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Aunieay eioeyoeey na?ueaciay i?iaeaia aeey yeiiiieee ?innee ia
i?ioyaeaiee anaai ia?eiaea ?aoi?i. Aeoiaaony, /oi ?anniio?aiea
oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai aoaeao eiaoue
aieueoia cia/aiea.

Eioeyoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiiaioaeoi?iia yaeaiea, eioi?ia
i?iyaeyaony a ?inoa iauaai o?iaiy oeai e a iaanoeaiaiee aeaiaaeiuo
ciaeia ii ioiioaieth e ?aaeueiui aeoeaai. Iaeiaei ia anyeia
eciaiaiea oeai yaeyaony eioeyoeeae. Iii iiaeao auoue aucaaii oeo/oaieai
ea/anoaa oiaa?ia, oneiaee aiaoiae oi?aiaee, ae?oaeie oaeoi?aie.
Eioeyoeey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia yaeaiea, eioi?ia ii?iaeaeaii
aeeni?iii?oeeyie aini?iecaiaenoaa a ?acee/iuo noa?ao ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii, eioeyoeey – iaeia ec iaeaieaa ino?uo
i?iaeai nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee i?aeoe/anee ai anao no?aiao
ie?a.

E aaaeiaeoei eioeyoeeiiiui i?e/eiai ?inoa oeai iiaeii ioianoe
neaaeothuea :

Aeeni?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue – aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa.
*anoi yoio aeaoeoeeo iie?uaaaony ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey «ia/aoiiai
noaiea», /oi i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth aeaiaaeiie iannu e eae neaaenoaea
– eioeyoeee.

Eioeyoeeiiii iianiua eiaanoeoeee – i?aeiouanoaaiii ieeeoa?ecaoeey
yeiiiieee. Aiaiiua anneaiiaaiey aaaeoo e nicaeaieth aeiiieieoaeueiiai
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, a eae neaaenoaea – oaaee/aieth aeaiaaeiie
iannu.

Ionoonoaea /enoiai naiaiaeiiai ?uiea e niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee eae aai
/anoe. Nia?aiaiiue ?uiie a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ieeaiiieenoe/ai.
Iineieueeo ieeaiiieeno caeioa?aniaai a nie?auaiee i?iecaiaenoaa
e i?aaeeiaeaiee oiaa?ia nicaeaaony aeaoeoeeo , eniieuecoaiue ei aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey eee iiaeiyoey oeaiu ia oiaa?.

Eiii?oe?oaiay eioeyoeey, ?ieue eioi?ie aic?anoaao n ?inoii ioe?uoinoe
yeiiiieee e aiaea/aiey aa a ie?ioicyenoaaiiua nayce oie eee no?aiu.
Aiciiaeiinoe aeey ai?ueau o ainoaea?noaa aeiaieueii ia?aie/aiu.

Eioeyoeeiiiua iaeeaeaiey – aicieeiiaaiea o eioeyoeee
naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuaainy oa?aeoa?a. Ianaeaiea e oicyenoaothuea
noauaeou i?eaueatho e iinoiyiiiio iiauoaieth o?iaiy oeai. Ianaeaiea
o?aaoao iiauoaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou e caianaaony oiaa?aie ai?ie,
iaeeaeay eo nei?ia iiaei?iaeaiea. I?iecaiaeeoaee aea iianathony
iiauoaiey oeai ni noi?iiu naieo iinoaaueeia, iaeiia?aiaiii caeeaaeuaay
a oeaio naieo oiaa?ia i?iaiice?oaiue eie ?ino oeai ia eiiieaeoothuea e
?anea/eaatho oai naiui iaoiaee eioeyoeee.

?acee/atho «ne?uooth» e «iiaeaaeaiioth» eioeyoeeth. Ioe?uoay eioeyoeey
i?enoua no?aiai n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie , aaea acaeiiaeaenoaea
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey niinianoaoao ioe?uoiio ?inoo oeai a
?acoeueoaoa iaaeaiey iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu.
Iiaeaaeaiiay eioeyoeey i?enoua yeiiiieea n aaeieieno?aoeaiui
eiio?ieai iaae oeaiaie e aeioiaeaie. A oaeie neooaoeee eioeyoeey
i?eieiaao «iiaeiieueiue» oa?aeoa? : aiaoia oeaiu noaaeeueiu, ii
iineieueeo ianna oaeoe/anee aic?inea, ecauoie aeaiaa
o?ainoi?ie?oaony a oiaa?iue aeaoeoeeo. Eceeoae aeaiaa auaeyaeeo
eae iaaeinoaoie oiaa?ia, eaaeaony, /oi ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu naycaii
n ?inoii i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei iinoiyiii ecauoi/iay yienney ia iiaeao
auoue eiiiaine?iaaia iaoniaaathuei ca iae i?iecaiaenoaii.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a oneiaeyo iiaeaaeaiiie eioeyoeee oiaa?iue
aeaoeoeeo anoue aiaoiaa au?aaeaiea iaueiiaaiiie eioeyoeee. Oaeei
ia?acii, i?e iiaeaaeaiiie eioeyoeee oieueei /anoue aeaiaaeiuo
ciaeia yaeyaony aeaiueaaie, ae?oaay aea iaioiaa?aiiay i?aa?auaaony a
eaeaaeaiueae.

Aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu e o?iaiy eioeyoeee aeoeaii
eniieuecothony oaeea eino?oiaiou e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee,
eae ii?ia iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia, o?iaaiue i?ioeaioiie noaaee
OeA, iauaiu ?aoeiaine?iaaiey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, iia?aoeee ia ioe?uoii
?uiea.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiua eieaaaiey
iaycaoaeueiie ii?iu aaieianeeo e?aaeeoia aaaeoo e nouanoaaiiui
eciaiaieyi a ?acia?ao i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa. Iiyoiio aeey i?inoie
ei??aeoe?iaee i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa ii?io aaieianeeo
?aca?aia, eae i?aaeei, ia iaiytho. Aa eniieuecotho eeoue a e?aeieo
neo/ayo. *?acia?iia iiauoaiea ?aca?aiuo io/eneaiee /?aaaoi nieaeaieai
aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, iaaiciiaeiinoueth aeey aaieia yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue i?eaea/aiiua ?ano?nu, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue yaeyaony
oi?iicii ?acaeoey aaieianeie nenoaiu e iaeiie ec i?aaeiinueie e?ecena
anae aaieianeie nenoaiu.

Yooaeoeaiui eino?oiaioii ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee
yaeyaony iieeoeea i?ioeaioiie noaaee, iiae eioi?oth OeA i?aaeinoaaeyao
e?aaeeou eiiia?/aneei aaieai. A ie?iaie i?aeoeea o/aoiay noaaea,
n oi/ee c?aiey eiiaaieia, – yoi ecaea?aeee ecauoi/iuo ?aca?aia.
Iiyoiio, eiaaea iaoeeiiaeueiue aaie aa nieaeaao , ii iiiu?yao eiiaaiee
e iieo/aieth nnoae. Niioaaonoaaiii, e?aaeeou, auaeaaaaiua eiiaaieaie ca
n/ao yoeo nnoae, oaaee/eaatho i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa. Iiauoay o/aoioth
noaaeo OeA iaiueoa noeioee?oao eiiaaiee e iieo/aieth nnoae, /oi
oiaiueoaao iauai auaeaaaaiuo aaieaie e?aaeeoia, o.a. i?aaeeiaeaiea
aeaiaa.

A neo/aa aeinoaoi/ii ieceie eioeyoeee iiieaeaiea i?ioeaioiie noaaee
iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny a oeaeyo noeioee?iaaiey ?inoa
aeaiaaeiie iannu a yeiiiieea, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aa iaeeaeaieth,
niinianoaoao ia?ai?eaioaoeee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo iioieia n ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aoiaa ia oiiaeiaue ?uiie.

Iniaia ianoi a i?ioeanna ?aaoee?iaaiey eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee
ioaiaeeony iia?aoeeyi ia ioe?uoii ?uiea. Yoe iia?aoeee
i?aaeiieaaatho, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iieoieo e i?iaeaaeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
iaeeaaoeee Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu –
eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie, oeiainiauie eiiiaieyie e ianaeaieai.
Iieoiay eee i?iaeaaay ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeeaaoeee OeA eeai
i?eaeaeaao ?aca?au a aaieianeoth nenoaio, eeai ecuiaao eo
ioooaea. Ainiaeeaaoeee auioneathony aeey iieaou ?anoiaeia ainoaea?noaa,
ia iie?uaaaiuo ca n/ao iinooieaiey iaeiaia.

Ii?aaeaeaiiia aeeyiea ia eioeyoeeiiiua i?ioeannu eiaao e ineoieiae/aneee
oaeoi?.

Iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee iiiaiia?aciu, i?ioeai?a/eau e caeeth/athony a
neaaeothuai.

Iia i?eaiaeeo e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea e
aiaaonoaa iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie a?oiiaie iauanoaa, yeiiiie/aneeie e
nioeeaeueiuie einoeoooaie i?iecaieueiui e iaiiaeaeathueiny
i?iaiice?iaaieth ia?acii. N?aaenoaa ia?a?ani?aaeaeythony io /anoiiai
naeoi?a e ainoaea?noao. Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa,
yaeythueeny iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee, iie?uaaaony /a?ac
eioeyoeeiiiue iaeia. Ae?oaie eaiae ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia a
iieueco ainoaea?noaa aicieeaao ec iiiiiieueiiai i?aaa ia/aoaoue
aeaiueae. ?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie iiieiaeia aeiiieieoaeueii
auiouaiiuo aaieiio e cao?aoaie ia eo ia/aoaiea iacuaaaony naiuei?aaeai.
Ii ?aaai eiee/anoao ?aaeueiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ia iiaeao iieo/eoue
ainoaea?noai acaiai ia iaia/aoaiiua aeaiueae. Eeoea, eiathuea
oeene?iaaiiua aeioiaeu, ianoo iioa?e io eioeyoeee a ?acoeueoaoa
nieaeaiey ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia. Aeaaeaeueoeu ?aaeueiuo aeoeaia
(iaaeaeaeeiinoe, aioeeaa?eaoa, ae?aaioeaiiinoae e o.ae.) iaeaieaa
caueuaiu io eioeyoeee, iineieueeo ?ino oeai ia yoe oiaa?u iaaiiyao
iauee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee a no?aia. I?e iaeciaiiie i?ioeaioiie
noaaea a ?acoeueoaoa iaiaeeaeaiiie eioeyoeee anaaaea i?iea?uaatho
e?aaeeoi?u e auea?uaatho caaiueee. Iuoaynue oiaiueoeoue iioa?e , aaiee
iiauoatho noaaeo nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa. Yoi a naith i/a?aaeue nieaeaao
iauai eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoai.

Oaeaea oiaiueoaaony iieeoe/aneay noaaeeueiinoue iauanoaa, aic?anoaao
nioeeaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue. Aunieay eioeyoeey niaeaenoaoao ia?aoiaeo e
iiaie no?oeoo?a iauanoaa.

Oaeaea ioiineoaeueii aieaa aunieea oaiiu ?inoa oeai a «ioe?uoii» naeoi?a
yeiiiieea i?eaiaeyo e nieaeaieth eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo
oiaa?ia. ?acoeueoaoii aoaeao oaaee/aiea eiii?oa e oiaiueoaiea yenii?oa
?ino aac?aaioeoeu e ?aci?aiea oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Aic?anoaao ni?in ia aieaa noaaeeueioth eiino?aiioth aaethoo.
Oaaee/eaathony eaieoaeia ca a?aieoeo, niaeoeyoeee ia aaethoiii
?uiea, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue onei?yao ?ino oeai. Nieaeaaony
?aaeueiay noieiinoue naa?aaeaiee, iaeiieaiiuo a aeaiaaeiie
oi?ia, iiauoaaony ni?in ia ?aaeueiua aeoeau. A ?acoeueoaoa oeaiu
ia yoe oiaa?u ?anooo auno?aa.

Oaeaea oiaiueoathony ?aaeueiua aeioiaeu ainathaeaeaoa – aic?anoaao
athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo e ainaeiea. A oneiaeyo noaaoeyoeee aunieee
o?iaaiue eioeyoeee ni/aoaaony n aieueoie aac?aaioeoeae.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei oai?ee aicieeiiaaiey eioeyoeee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii
e iaoiaeia aa i?aiaeieaiey.

A aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa aaoi? ?anniio?eo aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee
yoeo oai?ee.

Eiee/anoaaiiay oai?ey aeaiaa aicieeea aua a 16 aaea e caaiaaaea
iaeaieueooth ecaanoiinoue, a oii /enea e n oi/ee c?aiey iauyniaiey
i?iaeaiu eioeyoeee a eiioea 19 – a ia?aua aeanyoeeaoey 20 aa. A
iaeaieaa /aoeii aeaea iia noi?ioee?iaaia aia?eeaineei yeiiiienoii E.
Oeoa?ii a aai ?aaioa «Iieoiaoaeueiay neea aeaiaa» (1911 a.) : o?aaiaiea
iaiaia –

MV=PQ,

aaea : M – eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee ;

V – nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa ;

P – n?aaeiee o?iaaiue oeaiu a oiaa?iie naeaeea ;

Q – eiee/anoai oiaa?iuo naeaeie.

Aeaiiay oai?ey i?aaenoaao eae iaeaieaa i?inoie aa?eaio oai?ee
eioeyoeee, iauyniythuee ?ino oeai e naycaiiia n iei iaanoeaiaiea
aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa eneeth/eoaeueii oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a
ia?auaiee.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi eiee/anoaaiiay oai?ey aeaiaa eae iaoiae iniiaiiai
iauyniaiey eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia iiaeaa?aaeanue na?ueaciie e?eoeea
aeaaea a ia?eiae naiaai ainiiaenoaa. A oi/iaa, noaaeeinue iiae
niiiaiea iaee/ea i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe o?iaiy oeai io
iauaia aeaiaaeiie iannu. Ioia/aeanue e?aeiyy oneiaiinoue
i?aaenoaaeaiey nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa e eiee/anoaa oiaa?iuo naeaeie a
ea/anoaa iinoiyiiuo aaee/ei.

30 – ua aiaeu iciaiaiiaaeenue a caiaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie iunee ?inoii
aeeyiey eaeineaineie oai?ee. Aa nooue caeeth/aeanue a i?eciaiee oiai,
/oi ?uii/iay yeiiiieea ia iaeaaeaao iinoiyiii ooieoeeiie?othuei
iaoaieciii naii?aaoee?iaaiey, /oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo yoa
yeiiiieea iiaeao ieacaoueny a aeoaieie noaaiaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii
i?eciaaaeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.
Aeaaiui iai?aaeaieai ?aaoee?iaaiey iacuaaeinue noeioee?iaaiea ni?ina n
iiiiuueth oaaee/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e eeaa?aeueiie
e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee. Ia aaca yoiai noi?ie?iaaeny iiaue
iiaeoiae e eioeyoeee. Auea i?eciaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa eciaiaiee
nei?inoe ia?auaiee aeaiaa e iauaia oiaa?iuo naeaeie.
Ioeeiiyeanue eaeay i i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe a eciaiaiee aeaiaaeiie iannu
e o?iaiy oeai, ii e caueuaeny oacen i iieaciinoe ieceie «iieco/ae»
eioeyoeee aeey noeioee?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe.
Ieceay eioeyoeey i?eciaaaeanue eae iaecaaaeiue niooiee ii?iaeueiiai
?acaeoey, i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo ea?athuay iieacioth
?ieue. Aaeiie?othuay eioeyoeey e aeia?eioeyoeey n/eoaeenue oaea
io?eoeaoaeueiuie, o.e. naycaiiua n iae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea e
iieeoe/aneea ecaea?aeee i?aainoiaeyo ana aiciiaeiua auaiaeu.

Oaeaea, auea aeieacaia ia?aoiay naycue iaaeaeo eioeyoeeae e
aac?aaioeoeae («e?eaay Oeeeeina»). N «e?eaie Oeeeeina» a yeiiiieeo
aioea aeeeaiia : aunieay aac?aaioeoea eee aunieay eioeyoeey.

A oai?ee eioeyoeee auee auaeaeaiu aeaa oeia – eioeyoeey ni?ina, o.a.
?inoa oeai, iaoneiaeaiiiai oaeoi?aie ia noi?iia aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey
e ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, e eioeyoeey ecaea?aeae, o.a. ?inoa oeai,
iaoneiaeaiiiai oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e ?uii/iiai oa?aeoa?a.
N?aaee oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae iniai ia/aee auaeaeyoue nie?aeue
«ca?ieaoa-oeaia» – aeaaeaiea ia oeaiu ni noi?iiu ca?ieaou eae
aaaeiaeoaai yeaiaioa ecaea?aeae, i?eieiathuaa iianiue oa?aeoa? i?e
ieceeo oaiiao ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Auei i?eciaii, /oi a iieiiianooaaiie eioeyoeee oaeoi?u iaieo oeiia
eioeyoeee aeaenoaotho acaeiinaycaii, /oi caiaoii oneiaeiyao i?iaeaio
naea?aeeaaiey ?inoa oeai.

A 70-80-a aiaeu i?ienoiaeeo ?aiannain iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee, i?aaeaea
anaai a aeaea iiiaoa?ecia. Aeaeiaeoee i?aaenoaaeoaeue iiiaoa?enoneie
oai?ee – ecaanoiue aia?eeaineee yeiiiieno I.O?eaeiai. Eeth/aaoth ?ieue
a ooieoeeiie?iaaiee oicyenoaa iiiaoa?enou i?eienuaatho aeaiueaai.
Eioeyoeey, a iiieiaiee iiiaoa?enoia , – /enoi aeaiaaeiia
yaeaiea, e aucuaaaony iia eeoue /?acia?iui eiee/anoaii aeaiaa a
ia?auaiee. Aieueooth ?ieue iiiaoa?enou i?eaeatho «eioeyoeeiiiui
iaeeaeaieyi» e iieiinoueth io?eoeatho nouanoaiaaiea eioeyoeee
ecaea?aeae.

A eaoeiiaia?eeaineii ?aaeiia noi?ie?iaaeanue eaeay no?oeoo?iie
eioeyoeee. Iiae iae iiae?acoiaaatho i?ioeann, aucaaiiue aeeni?iii?oeeyie
iaaeaeo io?aneyie e naeoi?aie oicyenoaa, iaaeaeinoueth oeai a
noi?iio eo nieaeaiey. A iaoaieci no?oeoo?iie eioeyoeee
aeeth/atho ia?yaeo n aioo?aiieie oaeoi?aie oaeaea e
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea aniaeou, iai?eia?, /anoua aeaaaeueaaoeee
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou, ?aceea eciaiaiey a yenii?oiii aeioiaea,
aeaoeoeeo oaa?aeie aaethou, auno?ia oaaee/aiea eiii?oa e o.ae.
No?oeoo?aeenou, oaeaea eae e eaineaioeu, iaeia?ytho
noeioee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea eioeyoeee ia yeiiiie/aneee ?ino.
I?e/ai, iie n/eoatho i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo yeiiiie/anee iieacioth
aaeiie?othuoth eioeyoeeth.

?acee/iua oai?ee eioeyoeee ?aeiiaiaeotho ?acee/iua iaoiaeu ai?ueau n
eioeyoeeae.

Eiee/anoaaiiay oai?ey aeaiaa iiae?acoiaaaea niaie i?aaeaea anaai
oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa a ia?auaiee, /oi a ia?eiae aiei
eee neaaeothueo ca iei oicyenoaaiiuo ?ac?oo, eiaaea i?ae?auaeny
iaiai aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa ia cieioi e eiee/anoai aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa
iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyeinue ?aaioie ia/aoiiai noaiea ieacuaaeinue aiieia
aeinoaoi/iui .

I?e ainiiaenoaa eaeineaineie oai?ee auei auaeaeiooi aeaa aa?eaioa
aioeeioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeee – aeaoeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea e «iieeoeea
aeioiaeia». Aeaoeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea iai?aaeaia i?ioea oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee
ni?ina; a iaa aeeth/athony ?acee/iua ia?u, iaoeaeaiiua ia oiaiueoaiea
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina (nieaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia,
iiauoaiea iaeiaia, ?ano?eeoeeiiiay e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea i?e
iiaeaea?aeea aunieeo i?ioeaioiuo noaaie.). «Iieeoeea aeioiaeia»
iai?aaeaia i?ioea oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae; iia i?aaeoniao?eaaao
ia?u eeai ii ia?aeeaeueiiio caii?aaeeaaieth oeai e ca?ieaou, eeai – /oi
ai?acaei /aua – ii aeiiouaieth eo ?inoa a ii?aaeaeaiiuo, ca?aiaa
caaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao.

Iaa oeacaiiuo iai?aaeaiey aioeeioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeee aeoeaii
eniieueciaaeenue a aaaeoueo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a ai?ueaa n
aaeiie?othuae eioeyoeeae 60-70 aa. Aeaoeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea i?eiaiyeanue
ai anao no?aiao, «iieeoeea aeioiaeia» – a NOA e Aiaeee.

Iiiaoa?enou naaee ia?u ai?ueau n eioeyoeeae e aeanoeiio ia?aie/aieth
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, oi anoue ii nooe, e aieaa aeanoeiio
eniieueciaaieth iniiaiuo ia? aeaoeyoeeiiiie iieeoeee. Iniaia cia/aiea
i?eaeaaony iieiie eeeaeaeaoeee aeaoeoeeoa ainathaeaeaoa e
iiaeaea?aeaieth ?ano?eeoeeiiiie e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee.
Iiiaoa?enou iieiinoueth io?eoeatho naiinoiyoaeueioth ai?ueao n
eioeyoeeae ecaea?aeae.

Anee aiai?eoue i ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, oi a ieo eniieuecothony
noeioee?othuea e aioeeioeyoeeiiiua ia?u, ?aeiiaiaeoaiua e eaeineaioeaie,
e iiiaoa?enoaie, e no?oeoo?aeenoaie.

A aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae iniiauaaaony
ia ni/aoaiee ia? iiiaoa?enoneiai oa?aeoa?a n «iieeoeeie aeioiaeia», a
oaeaea ia?aie, i?aaeeaaaaiuie no?oeoo?aeenoaie. Ii eo iiaieth, i?e
iiiiue iaeiiai /enoi aeaiaaeiiai, oeiainiaiai e oeaiiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
n eioeyoeeae ia ni?aaeony ; e oiio aea ?ano?eeoeeiiiua ia?u aac
niioonoaothueo no?oeoo?iuo ia?ano?iae iiaoo i?eaanoe e e?eceno a
yeiiiieea.

Eiaiii enoiaey ec iiuoa ai?ueau n eioeyoeeae a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao,
iniaaiii a eaoeii-aia?eeaineii ?aaeiia, auee noi?ioee?iaaiu aeaa
iniiaiuo aa?eaioa aioeeioeyoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu – i?oiaeienaeueiay e
aaoa?iaeieniay. Ia?aue aa?eaio i?ia?aiiu eniieuecoaony i?e
i?eciaiee ainiiaenoaothuae ?iee a ?acaeoee eioeyoeee aeaiaaeiuo
oaeoi?ia, aoi?ie aa?eaio i?ia?aiiu i?eiaiyaony a oneiaeyo aeaenoaey
na?ueaciuo eioeyoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia ia aeaiaaeiiai oa?aeoa?a.
I?oiaeienaeueiay i?ia?aiia i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia
caaeaenoaiaaiea ?uii/iuo ?aaoeyoi?ia, oiaiueoaiea oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa (iiiaoa?enoneee oa?aeoa?). Aaoa?iaeieniay
i?ia?aiia aeeth/aao aieaa aeoeaiia ?aaoee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea
ainoaea?noaa. Iia i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?u, ?aeiiaiaeoaiua
oai?aoe/aneeie oeieaie iaiiiaoa?enoneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Eaeeie aea iaoiaeaie e n eaeeie oniaoaie ai?ieenue n eioeyoeeae a ?aciuo
no?aiao ?

A 70–a aiaeu NOA , iniiauaaynue ia eaeineaineeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo,
ainoaea?noai eniieueciaaei aeaa iniiaiuo aa?eaioa aioeeioeyoeeiiiie
iieeoeee – aeaoeyoeeiiiue e iieeoeeo aeioiaeia. Iiuo
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae i neaaie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe yoeo iaoiaeia ai?ueau n
eioeyoeeae. Iai?a?uaiay, aaeiie?othuay eioeyoeey aucuaaea
iaaeiaieuenoai ianaeaiey. Iniiaiua oi?aee auee a noi?iio
iinoiyiii aunieeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, iie i?aaenoaaeyeenue
/ooue ee ia aeaaiie i?iaeaiie a ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae. 80-a
aa ia/aeenue n aaeiie?othuae eioeyoeeae. Ia ia?aue ieai
auaeaeioeenue eiina?aaoeaiua iaoiaeu ai?ueau n eioeyoeeae –
iiiaoa?enoneea e no?oeoo?aeenoneea oai?ee. Ia?ainoaiaiiuie oeaeyie
noaee ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae, noeioee?iaaiea yooaeoeaiinoe e auno?iai
oeo/oaiey oneiaee aeey /anoiiai eaieoaea.

Iaeiaei, oieueei a naiii ia?aii i?aaeauai?iii aa?eaioa aioeeioeyoeeiiiay
iieeoeea aaeieieno?aoeee ?aeaaia oyaioaea e iiiaoa?ecio, iineieueeo a
ea/anoaa ?aoathueo ia? ii ai?ueaa n aunieie eioeyoeeae iia
i?aaeoniao?eaaea caiaoiia nie?auaiea nioeeaeueiuo e oicyenoaaiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, eeeaeaeaoeeth aeaoeoeeoa oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa e iineaaeiaaoaeueiia i?iaaaeaiea aeanoei ia?aie/eoaeueiie
e?aaeeoii –aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee. Oeaeueth aa auea ai?ueaa ni
noaaoeyoeeae, o.a. ia?aeeaeueiay ai?ueaa e n aunieie eioeyoeeae, e n
aunieie aac?aaioeoeae(oaeaea noeioee?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa). Iaeiaei a
1982 aiaeo i?ia?aiia auea ia?aniio?aia, o.e. noaei ynii, /oi aeanoeia
neaaeiaaiea iiiaoa?enoneei ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi oieueei onoaoaeyao
neooaoeeth. Iiaay aioeeioeyoeeiiiay i?ia?aiia ni/aoaea a naaa
iaoiaeu iiiaoa?enoia, e eaeineaioeaa, e no?oeoo?aeenoia. A eoiaa
aaeiie?othuay eioeyoeey auea nieaeaia aei «iiecouae», a
aac?aaioeoeu nieceeanue aei oia?aiiuo ?acia?ia.

Eoae, yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea aaeieieno?aoeee ?aeaaia (1981-1988 aa)
aeeth/aea a naay neaaeothuea iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey.

Iaeiaiaay ?aoi?ia i?iaaaeaiiay a aeaa yoaia (1981-1982, n 1986 a) .
Noaaee ee/iiai iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa e iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ei?ii?aoeee
?acei nie?aoeeenue. A 1986 aiaeo iaeiaiaay nenoaia auea ?aoi?ie?iaaia e
i?aaeaeueiay noaaea iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia oiaea n 70
aei 33 %. A ?acoeueoaoa ainathaeaeao iaaeiiieo/ee io 700 aei 800 ie?ae
aeiee.

?ino ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo aue i?einoaiiaeai ca
n/ao caii?aaeeaaiey e nie?auaiey ?anoiaeia ia nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu.
?anoiaeu ia iai?iio auee cia/eoaeueii oaaee/aiu.

Aaeieieno?aoeey iiiu?yea Oaaea?aeueioth ?aca?aioth nenoaio
oaea?aeeaaoue oaiiu ?inoa iannu aeaiaa ia o?iaia , eioi?ue
?anniao?eaaeny au eae iaeioeyoeeiiiue, oioy e aeinoaoi/iue aeey
iaania/aiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

Eeeaeaeaoeey aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ia oieueei auea
aeinoeaiooa , aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa iaiai?io, aeinoea aieueoeo ?acia?ia
(a ?acoeueoaoa nie?auaiey iaeiaia, a oaeaea caiaoiiai oaaee/aiey aiaiiuo
?anoiaeia). Aaeieieno?aoeey ?aeaaia niiaea ia?ae?uoue eioeyoeeiiiia
aicaeaenoaea yoiai aeaoeoeeoa ca n/ao aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea, o.a.
naa?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoee e ianaeaiey, a oaeaea i?eoiea eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea, i?eaea/aiiiai aunieeie i?ioeaioiuie noaaeaie. Iineaaeothuea
aaeieieno?aoeee oaeaea ia ono?aieee yoio iaaeinoaoie. Aunieee aeaoeoeeo
athaeaeaoa i?aa?aoeeny a onoie/eaue no?oeoo?iue yeaiaio yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey NOA. Ia?aoeiny e 1999 aiaeo . Aia?eeaineay yeiiiieea ia
iiaeuaia, iaeiaei o?aaiao aucuaaao neooaoeey ia ?uiea o?oaea,
aaea ioia/ai ?aei?aeii ieceee iieacaoaeue aac?aaioeoeu – 4,7 %,
/oi ai?acaei ieaea eeanne/aneeo 6 %. E aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaeaen
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai a NOA a ai?aea au?in ia 0,7 %. Yoi
oaaee/eei aiaeiaie o?iaaiue eioeyoeee a NOA n 1,7 aei 2,3 %. Ai
iiiaii aeaiiue nea/ie naycai n ?aceei oaaee/aieai oeai ia
aaicei : iie iiaeiyeenue ia 17 %. Eiaeaen Dow Jones a oa/aiea /ana
oiae ia 110 ioieoia (iinea iauyaeaiey eioi?iaoeee ia eioeyoeee).
Ianiio?y ia anieane eioeyoeee , ia i?ioaaeoai canaaeaiee O?N aa
?oeiaiaenoai ?aoeei inoaaeoue aacenioth o/aoioth noaaeo aac eciaiaiee.

Ia?aoeiny e aioeeioeyoeeiiiie i?aeoeea eaoeii-aia?eeaineeo no?ai.

I?aaeoaeuenoai Aieeaee a ai?ueaa n aeia?eioeyoeeae eniieueciaaei
oieueei o?aaeeoeeiiiua iiiaoa?enoneea iaoiaeu : aioo?e no?aiu
eiioeneaoeeiiioth aeaiaaeioth ?aoi?io a ni/aoaiee n ae?oaeie
ia?aie/aieyie a e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeea, oiaiueoaieai
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e oaaee/aieai iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee ; ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie noa?a – oneeaiea eiio?iey ca eo?nii iaiaia
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou n i?aeiouanoaaiiie oeaeueth iooai
?aaoee?oaiie aeaaaeueaaoeee noeioee?iaaoue yenii?o e oai naiui
niinianoaiaaoue ?inoo i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei oniaoe
iiiaoa?ecia a ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae ia i?eaaee e i?ioeaaoaieth yeiiiieee
no?aiu.

A *eee aeey iiaeaaeaiey eioeyoeee eniieueciaaeenue aeanoeea
i?oiaeienaeueii-iiiaoa?enoneea iaoiaeu, ii ia?aeeaeueii i?eiaiyeenue
oaeea ia?u, eae aeeeoaeueiia onoaiiaeaiea oeene?iaaiiiai eo?na iaiaia
naiae iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou, aeoeaiay ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea
aeaaii?eyoiuo no?oeoo?iuo i?aia?aciaaiee a yeiiieea e ae?.

A o?ao ae?oaeo eaoeii-aia?eeaineeo no?aiao – Iaeneea, Ia?o, A?aaioeia –
eniieueciaaiea ia?aiia/aeueii oieueei iiiaoa?enoneeo iaoiaeia ai?ueau n
aeia?eioeyoeeae oniaoa ia i?eianei i?aaeaea anaai ec-ca aieueoie ?iee a
yoeo no?aiao oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae. E oieueei i?eiaiaiea
iaoiaeia aaoa?iaeienii – iaiiiaoa?enoneiai oa?aeoa?a i?e nio?aiaiee
aeanoeeo iiiaoa?enoneeo ia? iicaieeee yoei no?aiai ni?aaeony n
aeia?eioeyoeeae, ia?aaaaey aa ia aieaa oia?aiiue aaeiie?othuee
o?iaaiue.

Ia?aoei aieiaiea ia aioeeioeyoeeiiioth iieeoeeo a ?innee a ?aciia a?aiy.

A ?innee aoiaaeiua aeaiueae iiyaeeenue i?e Aeaoa?eia II. Iiaiaaaaeaiea
ieacaeinue noieue auaiaeiui aeey eaciu, /oi n aai iiiiuueth noaee
ainiieiyoue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo. A ?acoeueoaoa Iaaeo 1 i?eoeinue
ai?ioueny n aacoaea?aeiie eioeyoeeae. I/a?aaeiie aeoie eioeyoeee a
?innee ia/aeny n ?aceiai iaaeaiey eo?na ?oaey aaniie 1915
aiaea, eiaaea ?onneay a?iey iioa?yea caiaaeiua oa??eoi?ee eiia?ee.
A aiaeu ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu iaiai aaieiio ia cieioi aue
i?ae?auai e ?ac?aoaeny auione e?aaeeoiuo aeeaoia aeey oeiaine?iaaiey
aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia ainoaea?noaa.

E oaa?aeth 1917 aiaea iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue ?oaey oiaea a 3,5
?aca, ca 8 ianyoeaa i?aaeaiey A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?oaeue
iaanoeaieeny aua a 3 ?aca. A aiaeu a?aaeaeaineie aieiu ia
oa??eoi?ee auaoae ?inneeneie eiia?ee ia?auaeinue nauoa 2000
?aciiaeaeiinoae aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia. A iaa 1919 aiaea Niaao ia?iaeiuo
eiienna?ia aiiaua ioiaiee ana ia?aie/aiey ia yienneth. Auione aoiaaeiuo
aeaiaa i?iecaiaeeeny a «i?aaeaeao aeaenoaeoaeueiie iio?aaiinoe
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a aeaiaaeiuo ciaeao». N ethey 1918 aiaea ii yiaa?ue
1921 aiaea Ia?iaeiui aaieii ?innee auei iaia/aoaii 2,5 o?ei. ?oa.,
iaania/aiiuo ia cieioii, a «aeinoiyieai ?anioaeeee».

Eioeyoeey a ?innee auea iiaaaeaeaia eeoue a 1925 aiaeo, /a?ac o?e aiaea
iinea aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu e aaaaeaiey cieioiai /a?aiioea.

A iineaaeothuai Niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai iaiaeiie?aoii i?eaaaaei e
iiiiue ia/aoiiai noaiea aeey ?aoaiey oeiainiauo i?iaeai. A
/anoiinoe, a 1939 aiaeo – a nayce n ?aceei oaaee/aieai ?anoiaeia ia
niaea?aeaiea a?iee, iinea Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu – ia
ainnoaiiaeaiea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, a 60-70-a aiaeu – aeey iie?uoey
?anoouaai athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa. Iaeiaei a oneiaeyo aeanoeie
aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie e oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
eiio?iey iaae oeaiaie ?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu ia i?eaiaeee e ioe?uoie
eioeyoeee.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu nouanoaiaaiey NNN? eioeyoeey i?aa?aoeeanue ec
iiaeaaeaiiie a yaioth. A 1990 – 1991 aiaeao oeaiu ?inee oaea a
niioaaonoaee n ?aoaieyie ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, a 1991 aiaeo
iio?aaeoaeueneea oeaiu iiauneeenue a 2,6 ?aca. Iauyaeyy eeaa?aeecaoeeth
oeai n 1 yiaa?y 1992 aiaea, ?aoi?iaoi?u iaeeaeaee ?ino oeai a 3-4 ?aca.
Oaeoe/anee ii ninoaaee 26 ?ac. Auno?i ni?aaeony n eioeyoeeae iooai
?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu, ia aeiioneay aa /?acia?iiai ?inoa
ia oaeaeinue. Iniiaiay ioeaea caeeth/aeanue a iaaa?iii
i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?e?iaea eioeyoeee a ?innee e niioaaonoaaiii a
iai?aaeeueiii auai?a n?aaenoa ai?ueau n iae. Auea acyoa ia
aii?oaeaiea iaeia ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae eiee/anoaaiiie oai?ee aeaiaa –
iiiaoa?eci. Iaeiaei, noaey ii anaio a ?innee eiaao ianoi eioeyoeey
iaaeaiaaeiie i?e?iaeu. Iiyoiio e ionoaaaiea aeaiaaeiie iannu io
aeeiaieee oeai a oa/aiee anae eeaa?aeecaoeeiiiie ?aoi?iu, ia/eiay n
1992 aiaea, ia i?aiyonoaoao eioeyoeee. ?aoi?iaoi?u, ciay, /oi a?yaeao
eioeyoeey, iano?ieeenue ia ?aoeoaeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea ae, ii ii
?aoeaioai oeieu I. O?eaeiaia. Iaiiiaoa?enoneoth eioeyoeeth (eioeyoeeth
i?aaeeiaeaiey) noaee oe?iuaoue iiiaoa?enoneeie iaoiaeaie, caaeeiay
aeaiaaeioth ianno e ia?aie/eaay ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in, /oi e aucaaei
?aceia iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, eai anyeiio iiiiiieenoo i?iua e
auaiaeiaa nie?auaoue i?iecaiaenoai e iiauoaoue oeaiu, /ai
ia?aueaaoue aai iauaiu e nieaeaoue oeaiu. Aio yoi ianiioaaonoaea
i?e?iaeu ?inneeneie eioeyoeee e iaoiaea ai?ueau n iath e ninoaaeyao
aeaaioth iniaaiiinoue eioeyoeeiiiie neooaoeee a no?aia.

Iaiainiiaaiiay aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea a oa/aiea 1992-1997 aa.,
au?aceaoayny a caaeeia aeaiaaeiie iannu, i?eaaea e aeiaaeueiiio ?inoo
iaieaoaaeae, ianniaiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth no??iaaoia aeaiaa, iiauoaieth
?iee aa?oa?a a oicyenoaaiiuo naycyo. Yoe i?ioeannu oieueei n ia?aiai
acaeyaea i?aaenoaaeythony «oaoie/aneeie» : ia naiii aeaea ca ieie
ne?uaathony aeoaieea i?iaaeu a i?aaiecaoeee ii?iaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey oiaa?ia. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue
iioa?th OeA yienneiiiiai aeioiaea, eioi?ue iia au ia?aciaaoueny
i?e ii?iaeueiii ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu e a naith i/a?aaeue
niya/eoue i?iaeaio ainoaea?noaaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe. «Iaoo?aeecaoeey»
oicyenoaaiiuo naycae, ?acei oiaiueoay iaeiaiaoth aaco, iicaieyao
i?aaei?eyoeyi nieaeaoue iaeiaiaua ieaoaaee, a oi e aiana ec
ecaaaaoue eo. Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee ioia/atho, /oi o?iaaiue oeai
a naeaeeao, ii eioi?ui inouanoaeyaony aa?oa?, i?iaiaeyony ca/aou,
i?eiaiythony no??iaaou aeaiaa, cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai a oneiaeyo
ii?iaeueiiai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Nicaeaiiay ca aiaeu ?aoi?i
neooaoeey aeiaaeueiiai aeaiaaeiiai aieiaea a ?aaeueiii naeoi?a
eneeth/aao aai ii?iaeueiia ?acaeoea. O i?aaei?eyoee iaaeinoaao
iai?ioiiai eaieoaea, ia?aie/aiiinoue naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia
?acei iiauoaao i?ioeaio, o.a. ieaoo ca eo i?eaea/aiea , iiyoiio
e?aaeeo iaaeinooiai i?aaei?eyoeyi. No??iaaou aeaiaa ia iiaoo auiieiyoue
ooieoeeth iaeiieaiey e naa?aaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoey oa?ytho
aiciiaeiinoue noi?ie?iaaoue oioue eaeea-oi eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?ano?nu,
iie oo?a/eaatho ia oieueei ?ano?nu aeey ?anoe?aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa , ii e noeioeu e yoiio. A eiioea eiioeia a
?acoeueoaoa oaeiai iaoiaea iiaeaaeaiey eioeyoeee i?ienoiaeeo
iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e aua aieueoaa iaaeaiea eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee.

Ia?aniio? iieeoeee eneonnoaaiiiai caieaeaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu
i?aaeiieaaaao aieaa aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea yiennee aeaiaa eae
i?aaeiinueee oeo/oaiey iauaai yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa. Naycue iaaeaeo yienneae e ?inoii oeai aiana ia
aaoiiaoe/aneay . oi, /oi neacaii i caaeneiinoe aeeiaieee oeai io
aeaiaaeiie iannu, aeeth/aao a naay e aeeyiea yiennee ia oeaiu. Eiia/ii,
anee yieoe?iaaoue aeaiueae oae, eae yoi aeaeaeinue a 1918- 1921 aa.,
oi ie/aai oi?ioaai aeaeaoue ia i?eoiaeeony. Iaaei oaeaea aeiaeoueny ,
/oiau yieoe?oaiua aeaiueae (a aeaea e?aaeeoia) oee eiaiii ia oaaee/aiea
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee, a ia ia aaethoiue ?uiie.

Aua iaeei aii?in – iiaaoaiea ca n/ao yiennee aeieaia athaeaeaoa. iinea
aaaonoa 1998 aiaea ?acei eciaieeanue neooaoeey ia ?uieao
i?iaeiaieuenoaey : aeiey eiii?oa oiaea, oeaiu au?inee e ioa/anoaaiiua
i?iecaiaeeoaee iieo/eee oain iaeaaeeoue e oaaee/eoue i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeiaieuenoaey. Ii yoiio i?aiyonoaoao cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea ni?ina
ec-ca iaaeaiey aeioiaeia ianaeaiey. Iiaaoaiea caaeieaeaiiinoe ii iaineyi
e ae?oaei nioeeaeueiui auieaoai nei?aa anaai oaaee/eo ni?in eiaiii
ia i?iaeiaieuenoaea. A yoie neooaoeee yienney iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue
iaeeaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaa. ?acoiaaony, ?a/ue eaeao oieueei i ?aciaii
aicaeaenoaee ia ?uiie, a ia nenoaiaoe/aneii. Oaeei ia?acii, anoue
iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi yienney aeaiaa a iuiaoieo oneiaeyo
iiaeao auoue iieacia aeey oicyenoaa. Ii, eiia/ii, ioaeiu
aeaenoaey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, /oiau iaania/eoue aeieaeiue
eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai yieoe?oaiuo aeaiaa.

Iinea oeiainiaiai e?ecena aaaonoa 1998 aiaea eioeyoeeth noae
ii?aaeaeyoue eo?n ?oaey, eiaiii aai iaaeaiea aucaaei aniuoeo oeai a
aaaonoa-naioya?a e i?iaeieaeathueeny eo ?ino a ieoya?a – iiya?a.
Aeaiaaeiay ianna a aaaonoa auea ieaea, /ai a ia/aea aiaea. Iaaeaiea
eo?na ?oaey auei ?acoeueoaoii aeaoo nouanoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia : ia?aciaaiey
aieueoie e?aoein?i/iie caaeieaeaiiinoe ia?aceaeaioai e ionoaaaiey eo?na
?oaey io o?iaiy eioeyoeee. Iinoaiaiiia eciaiaiea eo?na ?oaey ie/aai
no?aoiiai ia i?aaenoaaeyei, ii eciaiaiea i?iecioei a oi?ia «iaaaea».
Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iinoaiaiiia nieaeaiea eo?na ?oaey ai ia?aie
iieiaeia 1998 aiaea i?aaeioa?aoeei au aniuoeo eioeyoeee. Iiaia
?oeiaiaenoai OeA ia?aoei e ieaaathuaio aaethoiiio eo?no ?oaey. A
iuiaoiae neooaoeee yoi, aeaeeii, i?aaeeueii, oae eae na?ueaciuo
aaethoiuo ?aca?aia aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiiai eo?na iao.
Aianoa n oai ieaaathuee eo?n icia/aao ?ino aiciiaeiinoe oneeaiey
eioeyoeee. Iiyoiio, aeoiaaony anoue niune ianoaeeoue aii?in i ia?aoiaea
a ia?niaeoeaa e aaethoiiio ei?eaei?o.

Oaeei ia?acii, ec i?eaaaeaiiiai auoa auoaeatho e?aeia iaooaoeoaeueiua
auaiaeu a ioiioaiee i?iaiaeeiie aioeeioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeee. A
?acoeueoaoa iaaa?iiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?e?iaea eioeyoeee a ?innee e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaaa?ii aua?aiiuo iaoiaeia ai?ueau
(i?oiaeienaeueii-iiiaoa?enoneay iieeoeea) no?aia iioa?yea aieaa
iieiaeiu naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aaenoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui ia?yaeo n iiiaoa?enoneeie iaoiaeaie ia?aeoe
e eniieueciaaieth aaoa?iaeienii-iaiiiaoa?enoneeo ia?, /oiau
naea?aeeaaoue eioeyoeeth ia ca n/ao nieaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, a ca n/ao
aai noaaeeecaoeee, iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia.

Ieai :

Aaaaeaiea
………………………………………………………………
…………………..

Eioeyoeey

a. I?e/eiu eioeyoeee
………………………………………………………………

a. Aeaeu e oeiu eioeyoeee
……………………………………………………………

a. Eino?oiaiou e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee
………………………………..

a. Iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee
…………………………………………………………….

Oai?ee aicieeiiaaiey eioeyoeee

a. Eiee/anoaaiiay oai?ey
……………………………………………………………

a. Eaeineaineay oai?ey
………………………………………………………………

a. Iiiaoa?eci
………………………………………………………………
…………..

a. No?oeoo?iay eioeyoeey
…………………………………………………………….

Iaoiaeu ai?ueau n eioeyoeeae
……………………………………………………….

Aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea a ?aciuo no?aiao

a. NOA
………………………………………………………………
…………………….

a. Aieeaey
………………………………………………………………
………………..

a. *eee
………………………………………………………………
…………………….

a. Iaeneea, Ia?o, A?aaioeia
……………………………………………………….

ae. Aa?iaiey
………………………………………………………………
………………

Eioeyoeey a ?innee
………………………………………………………………
…….

a. Eioeyoeey a oea?neie ?innee e NNN?. Iaoiaeu ai?ueau
…………………..

a. Eioeyoeey a ?innee 1990-1996 aa.
………………………………………………

a. Eioeyoeey a ?innee 1998 -1999 aa. Aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea. ……

Caeeth/aiea
………………………………………………………………
……………….

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u
……………………………………………..

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u :

Aiae?eaiia A.Ae. Eioeyoeey e iaoiaeu aa ?aaoee?iaaiey . // YEI ? 7 1999

Aueia I.,Eieoa?ia A.?aaeoeey ia eioeyoeeth. // Yenia?o ? 19 1999

Ee?e/aiei A. Oneeaiea ain?aaoee?iaaiey. // ?YAE ? 2 1999

Ieuenaae/ Iiiaoa?eci e ?inney : i?iaeaiu niaianoeiinoe. //Aii?inu
yeiiiieee ? 8 1997

Eeea?eiiia A. Caeiiiia?iinoe ie?iaie eioeyoeee. // Aii?inu yeiiiieee ? 2
1997

Nia?aiaiiay yeiiiieea. Iauaaeinooiiue o/aaiue eo?n. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio –
1996

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. O/aaiee aeey aocia. – NIa 1999

Oeoa? N., Aei?iaoo ?., Oiaeaice ?. Yeiiiieea – I.: 1995

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey . O/aaiee aeey aocia. – NIa 1999

Oeoa? N., Aei?iaoo ?., Oiaeaice ?. Yeiiiieea – I.: 1995

Aueia I., Eieoa?ia A. ?aaeoeey ia eioeyoeeth. // Yenia?o ? 19 1999

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