.

Абсолютная монархия в Римском праве

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2147
Скачать документ

Aaniethoiay iiia?oey a ?eineii i?aaa

Aaaaeaiea

1. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai e oi?aaeaiea

2. Ianaeaiea

3. A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann

4. Oaieiaiia i?aai e oaieiaiue noae

5. Enoi/ieee i?aaa. Jus vetus e leges

6. Eiaeeoeeaoeee THnoeieaia

AAAAeAIEA

Aaniethoiay iiia?oey (io eao. absolutus — aaconeiaiue) — ?aciiaeaeiinoue
iiia?oe/aneie oi?iu i?aaeaiey, i?e eioi?ie any iieiioa ainoaea?noaaiiie
(caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie, noaeaaiie), a eiiaaea e aeooiaiie
(?aeeaeiciie) aeanoe th?eaee/anee e oaeoe/anee iaoiaeeony a ?oeao
iiia?oa.

Iiia?oey — oi?ia i?aaeaiey, enoi?e/anee i?aaeoanoaothuay aeeeoaoo?a e
?anioaeeea. A? ia?aaeeee ana nouanoaiaaaoea aei XVIII a. ainoaea?noaa.
Iiiaea enoi?eee ?anniao?eaatho a? eae anoanoaaiioth oaco enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey. A oe?ieii niunea iiia?oeae iacuaaaony oi?ia i?aaeaiey, i?e
eioi?ie aeanoue i?aaeoaey ianeaaeoaony. A oceii niunea iiia?oeae
iacuaatho eeoue oaeoth ianeaaenoaaiioth oi?io i?aaeaiey, i?e eioi?ie
aeanoue ainoaea?y ia?aie/aia, iai?eia?, i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie i?aaiaie
(caineea niai?u a ?innee, ei?oanu a Eniaiee, aaia?aeueiua ooaou ai
O?aioeee e o. ae.). Iaeiaei aeaaea i?e iaia?aie/aiiie iiia?oee
ainoaea?yi i?eoiaeeeinue oae eee eia/a n/eoaoueny n iiaieai iiaeaeaiiuo,
/anoi au?aaeaaoainy /a?ac ?aeiiaiaeaoeee niaao/eeia, ia?iaeiua
ainnoaiey, oa?ico aeai?oeiauo ia?aai?ioia e oea?aoaeenoa. A ia?enecia
iaia?aie/aiioth iiia?oeth iacuaatho ii-?aciiio a caaeneiinoe io
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee: aeey aceaoneiai niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa eniieuecotho oa?iei “aeaniioey”, a aeey yiioe ia?aoiaea io
oaiaeaeecia e eaieoaeecio – “aaniethoiay iiia?oey”.

A yiioo I?inaauaiey oaeay oi?ia i?aaeaiey aia?aua iieo/eea nai?
eaeaieiae/aneia iiaee?aieaiea. Yoie oi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa
aeaaii?eyonoaiaaee aiaineiau, i?eienuaathuea aa?oiaiie aeanoe
aiaeanoaaiiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea, e ?eineea th?enou, i?eciaaaaoea ca
ainoaea?yie aaniethoioth aeanoue ae?aaieo ?eineeo eiia?aoi?ia.
Caia/aoaeueii noi?ioee?iaae niune aaniethoiie iiia?oee Ethaeiaee XIV a
naiae aoi?enoe/aneie o?aca “Ainoaea?noai — yoi y”. (o?. “L’Etat c’est
moi”)

Ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai aeaayoiaaeoeaoiai aaea, iinea Aaeeeie O?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann iinoaiaiiie aeaiie?aoecaoeee e
ia?aie/aiey aeanoe iiia?oa. Iaeiaei yoio i?ioeann i?ioiaeee
ia?aaiiia?ii, iai?eia? a ?innee aaniethoiay iiia?oey i?inouanoaiaaea
aieioue aei aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea.

1.AINOAeA?NOAAIIIA ONO?IENOAI E OI?AAEAIEA

Aeea?oey ia iiaea auoue i?i/iie oi?iie ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, e
oaea e eiioeo i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea eiia?aoi?neay aeanoue i?eia?aoaao
caiaoiue iiia?oe/aneee iooaiie. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiua nioou, ianooieaoea
iinea Naaa?ia, iaia?oaeeee iaiaoiaeeiinoue iieiie ?ai?aaiecaoeee
ainoaea?noaa, e yoa ?ai?aaiecaoeey i?iecaaaeaia auea Aeeieeaoeaiii, a
caoai a oii aea aeooa caaa?oaia Eiinoaioeiii.

Aeaa iniiaiuo ia/aea eaaeao ai aeaaa yoie
Aeeieeaoeiiianei-Eiinoaioeiianeie ?aoi?iu. Ia?aia – yoi ieii/aoaeueiia
i?eciaiea eiia?aoi?a aaniethoiui iiia?oii. Ii ia anoue oaia?ue oaea
princeps eee ?anioaeeeaineee iaaeno?ao, i?eciathuee iaae niaith, oioy au
a i?eioeeia, aa?oiaainoai ia?iaea; ii oaia?ue ia “ia?aue” (iaaeaeo
?aaiuie), a ainiiaeei, dominus, noiyuee auoa caeiia (“princeps legibus
solutus est”355), dominus “Aiaeeae ieeinoueth”; “a?aaeaeaia” – cives –
i?aa?auathony a “iiaeaeaiiuo”, subjecti. Iiae aeeyieai ainoi/iuo
ia?acoeia eiia?aoi?neay aeanoue i?eia?aoaao aeaaea ai aiaoiinoe
ainoi/iie eiei?eo: iaaeinooiiinoue, neiaeiue i?eaeai?iue oea?aiiieae,
aiaeaneea ii/anoe – “tamquam praesenti et corporali deo”356. Iaeiaei,
aeeianoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a iiia?oey e oaia?ue ia i?eia?aea; aii?in i
i?anoieiianeaaeee inoaaony iao?aaoee?iaaiiui; oai?aoe/anee eca?aiea
eiia?aoi?a eae aoaeoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo naiaoo, oaeoe/anee aea i?aaiiee eee
oeacuaaaony naiei i?aaeoanoaiaaaoei eiia?aoi?ii, eee aea i?iaicaeaoaaony
aieneii.

Aoi?ia ia/aei – yoi ?acaeaeaiea eiia?ee ia aeaa iieiaeiu, Ainoi/ioth e
Caiaaeioth, Oriens e Occidens. N?aaee /?acia?iiai ?aciiia?acey
iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, aoiaeeaoeo a ninoaa ?eineie eiia?ee, oaea aeaaii
iaia?oaeeeinue oyaioaiea e aeaoi eoeueoo?iui oeiai – eaoeineiio e
a?a/aneiio; e ia?aiio oyaioae Caiaae, ei aoi?iio Ainoie. Oi?aaeaiea
ainoaea?noaii ni noieue ?acee/iuie iaoeeiiaeueiuie yeaiaioaie
i?aaenoaaeyei, eiia/ii, aieueoea o?oaeiinoe, – e Aeeieeaoeai i?eoae e
iunee a eioa?anao oi?aaeaiey ?acaeaeeoue yoio o?oae, eca?aa naaa
nii?aaeoaey, eioi?ue caaaaeiaae au iaeiie ec aeaoo aieueoeo iieiaei
ainoaea?noaa. N oie ii?u, ca eneeth/aieai iaeioi?uo aieaa eee iaiaa
ei?ioeeo i?iiaaeooeia, ?acaeaeaiea yoi aeaeaaony iinoiyiiui. Ii yoi
?acaeaeaiea a i?eioeeia ia iaicia/aao niaith ?aniaaeaiea eiia?ee ia aeaa
niaa?oaiii ioaeaeueiua e niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueiua ainoaea?noaa;
Oriens e Occidens inoathony oieueei aeaoiy iieiaeiaie iaeiiai e oiai aea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeaeiai; ainnoaiaaeeaaaony eae au noa?ay eaeay
eieeaaeaeueiinoe: eiia?aoi?u, iiaeiaii i?aaeiei aeaoi eiinoeai,
n/eoathony eieeaaaie, a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?eciaaony aaeeiui aeey anaai
ainoaea?noaa. ?acaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaa caaa?oaaony nicaeaieai ae?oaie
noieeoeu – Eiinoaioeiiiiey, e ae?oaiai naiaoa – Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai.

A iiiiuue naaa iaa eiia?aoi?a, iacuaathueany oaia?ue Aaaonou (Augusti),
ecae?atho aeaoo Oeaca?ae (Caesares), eioi?ua e i?aaeiieaaathony eo
i?aaiieeaie.

Iiaeiaiia ?acaeaeaiea eiia?ee, i?iieeiooia i/aaeaeiui eaeaaeeciii, iiaei
auoue, eiia/ii, eeoue ia/aeii aa iieiiai ?aniaaeaiey. Aa?aa?u i?eoiaeyo
ia iiiiuue e iiei?aieai Caiaaeiie ?eineie Eiia?ee (476 a.) oie/oiaeatho
yoi i?ec?a/iia aaeeinoai. I?aaaea, iii auei ainnoaiiaeaii aua ?ac
THnoeieaiii, ii iinea aai nia?oe Caiaae io?uaaaony aiiaue e ia yoio ?ac
oaea ieii/aoaeueii, a aeey Ainoiea eii/aaony ?ei e ia/eiaaony Aecaioey.

Onoaiiaeaiea aaniethoiie iiia?oee iocuaaaony i?aaeaea anaai, eiia/ii,
iaaeaieai naiaoa. Yoiio iaiaei niinianoaiaaei ia?aianaiea noieeoeu a
Eiinoaioeiiiieue e o/?aaeaeaiea aoi?iai, Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai, naiaoa,
aneaaenoaea /aai iaa naiaoa nionoeeenue aei noaiaie i?inouo ai?iaeneeo
niaaoia. Io i?aaeiaai iauaainoaea?noaaiiiai cia/aiey o naiaoa oieueei
iaeia ionoay oi?ia: a) naiaoo niiauathony iiaua caeiiu aeey naaaeaiey,
b) naiaoo ii?o/aaony eiiaaea ?anneaaeiaaiea oaieiaiuo aeae, e n) de jure
naiaoo i?eiaaeeaaeeo eca?aiea iiaiai eiia?aoi?a, oioy, eae neacaii auoa,
yoi i?aai naiaeeony e naieoeeiie?iaaieth oiai, eoi aue oaea eee
i?aaeiacia/ai a ea/anoaa oeaca?y, eee i?iaicaeaoai aieneii.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n iaaeaieai naiaoa i?ienoiaeeo aeaeueiaeoaa iaaeaiea
noa?uo ?anioaeeeaineeo iaaeno?aoo?. Iie i?iaeieaeatho aua nouanoaiaaoue,
eae ii/aoiua ?aeeeaee i?ioeiai, ii oaea ieeaeiai o/anoey a
ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee ia i?eieiatho: eiinoeu
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaotho a naiaoa, i?aoi?u caaaaeotho ii ii?o/aieth
eiia?aoi?a iaeioi?uie niaoeeaeueiuie aeaeaie (iai?eia?, iiaeoineeie),
inoaeueiua nouanoaotho oieueei eae ii/aoiua caaiey.

Ana aeoeaiia ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea iaoiaeeony a ?oeao
eiia?aoi?neeo /eiiaieeia, nenoaia eioi?uo ?ac?anoaaony a neiaeiue
ath?ie?aoe/aneee iaoaieci e iiaeaa?aaaony aieaa oi/iie ?aaeaiaioaoeee.
?acei i?iaiaeeony ?acaeaeaiea aeieaeiinoae ia i?eaeai?iua, a?aaeaeaineea
e aiaiiua – dignitates palatinae, civiles e militares; a eaaeaeie aaoae
ia?acoaony ii?aaeaeaiiay ea?a?oe/aneay eanoieoea, i?e/ai eaaeaeie
nooiaie a yoie eanoieoea niioaaonoaoao iniaue oeooe (illustres,
spectabiles, clarissimi357 e o. ae.); eaaeaeiio /eiiaieeo iacia/aaony
ii?aaeaeaiiia aeaeiaaiuea – niioaaonoaaiii oeooeo e ?aiao.

I?e iniaa eiia?aoi?a iaoiaeeony ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, eioi?ue
iacuaaaony oaia?ue consistorium principis (aianoi i?aaeiaai “adsidere”,
“assessores” oaia?ue “adstare”358: /eaiu niaaoa ia niatho oaea a
i?enoonoaee eiia?aoi?a neaeaoue359). Ii i?aaeeiaeaieth eiia?aoi?a ii
ianoaeaeaao anyeea aii?inu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e oi?aaeaiey; a iai aea
?acae?athony e ana noaeaaiua aeaea, ainoiaeyuea a einoaioeeiiiii
ii?yaeea e eiia?aoi?o; a yoie iineaaeiae ooieoeee noaeaaiiai
o/?aaeaeaiey eiia?aoi?neee niaao iineo iaueiiaaiiia iacaaiea auditorium
principis.

I?e aeai?a a?oiie?oaony oeaeay ianna ?aciiia?aciuo i?eaeai?iuo
/eiiaieeia (dignitates palatinae), eiathueo a oi aea a?aiy oa?aeoa?
i?aaiia oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ec ieo yaeythony:
praepositus sacri cubiculi, caaaaeothuee oea?neei aeai?oeii, magister
officiorum – ia/aeueiee ee/iie eaioeaey?ee eiia?aoi?a e aianoa n oai
caaaaeothuee ee/iui ninoaaii /eiiaie/anoaa, quaestor sacri palatii –
i?aaenaaeaoaeue consistorium principis, ia/oi a?iaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
eaioeea?a, comes largitionum – caaaaeothuee ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciie e
oeiainaie aiiaua, comes rei privatae – caaaaeothuee n?aaenoaaie,
iacia/aiiuie ia niaea?aeaiea aeai?a, e ii. ae?.

Caoai eaeao ?yae /eiiaieeia aeey oi?aaeaiey noieeoeaie e i?iaeioeeyie
(dignitates civiles). Ai aeaaa eaaeaeie noieeoeu noieo praefectus urbi,
a ?oeao eioi?iai nin?aaeioi/eaaaony aaeieieno?aoeaiay e noaeaaiay
aeanoue a noieeoea. Aai aeeaeaeoei iauei iiiiuieeii yaeyaony aeea?ee
(vicarius), a caoai niaoeeaeueiuie – praefectus vigilum, praefectus
annonae e ianna iecoeo curatores.

*oi eanaaony ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey, oi any oa??eoi?ey iiaeaa?aaaony a yoii
ia?eiaea iiaiio aaeieieno?aoeaiiio ?acaeaeaieth. Eaaeaeay iieiaeia
eiia?ee – Oriens e Occidens – aeaeeony ia aeaa i?aoaeoo?u: Ainoi/iay
iieiaeia ia i?aoaeoo?u Ainoi/ioth (O?aeey, Iaeay Acey e Aaeiao) e
Eeee?eeneoth (Aaeeaineee iieoino?ia), Caiaaeiay iieiaeia ia i?aoaeoo?u
Eoaeeeneoth (Eoaeey e Ao?eea) e Aaeeueneoth (Aaeeey e Eniaiey). Ai aeaaa
eaaeaeie i?aoaeoo?u a aeaea aai iauaai ia/aeueieea noieo i?aoaeo
i?aoi?ey (prefectus praetorio).

Eaaeaeay i?aoaeoo?a aeaeeony ia aeeioeacu, ai aeaaa eioi?uo noiyo
vicarii, e iaeiiaoe aeeioeacu aeaeyony ia i?iaeioeee (provinciae),
eioi?uie oi?aaeytho praesides eee rectores. I?iaeioeee yaeythony
iniiaiuie eeaoi/eaie yoiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aeaeaiey, a i?aaeoaee
i?iaeioeee yaeythony iiyoiio ia?aie aaeieieno?aoeaiie e noaeaaiie
einoaioeeae. A yoii aeaeaiee i?iaeioeee oo?aoeee oaea naia i?aaeiaa
enoi?e/aneia e iaoeeiiaeueiia cia/aiea: iie oieueei /enoi eneonnoaaiiua
oa??eoi?eaeueiua aaeeieoeu.

Aicea eaaeaeiai /eiiaieea a?oiie?oaony ooao aai iecoeo neoaeaueo e aai
eaioeaey?ey (apparitores e officiales).

I?iaeioeee, a naith i/a?aaeue, ninoiyo ec aieaa iaeeeo aaeeieoe – iauei
eee civitates. Yoe iaueiu a naieo aioo?aiieo aeaeao iieuecothony
ecaanoiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, oioy e iiae neeueiui eiio?ieai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. I?aaiaie ianoiiai, iaueiiiai naiioi?aaeaiey yaeythony e
oaia?ue ianoiue naiao (decuriones) e auai?iua ioieoeeiaeueiua
iaaeno?aou. Ia iaycaiiinoe yoeo ianoiuo i?aaiia, aeaaiui ia?acii,
aeaeo?eiiia, eaaeeo i?aaeaea anaai caaioa i auiieiaiee iaueiie
iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo iiaeiiinoae – aeinoaaeaiea iaaeeaaeauaai eiee/anoaa
?ae?ooia, acuneaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iiaeaoae e o. ae.

A yoeo aeaeao ana /eaiu naiaoa ioaa/atho naiei eiouanoaii ca anyeea
iaaei/aou e iaaeiai?u, e i?eoii ana ae?oa ca ae?oaa ii ia/aeai e?oaiaie
ii?oee. N oneeaieai iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie e n iauei yeiiiie/aneei oiaaeeii
no?aiu oaeay ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeaeaaony i/aiue oyaeaeie, e ianoiay
a?enoie?aoey ia/eiaao oeeiiyoueny io iaycaiiinoe aeaeo?eiiia. *oiau
i?eaea/ue e iae, i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eioaeaeaii aeaaaoue aeaeo?eiiai
?acee/iua nineiaiua e ii/aoiua i?aeiouanoaa. Ii e yoi ia iiiiaaao, e
oiaaea i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eoiaeeo e i?eioaeeoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee nineiaey
aeaeo?eiiia, i?e/ai anyeea iiiuoee aueoe ec iaai eee oeeiieoueny io
ianaiey aiceiaeaiiie ia iaai ainoaea?noaaiiie iaycaiiinoe ea?athony
?acee/iuie iaeacaieyie360. I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue eiio?ieue iaae ianoiui
naiioi?aaeaieai inouanoaeyaony nia/aea i?e iin?aaenoaa iniaiai, i?e
eaaeaeie civitas ninoiyuaai curator rei publicae, a n eiia?aoi?a
Aaeaioeieaia i?e iin?aaenoaa oae iacuaaaiiai defensor civitatis. A eeoea
yoiai /eiiaieea eiia?aoi?u oioaee aeaoue aaaeiaeoaio ianaeaieth iniaiai
caueoieea eo eioa?ania i?ioea aieaa aiaaouo e aieaa neeueiuo
(potentiores), ii ia i?aeoeea yoa eaeaaeenoe/aneay ooieoeey ia
inouanoaeeanue, e defensor civitatis i?aa?aoeeny a noaeueth ii iaeeei
aeaeai.

I?iaeieaeatho nouanoaiaaoue e i?iaeioeeaeueiua nueacaeu – concilia
provinciarum. N onoaiiaeaieai o?enoeainoaa ycu/aneea ?aeeaeiciua oeaee
yoeo nuacaeia ioiaaeatho, ii oai i?i/iaa aeaeathony eo aeaeiaua
ooieoeee. I?aai iaoeoeee i?eciaaony ca ieie oaea de jure, e eiia?aoi?u
ianoiyoaeueii cai?auatho i?aaeoaeyi i?iaeioeee /eieoue a yoii ioiioaiee
eaeea-eeai i?aiyonoaey. Oai ia iaiaa, ?anoouaa anaiiaouanoai ath?ie?aoee
e aa niei/aiiinoue aeaeatho yoi i?aai iaoeoeee i?aeoe/anee eeethci?iui;
enoi?ey aeaao iaiaei i?eia?ia, eiaaea iiiuoee i?iaeioeeaeia aeiaeoueny
oaeei iooai i?e aeai?a i?aaaeu ieacuaaeenue niaa?oaiii aanieiaeiuie.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai concilia caie?atho e ei a?aiaie THnoeieaia ii/oe
auoiaeyo ec oiio?aaeaiey361.

Iaeiiaoe, ni a?aiai Eiinoaioeia aeaeiia iauanoaaiiia cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaao oea?eiaiay i?aaiecaoeey. I?aaiaie oea?eiaiiai oi?aaeaiey
yaeythony aieneiiu, auae?aaiua iaueiaie; a eo ?oeao nin?aaeioi/eaaaony
oea?eiaiia oi?aaeaiea, caaaaeiaaiea oea?eiaiuie eiouanoaaie, a oaeaea
ecaanoiay th?enaeeeoeeiiiay aeanoue iaae ianoaie ii aeaeai ?aeeaee e
oea?eae. *ai aeaeaa, oai aieaa aeeyiea oea?eae ?anoao e io?aaeaaony a
?acee/iuo iaeanoyo i?aaa.

Ia?anaeaiea oeaio?a ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie ec ?eia a Eiinoaioeiiiieue,
aaea ainoi/iua e yeeeienoe/aneea aeeyiey aeieaeiu auee iuouaoueny
aeeaaa, io?aceeinue ia oieueei a iaeanoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa e
oi?aaeaiey. Iii neacaeinue ia anai i?aaiecia ?eineiai i?aaa, a
/anoiinoe, e ia ?eineii a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa. Oaea auoa (§ 31) auei
oeacaii, /oi ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?eineiai i?aaa ia anth oa??eoi?eth eiia?ee,
yaeaoaany ?acoeueoaoii oeaca Ea?aeaeeu, ieacaeinue ia a neeao
enei?aieoue ianoiua i?aaa i?iaeioeee. Iniaaiii oii?ii nio?aiyeenue a
aeecie ianoiua iau/ae yeeeienoe/aneiai ainoiea. Ia?eiae aaniethoiie
eiia?ee ia?aaeaeioe eaai?aoi?eth iauaeiia?neiai i?aai?acaeoey eae ?ac a
oeaio? yoeo yeeeienoe/aneeo aeeyiee. Ai aeaaa ainoaea?noaa, a ia?auo
?yaeao ath?ie?aoee, n?aaee aaoi?eoaoiuo th?enoia ana /aua e /aua
iiyaeythony i?iaeioeeaeu, au?inoea a aoiinoa?a yoeo aeeyiee.
Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, anee ?acaeoea ?eineiai i?aaa a oa/aiea yoiai
ia?eiaea eaeao iiae na?ueaciui iaii?ii yeeeienoe/aneeo ia/ae e n
cia/eoaeueiui iaeeiiii a noi?iio yoeo iineaaeieo. ?eineia i?aai
“i?eaioaeece?oaony” (oii Iae?).

2. IANAEAIEA

A nayce n ?ai?aaiecaoeeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy ?aaeeeaeueii
eciaieeanue e nineiaiay i?aaiecaoeey iauanoaa. Ec i?aaeieo aunoeo
nineiaee nineiaea anaaeie/aneia en/acei, a nineiaea naiaoi?neia
i?aa?aoeeinue a iauaeiia?neoth ciaoue ath?ie?aoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. A
ordo senatorius aoiaeyo oaia?ue eeoea, caieiaaoea aunoea nooiaie a
aeieaeiinoiie ea?a?oee (aeathuea i?aai ia oeooe clarissimus), i?e/ai
nineiaea yoi yaeyaony ianeaaenoaaiiui, iieuecoaony ecaanoiuie
i?eaeeaaeyie (ecuyoeai io ianoiie iiaenoaeiinoe e ianoiuo iiaeiiinoae),
caoi, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ianao e naie niaoeeaeueiua iaycaiiinoe
(niaoeeaeueiua iiaeaoe e iiaeiiinoe a iieueco eiia?aoi?a).

Ii anee a i?aaeiaa a?aiy nineiaiinoue eanaeanue oieueei aunoeo neiaa, oi
oaia?ue iia ?ani?ino?aiyaony a aeoaue e caoaaouaaao ii/oe ana ianaeaiea
eiia?ee. Oa?aeoa?iie oaiaeaioeeae ia?eiaea aaniethoiie iiia?oee ii
ioiioaieth e ianaeaieth yaeyaony iinoaiaiii i?iaiaeeiia cae?aieaiea
nineiaee: anoanoaaiiua iauanoaaiiua eeannu aeaeathony iaei-iiiaeo
ianeaaenoaaiiuie, ?acei ?aca?aie/eaathony ae?oa io ae?oaa e eaaeaeia ec
ieo ianao ia naaa oaeoth eee eioth ainoaea?noaaiioth iiaeiiinoue,
“oyaei” (functio). Iauae i?e/eiie yoiai yaeaiey neoaeeo oiaaeie
iauanoaaiiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, canoaaeythuee ainoaea?noai aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey aai ioaeae i?eaaaaoue e i?eioaeeoaeueiiio i?ee?aieaieth
?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo eeannia e eo i?ioanneyi.

I?aaeoaeuenoao i?eioeeiaoa, eae auei ioia/aii auoa, ia /oaeaei auei
no?aieaiea iiaeiyoue yeiiiie/aneia aeaaininoiyiea ainoaea?noaa iooai
onoaiiaeaiey aieueoaai ii?yaeea a oi?aaeaiee, ?ai?aaiecaoeee iiaeaoiie
nenoaiu, ianaaeaeaiey iaeeiai e?anoueyinoaa e o. ae. Ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy
ana yoe ia?u eiaee oniao, e aeaaininoiyiea i?iaeioeee oeo/oeeinue.
Iaeiaei, yoi oeo/oaiea ieacaeinue iai?i/iui. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiua nioou a
eiioea ia?eiaea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ?anoaoaee yeiiiie/aneoth
aeeciue; ia yoie ?anoaoaiiinoe naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ?aciiia?aciua
/?acau/aeiua ia?u, i?aaei?eieiaaoeany eiia?aoi?ii Aeeieeaoeaiii e
ae?oaeie, i?ioea ?inoiaue/anoaa, /?acia?iiai iiauoaiey oeai e o. ae.
Iniaaiii ethaiiuoiui a yoii ioiioaiee ii naiae ?aaeeeaeueiinoe
i?aaenoaaeyaony ecaanoiue yaeeeo eiia?aoi?a Aeeieeaoeaia de pretiis
rerum venalium362 301 a., a eioi?ii onoaiaaeeaaaony iauay aeey anae
eiia?ee oaena ia ana oiaa?u e ?aaiou; o?aaiaaiea oeaiu eee ieaou nauoa
yoie oaenu ea?aaony ?acee/iuie aanueia na?ueaciuie oo?aoaie363. Ii naii
niaith ?acoiaaony, /oi oaeia i?eioaeeoaeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea anaai
yeiiiie/aneiai iai?ioa, ia i?eiany ie iaeaeoae iieuecu, iiaei aucaaoue
oieueei iiaua yeiiiie/aneea caiaoaoaeuenoaa, e /a?ac ianeieueei eao yoio
yaeeeo aue ioiaiai.

Ii nioou ia i?ae?auaeenue e a oa/aiea anaai ia?eiaea aaniethoiie
iiia?oee; ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?yaeie /ai aeaeaa, oai ana aieaa e aieaa
?anoaouaaeny. Ana oi?aaeaiea eiia?ee ieacaeinue a ?oeao niei/aiiie e
ananeeueiie ath?ie?aoee, aeaeiau ia eioi?oth ni noi?iiu ianoiiai
ianaeaiey eee aiana ia aeioiaeeee aei eiia?aoi?a, eee aea a eiioea
eiioeia ieacuaaeenue aanieiaeiuie. N ?ieiaie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, /oiau
oaea?aeaoue ia?iiiia ainoaea?noaaiiia oaei io ieii/aoaeueiiai
?aniaaeaiey, aaniethoiay iiia?oey aeieaeia auea ana aieaa e aieaa
iie?aoueny ia ath?ie?aoeth e ana neeueiaa noyaeaaoue aeaeaciua ia?o/e
ath?ie?aoe/aneiai iaoaiecia. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, oneeeaaei
iieiiaeanoea e aaneiio?ieueiinoue /eiiaie/anoaa, a aianoa n oai
i?eaiaeeei e ?acaeoeth i?iecaiea e acyoi/ie/anoaa, /oi ia iiaei ia
iocuaaoueny aoaeoaeueii ai anao iaeanoyo iauanoaaiiie e yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie. Aeey niaea?aeaiey iuoiiai eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a e anae ia?iiiie
iannu /eiiaie/anoaa i?aaeoaeuenoai ioaeaeaaony a aieueoeo n?aaenoaao. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, n/anoeeaua aieiu aeaaii oaea i?ae?aoeeenue; iai?ioea,
aa?aa?u ianoie/eai iaaeaeaathony ni anao noi?ii, e aeey caueou io ieo
iaiaoiaeeii iinoiyiiia niaea?aeaiea aieueoeo a?iee. ?anoiaeu ?anooo, a
ia iie?uoea eo iaiaoiaeeiua n?aaenoaa i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaeao iieo/eoue
oaia?ue oieueei n iiaeaeaiiuo. Iaeiae iiyoiio ana iiauoathony e
iiauoathony: noa?ua oneeeaathony, a ?yaeii n ieie aaiaeyony iiaua.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua eeannu ianaeaiey, iinoaaeaiiua iaueie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie iaono?ienoaaie a oyaeaeua oneiaey o?oaea, ieacuaathony
ana iaiaa e iaiaa niiniaiuie ianoe ia naaa yoe aic?anoathuea iaeiae e
iaia?oaeeaatho iaeeiiiinoue aaaeaoue io naieo i?ioannee. Aeaaea
caieaaeaaeaeueoeu ia?aaeei inoaaeytho naie iiey; eiee/anoai oaeeo agri
deserti364 noieue aaeeei, /oi ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
Acuneaiea iiaeaoae aeaao anaaaea iaaeiai?u, ca eioi?ua ioaaonoaaiiinoue
aiceaaaaony ia ianoiuo aeaeo?eiiia, aneaaenoaea /aai, eae auei ioia/aii
auoa, ianoiay a?enoie?aoey oeeiiyaony io o/anoey a ioieoeeiaeueiii
oi?aaeaiee. Ii i?aaeoaeuenoao ioaeiu ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea; iii ea?aao
oeeiiythueony e, oaeei ia?acii, iaeaaaao ia ana nineiaea aeaeo?eiiia
e?oaiaith ii?oeie naiaia?aciia ainoaea?noaaiiia oyaei.

Ianeaaenoaaiiie e i?eioaeeoaeueiie aeaeaaony oaeaea i?ioanney aiaiiay:
nuiiauey nieaeao aeieaeiu oaeaea auoue nieaeaoaie, e eeoue iaaeinoathuaa
eiee/anoai iiiieiyaony ec ?ae?ooia (tirones). Oie aea o/anoe
iiaeaa?aathony iiiaea io?anee oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe; ana eeoea,
caiyoua a yoeo io?aneyo, iauaaeeiaiu oaia?ue a i?eioaeeoaeueiua
ianeaaenoaaiiua ei?ii?aoeee, oeaoe, ia eioi?ua, ca e?oaiaie ii?oeie,
aiceaaaaony auiieiaiea eo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae. Oaeiau
i?ioannee ei?aaaeueueeia (navicularii), iaycaiiuo aeinoaaeyoue ia naieo
ei?aaeyo nuanoiua i?eianu a noieeoeu; i?ioannee aoei/ieeia (pistorii) e
iynieeia (boarii); i?ioannee ?aai/eo a ainoaea?noaaiiuo oaa?eeao,
?oaeieeao e o. ae. Ii/oe aacaea naiaiaeiay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaea
caiaiyaony i?eioaeeoaeueiie; ii/oe ana ianoo oaeoth eee eioth
ainoaea?noaaiioth functio, aeaeathony a yoii niunea ?aaaie ainoaea?noaa
– servientes patriae.

Iniaaiiue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao aicieeiiaaiea a ia?eiae aaniethoiie
iiia?oee iiiai/eneaiiiai eeanna e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi, oae iacuaaaiuo
coloni. A ieii/aoaeueiii aeaea iieiaeaiea eieiiia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
neaaeothueie th?eaee/aneeie /a?oaie. Eieiiu aeeaoo ia caiea,
i?eiaaeeaaeauae ae?oaiio eeoeo (ainiiaeeio), e ieaoyo aio ecaanoiue
aaeaaiaeiue ia?ie (canon); ii aianoa n oai yoi ia i?inoi a?aiaeaoi?u,
eaeeie auee coloni i?aaeaea: eieii ia iiaeao oeoe n caieiaaiiai ei
o/anoea; a neo/aa aai ooiaea ainiiaeei eiaao i?aai o?aaiaaoue aai
aica?auaiey iacaae iin?aaenoaii vindicatio – oae aea, eae aaaeaaoaai
?aaa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, e ainiiaeei ia iiaeao ie oaeaeeoue eieiia n
o/anoea, ie i?iaeaoue aai aac o/anoea eee o/anoea aac iaai. Oaeei
ia?acii, eieiiu i?aaenoaaeytho niaith caaeneiue eeann ianaeaiey,
th?eaee/anee naycaiiue n caieae, i?ee?aieaiiue e iae, eee, eae
au?aaeathony enoi/ieee, – glaebae adscripti, servi terrae ipsius.

Aii?in i i?ienoiaeaeaiee eieiiaoa yaeyaony iaeiei ec i/aiue neiaeiuo365.

Aaeaa ee iiaeao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeeaaeaoue niiiaieth, /oi a
iaeioi?uo i?iaeioeeyo, iai?eia?, a Aaeioa e Acee, eieiiaoiiiaeiaiua
ioiioaiey nouanoaiaaee oaea ecaeaaia e auee oieueei oianeaaeiaaiu ?eiii.
Aiciiaeii, /oi yoio ainoi/iue ia?acaoe ieacae naia aeeyiea e ia
iicaeiaeoaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, aeaaoaa eieiiaoo aai ieii/aoaeueioth
th?eaee/aneoth oi?ioee?iaeo. Ii a Eoaeee, Ao?eea e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
/anoyo eiia?ee eieiiao ?acaeeny ec ae?oaeo ei?iae e oieueei a
eiia?aoi?neia a?aiy.

A iaiyoieeao ?anioaeeee, i?eioeeiaoa e o eeanne/aneeo th?enoia
au?aaeaiea colonus iaicia/aao aua naiaiaeiiai iaeeiai a?aiaeaoi?a,
oa?ia?a. Eae auei oeacaii auoa (§ 31), a ia?eiae i?eioeeiaoa acaiai
?aaneiai oicyenoaa ?acaeaaaony oicyenoai oa?ia?neia. Aneaaenoaea
ainnoaiee ?aaia e ianniauo eaciae eo, a oaeaea aneaaenoaea i?ae?auaiey
i?eoiea eo a ea/anoaa aiaiiie aeiau/e, eiee/anoai ?aaia cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeeinue, e aeaaeaeueoeu eaoeooiaeee ia/eiatho iaoiaeeoue aeey naay
aieaa auaiaeiui naeaaaoue naie caiee iaeeeie o/anoeaie naiaiaeiui
a?aiaeaoi?ai. O/anoee yoe naeathony eiiaaea i?yii oa?ia?aie, eiiaaea aea
/a?ac iin?aaenoai e?oiiuo nuaiueeia (conductores), eioi?ua oaea io naay
naeatho ia?oeaeeu366 iaeeei eieiiai. A?aiaeiay ieaoa aiineony
iaueiiaaiii a aeaiueaao, ii eiiaaea aianoi aeaiaaeiie noiiu iia
onoaiaaeeaaaony a aeaea ecaanoiie aeiee i?iaeoeoia a iaoo?a (colonia
partiaria); a ia?eiae aaniethoiie iiia?oee, n iaaeaieai iaiiaiai iai?ioa
aiiaua, colonia partiaria aeaeaaony yaeaieai ana aieaa e aieaa iauei. A
iaeioi?uo ianoao e a?aiaeiie ieaoa i?eniaaeeiyaony aua iaycaiiinoue
auiieiyoue ecaanoiua aa?ueiiua ?aaiou (operae) a iieueco ainiiaeeia.

Ia yoie noaaeee eieii aua th?eaee/anee naiaiaeai; eae ainiiaeei iiaeao
ioeacaoue eieiio a i?iaeieaeaiee a?aiaeiiai aeiaiai?a, oae e eieii
iiaeao oeoe n a?aiaeoaiiai o/anoea; aeaaea iaoieaoa ia?iea th?eaee/anee
ia i?eaycuaaao aai – ainiiaeei iiaeao oieueei acuneeaaoue n iaai
iaaeieieo iaueiiaaiiui a?aaeaeaineei ii?yaeeii. Ii, ?acoiaaony,
oaeoe/anee oaeay iaaeieiea a neeueiie noaiaie naycuaaea eieiiia, a
iieiaeaiea eo auei, ii iauaio i?aaeeo, oyaeaeui. A ea/anoaa iaeeeo
a?aiaeaoi?ia yaeyeenue, eiia/ii, aaaeiaeoea yeaiaiou ianaeaiey, oaea i?e
naiii ia/aea oicyenoaa, ioaeaeaynue a iaeioi?ii eaieoaea, iie aeieaeiu
auee i?eaaaaoue e caeiai – iaueiiaaiii o oiai aea caieaaeaaeaeueoea, – e
oaeei ia?acii ieacuaaeenue oaea n?aco a ecaanoiie caaeneiinoe io iaai.
Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua oneiaey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie i?eaiaeyo nieioue e
?yaeii e oiio, /oi ia oieueei iao aiciiaeiinoe iiaaneoue yoe nnoaeu, ii
aeaaea e a ieaoaaea ia?iea ieacuaaaony iaaeieiea, eioi?ay n oa/aieai
a?aiaie ?anoao e aeaeaaony o?iie/aneie. I?e oaeeo oneiaeyo oeoe ia
ae?oaia ianoi aeaeaaony cao?oaeieoaeueiui, oai aieaa, /oi e ia ae?oaii
ianoa eieiia aeaeaea oa aea naiay o/anoue. Anoanoaaiii, /oi a
aieueoeinoaa naiai ianna eieiiia oaeoe/anee inoaaaeanue ia oao aea
o/anoeao ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea.

Yoa oaeoe/aneay naycaiiinoue caoai iaei-iiiaeo ia/eiaao i?aa?auaoueny a
th?eaee/aneoth. Iauay oaiaeaioeey aaniethoiie iiia?oee i?ee?aieoue
?acee/iua eeannu ianaeaiey e eo i?ioannee neacuaaaony e caeanue.
Aieueoia aeeyiea ia iieiaeaiea eieiiia ieacaea ?ai?aaiecaoeey i?yiiai
iaeiaeaiey, i?iecaaaeaiiay eiia?aoi?aie. A iniiaaiea i?yiie iiaeaoe,
oiea/eaaaiie caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie, – oae iacuaaaiie capitatio terrena –
eeaaeaony eiee/anoai e ea/anoai eo caiee. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yoiai
eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa i?iecaiaeeony ia?eiaee/anee iicaiaeueiue eaaeano?,
ninoaaeythony iiene eiaiee (formula censualis), i?e/ai ouaoaeueii
caiinyony ana aeioiaeiua noaouee yoeo iineaaeieo. A ea/anoaa oaeie
aeioiaeiie noaouee caiinyony a iienue e eieiiu. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai
i?eaeaao oaeoe/aneie caaeneiinoe eieiiia oaea iaeioi?ue iooaiie
th?eaee/aneee, nicaeaao a eeoea ainiiaeeia ia/oi a?iaea i?aaa ia
eieiiia: ooiae eieiia i?aaenoaaeyao iiieaeaiea aeioiaeiinoe eiaiey, ca
eioi?ia ieaoeo ainoaea?noao ainiiaeei.

Iauaa yeiiiie/aneia ?anno?ienoai noaaeo naieo ainiiae /anoi a
cao?oaeieoaeueiia iieiaeaiea e canoaaeyao eo aei?iaeeoue eieiiaie;
ionthaea ia?aaeeea neo/ae niaieaaiey eieiiia e oe?uaaoaeuenoaa aaaeuo.
*oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue iiaeiaiua yaeaiey, eiia?aoi? Eiinoaioei oeacii 332
a. i?aaeienuaaao a oaeeo neo/ayo i?eioaeeoaeueii aica?auaoue eieiiia
iacaae. Aneaaenoaea yoiai eieii eeoaaony naiae i?aaeiae naiaiaeu
ia?aoiaea, th?eaee/anee i?ee?aieyaony e oie caiea, ia eioi?ie ii
caienai, aeaeaaony colonus adscripticius. Aeaeueiaeoea caeiiu eaeoo a
oii aea iai?aaeaiee e i?eaeatho eieiiaoo aai iicaeiaeoee aeae: oae,
caeii 357 a. cai?auaao ainiiaeeio i?iaeaaaoue caieth aac eieiia.

Iaeiaei, e iinea oiai, eae yoi i?ee?aieaiea e caiea niaa?oeeinue, eieii
ia noae ?aaii: aeanoue ainiiaeeia iaae iei ia anoue /anoii-i?aaiaay
aeanoue, iiaeiaiay aeanoe iaae ?aaii; yoo iineaaeithth ainiiaeei iia
anaaaea i?ae?aoeoue ii naiaio i?iecaieo – iai?eia?, ioionoea ?aaa ia
aieth; ioiouaiea aea eieiia ie/oiaeii. Ioiioaiea iaaeaeo ainiiaeeiii e
eieiiii yaeyaony iiyoiio naycueth ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaith – e i?eoii
naycueth aeaoonoi?iiiath: naycai eieii, ii naycai e ainiiaeei; iaa ianoo
ecaanoioth ainoaea?noaaiioth iiaeiiinoue, iaa i?eaycaiu i?eioaeeoaeueii
e ecaanoiie ainoaea?noaaiiie “ooieoeee” (functio).

Ioaeii neacaoue, iaeiaei, /oi yoi oai?aoe/aneia ?acee/ea eiaei
iaaieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea, e iieiaeaiea eieiiia ana aieaa e aieaa
i?eaeeaeaeinue e o?aaieaaeinue n iieiaeaieai ?aaia, oaeaea iinaeyaoeony
/anoi ainiiaeeiii ia caiea. Ee/iay naiaiaea eieiiia oaeaea n oa/aieai
a?aiaie aeaeaeanue eeethci?iie, oai aieaa, /oi iicaeiaeoaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeinoaaeei ainiiaeai e ecaanoioth
aeenoeeieeia?ioth aeanoue iaae eieiiaie.

Anee iu i?aaenoaaei naaa oaia?ue e?oiiia iiianouea oiai a?aiaie, oi iu
oaeaeei iniaue ie?, ai aeaaa eioi?iai noieo ainiiaeei; aio iiae/eiaia a
oaeie eee eiie ia?a ianna eeoe – naiaiaeiua neoaeauea,
aieueiiioiouaiiua, ?aau, eieiiu; ii oi?aaeyao eie, oai?eo iaae ieie noae
e ?ani?aao. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeie ainiiaeei, ii iauaio i?aaeeo
i?eiaaeeaaeauee e nineiaeth clarissimi, iaoiaeeony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
nayce n aeai?ii e ecuyo io th?enaeeeoeee ianoiuo aeanoae. Iieo/aaony,
oaeei ia?acii, iaeioi?ia io iauaai ii?yaeea oi?aaeaiey iacaaeneiia
oeaeia – iaeioi?ue ca?iaeuo oaiaeaeecia. Aiineaaenoaee, a Aecaioeeneoth
yiioo, yoio ca?iaeuo ?acaeaaaony; ii yoi ia oaiaeaeeci iieiaeuo, aua
oieueei neeaaeuaathueony ainoaea?noa caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai
n?aaeiaaaeiauey, a oaiaeaeeci caaeeai ?aceaaathuaainy ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oaea. Ie anaiiaouanoai ath?ie?aoee, ie i?eioaeeoaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia iiaee nianoe io yoiai ?aceiaeaiey; iai?ioea,
ieii/aoaeueii oaeaay ia?iaeioth yia?aeth, ana yoe ia?u oieueei oooaeoaee
aeaei e onei?yee i?ioeann oie?aiey.

3. A?AAEAeAINEEE I?IOeANN

Eae auei neacaii auoa (§ 22), oi?ioey?iue i?ioeann yaeyeny ii?iaeueiui
a?aaeaeaineei i?ioeannii ia oieueei a eiioea ?anioaeeee, ii e a oa/aiea
anaai ia?eiaea i?eioeeiaoa. Iaeiaei n onoaiiaeaieai eiia?ee ?yaeii n
yoei ii?iaeueiui i?ioeannii, i?aaeiieaaathuei ?acaeaeaiea ia jus e
judicium, ?acaeaaaony oae iacuaaaiue yeno?ai?aeeia?iue i?ioeann
(extraordinaria cognitio), ia ciathuee oaeiai ?acaeaeaiey. Iaei-iiiaeo
caoai yoio yeno?ai?aeeia?iue i?ioeann iooaniyao i?ioeann per formulas e
e ia/aeo ia?eiaea aaniethoiie iiia?oee yaeyaony oaea aaeeinoaaiiui.
Eciaiaiea yoi niaa?oeeinue neaaeothuei iooai.

Oaea a aeaaiaa a?aiy (n?. § 19 e § 26) a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eeoei ia
iaoiaeeei naaa caueou a oeeaeeueiii i?aaa e a oi?iao iaueiiaaiiiai
a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeanna, iii iiaei ia?aoeoueny e iaaeno?aoo n i?inueaie
caueoeoue aai aaeieieno?aoeaiuie ia?aie aeanoe. Anee iaaeno?ao iaoiaeee
i?inueao caneoaeeaathuae aieiaiey, ii nai ?acae?ae aeaei, iinoaiiaeye
oaeia eee eiia ?aoaiea e caoai nai ee/ii aea i?eaiaeee yoi ?aoaiea a
eniieiaiea. Oaeia aaeieieno?aoeaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai iacuaaeinue
cognitio eee notio, a a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iaueiiaaiiiio noaeaaiiio
i?ioeanno – cognitio extraordinaria (extra ordinem judiciorum
privatorum367). Iii ano?a/aaony a noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe ?acee/iuo ?eineeo
iaaeno?aoia (eiinoeia, oeaici?ia) i?e ?aoaiee iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo ei
aeae. *oi eanaaony i?aoi?ia, oi iie, iai?ioea, n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeei
i?eaaaaee e yoiio /enoi aaeieieno?aoeaiiio i?eaio, i?aaeii/eoay a oaeeo
neo/ayo ia?aaiaeeoue aeaei ia iooue iaueiiaaiiiai noaeaaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa i?e iiiiue eioa?aeeeoia, stipulationes praetoriae e o. ae.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai extraordinaria cognitio a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee auea
yaeaieai aieaa eee iaiaa neo/aeiui e ?aaeeei.

Iai?ioea, n onoaiiaeaieai eiia?ee iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey extraordinaria
cognitio e aieaa ?anoe?yaony. Eiia?aoi?, eae ia?aue a ainoaea?noaa
iaaeno?ao, eiae i?aai ia oaeia aea aaeieieno?aoeaiia ?aoaiea anyeeo
aeae, e eiia?aoi?u ana oe?a e oe?a iieuecothony yoei i?aaii, aa?y ia
naia iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai aeaea, eioi?ua ii/aio-eeai
ia?aoeee ia naay eo aieiaiea eee i eioi?uo i?ineee caeioa?aniaaiiua
eeoea. N ?inoii eiiiaoaioeee eiia?aoi?neeo /eiiaieeia – praefectus urbi,
annonae, vigilum – ?anoao e eo th?enaeeeoeeiiiay ?ieue: ii nayce ni
naieie iieeoeaeneeie ooieoeeyie iie ?acae?atho e /anoiua nii?u, e yoei
iieeoeaeneei aeaeai i?eiueathuea. N oayaeaieai i?aoi?neiai oai?/anoaa e
n i?einoaiiaeie ?acaeoey i?aoi?neiai yaeeeoa aiiaue ia?iaeaeaaoeany
ioiioaiey (iai?eia?, ii iiaiaeo oeaeaeeiiiennia368, aeeiaioia e o. ae.)
iiaee iaeoe naaa caueoo oieueei a ii?yaeea yeno?ai?aeeia?iii, i?e/ai
eiia?aoi?u ia?aaeei nicaeatho ec yoeo ioiioaiee niaoeeaeueioth
eiiiaoaioeeth aeey oao eee ae?oaeo iaaeno?aoia (iai?eia?, eiinoeai
ii?o/athony aeaea i oeaeaeeiiiennao).

Ii iniaaiii auno?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/aao extraordinaria cognitio a
eiia?aoi?neeo i?iaeioeeyo. I?aaeoaee yoeo i?iaeioeee, eae aeaeaaaou
eiia?aoi?a, onaaeaatho naaa i?eaiu yoiai iineaaeiaai e ana /aua e /aua
ia?auathony e ee/iiio ?acai?o aeae io ia/aea aei eiioea. I?aaaea,
eiiaaea e iie ia?aaeaaaee aeaei ia ?aoaiea ae?oaiai eeoea – oae
iacuaaaiue judex datus eee pedaneus, ii ?ieue yoiai judex datus ia oa
aea, /oi ?ieue i?enyaeiiai judex privatus a i?aeeia?iii i?ioeanna: judex
datus iiaeao auoue, iiaeao e ia auoue; anee ii anoue, oi ?acaeaiaiey
i?ioeanna ia aeaa noaaeee ana aea ia aicieeaao – judex datus ?acae?aao
aeaei io ia/aei aei eiioea; ii n/eoaaony, iaeiiaoe, oieueei
oiieiiii/aiiui i?aaeoaey i?iaeioeee, e iioiio ia ?aoaiea aai aiciiaeia
aiaeeyoeey e yoiio iineaaeiaio.

I?iecaaaeaiiay Aeeieeaoeaiii ?aoi?ia ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey aeiaa?oeea
aeaei iinoaiaiiiai auoaniaiey noa?iai oi?ioey?iiai i?ioeanna. Any
oa??eoi?ey ainoaea?noaa auea ?acaeaeaia ia iiaua i?iaeioeee, i?e/ai
?acee/ea iaaeaeo i?iaeioeeyie eiia?aoi?neeie e naiaoneeie en/acei: anaie
i?iaeioeeyie oi?aaeytho eiia?aoi?neea iaianoieee – praesides eee
rectores. A naiii ?eia i?iecioei ia?aiauaiea th?enaeeeoeee: noaeaaiay
aeanoue ia?aoea ieii/aoaeueii ec ?oe i?aoi?ia a ?oee praefectus urbi, a
aianoa n oai aeieaeai aue en/aciooue e oi?ioey?iue i?ioeann. E
aeaenoaeoaeueii, a oea?noaiaaiea Aeeieeaoeaia ii oaea aiana ia
i?eiaiyaony. A 294 a. Aeeieeaoeai ecaeae oeac, a eioi?ii
i?aaeienuaaeinue i?aaeoaeyi i?iaeioeee naiei ?aoaoue aeaea, i?eaaaay e
judices pedanei eeoue a e?aeieo neo/ayo (n. 2. Cod. 3. 3); yoio oeac
i?aaeiieaaaao oaea extraordinaria cognitio, eae iauoth e aaeeinoaaiioth
oi?io i?ioeanna.

Caiaia oi?ioey?iiai i?ioeanna yeno?ai?aeeia?iui iaicia/aao ei?aiiia
eciaiaiea a oeaeii ?yaea iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia. Anee a i?aeeia?iii
i?ioeanna ?acae?aoaeuenoai ii nouanoao in judicio e naiue i?eaiai?
noaeuee (judex) a eaeaa iieieeenue ia niaeaoaiee noi?ii
(litiscontestatio), oi oaia?ue aanue i?ioeann iino?iai ia ia/aea aeanoe
(imperium); i?eaiai? yaeyaony oaia?ue ia iiaieai o?aoaeneiai noaeuee
(sententia), a aeanoiui i?eeacii iineoaey imperium (decretum). Yoio
iauee oa?aeoa? iiaiai i?ioeanna io?aaeaaony ia anai oiaea i?iecaiaenoaa.

*oi eanaaony i?aaeaea anaai auciaa a noae, oi ii niaa?oaaony oaia?ue
ioeoeeaeueii i?e o/anoee i?aaenoaaeoaey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. AEaeiaa
enooea caiineony a i?ioieie noaeaaiiai o/?aaeaeaiey (apud acta) e caoai
ioeoeeaeueii niiauaaony ioaao/eeo; oaeie niinia auciaa a noae iineo
iacaaiea litis denuntiatio. Oae eae oaia?ue iao ?acaeaeaiey i?ioeanna ia
aeaa noaaeee, oi ii nouanoao iao e litiscontestatio; ii oae eae iiiaio
aicieeiiaaiey i?ioeanna eiaao ?aciiia?aciua iaoa?eaeueii-i?aaiaua e
i?ioeannoaeueiua iineaaenoaey, oi ?aaee yoeo iineaaenoaee
litiscontestatio i?eo?i/eaaaony oaia?ue e oiio iiiaioo, eiaaea noi?iiu
onoaiiaeee nii?, oi anoue eiaaea enoaoe cayaee ioaao/eeo ia noaea naith
i?aoaiceth, a ioaao/ee ecuyaee iaia?aiea aa inia?eaaoue (lis fuerit
contestata post narrationem propositam et contradictionem objectam369 –
c. 3. 1. Cod. 14. 4). Iinea yoiai noaeuey i?enooiaao e ?acai?o aeaea ii
nouanoao, i?iaa?ea aeieacaoaeuenoa e o. ae. Eiaaea aeaei en/a?iaii, ii
iinoaiiaeyao naia ?aoaiea, decretum, i?e/ai yoi ?aoaiea ioithaeue ia
aeieaeii auoue iai?aiaiii condemnatio pecuniaria370; iii iiaeao
niaea?aeaoue a naaa e iinoaiiaeaiea ia eniieiaiee in natura371. Ia
i?eaiai? aiciiaeia aiaeeyoeey a einoaioeeiiiii ii?yaeea (e aeea?eth,
i?aoaeoo i?aoi?ey e, iaeiiaoe, e naiiio eiia?aoi?o), eai ana /eiiaieee
i?aaenoaaeytho iaeio ea?a?oe/aneoth eanoieoeo, i?e/ai ana iie /a?iatho
naie iieiiii/ey ec aeanoe iinoaaeaoaai eo eiia?aoi?a. Eniieiaiea
i?eaiai?ia ninoaaeyao oaia?ue eeoue iineaaeithth, caeeth/eoaeueioth
/anoue i?iecaiaenoaa; aeey aicaoaeaeaiey aai ia o?aaoaony, eae i?aaeaea,
iniaiai enea (actio judicati), a aeinoaoi/ii i?inoie i?inueau: praeses
provinciae inouanoaeyao caoai i?eaiai? n?aaenoaaie aaeieieno?aoeaiie
aeanoe – eeai iooai ianeeuenoaaiiiai ioia?aiey nii?iie aaue o ioaao/eea
manu militari372, eeai iooai pignus in causa judicati captum, eeai,
iaeiiaoe, i?e iiiiue distractio bonorum.

Oaeei ia?acii, ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo yeno?ai?aeeia?iue i?ioeann nio?aiyao
/a?ou i?aaeiaai /enoi aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa; ii, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, naeaeaaoenue ii?iaeueiie oi?iie a?aaeaeaineiai noaea, ii
anoanoaaiii aeieaeai aue onaieoue naaa e iaeioi?ua /a?ou yoiai
iineaaeiaai, e i?aaeaea anaai aeieaeai aue i?iieeiooueny i?eioeeiii
ninoycaoaeueiinoe (noae ia/eiaao aeaei oieueei ii aeaeiaa enooea, noae
nai ia niae?aao aeieacaoaeuenoa, noae ia i?eaiaa?eaaao e aieueoaio, /ai
i?ineo enoaoe, e o. ae.).

E neacaiiiio ioaeii i?eaaaeoue aua neaaeothuaa. A yeno?ai?aeeia?iii
i?ioeanna a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iiaeaa?aaaony ia?aie/aieth i?eioeei
ioaee/iinoe: noae i?iecaiaeeony ia ia aeacao o anao, eae yoi auei a
i?ioeanna oi?ioey?iii, a a cae?uoii iiiauaiee (secretarium eee
secretum), eoaea aeinooi ioaeeea ia?aie/ai. ?acaeaaaony ienueiaiiinoue a
i?iecaiaenoaa: ii/oe ana i?ienoiaeyuaa ia noaea caiineony a noaeaaiue
i?ioieie. Iaeiiaoe, i?ioeann ia?anoae auoue oaia?ue aea?iaui: oyaeoueany
aeieaeiu aiineoue ecaanoiua noaeaaiua iioeeiu (sportulae) ia iie?uoea
eaioeaey?neeo ?anoiaeia e o. ae.

Iiaeaa?aaynue a ia?eiaea io Aeeieeaoeaia aei THnoeieaia eeoue iaeioi?ui
ianouanoaaiiui eciaiaieyi, iienaiiue eiaieoeeiiiue i?ioeann ei a?aiaie
THnoeieaia i?eia?ae aeae oae iacuaaaiiai eeaaeey?iiai i?ioeanna.
Iacaaiea yoi aeaao THnoeieaiiaiio i?iecaiaenoao aua aieueoaa ?acaeoea
ienueiaiiuo aeoia – libelli, – /ai yoi auei a yiioo Aeeieeaoeaia. Ene
ia/eiaaony iiaea/ae eneiaiai i?ioaiey – libellus conventionis. I?iaa?ea
oi?iaeueioth i?aaeeueiinoue i?ioaiey (iiaenoaeiinoue e o. ae.), noae nai
i?ai?iaiaeaeaao aai /a?ac naiaai iinueueiiai (apparitor) ioaao/eeo n
i?aaeeiaeaieai yaeoueny a iacia/aiiue aeaiue ia noae. Iineaiiue
apparitor aeieaeai acyoue io ioaao/eea oaeia eee eiia iaania/aiea a oii,
/oi ii aeaenoaeoaeueii yaeony (cautio judicio sisti); a i?ioeaiii neo/aa
ii iiaeao aeaaea auoue iiaeaa?aioo a?anoo. Anee ioaao/ee aic?aaeaao ia
ene, aai aic?aaeaiea iaeaeaaony oaeaea a ienueiaiioth oi?io – libellus
contradictionis. ?acai? i?ienoiaeeo a i?aaeiai ii?yaeea; i?eaiai?
aeaaony oaeaea a ienueiaiiie oi?ia e iacuaaaony oaia?ue noa?ui eiaiai
sententia.

4. OAIEIAIIA I?AAI E OAIEIAIUE NOAe

Nouanoaaiiaeoea ?aoi?iu, aianaiiua eiia?eae – ?anioaeeeaineie e
aaniethoiie – a iaeanoue oaieiaiiai i?aaa e oaieiaiiai noaea, naiaeyony
aeaaiaeoei ia?acii e neaaeothuaio.

A iaeanoe oaieiaiiai noaea quaestiones perpetuae e noae naiaoa
iaei-iiiaeo iooaniythony, a caoai e aiana ono?aiythony oaieiaiie
th?enaeeeoeeae eiia?aoi?neeo /eiiaieeia – praefectus urbi aeey ?eia,
praefectus praetorio aeey Eoaeee e i?iaeioeeaeueiuo iaianoieeia aeey
i?iaeioeee. N onoaiiaeaieai i?e Aeeieeaoeaia iiaiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
aeaeaiey ii?iaeueiui i?aaiii noaea ia?aie einoaioeee, eae e a aeaeao
a?aaeaeaineeo, yaeythony praesides provinciarum, ia ?aoaiey eioi?uo
iiaeao iineaaeiaaoue caoai aiaeeyoeey e aeanoyi aunoei. *eiiaieee yoe
noaeyo ii ia/aeai eieaeceoeeiiiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa extra ordinem. *oi
eanaaony eieoeeaoeau a i?aneaaeiaaiee i?anooieaiee, oi /anoiay accusatio
ia ioiaiyaony, ii ia?anoaao auoue eneeth/eoaeueiie: ?yaeii n iae
aeiioneaaony e i?aneaaeiaaiea ii ii/eio aeanoe, ex officio. E?iia
ii?iaeueiiai ii?yaeea noaea, a yiioo aaniethoiie iiia?oee ?acaeaathony
niaoeeaeueiua noaeu aeey ioaeaeueiuo nineiaee – naiaoi?ia, i?eaeai?iuo,
nieaeao e aeooiaiuo.

A iaeanoe iaoa?eaeueiiai oaieiaiiai i?aaa iniiaie inoathony oa
?aaeaiaiou, oa leges, eioi?ua aua a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee ii?aaeaeyee
aeayoaeueiinoue ioaeaeueiuo quaestiones perpetuae. Ii yoe leges auee ai
iiiaii aeiiieiaiu e eciaiaiu iicaeiaeoeie eiia?aoi?neeie oeacaie.
Iaeiiaoe, e th?eni?oaeaioeey ia inoaeanue aac aeeyiey: eiiiaioe?oy leges
e eiia?aoi?neea oeacu, iia iai?aaeyea i?aeoeeo e ?oeiaiaeeea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Oae, iai?eia?, ?anioaeeeaineia oaieiaiia i?aai
i?anooiiuie n/eoaei oieueei oiuoeaiiua aeayiey; aeayiey iainoi?iaeiua –
iainoi?iaeiia oaeenoai e o. ae. – inoaaaeenue aaciaeacaiiuie: ionoonoaea
oiunea (dolus) aeaeaei i?anooieaiea neo/aeiui (casus). TH?eni?oaeaioeey,
i?eaueoay oaea a a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa iaaeaeo dolus e casus iaoiaeeoue
aua n?aaeiaa – culpa, ia?aoeea aieiaiea ia i?anooieaiey iainoi?iaeiua, e
eiia?aoi?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai noaei iiaeaa?aaoue eo iaeacaieyi a
caaeneiinoe io noaiaie aeiu. Aeaeaa, a ?anioaeeeaineii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iieooaiea ia ioaeaeyeinue io niaa?oaiey e iaueiiaaiii
ea?aeinue oae aea, eae e yoi iineaaeiaa. TH?eni?oaeaioeey i?iaiaeeo e
caeanue iaiaoiaeeiia ?acee/ea e ?aeiiaiaeoao aeey iieooaiey iaeacaiey
aieaa iyaeea.

*oi eanaaony nenoaiu i?anooieaiee, oi iauoth oaiaeaioeeth eiia?aoi?neie
yiioe ninoaaeyao aa ?anoe?aiea. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ?anioaeeeaineia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a yoii ioiioaiee inoaaeyei aieueoea i?iaaeu, a, n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, no?aiynue e aiaeai?aieth aieueoaai ii?yaeea e
niieienoaey a no?aia, eiia?aoi?u neeiiiu auee a aieueoae noaiaie
iaeeaaeuaaoue naith ea?athuoth ?oeo oai, aaea a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee
iaoiaeeeenue aac oaieiaiie ?ai?annee. Iiae aeeyieai yoie oaiaeaioeee
?anoe?ythony n oi/ee c?aiey naiaai ninoaaa noa?ua, i?aaeoniio?aiiua a
leges, i?anooieaiey – crimina legitima. Ii, e?iia yoeo iineaaeieo,
aicieeaao oeaeue ?yae iiauo i?anooieaiee, iaeiaeaiiuo iaeacaieyie a
?acee/iuo eiia?aoi?neeo oeacao, – oae iacuaaaiua crimina extraordinaria.
Nthaea ioiinyony i?aaeaea anaai ioia/aiiua auoa i?anooieaiey
iainoi?iaeiua – oaeenoai, iiaeaeia; caoai eeyoaii?anooieaiea,
stellionatus373 (iniaue aeae iaiaia), auo?aaeaiea ieiaea, inei?aeaiea
o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee e o. ae. Iniaaiiiai oiiieiaiey caneoaeeaaao
onoaiiaeaiea oaieiaiuo iaeacaiee ca delicta privata, oi anoue ca oaeea
aeayiey, eioi?ua ?aiueoa aeaaaee iniiaaiea oieueei aeey oaeiai eee eiiai
a?aaeaeaineiai enea – iai?eia?, ca furtum374; ia?aiia/aeueii oaeay
oaieiaiay ?ai?anney auea onoaiiaeaia eeoue aeey iaeioi?uo iniauo aeaeia
ai?ianoaa (aeey feres armati, nocturni, balnearii375 e o. ae.), a
aiineaaenoaee e aeey anyeiai.

*oi eanaaony nenoaiu iaeacaiee, oi aianoi ianeiaeiinoe e n?aaieoaeueiie
iyaeinoe ea?aoaeueiuo n?aaenoa eiioea ?anioaeeee ?acaeaaaony /?acau/aeii
neiaeiay e no?iaay, ii?ith aeaaea aa?aa?neay, nenoaia oaieiaiuo ea?,
i?e/ai e caeanue nineiaiua ?acee/ey neacuaathony eiiaaea a onoaiiaeaiee
?acee/iuo iaeacaiee ca iaeii e oi aea i?anooieaiea aeey
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo e i?inouo. Ainnoaiaaeeaaaony en/acioaoay a eiioea
?anioaeeee nia?oiay eaciue, eioi?ay a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?eieiaao aeaaea
oa?aeoa? eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie (niaeaeaiiea, ?aniyoea ia e?anoa, poena
culei376 e o. ae.). E?iia nia?oiie eacie, iaeaieaa /anouie oi?iaie
iaeacaiee yaeythony: eaoi?aeiua ?aaiou a ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?oaeieeao
(condemnatio ad metallum, i?e/ai i?eaiai?aiiue eo ipso eeoaeny anyeeo
i?aa e aeaeaeny servus poenae377), nnueea a ?acee/iuo aeaeao (aquae et
ignis interdictio – ecaiaiea ec i?aaeaeia ioa/anoaa, deportatio in
insulam – nnueea a ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi; iaa oi?iu nii?yaeaiu n iioa?ath
i?aa e n i?aa?auaieai i?anooiieea a peregrinus dediticius; relegatio –
aac iioa?e i?aa), caeeth/aiea a oth?ueio, eiouanoaaiiua oo?aou e aeaaea
oaeaniia iaeacaiea. Aunoea iaeacaiey, oae iacuaaaiua poenae capitales
(nia?oiay eaciue e oa, eioi?ua nii?yaeaiu n iioa?ae i?aa), aeaeoo ca
niaith, a ea/anoaa aeiiieieoaeueiiai, eiioeneaoeeth eiouanoaa. Aiiaua
iniiaiie eaeaae ea?aoaeueiie nenoaiu yaeyaony eaeay ioiuaiey
(i?anooiieeo) e ono?aoaiey (ae?oaeo).

5. ENOI*IEEE I?AAA. JUS VETUS E LEGES

A yiioo aaniethoiie iiia?oee caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue
nin?aaeioi/eaaaony eneeth/eoaeueii a ?oeao eiia?aoi?a, aneaaenoaea /aai
aaeeinoaaiiith oi?iie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yaeythony oaia?ue eiia?aoi?neea
eiinoeoooeee, i?eia?aoathuea iacaaiea leges. I?aaeiaa ooaa?aeaeaiea
naiaoii eiia?aoi?neeo orationes i?aa?aoeeinue a i?inoia niiauaiea naiaoo
oeacia, oaea aiieia aeaenoaeoaeueiuo. *oi eanaaony ?acee/iuo oi?i
eiinoeoooeee, oi mandata auoiaeyo ec oiio?aaeaiey, a ioiineoaeueii
decreta e rescripta iinoaiiaeyaony (caeii Eiinoaioeia 315 a. – n. 3 Cod.
Th. 1, 2), /oi iie eiatho neeo oieueei aeey oiai aeaea, ii iiaiaeo
eioi?iai iie aeaiu; iie i?eciathony, oaeei ia?acii, eeoue ca
constitutiones personales. Aneaaenoaea yoiai ii?iaeueiie oi?iie iauaai
eiia?aoi?neiai oeaca (constitutiones generales) inoaaony oaia?ue
edictum. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eiia?aoi?neee oeac eiaao naiei
niaea?aeaieai aea?iaaiea eaeeo-eeai i?eaeeaaee eeoeo eee oeaeie
ei?ii?aoeee, ii iineo iacaaiea sanctio pragmatica.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eiia?aoi?neei eiinoeoooeeyi, eae leges, ana i?aai,
nicaeaiiia i?aaeiei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e ?ac?aaioaiiia
th?eni?oaeaioeeae eeanne/aneiai ia?eiaea, iacuaaaony oaia?ue jus vetus
eee jus antiquum.

Eae auei oeacaii auoa, n iieiaeiu III aaea th?eni?oaeaioeey auno?i
iaaeaao. TH?eaee/aneia i?aiiaeaaaiea aua nouanoaoao; iu eiaai neaaeu
nouanoaiaaiey th?eaee/aneeo oeie a Eiinoaioeiiiiea, Aeaenaiae?ee,
Eana?ee e Aa?eoa, i?e/ai iaeaieueoath ecaanoiinoueth iieueciaaeanue
oeiea a Aa?eoa; ec n?aaeu aa aeayoaeae ecaanoiu Ee?eee, Aeiiiei,
Aeaiinoai e Iao?eeee. Ii th?eaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a yoiai ia?eiaea neoaeia
e eiee/anoaaiii e ea/anoaaiii. Iia ia?aie/eaaaony oaia?ue oieueei /enoi
eiiieeyoeaiie ?aaioie, iuoaynue ia iniiaaiee auaea?aeae ec iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ni/eiaiee noa?uo th?enoia e eiia?aoi?neeo eiinoeoooeee
nicaeaaaoue nai?ieee aeey oiai, /oiau iaeaa/eoue i?eiaiaiea i?aaa
noaeueyie, oaea ianiiniaiuie iaeaaeaoue anae iannie eeanne/aneie
eeoa?aoo?u. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo eiiieeyoeee aeioee aei ian.

a) A 1821 aiaeo auee iaeaeaiu a Aaoeeaineie aeaeeioaea io?uaee ec
aeiaieueii iaoe?iie, ii-aeaeeiiio, eiiieeyoeee, ninoaaeaiiie a eiioea IV
eee ia/aea V aaea ec ni/eiaiee Iaieieaia, Iaaea e Oeueieaia, a oaeaea ec
eiia?aoi?neeo eiinoeoooeee, ii i?aeiouanoao, Aeeieeaoeaia. Io?uaee yoe
iacuaathony oaia?ue “Fragmenta Vaticana”.

b) I?eaeeceoaeueii e oiio aea a?aiaie (aa?iyoii, e ia/aeo V aaea)
ioiineony ae?oaay, i?eaeiaeueiay eiiieeyoeey, eioi?ie aeatho oaia?ue
iacaaiea “Lex Dei” eee “Collatio legum mosaicarum et romanarum”378.
Oeaeue nai?ieea caeeth/aeanue, ii-aeaeeiiio, a oii, /oiau iieacaoue
niaeanea iaaeaeo ?eineei i?aaii e iinoaiiaeaieyie Iienaaaa caeiia;
aaeaeo yoiai a nai?ieea ia?aiaoaiu iinoaiiaeaiey Iienay n auaea?aeeaie
ec ni/eiaiee ?eineeo th?enoia e eiia?aoi?neeo eiinoeoooeee.
?acae?athony, aeaaiui ia?acii, aii?inu oaieiaiiai i?aaa e eeoue
iaeioi?ua a?aaeaeaineiai (ii?yaeie ianeaaeiaaiey ii caeiio). Aeioae aei
ian yoio nai?iee a o?ao ?oeiienyo VIII-XI aaea.

n) E eiioeo V eee ia/aeo VI aaea ioiineony nai?iee, iinyuee iacaaiea
“Consultatio veteris cujusdam jurisconsulti”379; yoi nia?aiea
i?aeoe/aneeo niaaoia, ?aoaiee, ninoaaeaiiuo ia iniiaaiee, aeaaiui
ia?acii, sententiae Pauli, ii e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo th?enoia.

d) Iaeiiaoe, /aoaa?oue nai?iee oiai aea ?iaea ecaanoai iiae iacaaieai
“?einei-Ne?eeneie caeiiiie eieae”. Ninoaaeai ii a ainoi/iie iieiaeia
eiia?ee a V aaea (auoue iiaeao, ieiei 476 a.) e, aa?iyoii, yaeyaony
i?iecaaaeaieai eaeiai-eeai aeooiaiiai eeoea aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa a ianoiuo
aeooiaiuo noaeao. Enoi/ieeii eiiieeyoeee neoaeeee eiia?aoi?neea oeacu
(ii i?aeiouanoao, ainoi/iuo eiia?aoi?ia) e iaeioi?ua ni/eiaiey
eeanne/aneeo th?enoia. A iaeioi?uo iieiaeaieyo (iai?eia?, ioiineoaeueii
ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey ii caeiio) caia/athony ionooieaiey io ?eineiai
i?aaa: ii-aeaeeiiio, caeanue neacaeinue aeeyiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?aaa –
ne?eeneiai eee a?a/aneiai. Nai?iee yoio eiae aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
Acee – io Aaeioa aei A?iaiee – aeaaea iinea ecaeaiey THnoeieaiianeiai
Naiaea; aei ian aeioee aai a?aaneea, ne?eeneea e a?iyineea ia?a?aaioee.
Ii ana yoe eiiieeyoeee auee oieueei /anoiuie, e i?eoii ia i/aiue
eneoniuie, iiniaeyie; ioeoeeaeueiie neeu iie ia eiaee. TH?eaee/anee jus
vetus iieieeinue ana ia oao aea enoi/ieeao, oi anoue ni/eiaieyo
eeanne/aneeo th?enoia. Naii niaith ?acoiaaony, iaeiaei, /oi noaeuea,
iaycaiiiio i?eiaiyoue yoi i?aai, a eaaeaeii aeaiiii neo/aa ?acia?aoueny
ai anae ianna eeanne/aneie eeoa?aoo?u auei aei e?aeiinoe
cao?oaeieoaeueii. *oiau oioue ianeieueei iaeaa/eoue yoo ?aaioo,
eiia?aoi?u ecaeatho ?yae oeacia, eiathueo oeaeueth ?aaoee?iaaoue
iieueciaaiea iaoe?iui eeoa?aoo?iui iaoa?eaeii e oii?yaei/eoue i?eiaiaiea
jus vetus.

Nthaea ioiinyony i?aaeaea anaai aeaa caeiia eiia?aoi?a Eiinoaioeia.
Ia?aue ec ieo (321 a.) i?aaeienuaaao noaeueyi ia ia?auaoue aieiaiey ia
e?eoe/aneea caia/aiey (notae) Iaaea e Oeueieaia e ni/eiaieyi Iaieieaia,
eai, ii iiaieth eiia?aoi?a, iaa yoe th?enoa, caaioynue oieueei i naiae
neaaa, aeaeaee ia noieueei eni?aaeoue, neieueei iii?i/eoue Iaieieaia (n.
1 Cod. Th. 1. 4). Aoi?ie (327 a.) i?aaeeaaaao noaeueyi i?aaeaea anaai
?oeiaiaeeoueny i?e ?aoaiee aeae sententiae Iaaea (n. 2 Cod. Th. 1. 4).

Iieiaa iuoaaony ?aaoee?iaaoue i?eiaiaiea eeanne/aneeo ni/eiaiee caeii
Oaiaeiney II e Aaeaioeieaia III (426 a.), oae iacuaaaiue lex Allegatoria
(caeii i oeeoe?iaaiee – n. 3 Cod. Th. 1. 4). Caeii yoio i?eaeaao
th?eaee/anee iaycaoaeueioth neeo ni/eiaieyi iyoe th?enoia – Iaieieaia,
Iaaea, Oeueieaia, Iiaeanoeia e Aay (“Papiniani, Pauli, Gai, Ulpiani
atque Modestini scripta universa firmamus”380). *oi aea eanaaony anae
inoaeueiie eeanne/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, oi iicaieyaony i?eieiaoue ai
aieiaiea eeoue oao th?enoia, ia eioi?uo oiiiyiooua iyoue a naieo
ni/eiaieyo nnueathony e eeoue i?e oii oneiaee, anee niioaaonoaothuee
oaeno aoaeao iiaeoaa?aeaeai nee/aieai ianeieueeeo ?oeiienae (“si tamen
eorum libri propter antiquitatis incertum codicum collatione
firmentur”381). Oae eae, iaeiaei, ?oeiiene ae?oaeo th?enoia, e?iia iyoe
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo, ano?a/aeenue ana ?aaea e ?aaea, oi ia i?aeoeea
oeacaiiay aeiaaaea ii/oe ia eiaea ieeaeiai cia/aiey, e n iiaieyie
ae?oaeo th?enoia n/eoaeenue eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo i ieo
niiauaeinue a ni/eiaieyo Iaieieaia, Iaaea e o. ae. Anee ii iaeiiio e
oiio aea aii?ino iaaeaeo oiiiyioouie iyoueth th?enoaie iaia?oaeeaaaony
?aciiaeanea, oi noaeuey aeieaeai i?eiyoue oi ?aoaiea, eioi?iai
aea?aeeony aieueoeinoai ec ieo; i?e ?aaainoaa aieinia ?aoaao iiaiea
Iaieieaia; anee aea iiaiey Iaieieaia ii aeaiiiio aii?ino iao, oi noaeuey
iiaeao auae?aoue ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Canei, iiaeoaa?aeaaony caeii
Eiinoaioeia ioiineoaeueii iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe notae Iaaea e Oeueieaia e
oeacuaaaony, /oi i?aaeaea anaai ?aoaiey iaaei eneaoue a sententiae Pauli
(“Pauli quoque sententias semper valere praecipimus”382).

Eae aeaeei, lex Allegatoria iuoaaony aueoe ec cao?oaeiaiee /enoi
oi?iaeueiui iooai, i?eaeaa iaycaoaeueioth neeo ni/eiaieyi iyoe th?enoia,
auaeaeioa ec ieo ia ia?aue ieai sententiae Iaaea e aaaaey i?eioeei
aieueoeinoaa a /enoi iao/iia aeaei oieeiaaiey. N yoie noi?iiu iao caeii
yaeyaony iaaeyaeiui naeaeaoaeuenoaii iao/iie aaniiiiuiinoe
th?eni?oaeaioeee e ath?ie?aoee oiai a?aiaie; ii ii, aa?iyoii, oieueei
naieoeeiie?iaae i?eaiu, onoaiiaeaoeany e aei iaai a i?aeoeea.

Ia iaiueoea cao?oaeiaiey i?aaenoaaeyei aeey i?aeoeee e iieueciaaiea
eiia?aoi?neeie eiinoeoooeeyie.

Eaeiai-eeai oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaia aeey iioaeeeiaaiey eo ia nouanoaiaaei:
ana iie auee ?aca?inaiu a ?aciuo a?oeaao, aneaaenoaea /aai iieueciaaiea
eie e aeaaea naiia iciaeiieaiea n ieie auei nii?yaeaii n ia?iiiuie
o?oaeiinoyie. A iaaeaeo oai, n eaaeaeui aiaeii eiee/anoai eo aic?anoaei,
i?e/ai iiaua oeacu nieioue e ?yaeii ioiaiyee eee eciaiyee noa?ua.
*oanoaiaaeanue iiyoiio iio?aaiinoue nia?aoue eo a iaeio eieao, /oiau iie
anaaaea auee iiae ?oeie, eae aeey noaeae, oae e aeey /anoiuo eeoe. E
caeanue aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey yoie iio?aaiinoe ia iiiiuue i?eoea i?aaeaea
anaai /anoiay eieoeeaoeaa.

Ae?aaiaeoay iiiuoea yoiai ?iaea i?eiaaeeaaeeo aua ia?eiaeo i?eioeeiaoa,
eiaaea iaeee Iaie?ee THno nia?ae eiinoeoooeee eiia?aoi?a Ia?ea Aa?aeey a
20 eieaao. Ii yoio nai?iee, eiia/ii, ei a?aiaie aaniethoiie iiia?oee
onoa?ae e oo?aoee naia cia/aiea. I?e eiia?aoi?a Aeeieeaoeaia iiyaeeny
iiaue /anoiue nai?iee, ninoaaeaiiue eaeei-oi iai iaecaanoiui A?aai?eai
eee A?aai?eaiii e iinyuee iacaaiea “Codex Gregorianus”. Ii niaea?aeeo a
naaa eiinoeoooeee eiia?aoi?ia aei Aeeieeaoeaia (io 196 a. aei 295 a.),
i?e/ai ana iie ?aniieiaeaiu a ecaanoiii nenoaiaoe/aneii ii?yaeea:
eiaeaen aeaeeony ia /aou?iaaeoeaoue eiea, eieae ia oeooeu, aioo?e
eioi?uo eiinoeoooeee i?eaiaeyony a iiaeeeiiii oaenoa e a o?iiieiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Eiaeaen yoio, i/aaeaeii, i?eia?ae aieueoia
?ani?ino?aiaiea, e iaaeaeo 314 e 324 a. e iaio auei ninoaaeaii iiaui,
oaeaea iai iaecaanoiui aaoi?ii, Aa?iiaaiii, aeiiieiaiea ec iicaeiaeoeo
eiinoeoooeee, iinyuaa iacaaiea “Codex Hermogenianus”. Yoio eiaeaen
i?aaenoaaeyao oieueei iaeio eieao, ?acaeaeaiioth ia oeooeu.

Yoe /anoiua iiiuoee iaaaee, iaeiiaoe, e i?aaeoaeuenoai ia iuneue
naeaeaoue ioeoeeaeueiue nai?iee eiinoeoooeee, oai aieaa /oi
eiia?aoi?neea oeacu i?iaeieaeaee ecaeaaaoueny, e /a?ac ecaanoiue
i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie iaa iacaaiiua eiaeaena, a naith i/a?aaeue, onoa?aee.
Aaeaeo yoiai eiia?aoi? Oaiaeinee II iacia/ee a 428 a. eiienneth ec
ainueie /aeiaae; yoa eiienney aeieaeia auea naeaeaoue aeaa ?aaiou:
ai-ia?auo, nia?aoue aiaaeeii ana eiinoeoooeee io Eiinoaioeia, aeaaea
onoa?aaoea e ioiaiaiiua, aeaau yoio nai?iee aianoa n Codices Gregorianus
e “Hermogenianus” iia neoaeeoue iniiaaieai aeey iao/aiey th?enoia,
eioi?ui ioaeii ciaoue e i?ioeia i?aai; ai-aoi?uo, aeey i?aeoe/aneiai
oiio?aaeaiey ninoaaeoue nai?iee aeaenoaothueo oieueei eiinoeoooeee,
i?eaaaea, iaeiaei, e iei auaea?aeee ec responsa e o?aeoaoia th?enoia,
aeaau oaeei ia?acii niaaeeieoue a iaeiii naiaea eae leges, oae e jus
vetus. ?aaiou iacia/aiiie eiiennee inoaeenue, iaeiaei, aac anyeiai
?acoeueoaoa; aa?iyoii, auiieiaiea aoi?ie /anoe i?ia?aiiu ano?aoeei
iai?aiaeieeiua cao?oaeiaiey. Aneaaenoaea yoiai a 435 a. auea ia?aciaaia
iiaay eiienney ec oanoiaaeoeaoe /eaiia iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii
quaestor sacri palatii Aioeioa, ii yoie eiiennee iinoaaeaia auea oaea
aieaa ne?iiiay caaea/a: inoaaea aoi?oth /anoue i?aaeiae i?ia?aiiu,
Oaiaeinee ii?o/ee iiaie eiiennee naeaeaoue eeoue nai?iee eiia?aoi?neeo
eiinoeoooeee, ecaeaiiuo iinea “Codex Hermogenianus” e nio?aiythueo aua
naith neeo. Yoa ?aaioa auea auiieiaia /a?ac 2 aiaea, e iiaue nai?iee,
iieo/eaoee iacaaiea “Codex Theodosianus”, aue iioaeeeiaai 15 oaa?aey 438
a. “Codex Theodosianus” aeaeeony ia oanoiaaeoeaoue eiea, ec eioi?uo
eaaeaeay, a naith i/a?aaeue, ?aniaaeaaony ia oeooeu. Ii iniiaiie iunee
Oaiaeiney, aai eiaeaen aianoa n Codices Gregorianus et Hermogenianus
aeieaeai aue ninoaaeyoue iaeii oeaeia, aneaaenoaea /aai iaa oiiiyioouo
/anoiuo nai?ieea i?eia?aee ioeoeeaeueioth naieoeeth383. Iiaua
eiinoeoooeee, iiyaeyaoeany iinea ecaeaiey Eiaeaena, iacuaathony novellae
leges.

A V aaea ?eineay eiia?ey, eae ecaanoii, ieii/aoaeueii ?aniaeanue ia aeaa
iieiaeiu, Ainoi/ioth e Caiaaeioth, i?e/ai Caiaaeiay iieiaeia iiaeiaea
anei?a iiae aeaaeu/anoai aa?iaineeo caaiaaaoaeae. Ii aeaenoaea ?eineiai
i?aaa caeanue aneaaenoaea yoiai ia i?ae?aoeeinue: iii inoaaaeinue a
iieiie neea ii ioiioaieth e iiei?aiiiio ?eineiio ianaeaieth. Aeaaea
aieaa oiai: aa?iaineea eiycuey iaia?oaeeaatho iaeioi?oth caaioo ia yoii
i?aaa, iineieueeo yoi ioaeii aeey i?aeoeee noaeia. Caaioa yoa
au?aceeanue a ecaeaiee ianeieueeeo nai?ieeia aeey noaeaaiiai
?oeiaiaenoaa. Oaeiau:

1) Oae iacuaaaiue “Lex romana Wisigothorum”, naiae ec ?acee/iuo
enoi/ieeia ?eineiai i?aaa (ecaea/aiey ec oeacaiiuo o?ao eiaeaenia, ec
einoeoooeee Aay, naioaioeee Iaaea e o. ae., a eiioea iaeii responsum
Iaieieaia), i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey ?eineeo iiaeaeaiiuo Aanoaioneiai
ei?ieaanoaa, ecaeaiiue Aea?eoii II a 506 a. e iioiio iacuaathueeny aua
“Breviarium Alaricianum”.

2) “Edictum Theodorici” – aiaeiae/iay eiiieeyoeey, ecaeaiiay a eiioea V
aaea Oaiaei?eoii Aaeeeei aeey ei?ieaanoaa Inoaioneiai.

3) “Lex romana Burgundiorum” – nai?iee oaeiai aea oa?aeoa?a, ecaeaiiue a
ia/aea VI aaea aeey Ao?aoiaeneiai ei?ieaanoaa ei?ieai Aoiaeiaaaeii. A
iaeioi?uo ?oeiienyo yoio iineaaeiee nai?iee iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?eiueae e
“lex romana Wisigothorum”, i?e/ai ii ioeaea ia?aien/eeia eiiaoe
iineaaeiaai – responsum Iaieieaia – ioiineeny e ia/aeo “lex romana
Burgundiorum”, e aaeiaaaie Papinianus aue nie?auai a Papian. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai e naiue nai?iee (“lex romana Burgundiorum”) iacuaaeny oaeaea
Papian.

6. EIAeEOEEAOeEss THNOEIEAIA

Ana oeacaiiua iiuou /anoiuo e ioeoeeaeueiuo eiiieeyoeee aucuaaeenue
iaeiith iauae iio?aaiinoueth – eiaoue eaeie-eeai aaeeiue nai?iee i?aaa,
aaeeiue naiae, a eioi?ii auei au noiie?iaaii eae jus vetus, oae e
eiia?aoi?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, e eioi?ue iia au neoaeeoue oaa?aeui
iniiaaieai i?e ioi?aaeaiee i?aainoaeey. E /ai aeaeueoa, oai yoa
iio?aaiinoue iuouaeanue ana neeueiaa e neeueiaa. Ii ioiioaieth e
eiia?aoi?neei eiinoeoooeeyi, aeaaiaea?y eiaeaenai Gregorianus,
Hermogenianus e Theodosianus, caaea/a noaeae auea cia/eoaeueii
iaeaa/aia; ii eiinoeoooeee i?iaeieaeaee ecaeaaaoueny, iiiaea ec
iaoiaeeaoeony a eiaeaenao ieacuaaeenue ioiaiaiiuie, aneaaenoaea /aai ii
enoa/aiee ecaanoiiai ia?eiaea ia?aniio? eiaeaenia e aeiiieiaiea eo
aeaeaeinue iaiaoiaeeiui. Ai?acaei o?oaeiaa auei iieiaeaiea e /anoiuo
eeoe, e noaeae, eiaaea aeaei eanaeinue jus vetus. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
iieueciaaiea ni/eiaieyie eeanne/aneeo th?enoia cao?oaeiyeinue oaea oai
ianoiyoaeuenoaii, /oi iie aeaeaeenue a iai?ioa ana aieaa e aieaa
?aaeeeie. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, anee aeaaea ia?aie/eoueny ni/eiaieyie iyoe
th?enoia, eaaaeeciaaiiuo a lex Allegatoria, oi ana aea ?acia?aoueny ai
anae ianna eo e iaeoe a ieo iaaeeaaeauaa ?aoaiea aeey aeaiiiai
eiie?aoiiai neo/ay auei ?aaioie iaeaaeie, iniaaiii i?e iauai oiaaeea
th?eaee/aneie ia?aciaaiiinoe. Aeaeaa, iiaiey th?enoia ia?aaeei ae?oa
ae?oao i?ioeai?a/eee, a iaoaie/aneee iiaen/ao aieinia, onoaiiaeaiiue
caeiiii i oeeoe?iaaiee, i?aaenoaaeye, eiia/ii, ecaanoiia oaeianoai aeey
noaeae, ii ioithaeue ia oaaaeaeae a th?eaee/aneie aa?iinoe aieina
aieueoeinoaa. Iaeiiaoe, oneiaey aeecie ca 2-3 noieaoey oniaee ai iiiaii
nouanoaaiii eciaieoueny, e iau/iua ?aoaiey eeanne/aneeo th?enoia
ieacuaaeenue eiiaaea onoa?aaoeie. Iaeiei neiaii, /oanoaiaaeanue iauay
iio?aaiinoue a iieiii e ioeoeeaeueiii ia?aniio?a anae i?aaiaie nenoaiu,
a iiaeaaaeaiee eoiaia anaai iiiaiaaeiaiai ?acaeoey.

Eae auei oeacaii auoa, oaea eiia?aoi? Oaiaeinee II eiae iuneue naeaeaoue
oaeie iauee ia?aniio? eae eiinoeoooeee, oae e th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?u,
e ia?a?aaioaoue ana a aaeeiue, oeaeueiue naiae. Ii iuneue yoa inoaeanue
i?e iai iainouanoaeaiiie. Auiieiaiea yoiai ieaia, e i?eoii a i/aiue
oe?ieii ianooaaa, ninoaaeyao ia?iiioth caneoao THnoeieaia e aai
aeeaeaeoaai iiiiuieea a yoii aeaea O?eaiieaia.

Eieinnaeueiue o?oae ninoaaeaiey THnoeieaiianeiai Naiaea aue auiieiai a
ianeieueei i?eaiia e a n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeee n?ie.

I?aaeaea anaai aieiaiea THnoeieaia ia?aoeeinue ia nia?aiea eiia?aoi?neeo
eiinoeoooeee. Iaiaoiaeeii auei i?eaanoe a ii?yaeie eiinoeoooeee,
iaeiieaoeany ca noieaoiee i?iiaaeooie iinea ecaeaiey “Codex
Theodosianus”. Ii THnoeieai aicuiae aieaa oe?ieoth iuneue –
ia?aniio?aoue e i?aaeiea eiaeaenu (Gregorianus, Hermogenianus e
Theodosianus), au/a?eiooue ec ieo ana onoa?aaoaa, a ana aeaenoaothuaa
iauaaeeieoue a iaeiii nai?ieea. N yoie oeaeueth THnoeieai 13 oaa?aey 528
a. iacia/ee eiienneth ec 10 /aeiaae, n?aaee eioi?uo iaoiaeeeny e
oiiiyiooue O?eaiieai. *a?ac aiae eiienney ieii/eea naith ?aaioo, e 7
ai?aey 529 a. oeacii “Summa rei publicae” aue iaia?iaeiaai “Codex
Justinianus”, ioiaieaoee niaith o?e i?aaeiea.

Nia?aa e nenoaiaoece?iaaa leges, THnoeieai ?aoee niaa?oeoue oi aea naiia
e ii ioiioaieth e jus vetus. Yoa caaea/a i?aaenoaaeyea, eiia/ii,
ai?acaei aieueoa o?oaeiinoae, ii auno?ue oniao n Eiaeaenii e iaee/iinoue
yia?ae/iuo iiiiuieeia oe?aieee THnoeieaia a aai iaia?aiee. 15 aeaeaa?y
530 a. oeacii “Deo auctore” ii aeae O?eaiieaio niioaaonoaothuaa
ii?o/aiea, i?aaeinoaaea aio naiiio aua?aoue naaa iiiiuieeia. O?eaiieai
ninoaaee eiienneth ec 15 /aeiaae, iaaeaeo eioi?uie auee /aou?a
i?ioanni?a th?eni?oaeaioeee ec Aeaaeaiee Eiinoaioeiiiieueneie (Oaioee e
E?aoei) e Aa?eoneie (Aei?ioae e Aiaoieee) e 11 aaeaieaoia. Eiienney
eiaea i?aae niaie i/aiue neiaeioth caaea/o: iia aeieaeia auea nia?aoue
ni/eiaiey ia oieueei iyoe i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo a lex Allegatoria th?enoia,
ii e anao aiiaua eeanne/aneeo th?enoia; ec anao yoeo ni/eiaiee iia
aeieaeia auea naeaeaoue ecaea/aiey, i?e/ai ana onoa?aeia aeieaeii auei
auoue au/a?eiooi e caiaiaii iiaui, a anyeea ?aciiaeaney aeieaeiu auee
auoue ono?aiaiu; iaeiiaoe, aanue yoio iaoa?eae ioaeii auei ?aniieiaeeoue
a ecaanoiii nenoaiaoe/aneii ii?yaeea. Iaeiei neiaii, any ia?iiiay
th?eaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a aeieaeia auea auoue ia?aniio?aia e niayia a
iaeii nenoaiaoe/aneia oeaeia. E n yoie eieinnaeueiie caaea/ae eiienney
ni?aaeeanue /?acau/aeii auno?i: /a?ac 3 aiaea ni a?aiaie oeaca
O?eaiieaio, eiaiii 16 aeaeaa?y 533 a., oeacii “Tanta” eee “???????” yoio
ia?iiiue naiae, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea “Digesta” eee “Pandectae”, aue
iioaeeeiaai, a n 30 aeaeaa?y oiai aea aiaea anooiee a aeaenoaea.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n ?aaioie ii ninoaaeaieth “Aeeaano”, iiae iauei
?oeiaiaenoaii O?eaiieaia, i?ioanni?aie Oaioeeii e Aei?ioaai aue
ninoaaeai, aeaaiui ia?acii aeey o/aaiuo oeaeae, ioeoeeaeueiue
yeaiaioa?iue eo?n a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, iieo/eaoee iau/iia aeey oaeiai
?iaea eo?nia iacaaiea “Institutiones”. 21 iiya?y 533 a. iniaui oeacii,
aae?aniaaiiui e thiioanoao, – “cupidae legum juventuti”384, –
“Einoeoooeee” auee naieoeeiie?iaaiu, i?e/ai ei auea i?eaeaia neea,
?aaiay neea anao ae?oaeo /anoae naiaea.

Ii iiea oea ?aaioa ni ninoaaeaieth “Aeeaano” e “Einoeoooeee”,
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aacaeaenoaiaaei: naiay yoa ?aaioa aucuaaea
i?aaeoaeuenoai ia ia?aniio? oeaeiai ?yaea aii?inia. Eae auei oieueei /oi
neacaii, eiienney aeieaeia auea ono?aiyoue ana ano?a/aaoeany iaaeaeo
th?enoaie eiio?iaa?cu, ii iaeioi?ua ec yoeo eiio?iaa?c ii aeieeaaeo
eiiennee auee ?ac?aoaiu naiei THnoeieaiii, i?e/ai yoe ?aoaiey auee
iauyaeaiu a aeaea oeacia; nio?aieeinue ecaanoea i 50 iiaeiaiuo oeacao –
oae iacuaaaiuo quinquaginta decisiones. Ii e iacaaeneii io yoiai iiiaea
aii?inu o?aaiaaee ia?aniio?a, e aeaenoaeoaeueii a oa/aiea yoeo eao iu
aeaeei /?acau/aeii iaeeaeaiioth caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue: a
529 a. auei ecaeaii ieiei 80 eiinoeoooeee, a 530 – ieiei 130, a 531 –
ieiei 100. Aneaaenoaea yoiai e oiio a?aiaie, eiaaea “Aeeaanou” e
“Einoeoooeee” auee caeii/aiu, Eiaeaen, ecaeaiiue a 529 a., ieacaeny oaea
ai iiiaii onoa?aaoei. *oiau niaeaniaaoue aai n iiauie /anoyie naiaea,
ioaeii auei ia?a?aaioaoue aai caiiai. Iiaay eiienney naeaeaea yoi, e 16
iiya?y 534 a. oeacii “Cordi nobis” aue iioaeeeiaai, a caiaio i?aaeiaai,
Eiaeaen iiaie ?aaeaeoeee – “Codex repetitae praelectionis”.

Yoei ninoaaeaiea Naiaea auei caeii/aii. Auoiaeeaoea iinea oiai oeacu
iacuaathony iiaaeeaie (novellae leges), e iaeioi?ua ec ieo eiatho
aanueia nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea, i?aaenoaaeyy iieioth ?aoi?io a iaeioi?uo
iaeanoyo i?aaa (iai?eia?, a iaeanoe ianeaaeiaaiey).

THnoeieai eiae iaia?aiea oaeaea niae?aoue yoe iiaaeeu ii ia?a eo
iaeiieaiey, ii nai ii yoie iunee oaea ia inouanoaee. Iu eiaai, iaeiaei,
ianeieueei /anoiuo nai?ieeia iiaaee, i?e/ai iiaaeeu ?anniao?eaathony,
eae iineaaeiyy caeeth/eoaeueiay /anoue thnoeieaiianeiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Ana oeacaiiua /anoe thnoeieaiianeie eiaeeoeeaoeee aeieaeiu auee, ii
iunee THnoeieaia, ninoaaeyoue iaeii oeaeia, iaeei “Corpus” i?aaa, oioy
iie e ia auee oiaaea niaaeeiaiu iiae iaeiei iauei iacaaieai. Eeoue a
n?aaeiea aaea, eiaaea aic?iaeeeinue eco/aiea ?eineiai i?aaa (ia/eiay n
XII noieaoey), aanue THnoeieaiianeee Naiae noae iacuaaoueny iauei eiaiai
“Corpus Juris Civilis”, iiae eaeiaui iacaaieai ii ecaanoai e oaia?ue.

?anniio?ei ianeieueei aeeaea eaaeaeoth ec ninoaaiuo /anoae yoiai
ia?iiiiai naiaea.

1. “Institutiones”. Oioy iie nicaeaiu auee a ea/anoaa yeaiaioa?iiai
?oeiaiaenoaa aeey o/aaiuo oeaeae, iaeiaei iie ia noiyo ieaea ae?oaeo
/anoae e a niunea naiae th?eaee/aneie neeu. Aeaaiui enoi/ieeii eo
iineoaeeee “Einoeoooeee” Aay (oioy auee eniieueciaaiu oaeaea
“Einoeoooeee” e ae?oaeo aaoi?ia); iie aeaee thnoeieaiianeei
“Einoeoooeeyi” e naia aiaoiaa aeaeaiea ia /aou?a eieae, e naie ieai
(personae, res, actiones); nieioue e ?yaeii aeaaea naiue oaeno acyo o
Aay. Eaaeaeay ec /aou?ao eiea aeaeeony ia oeooeu n iniaui caaeaaeai;
eaaeaeue oeooe a nia?aiaiiuo ecaeaieyo aeey oaeianoaa oeeoe?iaaiey
?acaeaeai ia ia?aa?aou, i?e/ai ioia?aoeey ia?aa?aoia ia/eiaaony ia n
naiiai ia/aea oeooea, a ianeieueei aeaeueoa; ia/aeueiay aea, ia
ioia?iaaiiay, /anoue oeooea iineo iacaaiea principium. Iiyoiio
oeeoe?othony “Einoeoooeee” oae: pr. (principium) Inst. I (eieaa ia?aay)
1 (oeooe ia?aue); § 1 Inst. 1, 1 e o. ae. Aio, iai?eia?, ia/aei
“Einoeoooeee” – titulus Institutionum I. 1 de justitia et jure:

“Justitia est constans et perpetua voluntas jus suum cuique tribuens
(principium). § 1. Iuris prudentia est divinarum atque humanarum rerum
notitia, justi atque injusti scientia”385.

2. “Digesta” eee “Pandectae” i?aaenoaaeytho nia?aiea oeeoao ec ni/eiaiee
th?enoia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ecaanoiii nenoaiaoe/aneii ii?yaeea. Anaai
oeeoe?iaaii 39 th?enoia io Eaeioa Iooeey aei Aa?iiaaieaia e, ii
en/eneaieth naiiai THnoeieaia, aei 2000 ni/eiaiee. ssaeyynue, oaeei
ia?acii, noiie?iaaieai anae eeanne/aneie th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?u,
“Digesta” i?aaenoaaeytho oeaio?aeueioth /anoue THnoeieaiianeiai Naiaea,
naioth iaoe?ioth ii ?acia?ai e iaeaieaa oeaiioth ii naiaio
niaea?aeaieth. Any ianna oeeoao ?acaeaeaia ia 50 eiea i?eaeeceoaeueii ii
nenoaia “Digesta” eeanne/aneeo th?enoia, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue,
neaaeiaaee nenoaia edictum perpetuum. Eaaeaeay eieaa aeaeeony ia
aieueoaa eee iaiueoaa eiee/anoai oeooeia n iniaui caaeaaeai (“De
actionibus empti venditi”, “Locati conducti”386 e o. ae.); oieueei eieae
30-y, 31-y e 32-y ia eiatho yoiai aeaeaiey ia oeooeu, eai ana iie
iinayuaiu iaeiiio aii?ino e iioiio iinyo iauaa caaeaaea “De legatis” (“I
eaaaoao”, oi anoue caaauaoaeueiuo ioeacao).

Aioo?e eaaeaeiai oeooea (e?iia e?aoeeo) oeeoaou oaeaea ?aniieiaeaiu a
ecaanoiii ii?yaeea: nia/aea eaeoo oeeoaou ec ni/eiaiee, eiiiaioe?iaaaoeo
oeeaeeueiia i?aai, oi anoue a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ec eiiiaioa?eaa ad
Sabinum – oae iacuaaaiay ianna Naaeia; caoai neaaeotho oeeoaou ec
ni/eiaiee ad edictum – ianna yaeeeoa, e iaeiiaoe auaea?aeee ec
ni/eiaiee, aicieeioaoeo ia ii/aa th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee (responsa e o.
ae.); a oae eae ai aeaaa ni/eiaiee yoie a?oiiu noiyee responsa
Papiniani, oi yoo ianno iacuaatho iannie Iaieieaia.

Eiiaaea a naiii eiioea iaoiaeyony aua aeiaaai/iua oeeoaou – Appendix.

I?aaeiieaaatho iiyoiio, /oi eiienney i?e i?iecaiaenoaa naieo ?aaio
?acaeaeeeanue ia o?e iiaeeiiennee, ?ani?aaeaeea iaaeaeo niaith oeacaiiui
ia?acii i?iniio? ni/eiaiee. Caoai naeaeaiiua eaaeaeie iiaeeiienneae
auaea?aeee naiaeeeenue aiaaeeii a iaueo canaaeaieyo387.

Eaaeaeay oeeoaoa ia/eiaaony n oeacaiey aaoi?a e ni/eiaiey, ec eioi?iai
iia acyoa. A nia?aiaiiuo ecaeaieyo yoe oeeoaou aioo?e eaaeaeiai oeooea
i?iioia?iaaiu, a aieaa aeeeiiua ec ieo ?acaeaeaiu ia ia?aa?aou (i?e/ai e
caeanue ia/aei eaaeaeie oeeoaou noieo aia ioia?aoeee e iaicia/aaony
neiaii pr. = principium). Iiyoiio i?e oeeoe?iaaiee “Aeeaano” iaaei
oeacaoue eieao, oeooe, iiia? oeeoe?oaiie auaea?aeee e aa ia?aa?ao –
iai?eia?, fr. (Fragmentum) eee I. (lex) 1 § 2 Dig. 43 (eieaa) 6 (oeooe).
Aeey ia?acoea i?eaaaeai oieueei /oi oeacaiiue titulus Digestorum 43. 6,
icaaeaaeaiiue “Ne quid in loco sacro fiat”.

1. Ulpianus libro sexagensimo octavo ad edictum (oeeoaoa acyoa ec 68-e
eieae eiiiaioa?ey Oeueieaia ad edictum). Ait praetor: “In loco sacro
facere inve eum immittere quid veto” (principium: neiaa i?aoi?a a
yaeeeoa). § 1. Hoc interdictum de loco sacro, non de sacrario competit
(caeanue ia/eiaaony eiiiaioa?ee Oeueieaia). § 2. Quod ait praetor, ne
quid in loco sacro fiat, non ad hoc pertinet, quod ornamenti causa fit,
sed quod deformitatis vel incommodi. § 3. Sed et cura aedium locorumque
sacrorum mandata est his, qui aedes sacras curant.

2. Hermogenianus libro tertio iuris epitomarum. in muris itemque portis
et aliis sanctis locis aliquid facere, ex quo damnum aut incommodum
irrogetur, non permititur.

3. Paulus libro quinto sententiarum. Neque muri neque portae habitari
sine permissu principis propter fortuita incendia possunt388.

Nicaeaaay “Digesta”, eiiieeyoi?u eiaee naiae caaea/ae ia i?inoi nia?aoue
oeeoaou ec ni/eiaiee th?enoia e ?aniieiaeeoue eo a ecaanoiii ii?yaeea,
eae, iai?eia?, iu niae?aai eeoa?aoo?iua iaoa?eaeu e auienee, a naeaeaoue
ec ieo aeaenoaothuee Naiae Caeiiia. Iaaeaeo oai a ni/eiaieyo th?enoia
iie ano?a/aee e ?aciiaeaney eo iaaeaeo niaie, e iiiai oaeiai, /oi ei
a?aiaie THnoeieaia oaea onoa?aei. Eiiieeyoi?u aeieaeiu auee iiyoiio
naeaaeeaaoue ?aciiaeaney e caiaiyoue onoa?aaoaa iiaui. Aeey yoiai iie
i?eaaaaee ia?aaeei e ?acee/iui eciaiaieyi a oeeoe?oaiii oaenoa; yoe
eciaiaiey iacuaathony emblemata Triboniani eee eioa?iieyoeeyie.
Eaeeie-eeai aiaoieie ciaeaie eioa?iieyoeee ia ioia/aiu, ii ananoi?iiiaa
eco/aiea “Corpus Juris Civilis” iaia?oaeeei e i?iaeieaeaao
iaia?oaeeaaoue eo a aieueoii eiee/anoaa: ?oea eiiieeyoi?ia aeayoaeueii
i?ioeanue ii anaio ia?iiiiio iaoa?eaeo “Aeeaano”. Eiiaaea iiaeiaiua
eioa?iieyoeee iaia?oaeeaathony eaaei ec niiinoaaeaiey oeeoao, acyouo o
iaeiiai e oiai aea th?enoa e ec iaeiiai e oiai aea ni/eiaiey, ii
iiiauaiiuo a aeaoo ?aciuo ianoao (oae iacuaaaiua leges geminatae), eee
ec niiinoaaeaiey oeeoaou a “Digesta” n oie aea naiie oeeoaoie a
nio?aieaoeony aei ian iaiyoieeao aeithnoeieaiianeiai a?aiaie (fragmenta
Vaticana e o. ae.). Ii /anoi ia?a?aaioea eiiieeyoi?ia iiaeao auoue
iaia?oaeaia oieueei iooai neiaeiiai ?acai?a eiae/aneiai,
eeiaaenoe/aneiai e enoi?e/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. I?eaaaeai aeey ia?acoea
naiua i?inoua aeaeu eioa?iieyoeee.

Fr. 12. 3. D. 7. 1. Ulpianus libro XVII ad Sabinum. De illo Pomponius
dubitat, si fugitivus, in quo meus ususfructus est, stipuletur aliquid
ex re mea vel per traditionem accipiat: an per hoc ipsum, quasi utar,
retineam usumfructum?

Fragmenta Vaticana § 89. De illo Pomponius dubitat, si fugitivus, in quo
ususfructus meus est, stipuletur aliquid vel mancipio accipiat, an per
hoc ipsum, quasi utar, retineam usumfructum389.

Naiia nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea caeanue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi noiyaoaa a
iiaeeeiieea o Oeueieaia neiai “mancipio” caiaiaii a thnoeieaiianeeo
“Digesta” au?aaeaieai “per traditionem”: ei a?aiaie THnoeieaia
oi?iaeueiay naeaeea ia?aaea/e i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe (mancipium,
mancipatio) oaea ioiaea, aneaaenoaea /aai eiiieeyoi?u caiaieee aa
aanoi?iaeueiie traditio.

Fr. 49. 1. D. 24. 3. Paulus l. VII responsorum. Fundus aestimatus in
dotem datus a creditore antecedente ex causa pignoris ablatus est.

Fragmenta Vaticana § 94: Fundus aestimatus in dotem datus a creditore
antecedente ex causa fiduciae ablatus est390.

Caeanue ii oie aea i?e/eia neiai “fiducia” caiaiaii neiaii “pignus”.

?aciaea/aiea eioa?iieyoeee e ainnoaiiaeaiea iiaeeeiiiai oaenoa
eeanne/aneeo th?enoia eiaao ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey enoi?ee ?acaeoey
?eineiai i?aaa; ii eae aeaenoaothuaa i?aai THnoeieaia aeieaeii
n/eoaoueny ia oi, /oi th?eno aeaenoaeoaeueii aiai?ee, a oi, /oi aio
aeiaeaii a onoa thnoeieaiianeeie eiiieeyoi?aie391.

Auoa auei oeacaii (§ 34), /oi ia?eiae aaniethoiie iiia?oee aue a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ia?eiaeii “i?eaioaeecaoeee” ?eineiai i?aaa, i?e/ai
yoa i?eaioaeecaoeey auea aeaeaei ia anaaaea oeo/oaieai. Ai iiiaii
i?aeoeea ?eineiai i?aaa ionooieea io oao ia/ae, eioi?ua auee n oaeei
ianoa?noaii ?ac?aaioaiu eeanne/aneie th?eni?oaeaioeeae. Iiaeioynue oai
aea ainoi/iui, yeeeienoe/aneei aeeyieyi, iiae/eiyynue, auoue iiaeao,
oaea i?i/ii onoaiiaeaoaeny i?aeoeea, eiiieeyoi?u, eiia/ii, a naieo
eioa?iieyoeeyo ia iiaee ia ioaeaoue aeaie yoei aeeyieyi. Ii i?e anai oii
oaea oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi a iniiao THnoeieaiianeiai Caiaea auee
iieiaeaiu ni/eiaiey eeanne/aneeo th?enoia, iaicia/aei aeey oiai a?aiaie
aannii?iia ainnoaiiaeaiea ?eineiai i?aaa, aica?auaiea e aai eo/oei
ia/aeai. Aeaaiaea?y “Aeeaanoai”, eeanne/aneay eeoa?aoo?a auea nio?aiaia
io iieiie aeaaee, a aa ?acoeueoaou io aacaica?aoiiai eneaaeaiey.

3) “Codex” anoue nia?aiea eiia?aoi?neeo eiinoeoooeee; ii ninoieo ec 12
eiea, i?e/ai eaaeaeay eieaa, eae e a ae?oaeo /anoyo Naiaea, aeaeeony ia
oeooeu n iniaui caaeaaeai. Eieaa 1 niaea?aeeo eiinoeoooeee, eanathueany
oea?eiaiiai i?aaa, enoi/ieeia i?aaa e officia392 ?acee/iuo eiia?aoi?neeo
/eiiaieeia; eieae 2-8 – a?aaeaeaineia i?aai, eieaa 9 – oaieiaiia i?aai;
eieae 10-12 – iieiaeaiea i ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee. Aioo?e oeooea
?aniieiaeaiu ioaeaeueiua eiinoeoooeee a o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea.
Eaaeaeay eiinoeoooeey eiaao a ia/aea inscriptio – oi anoue oeacaiea
eiaie ecaeaaoaai aa eiia?aoi?a e eiaie oiai, e eiio iia auea
aae?aniaaia, a a eiioea subscriptio – oi anoue iaicia/aiea aeaou, eiaaea
iia auea ecaeaia, i?e/ai yoa aeaoa iaicia/aaony eiaiaie auaoeo a oi
a?aiy eiinoeia. A nia?aiaiiuo ecaeaieyo eiinoeoooeee aioo?e eaaeaeiai
oeooea i?iioia?iaaiu, a aieaa aeeeiiua ?acaeaeaiu ia ia?aa?aou. Oaeei
ia?acii, oeeoe?oaony Eiaeaen, iai?eia?, oae: n. (constitutio) eee l.
(lex) l. Cod. 6. 55.

Impp. (imperatores) Severus et Antoninus AA (augusti) Crispinae (eiy
eeoea, e eioi?iio auea aae?aniaaia eiinoeoooeey). Si fratri tuo legitima
heres esse potes, centum dierum praefinitione non excluderis ad
acquirendam hereditatem393. PP (proposuerunt) III non. (nonis) Nov.
(Novembr.) Antonino A. II et Geta II coss. (consulibus – oi anoue aeaii
a III iiiu iiya?y a oio aiae, eiaaea eiinoeaie auee nai eiia?aoi?
Aioiiei ai 2-e ?ac e Aaoa oaeaea ai 2-e ?ac – 205 a.).

4. Iaeiiaoe, /aoaa?ooth /anoue thnoeieaiianeiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
ninoaaeytho Iiaaeeu. Eae auei oeacaii auoa, ioeoeeaeueiiai nia?aiey
iiaaee, ecaeaiiuo THnoeieaiii iinea “Codex repetitae praelectionis”, iu
ia eiaai, ii aei ian aeioee iaeioi?ua /anoiua nai?ieee eo. Ae?aaiaeoee
nai?iee yoiai ?iaea i?eiaaeeaaeeo eiinoaioeiiiieueneiio i?ioanni?o
THeeaio, ninoaaeai ii aue ieiei 556 a. e niaea?aeeo a naaa 122 iiaaeeu
THnoeieaia; nai?iee yoio iau/ii iacuaaaony Epitome Juliani. E?iia iaai,
oaea aeinnaoi?ai auei ecaanoii ae?oaia nia?aiea ec 134 iiaaee, ecaeaiiuo
iaaeaeo 535-556 aa., nia?aiea, eioi?iio aeaii auei eiy “Authenticum”.
Iaeiiaoe, aua iicaea noaei ecaanoii o?aouea nia?aiea, niaea?aeauaa 168
iiaaee ia a?a/aneii ycuea. A nia?aiaiiuo ecaeaieyo iiaaeeu
i?iioia?iaaiu; eaaeaeay ec ieo ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey (praefatio), oaenoa
e caeeth/aiey (epilogus); oaeno ?acaeaeyaony ia aeaau (caput). Niinia
oeeoe?iaaiey: Nov. 118, cap. 4.

Oaeia iauee ninoaa thnoeieaiianeiai “Corpus Juris Civilis”. Oeaeeeii – a
iaeiie ?oeiiene ii aei ian ia aeioae, ii iu eiaai ?oeiiene ioaeaeueiuo
/anoae aai.

“Institutiones” aeioee aei ian ai iiiaeanoaa ?oeiienae, ia ainoiaeyueo,
ai?i/ai, aeaeaa IX aaea. Iaeaieaa oeaiiie yaeyaony ?oeiienue Oo?eineay:
a iae, e?iia oaenoa thnoeieaiianeeo “Einoeoooeee”, iu iaoiaeei aeinnu,
oi anoue oieeiaaiey e oaenoo, ec eioi?uo iaeioi?ua ainoiaeyo ei a?aiaie
naiiai THnoeieaia.

Aeey “Aeeaano” iu eiaai i?ae?anioth ?oeiienue VI eee ia/aea VII aaea.
Aei 1406 a. iia iaoiaeeeanue a a. Ieca, a a yoii aiaeo auea ioiyoa
Oei?aioeeae, aaea e o?aieony aei neo ii?, ii/aio iacuaaaony
“Florentina”. Eiaaea a XI noieaoee aiciaiiaeeinue eco/aiea ?eineiai
i?aaa e aiciee aieueoie ni?in ia nienee “Aeeaano”, iiyaeeinue aieueoia
eiee/anoai ?oeiienae, iiiaea ec eioi?uo aeioee e aei ian; ana yoe
iicaeiaeoea nienee iinyo iacaaiea “lectio Vulgata”. Enoi/ieeii naiei iie
eiatho Oei?aioeio, ii anoue neaaeu iieueciaaiey ?yaeii n Oei?aioeiie e
eaeie-oi ae?oaie ?oeiienueth, iai iaecaanoiie. A yoi a?aiy, iaeiaei,
“Aeeaanou” oee?eoee?otho ia eae ia/oi aaeeiia e oeaeueiia, a a aeaea
o?ao ?aci?aaiiuo /anoae: Digestum vetus io ia/aea aei oeooea “Soluto
matrimonio” (D. 24.3), Infortiatum – io tit. 24.3 aei 38 eieae
aeeth/eoaeueii e Digestum novum io 39 eieae aei eiioea. *ai aucaaii
oaeia no?aiiia ?acaeaeaiea, iaecaanoii. Ii ?anneaco Iaeio?aaea, th?enoa
XII aaea, iii i?iecioei iooiai, /oi eiaaea E?ia?ee ia/ae a Aieiiuea
i?aiiaeaaaoue ?eineia i?aai ia iniiaaiee “Corpus Juris Civilis”, ii
nia/aea eiae a ?oeao oieueei Digestum vetus e eeoue iicaea iieo/ee
inoaeueiua /anoe “Aeeaano”394.

?oeiiene Eiaeaena i/aiue ?aii noaee iiaeaa?aaoueny ?acee/iui
nie?auaieyi: auioneaeenue a?a/aneea eiinoeoooeee, au/a?eeaaeenue e
iiiaea eaoeineea. Oiaaea aea auee aiana caa?ioaiu o?e iineaaeiea eieae,
e iiae eiaiai Eiaeaena ?acoiaeenue oieueei ia?aua aeaayoue eiea. Eiaaea
aea yoe o?e iineaaeiea eieae noaee niiaa oee?eoee?iaaoue, oi aua aeieai
iineee iniaia caaeaaea Tres libri395. ?oeiienae eiaeaena iu oiaea eiaai
aeiaieueii iiiai, oae /oi ec niiinoaaeaiey eo iiaeai ono?aieoue ana
nie?auaiey e auionee e onoaiiaeoue aieaa eee iaiaa iiaeeeiiue oaeno.
Eo/oeie ec ?oeiienae i?eciathony Aa?iineay VIII noieaoey, Ia?eaeneay e
Aea?iooaaeoneay.

Oio/an aea iinea ecia?aoaiey eieaiia/aoaiey ?oeiiene ioaeaeueiuo /anoae
“Corpus” caiaiythony ia/aoiuie ecaeaieyie, i?e/ai ia?aua ec ieo
yaeythony i?inoie ia?aia/aoeie oee?eoee?iaaaoeo ?oeiienae, oae /oi
ae?aaiaeoea ia/aoiua ecaeaiey ninoiyo ec 5 oiiia: 1 oii niaea?aeeo
Digestum vetus, II – Infortiatum, III – Digestum novum, IV – aeaayoue
ia?auo eiea Eiaeaena, V – o?e iineaaeiea eieae Eiaeaena, Iiaaeeu e
“Institutiones”. Yoe ia/aoiua ecaeaiey aini?iecaiaeyo oaeno n aeinnaie,
oi anoue n oieeiaaieyie n?aaeiaaaeiauo o/aiuo, eioi?ua ienaeenue ia
iieyo aie?oa oaenoa. A 1525 a. iiyaeyaony ia?aia ecaeaiea iaeiiai oaenoa
aac aeinn, a caoai A?aai?ee Oaeiaiaea? i?aaenoaaeye ecaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo
/anoae Naiaea, n iaeiie noi?iiu ?acaeaeea eo iaeio io ae?oaie, a n
ae?oaie noi?iiu – niaaeeiea aianoa ?aci?aaiiua /anoe eaaeaeie ec ieo: a
1529 a. ii ecaeae “Digesta” e “Institutiones”, a 1530 a. “Codex”, a 1531
a. – Iiaaeeu. A 1583 a. iiyaeyaony iieiia ecaeaiea Aeeiieney Aioio?aaea,
aaea a ia?aue ?ac ia/aoii anai /anoyi aianoa aeaaony iauaa caaeaaea –
“Corpus Juris Civilis”. Oeaeue ?yae iineaaeothueo ?iiaienoia ?aaioaao
iaae e?eoeeie e i/enoeie oaenoa io anyeeo i?ienoaaeoeo io
aeieaia?aiaiiuo ia?aienie eneaaeaiee. Eo/oei ec nia?aiaiiuo ecaeaiee
“Corpus” yaeyaony ecaeaiea Iiiicaia, eioi?iio i?aaeoanoaiaaea
e?iiioeeaay e a aunoae noaiaie ouaoaeueiay ?aaioa ianoeoiai o/aiiai; a
yoii ecaeaiee “Einoeoooeee” e Eiaeaen ia?aniio?aiu I. E?thaa?ii,
“Aeeaanou” naiei Iiiicaiii, Iiaaeeu – Oieeai e E?ieeai396.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020