyei ia aii?oaeaiea aia?eeaineoth nenoaio
«iiaeaioiaee ia?acoeiauo ianoa?ia». Iaoiaeu iiaeaioiaee
aoaeeoi?ia-yiiioeaa, eniieueciaaaoeany aeaeueiaainoi/iui ooaaii AAN NOA,
auee caeinoaiaaiu yiiineei Ieienoa?noaii aiaoiae oi?aiaee e
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeey i?aaiecaoeee eo?na ii «iiaeaioiaea aaeieieno?aoeee»,
iiauoaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee oi?aaeythueo.

1.3. I?aaaioeaiua aioee?eceniua ia?u

A ?yaea no?ai ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu ?ac?aaaouaatho i?ia?aiiu
i?eaaoecaoeee, e eo inouanoaeaiea ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?aaaioeaiua
aioee?eceniua ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia i?aaeioa?auaiea eee auoiae ec
e?ecena ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee e aeaaea oeaeuo io?aneae yeiiiieee.
Oeaeue oaeie i?eaaoecaoeee – iiene iiauo, aieaa niaa?oaiiuo no?oeoo?
i?aaei?eyoee, iiauoaiea eo eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe.

I?eaaoecaoeey a eaaeaeie no?aia eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe. Oae, oa?aeoa?iie
/a?oie i?eaaoecaoeee a Aaeeeia?eoaiee yaeyaony iinoaiaiiinoue, a
Aa?iaiee – inoi?iaeiinoue, a Eoaeee – y?ei au?aaeaiiue i?aaiaoeci. A
*aoneie ?anioaeeea i?eaaoecaoeey eiaea aeaaioth oeaeue – oiaiueoeoue
aeieth ainoaea?noaa ai aeaaeaiee nianoaaiiinoueth e aeiaanoe oaeaeueiue
aan ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe aei 10-15%.

A oeaeii ?acaeoua no?aiu Caiaaea ?anniao?eaatho i?eaaoecaoeeth eae
n?aaenoai nicaeaiey niaoaiiie yeiiiieee.

Ii iiaieth caiaaeiuo yeiiiienoia, niaoaiiua i?aaei?eyoey a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy i?eciaiu iaeaieaa eiieo?aioiniiniaiuie, iaeaieaa aeaeeie, a oi aea
a?aiy aeey aieueoeinoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ai anao no?aiao
oa?aeoa?ia ieceay yooaeoeaiinoue a ?acoeueoaoa ecaea?aeae ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee. Eae i?aaeei, ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ?anniao?eaathony
eae eino?oiaio yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee, a ia eae
eiiia?/aneea i?aaei?eyoey.

Iniiaiui iiaoaeeoaeueiui noeioeii i?eaaoecaoeee yaeyaony icaei?iaeaiea
yeiiiieee i?aaei?eyoee ca n/ao /anoiuo eiaanoeoeee, a oii /enea
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea.

A no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie i?eaaoecaoeey i?eieiaao
neaaeothuea oi?iu:

i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee /anoiui eiaanoi?ai – oece/aneei
e th?eaee/aneei eeoeai;

nicaeaiea niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee n aeieaaui o/anoeai /anoiiai eaieoaea;

i?iaeaaea /anoe aeoeee i?aaei?eyoee, yaeythueony ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoueth.

I?eaaoecaoeey a yoeo no?aiao, eae i?aaeei, inouanoaeyaony iiyoaiii:
nia/aea i?aaei?eyoea iiaeaa?aaaony naiaoeee (icaei?iaeaieth), caoai
ioeaieaaaony yenia?oii-ioeaiueeii e oieueei iioii i?iaeaaony /anoiiio
eaieoaeo. Oaeay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iicaieyao iaeneiece?iaaoue au?o/eo
io i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

A *aoneie ?anioaeeea i?eaaoecaoeey i?ioiaeeea a aeaoo oi?iao – iaeay
i?eaaoecaoeey e aieueoay. Iaeay i?eaaoecaoeey cao?aaeaaea i?aaei?eyoey
noa?u ?icie/iie oi?aiaee, auoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey, i?aaei?eyoey
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e ae?oaeo iiaeiaiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Yeiiiie/aneee e
nioeeaeueiue yooaeo – noaaeeecaoeey iieiaeaiey ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
?annanuaaiea aac?aaioeoeu, nio?aiaiea e aeaaea oaaee/aiea ?aai/eo iano.

Eoae, a no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie iaeiieai aiaaoue iiuo eae
i?aaeioa?auaiey, oae e i?aiaeieaiey e?eceniuo neooaoeee ia iae?i- e
iee?io?iaiyo. Eiia/ii, enoi?e/aneea e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey
aicieeiiaaiey, ?acaeoey ?acee/iuo oeiia e?ecenia a ?innee e ae?oaeo
no?aiao ii iiiaei iiceoeeyi ia niaiaaeatho. Ii yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ia
oiaeyao iaiaoiaeeiinoe ouaoaeueiiai eco/aiey yoiai iiuoa e aaeoi/eaiai,
oai?/aneiai iiaeoiaea e aai i?eiaiaieth a i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey
oicyenoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie ?aciiai o?iaiy.

E?eceniua neooaoeee a yeiiiieea, iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue e
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, i?eaiaeyo, i?aaeaea
anaai, e oo?aoa aauiuo i?aa ia eiouanoai, ia eioi?ia iiaeao auoue
iaeiaeaii acuneaiea, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. E?eceniue
/anoiue aecian i?iaeaaony aac ainoaea?noaaiiiai o/anoey,
ainoaea?noaaiiue – n o/anoeai ainoaea?noaaiiiai nianoaaiieea.

Ainoaea?noaaiii – iiiiiieenoe/aneia ?aaoee?iaaiea, ainoaea?noaaiiia
aiaoaoaeuenoai a yeiiiieeo i?ienoiaeeo a e?eceniuo neooaoeeyo (a o./.,
ai a?aiy aieiu) eee i?e inouanoaeaiee e?oiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aaio.
Eaieoaeenoe/aneay /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue – iniiaa iaoeeiiaeueiie
yeiiiieee aieueoeinoaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai.

A oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea eee e?ecena i?aaeoaeuenoaa NOA e
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai iuoathony eciaieoue neooaoeeth iooai oneeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo, /oi anoanoaaiii, i?e
aiaeeo e oaaee/aieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e iiauoaieth aeiee AII,
ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaiiai /a?ac athaeaeao.

Oaaee/aiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia oi?aaeaiea yeiiiieeie
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?aciaaieai aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa e ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeieaa. Eeaepaeueiay eiioeaioeey iiiaoa?ecia a NOA ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao
i?yiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo, a i?aaeoniao?eaaao
eeoue oe?ieoth ainoaea?noaaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo /anoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e ?uiea.

2. I?ia?aiiu i?aiaeieaiey yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a no?aiao n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie

2.1. NOA: «Iiaue eo?n» O.Ae. ?ocaaeueoa

A eiioea 20-o e ia/aea 30-o aiaeia XX noieaoey aia?eeaineay yeiiiieea
iaoiaeeeanue a aeoai/aeoai e?ecena. Iecoay oi/ea niaaea yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey ca?aaeno?e?iaaia a 1933 a., eiaaea AII oiaiueoeeny ii
n?aaiaieth n 1929 a. ii/oe a 2 ?aca e ninoaaee 54% aeie?eceniiai o?iaiy.
A no?aia ian/eouaaeinue 17 iei. aac?aaioiuo, cae?ueinue nauoa 3 oun.
aaieia. Oeiainiaue e?ecen iiaa?a a iaieeo oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo
iaaiaoia NOA. «Ca iyoue eao i?iiuoeaiiua e oeiainiaua eeaea?u Aia?eee
auee iecaa?aioou n auni/aeoeo iiceoeee aeeyiey e aeanoe a aeoaieoth
i?iianoue». Ie iaeei ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaea ia
iia i?aaeeiaeeoue ieeaeeo ia? auoiaea ec e?ecena.

Ia i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ao 1932 a. iiaaaeo iaea?aeaea Aeaiie?aoe/aneay
ia?oey ai aeaaa n O.Ae. ?ocaaeueoii (1882-1945), i?aaeeiaeeaoei no?aia
na?eth ?aoi?i, ecaanoiuo eae «iiaue eo?n».

Oai?aoe/aneoth iniiao «iiaiai eo?na» ninoaaeee aicc?aiey aiaeeeneiai
yeiiiienoa Aeae. I. Eaeina i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee a ni/aoaiee n ?acaeoeai
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee.

Yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey a no?aia aeeeoiaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia/aoue
?aoi?iu n ?aoaiey e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo i?iaeai.

Ii eieoeeaoeaa O. ?ocaaeueoa Eiia?anno aue i?aaeeiaeai «/?acau/aeiue
caeii i aaieao»:

– Oaaea?aeueiay ?aca?aiay nenoaia i?aaeinoaaeyea caeiu aaieai;

– ieieno? oeiainia iieo/ae i?aai i?aaeioa?auaoue ianniaia ecuyoea
aeeaaeia;

– caeiiii i?aaeienuaaeinue ioe?uaaoue aaiee oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea eo
ninoiyiea aoaeao i?eciaii «caei?iaui»;

– yenii?o cieioa cai?auaeny;

– niaoeeaeueiue oeac i?aaeienuaae a?aaeaeaiai NOA iaycaoaeueioth naea/o
cieiouo caiania ia noiio nauoa 100 aeieea?ia;

– iaeiia?aiaiii ?ac?aoaeny auione iiauo aaieiio, ia iaania/aiiuo
cieioii;

– aneaae ca yoei i?aaeoaeuenoai O. ?ocaaeueoa iaeiaeeei yiaa?ai ia
cieioi, oee?eoee?othuaa iaaeaeo NOA e ca a?aieoeae.

Aoi?ui aaaeiaeoei aaieianeei caeiiii noae caeii i aaieianeie
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?eiyoue 16 ethiy 1933 a., ii eioi?iio ?acaeaeyeenue
aeaiiceoiua e eiaanoeoeeiiiua ooieoeee aaieia, auea nicaeaia
Oaaea?aeueiay ei?ii?aoeey no?aoiaaiey aeaiiceoia. E ia/aeo 1934 a. ieiei
80% anao aaieia NOA cano?aoiaaee naie aeaiiceou, o/eouaay aeaeaiea
aieueoeinoaa aeeaae/eeia eiaoue iiaeiaioth caueoo.

Caeii onoaiiaee, /oi aeaiiceou ?acia?ii aei 10 oun. aeie. iiaeeaaeao
no?aoiaaieth ia 100%, io 10 aei 50 oun. – ia 75%, a nauoa 50 oun. aeie.
– ia 50%. Iauanoaaiiia aeiaa?ea e aaieianeie nenoaia noaei auno?i
ainnoaiaaeeaaoueny.

A yiaa?a 1934 a. auea i?iaaaeaia aeaaaeueaaoeey aeieea?a, eioi?ay
nieceea aai cieioia niaea?aeaiea ia 41%.

Auea ia/aoa /aeaiea na?aa?yiie iiiaou, a no?aia aaiaeeeny aeiaoaeeeci.

Aeaaaeueaaoeey aeieea?a, ecuyoea iiiaoiiai cieioa ec /anoiuo ?oe,
iaeaa/aiea aeinooia e e?aaeeoo niinianoaiaaee iiauoaieth oeai e nicaeaee
iaoaieci eioeyoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey aia?eeaineie yeiiiieee, iaeiia?aiaiii
aeaaay oai naiui a ?oee ainoaea?noaa n?aaenoaa aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i a
ae?oaeo io?aneyo. Yoi oi, /oi iacuaatho ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeeae yeiiiieee.

Iieiaeeoaeueii iiaeeyea ia noaaeeecaoeeth oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu
NOA ioiaia «nooiai caeiia». N ioiaiie cai?aoa nie?oiuo iaieoeia
aaiaeeeny iaeia ia eo i?iaeaaeo.

Iniaia ianoi a nenoaia ?aoi?i «iiaiai eo?na» caieiaei o/?aaeaeaiea
A?aaeaeaineiai ei?iona nio?aiaiey ?ano?nia. Ii i?aaeeiaeaieth O.
?ocaaeueoa Eiia?ann i?eiye caeii i iai?aaeaiee aac?aaioiuo ai?iaeneeo
thiioae ia ?aaioo a eaniua ?aeiiu. Ii iiaieth i?aceaeaioa, yoi aeaaaei
aiciiaeiinoue oeo/oeoue anoanoaaiiua ?ano?nu no?aiu, oe?aieoue
caei?iauea iieiaeaaee.

Aaaeiui caeiiii, niinianoaothuei auoiaeo ec yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, noae
Caeii i ainnoaiiaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A niioaaonoaee n iei
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi a eaaeaeie io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?aaeeaaaeinue
aeia?iaieueii iauaaeeieoueny e au?aaioaoue «eiaeaenu /anoiie
eiieo?aioeee», eioi?ua:

ai-ia?auo, onoaiaaeeaaee au ?acia? i?iecaiaenoaa;

ai-aoi?uo, ii?aaeaeyee au o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy;

a-o?aoueeo, ?ani?aaeaeyee au ?uiee nauoa iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
eiieo?aioaie.

Ia a?aiy aeaenoaey caeiia, ia?aie/aiiia aeaoiy aiaeaie,
i?einoaiaaeeaaeinue i?eiaiaiea iieiaeaiee aioeo?anoianeiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Caeii i ainnoaiiaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiinoe cao?iioe e
o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey: ii i?aaeinoaaee ?aai/ei i?aai o/anoey a
eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ao e i?ionithcao; a caeiia ii?aaeaeyeenue o?e
iniiaiuo oneiaey o?oaea: a) ieieiaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa a ?acia?a
12-15 aeie. a iaaeaeth; a) iaeneiaeueiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai
aeiy – 8 /; a) cai?auaiea aeaoneiai o?oaea. Caeii aeaenoaiaae aeaa aiaea
e aue ioiaiai Aa?oiaiui Noaeii NOA iiae i?aaeeiaii oiai, /oi
i?ioeai?a/ee Eiinoeoooeee NOA, oae eae aiaoeaaeny a i?aaa /anoiuo
nianoaaiieeia. Ii ca yoi a?aiy oaeaeinue eeeaeaee?iaaoue iieiue oain a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e iiaeiyoue eiaeaen i?iecaiaenoaa ia 10%.

«Iiaue eo?n» ioaaoee e noa?o aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee.

A oeaeyo ainnoaiiaeaiey iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe oa?ia?ia e
iiaeaea?aeaiey oeai ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?aaeeiaeeei oa?ia?ai nie?auaoue iinaaiua ieiuaaee e iiaieiauea neioa,
ii i?e yoii aa?aioe?iaaei auieaoo i?ioeaioia n oa?ia?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe ia noiio ia nauoa 2 ie?ae. aeie.

A aa?a?iie iieeoeea «iiaue eo?n» ?aaeeciauaaeny oaeaea a caeiia 1938 a.,
eioi?ue aaae Eiioeaioeeth «anaaaea ii?iaeueiie aeeoieoeu»:

Eiioeaioeey i?aaeeaaaea iiaeaea?aeaiea o?iaiy oeai inouanoaeyoue iooai
ia oie/oiaeaiey eceeoeia i?iaeoeoeee, a nio?aiaiey, auiea/eaay oa?ia?ai
aaain a n/ao aua ia i?iaeaiiuo naeueoici?iaeoeoia.

Iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaiaeeei iieeoeeo aeaiieiaa ca a?aieoeae
i?e yenii?oa ioaieoeu, oeiiea e ae?. oiaa?ia, iiiu?yy oa?ia?ia auaea/ae
aaiciuo i?aiee.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?eiaiaiey ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia icaei?iaeaiea aa?a?iiai
naeoi?a, i?ioeann ?aci?aiey oa?i caoi?iiceeny, eiioa/iay
caaeieaeaiiinoue oiaiueoeeanue, aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu oa?ia?ia, aeeth/ay
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aieaeueiua ieaoaaee, au?inee ii/oe aaeaia.

Iaeeaeaiea, ia/aaoaany a aia?eeaineie yeiiiieea a 1933 a.,
nii?iaiaeaeaaiia aeoeaiie oeneaeueiie iieeoeeie aaeieieno?aoeee
?ocaaeueoa, niinianoaiaaei ?aceiio eciaiaieth no?oeoo?u oaaea?aeueiuo
?anoiaeia: aia?aua ca anth aia?eeaineoth enoi?eth a no?aia ia o?iaia
oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iiyaeeny nioeeaeueiue athaeaeao.

Iiaeioiaeiua iaeiae inoaeenue i?eia?ii ia oii aea o?iaia, a aio aeiey
iaeiaia ia i?eaueue ei?ii?aoeee oaaee/eeanue a 1,5 ?aca, /oi,
aaconeiaii, io?aaeaei no?aieaiea aaeieieno?aoeee ?ocaaeueoa aiceiaeeoue
aieueoaa iaeiaiaia a?aiy ia e?oiiue aecian eae enoeiiiai aeiiaieea
Aaeeeie aeai?annee, a ia ia ?yaeiauo aia?eeaineeo a?aaeaeai.

Iaoiaeieiaey, no?aoaaey e oaeoeea ?aoi?i a ?aieao «iiaiai eo?na»
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee iniaoth ?ieue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a
nenoaia eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa e iieacaee, /oi aeaeia e oia?aiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee, nioeeaeueiie e iieeoe/aneie noa?, iniaaiii a
o?oaeiua ia?eiaeu ?acaeoey no?aiu, yaeyaony aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeiui.

2.2. O?A: Aioee?eceniay iai?aaeaiiinoue ?aoi?i E. Y?oa?aea

Ethaeaeaa Y?oa?aea (1897-1977), o/aiiai e iieeoeea, aoi?iai eaioeea?a
O?A, caneoaeaiii iacuaatho «a?oeoaeoi?ii aa?iaineiai /oaea».

Iineaaiaiiia ninoiyiea yeiiiieee Caiaaeiie Aa?iaiee auei iea/aaiui.
Aieueoay /anoue i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?ac?ooaia, nio?aieaoeany i?aaei?eyoey
aea/eee aeaeeia nouanoaiaaiea. A 1946 a. i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai
ninoaaeyei ieiei iaeiie o?aoe io aeiaiaiiiai 1939 a., eao ia 30 iacaae
auei ioa?ioaii naeueneia oicyenoai.

Oeiainiaia ninoiyiea no?aiu oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue iieiaeoei ?acaaeii.
Eiee/anoai aeaiaa, iaoiaeeaoeony a ia?auaiee, ai iiiai ?ac i?aauoaei
iaee/iua oiaa?iua ?aca?au. Aeaoeoeeo, ea?oi/ee, ionoua iieee iaaaceiia,
anaiauay niaeoeyoeey. Eioeyoeey aeinoeaea 600% ii ioiioaieth e
aeiaiaiiiio o?iaith. Iaeeea e n?aaeiea neie a eoiaa aieiu ?aci?eeenue,
ieacaeenue aeaci?eaioe?iaaiiuie e ia oaa?aiiuie a aoaeouai. A
?acoeueoaoa ia?iiiiai ?ac?ooaiey ai?iaeneiai oicyenoaa e iea?aoeee
iaioeaa ec ainoi/iuo iaeanoae Aa?iaiee iaino?eeny aeeeeuiue e?ecen. A
yoeo oneiaeyo E.Y?oa?aeii auee ?ac?aaioaiu e i?iaaaeaiu ?aoi?iu,
iai?aaeaiiua ia auaaaeaiea no?aiu ec aeoai/aeoaai yeiiiie/aneiai e
nioeeaeueiiai e?ecena. Aeaaiaea?y ei ca ei?ioeia a?aiy (ieiei 10 eao)
i?iecioei «iaiaoeeia /oaei», i?aa?aoeaoaa Aa?iaieth a i?ioeaaoathuaa
ainoaea?noai, a aaaeouoth yeiiiie/aneoth no?aio ie?a.

Oai?aoe/aneei ooiaeaiaioii aioee?eceniuo ?aoi?i yaeeanue ?ac?aaioaiiay
E. Y?oa?aeii eiioeaioeey «nioeeaeueiiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa». Yoi auea
ia oieueei oai?ey, ii e ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea, iicaieeaoay
?aaeeeaeueii eciaieoue iaeee no?aiu.

Ii naiei oai?aoe/aneei onoaiiaeai eiioeaioeey «nioeeaeueiiai ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa» auea ii nouanoao oai?/aneei i?eiaiaieai, n o/aoii eiie?aoiuo
aa?iaineeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo e enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee, eaeineaineie oai?ee
einaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Y?oa?ae enoiaeee ec eaeae neeueiiai ainoaea?noaa eae «eiinoeooe?othuae»,
«oi?aaeythuae» e «?aaoee?othuae» neeu, niiniaiie oi?ie?iaaoue iauanoai.

Ainoaea?noai aeoeaii aiaoeaaeinue a yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu, ii
iai?aaeaiea, oa?aeoa?, niiniau aiaoaoaeuenoaa auee /aoei i?eaioe?iaaiu
ia oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, iniiaaiiie ia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe
ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e caueuaiiie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie nenoaiie
aeanoe.

Ainoaea?noai iiaeaea?aeeaaei io?anee, eniuouaaaoea o?oaeiinoe, iniaaiii
oaieueioth e yeaeo?ioaoie/aneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iaoaeeo?aeth.
Eiaanoi?ai e i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi i?aaeinoaaeyeenue iaeiaiaua eueaiou.

Y?oa?ae oe?iei eniieueciaae ainoaea?noaaiiua ?u/aae, aeey oiai /oiau
i?aiaeieaaaoue iaiieaaeee, ia ioeeiiyoueny io eca?aiiiai eo?na. «Ii
iiaio oaa?aeiio oaaaeaeaieth, – aiai?ee Y?oa?ae a ?a/e ia?aae /eaiaie
Oaaea?aeueiiai iauaaeeiaiey aa?iaineie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, – a XX aaea, a
naaiaeiyoieo nioeeaeueiuo oneiaeyo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yeiiiieeo…
ianao iaeii eeoue ainoaea?noai». Ii?aaeaeaiea ?aiie yeiiiie/aneiai
ii?yaeea «iiyoue-oaee iiaeao auoue caaea/ae oieueei ainoaea?noaa».

Nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a oniaoa i?iaiaeeiuo i?aia?aciaaiee e auoiaea O?A ec
e?ecena nua?aea aiaoiyy iiaeaea?aeea (yeiiiie/aneay iiiiuue ii ieaio
Ia?oaeea, a oaeaea iinoaaee oiieeaa, i?iaeiaieuenoaey, naiyi, oaeia?aiee
ii ae?oaei eaiaeai). A aa?iaineoth yeiiiieeo ia?aaeaaaeenue aia?eeaineee
o?ainii?o e ae?oaia eiouanoai a?iee NOA. Ec n?aaenoa Oiiaea aa?iiaeneie
i?ia?aiiu ainnoaiiaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeyeenue ia eueaioiuo oneiaeyo
e?aaeeou.

Ia?aui ia?ii?eyoeai, i?iaaaeaiiui a ethea 1948 a., auea aeaiaaeiay
?aoi?ia. Aa oeaeue – ecaaaeaiea io iaanoeaiaiiuo aeaiaa e nicaeaiea
oaa?aeie aaethou. Aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia yaeeanue aaaeiie i?aaeiinueeie
iiaea?iecaoeee anaai yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia aa?iaineie yeiiiieee.
Aeae?aoii auee aaaaeaiu iiaua aeaiueae – aeie/ia?ee. Eaaeaeue aeeoaeue
iieo/ae 40 ia?ie. Iieiaeio naa?aaeaiee e iaee/iinoe ?ac?aoaeinue
iiiaiyoue a niioiioaiee 1:10, a aoi?ay iieiaeia auea caii?iaeaia e
iaiaieaaeanue ii eo?no 1:20. A eiia/iii n/aoa ?acia?u aeaiaaeiie iannu
(iaee/iuo n?aaenoa e aaieianeeo aeaiiceoia) auee nie?auaiu aieaa /ai a
14 ?ac.

Aneaae ca aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iie iineaaeiaaea ?aoi?ia oeai. Caeiiii i
i?eioeeiao oicyenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u e iieeoeea oeai ioioneaeenue ia
naiaiaeo oeaiu, ioiaiyeenue aaeieieno?aoeaiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia e
iiiai/eneaiiua ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou, ?aaoee?iaaaoea aei yoiai
yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey.

Ianeieueei iicaea auee i?eiyou caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou i e?aaeeoiie e
iaeiaiaie iieeoeea, i ia?ao i?ioea i?iecaieueiiai caauoaiey oeai,
aioeiiiiiieueiua e aioeea?oaeueiua oeacu e ae?. Ia?eiaee/anee
ioaeeeiaaeenue eaoaeiae oae iacuaaaiuo oianoiuo oeai, o. a. o/eouaathueo
ninoiyiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aieueoeinoaa aeeoaeae O?A.

Aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee Y?oa?aea auei oe?aieaiea O?A
ia ie?iaii ?uiea – oaeaeinue ao?ia oaaee/eoue yenii?o.

Auee i?eiyou ?aoeoaeueiua ia?u ii caueoa aioo?aiiaai ?uiea io aiaoieo
eiieo?aioia, niya/aii iaeiaiaia a?aiy, cai?auaeenue iaai? iiauo
neoaeaueo e iiauoaiea ei ieeaaeia, i?iaiaeeeny eo?n ia aeanoeoth
yeiiiieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue
?acaeoeth iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana. Oaea a 1953 a. ia i?aaei?eyoeyo n
/eneii nio?oaeieeia aei 500 /aeiaae ?aaioaei aei 50,8% anao caiyouo e
i?iecaiaeeeanue iieiaeia i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu i?iyaeyee caaioo i nicaeaiee nenoaiu yooaeoeaiie
caiyoinoe, aeeth/athuae a naay ia?aiiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia, ?acaeoea
iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio, oaaee/aiea /enea ?aai/eo iano e nie?auaiea
aac?aaioeoeu.

Ii iiaieth Y?oa?aea, nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa aeieaeia auoue
iieeoeeie aeey ieeeeiiia. Iia i?ecaaia iaania/eoue, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
caueoo e iiaeaea?aeeo neaauo, a n ae?oaie, – nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiuo
oneiaee aeey aeoeaiiai ?acaeoey neeueiui, o. a. eeoeai, eioi?ua a neeo
naieo niiniaiinoae e eaaeeoeeaoeee iiaoo naiinoiyoaeueii aeiaeoueny
oniaoia a aeecie.

I?e yoii aaaeia nieeaea?iinoue «neeueiuo» e «neaauo», caaioa anaai
iauanoaa i iioa?iaaoeo iaoaea/o a aeecie.

Iieiaeeoaeueioth ?ieue a i?aiaeieaiee e?ecena a O?A nua?aei
eiaeeeaoeaiia (aeiaiai?iia) ieaie?iaaiea.

Yoi ia «ieaiu-i?iaiicu», «ieaiu-aeiaaaeee», a i/aiue yooaeoeaiue a
oneiaeyo O?A yeiiiie/aneee, i?aaiaie e aaeieieno?aoeaiue iaoaieci
aicaeaenoaey ia ana noa?u aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe no?aiu.

Iniiao yoiai oniaoa iaania/eaaee neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

aunieay eaaeeoeeaoeey ?ac?aaio/eeia ieaiia, eniieueciaaaoeo aanue
a?naiae yeiiiie/aneie iaoee;

?aciiia?acea iaoiaeia e eino?oiaioa?ey i?e ?aaeecaoeee yoeo ieaiia,
ionoonoaea eaeiai-eeai aeiaiaoecia e ocinoe iiaeoiaeia;

oaa?aeinoue e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiia?aoa, eioi?ue, ia?aaeei aeaenoaoy a oneiaeyo e?aeiae iieeoe/aneie
ianoaaeeueiinoe, oeaeaono?aieaiii ?aaeeciauaae i?eiyoua i?ia?aiiu;

au?aaioea oe?ieiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai niaeaney a ioiioaiee aeaaiuo oeaeae
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ia aeeaeaeooth e ioaeaeaiioth
ia?niaeoeau.

Aioee?eceniua ?aoi?iu, ?ac?aaioaiiua e oiaei i?iaaaeaiiua E. Y?oa?aeii,
ia eiaee au oniaoa aac aeoeaiie iiaeaea?aeee iauanoaaiiinoe, aac o/anoey
a?aaeaeai a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey e ?aaeecaoeee ?aoaiee ii
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei aii?inai, aac oe?ieie iii?u ia ?ac?aaioee e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee o/aiuo naiae no?aiu.

Iiaeuoiaeeaay e ioeaieaay aioee?ecenioth ?aoi?iaoi?neoth aeayoaeueiinoue
E. Y?oa?aea, neaaeoao iniaaiii iiae/a?eiooue i?aaeeueiue auai?
nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiie iiaeaee ?acaeoey.

3. Iaoaieci naiaoeee e aaie?ionoaa a no?aiao ?acaeoiai ?uiea

3.1. Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu ii aaie?ionoao a no?aiao n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie

Ianinoiyoaeueiinoue (aaie?ionoai) i?aaei?eyoey, aiai?y th?eaee/aneei
ycueii, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aai ianiiniaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?eoue
o?aaiaaiey e?aaeeoi?ia ii iieaoa oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa), aeeth/ay
ianiiniaiinoue iaania/eoue iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee a athaeaeao e
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu a nayce n i?aauoaieai iaycaoaeuenoa aeieaeieea
iaae aai eiouanoaii eee a nayce n iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie no?oeoo?ie
aaeaina aeieaeieea. N oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiieee, iiae ianinoiyoaeueiinoueth
(aaie?ionoaii) i?aaei?eyoey iu iiieiaai aai ia?aioaaaeueiinoue, /oi
ca/anooth i?iaeeeoiaaii iai?ioanneiiaeeciii e iaaeaeinoueth
iaiaaeaeiaioa aeaiiie no?oeoo?u.

A no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie einoeooo ianinoiyoaeueiinoe
oi?ie?iaaeny noieaoeyie e eiaao aiaaoua o?aaeeoeee e aunieoth eoeueoo?o.
A caaeneiinoe io yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaee, eaeaieiaee e iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae noi?ie?iaaeenue: aa?iaineay, aia?eeaineay o?aioeocneay e
aiaeeeneay iiaeaee einoeoooa ianinoiyoaeueiinoe. Ii o anao iiaeaeae
anoue iauea oi/ee nii?eeiniiaaiey:

ai-ia?auo, ioiineoaeueii ieceee i?ioeaio i?aaiecaoeee-aeieaeieeia a
yeiiiieea ?acaeouo no?ai;

ai-aoi?uo, iaeo?aeueii-iiceoeaiia ioiioaiea iauanoaa e i?ioeaaeo?ai
aaie?ionoaa, eae e anoanoaaiiiio yeiiiie/aneiio i?ioeanno;

a-o?aoueeo, iaee/ea ?acaeoie eio?ano?oeoo?u aioee?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i aaie?ionoaa (ianinoiyoaeueiinoe) a no?aiao, a
eioi?uo ?acaeoea yeiiiieee iniiaaii ia eiieo?aioeee e iai?a?uaiuo
no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaieyo, iaoeaeaii ia ainieoaiea aeenoeeieeiu e
niaethaeaiea i?aaee aeaeiaiai oeiainiaiai iai?ioa, a oaeaea
i?aaeiacia/aii niaeaenoaeth ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee iayooaeoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoee
eeai oeeaeeeciaaiiiio eo auaiaeo n ?uiea.

Caaea/e, ?aoaaiua i?e iiiiue caeiiia i aaie?ionoaa a no?aiao n ?uii/iie
yeiiiieeie, aiieia eiie?aoiu.

Naiie aaaeiie ec ieo yaeyaony iaeneiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea nouanoaothueo
aiciiaeiinoae «nianaiey» i?aaei?eyoey eee aai /anoae, eioi?ua
iin?aaenoaii i?ioeaaeo?u aaie?ionoaa iiaoo auoue ainnoaiiaeaiu, /oiau a
iineaaeothuai aianoe naie aeeaae a yeiiiieeo no?aiu. A oi aea a?aiy
ainoaea?noai iiaeaea?aeeaaao caueoo aeoeaia i?aaei?eyoey-aeieaeieea a
eioa?anao e?aaeeoi?ia e ?ani?aaeaeaiea yoeo aeoeaia a niioaaonoaee n
Caeiiii a oeaeyo iaeneiaeueiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey o?aaiaaiee e?aaeeoi?ia.
Caeii ii?aaeaeyao ii?yaeie aica?aoa aeieaia e?aaeeoi?ai iin?aaenoaii
?ani?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io i?iaeaaee aeoeaia e (eee) a aeaea aeoeee
?ai?aaieciaaiiiai aeaenoaothuaai oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa, eeai
eniieueciaaiea ion?i/ee eee nie?auaiey aeieaa yoiai noauaeoa a neo/aa
eiathuaeny aiciiaeiinoe ainnoaiiaeaiey aai ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe (ie?iaia
niaeaoaiea). E, iaeiiaoe, caeiiiaeaoaeueii iaania/ai iaoaieci
?anniio?aiey aeae i ia?ooaieyo e ceioiio?aaeaieyo a oi?aaeaiee
iaaie?ioeaoeieny i?aaei?eyoeyie e aiioee?iaaiey iai?aaiia?iuo naeaeie.

A niioaaonoaee n i?eiaiyaiie eiioeaioeeae aaie?ionoaa, i?ioeaaeo?u,
?aaeecothuea yoe caaea/e, iaania/eaatho eioa?anu e aeieaeieeia, e
e?aaeeoi?ia. Aeieaeiee eee aai aecian iiaeao auoue inaiaiaeaeai io
aeieaia, aicieeoeo aneaaenoaea oauoi/iie oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeee, a
oaeaea io i?iaeieaeaiey ?aaeecaoeee i?aaeiae oi?aaeai/aneie no?aoaaee.
E?aaeeoi?u aea caeioa?aniaaiu a onoaiiaeaiee ioaaonoaaiiiai eiio?iey eee
iaaethaeaiey ca aeaeaie aeieaeieea, a nie?auaiee aai oauoeia e, — anee
aecian aeieaeieea oaeaaony nio?aieoue, — a nio?aiaiee aeaeiauo ioiioaiee
n aeieaeieeii a aoaeouai.

Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea aieueoeinoaa no?ai n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieeie (NOA, Eaiaaea, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aano?aeey, Oaaoeey,
Ieaea?eaiaeu e ae?.), iaeiei ec eeth/aauo yeaiaioia nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu
yeiiiie/aneie ianinoiyoaeueiinoe yaeyaony iaee/ea niaoeeaeueiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia (aaaeiinoaa) n eiie?aoiuie iaycaiiinoyie ii
aii?inai aaie?ionoaa.

A i?aaiii/eyo yoiai i?aaia — eiio?ieue aeaenoaee a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e iiaeaioiaea niioaaonoaothueo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
i?aaeoaeuenoao ioiineoaeueii iieiaeaiey iineaaeiaai a aeaiiie iaeanoe.
Ae?oaeie eeth/aauie yeaiaioaie nenoaiu ianinoiyoaeueiinoe yaeythony
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, einoeooo niaoeeaeenoia, noaeaaiay nenoaia e
iiieiaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaie?ionoaa a iauanoaa.

3.2. «Neeueiay» aioee?eceniay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa a noa?a i?ioeaaeo?
ianinoiyoaeueiinoe (aaie?ionoaa) a ?acaeouo no?aiao

?anniio?ei iineaaenoaey «neeueiie» aioee?eceniie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa a
noa?a i?ioeaaeo? ianinoiyoaeueiinoe (aaie?ionoaa). Oeaee e caaea/e
oeiainiaiai icaei?iaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee – aeieaeieeia ii?aaeaeeee
i?ei?eoaoioth ?ieue ainoaea?noaa, iineieueeo eo iineaaenoaey iai?yioth
cao?aaeaatho eioa?anu anaai iauanoaa e ainoaea?noai iaycaii nio?aiyoue
?aaoee?othuea e eiio?iee?othuea ooieoeee.

I?eioeeiu, caeeaaeuaaaiua a «neeueioth» aioee?ecenioth iieeoeeo:

– Iinoaiiaea /aoeeo e yniuo oeaeae, iaeiicia/iia ii?aaeaeaiea
i?ei?eoaoia ?acaeoey;

– A?oiiu niioiinyo nianoaaiiua eioa?anu n oeaeyie e i?ei?eoaoaie
ainoaea?noaa;

– I?ienoiaeeo i?ioanneiiaeueiue ioai? eaae?iaiai ninoaaa aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae;

– A ?acoeueoaoa, o iauanoaa aicieeaao aaeaeaaoiia aini?eyoea i?ioeaaeo?
ianinoiyoaeueiinoe (aaie?ionoaa).

Enoiaey ec auoaeceiaeaiiiai, iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei yoaiia
noaiiaeaiey ?anioaeeeaineie nenoaiu oeiainiaiai icaei?iaeaiey.

Ia?aue yoai: Ainoaea?noai i?iaiaeeo «neeueioth» aioee?ecenioth iieeoeeo
a noa?a i?ioeaaeo? ianinoiyoaeueiinoe, oneeeaay naia aeeyiea aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu oeiainiaiai icaei?iaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee –
aeieaeieeia.

Aoi?ie yoai: «Neeueiay» ainoaea?noaaiiay aioee?eceniay iieeoeea
aeinoeaaao naiaai ieea. Yoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeeae
ainoaea?noaaiiie aioee?eceniie iieeoeee ii oeiainiaiio icaei?iaeaieth,
nicaeaieai iniia aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iuo einoeoooia aioee?eceniiai
oi?aaeaiey.

O?aoee yoai: Ainoaea?noai inouanoaeyao aeanoeea eiio?ieueiua ooieoeee,
ia oaaee/eaay neeu naiaai aeeyiey a noa?a ianinoiyoaeueiinoe
(aaie?ionoaa).

*aoaa?oue yoai: Iinoaiaiii nieaeaaony ?ieue ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeaaeo? aaie?ionoaa. Ooieoeee ?aaoee?iaaiey ia?aoiaeyo
e ?uii/iui einoeoooai, ainoaea?noai inouanoaeyao eeoue iaaeci?ioth
ooieoeeth.

A aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a einoeooo aaie?ionoaa iicaieyao
caueoeoue aecian a ia?eiae a?aiaiiuo o?oaeiinoae, a a neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oeeaeeeciaaiiui niiniaii
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoue nianoaaiiinoue a iieueco oao, eoi oiaao inouanoaeyoue
yooaeoeaiia oi?aaeaiea e eiieo?e?iaaoue n ae?oaeie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie ia
?uiea.

Caeeth/aiea

Ii ?acoeueoaoai i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea
auaiaeu.

Oei oi?aaeaiey – yoi eiiieaen oa?aeoa?enoee, io?aaeathueo aai
iniaaiiinoe, iacia/aiea e oeaiiinoue.

Aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea eae oei oi?aaeaiey, niiniaiiai i?aaeaeaeaoue e
i?aaeaa?youe e?ecenu, niya/aoue eo oa/aiea, ono?aiyoue io?eoeaoaeueiua
iineaaenoaey e i?aa?auaoue eo a iiceoeaiua eciaiaiey, yaeyaony
aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey iaiaaeaeiaioa e yeiiiieee.

Aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea – yoi iauaeoeaiay iio?aaiinoue oi?aaeaiey,
i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia ?acaeoea, naiaa?aiaiiia ?aoi?ie?iaaiea yeiiiieee,
aiaeec aoaeouaai a ianoiyuai, ioeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey i?e?iaeu e
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.

Oai?ey e i?aeoeea aioee?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey eiaao aeeeiioth enoi?eth.
E?ecenu – yaeaiea neiaeiia e i?ioeai?a/eaia. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
e?aeiaa iaino?aiea i?ioeai?a/ee a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia,
oa?iaeathuaa aa onoie/eainoe e aeecianiiniaiinoe. Eo ii?iaeaeatho naiua
?acee/iua i?e/eiu. Iie aeaeyony ia iauaeoeaiua, naycaiiua n oeeeee/iui
oa?aeoa?ii ?acaeoey, e noauaeoeaiua, io?aaeathuea ioeaee,
iaeiiiaoaioiinoue a oi?aaeaiee. A iniiaa e?ecenia iiaoo oaeaea eaaeaoue
i?e?iaeiua e oaoiiaaiiua i?ioeannu. Iianiinoue e?ecena nouanoaoao
anaaaea, e aai iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaeaeaoue e i?iaiice?iaaoue. Enoiaey ec
yoiai, aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue eae nenoaio ia? ii
aeeaaiinoeea, i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth, iaeo?aeecaoeee e i?aiaeieaieth
e?eceniuo yaeaiee e eo i?e/ei ia anao o?iaiyo yeiiiieee.

Iiuo aioee?eceniiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiieee, oeiainia, nioeeaeueiie
iieeoeee a no?aiao n ?acaeoie yeiiiieeie eiaao ia oieueei
iaoeeiiaeueiia, ii e aieueoia iaaeaeoia?iaeiia cia/aiea. Iniaaiii ii
oeaiai aeey ?inneeneeo iaiaaeaea?ia, yeiiiienoia e iieeoeeia.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aioee?eceniia oi?aaeaiea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe: iao/.-i?aeo. iiniaea /
Ieoaeeia E.I. I.: Yecaiai, 2004. 224 n.

2. Aioee?eceniue PR e eiinaeoeia / Ieueoaaneee A.N. NIa: Ieoa?, 2003.
432 n.

3. Eiaeaaieeia I.I., Ai?enia A.E. Iniiau aioee?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeyie. I., «Aeaaeaiey»., 2005. 496 n.

4. Iaoiaeieiaey aioee?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey: o/aaii-i?aeo. iiniaea / THi
A.A. I.: Aeaei, 2004. 432 n.

5. Iieauoe A.I. I?aaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ianinoiyoaeueiinoe
(aaie?ionaa)//Aeaeaeaeano aeo?iaea «I?aai e aeeciue». I.: THIEOEAeAIA,
2005. 38 n.

6. Neiaa?ue ii aioee?eceniiio oi?aaeaieth / THi A.A., Oaeue A.E.,
A?eai?ueaa A.A. I.: Aeaei, 2003. 448 n.

7. Noaiaiia N.I. Aioee?eceniia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee: oai?ey e
i?aeoeea.//Aeaeaeaeano aeo?iaea «I?aai e aeeciue». I.: THIEOEAeAIA,
2005. 38 n.

8. Oeiainiaua, aeaiaaeiua e e?aaeeoiua nenoaiu ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai: O/aa.
iiniaea / E.A. ?oaeue. I.: Iiaia ciaiea, 2004. 400 n.

9. *eaeia I.I. Iiuo aioee?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey a no?aiao auaoaai
nioe-eaaa?y: ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau //Aeaeaeaeano aeo?iaea «I?aai e
aeeciue». I.: THIEOE-AeAIA, 2005. N. 121.

10. Yeiiiieei-noaoenoe/aneea iiaeaee yooaeoeaiinoe
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo no?oeoo? / Eina/aa TH.A. I.: Eiain, 2004. 244 n.

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