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Понятие «Золотого стандарта»

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?ieue cieioiai noaiaea?oa a ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaia ia i?ioyaeaiee
19-20 aaeia.

Cieioie noaiaea?o – nenoaia aaethoiuo ioiioaiee, i?e eioi?ie eaaeaeay
no?aia au?aaeaea noieiinoue naiae aaethou a ii?aaeaeaiiii eiee/anoaa
cieioa, a oeaio?aeueiua aaiee eee i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaycaiu auee iieoiaoue
e i?iaeaaaoue cieioi ii oeene?iaaiiie oeaia.

1. CIEIOIIIIAOIUE NOAIAeA?O

Ia?aay ie?iaay aaethoiay nenoaia noeoeeii noi?ie?iaaeanue a XIX a. iinea
i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee ia aaca cieioiai iiiiiaoaeeecia a oi?ia
cieioiiiiaoiiai noaiaea?oa. TH?eaee/anee iia auea ioi?ieaia
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiui niaeaoaieai ia Ia?eaeneie eiioa?aioeee a 1867 a.,
eioi?ia i?eciaei cieioi aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie ie?iauo aeaiaa. A oneiaeyo,
eiaaea cieioi iaiin?aaenoaaiii auiieiyei ana ooieoeee aeaiaa, aeaiaaeiay
e aaethoiay nenoaiu – iaoeeiiaeueiay e ie?iaay – auee oiaeaeanoaaiiu, n
oie eeoue ?acieoeae, /oi iiiaou, auoiaey ia ie?iaie ?uiie, na?anuaaee,
ii au?aaeaieth E. Ia?ena, «iaoeeiiaeueiua ioiaee?u» e i?eieiaeenue a
ieaoaaee ii aano.

Ia?eaeneay aaethoiay nenoaia aace?iaaeanue ia neaaeothueo no?oeoo?iuo
i?eioeeiao:

Aa iniiaie yaeyeny cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o.

Eaaeaeay aaethoa eiaea cieioia niaea?aeaiea (Aaeeeia?eoaiey – n 1816 a..
NOA – 1837 a.. Aa?iaiey – 1875 a., O?aioeey – 1878 a., ?inney – n 1895
1897 aa.). A niioaaonoaee n cieioui niaea?aeaieai aaetho
onoaiaaeeaaeenue eo cieioua ia?eoaou. Aaethou naiaiaeii
eiiaa?oe?iaaeenue a cieioi. Cieioi eniieueciaaeinue eae iauai?eciaiiua
ie?iaua aeaiueae. Aniiiiei a yoie nayce aeaiaaeioth ?aoi?io N.TH.Aeooa
(1897 a.). Cieioie ?oaeue noae iniiaie aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey eae aioo?e
no?aiiu, oae e a aa ioiioaieyo n aiaoiei ie?ii. Eiaaoeany ia ?oeao
e?aaeeoiua aeeaou ?aciaieaaeenue ia cieioi ii ia?aiio o?aaiaaieth. Ii,
aianoa n oai, ninoaaiui yeaiaioii ?aoi?iu yaeeanue aeaaaeueaaoeey ?oaey.
Iiaue cieioie ?oaeue ninoaaee ii naiaio aano 66,6% i?aaeiaai cieioiai
?oaey e i?e?aaieaaeny e 1,5 noa?iai e?aaeeoiiai ?oaey. Aei ?aoi?iu 1
?oaeue iiieiaeueii noiee 4 o?aiea, a iinea iaa 2,6 o?aiea. Iiaia
niioiioaiea aieaa niioaaonoaiaaei iieoiaoaeueiie neea aaetho, a oaeaea
niinianoaiaaei ?inneeneiio yenii?oo.

3. Neiaeeeny ?aaeei naiaiaeii ieaaathueo eo?nia aaetho n o/aoii
?uii/iiai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, ii a i?aaeaeao cieiouo oi/ae. Anee
?uii/iue eo?n cieiouo iiiao ioeeiiyeny io ia?eoaoa, iniiaaiiiai ia eo
cieioii niaea?aeaiee, oi aeieaeieee i?aaeii/eoaee ?aniea/eaaoueny ii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui iaycaoaeuenoaai cieioii, a ia eiino?aiiuie aaethoaie.

Cieioie noaiaea?o ea?ae a ecaanoiie noaiaie ?ieue noeoeeiiai ?aaoeyoi?a
i?iecaiaenoaa, aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae, aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey,
ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia. Cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o
aue ioiineoaeueii yooaeoeaai aei ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, eiaaea
aeaenoaiaae ?uii/iue iaoaieci au?aaieaaiey aaethoiiai eo?na e
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina. No?aiu n aeaoeoeeoiui ieaoaaeiui aaeainii
auioaeaeaiu auee i?iaiaeeoue aeaoeyoeeiiioth iieeoeeo, ia?aie/eaaoue
aeaiaaeioth ianno a ia?auaiee i?e ioeeaa cieioa ca a?aieoeo. Iaeiaei
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, ianiio?y ia o?iie/aneee aeaoeoeeo ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina
(1890 1913 aa.), ia eniuouaaea ioeeaa eaieoaea (ca n/ao oiai, /oi a oi
a?aiy Aiaeey oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiyea eeeaeaeiua e?aoein?i/iua
iaycaoaeuenoaa e eiua no?aiu i?aaeii/eoaee eo iaeaieeaaoue. Ecaanoii,
/oi a 1913 aiaeo noiia iaycaoaeuenoa aieaa /ai ao?ia i?aauneea cieioie
caian Aiaeee). A oa/aiea ii/oe noa eao aei ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu oieueei
aeieea? NOA e aano?eeneee oaea? auee aeaaaeueae?iaaiu: cieioia
niaea?aeaiea ooioa noa?eeiaia e o?aioeocneiai o?aiea auei iaeciaiiui a
1815-1914 aa. Eniieuecoy aaaeouoth ?ieue ooioa noa?eeiaia a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao (80% a 1913 a.), Aaeeeia?eoaiey iie?uaaea
aeaoeoeeo ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoie.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi e a ?acaa? o?eoioa cieioiiiiaoiiai noaiaea?oa
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?an/aou inouanoaeyeenue a iniiaiii n eniieueciaaieai
o?aoo (ia?aaiaeiuo aaenaeae), auienaiiuo a iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoa,
i?aeiouanoaaiii a aiaeeeneie. Cieioi ecaeaaia neoaeeei eeoue aeey iieaou
ianneaiiai naeueaei aaeaina iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia no?aiu. N eiioea
XIX a. iiyaeeanue oaeaea oaiaeaioeey e oiaiueoaieth aeiee cieioa a
aeaiaaeiie ianna (a NOA, O?aioeee, Aaeeeia?eoaiee n 28% a 1872 a. aei
10% a 1913 a.) e a ioeoeeaeueiuo ?aca?aao (n 94% a 1980 a. aei 80% a
1913 a.). ?aciaiiua e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae auoaniyee cieioi. ?aaoee?othuee
iaoaieci cieioiiiiaoiiai noaiaea?oa ia?anoaaae aeaenoaiaaoue i?e
yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenao (1825, 1836-1839, 1847, 1857, 1855 aa. e ae?.).
?aaoee?iaaiea aaethoiiai eo?na iooai aeaoeyoeeiiiie iieeoeee, nieaeaiey
oeai e oaaee/aiey aac?aaioeoeu iai?a/eaaeinue i?ioea o?oaeyueony,
ii?iaeaeay nioeeaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue.

Iinoaiaiii cieioie noaiaea?o (cieioiiiiaoiue) ecaeee naay. oae eae ia
niioaaonoaiaae ianooaaai aic?inoeo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae e oneiaeyi
?aaoee?oaiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia iciaiaiiaaeanue
e?ecenii ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiu. Cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o ia?anoae
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae aeaiaaeiay e aaethoiay nenoaiu.

Aeey oeiaine?iaaiey aiaiiuo cao?ao (208 ie?ae. aeiaiaiiuo cieiouo
aeiee.) ia?yaeo n iaeiaaie, caeiaie. eioeyoeeae eniieueciaaeinue cieioi
eae ie?iaua aeaiueae. Auee aaaaeaiu aaethoiua ia?aie/aiey. Aaethoiue
eo?n noae i?eioaeeoaeueiui e iioiio ia?aaeueiui. N ia/aeii aieiu
oeaio?aeueiua aaiee aiththueo no?ai i?ae?aoeee ?aciai aaieiio ia cieioi
e oaaee/eee eo yienneth aeey iie?uoey aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia. E 1920 a. eo?n
ooioa noa?eeiaia ii ioiioaieth e aeieea?o NOA oiae ia 1/3, o?aioeocneiai
o?aiea e eoaeueyineie ee?u – ia 2/3, iaiaoeeie ia?ee – ia 96%.
Iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?e/eiie aaethoiiai e?ecena yaeeanue aiaiiay e
iineaaiaiiay ?ac?ooa.

2. CIEIOI-AeAAECIUE NOAIAeA?O.

Iinea ia?eiaea aaethoiiai oaina, aicieeoaai a eoiaa ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu, aue onoaiiaeai cieioi-aeaaeciue noaiaea?o, iniiaaiiue ia cieioa e
aaaeoueo aaethoao, eiiaa?oe?oaiuo a cieioi (ii i?aaeeiaeaieth aiaeeeneeo
yenia?oia). Ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua
aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia, noaee iacuaaoue aeaaecaie. Aoi?ay
ie?iaay aaethoiay nenoaia auea th?eaee/anee ioi?ieaia
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiui niaeaoaieai, aeinoeaiooui ia Aaioycneie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie yeiiiie/aneie eiioa?aioeee a 1922a.

Aaioycneay aaethoiay nenoaia ooieoeeiie?iaaea ia neaaeothueo i?eioeeiao:

1. Aa iniiaie yaeyeenue cieioi e aeaaecu – eiino?aiiua aaethou. A oio
ia?eiae e aeaiaaeiua nenoaiu 30 no?ai aace?iaaeenue ia cieioiaeaaeciii
noaiaea?oa. Iaoeeiiaeueiua e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae noaee eniieueciaaoueny a
ea/anoaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ieaoaaeii-?aca?aiuo n?aaenoa. Iaeiaei a
iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae noaoon ?aca?aiie aaethou ia aue ioeoeeaeueii
cae?aieai ie ca iaeiie aaethoie, a ooio noa?eeiaia e aeieea? NOA
inia?eaaee eeaea?noai a yoie noa?a.

2. Nio?aiaiu cieioua ia?eoaou. Eiiaa?ney aaetho a cieioi noaea
inouanoaeyoueny ia oieueei iaiin?aaenoaaiii (NOA, O?aioeey,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey), ii e einaaiii, /a?ac eiino?aiiua aaethou (Aa?iaiey e
aua ieiei 30 no?ai).

3. Ainnoaiiaeai ?aaeei naiaiaeii eieaaethueony aaethoiuo eo?nia.

4. Aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea inouanoaeyeinue a oi?ia aeoeaiie aaethoiie
iieeoeee, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiioa?aioeee, niaauaiee.

A 1922-1928 aa. ianooieea ioiineoaeueiay aaethoiay noaaeeecaoeey. Ii aa
iai?i/iinoue caeeth/aeanue a neaaeothuai:

– aianoi cieioiiiiaoiiai noaiaea?oa auee aaaaeaiu o?acaiiua oi?iu
cieioiai iiiiiaoaeeecia a aeaiaaeiie e aaethoiie nenoaiao;

– i?ioeann noaaeeecaoeee aaetho ?anoyioeny ia ?yae eao, /oi nicaeaei
oneiaey aeey aaethoiuo aiei;

– iaoiaeu aaethoiie noaaeeecaoeee i?aaeii?aaeaeeee aa oaoeinoue. A
aieueoeinoaa no?ai auee i?iaaaeaiu aeaaaeueaaoeee, i?e/ai a Aa?iaiee,
Aano?ee, Iieueoa, Aaia?ee aeeceea e ioeeeoeeaoeee. O?aioeocneee o?aie
aue aeaaaeueae?iaai a 1928 a. ia 80%. Oieueei a Aaeeeia?eoaiee a
?acoeueoaoa ?aaaeueaaoeee a 1925 a. auei ainnoaiiaeaii aeiaiaiiia
cieioia niaea?aeaiea ooioa noa?eeiaia;

– noaaeeecaoeey aaetho auea i?iaaaeaia n iiiiuueth eiino?aiiuo
e?aaeeoia. NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, O?aioeey eniieueciaaee oyaeaeia
aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea ?yaea no?ai aeey iaaycuaaiey ei
ia?aiaieoaeueiuo oneiaee iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo caeiia. Iaeiei ec
oneiaee caeiia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo Aa?iaiee, Aano?ee, Iieueoa e ae?oaei
no?aiai, auei iacia/aiea eiino?aiiuo yenia?oia, eioi?ua eiio?iee?iaaee
eo aaethoioth iieeoeeo.

Iiae aeeyieai caeiia ia?aaiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey a eoiaa ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu aaethoii-oeiainiaue oeaio? ia?aianoeeny ec Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a NOA.
Yoi auei iaoneiaeaii ?yaeii i?e/ei:

– cia/eoaeueii aii?in aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae NOA. Iueth-Ei?e
i?aa?aoeeny a ie?iaie oeiainiaue oeaio?, oaaee/eeny yenii?o eaieoaea.
NOA noaee aaaeouei oi?aiaui ia?oia?ii aieueoeinoaa no?ai:

– NOA i?aa?aoeeenue ec aeieaeieea a e?aaeeoi?a. Caaeieaeaiiinoue NOA a
1913 a. aeinoeaaea 7 ie?ae. aeiee.. a o?aaiaaiey – 2 ie?ae. aeiee.; e
1926 a. aiaoiee aeiea NOA oiaiueoeeny aieaa /ai aaeaia, a o?aaiaaiey e
ae?oaei no?aiai aic?inee a 6 ?ac (aei 12 ie?ae.);

– i?iecioei ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo cieiouo ?aca?aia. A
1914-1921 aa. /enoue i?eoie cieioa a NOA a iniiaiii ec Aa?iiu ninoaaee
2,3 ie?ae. aeiee.; a 1924 a. 46% cieiouo caiania eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai
ieacaeenue nin?aaeioi/aiiuie a NOA (a 1914 a. – 23%);

– NOA auee ii/oe aaeeinoaaiiie no?aiie, nio?aieaoae cieioiiiiaoiue
noaiaea?o, e eo?n aeieea?a e caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneei aaethoai iiauneeny ia
10-90%.

Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou ?acaa?ioee ai?ueao ca aaaaiiieth aeieea?a, iaeiaei
aeiaeeenue noaoona ?aca?aiie aaethou eeoue iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. A
iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae aeieea? e ooio noa?eeiaia, iaoiaeeaoeany a ninoiyiee
aeoeaiie aaethoiie aieiu, ia iieo/eee anaiauaai i?eciaiey.

Aaethoiay noaaeeecaoeey auea aci?aaia ie?iaui e?ecenii a 30-o aiaeao.
Aeaaiua iniaaiiinoe ie?iaiai aaethoiiai e?ecena 1929-1936 aa. oaeiau:

– oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?: aaethoiue e?ecen ia?aieaeny n ie?iaui
yeiiiie/aneei e aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiui e?ecenii;

– no?oeoo?iue oa?aeoa?: i?eioeeiu ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiu –
cieioiaeaaeciiai noaiaea?oa – iioa?iaee e?ooaiea;

– aieueoay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue: n 1929 aei inaie 1936 a.;

– eneeth/eoaeueiay aeoaeia e ino?ioa: eo?n ?yaea aaetho nieceeny ia
50-84%.

Iiaiiy ca cieioii nii?iaiaeaeaeanue oaaee/aieai /anoiie oacaa?aoeee e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai ioeoeeaeueiuo cieiouo ?aca?aia. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
e?aaeeo, iniaaiii aeieain?i/iue, aue ia?aeeciaai a ?acoeueoaoa
ianniaiai aaie?ionoaa eiino?aiiuo aeieaeieeia, aeeth/ay 25 ainoaea?noa
(Aa?iaiey, Aano?ey, Oo?oeey e ae?.), eioi?ua i?ae?aoeee aiaoiea
ieaoaaee. Ia?aciaaeanue ianna «ai?y/eo» aeaiaa – aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia,
noeoeeii ia?aiauathueony ec iaeiie no?aiu a ae?oaoth a iieneao iieo/aiey
niaeoeyoeaiie naa?oi?eauee eee iaaeaaeiiai oaaaeeua. Aiacaiiinoue eo
i?eoiea e iooiea oneeeea ianoaaeeueiinoue ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia, eieaaaiee
aaethoiuo eo?nia e e?eceniuo iio?ynaiee yeiiiieee. Aaethoiua
i?ioeai?a/ey ia?a?inee a aaethoioth aieio, i?iaiaeeioth iin?aaenoaii
aaethoiie eioa?aaioeee, aaethoiuo noaaeeecaoeeiiiuo oiiaeia, aaethoiiai
aeaiieiaa, aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee e aaethoiuo aeieia:

– e?aeiyy ia?aaiiia?iinoue ?acaeoey: e?ecen ii?aaeae oi iaeie, oi
ae?oaea no?aiu, i?e/ai a ?aciia a?aiy e n ?acee/iie neeie.

A ia?eiae n 1929 ii 1930 a. iaanoeaiaieeenue aaethou aa?a?iuo e
eieiieaeueiuo no?ai, oae eae ?acei nie?aoeeny ni?in ia nu?uea ia ie?iaii
?uiea e oeaiu ia iaai iiieceeenue ia 50-70%. o.a. a aieueoae noaiaie,
/ai ia eiii?oe?oaiua yoeie no?aiaie oiaa?u.

A na?aaeeia 1931 a. neaaui caaiii a ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaia ieacaeenue
Aa?iaiey e Aano?ey a nayce n ioeeaii eiino?aiiuo eaieoaeia, oiaiueoaieai
ioeoeeaeueiiai cieioiai caiana e aaie?ionoaii aaieia. Aa?iaiey aaaea
aaethoiua ia?aie/aiey, i?ae?aoeea ieaoaaee ii aiaoiei aeieaai e ?aciai
ia?ee ia cieioi. Oaeoe/anee a no?aia aue ioiaiai cieioie noaiaea?o, a
ioeoeeaeueiue eo?n ia?ee aue caii?iaeai ia o?iaia 1924 a.

Caoai (inaiueth 1931 a.) cieioie noaiaea?o aue ioiaiai a Aaeeeia?eoaiee,
eiaaea ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen aeinoea aiiaay. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
i?e/eiie yoiai iineoaeeei oooaeoaiea ninoiyiey ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina e
oiaiueoaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo cieiouo ?aca?aia no?aiu a nayce n ?aceei
nie?auaieai yenii?oa oiaa?ia e aeioiaeia io «iaaeaeeiuo» iia?aoeee. 21
naioya?y 1931 a. aue i?ae?auai ?aciai ooioa noa?eeiaia ia cieioua
neeoee, a eo?n aai nieaeai ia 30,5%. Iaeiia?aiaiii auea i?iaaaeaia
aeaaaeueaaoeey aaetho no?ai A?eoaineiai niae?oaeanoaa iaoeee (e?iia
Eaiaaeu) e neaiaeeiaaneeo no?ai, eiaaoeo n Aaeeeia?eoaieae oaniua
oi?aiaua nayce. A ioee/ea io Aa?iaiee a Aaeeeia?eoaiee n oeaeueth
iiaeaea?aeaiey i?anoeaea ooioa noa?eeiaia ia auee aaaaeaiu aaethoiua
ia?aie/aiey. Aaeeeia?eoaiey auea?aea io aeaaaeueaaoeee: ca n/ao
aeaaaeueaaoeeiiiie i?aiee aiaeeeneea yenii?oa?u oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaee
aaethoiue aeaiieia, /oi aucaaei aaethoioth aieio n O?aioeeae e NOA. A
eoiaa oiaiueoeeinue ianneaiia naeueaei ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina
Aaeeeia?eoaiee.

A ai?aea 1933 a. cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o aue ioiaiai e a NOA, eiaaea
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen ia?a?anoae a aeai?anneth iniaiai ?iaea.
Iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?e/eiie ioiaiu iineoaeeei cia/eoaeueiia e
ia?aaiiia?iia iaaeaiea oeai. Yoi aucaaei ianniaua aaie?ionoaa.
Aaie?ionoai 10 oun. aaieia (40% iauaai eiee/anoaa aaieia no?aiu)
iiaei?aaei aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoioth nenoaio NOA e i?eaaei e ioiaia ?aciaia
aeieea?iauo aaieiio ia cieioua iiiaou. Aeey aaaeaiey aaethoiie aieiu a
oeaeyo iiauoaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee NOA
i?iaiaeeee iieeoeeo nieaeaiey eo?na aeieea?a iooai neoiee cieioa. E
yiaa?th 1934 a. aeieea? iaanoeaieeny ii ioiioaieth e cieioo ia 40% (ii
n?aaiaieth n 1929 a.) e aue aeaaaeueae?iaai ia 41%, a ioeoeeaeueiay
oeaia cieioa auea iiauoaia n 20.67 aei 35 aeiee. ca o?ieneoth oioeeth.

Inaiueth 1936 a. a yieoeaio?a aaethoiiai e?ecena ieacaeanue O?aioeey,
eioi?ay aeieueoa ae?oaeo no?ai iiaeaea?aeeaaea cieioie noaiaea?o.
Ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen ioaaoee O?aioeeth iicaeiaa, e iia oneeaiii
iaiaieaaea ooiou noa?eeiaia e aeieea?u ia cieioi, ianiio?y ia
iaaeiaieuenoai Aaeeeia?eoaiee e NOA. Iie?aynue ia aic?inoee cieioie
caian (83 ie?ae. o?aioe. o?. a 1932 a. i?ioea 29 ie?ae. a ethia 1929
a.). O?aioeey aicaeaaeea cieioie aeie a oeaeyo nio?aiaiey cieioiai
noaiaea?oa. I?eaa?aeaiiinoue O?aioeee e cieioo iauyniyaony enoi?e/aneeie
iniaaiiinoyie aa ?acaeoey. Aoaeo/e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui ?inoiaueeii.
o?aioeocneee oeiainiaue eaieoae i?aaeii/eoae oaa?aeoth cieiooth aaethoo.
Iniaaiii a yoii auee caeioa?aniaaiu ?aiouea, /enei eioi?uo a no?aia auei
cia/eoaeueiui.

Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen aucaae ianneaiinoue ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, oaaee/aiea
aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, ioeea cieioa ec no?aiu.
Oeiainiaay ieeaa?oey niciaoaeueii auaiceea eaieoaeu, /oiau iiaei?aaoue
iiceoeee o?aioeocneiai o?aiea e aeiaa?ea e i?aaeoaeuenoao Ia?iaeiiai
o?iioa. Eneonnoaaiiia nio?aiaiea cieioiai noaiaea?oa nieaeaei
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue o?aioeocneeo oe?i. A 1929-1936 aa. noieiinoue
yenii?oa O?aioeee nie?aoeeanue a 4 ?aca i?e oiaiueoaiee ie?iaiai
yenii?oa a oeaeii ia 36%. 1 ieoya?y 1936 a. ai O?aioeee aue i?ae?auai
?aciai aaieiio ia cieioua neeoee, a o?aie aue aeaaaeueae?iaai ia 25%.
Iineieueeo cieioia niaea?aeaiea aa aaethou ia auei caoeene?iaaii, a aei
1937 a, auee eeoue onoaiiaeaiu i?aaeaeu eieaaaiee (0,038-0,044 a.
/enoiai cieioa), iiyaeeinue iiiyoea «aeoaeaeathuee o?aie». Ianiio?y ia
aeaaaeueaaoeeth, o?aioeocneee yenii?o nie?auaeny, oae eae aaethoiay e
oi?aiaay aieiu ia?aie/eee aiciiaeiinoe aaethoiiai aeaiieiaa. Eioeyoeey
nieaeaea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue o?aioeocneeo oe?i. Iiyoiio iaaeaiea
eo?na o?aiea ia auei i?einoaiiaeaii a ioee/ea io ooioa noa?eeiaia e
aeieea?a.

A ?acoeueoaoa e?ecena Aaioycneay aaethoiay nenoaia oo?aoeea
ioiineoaeueioth yeanoe/iinoue e noaaeeueiinoue.

3. A?AOOII-AOAeNEAss AAETHOIAss NENOAIA.

Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia i?eaaea e oaeoaeaieth e?ecena Aaioycneie aaethoiie
nenoaiu. ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa iiaie ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiu ia/aeanue
aua a aiaeu aieiu (a ai?aea 1943 a.), oae eae no?aiu iianaeenue
iio?ynaiee, iiaeiaiuo aaethoiiio e?eceno iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu e a
30-o aiaeao. Aiaei-aia?eeaineea yenia?ou, ?aaioaaoea n 1941 a., n naiiai
ia/aea ioaa?aee eaeath aica?auaiey e cieioiio noaiaea?oo. Iie
no?aieeenue ?ac?aaioaoue i?eioeeiu iiaie ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiu,
niiniaiie iaania/eoue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino e ia?aie/eoue iaaaoeaiua
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia.
No?aieaiea NOA cae?aieoue ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea aeieea?a a ie?iaie
aaethoiie nenoaia iaoei io?aaeaiea a ieaia A. Ae. Oaeoa (ia/aeueieea
ioaeaea aaethoiuo enneaaeiaaiee ieienoa?noaa oeiainia NOA).

A ?acoeueoaoa aeieaeo aeeneonnee ii ieaiai A. Ae. Oaeoa e Aeae. I.
Eaeina (Aaeeeia?eoaiey) oi?iaeueii iiaaaeee aia?eeaineee i?iaeo, oioy
eaeineaineea eaeae iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey auee
oaeaea iieiaeaiu a iniiao A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu.

Ia aaethoii-oeiainiaie eiioa?aioeee III a A?aooii-Aoaena (NOA) a 1944 a.
auee onoaiiaeaiu i?aaeea i?aaiecaoeee ie?iaie oi?aiaee, aaethoiuo,
e?aaeeoiuo e oeiainiauo ioiioaiee e ioi?ieaia o?aouey ie?iaay aaethoiay
nenoaia. I?eiyoua ia eiioa?aioeee noaouee niaeaoaiey (Onoaa IAO)
ii?aaeaeeee neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu A?aooii-aoaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu.

1. Aaaaeai cieioi-aeaaeciue noaiaea?o, iniiaaiiue ia cieioa e aeaoo
?aca?aiuo aaethoao – aeieea?a NOA e ooioa noa?eeiaia.

2. A?aooii-aoaeneia niaeaoaiea i?aaeoniao?eaaei /aou?a oi?iu
eniieueciaaiey cieioa eae iniiau ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiu: a) nio?aiaiu
cieioua ia?eoaou aaetho e aaaaeaia eo oeenaoeey a IAO; a) cieioi
i?iaeieaeaei eniieueciaaoueny eae iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ieaoaaeiia e
?aca?aiia n?aaenoai; a) iie?aynue ia naie aic?inoee
aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae e cieioie caian, NOA i?e?aaiyee
aeieea? e cieioo, /oiau cae?aieoue ca iei noaoon aeaaiie ?aca?aiie
aaethou: a) n yoie oeaeueth eacia/aenoai NOA i?iaeieaeaei ?aciaieaaoue
aeieea? ia cieioi eiino?aiiui oeaio?aeueiui aaieai e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui
o/?aaeaeaieyi ii ioeoeeaeueiie oeaia, onoaiiaeaiiie a 1934 a., enoiaey
ec cieioiai niaea?aeaiey naiae aaethou (35 aeiee. ca 1 o?ieneoth
oioeeth, ?aaioth 31,1035 a).

I?aaeoniao?eaaeinue aaaaeaiea acaeiiie ia?aoeiinoe aaetho. Aaethoiua
ia?aie/aiey iiaeeaaeaee iinoaiaiiie ioiaia, e aeey eo aaaaeaiey
o?aaiaaeinue niaeanea IAO.

3. Eo?niaia niioiioaiea aaetho e eo eiiaa?oe?oaiinoue noaee
inouanoaeyoueny ia iniiaa oeene?iaaiiuo aaethoiuo ia?eoaoia, au?aaeaiiuo
a aeieea?ao. Aeaaaeueaaoeey nauoa 10% aeiioneaeanue eeoue n ?ac?aoaiey
Oiiaea. Onoaiiaeai ?aaeei oeene?iaaiiuo aaethoiuo eo?nia: ?uii/iue eo?n
aaetho iia ioeeiiyoueny io ia?eoaoa a oceeo i?aaeaeao ( SYMBOL 177 \f
“Times New Roman” \s 14 ± 1% ii Onoaao IAO e SYMBOL 177 \f “Times New
Roman” \s 14 ± 0,75% ii Aa?iiaeneiio aaethoiiio niaeaoaieth). Aeey
niaethaeaiey i?aaeaeia eieaaaiee eo?nia aaetho oeaio?aeueiua aaiee auee
iaycaiu i?iaiaeeoue aaethoioth eioa?aaioeeth a aeieea?ao.

4. Aia?aua a enoi?ee nicaeaiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoii-e?aaeeoiua
i?aaiecaoeee IAO e IA??. IAO i?aaeinoaaeyao e?aaeeou a eiino?aiiie
aaethoa aeey iie?uoey aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia a oeaeyo
iiaeaea?aeee ianoaaeeueiuo aaetho, inouanoaeyao eiio?ieue ca
niaethaeaieai no?aiaie-/eaiaie i?eioeeiia ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiu,
iaania/eaaao aaethoiia nio?oaeie/anoai no?ai.

Iiae aeaaeaieai NOA a ?aieao A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu ooaa?aeeeny
aeieea?iaue noaiaea?o – ie?iaay aaethoiay nenoaia, iniiaaiiay ia
ainiiaenoaa aeieea?a. Aeieea? – aaeeinoaaiiay aaethoa, eiiaa?oe?oaiay a
cieioi, noae aacie aaethoiuo ia?eoaoia, i?aiaeaaeathuei n?aaenoaii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia, aaethoie eioa?aaioeee e ?aca?aiuo aeoeaia.
Oai naiui NOA onoaiiaeee iiiiiieueioth aaethoioth aaaaiiieth, iooaniea
naiaai aeaaiaai eiieo?aioa – Aaeeeia?eoaieth. Ooio noa?eeiaia, oioy ca
iei a neeo enoi?e/aneie o?aaeeoeee oaeaea auea cae?aieaia ?ieue
?aca?aiie aaethou, noae e?aeia ianoaaeeueiui. NOA eniieueciaaee noaoon
aeieea?a eae ?aca?aiie aaethou aeey iie?uoey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoie
aeaoeoeeoa naiaai ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina. Niaoeeoeea aeieea?iaiai
noaiaea?oa a ?aieao A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu caeeth/aeanue a nio?aiaiee
nayce aeieea?a n cieioii. NOA ec aeaoo iooae noaaeeecaoeee aaethoiiai
eo?na — oceea i?aaeaeu aai eieaaaiee eee eiiaa?ney aeieea?a a cieioi –
i?aaeii/ee aoi?ie. Oai naiui iie aiceiaeeee ia naieo ia?oia?ia caaioo i
iiaeaea?aeaiee oeene?iaaiiuo eo?nia eo aaetho e aeieea?o iooai aaethoiie
eioa?aaioeee. A eoiaa oneeeeinue aeaaeaiea NOA ia aaethoiua ?uiee.

Caneeea NOA a A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaia auei iaoneiaeaii iiaie
?annoaiiaeie nee a ie?iaii oicyenoaa. NOA nin?aaeioi/eee a 1949 a. 54,6%
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, 33% yenii?oa, ii/oe 75%
cieiouo ?aca?aia. Aeiey no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a i?iiuoeaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaea n 38,3% a 1937 a. aei 31% a 1948 a., a yenii?oa
oiaa?ia – n 34,5 aei 28 %. Cieioua caianu yoeo no?ai nieceeenue n 9
ie?ae. aei 4 ie?ae. aeiee., /oi auei a 6 ?ac iaiueoa, /ai o NOA (24,6
ie?ae. aeiee.), e eo ?acia?u ?acei eieaaaeenue ii no?aiai.
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, ianeoaeeaay naiae aaethoie 40% iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee, iaeaaeaea eeoue 4% ioeoeeaeueiuo cieiouo ?aca?aia
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?a. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay yeniainey iiiiiieee O?A
ni/aoaeenue n ?inoii cieioi-aaethoiuo ?aca?aia no?aiu (n 28 iei. aeiee.
a 1951 a. aei 2,6 ie?ae. a 1958 a.).

Yeiiiie/aneia i?aainoiaenoai NOA e neaainoue eo eiieo?aioia iaoneiaeee
ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea aeieea?a, eioi?ue iieueciaaeny anaiauei
ni?inii. Iii?ie aeieea?iaie aaaaiiiee neoaeee oaeaea «aeieea?iaue
aieiae» – ino?ay iaoaaoea aeieea?ia, aucuaaaiay aeaoeoeeoii ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina, iniaaiii ii ?an/aoai n NOA, e iaaeinoaoeii cieioi-aaethoiuo
?aca?aia. Ii io?aaeae a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiii aeaea oyaeaeia
aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ssiiiee, eo
caaeneiinoue io NOA, aeieea?iaoth aaaaiiieth.

Aeaoeoeeo ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia, enoiuaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo cieioi-aaethoiuo
?aca?aia, «aeieea?iaue aieiae» i?eaaee e oneeaieth aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee
a aieueoeinoaa no?ai, e?iia NOA, Eaiaaeu, Oaaeoea?ee. Ia?aoeiinoue
aaetho auea ia?aie/aia. Aaic e auaic aaethou aac ?ac?aoaiey i?aaiia
aaethoiiai eiio?iey auee cai?auaiu. Ioeoeeaeueiue aaethoiue eo?n iinee
eneonnoaaiiue oa?aeoa?. Iiiaea no?aiu Eaoeineie Aia?eee e Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu i?aeoeeiaaee iiiaeanoaaiiinoue aaethoiuo eo?nia –
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth eo?niauo niioiioaiee aaetho ii aeaeai iia?aoeee,
oiaa?iui a?oiiai e ?aaeiiai.

A nayce n iaonoie/eainoueth yeiiiieee, e?ecenii ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia,
oneeaieai eioeyoeee eo?nu caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo aaetho ii ioiioaieth e
aeieea?o nieceeenue. Aicieeee «eo?niaua ia?aeinu» – ianiioaaonoaea
?uii/iiai e ioeoeeaeueiiai eo?nia, /oi yaeeinue i?e/eiie iiiai/eneaiiuo
aeaaaeueaaoeee. N?aaee ieo iniaia ianoi caieiaao ianniaay aeaaaeueaaoeey
aaetho a 1949 a., eioi?ay eiaea ?yae iniaaiiinoae.

1. Yoi nieaeaiea eo?nia auei i?iyaeaieai eieaeueiiai aaethoiiai e?ecena,
aicieeoaai iiae aeeyieai ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, eioi?ue a
1948-1949 aa. ii?acee a iniiaiii NOA e Eaiaaeo e aieaciaiii io?aceeny ia
iino?aaeaaoae io aieiu yeiiiieea no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.

2. Aeaaaeueaaoeey 1949 a. auea i?iaaaeaia a ecaanoiie ia?a iiae
aeaaeaieai NOA, eioi?ua eniieueciaaee iiauoaiea eo?na aeieea?a aeey
iiiu?aiey yenii?oa naieo eaieoaeia, neoiee ii aeaoaaea oiaa?ia e
i?aaei?eyoee a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao e eo eieiieyo. N
?aaaeueaaoeeae aeieea?a oaaee/eeanue aeieea?iaay caaeieaeaiiinoue no?ai
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, /oi oneeeei eo caaeneiinoue io NOA. Iiauoaiea eo?na
aeieea?a ia io?aceeinue ia yenii?oa NOA, caieiaaoeo iiiiiieueiia
iieiaeaiea ia ie?iauo ?uieao a oio ia?eiae.

3. Eo?n iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho aue nieaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii ioiioaieth
e aeieea?o, oae eae a niioaaonoaee n A?aooii-aoaeneei niaeaoaieai auee
onoaiiaeaiu oeene?iaaiiua aaethoiua eo?nu e aia?eeaineie aaethoa, a
iaeioi?ua aaethou ia eiaee cieiouo ia?eoaoia.

4. Aeaaaeueaaoeey auea i?iaaaeaia a oneiaeyo aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee.

5. Aeaaaeueaaoeey iineea ianniaue oa?aeoa?; iia ioaaoeea aaethou 37
no?ai, ia aeieth eioi?uo i?eoiaeeeinue 60-70% ie?iaie eaieoaeenoe/aneie
oi?aiaee. A eo /enea Aaeeeia?eoaiey, no?aiu A?eoaineiai niae?oaeanoaa,
O?aioeey, Eoaeey, Aaeueaey, Ieaea?eaiaeu, Oaaoeey, Caiaaeiay Aa?iaiey,
ssiiiey. Oieueei NOA nio?aieee cieioia niaea?aeaiea aeieea?a,
onoaiiaeaiiia i?e aeaaaeueaaoeee a 1934 a., oioy aai iieoiaoaeueiay
niiniaiinoue aioo?e no?aiu nieceeanue aaeaia ii n?aaiaieth n aeiaiaiiui
ia?eiaeii.

6. Nieaeaiea eo?na aaetho eieaaaeinue io 12% – 30,5%.

Iaanoeaiaiea aaetho aucaaei oaei?iaeaiea eiii?oa e aeiiieieoaeueiue ?ino
oeai.

NOA eniieueciaaee i?eioeeiu A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu (noaoon aeieea?a
eae ?aca?aiie aaethou, oeene?iaaiiua ia?eoaou e eo?nu aaetho, eiiaa?ney
aeieea?a a cieioi, caieaeaiiay ioeoeeaeueiay oeaia cieioa) aeey oneeaiey
naieo iiceoeee a ie?a. No?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ssiiiee auee
caeioa?aniaaiu a caieaeaiiii eo?na naieo aaetho a oeaeyo iiiu?aiey
yenii?oa e ainnoaiiaeaiey ?ac?ooaiiie yeiiiieee. A nayce n yoei
A?aooiiaoaeneay nenoaia a oa/aiea /aoaa?oe aaea niinianoaiaaea ?inoo
ie?iaie oi?aiaee e i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei iineaaiaiiay aaethoiay nenoaia
ia iaania/eea ?aaiua i?aaa anai aa o/anoieeai e iicaieeea NOA aeeyoue ia
aaethoioth iieeoeeo no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, ssiiiee e ae?oaeo /eaiia
IAO. Ia?aaiii?aaiue aaethoiue iaoaieci niinianoaiaae oe?aieaieth
iiceoeee a NOA a ie?a a oua?a ae?oaei no?aiai e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio
nio?oaeie/anoao. I?ioeai?a/ey A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu iinoaiaiii
?anoaouaaee aa.

Yeiiiie/aneea, yia?aaoe/aneee, nu?ueaaie e?ecenu aeanoaaeeece?iaaee
A?aooii-aoaeneoth nenoaio a 60-o aiaeao. Eciaiaiea niioiioaiey nee ia
ie?iaie a?aia iiaei?aaei aa no?oeoo?iua i?eioeeiu. N eiioea 60-o aiaeia
iinoaiaiii ineaaei yeiiiie/aneia, oeiainiai-aaethoiia, oaoiieiae/aneia
i?aainoiaenoai NOA iaae eiieo?aioaie. Caiaaeiay Aa?iia e ssiiiey,
oe?aiea naie aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeaeu, noaee oanieoue
aia?eeaineiai ia?oia?a.

Aeieea? iinoaiaiii oo?a/eaaao iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea a aaethoiuo
ioiioaieyo. Ia?ea O?A. oaaeoea?neee o?aie, ae?oaea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea
aaethou e yiiineay eaia niia?ie/atho n iei ia aaethoiuo ?uieao,
eniieuecothony eae iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ieaoaaeiia e ?aca?aiia n?aaenoai.
Anee aeiey aeieea?a a ioeoeeaeueiuo aaethoiuo ?aca?aao iinoaiaiii
nieaeaeanue (n 84,5 aei 73,1% a 1973-1980 aa.), oi niioaaonoaaiii
iiauoaeanue aeiey ia?ee O?A (n 6,7 aei 14%), yiiineie eaiu (n 0 aei
3.7%), oaaeoea?neiai o?aiea (n 1,4 aei 4,1%). En/acea yeiiiie/aneay e
aaethoiay caaeneiinoue no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu io NOA, oa?aeoa?iay aeey
ia?auo iineaaiaiiuo eao. N oi?ie?iaaieai o?ao oeaio?ia ia?oia?noaa e
niia?ie/anoaa aiciee iiaue oeaio? aaethoiie neeu a aeaea AYN,
niia?ie/athuaai n NOA e ssiiieae.

Iineieueeo NOA eniieueciaaee aeieea? aeey iie?uoey aeaoeoeeoa
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, yoi i?eaaei e ia?iiiiio oaaee/aieth eo
e?aoein?i/iie aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe a aeaea aeieea?iauo iaeiieaiee
eiino?aiiuo aaieia. «Aeieea?iaue aieiae» niaieeny «aeieea?iaui
i?anuuaieai». Ecauoie aeieea?ia a aeaea eaaeiu «ai?y/eo» aeaiaa
ia?eiaee/anee ia?ooeaaeny oi ia iaeio, oi ia ae?oaoth no?aio, aucuaay
aaethoiua iio?ynaiey e aaanoai io aeieea?a.

N eiioea 60-o aiaeia ianooiee e?ecen A?aooii-aoaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu.
Aa no?oeoo?iua i?eioeeiu, onoaiiaeaiiua a 1944 a.. ia?anoaee
niioaaonoaiaaoue oneiaeyi i?iecaiaenoaa, ie?iaie oi?aiaee e
eciaieaoaiony niioiioaieth nee a ie?a. Nouiinoue e?ecena
A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu caeeth/aaony a i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiui oa?aeoa?ii IYI e eniieueciaaieai aeey eo
inouanoaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho, iiaeaa?aeaiiuo iaanoeaiaieth.

I?e/eiu e?ecena A?aooii-aoaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
a aeaea oeaii/ee acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiuo oaeoi?ia:

1. Iaonoie/eainoue e i?ioeai?a/ey yeiiiieee. Ia/aei aaethoiiai e?ecena a
1967 a. niaiaei n caiaaeeaieai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Ie?iaie
oeeeee/aneee e?ecen ioaaoee yeiiiieeo Caiaaea a 1969-1970, 1974-1975,
1979-1983 aa.

2. Oneeaiea eioeyoeee io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyei ia ie?iaua oeaiu e
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oe?i. iiiu?yei niaeoeyoeaiua ia?aiauaiey
«ai?y/eo» aeaiaa. ?acee/iua oaiiu eioeyoeee a ?aciuo no?aiao ieacuaaee
aeeyiea ia aeeiaieeo eo?na aaetho, a nieaeaiea iieoiaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoe aeaiaa nicaeaaaei oneiaey aeey «eo?niauo ia?aeinia».

3. Ianoaaeeueiinoue ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia. O?iie/aneee aeaoeoeeo aaeainia
iaeieo no?ai (iniaaiii Aaeeeia?eoaiee, NOA) e aeoeaiia naeueaei ae?oaeo
(O?A, ssiiiee) oneeeaaee ?aceea eieaaaiey eo?nia aaetho niioaaonoaaiii
aiec e aaa?o.

4. Ianiioaaonoaea i?eioeeiia A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu eciaieaoaiony
niioiioaieth nee ia ie?iaie a?aia. Aaethoiay nenoaia, iniiaaiiay ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eniieueciaaiee iiaeaa?aeaiiuo iaanoeaiaieth
iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho – aeieea?a e io/anoe ooioa noa?eeiaia, i?eoea a
i?ioeai?a/ea n eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae ie?iaiai oicyenoaa. Yoi
i?ioeai?a/ea A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu oneeeaaeinue ii ia?a ineaaeaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo iiceoeee NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee, eioi?ua iiaaoaee aeaoeoeeo
naieo ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia iaoeeiiaeueiuie aaethoaie, ceioiio?aaeyy eo
noaoonii ?aca?aiuo aaetho. A eoiaa auea iiaei?aaia onoie/eainoue
?aca?aiuo aaetho.

I?aai aeaaeaeueoeaa aeieea?iauo aaoa?ia iaiaieaaoue eo ia cieioi i?eoei
a i?ioeai?a/ea n aiciiaeiinoueth NOA auiieiyoue yoi iaycaoaeuenoai. Eo
aiaoiyy e?aoein?i/iay caaeieaeaiiinoue oaaee/eeanue a 8.5 ?aca ca
1949-1971 aa.. a ioeoeeaeueiua cieioua ?aca?au nie?aoeeenue a 2,4 ?aca.
Neaaenoaeai aia?eeaineie iieeoeee «aeaoeoeeoa aac neac» yaeeny iiae?ua
aeiaa?ey e aeieea?o. Caieaeaiiay a eioa?anao NOA ioeoeeaeueiay oeaia
cieioa, neoaeeaoay aacie cieiouo e aaethoiuo ia?eoaoia, noaea ?acei
ioeeiiyoueny io ?uii/iie oeaiu. Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aa
ieacaeinue aanneeueiui. A eoiaa eneonnoaaiiua cieioua ia?eoaou oo?aoeee
niune. Yoi i?ioeai?a/ea onoaoaeyeinue oii?iui ioeacii NOA aei 1971 a.
aeaaaeueae?iaaoue naith aaethoo. ?aaeei oeene?iaaiiuo ia?eoaoia e eo?nia
aaetho onoaoaee «eo?niaua ia?aeinu». A niioaaonoaee n A?aooii-aoaeneei
niaeaoaieai oeaio?aeueiua aaiee auee auioaeaeaiu inouanoaeyoue
aaethoioth eioa?aaioeeth n eniieueciaaieai aeieea?a aeaaea a oua?a
iaoeeiiaeueiui eioa?anai. Oai naiui NOA ia?aeiaeeee ia ae?oaea no?aiu
caaioo i iiaeaea?aeaiee eo?na aeieea?a, /oi iaino?yei
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua i?ioeai?a/ey.

Iineieueeo Onoaa I AO aeiioneae eeoue ?aciaua aeaaaeueaaoeee e
?aaaeueaaoeee, oi a iaeeaeaiee eo oneeeaaeenue aeaeaeaiea «ai?y/eo»
aeaiaa, niaeoeyoeaiay ea?a ia iiieaeaiea eo?na neaauo aaetho e ia
iiauoaiea eo?na neeueiuo aaetho. Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiia aaethoiia
?aaoee?iaaiea /a?ac IAO ieacaeinue ii/oe aac?acoeueoaoiui. Aai e?aaeeou
auee iaaeinoaoi/iu aeey iie?uoey aeaaea a?aiaiiiai aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiuo
aaeainia e iiaeaea?aeee aaetho.

I?eioeei aia?eeaiioeaio?ecia, ia eioi?ii auea iniiaaia A?aooiiaoaeneay
nenoaia, ia?anoae niioaaonoaiaaoue iiaie ?annoaiiaea nee n
aicieeiiaaieai o?ao ie?iauo oeaio?ia: NOA – Caiaaeiay Aa?iia – ssiiiey.
Eniieueciaaiea NOA noaoona aeieea?a eae ?aca?aiie aaethou aeey
?anoe?aiey naiae aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie e aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie yeniainee,
yenii?oa eioeyoeee oneeeei iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua ?aciiaeaney e
i?ioeai?a/eei eioa?anai ?acaeaathueony no?ai.

5. Aeoeaecaoeey ?uiea aa?iaeieea?ia. Iineieueeo NOA iie?uaatho aeaoeoeeo
naiaai ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoie, /anoue aeieea?ia
ia?aiauaaony a eiino?aiiua aaiee, niinianoaoy ?acaeoeth ?uiea
aa?iaeieea?ia. Yoio eieinnaeueiue ?uiie aeieea?ia «aac ?iaeeiu» (750
ie?ae. aeiee., eee 80% iauaia aa?i?uiea, a 1981 a. i?ioea 2 ie?ae.
aeiee. a 1960 a.) nua?ae aeaiyeoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee e?ecena
A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu. Aia/aea ii iiaeaea?aeeaae iiceoeee
aia?eeaineie aaethou, iiaeiuay ecauoie aeieea?ia, ii a 70-o aiaeao
aa?iaeieea?iaua iia?aoeee, onei?yy noeoeeiia aeaeaeaiea «ai?y/eo» aeaiaa
iaaeaeo no?aiaie, iaino?eee aaethoiue e?ecen.

6. Aeaci?aaiecothuay ?ieue o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee (OIE) a
aaethoiie noa?a: OIE ?aniieaaatho aeaaioneeie e?aoein?i/iuie aeoeaaie a
?aciuo aaethoao, eioi?ua aieaa /ai aaeaia i?aauoatho aaethoiua ?aca?au
oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia, oneieuecatho io iaoeeiiaeueiiai eiio?iey e a
iiaiia ca i?eaueyie o/anoaotho a aaethoiie niaeoeyoeee, i?eaeaaay ae
a?aiaeeiciue ?aciao. E?iia iaueo nouanoaiaaee niaoeeoe/aneea i?e/eiu,
i?enouea ioaeaeueiui yoaiai ?acaeoey e?ecena A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu.

I?iyaeaiey e?ecena A?aooii-aoaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu i?eieiaee
neaaeothuea oi?iu:

– «aaethoiay eeoi?aaeea» – ia?aiauaiea «ai?y/eo» aeaiaa, ianniaay
i?iaeaaea iaonoie/eauo aaetho a iaeeaeaiee eo aeaaaeueaaoeee e neoiea
aaetho – eaiaeeaeaoia ia ?aaaeueaaoeeth;

– «cieioay eeoi?aaeea» – aaanoai io ianoaaeeueiuo aaetho e cieioo e
ia?eiaee/aneia iiauoaiea aai oeaiu;

– iaieea ia oiiaeiauo ae?aeao e iaaeaiea eo?nia oeaiiuo aoiaa a
iaeeaeaiee eciaiaiey eo?na aaetho;

– iaino?aiea i?iaeaiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe, iniaaiii
aa ea/anoaa;

– ianniaua aeaaaeueaaoeee e ?aaaeueaaoeee aaetho (ioeoeeaeueiua e
iaioeoeeaeueiua);

– aeoeaiay aaethoiay eioa?aaioeey oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia, a oii /enea
eieeaeoeaiay;

– ?aceea eieaaaiey ioeoeeaeueiuo cieioi-aaethoiuo ?aca?aia;

– eniieueciaaiea eiino?aiiuo e?aaeeoia e caeinoaiaaiee a IAO aeey
iiaeaea?aeee aaetho;

– ia?ooaiea no?oeoo?iuo i?eioeeiia A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu;

– aeoeaecaoeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai e iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai aaethoiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey;

– oneeaiea aeaoo oaiaeaioeee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo e
aaethoiuo ioiioaieyo – nio?oaeie/anoaa e i?ioeai?a/ee, eioi?ua
ia?eiaee/anee ia?a?anoatho a oi?aiaoth e aaethoioth aieiu.

Aaethoiue e?ecen ?acaeaaeny aieiiia?acii, ii?aaeay oi iaeio, oi ae?oaoth
no?aio a ?aciia a?aiy e n ?aciie neeie. E?ecen A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu
aeinoea eoeueieiaoeeiiiiai ioieoa aaniie e eaoii 1971 a., eiaaea a aai
yieoeaio?a ieacaeanue aeaaiay ?aca?aiay aaethoa. E?ecen aeieea?a niaiae
n aeeeoaeueiie aeai?anneae a NOA iinea yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena 1969-1970
aa. Iiae aeeyieai eioeyoeee iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue aeiaoaoa?a oiaea
ia 2/3 a na?aaeeia 1971 a. ii n?aaiaieth n 1934 a.. eiaaea aue
onoaiiaeai aai cieioie ia?eoao. Niaieoiiue aeaoeoeeo ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina
ii oaeouei iia?aoeeyi NOA ninoaaee 71,7 ie?ae. aeiee. ca 1949-1971 aa.
E?aoein?i/iay aiaoiyy caaeieaeaiiinoue no?aiu oaaee/eeanue n 7,6 ie?ae.
aeiee. a 1949 a. aei 64,3 ie?ae. a 1971 a., i?aaunea a 6,3 ?aca
ioeoeeaeueiue cieioie caian, eioi?ue nie?aoeeny ca yoio ia?eiae n 24,6
ie?ae. aei 10,2 ie?ae. aeiee.

E?ecen aia?eeaineie aaethou au?aceeny a ianniaie i?iaeaaea aa ca cieioi
e onoie/eaua aaethou, iaaeaiee eo?na. Aaneiio?ieueii ei/othuea
aa?iaeieea?u iaaiaeieee aaethoiua ?uiee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ssiiiee.

Oeaio?aeueiua aaiee yoeo no?ai auee auioaeaeaiu neoiaoue eo aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey eo?nia naieo aaetho a onoaiiaeaiiuo IAO i?aaeaeao. E?ecen
aeieea?a aucaae iieeoe/aneoth oi?io aunooieaiee no?ai (iniaaiii
O?aioeee) i?ioea i?eaeeaaee NOA. eioi?ua iie?uaaee aeaoeoeeo ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoie. O?aioeey iaiaiyea a eacia/aenoaa NOA
3.5 ie?ae. aeiee. ia cieioi a 1967-1969 aa. N eiioea 60-o aiaeia
eiiaa?ney aeieea?a a cieioi noaea oeeoeeae: a 1970 1. 50 ie?ae.
aeieea?iauo aaoa?ia i?ioeainoiyee eeoue 11 ie?ae. aeiee. ioeoeeaeueiuo
cieiouo ?aca?aia.

NOA i?eiyee ?yae ia? ii nianaieth A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu a 60-o 1
iaeao.

1. I?eaea/aiea aaethoiuo ?ano?nia ec ae?oaeo no?ai. Aeieea?iaua aaeainu
auee /anoe/ii o?ainoi?ie?iaaiu a i?yiua e?aaeeou. Auee caeeth/aiu
niaeaoaiey ia iia?aoeeyo «naii» (2,3 ie?ae. aeiee. – a 1965 a.. 11.3
ie?ae. aeiee. – a 1970 a.) iaaeaeo Oaaea?aeueiui ?aca?aiui aaieii
Iueth-Ei?ea e ?yaeii eiino?aiiuo oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia.

2. Eieeaeoeaiay caueoa aeieea?a. Iiae aeaaeaieai NOA oeaio?aeueiua aaiee
aieueoeinoaa no?ai aicaea?aeeaaeenue io iaiaia naieo aeieea?iauo
?aca?aia a cieioi a aia?eeaineii eacia/aenoaa. IAO aeiaeee /anoue naieo
cieiouo caiania a aeieea?u aii?aee Onoaao. Aaaeouea oeaio?aeueiua aaiee
nicaeaee cieioie ioe (1962 a.) aeey iiaeaea?aeee oeaiu cieioa, a iinea
aai ?aniaaea n 17 ia?oa 1968 a. aaaee aeaieiie ?uiie cieioa.

3. Oaeaiaiea eaieoaea IAO (aei 28 ie?ae. aeiee.) e aaia?aeueiia
niaeaoaiea 10 no?ai-/eaiia Oiiaea e Oaaeoea?ee i caeiao Oiiaeo (6 ie?ae.
aeiee.). auione NAe? a 1970 a. a oeaeyo iie?uoey aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiuo
aaeainia.

NOA oii?ii nii?ioeaeyeenue i?iaaaeaieth iac?aaoae aeaaaeueaaoeee
aeieea?a e ianoaeaaee ia ?aaaeueaaoeee aaetho naieo oi?aiauo ia?oia?ia.
A iaa 1971 a. auea inouanoaeaia ?aaaeueaaoeey oaaeoea?neiai o?aiea e
aano?eeneiai oeeeeiaa, aaaaeai ieaaathuee eo?n aaetho O?A.
Ieaea?eaiaeia, /oi i?eaaei e oaeoe/aneiio iaanoeaiaieth aeieea?a ia
6-8%. Ne?uoay aeaaaeueaaoeey ono?aeaaea NOA. oae eae iia ia io?aaeaeanue
noieue aoaeoaeueii ia i?anoeaea ?aca?aiie aaethou, eae ioeoeeaeueiay.
*oiau neiieoue nii?ioeaeaiea oi?aiauo niia?ieeia. NOA ia?aoee e iieeoeea
i?ioaeoeeiiecia. 15 aaaonoa 1971 a. auee iauyaeaiu /?acau/aeiua ia?u ii
nianaieth aeieea?a: i?ae?auai ?aciai aeieea?ia ia cieioi aeey
eiino?aiiuo oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia («cieioia yiaa?ai»), aaaaeaia
aeiiieieoaeueiay 10%-iay eiii?oiay iioeeia. NOA anoaee ia iooue oi?aiaie
e aaethoiie aieiu. Iaieua aeieea?ia a no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ssiiieth
aucaae ianniaue ia?aoiae e ieaaathuei aaethoiui eo?nai e oai naiui
niaeoeyoeaioth aoaeo eo ie?aioeo aaetho ia aeieea?. O?aioeey aaaea
aeaieiie aaethoiue ?uiie ii i?eia?o Aaeueaee, aaea ii ooieoeeiie?iaae n
1952 a. No?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu noaee ioe?uoi aunooiaoue i?ioea
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiai iieiaeaiey aeieea?a a ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaia.

Iienee auoiaea ec aaethoiiai e?ecena caaa?oeeenue eiii?iienniui
Aaoeiaoiineei niaeaoaieai «a?oiiu aeanyoe». Auea aeinoeaiooa
aeiaiai?aiiinoue ii neaaeothuei ioieoai: 1) aeaaaeueaaoeey aeieea?a ia
7,89% e iiauoaiea ioeoeeaeueiie oeaiu cieioa ia 8,57% (n 35 aei 38
aeiee. ca oioeeth); 2) ?aaaeueaaoeey ?yaea aaetho; 3) ?anoe?aiea
i?aaeaeia eieaaaiee aaethoiuo eo?nia n SYMBOL 177 \f “Times New Roman”
\s 14 ± 1 aei SYMBOL 177 \f “Times New Roman” \s 14 ± 2,25% io eo
ia?eoaoia e onoaiiaeaiea oeaio?aeueiuo eo?nia aianoi aaethoiuo
ia?eoaoia; 4) ioiaia 10%-iie oaiiaeaiiie iioeeiu a NOA. Ii NOA ia acyee
iaycaoaeuenoaa ainnoaiiaeoue eiiaa?oe?oaiinoue aeieea?a a cieioi e
o/anoaiaaoue a aaethoiie eioa?aaioeee. Oai naiui iie nio?aieee
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiue noaoon aeieea?a, iuia iaoa?eaeueii ia iiaee?aieaiiue.

Caeii i aeaaaeueaaoeee aeieea?a aue iiaeienai i?aceaeaioii ?. Ieeniiii 3
ai?aey e ooaa?aeaeai eiia?annii 26 ai?aey 1972 a. Iiauoaiea oeaiu cieioa
auei ocaeiiaii iinea ?aaeno?aoeee iiaiai ia?eoaoa aeieea?a a IAO e
oaaaeiieaiey no?ai-/eaiia 8 iay 1972 a. Aeaaaeueaaoeey aeieea?a aucaaea
oeaiioth ?aaeoeeth: ia eiiaoe 1971 a. 96 ec 118 no?ai – /eaiia IAO
onoaiiaeee iiaue eo?n aaetho e aeieea?o, i?e/ai eo?n 50 aaetho aue a
?acee/iie noaiaie iiauoai.

Aaoeiaoiineia niaeaoaiea a?aiaiii naeaaeeei i?ioeai?a/ey, ii ia
oie/oiaeeei eo. Eaoii 1972 a. aaaaeai ieaaathuee eo?n ooioa noa?eeiaia,
/oi icia/aei aai oaeoe/aneoth aeaaaeueaaoeeth ia 6-8%. Yoi ineiaeieei
ioiioaiey Aaeeeia?eoaiee n AYN iineieueeo iia ia?ooeea niaeaoaiea no?ai
«Iauaai ?uiea» i noaeaiee i?aaeaeia eieaaaiee eo?nia aaetho aei SYMBOL
177 \f “Times New Roman” \s 14 ± 1,125%. Aaeeeia?eoaiey auea auioaeaeaia
eiiiaine?iaaoue oua?a aeaaeaeueoeai noa?eeiaiauo aaoa?ia e aaanoe
aeieea?iaoth, a n ai?aey 1974 a. – iiiaiaaethoioth iaiai?eo a ea/anoaa
aa?aioee nio?aiaiey eo noieiinoe. Auee oneeaiu aaethoiua ia?aie/aiey,
/oiau naea?aeaoue aaanoai eaieoaeia ca a?aieoeo. Ooio noa?eeiaia oo?aoee
noaoon ?aca?aiie aaethou.

A oaa?aea – ia?oa 1973 a. aaethoiue e?ecen aiiaue ia?ooeeny ia aeieea?.
Oie/eii yaeeanue iaonoie/eainoue eoaeueyineie ee?u, /oi i?eaaei e
aaaaeaieth a Eoaeee aeaieiiai aaethoiiai ?uiea (n 22 yiaa?y 1973 a. ii
22 ia?oa 1974 a.) ii i?eia?o Aaeueaee e O?aioeee. «Cieioay eeoi?aaeea» e
iiauoaiea ?uii/iie oeaiu cieioa aiiaue iaiaaeeee neaainoue aeieea?a.
Iaeiaei a ioee/ea io 1971 a. NOA ia oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny ?aaaeueaaoeee
aaetho no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ssiiiee. 12 oaa?aey 1973 a. auea
i?iaaaeaia iiaoi?iay aeaaaeueaaoeey aeieea?a ia 10% e iiauoaia
ioeoeeaeueiay oeaia cieioa ia 11,1 % (n 38 aei 42,22 aeiee. ca oioeeth).
Ianniaay i?iaeaaea aeieea?ia i?eaaea e a?aiaiiiio cae?uoeth aaaeoueo
aaethoiuo ?uieia.

Iiaue eiinainon – ia?aoiae e ieaaathuei aaethoiui eo?nai n ia?oa 1973 a.
– aui?aaee «eo?niaua ia?aeinu» e niye iai?yaeaiea ia aaethoiuo ?uieao.

Oanoue no?ai «Iauaai ?uiea» ioiaieee aiaoiea i?aaeaeu niaeaniaaiiuo
eieaaaiee eo?nia naieo aaetho e aeieea?o e ae?oaei aaethoai. Ioe?aieaiea
«aa?iiaeneie aaethoiie ciae» io aeieea?a i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth
naiaia?aciie aaethoiie ciiu ai aeaaa n ia?eie O?A. Yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i oi?ie?iaaiee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie ciiu aaethoiie
noaaeeueiinoe a i?ioeaiaan ianoaaeeueiiio aeieea?o, /oi onei?eei ?aniaae
A?aooii-aoaeneie nenoaiu.

Iiauoaiea oeai ia iaooue a eiioea 1973 a. i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth
aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia ii oaeouei iia?aoeeyi i?iiuoeaiii
?acaeouo no?ai. ?acei oiae eo?n aaetho no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ssiiiee.
I?iecioei a?aiaiiia iiauoaiea eo?na aeieea?a, oae eae NOA auee eo/oa
iaania/aiu yia?ai?ano?naie, /ai eo eiieo?aiou, e i?iyaeeinue, oioy e ia
n?aco, iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea aeaoo aai aeaaaeueaaoeee ia ieaoaaeiue
aaeain no?aiu. Aaethoiue e?ecen ia?aieaeny n ie?iaui yeiiiie/aneei
e?ecenii a 1974-1975 aa., /oi oneeeei eieaaaiea eo?niauo niioiioaiee.
Eo?n aeieea?a iaaeae ia i?ioyaeaiee 70-o aiaeia, ca eneeth/aieai
e?aoeia?aiaiiuo ia?eiaeia aai iiauoaiey. Iie?uaay iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaethoie aeaoeoeeo oaeoueo iia?aoeee ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, NOA
niinianoaiaaee iaea/eaaieth a iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iai?io aeieea?ia. A
?acoeueoaoa ae?oaea no?aiu noaee «e?aaeeoi?aie iiiaaiea» ii ioiioaieth e
NOA. A XIX a. iiaeiaiue aaethoii-oeiainiaue iaoiae i?eiaiyea Aiaeey,
iieuecoynue i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui iieiaeaieai ooioa noa?eeiaia a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoiuo ioiioaieyo.

Aaethoiue e?ecen, aeaci?aaiecoy yeiiiieeo, cao?oaeiyy aiaoithth
oi?aiaeth, oneeeaay ianoaaeeueiinoue aaetho, ii?iaeaeaao oyaeaeua
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey. Yoi i?iyaeyaony a oaaee/aiee
aac?aaioeoeu, caii?aaeeaaiee ca?aaioiie ieaou, ?inoa aei?iaiaeciu.
?aaaeueaaoeey nii?iaiaeaeaaony oiaiueoaieai caiyoinoe a yenii?oiuo
io?aneyo, a aeaaaeueaaoeey, oaei?iaeay eiii?o, niinianoaoao ?inoo oeai a
no?aia. I?ia?aiiu aaethoiie noaaeeecaoeee naiaeyony a eiia/iii n/aoa e
aeanoeie yeiiiiee ca n/ao o?oaeyueony e i?eaioaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia
yenii?o. Oeaio?iaaaeiie oaiaeaioeee, io?aaeathuae iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua
?aciiaeaney, i?ioeainoieo oaiaeaioeey e aaethoiiio nio?oaeie/anoao.

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