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2

OAOO 060400. 010

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

O/ao cao?ao e
eaeueeoee?iaaiea

naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee
ii

iaoiaeo
“Aee?aeo-einoeia”

Enaeiaa TH. A., a?oiia
O-31

Oaiaia 1999

Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

Oaiaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e

aoaeeo

Ooaa?aeaeath

Caa. eaoaae?ie

E. A. Ia?oiiaiei

“ ” 1999a

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ia oaio: O/ao cao?ao e eaeueeoee?iaaiea naaanoieiinoe ii iaoiaeo
“Aee?aeo –

einoeia”

Aaoi? ?aaiou TH. A. Enaeiaa A?oiia O-31

Niaoeeaeueiinoue 060400 oeiainu e e?aaeeo

Iaicia/aiea eo?niaie ?aaiou OAOO 060400. 010

?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?aaiou
E. A AEa?eeiaa

?aaioa caueuaia
Ioeaiea

*eaiu eiiennee

Ii?iieiio?iea?
I. A. Ieeioeia

Oaiaia 1999 a.

Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

Oaiaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e

aoaeeo

Ooaa?aeaeath

Caa. eaoaae?ie

E. A.Ia?oiiaiei

“ ” 1999 a.

Caaeaiea

ia eo?niaoth ?aaioo

Nooaeaioea TH. A. Enaeiaa eiae 010 a?oiia O-31

1 Oaia: O/ao cao?ao e eaeueeoee?iaaiea naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee ii
iaoiaeo

“Aee?aeo – einoeia”

2 N?ie i?aaeinoaaeaiey e caueoa “ ” 1999 a.

3 Ia?a/aiue ?acaeaeia eo?niaie ?aaiou: nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia” eae

aaaeiaeoay oa?aeoa?enoeea oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa; o/ao e
eaeueeoee?iaaiea

ona/aiiie naaanoieiinoe; i?iaeaiu aaeaioaoeee e ?inneeneie oai?ee e

i?aeoeea

?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?aaiou
E. A AEa?eeiaa

Caaeaiea i?eiyea e eniieiaieth “ ” 1999 a.

.

Oaiaia 1999 a.

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1 Nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia” ea aaaeiaeoay oa?aeoa?enoeea
oi?aaeai/aneiai

o/aoa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.1 I?aaiecaoeey o/aoa cao?ao ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia” . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 6

1.2 I?iaeaiaoeea eeanneoeeaoeee cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua . . .
. . . . . 9

1.3 Iniaaiiinoe nenoaiu “Aee?aeo – einoeia”. I?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee
. . . . 13

2 O/ao e eaeueeoee?iaaiea ona/aiiie naaanoieiinoe . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 16

2.1 I?inoie “Aee?aeo – einoeia” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.2 ?acaeoie “Aee?aeo – einoeia” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3 I?iaeaiu aaeaioaoeee e ?inneeneie oai?ee e i?aeoeea . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 23

3.1 I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo –
einoeia” 24

3.2 Oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiaiaiey nenoaiu “Aee?aeo – einoeia”. . . . . .
. . . . . . . 30

3.3 Eaeueeoee?iaaiea naaanoieiinoe a ioa/aonaaiiii o/aoa ii nenoaia
“Aee?aeo –

einoeia”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Caeeth/aiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

AAAAeAIEA

Ioa/anoaaiiay nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai
ioaa/aea o?aaiaaieyi oeaio?aeeciaaiii oi?aaeyaiie yeiiiieee: iia
iaania/eaaea iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee iai anao oaeoe/anee iiianaiiuo a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna cao?aoao; eaeueeoee?iaaiee iieiie
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio eee oneoa a iniiaiii aeey oeaeae
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

Nenoaia iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee i naaanoieiinoe auea iaeaaeaia
ia i?aaei?eyoeyo aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi. Ae?oaia aeaei, /oi aieueoay
/anoue aa ia aino?aaiaaeanue, oae eae ia auei noeioea aeey nieaeaiey
cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai, a cia/eo, e oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii oi?ie?iaaiey
naaanoieiinoe ia i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ninoaaeaiey oi/iuo, aeinoiaa?iuo eaeueeoeyoeee auea
iaoneiaeaia a niaaoneii aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa nenoaiie ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey. N ?acaeoeai ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee
?anoe?yaony naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee, a oii /enea e a ai?inao
onoaiiaeaiey oeai ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth n o/aoii neeaaeuaathueony ia
?uiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, /oi yaeyaony iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?enoee yoeo
ioiioaiee, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai eciaiythony caaea/e, noiyuea ia?aae
aooaaeoa?neei o/aoii e aai iiaenenoaiie – eaeueeoee?iaaieai. A yoeo
oneiaeyo caaea/a eaeueeoee?iaaiey – ia i?inoi iaania/eoue oaeoe/aneoth
naaanoieiinoue ecaeaeey, a ?ann/eoaoue ueaeoth naaanoieiinoue, eioi?ay a
naaiaeiyoieo oneiaeyo ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea iiaea au iaania/eoue
aio ii?aaeaeaiioth i?eaueue. Enoiaey ec yoiai ?ann/eoaiiiai o?iaiy
naaanoieiinoe ioaeii i?aaieciaaoue i?iecaiaenoai oaeei ia?acii, /oiau
iaania/eoue yoio i?eaieaiue o?iaaiue naaanoieiinoe e aiciiaeiinoue aa
iinoiyiiiai nieaeaiey. Iiyoiio a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeaio? oyaeanoe a
eaeueeoeyoeeiiiie ?aaioa iinoaiaiii aeieaeai i?aiineoueny n o?oaeiaieeo
?an/aoia ii ?ani?aaeaeaieth einaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e ii?aaeaeaieth oi/iie
oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe ia i?iaiiciua ?an/aou naaanoieiinoe,
ninoaaeaiea iainiiaaiiuo ii?iaoeaiuo eaeueeoeyoeee, i?aaiecaoeeth
eiio?iey ca eo niaethaeaieai a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. E?iia oiai,
eaeueeoeyoeey naaanoieiinoe ia o?iaia i?yiuo (ia?aiaiiuo) ?anoiaeia a
oneiaeyo ?uiea naycaia n onoaiiaeaieai ieaeiaai i?aaeaea oeaiu, oi anoue
i?aaeaea, aei eioi?iai i?aaei?eyoea aua iiaeao iieceoue oeaio a neo/aa
iaaeaiey ni?ina ia aai i?iaeoeoeeth eee n oeaeueth caaiaaaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiue ?uiie.

Naaiaeiy nouanoaotho aeaa i?iaeaiu o/aoa cao?ao.

Ia?aay – ia?ai?eaioe?iaaoue ioa/anoaaiioth oai?eth e
iaeiieaiiue a yoie iaeanoe i?aeoe/aneee iiuo ia ?aoaiea iiauo caaea/,
noiyueo ia?aae oi?aaeaieai i?aaei?eyoeai a oneiaeyo ?uiea.

Aoi?ay – nicaeaiea iiauo iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo nenoai iieo/aiey
eioi?iaoeee i cao?aoao, i?eiaiaiea iiauo iiaeoiaeia e eaeueeoee?iaaieth
naaanoieiinoe, iiaen/aoo oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, a oaeaea iaoiaeia
aiaeeca, eiio?iey e i?eiyoey ia yoie iniiaa oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Iaeiei ec aeueoa?iaoeaiuo o?aaeeoeeiiiiio ioa/anoaaiiiio iiaeoiaeo
e eaeueeoee?iaaieth iieiie naaanoieiinoe yaeyaony iiaeoiae, eiaaea a
?ac?aca iauaeoia eaeueeoee?iaaiey ieaie?othony e o/eouaathony iaiieiay,
ia?aie/aiiay naaanoieiinoue. Yoa naaanoieiinoue iiaeao aeeth/aoue a naay
oieueei i?yiua cao?aou, oieueei ia?aiaiiua, caaenyuea io eciaiaiey
iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa; iia iiaeao eaeueeoee?iaaoueny ia iniiaa oieueei
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, oi anoue ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n
ecaioiaeaieai aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee auiieiaieai ?aaio eee ieacaieai oneoa,
aeaaea anee iie einaaiiua. Ii, ianiio?y ia ?acee/ioth iieiioo aeeth/aiey
a naaanoieiinoue iauaeoa eaeueeoee?iaaiey ?acee/iuo aeaeia ?anoiaeia,
iauei aeey yoiai iiaeoiaea yaeyaony oi, /oi ae?oaea aeaeu cao?ao,
eioi?ua oaeaea ii naiae yeiiiie/aneie nouiinoe ninoaaeyao /anoue oaeoueo
ecaea?aeae, ia aeeth/athony a eaeueeoeyoeeth, a aiciauathony iauae
noiiie ec au?o/ee (aaeiaie i?eauee). A yoii iniiaiay ioee/eoaeueiay
iniaaiiinoue nenoaiu o/aoa iaiieiie naaanoieiinoe – nenoaia
“Aee?aeo-einoeia”.

1 Nenoaia Aee?aeo-einoeia eae aaaeiaeoay oa?aeoa?enoeea
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa

Iai?inoua ?uii/iua i?ioeannu, ii?aaeaeythuea oneiaeiaiea i?eaioaoeee
ioaeaeueiiai oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey, aeeythuea ia eieaaaiea iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, a oaeaea
oaaee/aiea aeiee iinoiyiiuo cao?ao a eo iauai iauaia, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
nouanoaaiii neacuaathony ia eieaaaiee naaanoieiinoe ecaeaeee, a cia/eo,
e ia eo i?eauee. Ii ia?a oneeaiey yoeo oaiaeaioeee oaaee/eaaaony
iio?aaiinoue oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae a eioi?iaoeee i cao?aoao ia
ecaioiaeaiea ecaeaeee e eo ?aaeecaoeeth, ia eneaaeaiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa
?ani?aaeaeaiey einaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e ioiineoaeueii iaeciaiiuo ia
aaeeieoeo auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee i?e ethaii iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaeoth eioi?iaoeeth a aeaea aeaiiuo i iaiieiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
naaanoieiinoe (a /anoe i?yiuo, ia?aiaiiuo eee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao)
e ia?aeeiaeueiii aeioiaea (noiia iie?uoey) – ?acieoea iaaeaeo oeaiie
i?iaeaaee (au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee) e iaiieiie naaanoieiinoueth ecaeaeee
eee ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a oeaeii – e aeaao nenoaia
“Aee?aeo-einoeia”.

1.1 I?aaiecaoeey o/aoa cao?ao ii neoaia “Aee?aeo-einoeia”.

O/ao cao?ao ninoieo ec neaaeothueo yeaiaioia: o/ao ii aeaeai
cao?ao, o/ao ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao e o/ao ii iineoaeyi cao?ao
(eaeueeoee?iaaiea naaanoieiinoe aaeeieoeu ecaeaeey).

Ana yoe yeaiaiou i?enoonoaotho i?e ethaie eiie?aoiie i?aaiecaoeee
o/aoa cao?ao a oi?aaeai/aneii (i?iecaiaenoaaiiii) o/aoa, a oii /enea e
i?e o/aoa iieiuo eee /anoe/iuo cao?ao. Iineieueeo o/ao cao?ao ia
ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo aei neo ii? i?aaenoaaeye niaie o/ao iieiie
naaanoieiinoe e niioaaonoaaiii nenoaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea i?eauee, oi i
oaeie i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa, ianiio?y ia ?acee/ey ii iino?iaiey o ian e ca
?oaaaeii, iu eiaai aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioaa i?aaenoaaeaiea. *oi eanaaony
“aee?aeo -einoeiaa”, oi, iienuaay

ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou o/aoa cao?ao ii yoie nenoaia, iue?aoei aieiaiea ia
i?enouea aeaiiie nenoaia iniaaiiinoe.

?anniio?ei i?aaiecaoeeth o/aoa cao?ao a niioaaonoaee n nenoaiie
“Aee?aeo-einoeia” ii ia?a/eneaiiui auoa yeaiaioai.

Caaea/ae ia?aiai yeaiaioa o/aoa cao?ao yaeyaony nenoaiaoe/aneee
o/ao cao?ao ii aeaeai ca aeaiiue ia?eiae. Ii io?aaeaao aa?oeeaeueioth
no?oeoo?o cao?ao i?aaei?eyoey.

Aaaeiaeoeie aeaeaie cao?ao, iiaeeaaeaueie o/aoo, yaeythony: Cao?aou
ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo; iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou; cao?aou ia yia?aeth;
cao?aou ia ?aiiio; iaeiae, aciinu, no?aoiaaiea; cao?aou ia
aii?oecaoeeth; i?ioeaiou, ?enee; i?i/ea cao?aou.

Yoio ia?/aiue iiaeao eciaiyoueny a caaeneiinoe io iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae o/aoa e noaiaie aai aeaoaeecaoeee.

N oi/ee c?aiey i?eiaiaiey nenoaiu “Aee?aeo-einoeia” caeanue
ionoonoaotho eaeea-eeai i?eioeeieaeueiua iniaaiiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n
nenoaiie o/aoa iieiie naaanoieiinoe. Ioaeii oieueei iiae/a?eiooue, /oi
iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?aaiecaoeee aee?aeo-einoeiaa ?acaeaeaiea cao?ao ia
iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ia iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii a o/aoa ii aeaeai
cao?ao, oae eae ca/anooth iaeei e oio aea aeae cao?ao a ?aciuo ianoao
aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao aaaeao naay ii-?aciiio ii ioiioaieth e eciaiaieth
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iai?eia?, ca?aaioiay ieaoa aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ?aai/eo a iaeiii ianoa
aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao iiaeao iineoue i?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?, a ae?oaii –
iieoia?aiaiiue, a o?aoueai – i?aeoe/anee ia iaiyaony n eciaiaieai
caa?ocee iiuiinoae eee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aca?aie/aiea cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua, a
oaeaea eo ?acaeaeueiue o/ao ii aeaeai iiaeao auoue i?aaieciaai oieueei a
?ac?aca iano aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao.

Iniaaiiinoue o/aoa cao?ao ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey ii nenoaia
“Aee?aeo-einoeia” ninoieo a oii, /oi iinoiyiiua cao?aou ia
?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo iineoaeyie cao?ao.

O/ao ii ianoai aiciieiiaaiey cao?ao aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i
ai?eciioaeueiie no?oeoo?a cao?ao i?aaei?eyoey.

O/ao cao?ao ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo-einoeia” i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?aaiaoe/aneoth oi?io o/aoa, iai?aaeaiioth ia i?eiyoea ?aoaiee. A neo/aa
i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa cao?ao ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey iao iaaeiaiinoe
eniieueciaaoue aacu, eee “eeth/e”, ?ani?aaeaeaiey einaaiiuo ?anoiaeia
o?iaiy i?aaei?eyoey ia o?iaie caaiaeia eee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe, a
caoai /a?ac iniiaiua ianoa aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao – iaaeaeo iineoaeyie
cao?ao, i?iecaaaeaiiuo a aeaiiii io/aoiii ia?eiaea., eae i?e nenoaia
o/aoa iieiuo cao?ao (eaeueeoee?iaaiea iieiie naaanoieiinoe).

Ii nooe aeaea, i?e i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa a ?ac?aca iano aicieeiiaaiey
cao?ao ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo-einoeia” en/acaao naii iiiyoea einaaiiuo
?anoiaeia, iaeeaaeiua ?anoeaeu noaiiayony i?yiuie ii ioiioaieth e
aeaiiiio ianoo aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao. Oaeei ia?acii, i?e nenoaia
“Aee?aeo-einoeia” cao?aou a ianoao aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao
iiae?acaeaeythony ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua. Yoio yeaiaio nenoaiu o/aoa
cao?ao aeaao eioi?iaoeeth aeey eaeueeoee?iaaiy naaanoieiinoe iineoaeae
cao?ao – neaaeothuaai yeaiaioa nenoaiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa –
oieueei ii ia?aiaiiui cao?aoai.

Iaeiie ec i?iaeai o/aoa cao?ao ii ianoai eo aicieeiiaaiey a /anoe
?acaeaeueiiai o/aoa ia?aiaiiuo e iinoiyiiuo cao?ao yaeyaony iaee/ea
“nea/eiia?aciuo” (nooiai/aouo) cao?ao, eioi?ua iinyo iinoiyiiue oa?aeoa?
ia ii?aaeaeaiiii eioa?aaea eciaiaiey iauaia, a caoai ?acei aic?anoatho
i?e eaeii-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiii cia/aiee iieacaoaey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

A i?aeoeea i?aaiecaoeey o/aoa cao?ao a ?ac?aca iano aicieeiiaaiey
cao?ao ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo-einoeia” yoa i?iaeaia ?aoaaony iooai
auaeaeaiey o?ao a?oii cao?ao: aaniethoii ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao,
Eciaiythueony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eciaiaieth iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa;
ioiineoaeueii ia?aiaiiuo (eee ioiineoaeueii iinoiyiiuo) cao?ao – aeey
io?aaeaiey “nea/eiia?aciuo”, nooiai/aouo cao?ao; aaniethoii iinoiyiiuo
cao?ao, ia eciaiythueony n eciaiaieai iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa eee
caa?oceie iiuiinoae.

I?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee a eiie?aoiie oi?aaeai/aneie neooaoeee aoi?ay
a?oiia cao?ao i?eniaaeeiyaony eeai e ia?aie, eeai e o?aoueae a
caaeneiinoe io i?aneaaeoaiie oeaee.

O/ao cao?ao ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo-einoeia” iiaeao auoue i?aaieciaai
eeai oieueei eae o/ao oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao, eeai eae o/ao ieaiiauo
(ii?iaoeaiuo) cao?ao, oi anoue a aeaiiii neo/aa iiaeii aiai?eoue ia
eioaa?aoeee nenoai “noaiaea?o-eino” e “aee?aeo-einoeia” eae aeaoo
iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ethaie ec nenoai oi?aaeai/aneiai
(i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa: ii iieiioa oeene?oaiuo cao?ao e ii
iia?aoeaiinoe io?aaeaiey cao?ao.

O/ao cao?ao ii ianoai eo aicieeiiaaiey iiaeao auoue i?aaieciaai a
nenoaia n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. N yoie oeaeuethaeey eaaeaeiai ianoa
aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao ioe?uaaaony naie neioaoe/aneee n/ao. I?e “aee?aeo
einoeiaa” ii eaaeaeiio ianoo aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao iiaoo ioe?uaaoueny
aeaa niae?aoaeueii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo n/aoa aeey o/aoa iaeeaaeiuo
?anoiaeia, eioi?ua ii ieii/aiee io/aoiiai ia?eiaea iaa n/aoa
cae?uaathony.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ia aieueoeinoaa caiaaeiuo
i?aaei?eyoee ie nenoaia o/aoa iieiuo cio?ao, ie nenoaia
“Aee?aeo-einoeia” i?aeoe/anee ia i?eiaiythony a /enoii aeaea. Aeey
i?eaioaoeee i?aaei?eyoey a neiaeiuo ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo ioaeia
?aciiia?aciay eioi?iaoeey, a oii /enea e i naaanoieiione, eioi?ay iiaeao
aiai?eoue i i?ioeanna eioaa?aoeee ?acee/iuo aniaeoia, yeaiaioia
oi?aaeai/aneiai (i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue
eniieueciaaiea yeaiaioia “aee?aeo-einoeiaa”, naycaiiuo n i?aaiecaoeeae
?acaeaeueiiai o/aoa ia?aiaiiuo e iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia, i?e o/aoa iieiie
naaanoieiinoe.

O/ao ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao iiaeao aanoenue ?acaeaeueii ii
ia?aiaiiui e iinoiyiiui ?anoiaeai, /oi ?anoe?yao aiaeeoe/aneea e
eii?ieueiua aiciiaeiinoe o/aoa naaanoieiinoe, e a oi aea a?aiy ia
iineoaee cao?ao iiaoo auoue ioianaiu ana cao?aou ia?eiaea. Aeaeea niaou
(athaeaeaou), ii nooe aeaea, yaeyynue iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?enoee
“aee?aeo-einoeiaa”, oaeaea oniaoii i?eiaiythony i?e o/aoa iieiuo cao?ao.

A oneiaeyo i?eiaiaiey “aee?aeo-einoeiaa” aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiay
i?iaeoeoeey, ?aaiou e oneoae ioiinyony ia iio?aaeythuea eo ianoa cao?ao
oieueei a /anoe ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao, a iinoiyiiua cao?aou oeene?othony a
ianoao eo aicieeiiaaiey, aaea yoa eioi?iaoeey e inoaaony, a caoai
ioooaea ia?aiineony a iiaenenoaio o/aoa ?acoeueoaoia ca ia?eiae.

*oi eanaony i?iaeaiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey cao?a aunoeo ea?a?oe/aneeo
o?iaiae (iano aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao) ia iecoea n oeaeueth aieaa
iainiiaaiiiai eo aeeth/aiey caoa a naaanoieiinoue aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee,
oi yoa i?iaeaia – eeanne/aeay ninoaaiay /anoue nenoaiu o/aoa e
eaeueeoee?iaaiey iieiie naaanoieiinoe. Iaeiaei a oeai?aeueiuo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo neoaeauo i?aaei?eyoey iiao eiaoue ianoi cao?aou,
iiaaaeaiea eioiauo iaiyaony n eciaiaieai iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa
iiae?acaeaeaiee ieaeanoiyuaai o?iaiy. Oiaaea yoe cao?aou i?e iiiiue
niioaaonoaothueo eeth/ae ?ani?aaeaeaiey (i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
niioaaonoaothuae aaca) ?ani?aaeaeythony aeaeueoa eae ia?aiaiiua. Ii, eae
i?aaeei, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ia?ae/iua cao?aou oeaio?aeueiuo neoaea
iiaoo iineoue ia?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?, iie i?eieiathony a ea/anoaa
iinoiyiiuo aoi?e/iuo cao?ao ii ioiioaieth e ?aniieiaeaiiui ea?a?oe/anee
ieaea ianoai aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao.

Iiae o/aoii ii iineoaeyi cao?ao a oi?aaeai/aneii
(i?iecaiaenoaaiiii) o/aoa iiieiatho ioianaiea cao?ao ia eo iineoaee.
Iineoaee cao?ao – i?iaeoeoeey, ?aaiou e oneoae i?aaei?eyoey,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?aaeecaoeee ia ?uiea.

O/ao ii iineoaeyi cao?ao eae iiaenenoaia o/aoa cao?ao oaeaea iiaeao
auoue i?aaieciaai eae o/ao iieiuo eee /anoe/iuo cao?ao.

I?e eaeueeoee?iaaiee naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee ii nenoaia
“Aee?aeo-einoeia” iinoiyiiua cao?aou ia ?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo
iineoaeyie. I?e yoii aa?eaioa eaeueeoee?iaaiey enoiaeyo ec oiai, /oi
oieueei ia?aiaiiua cao?aou (i?yiua cao?aou e /anoue iaeeaaeiuo
?anoiaeia) caaenyo io caa?ocee iiuiinoae eee io iauaia i?iaeoeoeee, a
iiyoiio oieueei iie iiaoo auoue ioianaiu ia iineoaee cao?ao.

Oaeei ia?acii, a naaanoieiinoue iineoaey cao?ao ia aeeth/aiu
iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu. Oaeie aa?eaio eaeueeoee?iaaiey aac niaoeeaeueiuo
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?an/aoia i?aaeinoaaeyao ioaeioth a oneiaeyo ?uiea
eioi?iaoeeth i oaiaeaioeeyo iiaaaeaiey cao?ao a oneiaeyo eciaiaiey
caa?ocee eee iauaia.

1.2 I?iaeaiaoeea eeanneoeeaoeee cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua

Aeey i?aaei?eyoey, ?aaioathuaai a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee,/anoi
eiatho ianoi yeiiiie/aneea neooaoeee, naycaiiua n eieaaaieyie caa?ocee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, /oi aea/ao ca niaie eciaiaiea iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaae, a yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, nouanoaaiii aeeyao
ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia oeiainiaua
?acoeueoaou.

A oi?aaeai/aneii (i?iecaiaeeoaeueiii) o/aoa nouanoaotho oi?ioi
?ac?aaioaiiay oai?ey eeanneoeeaoeee cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua. A
iniiaiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie “aee?aeo-einoeiaa” eae ?ac e yaeyaony i?iaeaia
iiae?acaeaeaiey cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua.

Caeanue iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e a?oiiu aii?inia:

– iiaaaeaiea cao?ao a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa;

– ioiineoaeueiinoue (oneiaiinoue) eeanneoeeaoeee cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua –
ia?aiaiiua

– iaoiaeu aeaeaiey cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua – ia?aiaiiua.

E iinoiyiiui cao?aoai a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii o/aoa i?eiyoi ioiineoue
oaeea cao?aou, aaee/eia eioi?uo ia iaiyaony n eciaiaieai noaiaie
caa?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae eee eciaiaieai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa
(iai?eia?, ia/eneyaiay ca ia?eiae aii?oecaoeey iniiaiiai eaieoaea,
a?aiaeiay ieaoa, i?ioeaio ia caaiiue eaieoae e ae?oaea).

Iiae ia?aiaiiuie iiieiatho cao?aou, aaee/eia eioi?uo eciaiyaony n
eciaiaieai noaiaie caa?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae eee iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa. E iei ioiinyony, iai?eia?, cao?aou ia nu?uea e iniiaiua
iaoa?eaeu, ca?aaioiay ieaoa iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aai/eo e
ae?oaea). A caaeneiinoe io i?ioeaioiiai niioiioaiey eciaiaiey cao?ao e
eciaiaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aiaiiua cao?aou, a naith i/a?aaeue,
iiae?acaeaeythony ia i?iii?oeeiiaeueiua, i?ia?anneaiua e aeaa?anneaiua.

Yoi yaeaiea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaa ?acee/iia iiaaaeaiea cao?ao e naycue
eo n iaueie cao?aoaie, iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue o?aaiaieai 1.

C = Ciino + Cia?
(1)

E?iia yoeo aeaoo a?oii cao?ao nouanoaoao aieueoay a?oiia cao?ao
niaoaiiiai oeia – iieoia?aiaiiuo (iieoiinoiyiiuo). Iiaaaeaiea oaeiai
?iaea cao?ao iiaeao auoue iienaii o?aaiaieai 2.

Y = a + aX,
(2)

aaea a – eiyooeoeeaio, oa?aeoa?ecothuee aeieth iinoiyiiuo (ia caaenyueo
io

iauaia eee caa?ocee) cao?ao;

a – eiyooeoeeaio, i?aaenoaaeythuee aaee/eio ia?aiaiiuo
(eciaiythueony n

eciaiaieai iauaia eee caa?ocee) cao?ao a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo
iauaia

i?iecaiaenoaa;

Y – aaee/eia niaieoiiuo cao?ao;

O – iauai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaiaoeeee o/aiue E. Iaeea?iae/ aeey iienaiey niioiioaiey i?ioeaioa
eciaiaiey cao?ao e i?ioeaioa eciaiaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa aaae iiiyoea
eiyooeoeeaioa ?aaae?iaaiey cao?ao (E?c), eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyaony ii
oi?ioea 3.

E?c=% eciaiaiey cao?ao/ % eciaiaiey iauaia.
(3)

Aeaiiue eiyooeoeeaio i?eieiaao ?acee/iua cia/aiey a caaeneiinoe io
aeaea cao?ao: aeey iinoiyiiuo cao?ao E?c=0; aeey i?iii?oeeiiaeueiuo
cao?ao E?c=1; aeey i?ia?anneaiuo – E?c>1; aeey aeaa?anneaiuo – E?c
eciaiyaony a i?aaeaeao io 0 aei 1.

Iiieii iiaaaeaiey cao?ao a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, aaaeiui aniaeoii oai?ee eeanneoeeaoeee cao?ao ia
iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua yaeyaony oneiaiinoue oaeiai eo iiae?acaeaeaiey.

Nouanoaoao aieueoia eiee/anoai aeaeia cao?ao, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho
aaee/eio niaieoiiuo cao?ao i?e eciaiaiee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa (cao?aou
ia nu?uea, iniiaiua e aniiiaaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu
e ae?oaea). Iineieueeo eiyooeoeeaio ?aaae?iaaiey yoeo ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao
ii?aaeaeyao ?aoaiey ia oaaee/aiee eee nieaeaiee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa,
oaeea cao?aou iacuaathony ?aoathueie.

Cao?aou ae?oaeo aeaeia (ca?aaioiay ieaoa aaeieieno?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoey, io?aiu, ieaoa ca a?aiaeiaaiiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa e
ae?oaea) ia caaenyo io iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iie i?inoi yaeythony
oneiaeai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey. Eo i?eiyoi iacuaaoue cao?aoaie,
ia ii?aaeaeythueie ?aoaiey.

Iaeiaei naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi ana ia?aiaiiua cao?aou aeeytho
ia ?aoaiey ia iauaiao i?iecaiaenoaa, a ana iinoiyiiua ia aeeytho,
iaeuecy. Nouanoaotho cao?aou, eioi?ua a ii?aaeaeaiiie neooaoeee iiaoo
auoue iinoiyiiuie, a a ae?oaie – ia?aiaiiuie. Ioaao ia aii?in, n/eoaoue
aeaiiua cao?aou iinoiyiiuie eee ia?aiaiiuie, caaeneo io aeaoo oaeoi?ia:
aeeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaea, ?anniao?eaaaiiai aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey e
aeaeeiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia.

Ia aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae a?aiaie ana cao?aou noaiiayony ia?aiaiiuie.
Iinoiyiiua cao?aou iiaoo aicieeaoue a ?acoeueoaoa th?eaee/aneeo eee
aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee, iai?eia? aeiaiai?u ia eeceia, aeiaiai?u i iaeia,
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua n?iee iiaea/e cayaeaiey ia oaieueiaiee, a?aiaeiua
aeiaiai?u e oae aeaeaa.

Iiyoiio aaniieacii aeaeeoue ?anoiaeu ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ii
eo nouiinoe. A oai?ee eeanneoeeaoeee cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua – ia?aiaiiua
oi?aaeai/aneiai (i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi oa?aeoa?
iiaaaeaiey ?anoiaeia (ia?aiaiiue eee iinoiyiiue) caaeneo io
niioaaonoathouae i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie neooaoeee, a eioi?ie i?eieiathony
?aoaiey.

Aeaaea anee i?aaei?eyoea ia ?aaioaao, iii ana ?aaii aeieaeii
auiea/eaaoue i?ioeaiou ia caaiiue eaieoae; yoe i?ioeaiou i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie iinoiyiiua cao?aou, oae eae eo aaee/eia ia caaeneo io noaiaie
caa?ocee eee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoe aea i?ioeaiou noaiiayony
ia?aiaiiuie, eiaaea iaiyaony neooaoeey aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, iai?eia?
i?aaeiieaaaaony i?iaeaoue i?aaei?eyoea. Anee anoae aii?in,
i?iecaiaeeoue, iai?eia?, 1000 oo. eiie?aoiuo ecaeaeee eee cae?uoue
i?aaei?eyoea, oi ana ?anoiaeu noaiiayony ia?aiaiiuie.

Ae?oaay i?e/eia aicieeiiaaiey iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia –
iaaeinoaoi/iay aeaeeiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia. Neaaenoaeai aa
yaeyaony oi, /oi iiiaea cao?aou aic?anoatho ia iinoaiaiii n oaaee/aieai
caa?ocee, a nea/eiia?acii. Yoe cao?aou iinoiyiiua aeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai
eioa?aaea caa?ocee iiuiinoae, caoai iie ?acei iiauoathony e niiaa
inoathony iaeciaiiuie ia ii?aaeaeaiiii eioa?aaea. Oaeea cao?aou
iacuaatho nea/eiia?aciuie eee iinoiyiiuie aeey aeaiiiai eioa?aaea. *ai
iaiueoa noaiiayony eioa?aaeu caa?ocee, oai aeeaea cao?aou ii naiaio
oa?aeoa?o e ia?aiaiiui.

Iinoiyiiua cao?aou, aicieeathuea ec-ca iaaeaeeiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia, ninoiyo ec “oieinouo”, ia eniieuecoaiuo a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna, e iieaciuo cao?ao.

I?iaeaia aeaeaiey iinoiyiiuo cao?ao ia iieaciua e aaniieaciua
iniaaiii ino?i anoaao, eiaaea i?iecaiaenoai iniauaii niaoeeaeueiuie
noaieaie-aaoiiaoaie. I?e nieaeaiee iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ana ?aaii
oiea/eaathony i?ioeaiou ia aeiaeaiiue eaieoae e ia/eneyaony
aii?oecaoeey, eioi?ua oieueei /anoe/ii yaeythony iieaciuie, a /anoe/ii –
“oieinouie” cao?aoaie aneaaenoaee iaaeaeeiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
oaeoi?a – noaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, iinoiyiiua cao?aou, aicieeathuea ec-ca iaaeaeeiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia ninoiyo ec “oieinouo”, ia eniieuecoaiuo a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna, e iieaciuo cao?ao:

Ciino = Ciieaci +C”oieino”.

Eoae, aaaeiui iieiaeaieai oai?ee eeanneoeeaoeee cao?ao yaeyaony
oneiaiinoue yoie eeanneoeeaoeee. Ia nouanoaoao oaeeo cao?ao, eioi?ua ii
nouanoao iiaeii ioianoe e iinoiyiiui eee ia?aiaiiui. ?acaeaeaiea cao?ao
ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony eiie?aoiie neooaoeeae
eee i?iaeaiie ii i?eiyoeth ?aoaiee.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa iai?aaeaiey i?aeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey
eeanneoeeaoeee cao?ao: aeaeaiea cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua – ia?aiaiiua a
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe e niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeia e niiniaia oaeiai
aeaeaiey.

Nouanoaotho aeaa iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth iiaaaeaiey cao?ao:
iee?iyeiiiie/aneee e aooaaeoa?neee.

Enneaaeiaaiey iiaaaeaiey cao?ao n iiceoeee iee?iyeiiiie/aneiai
aiaeeca iinyo a iniiaiii oai?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, e a neeo neiaeiinoe e
iaeie i?aeoe/aneie i?iaieiinoe iie ia iieo/eee oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

Aooaaeoa?neee iiaeoiae ai iiiaii i?aaiaoe/aneee. Niaeanii yoiio
iiaeoiaeo cao?aou oi?iuaiii aeaeyony, eae i?aaeei, ia aeaa a?oiiu:
ia?aiaiiua e iinoiyiiua. Ii aeaaea i?e eniieueciaaiee aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea
iaeuecy eaii?e?iaaoue oaeo nouanoaiaaiey niaoaiiiai oeia aieueoiai /enea
aeaeia cao?ao, eioi?ua iinyo iieoia?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?. Iiyoiio a ?aieao
aooaaeoa?neiai iiaeoiaea a oai?ee e i?aeoeea oi?aaeai/aneiai
(i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa i?eiaiyaony ?yae iaoiaeia ?acaeaeaiey cao?ao
ia iinoiyiioth i ia?aiaiioth /anoe. Iai?eia? oaeeo, eae iaoiae
ei??aeyoeee, iaoiae iaeiaiueoeo eaaae?aoia e ae?oaea.

*oi eanaaony iaoiaea iaeiaiueoeo eaaae?aoia, oi ii /oanoaeoaeai e
cia/eoaeueiui ioeeiiaieyi io n?aaeieo, e eiiaaea aieaa a?oaua iaoiaeu
iiaoo aeaaaoue aieaa oi/iua ?acoeueoaou.

Aeaiiua iaoiaeu ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee iaeaieaa i?inouo e aeinooiiuo
iaoiaeia. A eo iaaeaaeiinoue iiaeii iaania/eoue, i?iaiaey
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue ea/anoaaiiue aiaeec aeaiiuo.

Eoae, caaa?oay ?anniio?aiea eaeae aeaeaiey ?anoiaeia ia iinoiyiiua
e ia?aiaiiua a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaeii
ioiaoeoue neaaeothuaa:

– nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai (i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa “aee?aeo-einoeia”
aicieeea ia aaca eeanneoeeaoeee cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ii
ioiioaieth e iauio i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey eiaea au
oieueei oai?aoe/aneia cia/aiea, iiea ia neiaeeeenue iauaeoeaiua
yeiiiie/aneea i?aaeiinueee aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?aeiouanoa yoie
eeanneoeeaoeee: ?ino eieo?aioeee iaaeaeo iainiaeaiiuie
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie, ai?ueaa ca ?uiee nauoa e iiene iiauo naaiaioia
?uiea, ?aeeaio, enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea e, eae neaaenoaea, oneiaeiaiea
i?eaioaoeee ioaeaeueiiai oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey a oneiaeyo ?acaeoiai
?uiea.

– neiaeiua ?uii/iua i?ioeannu, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aicaeaenoaotho
iaeieaaaiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, oaaee/aiea
aeiee iinoiyiiuo cao?ao a eo iauai iauaia, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
cia/eoaeueii aeeytho ia iiaaaeaiea naaanoieiinoe ecaeaeee, a cia/eo, e
ia i?eaueue. Ii ia?a ia?anoaiey yoeo oaiaeaioeee oaaee/eaathony
aa?iyoiinoue e iio?aaiinoue oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae a eniieueciaaiee
eioi?iaoeee i cao?aoao ia i?iecaiaenoai ecaeaeee e eo ?aaeecaoeeth, ia
eneaaeaiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa ?ani?aaeaeaiey einaaiiuo ?anoiaeia
ioiineoaeueii iaeciaiiuo ia aaeeieoeo auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee i?e ethaii
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeoth eioi?iaoeeth a aeaea iieacaoaeae
naaanoieiinoe a /anoe ia?aiaiiiuo cao?ao e ia?aeeiaeueiiai aeioiaea
aeaao “aee?aeo-einoeia”.

1.3 Iniaaiiinoe nenoaiu “Aee?aeo-einoeia”. I?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee

Ii?aaeaeea nouiinoue “aee?aeo-einoeiaa” eae nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai
(i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa, iniiaaiiie ia aeaeaiee ?anoiaeia ia
iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa,
iiaeii auaeaeeoue i?enouea aio iniaaiiinoe, iieiaeeoaeueiua iiiaiou e
i?iaeaiu.

Aeaaiie iniaaiiinoueth “aee?aeo-einoeiaa”, iniiaaiiiai ia
eeanneoeeaoeee ?anoiaeia ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua, yaeyaony oi, /oi
naaanoieiinoue i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee o/eouaaaony e ieaie?oaony
oieueei a /anoe ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao. Iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu niae?atho ia
ioaeaeueiii n/aoa e n caaeaiiie ia?eiaee/iinoueth nienuaatho
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia aeaaao n/aoa oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, iai?eia?
“I?eauee e oauoee”.

Iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu ia aeeth/atho a ?an/ao naaanoieiinoe ecaeaeee,
a eae ?anoiaeu aeaiiiai ia?eiaea nienuaatho n iieo/aiiie i?eauee a
oa/aiea oiai ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii iie auee i?iecaaaeaiu. Ii ia?aiaiiui
?anoiaeai ioeaieaathony oaeaea inoaoee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaeao
ia ia/aei e eiiaoe aiaea e iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai.

I?e nenoaia “aee?aeo-einoeia” noaia iino?iaiey io/aoia i aeioiaeao
iiiainooiai/aoay (oaae. 1). A ieo niaea?aeaony ii e?aeiae ia?a aeaa
oeiainiauo iieacaoaey: ia?aeeiaeueiue aeioiae e i?eaueue.

Oaaeeoea 1

? i/i Iaeiaiiaaiea iieacaoaeae
Cia/aiea

1 Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (A)
A = 1000

2 Ia?aiaiiua cao?aou (IC)
IC = 600

3 Ia?aeeiaeueiue aeioiae (I)
I = A – IC = 400

4 Iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu (I?)
I? = 200

5 I?eaueue (I)
I = I – I? = 200

Io/ao i aeioiaeao ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai auoue aeaoonooiai/aoui.
Anee ia?aiaiiua cao?aou iiae?acaeaeyoue ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua, oi aeaiiue io/ao i aeioiaeao aoaeao
o?aonooiai/aoui. A yoii neo/aa ia ia?aii yoaia ii?aaeaeyaony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ia?aeeiaeueiue aeioiae eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo iauaiii
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e ia?aiaiiuie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie cao?aoaie. Ia
aoi?ii yoaia eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ia?aeeiaeueiuie e
aiai?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ia?aiaiiuie cao?aoaie ii?aaeaeyaony ia?aeeiaeueiue
aeioiae a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth, ia o?aoueai yoaia – i?eaueue iooai
au/eoaiey ec iauae noiiu ia?aeeiaeueiiai aeioiaea noiiu iinoiyiiuo
?anoiaeia. Io/aou i aeioiaeao iiaeii eciaiyoue iiae?acaeaeaieai iauae
noiiu iinoiyiiuo cao?ao ia aeaa ?acee/iuo iaeeeo aeiea. Yoio iaoiae
iiaeii auei au iacaaoue “iiiaiaei/iie nenoaiie”.

Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth “aee?aeo-einoeiaa” yaeyaony oi, /oi
aeaaiaea?y aio iiaeii eco/aoue acaeiinayce e acaeiicaaeneiinoe iaaeaeo
iauaiii i?iecaiaenoaa, cao?aoaie (naaanoieiinoueth) e i?eaueueth.
Iaaeyaeii yoi ecia?aaeaii i?e iiiiue a?aoeea (?en. 1).

O?e aeaaiua eeiee iieacuaatho caaeneiinoue ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao,
iinoiyiiuo cao?ao e au?o/ee io iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oi/ea E iacuaaaony oi/eie e?eoe/aneiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa (oi/ea
?aioaaaeueiinoe): iauai i?iecaiaenoaa, i?e eioi?ii aaee/eia au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ?aaia aa iieiie naaanoieiinoe.

Cao?aou,

aeioiae

i?eaueue

ia?aiaiiua au?o/ea io

?anoiaeu
?aaeecaoeee

iieiay

naaanoieiinoue

oauoie

Iauai i?iaeoeoeee

Yoio a?aoee e iiiai/eneaiiua aai iiaeeoeeaoeee eniieuecothony i?e
aiaeeca e i?eiyoee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Ec ii?aaeaeaiey oi/ee e?eoe/aneiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa (E)
auaiaeeony oi?ioea 4.

E = Ciino / I ecae,
(4)

aaea Ciino – aaee/eia oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo cao?ao a ninoaaa oaeoueo
ecaea?aeae

i?iecaiaenoaa io/aoiiai ia?eiaea;

Iecae – aaee/eia ia?aeeiaeueiiai aeioiaea ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee (?acieoea

iaaeaeo oeaiie ?aaeecaoeee ecaeaeey e aaee/eiie aai naaanoieiinoe,

en/eneaiiie ii oneiaii-ia?aiaiiui ?anoiaeai).

Aeey iaania/aiey yoeo aiaeeoe/aneeo ?an/aoia iaiaoiaeeii aanoe
?acaeaeueiue o/ao ia?aiaiiuo e iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia n iiaen/aoii
ia?aeeiaeueiiai aeioiaea ii ecaeaeeyi.

Aieueoia cia/aiea caeanue eiaao onoaiiaeaiea naycae e i?iii?oeee
iaaeaeo cao?aoaie e iauaiaie i?iecaiaenoaa. Eniieuecoy iaoiaeu
ei??aeyoeeiiiiai e ?aa?anneaiiai aiaeeca, iaoaiaoe/aneie noaoenoeee,
a?aoe/aneea iaoiaeu, iiaeii ii?aaeaeyoue oi?iu caaeneiinoe cao?ao io
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa eee caa?ocee iiuiinoae; no?ieoue niaoiua o?aaiaiey,
iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth i i?eaueueiinoe eee oauoi/iinoe i?iecaiaenoaa a
caaeneiinoe io aai iauaia; i?iaiice?iaaoue iiaaaeaiea naaanoieiinoe eee
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ?anoiaeia a caaeneiinoe io oaeoi?ia iauaia eee
iiuiinoe, oi anoue ?aoaoue no?aoaae/aneea caaea/e oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai.

Nenoaia “Aee?aeo-einoeia” caino?yao aieiaiea ?oeiaiaenoaa
i?aaei?eyoey ia eciaiaiee ia?aeeiaeueiiai aeioiaea (noiiu iie?uoey) ii
i?aaei?eyoeth a oeaeii e ii ?acee/iui ecaeaeeyi. Iia iicaiaeyao
o/eouaaoue ecaeaeey n aieueoie ?aioaaaeueiinoueth, /oiau ia?aoiaeeoue a
iniiaiii ia eo auione, oae eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo i?iaeaaeiie oeaiie e
noiiie ia?aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia caoooaauaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa nienaiey
iinoiyiiuo einaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia naaanoieiinoue eiie?aoiuo ecaeaeee.

Ca n/ao nie?auaiey noaoae naaanoieiinoe oi?iuaaony aa ii?ie?iaaiea,
o/ao, eiio?ieue e e oiio aea oeo/oaaony o/ao e eiio?ieue
oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo, iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, iineieueeo eo noiia ca aeaiiue
eiie?aoiue ia?eiae iieacuaaaony a io/aoa i aeioiaeao ioaeaeueiie
no?ieie, /oi iaaeyaeii aeaiiio?e?oao eo aeeyiea ia aaee/eio i?eauee
i?aaei?eyoey.

Iniiaiia aeinoieinoai nenoaiu o/aoa noii iie?uoey a oii, /oi ia
iniiaa eioi?iaoeee, iieo/aaiie a iae, iiaeii i?eieiaoue ?acee/iua
iia?aoeaiua ?aoaiey ii oi?aaeaieth i?aaei?eyoeai. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
yoi eanaaony aiciiaeiinoae i?iaiaeeoue yooaeoeaioth iieeoeeo oeai.

N o/aoii ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo-einoeia” oaeaea naycaia aiciiaeiinoue
i?iaaaeaiey aeaiieiaiaie iieeoeee, ?an/aoa e auai?a ?acee/iuo
eiiaeiaoeee oeaiu ia oiaa? e iauaiia aai ?aaeecaoeee.

Eiay o/aoiua aeaiiua ia ia?aie/aiiie naaanoieiinoe e noiiao
iie?uoey (ia?aeeiaeueiii aeioiaea) ii ecaeaeeyi, iiaeii ?aoaoue oaeea
oi?aaeai/aneea caaea/e, eae iioeiecaoeey anni?oeiaioa auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiyoey aeiiieieoaeueiiai caeaca ii
oeaiai ieaea iau/iiai,i?iecaiaenoai eiiieaeoothueo aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey
eee iaiai?io caeoiea eo ia noi?iia, ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiiai ?acia?a
ia?oee eee na?ee i?iaeoeoeee, auai? e caiaia iai?oaeiaaiey e ae?oaea.

Aua iaeii aaaeiia aeinoieinoai nenoaiu – yoi oi, /oi ia?aie/aiea
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee eeoue ia?aiaiiuie ?anoiaeaie iicaieyao
oi?inoeoue ii?ie?iaaiea, ieaie?iaaiea, o/ao e eiio?ieue ?acei
oiaiueoeaoaainy /enea noaoae cao?ao: naaanoieiinoue noaiiaeony aieaa
“iaic?eiie”, a ioaeaeueiua cao?aou – eo/oa eio?iee?oaiu. Oae eae /ai
aieueoa eiio?iee?oaiuo iauaeoia, oai neeueiaa ?annaeaaaony aieiaiea
iaaeaeo ieie, oai neaaaa noaiiaeony eiio?ieue.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey ?inoa oaeaeueiiai aana
iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia. Iiyoiio iiauoathony o?aaiaaiey e iainiiaaiiinoe
ieaie?iaaiey e ii?ie?iaaiey aaee/ei yoeo ?anoiaeia.

“Aee?aeo-einoeia” aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iia?aoeaiaa eiio?iee?iaaoue
iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu, oae eae /anoi a i?ioeanna eiio?iey ca
naaanoieiinoueth eniieuecothony ii?iaoeaiua (noaiaea?oiua) cao?aou, eee
aeaeea niaou.

I?eiaiaiyy “noaiaea?o-eino” a “aee?aeo-einoeiaa”, onoaiaaeeaatho
ii?iu ia iinoiyiiua cao?aou; a iniiaa aea eiio?iey aeaeeo niao eaaeeo
?acaeaeaiea cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua.

I?e nenoaia o/aoa iieiie naaanoieiinoe /anoue ia?ai?aaeaeaiiie
noiiu iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia ia?aoiaeeo ec iaeiiai ia?eiaea a ae?oaie,
iiyoiio eiio?ieue ca ieie ineaaaaaao. “Aee?aeo-einoeia” iiiiaaao
nieceoue o?oaeiaieinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia.

Iaeiaei i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa ii nenoaia
“Aee?aeo-einoeia” naycaia n ?yaeii i?iaeai, eioi?ua auoaeatho ec
iniaaiiinoae, i?enoueo yoie nenoaia:

– aicieeatho o?oaeiinoe i?e ?acaeaeaiee ?anoiaeia ia iinoiyiiua e
ia?aiaiiua, iineieueeo /enoi iinoiyiiuo eee /enoi ia?aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia
ia oae oae iiiai. A iniiaiii ?anoiaeu iieoia?aiaiiua, a cia/eo,
aicieeatho o?oaeiinoe a eo eeanneoeeaoeee. E?iia oiai, a ?acee/iuo
oneiaeyo iaeie e oa aea ?anoiaeu iiaoo aanoe naay ii-?aciiio;

– i?ioeaieee “aee?aeo-einoeiaa” n/eoatho, /oi iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu oaeaea
o/anoaotho a i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aeieaeiu auoue aeeth/aiu a aai naaanoieiinoue. “Aee?aeo-einoeia” ia
aeaao ioaaoa ia aii?in, neieueei noieo i?iecaaaeaiiue i?iaeoeo, eaeiaa
aai iieiay naaanoieiinoue. Iiyoiio o?aaoaony aeiiieieoaeueiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia, eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue
iieioth naaanoieiinoue aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee eee iacaaa?oaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa;

– aaaeaiea o/aoa naaanoieiinoe ii nie?auaiiie iiiaieeaoo?a noaoae ia

ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieyi iauaai o/aoa, iaeiie ec aeaaiuo caaea/ eioi?iai aei
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie yaeyeinue ninoaaeaiea oi/iuo eaeueeoeyoeee;

– iaiaoiaeeii a oeaiao, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo ia i?iaeoeoeeth i?aaei?eyoey,

iaania/eaaoue iie?uoea anao ecaea?aeae i?aaei?eyoey.

2 O/ao e eaeueeoee?iaaiea ona/aiiie naaanoieiinoe

Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo e aeooaeueiuo i?iaeai oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/aoa yaeyaony aiaae?aiea a i?aeoeeo iaoiaeia, iniiaaiiuo ia en/eneaiee
ia?aiaiiie naaanoieiinoe, oi anoue iaoiaeia i?inoiai e ?acaeoiai
“aee?aeo-einoeiaa”, eciaieaoeo nenoaio i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa e
eiio?iey.

Iniiaie “aee?aeo-einoeiaa”, i /ai oaea iaiaeiie?aoii aiai?eeiue,
/anoi iacuaaaiiai iaoiaeii ona/aiiie (iaiieiie) naaanoieiinoe, yaeyaony
/aoeia ?acaeaeaiea cao?ao ia ia?aiaiiua e iinoiyiiua. I?e yoii
iinoiyiiua cao?aou n/eoathony cao?aoaie ia?eiaea e ia ?ani?aaeaeythony
iaaeaeo ecaeaeeyie, a i?yii ioiinyony ia ?acoeueoao. Eae neaaenoaea
yoiai, iauea ?anoiaeu aieaa auno?i ioiinyony ia ?acoeueoao i?e
“aee?aeo-einoeiaa”, /ai i?e iaoiaeao en/eneaiey iieiie naaanoieiinoe,
i?e/ai inoaoee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ioeaieaathony oieueei ii ia?aiaiiui
cao?aoai.

Iaoiae “aee?aeo-einoeia” eiaao aeaa aa?eaioa:

– i?inoie “aee?aeo-einoeia”, iniiaaiiue ia eniieueciaaiee a o/aoa
aeaiiuo oieueei i ia?aiaiiuo (iia?aoeeiiiuo) cao?aoao;

– ?acaeoie “aee?aeo-einoeia”, i?e eioi?ii a naaanoieiinoue ia?yaeo n
ia?aiaiiuie cao?aoaie aeeth/athony e i?yiua iinoiyiiua cao?aou ii
i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.

2.1 I?inoie “aee?aeo-einoeia”

Ia?aua nenoaiaoe/aneea iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey i?iaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiey
oeaiu a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee auee i?aaei?eiyou ienoi?aeneie
oeieie yeiiiienoia a 1935-1940 aa. Ienoi?aeneea yeiiiienou eco/eee
nouanoaothuoth i?aeoeeo e onoaiiaeee, /oi eeanne/aneee ia?aeeiaeueiue
aiaeec ia aue ecaanoai a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a oeaio ii?aaeaeyaee enoiaey ec
iieiie naaanoieiinoe.

Ii ia naiaiaeiii ?uiea oeaia oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony ni?inii e
i?aaeeiaeaieai, eee “oeaiie ?aaiiaaney”, oi anoue oi/eie, a eioi?ie
i?anaeathony e?eaua ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?a. Ionthaea iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi oeaio a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iaeuecy ca?aiaa
?an/eoaoue.

E. aea Aiaeo ioia/aao, /oi iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou ioe?uee ?ieiaoth
?ieue, eioi?oth ea?aee ?ani?aaeaeaiea iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia iaaeaeo
ecaeaeeyie e ?ac?ua iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aniee oai?eae e i?iiuueaiiie
i?aeoeeie, e eioi?iio i?eaaei oaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea. Eae neaaenoaea,
aicieeea iiaay eiioeaioeey oi?aaeai/eneiai o/aoa, iicaieeaoay
?acaeaeeoue cao?aou ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua. Yoi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
i?aiaeieaoue ii e?aeiae ia?a aeaa i?iaeaiu: ai-ia?auo, ono?aieoue
aeeyiea eciaiaiey iauaiiu i?iecaiaenoaa ia naaanoieiinoue aaeeieoeu
i?iaeoeoeee, a ai-aoi?uo – auai? i?iaeoeoa e i?iecaiaenoao ii?aaeaeyaony
ia ?acieoeae iaaeaeo oeaiie e iieiie naaanoieiinoueth, ii oie /anoueth
iinoiyiiuo cao?ao, eioi?oth ii aiciauaao.

Aeey ?aoaiey iiaeiaiuo i?iaeai e eniieuecotho i?inoie “aee?aeo –
einoeia”, eiaaea naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee eaeueeoee?oaony oieueei ia
iniiaa ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao. Noiio iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia ioiinyo ia
?acoeueoao ia?eiaea aac ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Oaoieea “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” i?eniiniaeaia e ii?aaeaeaiiui
yeiiiie/aneei oneiaeyi: nieaeaiea oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e
iaiieiia eniieueciaaiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. A naiii aeaea, a yoie
neooaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aieueoa eiio?iee?oao ia?aiaiiua cao?aou,/ai
iinoiyiiua. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iinoiyiiua cao?aou iaoiaeyony ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii, ia i/aiue aunieii, o?iaia e aoaeoo aic?anoaoue eeoue
iinea ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeenoaioeey ?inoa iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia
aeeeiiaa, /ai ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia, e aiaeec ia?aiaiiie
naaanoieiinoe a ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena aieueoa niionaonoaoao
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee.

A oi?aaeai/aneii o/aoa eniieuecothony aeaa aa?eaioa i?inoiai
“aee?aeo – einoeiaa”: aia?eeaineay iaoiaeeea e o?aioeocneay iaoiaeeea.

Aia?eeaineay iaoiaeeea “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” i?aaeoniao?eaaao
neaaeothuea yoaiu ii?aaeaeaiey /enoiai ?acoeueoaoa:

– iauai ?aaeecaoeee;

– ieion ia?aiaiiay naaanoieiinoue i?iaeaiiuo ecaeaeee;

– i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ia?aea;

– ieion ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu ii ?aaeecaoeee;

– oi?aiaay ia?aea;

– ieion iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu ii i?iecaiaenoao, ii ?aaeecaoeee e ?aeeaia,

aaeieieno?aoeaiua, enneaaeiaaoaeueneea;

– ?acoeueoao-iaooi.

O?aioeocneay iaoiaeeea “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” aace?oaony ia
neaaeothueo i?eioeeiao ?an/aoa ?acoeueoaoa:

– iauai ?aaeecaoeee;

– ieion ia?aiaiiay naaanoieiinoue i?iaeaiiuo ecaeaeee (i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee);

– ia?aea n ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao;

– ieion iinoiyiiua (no?oeoo?iua) cao?aou ia?eiaea;

– ?acoeueoao-iaooi.

Nouiinoue i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee ia aaca “aee?aeo –
einoeiaa” (?ieue aeaiiiai iaoiaea a aeaiiii i?ioeanna) naiaeeony e o?ai
iniiaiui iieiaeaieyi- oi?aaeai/aneee aiaeec e i?eiyoea
?aoaieeiniiauaathony ia iieacaoaea ?aaeecaoeee. Aneaaenoaea yoiai iauai
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ii?aaeaeaiiue ii aeaiiiio iaoiaeo,
ecia?yaony a iieacaoaeyo ?aaeecaoeee, a ia i?iecaiaenoaa;

– ana iinoiyiiua cao?aou ia?eiaea aeieaeiu auoue aiciauaiu aeioiaeii io
i?iaeaiiuo ecaeaeee e oieueei ei;

– iineieueeo noiia iinoiyiiuo cao?ao aiciauaaony ca n/ao ?aaeecaoeee,

aioiaua ecaeaeey e iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai ioeaieaathony oieueei ii
ia?aiaiiui cao?aoai. Ionthaea iinoiyiiua cao?aou ia io?aaeathony a
caianao.

Aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia ioia/atho aeaa oaiaeaioeee i?eiaiaiey
“aee?aeo – einoeiaa”:

– iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu eiatho oaiaeaioeeth noaiiaeoueny ia?aiaiiuie ii
ia?a

oiai, eae iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee oaaee/eaathony
a ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu eiatho oaiaeaioeeth noaiiaeony ii ia?a oiai, eae
i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeey nie?auathony;

– i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea ?anniao?eaaaiiai iaoiaea oanii i?aieaoaaony n
i?eiaiaieai iaoiaeia, iniiaaiiuo ia en/eneaiee ii?iaoeaiie
naaanoieiinoe, a /anoiinoe ni “noaiaea?o – einoii”.

I?inoie “aee?aeo-einoeia” aace?oaony ia neaaeothueo i?eioeeiao:

– cao?aou iiae?acaeaeythony ii yeaiaioai ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua;

– naaanoieiinoue i?iecaaaeaiiuo e ?aaeeciaaiiuo ecaeaeee en/eneyaony

oieueei ia iniiaa ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia?aiaiiuo (iia?aoeeiiiuo) cao?ao;

– n?aaiaiea iieo/aiiie oaeei ia?acii ia?aiaiiie naaanoieiinoe n oeaiie
?aaeecaoeee a oeaeyo ii?aaeaeaiey ?acieoeu, iacuaaaiie ia?aeae n
ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao;

– aiciauaiea iinoiyiiuo cao?ao ca n/ao ?acee/iuo ia?ae n ia?aiaiiie
naaanoieiinoe aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe e
?aioaaaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii iaoiaeo ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao (i?inoie
“aee?aeo-einoeia”) ii?aaeaeyaony ia?aea n ia?aiaiiie naaanoieiinoe,
eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eceeoae au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee ii n?aaiaieth
n ia?aiaiiuie cao?aoaie:

ia?aea n ia?aiaiiie naaanoieiinoe = iauai ?aaeecaoeee –

ia?aiaiiua cao?aou.

Eiaaea ia?aea n ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao iicaieyao aicianoeoue noiio
iinoiyiiuocao?ao, i?aaei?eyoea aeinoeaaao “iao?aie oi/ee”, eee ii?iaa
?aioaaaeueiinoe, oi anoue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao ?aaai ioeth.

Nouiinoue iaoiaea, oe?iei ecaanoiiai a ie?iaie i?aeoeea iiae
iacaaieai “aee?aeo-einoeia”, iiaeao auoue i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaia aeaiiuie
oaaeeoeu 2.

Oaaeeoea 2 – Iniiaiua yeaiaiou ii?aaeaeaiey ?acoeueoaoa ii iaoiaeo
“aee?aeo-

einoeia” (iaoiaeo ia?aiaiiie naaanoieiinoe)
(?oa)

?aaeeciaaiiua ca ianyoe ecaeaeey

Iieacaoaee E1
E2 E3
Eoiai

Iauai ?aaeecaoeee 42 000 000
55 000 000 70 000 000 167 000 000

Ia?aiaiiua cao?aou 23 100 000
39 600 000 46 900 000 109 600 000

Ia?aea n ia?aiaiiie naaa-

noieiinoe 18 900 000
15 400 000 23 100 000 57 400 000

O?iaaiue ia?aee n ia?aiai-

iie naaanoieiinoe, % 45
28 33
34,4

Iinoiyiiua cao?aou

42 000 000

?acoeueoao – i?eaueue

15 400 000

Iniiau aeaiiiai iaoiaea – yoi:

– iinoiyiiay iai?aaeaiiinoue o/aoa ia eiia/iue ?acoeueoao, oi anoue
ii?aaeaeaiea ia?aee ii ecaeaeeyi, a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio ?acoeueoaoo (i?eauee eee oauoee);

– o/ao ii ecaeaeeyi oieueei ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao e ii?aaeaeaiea ia?aiaiiie
naaanoieiinoe ii ecaeaeeyi;

– o/ao iinoiyiiuo cao?ao a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth e eo ioianaiea ia
oiaiueoaiea ia?aee a oeaeyo ii?aaeaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ?acoeueoaoa;

– ii?aaeaeaiea ia?aee ii ecaeaeeyi eae aacu i?ioeanna iia?aoeaiiai
oi?aaeaiey oeaiaie e oeaiiia?aciaaieai.

Anee i?aaei?eyoea i?iecaiaeeo iiiai ecaeaeee, oi iaoiae
ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao iicaieyao ecia?eoue “aeeaae” eaaeaeiai ecaeaeey a
aiciauaiea iinoiyiiuo cao?ao e oi?ie?iaaiea iauaai o?iaiy
?aioaaaeueiinoe. E?iia oiai, yoio iaoiae a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeeoue iieeoeeo ?acaeoey oi?aiaee a caaeneiinoe
io caaeaiiuo i?eaioe?ia ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiey ieieiaeueiiai iauaia
?aaeecaoeee, oi anoue e?eoe/aneiai iauaia ?aaeecaoeee, eee ii?iaa
?aioaaaeueiinoe ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia.

Iiiyoea “aeeaae i?iaeoeoa” iieo/eei oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
i?aeoeea “aee?aeo-einoeiaa”, iii iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi eaaeaeue
i?iaeoeo i?eiineo i?aaei?eyoeth. Yoa o/aoiay eaoaai?ey iicaieyao eo/oa
ecia?eoue ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoa eee a?oiiu i?iaeoeoia,
eiaeeaeaeoaeece?oy cao?aou, eioi?ua e iaio ioiinyony. I?e oaeii iaoiaea
ioeeiiythony io no?iaiai niaethaeaiey ia?aiaiiie naaanoieiinoe, oae eae
naaanoieiinoue aeeth/aao ia oieueei ia?aiaiiua cao?aou, ii e /anoue
i?yiuo iinoiyiiuo cao?ao. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oeo/oeoue oaoieeo
en/eneaiey naaanoieiinoe, a nai iaoiae aue iacaai ?acaeoui
“aee?aeo-einoeiaii”.

2.2 ?acaeoie “aee?aeo – einoeia”

I?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea i?inoiai “aee?aeo- einoeiaa” auei iino?iaii
ia aeneiia: eaaeaeia ecaeaeea, oeaio? ioaaonoaaiiinoe aiinyo iniaue
aeeaae a ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ii oieueei
i?aaei?eyoea eae th?eaee/aneia eeoei iiaeao iieo/eoue i?eaueue eee
iiianoe oauoie. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ioeacuaaeenue io ii?aaeaeaiey /enoiai
?acoeueoaoa ii ecaeaeeyi, oeai?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a ia?aie/eaaeenue
en/eneaieai ia?aee, ca n/ao eioi?ie nienuaaee iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu.

Ii ia?a aiaae?aiey i?inoiai “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” auynieeinue, /oi
iaeioi?ua niaoeeoe/aneea iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu iiaoo auoue ioianaiu i?yii
aac oneiaiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia niioaaonoaothuea ecaeaeey, eo a?oiiu,
oeaio?u ioaaonoaaiiinoe, naaiaiou aeayoaeueiinoe, oi anoue eiioeaioeey
th?eaee/aneii eeoea iinoaiaiii iaiyeanue a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e
aicieeei iiiuoea iieoia?aee eae ?acieoeu ia?aee e niioaaonoaothuae noiiu
i?yiuo iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia. Iiiyoea iieoia?aee yeiiiie/anee
i?eaeeaeaaony e iiiyoeth oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa, eai oa?aeoa?ecoao
eiiiainaoeeth einaaiiuo iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia e iieo/aiea i?eauee.

Aoi?ia ei?aiiia ioee/ea ?acaeoiai “aee?aeo- einoeiaa” io i?inoiai a
oii, /oi iiaeaeue “cao?aou – auione” noaea aeaenoaiaaoue ia oieueei a
oeaio?ao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia naiii i?aaei?eyoee, ii e ca aai i?aaeaeaie,
/oi aucaaei iaiaoiaeeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia (ia?ae,
iieoia?ae) ii naaiaioai aeayoaeueiinoe, oi anoue a ia?eaoeiaiaii
aniaeoa. ?acaeoie “aee?aeo -einoeia” iicaieee oneeeoue eiio?ieue a
iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, oae eae iaania/eaae iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i
?acoeueoaoao aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey, a
aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii auei oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue, ca /oi ianao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue eaaeaeia iiae?acaeaeaiea. *oiau ?aoeoue yoo i?iaeaio,
aannii?ii, ioaeii auei ecaaaaoue oneiaiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaueo
?anoiaeia, /oi i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth eaoaai?ee “iieoia?aea ii o?iaiyi”
(ecaeaeea, a?oiia ecaeaeee, oeao, caaiae, eiiiaiey). A nayce n yoei
iniiaie i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa ii iaoiaeo ?acaeoiai “aee?aeo – einoeiaa”
noaei auaeaeaiea naaiaioia aeayoaeueiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia a
oi?aaeai/aneii o/aoa ii yoei naaiaioai.

Niaoeeaeenou, caieiathueany aii?inaie ?acaeoiai “aee?aeo –
einoeiaa”, iiae?acaeaeytho naaiaiou aeayoaeueiinoe ia aeaa eaoaai?ee:

– aioo?aiiea (ecaeaeey, a?oiiu ecaeaeee, caeacu, oeaio?u aiaeeca,
i?eauee,

?aioaaaeueiinoe, ioaaonoaaiiinoe);

– aiaoiea: naeoi?u iieoiaoaeae, eeannu eeeaioia, caeacu, ciiu
eiiieaiyaea?ia;

– a?aoe/aneea ciiu ?aaeecaoeee, eaiaeu ?aaeecaoeee.

Aiaae?aiea ?acaeoiai “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” i?eaaei e io?aaeaieth a
o/aoa ianeieueeeo aeaeia ia?ae e iieoia?ae, iineieueeo a iai
eniieueciaaee ie?aieaeaeueioth nenoaio o/aoa iauaai (niaieoiiiai)
?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe. A iniiaa ie?aieaeaeueiie nenoaiu eaaeeo
ea?a?oey naaiaioia, eioi?ua ?aniieiaeaiu iineaaeiaaoaeueii ii
ia?anoathuae. Oaeay neoaia iiaeao auoue iino?iaia ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio,
?aaeecaoeeiiiiio eee ae?oaei i?eciaeai.

Noaia aeeth/aiey a naaanoieiinoue i?aiaiiuo e i?yiuo iinoiyiiuo
cao?ao e io?aaeaiey ia?ae e iieoia?ae ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiui (aioo?aiiei)
naaiaioai i?e ?acaeoii “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” i?eaaaeaia a oaaeeoea 3.

Oaaeeoea 3

Aioo?aiiea Cao?aou, aeeth/aaiua a
?anoiaeu, ia aeeth/aaiua a Aeae ia?aee,

(i?iecaiaenoaaiiua) naaanoieiinoue ia eaaeaeii
naaanoieiinoue ia iieoia?aee

naaiaiou o?iaia
o?iaia

ie?aieaeaeueiie

nenoaiu

1 2
3
4

Aaeeieoea i?iaeoeoeee Ia?aiaiiua cao?aou
Ana inoaeueiua Ia?aea

(anni?oeiaioa)

Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey Ia?aiaiiua cao?aou iethn
Oi aea Iieoia?aea 1

(o/anoie) niaoeeoe/aneea i?yiua

iinoiyiua cao?aou,

ioiineiua ia
i?iaeoeoeeth

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 3

Aanue anni?oeiaio Ia?aiaiiua cao?aou iethn
Ana inoaeueiua Iieoia?aea 2

I?iaeoeoeee (oeao) niaoeeoe/aneea i?yiua

iinoiyiiua cao?aou,

ioiineiua ia
anni?oeiaio

i?iaeoeoeee

I?aaei?eyoea Ia?aiaiiua cao?aou iethn
Oi aea Iieoia?aea 3

niaoeeoe/aneea
i?yiua

iinoiyiiua cao?aou

i?aaei?eyoey

A?oiia i?aaei?eoee Ia?aiaiiua cao?aou iethn
* Iieoia?aea 4

i?yiua iinoiyiiua
cao?aou

ii a?oiia
i?aaei?eyoee

Eiiiaiey Ana cao?aou
Ia aeeth/athony
I?eaueue

Noaia aeeth/aiey ia?aiaiiuo e iinoiyiiuo cao?ao a naaanoieiinoue,
io?aaeaiea ia?ae, iieoia?ae e i?eauee i?e ?acaeoii “aee?aeo-einoeiaa” ii
naaiaioai ?aaeecaoeee (aiaoiei) i?aaenoaaeaia a oaaeeoea 4.

Oaaeeoea 4

Naaiaiou ?anoiaeu, aeeth/aaiua a
?anoiaeu, ia aeeth/aaiua a Aeae ia?aee,

?aaeecaoeee naaanoieiinoue ia eaaeaeii
naaanoieiinoue ia yoii iieoia?aee

ie?aieaeaeueiie o?iaia (ii eaaeaeiio naaiaioo)
o?iaia

nenoaiu

?aaeeciaaiiay Ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu e
Ana inoaeueiua Ia?aea

iia?aoeey ?anoiaeu ii ?aaeecaoeee

Eeeaio Ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu e
Oi aea
Iieoia?aea 1

?anoiaeu ii
?aaeecaoeee iethn

niaoeeoe/aneea i?yiua

i?yiua iinoiyiiua
cao?aou

ii eeeaioo

Oi?aiaua Ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu e
*
Iieoia?aea 2

i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ?anoiaeu ii ?aaeecaoeee iethn

niaoeeoe/aneea i?yiua

iinoiyiiua cao?aou ii

i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoao

Ciia (?aeii) Ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu e
*
Iieoia?aea 3

?aaeecaoeee ?anoiaeu ii ?aaeecaoeee iethn

niaoeeoe/aneea i?yiua

iinoiyiiua cao?aou ii
ciia

(?aeiio) ?aaeecaoeee

Eiiiaiey Ana ?anoiaeu
Ia aeeth/athony
I?eaueue

Aiaae?aiea a i?aeoeeo ?acaeoiai “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” i?eaiaeeo e
oiio, /oi i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeyo iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
eiio?iey aeayoaeueiinoe oeaio?ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ana aieueooth /anoue
iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia i?yii ioiinyo ia naaanoieiinoue yoeo oeaio?ia.

?acaeaea i?aaei?eyoey ia naiaiou ?aaeecaoeee iiaeao ieacaoueny
i/aiue iieaciie a ieaia i?eaioaoeee nio?oaeieeia, caieiathueony
ia?eaoeiaii. Ii?aaeaeaiea ia?aee ii o?iaiyi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
i?iaaaeaiey aeaieiiai aiaeeca. N iaeiie noi?iiu, i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue eae au eieaeecotho e ii?aaeaeytho na?eth ia?ae ii
naaiaioai – i?iaeoeoai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iainaaeeaatho
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue, ii?aaeaeytho e aiaeece?otho na?eth
ia?ae ii naaiaioai ?aaeecaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa, enoiaey ec yoeo aeaoo
e?eoa?eaa, aiaeece?otho aeaenoaea iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaee “i?iaeoeo
– ?uiie”. Eaaeaeue i?iaeoeo (oiaa?) i?iaeaaony ia iiiaeo ?uieao. Iiyoiio
oeaeaniia?acii en/eneyoue ia?aeo ii eaaeaeiio i?iaeoeoo, ia eaaeaeii
?uiea.

Aiaae?aiea ii?iaoeaia a nenoaio “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” aucuaaao
iaiueoa i?iaeai, /ai en/eneaiea iieiie naaanoieiinoe, oae eae i?eiaiaiea
aeaiiie nenoaiu ia o?aaoao oneiaiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey cao?ao. E?iia oiai,
ia ioaeii iia?e?iaaoue eaoaai?eyie “aaeeieoea ?aaiou” e “ ii?iaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue”, eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo neeueii cao?oaeiyao o/ao, ii
eioi?ua oai ia iaiaa iaiaoiaeeiu i?e nenoaia o/aoa iieiie naaanoieiinoe.

A oi?aaeai/aneii o/aoa aeaaainoaothuae noaiiaeony nenoaia
ii?iaoeaia. Ii?aaeaeytho ia oieueei ii?iaoeaioth naaanoieiinoue, ii
eii?iaoeaioth au?o/eo, oae eae yoi aaeeinoaaiiia n?aaenoai niecia?eoue
iinooieaiey e ?anoiaeu e ii?aaeaeeoue ii?iaoeaioth ia?aeo, oi anoue
eniieueciaaoue iiaeaeue “cao?aou – auione”.

I?aeiouanoaa ?acaeoiai “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” i/aaeaeiu. Iniaaiii
yooaeoeaii aai i?eiaiaiea ia i?aaei?eyoeyo n ianniaui i?iecaiaenoaii e
ioiineoaeueii neiaeiui, oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii, iineieueeo a yoii
neo/aa ai?acaei eaa/a ii?aaeaeeoue ia?aeo ii naaiaioai aeayoaeueiinoe,
/ai ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?eciaeai.

Iniiaiua iiaaoeee ?acaeoiai “aee?aeo – einoeiaa”:

– iiyaeaiea eaoaai?ee niaoeeoe/aeeo i?yiuo iinoiyiiuo cao?ao e nenoaiu
iieoia?ae e ?aaoee?iaaiea ia yoie iniiaa iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee, naaanoieiinoe, oeai;

– en/eneaiea ?acoeueoaoia (ia?ae) ii aiaoiei naaiaioai (iaoiaeyueiny ca
i?aaeaeaie i?aaei?eyoey), oi anoue eniieueciaaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo
i?eioeeiia a nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa;

– ie?aieaeaeueiuy (nooiai/aoay) nenoaia eaueeoee?iaaiey ia aaca aeaiiuo
i ia?aiaiiuo cao?aoao e niaoeeoe/aneeo i?yiuo iinoiyiiuo cao?aoao.

3 Aiciiaeiinoe nenoaiu “Aee?aeo -einoeia” a ioa/anoaaiiii o/aoa

“Aee?aeo – einoeia” – caiaaeiay nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai
(i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa, aicieeoay e ?acaeaathuayny a oneiaeyo
?uii/iie yeiiiieee, A iaoae no?aia aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie auea
?ai?ino?aiaia neneoaia o/aoa e eaeueeoee?iaaiey iieiie naaanoieiinoe,
nenoaia “aee?aeo – einoeia” i?aeoe/anee ia i?eiaiyeanue. Iiyoiio n?aaee
ioa/anoaaiiuo aaoi?ia, aiaeece?othueo caiaaeiue iiuo, a oii /enea
eceaaathueo aii?inu “aee?aeo – einoeiaa”, iao eaeeiiai iiaiey i nouiinoe
yoie nenoaiu.

Iiiaiia?acea iiaiee ii aeaiiiio aii?ino aucaaii ia oieueei
ionoonoaeai iiuoa i?eiaiaiey “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” a i?aeoeea
ioa/anoaaiiiai o/aoa e iaaeinoaoi/iie aai eco/aiiinoueth, ii e
ionoonoaeai aaeeinoaa acaeyaeia n?aaee iaoeo yeiiiienoia-aooaaeoa?ia ia
niaea?aeaiea e acaeiinaycue iaoiaeia o/aoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e
iaoiaeia eaeueeoee?iaaiey.

?aciiia?acea iiaiee o/aiuo iaoae no?aiu ia ii?aaeaeaiee nenoaiu
“Aee?aeo – einoeia” iaoneiaeaii aua e oai, /oi ana iie iuoathony
ioeaieoue caiaaeioth nenoaio o/aoa n oi/ee c?aiey iaoiaeia o/aoa cao?ao
e eaeueeoee?iaaiey e iiaeoiaeia e i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa, i?eiyouo o ian.

Nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia”, eae oaea auei necaii, – yoi nenoaia
oi?aaeai/aneiai (i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa, iniiaaiiay ia eeanneoieaoeee
cao?ao ia iinoiyiiua (ia?eiaee/aneea) e ia?aiaiiua (ia ecaeaeea) e
aeeth/athuay a naay o/ao cao?ao ii eo aeaeai, ianoai aicieeiiaaiey e
iineoaeyi, a oaeaea aiaeec cao?ao e i?eiyoea oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

?acee/iua iai?aaeaiey o/aoa e aiaeeca, eioi?ua i?eiyoi
?anniao?eaaoue a iaoae oai?ee e i?aeoeea ?acaeaeueii, ca/anooth
iainiaeaiii iaeei io ae?oaeo, iauaaeeiaiu ia Caiaaea a oeaeinoioth
nenoaio oi?aaeai/aneiai (i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa.

Oa?iei “i?iecaiaenoaaiiue o/ao” aeey ian ia iia. Iiiaea
ioa/anoaaiiua yeiiiienou n/eoatho, /oi i?iecaiaenoaaiiue o/ao – yoi
i?aaeaea anaai o/ao cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo iiae
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui o/aoii iiae?acoiaaatho e o/ao cao?ao, e
eaeueeoee?iaaiea.

?acaeoea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee e naycaiiua n yoei iio?aaiinoe
yeiiiie/aneie i?aeoeee aoaeoo noeioee?iaaoue aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey
a iai?aaeaiee oi?aaeai/aneiai (i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) o/aoa e iooae aai
i?aaiecaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ?innee.

Oeaee ecaaea/e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aooaaeoa?ee ioee/iu io oeaeae e
caaea/ oeiainiaie aooaaeoa?ee aia caaeneiinoe io aa?eaioa nayce iaaeaeo
ieie.

?annniio?ei iaeioi?ua aa?eaiou i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneie
(i?iecaiaenoaaiiie) aooaaeoa?ee ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia” ia n/aoao
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aa nayce n oeiainiaie aooaaeoa?eae. Yoe aa?eaiou
iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aeey i?eiaiaiey ia ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

3.1 I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo –
einoeia”

Ia?aue aa?eaio – i?aaiecaoeey ?acaeaeueiiai o/aoa ia n/aoao
oeiainiaie e oi?aaeai/aneie (i?iecaiaenoaaiiie) aooaaeoa?ee.

Aeey oaeianoaa aini?eyoey iiia?a e iacaaiey n/aoia i?eaaaeaiu a
oaaeeoea 5.

Oaaeeoea 5 – Ia?a/aiue n/aoia oeiainiaiai e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa
aeey

aa?eaioa 1

? n/aoa
Iaeiaiiaaiea n/aoa

1
2

Oeiainiaay aooaaeoa?ey

32 Iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou

33 ?anoiaeu ia iieaoo o?oaea

34 Io/eneaiey ia ainoaea?noaaiiia nioeeaeueiia e
iaycaoaeueiia iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea

35 Aii?oicaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia

18 Caianu oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae

02 Eciin iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

60 ?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie e iiae?yae/eeaie

62 ?an/aou n iieoiaoaeyie e caeac/eeaie

69 ?an/aou ii nioeeaeueiiio no?aoiaaieth e
iaania/aieth

70 ?an/aou n ia?niiaeii ii iieaoa o?oaea

46 ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)

82 Oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou io oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe

Oi?aaeai/aneay
aooaaeoa?ey

32

33

34 Io?aaeaiiua n/aoa oao aea iaeiaiiaaiee

35

46

46 Iaoa?eaeu

20 I?iecaiaenoaaiiay naaanoieiinoue

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaeeaaeiua
?anoiaeu

26 Iauea oi?aaeai/aneea e nauoiaua ?anoiaeu

40 Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey

46 ?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe

I?e aeaiiii aa?eaioa o/ao oaeoueo ?anoiaeia oeiainiaie aooaaeoa?ee
inouanoaeyaony ii yeiiiie/aneei yeaiaioai ia n/aoao 32, 33, 34, 35. Aeey
nayce o/aoa cao?ao a oi?aaeai/aneie (i?iecaiaenoaaiiie) aooaaeoa?ee n
o/aoii oaeoueo ?anoiaeia a oeiainiaie aooaaeoa?ee oeaeaniia?acii
i?eiaiyoue io?aaeaiiua n/aoa (n/aoa-ye?aiu) oiai aea iaeiaiiaaiey.

A aeaiiii neo/aa aoiaeyuea inoaoee ia n/aoao oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae ionoonoaotho. I?iecaiaenoaaiiay aooaaeoa?ey inouanoaeyao o/ao
e eiio?ieue anao aeaeia ?anoiaeia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea
oi?ie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ?acoeueoaoa.

?anoiaeu, niae?aaiua ia n/aoa 26 “Iauea oi?aaeai/aneea e nauoiaua
?anoiaeu”, yaeythony ia?eiaee/aneeie e ioiinyony iiyoiio ia ?acoeueoaou
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe oiai io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii iie
aicieeee.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu, o/eouaaaiua ia n/aoa 25
“Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu”, nienuaathony ia i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
naaanoieiinoue n iineaaeothuei ?ani?aaeaeaieai iaaeaeo iauaeoaie
eaeueeoee?iaaiey.

I?yiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu o/eouaathony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 20
“Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” n e?aaeeoa n/aoia 10 “Iaoa?eaeu”, 33 “ ?anoiaeu
ia iieaoo o?oaea”, 34 “Io/eneaiey ia ainoaea?noaaiiia e iaycaoaeueiia
iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea”.

A o/aoa oaeoueo ?anoiaeia oeiainiaie aooaaeoa?ee yoe ?anoiaeu
io?aaeathony ii aeaaaoo n/aoia 32, 33, 34, 35 e ii e?aaeeoo io?aaeaiiuo
n/aoia oiai aea iaeiaiiaaiey a o/aoa cao?ao oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee
(oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoea 6 – Ia?a/aiu oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee

Ei??aniiiaee?othuea n/aoa

? iia?aoeee Niaea?aeaiea iia?aoeee
Noiia,
aeai.aae.

aeaaao e?aaeeo

1 2
3 4
5

Oeiainiaay aooaaeoa?ey

1 I?eia?aoaiea iaoa?eaeia
32 60
1 500

2 Ia/eneaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaio-

ieeai i?aaei?eyoey
33 70
1 000

3 Ia/eneaiea ?anoiaeia ii no?aoiaa-

ieth
34 69
300

4 Ia/eneaiea aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo

n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey
35 02
500

5 ?aaeecaoeey aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee 62
46 3 000

6 Cae?uoea n/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao
82 32
500

7 Cae?uoea n/aoa ?anoiaeia ia iieaoo

o?oaea
82 33
1 000

8 Cae?uoea n/aoa io/eneaiee ia no?a-

oiaaiea
82 34
300

9 Cae?uoea n/aoa aii?oecaoeee iniia-

iuo oiiaeia
82 35
500

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 6

10 Cae?uoea n/aoa ?aaeecaoeee
46 82 3
000

11 Ioeaiea iaoa?eeueiuo oeaiiinoae

(inoaoie) ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai

ia?eiaea
18 82
1 005

Oi?aaeai/aneay aooaaeoa?ey

1 Ii?eoiaeiaaiu ia neeaaea iaoa?eaeu 10
32 1 500

2 Ioiouaiu iaoa?eaeu:

a i?iecaiaenoai
20 10
700

ia ianeoaeeaaiea iniiaiiai i?iec-

aiaenoaa
25 10
250

ia oi?aaeai/aneea oeaee
26 10
100

3 Ia/eneaia ca?aaioiay ieaoa

iniiaiui ?aai/ei
25 33
600

aaeieieno?aoeee oeaoa
25 33
250

aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey
26 33
150

4 I?iecaaaeaiu io/eneaiey ia nioee-

aeueiia e iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea:

iniiaiuo ?aai/eo
20 34
180

oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea
25 34
75

aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey
26 34
45

5 Ia/eneaia aii?oecaoeey:

ia iniiaiua n?aaenoaa oeaoa
25 35
400

ia iniiaiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey
26 35 100

6 Nienaiu iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu ia i?iec-

aiaenoaaiioth naaanoieiinoue
20 25
975

7 Naeaia ia neeaae aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey 40
20 2 000

8 ?aaeeciaaia i?iaeoeoeey iieoiaoaeth 46
49 3 000

9 Nienaia oaeoe/eneay i?iecaiaenoaai-

iay naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie

i?iaeoeoeee
49 40
1 900

10 Nienaiu iauea oi?aaeai/aneea e

nauoiaua ?anoiaeu
49 26
395

Oaeei ia?acii, o/ao iniiaiuo iia?aoeee a oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee
inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n aa caaea/aie. Nenoaia caiene ia n/aoao
i?aaieciaaia oae, /oiau iiaeii auei i?ineaaeeoue ca aeaeaeaieai
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a i?ioeanna eo caaioiaeaiey, o?aiaiey,
iio?aaeaiey a oiaea i?iecaiaenoaa e auauoey a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee.

Oeeee o/aoiuo caienae ii n/aoai oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee i?e
aeaiiii aa?eaioa i?aaiecaoeee caaa?oaaony niiinoaaeaieai aeaaaoiaiai e
e?iaeeoiaiai iai?ioia ii n/aoo “?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe”. Anee o/ao aaaeaony ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia” ia
n/aoa “?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe”, oi auyaeythony
aeaa oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoa: ia?aeeiaeueiue aeioiae, eee noiia iie?uoey
(a ?anniao?eaaaiii i?eia?a: 3 000 – 1 900 = 1 100) e i?eaueue io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (1 100 – 395 = 705).

Aeey o/aoa iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaeeaaeiuo
?anoiaeia iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa n/aoa n aiaeiae/iuie iacaaieyie. Oiaaea
ia i?iecaiaenoaaiioth naaanoieiinoue aoaeoo nienuaaoueny ia?aiaiiua
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu, a iinoiyiiua iiaeiaii
ia?eiaee/aneei oi?aaeai/aneei e nauoiaui ?anoiaeai aoaeoo ioianaiu
oaeaea ia n/ao “?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe”.
Oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe, oaeei ia?acii, aoaeoo ioeaieaaoueny a
oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee ii ia?aiaiiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ?anoiaeai.

I?e aeaiiii aa?eaioa i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa
?acoeueoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia iiaeeaaeeo nenoaiiiio
nienaieth ia n/ao “I?eauee e oauoee” oeiainiaie aooaaeoa?ee. A neo/aa
aaoiiiiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa io oeiainiaiai a iineaaeiai
auyaeyaony naie ?acoeueoao ia n/aoa oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia oaeouae
aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoio ?acoeueoao iieiinoueth iiaeiuaao ?acoeueoao
oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee, e ia iaai iaeeaaeuaathony i?eauee e oauoee
io oaeoueo oeiainiauo iia?aoeee, ?acieoeu a ioeaiea caiania
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a oeiainiaie e oi?aaeai/aneie
aooaaeoa?ee.

A aeaiiii neo/aa oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe a oeiainiaie
aooaaeoa?ee ?aaeno?e?othony anaai eeoue iaeei ?ac a eiioea io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea ii aeaiiui eiaaioa?ecaoeee: eo noieiinoue a eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiiie
ioeaiea caienuaaaony ia aeoeaiuo aaeainiauo n/aoao caiania
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a ei??aniiiaeaioeee ni n/aoii
oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe. Inoaoee e aeaeaeaiea
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea
io?aaeathony ia n/aoao oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee.

O ian a ninoaaa oaeoueo iia?aoeee oeiainiaie aooaaeoa?ee ia
iieacaiu oeiainiaua iia?aoeee. Ia/aeueiua inoaoee oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae caeanue ?aaiu ioeth. Anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi eo ioeaiea a
iaieo iiae?acaeaeaieyo aooaaeoa?ee ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea
iaeeiaeiaa – 1 005, oi ?acoeueoao oeiainiaie aooaaeoa?ee ieaaeaony
?aaiui ?acoeueoaoo oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee. Ii aeaaaoo n/aoa
“Oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe” io?aaeaiu oaeouea
?anoiaeu n e?aaeeoa n/aoia yeaiaioia cao?ao, a ii e?aaeeoo – au?o/ea io
?aaeecaoeee e inoaoee oeaiiinoae ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea.
?acoeueoao 705 (4 005 – 3 300) ?aaai i?eauee, iieo/aiiie a
oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee.

Aoi?ie aa?eaio o/aoa cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia i?aaeiieaaaao i?eiaiaiea
ia i?aeoeea iniiaiie eaeae “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” – ?acaeaeaiea iaueo
cao?ao ii i?eciaeo eo acaeiinayce n i?iecaiaenoaii e eaeueeoee?iaaiea ia
yoie iniiaa iaiieiie, ia?aie/aiiie naaanoieiinoe ii iineoaeyi cao?ao.
Aia?aua a enoi?ee ioa/anoaaiiiai o/aoa ioeoeeaeueii ?ac?aoai eiie ii
n?aaiaieth n o?aaeeoeeiiiui iiaeoiae e oi?ie?iaaieth naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa.

I?eiaiaiea aoi?iai aa?eaioa i?aeoe/anee ia aiineo i?eioeeieaeueiuo
eciaiaiee a nenoaio o/aoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai. Ii ea?aeeiaeueii
iaiyao ioa/anoaaiioth eiioeaioeeth eaeueeoee?iaaiey, o/aoa e ?an/aoa
oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, a /anoiinoe iniiaiiai oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa –
io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa).

Ae?oaei eioa?niui yeaiaioii i?e i?eiyoee o/aoiiie iieeoeee yaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey a o/aoa aeey io?aaeaiey i?oeanna auionea
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa n/aoa 37 “Auione i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio,
oneoa)”. Oeacaiey ioiineoaeueii i?eiaiaiey n/aoa iinyo
?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Iii eiaao niune ia oao i?aaei?eyoeyo,
eioi?ua i?aaiecotho oaeouee o/ao aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiyaiuo ?aaio
e oneoa ii ieaiiaie eee iiiaoeaiie naaanoieiinoe.

A oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa aeaeathony
caiene ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 37 e aeaaaoo n/aoa 40, anee auioneaaony
i?iaeoeoeey, eee ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 46, anee auiieiythony ?aaiou eee
ieacuaathony oneoae ii ii?iaoeaiie eeai ieaiiuie naaanoieiinoe.

A eiioea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, iinea ii?aaeaeaiey iauaia
iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, en/eneyaony oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue
naeaiiie ia neeaae aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee eee auiieiaiiuo ?aaio, oneoa,
eioi?ay io?aaeaaony a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 37 e e?aaeeoo
n/aoa 20 eee 23.

Oaeei ia?acii, e ii aeaaaoo, e ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 37 oeene?oaony
iaeei e oio aea iauai i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa, ii a ?aciie ioeaiea: ia
aeaaaoa – ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe, ia e?aaeeoa – ii ii?iaoeaiie
(ieaiiaie) naaanoieiinoe. Niiinoaaeaieai aeaaaoiaiai e e?aaeeoiaiai
iai?ioia ia n/aoa 37 auyaeythony ioeeiiaiey oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe io
ii?iaoeaiie (ieaiiaie), eioi?ua nienuaathony ni n/aoa 37 a aeaaao n/aoa
46 eeai aeiiieieoaeueiie, eeai noi?ie?iai/iie caienueth a caaeneiinoe io
oa?aeoa?a yoeo ioeeiiaiee.

N/ao 37 iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny i?e iaieo aa?eaioao o/aoa cao?ao e
eaeueeoee?iaaiey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee: ii iieiie naaanoieiinoe eee
oieueei ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiie naaanoieiinoe. A eiiaeiaoeee n aa?eaioii
?acaeaeueiiai o/aoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e ia?eiaee/aneeo cao?ao ioe?uaaao
oaea naaiaeiy ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eioaa?aoeee a ioa/anoaaiiii o/aoa
ii?iaoeaiiai o/aoa e yeaiaioia “aee?aeo – einoeiaa”.

Yoio aa?eaio o/aoa cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia n yeaiaioaie “aee?aeo –
einoeia” eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eioaa?e?iaaiioth
nenoaio i?aaiecaoeee oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa, eiaaea o/ao
inouanoaeyaony a aaeeiie nenoaia n/aoia. Iaeiaei yoi nianai ia icia/aao,
/oi oaeie o/ao aeieaeai aanoenue eneeth/eoaeueii a ?aieao iaeiie
aooaaeoa?ee. I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa ii aeaiiiio
aa?eaioo i?aaeiieaaaao auai? iaaeaeo nenoaiie aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa e
nouanoaothuei neioaoe/aneei n/aoai eee naiinoiyoaeueiie nenoaiie n/aoia.

Iaeii ec i?aeiouanoa yoiai aa?eaioa i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa –
aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey yeaiaioia “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” ia
i?aaei?eyoeo, eioi?ua ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai ia aeaeatho eee n/eoatho
iiea iaoeaeaniia?aciui ?acaeaeyoue aooaaeoa?eth ia i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e
oeiainiaoth, oi anoue aiciiaeiinoue aiaae?aiey aeaiiiai aa?eaioa a
?uii/iuo oneiaeyo e eciaiythuaeny a nayce n oaeeie oneiaeyie nenoaiu
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Ae?oaei ia iaiia aaaeiui aeinoieinoaii yoiai oaea i?eiaiythuaainy
ia i?aeoeea aa?eaioa o/aoa yaeyaony ni/aoaiea a iai yeaiaioia
“aee?aeo-einoeiaa”n iiaeoiaeaie ii?iaoeaiiai iaoiaea i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa
cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai, /oi iicaieyao ecaeaeaoue aeaieioth auaiaeo a
oeaeyo eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey naaanoieiinoueth.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i?eiyoay iiaay o/aoiay iaoiaeieiaey
iicaieyao i?aaei?eyoeyi, ai-ia?auo, a ?aieao aua?aiiie ia i/a?aaeiie
io/aoiue ia?eiae o/aoiie iieeoeee i?eieiaoue aa?eaio i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa a oe?ieii niunea, naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyy
ana aai aniaeou, a ai-aoi?uo, /oi oaeaea ia iaiaa aaaeii, iaoneaaeeaaao
aiciiaeiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaeueiaeoeo iao/iuo icuneaiee a iaeanoe
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa, eiio?ieeeiaa, nicaeaiey ae?oaeo nenoai oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeyie ia aaca iiuoa Caiaaea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aiaaouo
ioa/anoaaiiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aaeeoeee e eoeueoo?u, n ae?oaie noi?iiu.

3.2 Oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiaiaiey nenoaiu “Aee?aeo – einoeia”

Ioaeaeueiui aii?inii, o?aaothuei a ia?niaeoeaa naiinoiyoaeueiie
iinoaiiaee e ?aoaiey, yaeyaony aii?in i oii, ia eaeeo ii ?acia?ai
i?aaei?eyoeyo aieaa oeaeaniia?acii i?aaieciauaaoue o/ao ii nenoaia
“Aee?aeo – einoeia”.

Ia i?iaiaey niaoeeaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, iiaeii naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua
auaiaeu i a?aieoeao i?eiaiaiey yeaiaioia “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” a
eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo ?inneeneie yeiiiieee.

Auaeaeei aeaa i?aeiouanoaa “aee?aeo – einoeiaa”: nieaeaiea
o?oaeiaieinoe, oi?iuaiea o/aoa e iin?aaenoaii eiiai iiaeoiaea e
eaeueeoee?iaaieth – aeiiieieoaeueiua aiaeeoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe.

Ia?aay iniaaiiinoue iaania/eaaao ?aaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa a
i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Aua aei i?eiyoey iiaiai ieaia
n/aoia ienueii Ieioeia NNN? ? 40 io 2 ethey 1991 aiaea “I
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo ii aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e i?eiaiaieth o/aoiuo
?aaeno?ia ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo” ?ac?aoaei: “Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey,
eiathuea cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai iauaeoia o/aoa (aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee,
noauaeoia i?iecaiaenoaa e o. i.) e iaaeeeoaeueiue oeeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiai i?ioeanna, o/eouaathuea iauaoicyenoaaiiua (iaeeaaeiua)
?anoiaeu iainiaeaiii io i?yiuo, iiaoo nienuaaoue eo aaeaiany/ii
iieiinoueth ia cao?aou ii ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)”.

Aoi?ay iniaaiiinoue, eioi?ay, ii nooe aeaea, i?e i?aeoe/eneie
?aaeecaoeee “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” eae au eneeth/aao ia?aoth, – yoi
nicaeaiea naiinoiyoaeueiie nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai (i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai)
o/aoa, /oi iaiaoiaeeii a oneiaeyo ?uiea, eae iieacuaaao caiaaeiay
i?aeoeea, ia n?aaeieo e e?oiiuo, ni neiaeiie no?oeoo?ie, e?oiiina?eeiui
eee ianniaui oeiii i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoeyo, oi anoue nicaeaiea
aioo?aiiae nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey naaanoieiinoueth, /oi naii ii naaa
aeinoaoi/ii aei?iai e iiae neeo oieueei iiuiui e n oeiainiaie oi/ee
c?aiey onoie/eaui i?aaei?eyoeyi.

Oaeea nenoaiu a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee ia ooieoeeiie?otho aac
yeaiaioia e iiaeoiaeia “aee?aeo-einoeiaa”.

A iaoa a?aiy ca/anooth iaeii e oi aea i?aaei?eyoea caieiaaony
?acee/iuie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe, e yoe aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe iaeaaayony
iaeiaii ia i?eaueue ii iaiaeeiaeiaui noaaeai (iai?eia?, 32, 45 eee 90%).
Yoe i?aaei?eyoey ia iiaoo i?eiaiuoue aa?eaio ioianaiey iauaoicyenoaaiio
?anoiaeia iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
a aeieaeiu a eiioea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea ?ania?aeaeyoue yoe ?anoiaeu
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii iauaio au?o/ee io eaaeaeiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, auai? aa?eaioa i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa cao?ao e
?acoeueoaoia aeieaeai aoiaeeoue oaea naaiaeiy a eiiiaoaioeeth
aaeieieno?aoeee e ii?aaeaeyoueny oeaeyie e caaea/aie i?aaei?eyoey ia
aeaiiue iiiaio. ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia auai? aa?eaioa e iainiiaaiea
o/aoiie iieeoeee a naaiaeiyoieo oneiaeyo aeieaeiu ieacuaaoue oaeea
oaeoi?u, eae aiaoiea oneiaey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aae?eyoey, oi?ia
nianoaaiiinoe e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia; ?acia?u i?aaei?eyoey.
Iauaiu e aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe; iaeiae e iaeiaiaua eueaiou,
no?aoaae/aneea oeaee e caaea/e oe?iu, noaiaiue eiiiuthoa?ecaoeee
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie ?aaiou, o?iaaiue eiiiaoaioiinoe e ia?aciaaiiinoe
eaae?ia e ae?oaea oaeoi?u.

Aieueoia aieiaiea i?e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa ia
ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aae?eyoeyo iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeyoue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy o/aoo
einaaiiuo ?anoiaeia aneaaenoaea aeaenoaey aeaoo oieoi?ia: ianoaaeeueiua
?uii/iua iooiioaiey (/oi ?aii eee iicaeii i?eaaaeao e eciaiaieth iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa e caa?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, a cia/eo,
eieaaaiea iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia ia aaeeieoeo ecaeaeey) e ?inoa
oaeaeueiiai aana einaaiiuo ?anoiaeia a iauae noiia ecaea?aeae
i?aaei?eyoey.

?anniio?ei yoo i?iaeaio n iiceoeee i?eiaiaiey “aee?aeo – einoeiaa”.

Ana einaaiii ?ani?aaeaeyaiua a ioa/anoaaiiii o/aoa iaeeaaeiua
?anoiaeu iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu: iauaoicyenoaaiiua (n/ao 26
“Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu”), eioi?ua o/eouaathony e ieaie?othony ia
o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii, e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu
(n/ao 25 “Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu”), o/eouaaaiua e ieaie?oaiua ia
o?iaia oeaoia aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu eiatho /aoei au?aaeaiiue iinoiyiiue
oa?aeoa?, ioiinyony e ia?eiaee/aneei, oi anoue caaenyuei io
aeeeoaeueiinoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, e niaeanii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
noaiaea?oai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iiaoo ?ani?aaeaeyoueny einaaiiui
niiniaii iaaeaeo iauaeoaie eaeueeoee?iaaiey, a i?yii ioiineoueny ia oio
eee eiie n/ao ?acoeueoaoia (a caaeneiinoe io aua?aiiiai aa?eaioa nayce
iaaeaeo oeiainiaie e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aooaaeoa?eae).

*oi eanaaony o/aoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, oi
caeanue iiaeii aiai?eoue i aeaoo iiaeoiaeao n iiceoeee i?eiaiaiey
“aee?aeo – einoeia”.

Ia?aue iiaeoiae – eniieueciaaiea i?eioeeia aeaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia ia iinoiyiiua – ia?aiaiiua a
o/aoa iieiie naaanoieiinoe, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey aiaeeca yooaeoeaiinoe
aeayoaeueiinoe iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey e ii?aaeaeaiey aeeyiey
aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou.

Iinoiyiiua ia caaenyo io iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa (iauaia
aeayoaeueiinoe) iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey. Eo aaee/eio onoaiaaeeaatho
ii niaoa enoiaey ec iauaia aeayoaeueiinoe iiae?acaeaeaiey,
i?eaioe?iaaiiai ia ii?iaeueioth caa?oceo i?icaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae
i?aaei?eyoey.

Eniieueciaaiea ioaeaeueiuo a?oiie?iaie iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia a o/aoa iieiie naaanoieiinoe
naucaii n acaeiiui ?ani?aaeaeaieai iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee e iineaaeothuai eo ioianaiee ia iniiaiua
iiae?acaeaeaiey. A aeaiiii neo/aa iinoiyiiua iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu
aeeth/atho a ?an/ao ?ani?aaeaeaiey, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea oaeoe/aneee
iauai aeayoaeueiinoe, a ia?aiaiiua iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu aeeth/atho a
?an/ao iieiinoueth.

Aeey o/aoa yeiiiiee eee ia?a?anoiaea ii iaeeaaeiui
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ?anoiaeai a nenoaia n/aoia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa
ioe?uaaaony niaoeeaeueiue n/ao “Ioeeiiaiey ii iaeeaaeiui ?anoiaeai ca
n/ao eciaiaiee iauaia aeayoaeueiinoe”. ?ann/eoaiiua ioeeiiaiey
io?aaeatho ii aeaaaoo yoiai n/aoa: ia?a?anoiae iau/iie caienueth,
yeiiiieth – e?aniie. A eiioea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea o/oaiiua ia yoii n/aoa
ioeeiiaiey naenuaatho ia aeaueao n/aoa ?acoeueoaoia, iiae/a?eeaay oai
naiui aeeyiea eieaaaiee iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia a caaeneiinoe io iauaia ia
?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aoi?ie iiaeoiae naycai n oai, /oi a o/aoa ii iiae?acaeaeaieyi,
ianoai aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao iaaeaeo ieie ?ani?aaeaeytho oieueei
ia?aiaiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu. Iinoiyiiua aea
?anoiaeu, ia ?ani?aaeaeyy, iauae noiiie nienuaatho ia aeaaao n/aoa
?acoeueoaoia oi?aaeai/aneie aooaaeoa?ee. Oaeie iiaeoiae aucuaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaaeaiey ii iiae?acaeaeaieyi aeaoo n/aoia aeey o/aoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia: “Iinoiyiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu” e “Ia?aiaiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaeeaaeiua
?anoiaeu”. A nouanoaothuae i?aeoeea o/aoa ia ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo
a ea/anoaa n/aoa iinoiyiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia
iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny n/ao 25, a a ea/anoaa n/aoa i?aiaiiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia – naiaiaeiue n/ao 24.

I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea cia/eoaeueii nieaeaaony o?oaeiaieinoue o/aoiuo
?aaio, naycaiiuo n ?an/aoaie ii ?ani?aaeaeaieth iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia.

E?iia oiai, ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e aoi?ii iiaeoiaea iiaeii
aiiaua ia niae?aoue iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu ia n/aoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, a i?yii nienuaaoue eo ni n/aoia ?anoiaeia ia n/ao
?acoeueoaoia. Ii oae eae o/ao iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiui
iiae?acaeaeaieyi naycai ia oieueei n iaoiaeeeie eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey, a e
eiio?ieai ca yooaeoeaiinoueth ?aaiou iiae?acaeaeaiee, oi n/aoa
iinoiyiiuo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue a iaieo neo/ayo.

I?e yoii iiaeoiaea ?aaeecoaony aeaoonooiai/aoue i?eioeei o/aoa
ia?aeeiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Aeey ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue
iiiainooiai/aoue i?eioee oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aeeiaeueiiai aeioiaea (noiiu
iie?uoey), a a eiia/iii eoiaa e i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey, /oi iiauoaao
aeaenoaaiiinoue aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey ca yooaeoeaiinoueth ?aaiou
iiae?acaeaeaiee, iano aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao i?aaei?eyoey, iineieueeo a
aeaiiii neo/aa iaaeyaeiui noaiiaeony aeeaae ianoa cao?ao aeaiiiai o?iaiy
oi?aaeaiey a oi?ie?iaaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ?acoeueoaoa.

3.3 Eaeueeoee?iaaiea a ioa/anoaaiiii o/aoa ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo –
einoeia”

Iniiaiua oeaee eaeueeoee?iaaiey a ioa/anoaaiiii o/aoa aei neo ii?
auee neaaeothueie:

– iaania/eoue aeinoiaa?ioth eaeueeoeyoeeth aaeeie/iiai i?iaeoeoa, aai
/anoae i?ioeannia;

– eiio?iee?iaaoue ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiuo i?iaeoeoia
e niaethaeaoue ieaiiaue o?iaaiue eo naaanoieiinoe;

– auyaeyoue yooaeoeaiinoue eiino?oeoi?neeo e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo
oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoa;

– iaania/eaaoue niiinoaaeiinoue eaeueeoeyoeee aeey n?aaieoaeueiiai
aiaeeca e eniieueciaaiey ia iae?io?iaia (oeaiiia?aciaaiea, io?aneaaia
ieaie?iaaiea);

?anniio?ei i?iaeaiaoeeo eaeueeoee?iaaiey ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo –
einoeia” n oi/ee c?aiey yoeo caaea/.

Nia/aea ioiineoaeueii ninoaaeaiey oi/iuo eaeueeoeyoeee. Ia
nouanoaoao oaeie nenoaiu eaeueeoee?iaaiey cao?ao, eioi?ay iicaieeea au
ii?aaeaeeoue naaanoieiinoue aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee ni noii?ioeaioiie
oi/iinoueth. Ethaia einaaiiia ioianaiea cao?ao ia ecaeaeea, eae au
oi?ioi iii ie auei iainiiaaii, eneaaeaao oaeoe/aneoth naaanoieiinoue.
Nieaeaao oi/iinoue eaeueeoee?iaaiey. Anee niio?aoue n yoeo iiceoeee, oi
naiie oi/iie yaeyaony eaeueeoeyoeey ii i?yeue (ia?aiaiiui) ?anoiaeai,
eioi?ay iieo/aaony i?e eaeueeoee?iaaiee ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia”.
A yoii neo/aa a eaeueeoeyoeeth aeeth/athony ?anoiaeu, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
naycaiiua n ecaioiaeaieai aeaiiiai ecaeaeey. Iiyoiio e?eoa?eai oi/iinoe
en/eneaiey naaanoieiinoe ecaeaeey neoaeao ia iieiioa aeeth/aiey cao?ao a
naaanoieiinoue, a niinia eo ioianaiey ia oi eee eiia ecaeaeea.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue e oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iinoiyiiua
cao?aou a iniiaiie naiae ianna ia naycaiu n i?iecaiaenoaii aeaiiiai
eiie?aoiiai aeaea ecaeaeey, a yaeythony, eae i?aaeei, i?aeiaee/aneeie e
naycaiu n auioneii anaai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey. Iiyoiio oacen
i oii, /oi yoe ?anoiaeu aeieaeiu a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea aeeth/aoueny a
?an/ao naaanoieiinoe ecaeaeey, iiaeii iiaeaa?aiooue e?eoeea.

*oi eanaaony onoaiiaeaiey e eiio?iey ca o?iaiai ?aioaaaeueiinoe
ecaeaeee, oi ieoiaaiinoue ecaeaeey i?e eaeueeoee?iaaiee ii i?yiui
(i?aiaiiui) cao?aoai aeaeia eo/oa, oae eae iia ia eneaaeaaony a
?acoeueoaoa oiai aea ?ani?aaeaeaiey einaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Eae ecaanoii, ia caiaaeiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo aeey i?eiyoey
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee eniieuecoaony ?aciiia?aciay eioi?iaoeey i
naaanoieiinoe. Eiiaaea naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee ca ?oaaaeii
eaeueeoee?oaony aeaoiy iaoiaeaie: ia iniiaa ?ani?aaeaeaiey anao
einaaiiuo cao?ao e ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia”.
Aeoiaaony, ia aeaiiii yoaia ioa/anoaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi iao
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aanoe ia?aeaeueiue o/ao ii aeaoi nenoaiai. Aeey
i?aaei?eyoee, eniieuecothueo “aee?aeo – einoeia”, aeinoaoi/ii
ia?eiaee/anee (a caaeneiinoe io oeaeae oi?aaeaiey) ?ann/eouaaoue iieioth
naaanoieiinoue aianenoaiii. Eae iieacuaaao iiuo caiaaeiuo no?ai, aeaiiua
i oaeie naaanoieiinoe i?eaieaiu aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, aaaeiaeoei iauaeoeaiui oneiaeai i?eiaiaiey “aee?aeo
– einoeiaa” a ?innee yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea noaaeeueiie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee, /oi iiaea/ao ca niaie eciaiaiea o?aaiaaiee e aooaaeoa?neiio
o/aoo, i?aaeaea anaai a iai?aaeaiee iiauoaiey aai iia?aoeaiinoe,
aeaeinoe e aiaeeoe/iinoe iinoaaeyaiie eioi?iaoeee.

Eciaiaiea caaea/, noiyueo ia?aae o/aoii a oeaeii, i?eaiaeeo e
eciaiaieyi a caaea/ao e niaea?aeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa,
neaaenoaeai /aai yaeyaony iauaeoeaaiy aiciiaeiinoue aai i?aaiecaoeee ii
nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia”.

CAEETH*AIEA

Nae/an “aee?aeo – einoeia” i?eiaiyaony a ianeieueeeo aa?eaioao:
eeanne/aneee “aee?aeo – einoeia”, i?aaeiieaaathuee eaeueeoee?iaaiea ii
i?yiui (iniiaiui) cao?aoai (ana ia?aiaiiua); nenoaia ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao –
eaeueeoee?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony ii ia?aiaiiui cao?aoai, a eioi?ua
aoiaeyo i?yiua ?anoiaeu e ia?aiaiiua einaaiiua ?anoiaeu; nenoaia o/aoa
cao?ao a caaeneiinoe io caa?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae – a
eaeueeoeyoeeth aeeth/athony ana ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu e /anoue iinoiyiiuo,
ii?aaeaeyaiuo a niioaaonoaee n eiyooeoeeaioii eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe.

Iauay oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa aeaiiuo aa?eaioia nenoaiu “Aee?aeo –
einoeia” caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi eaeueeoee?oaony ia iieiay, a /anoe/iay
naaanoieiinoue.

Aeey nia?aiaiiiai yoaia ?acaeoey o/aoa ia Caiaaea a ie?ieii niunea
oa?aeoa?iui yaeyaony i?ioeann eioaa?aoeee nianoaaiii o/aoa, aiaeeca,
eiioi?iey e i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee a aaeeioth nenoaio
oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai, iniiaaiioth i?aaeaea anaai ia i?eiaiaiee
eiiiuethoa?ia e i?aioe?othuothny ana aieaa e aieaa ia auai?
no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae yeiiiie/aneiai e oeiainiaiai ?acaeoey oe?iu.

Iaeia ec oaeeo nenoai – nenoaia eiio?ieeeiaa, iieo/eaoay ca
?oaaaeii aeiaieueii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
yeaiaioia e iaiaoiaeeiu oneiaee yoie nenoaiu yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey o/aoa
cao?ao ii nenoaia “Aee?aeo – einoeia”.

I?ioeann yeiiiie/aneie eioaa?aoeee, nicaeaiey o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo
ei?ii?aoeee, ?acee/iiai ?iaea niaianoiuo oe?i e i?aaei?eyoee iaoneiaee
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aooaaeoa?neeo
noaiaea?oia.

Eaeay “aee?aeo – einoeiaa” naaiaeiy iaoea io?aaeaiea e a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oao ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, eanathueony
io?aaeaiey cao?ao e oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia.

A ?innee ii ia?a iainiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee n ?acee/iie oi?iie
nianoaaiiinoe, aeeth/aiey iaoaieciia naiaiaeiiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey e
naiinoiyoaeueiiai ieaie?iaaiey anni?oeiaioa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee,
?acaeoey ae?oaeo noi?ii ?uii/iie yeiiiieee iiyaeony e iinoaiaiii aoaeao
aic?anoaoue iio?aaiinoue a “aee?aeo – einoeiaa”, io yoiai aoaeao
caaenaoue aeaeueiaeoee ?ino yooaeoeaiinoe o/aoa.

Iaee/ea iaoaiaoe/aneiai e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e n?aaenoa
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, ?anoe?aiea noa?u eo i?eiaiaiey yaeythony
iaoa?eaeueiie i?aaeiinueeie i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey nenoaiu
“Aee?aeo – einoeiaa” ia ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Nienie eniieuecoaiuo enoi/ieeia

1 Oea/ A. E., Oea/ I. A. Oi?aeai/aneee o/ao: iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iiuo. I.:

Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1994

2 Oi?ia?ai Y. N., Aai A?aaea I. Ae. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao: oi?aaeai/aneee
aniaeo //

ia?. n aiae. / Iiae ?aae. ss. A. Nieieiaa. I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea,
1995

3 Ieeieaaaa N. A.Iniaaiiinoe o/aoa cao?ao a oneiaeyo ?uiea: nenoaia
“Aee?aeo –

einoeia”. I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1993

4 AEa?eeiaa E. A. Aaeia A. A. Oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao. Ecaeaoaeuenoai OAOO.
Oaiaia

1999

5 Yioiie ?., ?en Aeae. O/ao: neooaoeee, i?eia?u. I., 1993

6 // Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, 1996 ? 1

7 // Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, 1996 ? 2

8 // Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, 1996 ? 3

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