Денежное обращение и кредит

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II?AeIANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

EIAIE I.I. IAA?AAA

yeiiiie/aneee oaeoeueoao

eaoaae?a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

Aeaiueae e i?iaeaiu iaania/aiey onoie/eainoe aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey

Auiieiee: nooaeaio 104 a?oiiu O/eei A. I.

Niaoeeaeueiinoue: 0611 «Iaiaaeaeiaio»

Iaicia/aiea eo?niaie ?aaiou: E?-2069965-YO-21-00

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue: E.Y.I. AeIOeAIO Aieoaaiei A.A.

NA?AINE 2000

?AOA?AO

Eo?niaay ?aaioa niaea?aeeo 25 no?aieoe, 4 oaaeeoe, 12 enoi/ieeia.

Ia?a/aiue eeth/aauo neia: aeaiueae, ooieoeee aeaiaa, aeaiaaeiay ianna,
aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea, nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa, iieacaoaee nei?inoe
ia?auaiey aeaiaa, aeaiaaeiua aa?aaaou, caeiiu aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey,
yeanoe/iinoue aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea, i?iaeaiu
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

Iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey: aeaiueae e i?iaeaiu iaania/aiey onoie/eainoe
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

Oeaeue ?aaiou: ?ane?uoue nouiinoue e ooieoeee aeaiaa, eco/eoue caeiiu
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?iaeaiu aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee
?innee.

Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey: iaoiae noaoenoe/aneiai aiaeeca,
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea, iaoiae iiaeaee?iaaiey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou: ?ane?uou nouiinoue e ooieoeee aeaiaa, eco/eiu
caeiiu aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu i?iaeaiu aeaiaaeiie
iieeoeee ?innee.

Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey: a o/aaiii i?ioeanna a ?aieao eo?nia «Yeiiiie/aneay
oai?ey», «Iee?iyeiiiieea», «Iae?iyeiiiieea».

Ieai.

Oaia : « Aeaiueae e aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea »

Aaaaeaiea .

1. Oai?ey aeaiaa .

1.1. Aicieeiiaaiea oi?iu noieiinoe e aicieeiiaaiea aeaiaa .

1.2. Nouiinoue aeaiaa .

1.3. Oeaia eae aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea noieiinoe .

2. Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea.

2.1 Iiiyoea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey .

2.2 Caeii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey .

2.3 Aeaiaaeiay nenoaia e a? yeaiaiou .

2.4 Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aeaiaaeiay nenoaia .

2.5 Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea ?O.

3. I?iaeaiu aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey A ?innee .

Auaiae.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u .

Aaaaeaiea.

Aeaiueae – iaeii ec aaee/aeoeo /aeiaa/aneeo ecia?aoaiee. I?ienoiaeaeaiea
aeaiaa naycaii n 7 – 8 oun. aei i. y., eiaaea o ia?aiauoiuo ieaiai
iiyaeeenue eceeoee eaeeo-oi i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ua iiaeii auei iaiaiyoue ia
ae?oaea ioaeiua i?iaeoeou. Enoi?e/anee a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa iaeaa/aiey
iaiaia eniieueciaaeenue – n ia?aiaiiui oniaoii – neio, neaa?u, ?aeiaeiu,
eaiie , eonee iaoaeea. Ii /oiau neoaeeoue a ea/anoaa aeaiaa, i?aaeiao
aeieaeai i?ieoe eeoue iaeii, ia iie acaeyae, eniuoaiea: ii aeieaeai
iieo/eoue iauaa i?eciaiea e iieoiaoaeae, e i?iaeaaoeia eae n?aaenoai
iaiaia. Aeaiueae ii?aaeaeythony naiei iauanoaii; ana,/oi iauanoai
i?eciaao a ea/anoaa ia?auaiey,- yoi e anoue aeaiueae. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
aeaiueae – yoi oiaa? , aunooiathuee a ?iee anaiauaai yeaeaaeaioa ,
io?aaeathuaai

Aeaiueae yoi iaiouaieaiay e nouanoaaiiay /anoue oeiainiaie nenoaiu
eaaeaeie no?aiu. Iacuaathony ee iie aeieea?aie, ?oaeyie, ooioaie eee
o?aieaie, aeaiueae neoaeao n?aaenoaii iieaou, n?aaenoaii nio?aiaiey
noieiinoe e aaeeieoeae n/?oa ai anao, e?iia naiuo ia/aeueiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao. A yoie ?aaioa aaoi? iuoaaony ?anniio?aoue
nouiinoue aeaiaa, eo yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea, e oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea
eo eiee/anoai (ianno). Oae aea aoaeao naeaeaia iiiuoea iieacaoue,
ianeieueei aaeeei yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea aeaiaaeiiai iaiaia e eaeoth
?ieue aeaiueae ea?atho a oi?ie?iaaiee yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee

1.1 ?acaeoea oi?iu noieiinoe e aicieeiiaaiea aeaiaa

Ia?en inoaiaaeeaaaony ia anoanoaaiiuo naienoaao cieioa e na?aa?a
(iaeii?iaeiinoue, aeaeeiinoue, iaieeneyaiinoue e ae?.), eioi?ua eae
iaeuecy eo/oa iiaeoiaeyo aeey eo iauanoaaiiie ooieoeee. O cieioa
iiyaeyaony aoi?ay iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue eee, eae aiai?eo Ia?en, iia
«oaeaaeaaaony». Ia?yaeo n iniaaiiie iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoueth eae
oiaa?a (aeey ieiiae?iaaiey coaia, ecaioiaeaiey i?aaeiaoia ?ineioe e o.
ae.) «… ii iieo/aao oi?iaeueioth iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue,
auoaeathuoth ec aai niaoeeoe/anee iauanoaaiiuo ooieoeee»

Ia?en aua ?ac iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi i?ioeann iaiaia «aeaao oiaa?o, eioi?ue
ii i?aa?auaao a aeaiueae, ii aai noieiinoue a eeoue aai niaoeeoe/aneoth
oi?io noieiinoe» Noieiinoue cieioa e na?aa?a auea” nicaeaia a
i?iecaiaenoaa, a 1 iiyaeyeanue a ia?auaiee. Yoi aaaeiia caia/aiea Ia?ena
e iai?aaeaii i?ioea oao ao?aeoaciuo oai?ee, eioi?ua aeaeaee aeaiueaao
i?inoua ciaee, i?eaeoiaiiua yeiau naieie ethaeueie! Ia?en aeieacae, /oi
aeaiueae—yoi oiaa?u, a eioi?uo i?iyaeythony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey
ethaeae, oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae. «O?oaeiinoue ninoieo ia a oii, /oiau
iiiyoue, /oi aeaiueae oiaa?, a a oii, /oiau auynieoue, eae e ii/aio
oiaa? noaiiaeo aeaiueaaie» Ia?en ?ane?ue yoo oaeio, caaaaeeo aeaiaaeiiai
oaoeoa, eioi?ay «… anoue eeoue noaaoay aeaeeii neaiyuay aci? caaaaeea
oiaa?iiai oaoeoa»

1. Ia?a noieiinoe. Yoa ooieoeey ninoieo a oii, /oiau «aeinoaaeoue
oiaa?iiio ie?o iaoa?eae aeey au?aaeaiey noieiinoe». Aaaeiua iiiaiou a
aiaeeca yoie ooieoeee naiaeyony e?aoei e neaaeothuaio: 1. «Au?aaeaiea
noieiinoe oiaa?a a cieioa: o oiaa?a A=o aeaiaaeiiai oiaa?a, anoue
aeaiaaeiay oi?ia oiaa?a, eee aai oeaia»

2. Oeaia—oi?ia eaeaaeueiay, nouanoaothuay eeoue a i?aaenoaaeaiee, «…
aeey yoie iia?aoeee iiaeao auoue i?eiaieii… iuneaiii i?aaenoaaeyaiia,
eee eaeaaeueiia cieioia»

3. Oeaia oiaa?a iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia a ii?aaeaeaiiii oeene?iaaiiii
eiee/anoaa cieioa «eae aaeeieoeu ia?u». «Naia yoa aaeeieoea ecia?aiey
iooai aeaeueiaeoaai aeaeaiey ia ii?aaeaeaiiaa /anoe ?acaa?ouaaaony a
ianooaa» Cieioi. e na?aa?i, iaaeue aua aei naiaai i?aa?auaiey a aeaiueae
iaeaaeatho oaeei ianooaaii a aeaea aaniauo aeaeaiee: oae anee aaeeieoeae
ia?u neoaeeo, iai?eia?, ooio na?aa?a, oi ii ?acaeaeyaony ia oioeee e o.
ae. «Iiyoiio,—ieoao Ia?en,—i?e iaoaeee/aneii ia?auaiee aioiaua iacaaiey
aaniaiai ianooaaa anaaaea ia?acotho e ia?aiia/aeueiua iacaaiey
aeaiaaeiiai ianooaaa, eee ianooaaa oeai»

4. Eae au?aaeaiea noieiinoe e eae ianooaa oeai aeaiueae auiieiytho aeaa
niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua ooieoeee. Ia?ie noieiinoe iie yaeythony eae
iauanoaaiiia aiieiuaiea /aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea; ianooaa oeai – eae
oeene?iaaiiue aan iaoaeea.

Noieiinoue cieioa, ioia/aao Ia?en, iiaeao iaiyoueny „i yoi. «eae «ia
iaoaao aai ooieoeee a ea/anoaa ianooaaa oeai» Ii ?yaeo i?e/ei aeaiaaeiua
iacaaiey aaniauo eiee/anoa iaoaeea «iaei-iiiaeo ioaeaeythony io naieo
ia?aiia/aeueiuo aaniauo iacaaiee. Ia?ea auaeaeyao oaeea «enoi?e/anee
?aoathuea» i?e/eiu:

– aaaaeaiea eiino?aiiuo aeaiaa o ia?iaeia, eioi?ua iaoiaeeeenue ia aieaa
ieceie nooiaie ?acaeoey;

– n ?acaeoeai aiaaonoaa aieaa aeaai?iaeiua iaoaeeu, auoaniytho iaiaa
aeaai?iaeiua. Oae, iai?eia?, iaaeue auoaniyaony na?aa?ii,
na?aa?i—cieioii;

a oa/aiea ?yaea aaeia ainoaea?e caieiaeenue oaeueneoeeaoeeae iiiao,
aneaaenoaea /aai io ia?aiia/aeueiiai aana iiiao inoaeenue oieueei
iacaaiey

Oeaiu oiaa?a iinoiyiii iaiythony iiae aeeyieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.
Ii anoue aieaa aeoaieea i?e/eiu eciaiaiey oeai, eioi?ua ia i?ienoiaeyo
eaaeaeiaeiaaii, a naycaiu n i?ia?annii ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee,
?inoii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Yoi auei ?anniio?aii Ia?enii a
/aou?ao neo/ayo eiee/anoaaiiie ii?aaeaeaiiinoe ioiineoaeueiie oi?iu
noieiinoe a aiaeeca i?inoie eee neo/aeiie oi?iu noieiinoe.

Aicieeiiaaiea aeaiaa

A ia?aiia/aeueiii ia?eiaea nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa
ainiiaenoaiaaei iaoo?aeueiia oicyenoai. I?iecaiaeeiay i?iaeoeoeey
i?aaeiacia/aeanue aeey nianoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey. Iinoaiaiii i?ienoiaeeea
niaoeeaeecaoeey ethaeae ia ecaioiaeaiea ii?aaeae?iiuo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee. Eceeoee noaee eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaiaia ia ae?oaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth, iaiaoiaeeioth aeaiiiio i?iecaiaeeoaeth. Oicyenoaothuea
noauaeou ia/aee i?iecaiaeeoue i?iaeoeoeeth ia oieueei aeey nianoaaiiiai
iio?aaeaiey, ii e aeey iaiaia ia ae?oaea oiaa?u eee aeey ?aaeecaoeee.
Aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iaiaia oiaa?a ia oiaa? ioaeia iio?aaiinoue
i?iaeaaoea eiaiii a oii oiaa?a, eioi?ue i?aaeeaaaaony ae?oaie noi?iiie.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaiai oiaa?aie iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue i?e iaee/ee ioaeiuo
oiaa?ia o iaaeo noi?ii, anooiathueo a naeaeeo. Yoi oneiaea nouanoaaiii
ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe oiaa?iiaiaia. Iaaei o/anoue, /oi i?e iaiaia
aeieaeii niaethaeaoueny o?aaiaaiea yeaeaaeaioiinoe noieiinoe oiaa?ia,
o/anoaothueo a iaiaia, /oi oaeaea ia?aie/eaaao iaiai. No?aieaiea e
?acaeoeth iaiaia noeioee?iaaei auaeaeaiea ec iiiaiia?acey iaiaieaaaiuo
oiaa?ia iaeiaai yeaeaaeaioa, eniieuecoaiiai i?e iaiaia oiaa?ia.
Iinoaiaiii auaeaeyeenue oiaa?u, iaeaaeaaoea aunieie eeeaeaeiinoueth
(niiniaiinoueth e ?aaeecaoeee). Yoi aue neio, iaoa, ae?aaioeaiiua eaiie,
nieue, ca?ii, ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu. Eiaiii iineaaeiea (aeaaiui ia?acii
cieioi) auee auaeaeaiu a ea/anoaa iauaai yeaeaaeaioa. Yoiio
niinianoaiaaee ianeieueei ea/anoa, i?enoueo cieioo: ?aaeeinoue,
iaeii?iaeiinoue, aeaeeiinoue, aeeeoaeueiinoue o?aiaiey, ii?oaoeaiinoue.
Eoae, oiaa?, iaeaaeathuee iaeaieueoae eeeaeaeiinoueth noaiiaeony
aeaiueaaie. Ii ii?aaeaeaieth: aeaiueae – yoi aaniethoii eeeaeaeiia
n?aaenoai. Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi aeaiueae iiyaeeenue eae ?acoeueoao
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a oicyenoaaiiie aeecie ethaeae. Oi anoue
iiyaeaiea aeaiaa aaniethoii iauaeoeaii. Aeaiueae yaeythony oiaa?ii, a
oiaa? i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iaiaia. Ieeaeeo i?ioeai?a/ee.

Neiai «aeaiueae» aicieeei iioiio, /oi ae?aaiea ?eieyia eniieueciaaee
O?ai aiaeie Aeaeoii Iiiaoa a ea/anoaa ianoa?neie aeey /aeaiee iiiao. Ni
a?aiaiai ana ianoa, aaea ecaioaaeeaaeenue iiiaou, noaee iacuaaoue
«iiiaoa». Aiaeeeneee aa?eaio yoiai neiaa «ieio», o?aioeocneee – «iiia»;
io yoiai neiaa e i?iecioei aiaeeeneia neiai «iaie»- aeaiueae. Iiiaou,
eae oaeiaua, nouanoaotho iianthaeo i?eaeeceoaeueii oaea a oa/aiea 2500
eao, ii, eae ecaanoii, ei i?aaeoanoaiaaee ?aciua i?aaeiaou,
eniieuecoaiua a ea/anoaa aeaiaa. A ianoaiiuo ?enoieao Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa
acaaoeaatho ia aanao cieioua eieueoea. A naiuo ?aiieo ?oeiienyo (a?ai?i
ae?aaiae Ianiiioaiee) oiiieiaaony eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa aeaiaa
ioaaoaiiiai iaoaeea. A Eeoaa, ii iaiueoae ia?a 3000 eao iacaae, a
ea/anoaa aeaiaa i?eiaiyee nei?eoiee eao?e, ?aeiaeiu iaeioi?uo aeaeia
iieethneia ec Eiaeeeneiai ieaaia. ( Iaeioi?ua naaa?iaia?eeaineea
eiaeaeoeu oiaea eniieueciaaee a ea/anoaa aeaiaa /aooth iieethneia,
eioi?oth iie iacuaaee aaiioi). Anoue oaeaea naeaeaoaeuenoaa oiai, /oi
ouny/e eao iacaae a i?eieoeaiuo iauanoaao eniieueciaaee eaiie. O
aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa auee i?aaeoanoaaiieee a aeaea aeieoiaioia, iaauathueo
ieaoaaee cieioii, na?aa?ii eee ae?oaeie oeaiiuie i?aaeiaoaie. Ecaanoiua
enoi?ee ia?aua iaoiaeeaoeany a ia?auaiee aaieiiou auee auiouaiu
eeoaeneeie aaiee?aie a ainaiiaaeoeaoii aaea. (Aaiee e aaiee?u
nouanoaiaaee iianthaeo oaea a oa/aiea iiiaeo aaeia aei iiyaeaiey ia?auo
aaieiio. Ia ?aiiae noaaeee aaieiiou iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue iiiaoaie, e
eiaiii aeaaiaea?y yoiio eo noaee aini?eieiaoue eae aeaiueae. E
naiiaaeoeaoiio aaeo aoiaaeiua aeaiueae auee a ia?auaiee a i/aiue
ia?aie/aiiuo eiee/anoaao anaai a ianeieueeeo no?aiao. Aiaeeeneee aaie
ia/ae auioneaoue aaieiiou a

1964 aiaeo, o.a. a oii aiaeo, eiaaea auei ia?aciaaii yoi o/?aaeaeaiea.

1.2 Nouiinoue aeaiaa.

Aeaiueae (Ae) – yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, a eioi?ie i?iyaeythony e i?e
o/anoee eioi?ie no?iyony iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Ae aunooiatho a
ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiie oi?iu iaiiaie noieiinoe, n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey,
ieaoaaea, iaeiieaiey. Ae aicieeatho i?e ii?aaeaeaiiii oneiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa e yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee e niinianoaotho eo ?acaeoeth.
Iaiin?aaenoaaiiua i?aaeiinueee iiyaeaiey Ae: 1)Ia?aoiae io iaoo?aeueiiai
oicyenoaa e i?iecaiaenoao oiaa?ia e iaiaio oiaa?aie; 2)Eiouanoaaiiia
iainiaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaa?ia. A ia/aeueiue ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa ainiiaenoaiaaei iaoo?aeueiia oicyenoai, a eioi?ii
i?iecaiaeeeanue i?iaeoeoeey aeey nianoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey. Iinoaiaiii
i?ienoiaeeea niaoeeaeecaoeey ethaeae i?e ecaioiaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo
aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee. I?e yoii ecauoie i?iaeoeoeee ieacaeinue aiciiaeiui
eniieueciaaoue aeey iaiaia ia ae?oaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, iaiaoiaeeioth
aeaiiiio i?iecaiaeeoaeth. I?yiie iaiai oiaa?a ia oiaa? eiaao iaoe?iua
ia?aie/aiey: 1)Iaiai ia?aie/ai e?oaii eeoe, eioi?ui iiaeii nauoue oiaa?;
2)O?ainii?oiua ecaea?aeee; 3)Niiniaiinoue e nauoo o ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia
?acee/ia; 4)Ia?aie/aiey ii a?aiaie (aeey nei?iii?oyueony i?iaeoeoia;
5)?acee/iay aeaeeiinoue oiaa?ia. Yeiiiie/aneee eioa?an ioaeaeueiuo
eiaeeaeaeia i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth oiaa?a, yaeythuaainy anaiauei
yeaeaaeaioii. Aeaaiaea?y iiyaeaieth Ae iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue
?acaeaeeoue aaeeiia?aiaiiue i?ioeann iaiaia oiaa?aie O-O ia aeaa
?aciia?aiaiii inouanoaeyaiuo i?ioeanna: 1)I?iaeaaea naiaai oiaa?a O-Ae;
2)I?eia?aoaiea ae?oaiai oiaa?a a ae?oaia a?aiy e a ae?oaii ianoa Ae-O.
I?eiaiaiea Ae oaea ia naiaeeony e o/anoeth a ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea a
i?ioeannao iaiaia oiaa?ia. Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea Ae i?eia?aoaao
naiinoiyoaeueiue i?ioeann. Ooieoeee Ae: 1)Ia?a noieiinoe (ioeaiea
noieiinoe oiaa?ia iooai onoaiiaeaiey oeai; 2)N?aaenoai ia?auaiey (Ae
eniieuecothony aeey iieaou oiaa?ia ); 3)N?aaenoai ieaoaaea (i?e
i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia a e?aaeeo); 4)N?aaenoai iaeiieaiey (Ae, inoaaoeany
iinea i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia e ia o/anoaothuea a iai?ioa).

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaiaa aucaaia oiaa?iui i?iecaiaenoaii.

Oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai i?aaeiieaaaao ?anniio?aiea iaueo i?e/ei,
iauyniythueo iaiaoiaeeiinoue oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaiaa ai anao yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeeyo.

Iauay i?e/eia aicieeiiaaiey aeaiaa – iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.
Oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai aiciiaeii aac aeaiaa, ii aeaiueae ia iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue aac oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

*anoiua i?e/eiu iauyniytho iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaiaa a eiie?aoiie
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee. Iauea e /anoiua i?e/eiu ia
eneeth/atho, a aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. *anoiua i?e/eiu:

1. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiue o?oae eaaeaeiai i?iecaiaeeoaey yaeyaony /anoiui
o?oaeii. Iauanoaaiiia i?eciaiea o?oaea aiciiaeii oieueei /a?ac iaiai,
oaeei ia?acii iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa? o?oaea ne?uo, o. a. aeaiueae
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey niecia?aiey cao?ao ia nicaeaiea i?iaeoeoa.

2. Iaiaeii?iaeiinoue o?oaea, iaoneaaeeaathuay ?ani?aaeaeaiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa a caaeneiinoe io cao?ao /aeiaaea.

3. O?iaaiue ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee i?aaeii?aaeaeyao
?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa ii cao?aoai yia?aee.

4. O?oae ia noae ia?aie aeeciaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eaaeaeiai /eaia
iauanoaa, neaaeiaaoaeueii o?aaoaony noeioee?iaaiea cao?ao o?oaea.
Iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiue iaoiae – iaoa?eaeueiia noeioee?iaaiea.

5. Iaee/ea ?aciuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e
i?iaeoeou o?oaea.

6. Ianiciaoaeueiia ioiioaiea iaeioi?uo /eaiia iauanoaa e iio?aaeaieth
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa.

Iaee/ea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo naycae, o?aaothuea yeaeaaeaioiiai iaiaia i?iaeoeoaie
o?oaea iaaeaeo no?aiaie.

1.3 Oeaia eae aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea noieiinoe.

Oeaiu oiaa?ia au?aaeathony a ecaanoiii eiee/anoaa aeaiaaeiiai oiaa?a –

cieioa. Eiee/anoai cieioa, aai ianna, ecia?yaony aai aanii. Ii?aaeaeai-

iia aaniaia eiee/anoai cieioa i?eieiaaony ca aaeeieoeo ecia?aiey aai

iannu. yoa aaeeieoea, onoaiaaeeaaaony ainoaea?noaii a ea/anoaa
aeaiaaeiie

aaeeieoeu, iacuaaaony ianooaaii oeai. Ianooaa oeai e aai e?aoeea
/anoe

neoaeao aeey ecia?aiey iannu cieioa. Ana oeaiu oiaa?ia au?aaeathony a
ii?a-

aeaeaiiii eiee/anoaa aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe eee, /oi iaeii e oi aea, a
ii?aaea-

eaiiii eiee/anoaa aaniauo aaeeieoe cieioa. Oae, a NOA, ianooaaii oeai
aei

1971 aiaea yaeyeny aeieea?, eioi?ue iia ia?auaoueny a cieioi ii
ioeoeeaeue-

iiio ia?eoaoo aeey oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia e eiino?aiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa,
?aa-

iiio 0,818513 a?aii /enoiai cieioa. A ?innee aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeae
noae

?oaeue, aaniaia eiee/anoai cieioa eioi?iai a 1897 aiaeo auei
ii?aaeaeaii

0.774254 a?aiia.

Ianooaa oeai ia?aiia/aeueii niaiaaeae n aaniaui ianooaaii.
aeaeue-

iaeoai ianooaa oeai iainiaeeny, /oi auei naycaii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
n

ii?/ae iiiao, aaaaeaieai a iai?io eiino?aiiuo aeaiaa. Aeaiaaeiua
aaeeieoeu

(ooio noa?eeiaia, eea?, a?eaia e ae?.) nio?aiyee i?aaeiaa iaeiaiiaaiea

aaniauo aaeeieoe, iaeiaei oaeoe/anee iinoaiaiii noaee niaea?aeaoue
cia/e-

oaeueii iaiueoaa eiee/anoai ae?aaioeaiiiai iaoaeea. Iuia cieioia
niaea?aea-

iea aaetho ioeoeeaeueii ioiaiaii aiiaua.

A ooieoeee n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey aeaiueae aunooiatho a ea/anoaa
iin?aae-

ieea a ia?auaiee , eioi?ia inouanoaeyaony ii oi?ioea O(oiaa?) –

Ae(aeaiueae) – O(oiaa?). A aeaiiii neo/aa aeaiueae ia caaea?aeeaathony
aeieai a

?oeao iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia e ia?aoiaeyo ec ?oe a ?oee,
auiieiyy

ooieoeeth n?aaenoa ia?auaiey ieiieaoii. yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai i?eaaei a
ei-

ia/iii n/aoa e caiaia iieiioeaiiuo aeaiaa iaiieiioeaiiuie.

Ia?aiia/aeueii ooieoeeth n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey cieioi auiieiyei neeo-

eao. *oiau ia acaaoeaaoue cieioi a eaaeaeii aeoa iaiaia, nia/aea
ioaeaeue-

iua eoioeu, a iioii e ainoaea?noai noaee i?eaeaaaoue iaaieueoei neeoeai
ci-

eioa ii?aaeaeaiioth noaiaea?oioth oi?io e noaaeoue ia ieo
niioaaonoaothuee

ooaii. Cieioi eae aeaiueae iieo/eei oi?io iiiaou.

I?e ia?auaiee iiiaou iinoaiaiii noe?athony, oa?ytho a naiai aa-

na.Iaeiaei ia ?uiea iie i?eieiaeenue eae iieiioeaiiua aeaiueae, oioy
niaea?-

aeaueany a ieo eiee/anoai cieioa iinoaiaiii oiaiueoaeinue. A eoiaa
?aaeue-

iia niaea?aeaiea cieioa a iiiaoa ioaeaeeeinue io aa
iiieiaeueiiai(oeacaiii-

ai ia iae) niaea?aeaiey. Naii ainoaea?noai noaei caiaiyoue iieiioeaiioth
ci-

eiooth iiiaoo ia iaiieiioeaiioth io/aeaiaiioth na?aa?yiue eee iaaeiue
ciae.

aoa i?aeoeea a aeaeueiaeoai i?eaaea e auioneo /enoi iiieiaeueiuo ciaeia
).

noieiinoe – aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa a ea/anoaa caiaieoaeae iaoaeee/aneeo iiiao.

aoei auei aeieacaii, /oi iieiioeaiiua aeaiueae i?e auiieiaiee eie
ooieoeee

n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey iiaeii caiaiyoue neiaieaie noieiinoe.

Anee i?iaeaaaoe iieo/ee ca naie oiaa? aeaiueae, ii ia noae eo n?aco

aea ?anoiaeiaaoue ia iieoieo ioaeiuo aio aauae, oi i?ioeann ia?auaiey
i?a-

?uaaaony. Oiaaea aeaiueae ia/eiatho auiieiyoue ooieoeeth n?aaenoaa
ia?aciaaiey

nie?iaeu: iie iaeaieeaathony a ea/anoaa i?aaenoaaeoaey aiaaonoaa aiiaua;

ooieoeeth nie?iaeua auiieiytho ia oieueei cieioua iiiaou, ii e neeoee,
ec-

aeaeey ec cieioa, oi anoue nai aeaiaaeiue iaoa?eae ai anao aai aeaeao.

Cieioi ecuiaeinue ec ia?auaiey e i?aa?auaeinue a nie?iaeu oieueei

ia ?aiieo nooiaiyo ?acaeoey oiaa?iiai oicyenoaa. Iaiiaeaeaeiia nie?iaeua

ia i?eiineo aeioiaea, a iiyoiio ana aeaiueae noaee ioneaoueny a iai?io
aeey

iieo/aiey eo i?e?inoa. Nae/an nie?iaeua iaeaieeaathony a aaieao, eioi?ua

iin?aaenoaii e?aaeeoa iaoiaeyo ei i?eaueueiia i?eiaiaiea.

I?e i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia a e?aaeeo (a aeiea n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea)
aeaiueae

auiieiytho ooieoeeth ieaoaaeiiai n?aaenoaa: eie ?aniea/eaathony ca
?aiaa

i?eia?aoaiiue oiaa?, eiaaea ianooiaao n?ie iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe.
A

oaeie ?iee aeaiueae eniieuecothony e aia noa?u oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey:
eiaaea

auiea/eaaaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa, auiieiythony anyeiai ?iaea oeiainiaua

iaycaoaeuenoaa (ii caeiai, iaeiaai, ca a?aiaeo caiee eee iiiauaiey, e

o.i.).

2. Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e aeaiaaeiay nenoaia

2.1 Iiiyoea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey

Aeaeaeaiea aeaiaa i?e auiieiaiee eie naieo ooieoeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea.

( eee oae:Aeaeaeaiea aeaiaa, ianeoaeeaathueo ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?ia, ?aaio
e oneoa, iacuaatho aeaiaaeiui ia?auaieai.)

Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea inouanoaeyaony a iaee/iie e aaciaee/iie oi?iao.

Iaee/ii- aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea — aeaeaeaiea iaee/iuo aeaiaa a noa?a
ia?auaiey e auiieiaiea eie 2-o ooieoeee: n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea e n?aaenoaa
ia?auaiey. Iaee/iua aeaiueae eniieuecothony: aeey iieaou oiaa?ia, ?aaio,
oneoa; aeey ?an/aoia, ia naycaiiuo n aeaeaeaieai oiaa?ia e oneoa(
?an/aoia ii auieaoa ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?aiee, iiniaee, noeiaiaeee,
iainee, ii auieaoa no?aoiauo aiciauaiee ii aeiaiai?ai no?aoiaaiey, i?e
iieaoa oeaiiuo aoiaa e auieaoa aeioiaea ii iei, ii ieaoaaeai ianaeaiey,
ia oicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu, ia iieaoo eiiaiaee?iaie, ia
i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu, ia caeoieo naeueoici?iaeoeoeee e o.ae).
Iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiia aeaeaeaiea inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth ?acee/iuo
aeaeia aeaiaa: aaieiio, iaoaeee/aneeo iiiao, ae?oaeo e?aaeeoiuo
eino?oiaioia (aaenaeae, /aeia, e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae). A ?innee
i?aaei?eieiathony iiiuoee ia?aie/eoue iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea, o.e.
iii iicaieyao ooiaeeoue io eiio?iey ainoaea?noaa ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe.

Aaciaee/iia ia?auaiea – aeaeaeaiea noieiinoe aac o/anoey iaee/iuo
aeaiaa. Aeiey aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia a ?innee ?aiueoa ninoaaeyea ieiei 80
%, naaiaeiy- . Aunieee o?iaaiue aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia a ethaie no?aia
aiai?eo i i?aaeeueiie, a?aiioiie i?aaiecaoeee anaai aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa.

Iaaeaeo iaee/iui e aaciaee/iui ia?auaieai nouanoaoao oaniay
acaeiinaycue: aeaiueae iinoiyiii ia?aoiaeyo ec iaeiie noa?u ia?auaiey a
ae?oaoth, iie ia?acotho iauee aeaiaaeiue iai?io, a eioi?ii aeaenoaotho
aaeeiua aeaiueae.

A caaeneiinoe io yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey ?acee/atho aeaa a?oiiu
aaciaee/iiai ia?auaiey: ii oiaa?iui iia?aoeeyi, o.a. aaciaee/iua ?an/aou
ca oiaa?u e oneoae; ii oeiainiaui iaycaoaeuenoaai, o.a. ieaoaaee a
athaeaeao e ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, iiaaoaiea aaieianeeo nnoae,
oieaoa i?ioeaioia ca e?aaeeo, ?an/aou ni no?aoiauie eiiiaieyie. Cia/aiea
aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia ninoieo a oii, /oi iie onei?ytho iai?a/eaaaiinoue
n?aaenoa, nie?auatho aaniethoioth aaee/eio iaee/iuo aeaiaa a iai?ioa,
nie?auathony ecaea?aeee ia ia/aoaiea e aeinoaaeo iaee/iuo aeaiaa.

A 1993 a. OeA ?O ia/ae ?aaioo ii aiaae?aieth aaoiiaoe/aneie nenoaiu
iaaeaaieianeeo ?an/aoia ia aaca ?an/aoii-eanniauo oeaio?ia ?EOe e
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, /oi iicaieyao ioeacaoueny io ia?anueee aoiaaeiuo
aeieoiaioia e onei?yao ?an/aou (n/ao eaeao ia /anu e ieioou, e a
eaeaaea ?aaioa iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie).

Aaciaee/iue iai?io a ?innee oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaycaoaeueiui ioe?uoeai
?an/aoiiai eee oaeouaai n/aoa a o/?aaeaeaiee aaiea; ieaoaaee
i?iecaiaeyony n niaeaney iieoiaoaey eee ii ii?o/aieth ieaoaeueueea;
iniiaaieai aeey ia?a/eneaiey n?aaenoa yaeythony oeiainiaua ieaoaaeiua
aeieoiaiou (ieaoaaeiua ii?o/aiey, ?an/aoiua /aee, aeiaiai?a); i?e
ia?ooaiee oneiaee aeiaiai?a nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue iieiiai eee
/anoe/iiai ioeaca io iieaou a niioaaonoaee e «I?aaeeaie inouanoaeaiey
aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia»; iaee/iua aeaiueae a eanna i?aaei?eyoey iaoiaeyony
a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia; naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a ?anoiaeiaaiee
n?aaenoa ia n/aoao a niioaaonoaee n «Ii?yaeeii aaaeaiey eanniauo
iia?aoeee a ?O» io 1993 a.

A ?innee a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeaie Aaiea ?innee ii?aaeaeaii, /oi
?an/aou i?aaei?eyoee ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai, a oaeaea iaaeaeo
th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie ca oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe
i?iecaiaeyony a aaciaee/iii ii?yaeea /a?ac o/?aaeaeaiey aaiea.

Ii?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuea oi?iu aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia: ?an/aou ieaoaaeiuie
ii?o/aieyie; ?an/aou ieaoaaeiuie o?aaiaaieyie-ii?o/aieyie; eieanniaua
?an/aou; ?an/aou n i?eiaiaieai aee?aaeeoeaia; ?an/aou n eniieueciaaieai
/aeia; ?an/aou n eniieueciaaieai aaenaeae; eee?eiaiaua ?an/aou; ?an/aou
n iiiiuueth ieanoeeiauo ea?oi/ae.

2.2 Caeii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Aeaiaaeiay ianna e nei?inoue ia?auaiey
aeaiaa

Caeii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey onoaiaaeeaaao eiee/anoai aeaiaa, ioaeiia
aeey auiieiaiey eie ooieoeee n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey e n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea.

Eiee/anoai aeaiaa, iio?aaiia aeey auiieiaiey aeaiueaaie ooieoeee
n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey i?e iaoaeee/aneii ia?auaiee, ii?aaeaeyaony ii
oi?ioea:

Eiee/anoai aeaiaa, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey noiia oiaa?iuo oeai

auiieiaiey eie ooieoeee n?aaenoaa =
————————————————————————
——————–

ia?auaiey

aeaiaa
nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa

a NiOei

KDo =

Vae

N iiyaeaieai e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa caeii, ii?aaeaeythuee eiee/anoai aeaiaa a
ia?auaiee i?eia?aoaao neaaeothuee aeae:

I?e iaoaeee/aneii ia?auaiee eiee/anoai aeaiaa a iai?ioa e onoie/eainoue
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey iaania/eaaeenue noeoeeii /a?ac ooieoeeth aeaiaa
eae n?aaenoaa iaeiieaiey e ia?aciaaiey nie?iaeu. A oneiaeyo aoiaaeii-
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey ?ieue ?aaoeyoi?a aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ainoaea?noao. Aeaiaaeiay ianna – yoi niaieoiiinoue
iieoiaoaeueiuo, ieaoaaeiuo e iaeiieaiiuo n?aaenoa, ianeoaeeaathuay
yeiiiie/aneea nayce e i?eiaaeeaaeauay oece/aneei e th?eaee/aneei eeoeai,
a oaeaea ainoaea?noao.

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiie iannu:

Aeaeu aeaiaa Ia/aei XX a. i?e cieioii ia?auaiee Iaeaioia 1-e ie?iaie
aieiu

cieioua iiiaou 40 % 15 %

aaieiiou e e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae 50 % 22 %

inoaoee ia n/aoao a e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo 10 % 67 %

A oeiainiaie noaoenoeea ?innee aeey aiaeeca i?ienoiaeyueo eciaiaiee
eniieuecotho aeaiaaeiua aa?aaaou M0, M1, M2, M3.

Aa?aaao M0 — iaee/iua aeaiueae a ia?auaiee.

Aa?aaao M1 — aa?aaao M0 + n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoee ia ?acee/iuo n/aoao
a aaieao, aeeaaeu ianaeaiey aei aino?aaiaaiey, n?aaenoaa no?aoiauo
eiiiaiee.

Aa?aaao M2 — aa?aaao M1 + n?i/iua aeaiiceou ianaeaiey a
naa?aaaoaeueiuo aaieao, a oii /enea eiiiainaoeee.

Aa?aaao M3 — aa?aaao M2 + na?oeoeeaou e iaeeaaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeia.

?aaiiaanea ianooiaao i?e M2>M1, oe?aieyaony i?e M2+M3>M1.

E ia/aeo 1994 a. no?oeoo?a niaieoiiie aeaiaaeiie iannu ?O eiaea
neaaeothuee ninoaa: M0 – 29,8 %; M1 (aac M0) – 66,71 %; M2 (aac M1) –
3,1 %; M3 (aac M2) – 0,5 %

29,8 % aeaiaaeiie iannu i?eoiaeeony ia iaee/iua aeaiueae, iaaethaeaaony
?ino yoiai aa?aaaoa.

1995 1996 1997

o?ei.?oa % o?ei.?oa % o?ei.?oa % e 1996 Iieacaoaee

220,8 100 286 100 377 100 132 Aeaiaaeiay ianna (M2)

80,8 37 103 36 124 33 120 M0

70,3 32 120 42 183 49 153 Aeaiiceou ianaeaiey

69,7 31 63 22 70 18 111 N?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoee, ae?

Ia?aoiae aeaiaa ec aaciaee/iiai iai?ioa a iaee/iue aucuaaao iaoaaoeo
iaee/iuo aeaiaa a no?aia; aaaeao e aicieeiiaaieth oaiaaie yeiiiieee;
niinianoaoao oeeiiaieth i?aaei?eyoee io oieaou iaeiaia;
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i nieaeaiee aiciiaeiinoe ainoaea?noaa aeeyoue ia
?aaeueiua oicyenoaaiiua i?ioeannu.

Niaieoiiue iauai aeaiaaeiie iannu (aa?aaao M2) ninoaaeye:
a 1992 a. – 7,14 o?ei. ?oa.; a
1993 a. – 36,72 o?ei. ?oa.;
a 1994 a. – 106,4 o?ei. ?oa.; a 1995 a. – 220,8 o?ei.
?oa.; a 1996 a.
– 286 o?ei. ?oa.; a 1997 a. – i?iaiic 377 o?ei. ?oa.

Ia aeaiaaeioth ianno aeeytho aeaa oaeoi?a: eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee
e nei?inoue eo iai?ioa. Eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee ii?aaeaeyaony
ainoaea?noaii, enoiaey eo iio?aaiinoae oiaa?iiai iai?ioa e aeaoeoeeoa
Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. Ia nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa aeeytho
aeeeoaeueiinoue oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia (oyaeaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue eee
eaaeay), no?oeoo?a ieaoaaeiiai iai?ioa (niioiioaiea iaee/iuo e
aaciaee/iuo aeaiaa), o?iaaiue ?acaeoey e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee e
acaeii?an/aoia, o?iaaiue i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ca e?aaeeo, eniieueciaaiea
yeaeo?iiiuo oaoiieiaee a aaieianeii aeaea.

Nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey aeaiaa a e?oaiiai?ioa noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea

aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa eee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea e
aeaiaaeiie ianna (aa?aaaou I1 eee I2)

Iai?a/eaaaiinoue aeaiaa a ieaoaaeiii iai?ioa ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai:

e n?aaeiaaiaeiaie aaee/eia aeaiaaeiie

iannu a ia?auaiee

2.3 Aeaiaaeiay nenoaia e aa yeaiaiou

Aeaiaaeiay nenoaia – ono?ienoai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey a no?aia,
neiaeeaoaany enoi?e/anee e cae?aieaiiia iaoeeiiaeueiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Noi?ie?iaaeanue a XVI-XVII aa. n ooaa?aeaeaieai
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa e iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?uiea.

?acee/atho aeaiaaeiua nenoaiu aeaoo oeiia:

nenoaia iaoaeee/aneiai ia?auaiey, eioi?ay aace?oaony ia aeaenoaeoaeueiuo
aeaiueaao (cieiouo e na?aa?yiuo), auiieiythueo ana 5 ooieoeee, a
ia?auathueany aaieiiou aani?aiyonoaaiii iaiaieaathony ia
aeaenoaeoaeueiua aeaiueae (cieioi e na?aa?i);

nenoaia aoiaaeii-e?aaeeoiiai ia?auaiey, i?e eioi?ie aeaenoaeoaeueiua
aeaiueae auoaniaiu ciaeaie noieiinoe, a a ia?auaiee iaoiaeyony
aoiaaeiua, eeai e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae.

I?e nenoaia iaoaeee/aneiai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey auaeaeytho aeaa aeaea
aeaiaaeiuo nenoai: aeiaoaeeeci; iiiiiaoaeeeci

Aeiaoaeeeci – ?ieue anaiauaai yeaeaaeaioa cae?aieaia ca aeaoiy
iaoaeeaie: cieioii e na?aa?ii. I?aaeoniao?eaaaony iaia?aie/aiiia
ia?auaiea e naiaiaeiay /aeaiea, onoaiiaeaiea aeaoo oeai ia iaeei oiaa?.
Yoa nenoaia nouanoaiaaea a XVI – XVIII aa., a a ?yaea no?ai Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu aeaenoaiaaei e a XIX a. Nenoaia ia iaania/eaaea onoie/eainoe
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

Iiiiiaoaeeeci – ?ieue anaiauaai yeaeaaeaioa cae?aieaia ca iaeiei
iaoaeeii. Na?aa?yiue iiiiiaoaeeeci nouanoaiaae a ?innee (1843-1852 aa.),
Eiaeee (1852-1893 aa.), Eeoae (aei 1935 a.). Cieioia ia?auaiea ?innee -n
1897 a.

?acee/atho o?e ?aciiaeaeiinoe, o.a. noaiaea?oa cieioiai iiiiiaoaeeecia:
cieioiiiiaoiue; cieioineeoeiaue; cieioiaeaaeciue.

Cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o oa?aeoa?eciaaeny naiaiaeiie /aeaieie iiiao,
aani?aiyonoaaiiui iaiaiii aaieiio ia cieioi, ia cai?auaiiui aeaeaeaieai
cieioa iaaeaeo no?aiaie. Yoio noaiaea?o o?aaiaae iaee/ey cieiouo caiania
a yienneiiiuo oeaio?ao. Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia i?eaaea e ioiaia
cieioiiiiaoiiai noaiaea?oa a aieueoeinoaa no?ai.

Iinea Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu a Aaeeeia?eoaiey e O?aioeey aaaaeai
cieioineeoeiaue noaiaea?o, i?e eioi?ii aaieiiou iaiaieaaeenue ia cieioua
neeoee; a Aa?iaiee, Aano?ee, Aeaiee, Ii?aaaee – cieioiaeaaeciue
noaiaea?o, i?e eioi?ii aaieiiou iaiaieaaeenue ia aeaaecu, o.a.
ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, ?aciaiiua ia cieioi. A
?acoeueoaoa ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena 1929 – 1933 aa.
ooaa?aeeeanue nenoaia ia?auaiey aoiaaeii-e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa, ia ?aciaiiuo
ia aeaenoaeoaeueiua aeaiueae. Nenoaia i?aaeoniao?eaaao ainiiaenoaothuaa
iieiaeaiea aaieiio, auioneaaiuo yienneiiiuie oeaio?aie no?ai.

Yeaiaiou aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu

Yeaiaioaie aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu yaeythony: aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu; ianooaa
oeai; aeaeu aeaiaa, yaeythueony caeiiiui ieaoaaeiui n?aaenoaii;
yienneiiiay nenoaia; ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey.

Aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu – yoi onoaiiaeaiiue a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea
aeaiaaeiue ciae, neoaeauee aeey niecia?aiey e au?aaeaiey oeai anao
oiaa?ia e oneoa. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai aeaenoaotho aeanyoe/iua nenoaiu
aeaeaiey: iai?eia?: 1 aeieea? = 100 oeaioai, 1 ?oa. = 100 eii.

Ianooaa oeai – n?aaenoai au?aaeaiey noieiinoe /a?ac aaniaia
niaea?aeaiea aeaiaaeiiai iaoaeea a aua?aiiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoea ( yoi
ii?aaeaeaiea oo?aoeei yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea, o.e. e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae
ia eiatho nianoaaiiie noieiinoe e ia iiaoo auoue au?aceoaeai noieiinoe
ae?oaeo oiaa?ia). A a 1961 a. 1 ?oa. i?e?aaieaaeny e 0.98741 a cieioa.

Aeaeu aeaiaa, yaeythueany caeiiiuie ieaoaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie – yoi
i?aaeaea anaai e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae e aaieiiou, ?aciaiiay iiiaoa, a
oaeaea aoiaaeiua aeaiueae (eacia/aeneea aeeaou).

Yienneiiiay nenoaia – caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiue ii?yaeie auionea e
ia?auaiey aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia. Yienneiiiua iia?aoeee inouanoaeyao
Oeaio?aeueiue aaie (auione aaieianeeo aeeaoia) e eacia/aenoai (auione
eacia/aeneeo aeeaoia, iaeei eoith?iuo aoiaaeii-aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia).
Yienney aaieiio inouanoaeyaony o?aiy iooyie: i?aaeinoaaeaieai e?aaeeoia
e?aaeeoiui o/?aaeaeaieyi a oi?ia ia?ao/aoa eiiia?/aneeo aaenaeae;
e?aaeeoiaaieai eaciu iiae iaania/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa;
auioneii aaieiio iooai eo iaiaia ia eiino?aiioth aaethoo.

?aaoee?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Ia?ie ?aaoee?iaaiey i?e?inoa
aeaiaaeiie iannu e e?aaeeoa yaeyaony oa?aaoe?iaaiea, o.a. onoaiiaeaiea
oeaeaauo i?eaioe?ia, ia eioi?ua aeieaeiu i?eaioe?iaaoueny oeaio?aeueiua
aaiee. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ii niaeaniaaieth n ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie
ii?aaeaeyao noiio oaaee/aiey aeaiaaeiie iannu, ia?aie/eaay aa i?e?inoii
a ?aaeueiii en/eneaiee. Iaeiaei yooaeoeaiinoue oaeie ia?u iaaaeeea.

2.4 Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aeaiaaeiay nenoaia

N 1944 a. ii 1973 a. ii ?aoaieth A?aooii-Aoaeneie (NOA) eiioa?aioeee III
iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aeaiaaeiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyea niaie naiaia?aciue
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiue cieioiaeaaeciue noaiaea?o. Aa aeaaiuie i?eaioe?aie
auee:

cieioi auiieiyao ooieoeeth ie?iauo aeaiaa, iii aunooiaao n?aaenoaii
ieii/aoaeueiuo ?an/aoia iaaeo no?aiaie e anaiauei aiieiuaieai
iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa;

e?iia cieioa a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ieaoaaeiii iai?ioa eniieuecothony
aeieea? NOA e aiaeeeneee ooio noa?eeiaia;

aeieea? NOA iaiaieaaeny ia cieioi ii onoaiiaeaiiiio niioiioaieth. Oeaia
cieioa ia naiaiaeiuo ?uieao neeaaeuaaeanue ia aaca ioeoeeaeueiie oeaiu
NOA e aei 1968 a. ia ioeeiiyeanue io iaa;

iaoeeiiaeueiua aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu naiaiaeii /a?ac oeaio?aeueiua aaiee
iaiaieaaeenue ia aeieea?u, a /a?ac aeieea?u – a cieioi, e iaaeaeo niaie
ii onoaiiaeaiiui Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aaethoiui oiiaeii (IAO) niioiioaieyi.

Aeaiaaeiay nenoaia, iniiaaiiay ia eniieueciaaiee aeieea?a eae yoaeiia
oeaiiinoae anao aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe a 1971-1973 aa. iioa?iaea
aaie?ionoai. N 1971 a. i?ae?auai iaiai aeieea?ia ia cieioi. ?ieue
?aca?aiuo aaetho noaee auiieiyoue ia?ee O?A, yiiineay eaia, SDR –
niaoeeaeueiua i?aaa caeinoaiaaiey a IAO e YETH.

Ia niaio A?aooii – Aoaeneie aeaiaaeiie nenoaia i?eoea ssiaeneay
aeaiaaeiay nenoaia, ioi?ieaiiay niaeaoaieai no?ai-/eaiia IAO a a.
Eeianoiia (i. ssiaeea) a 1976 a. A 1978a. aianaiu eciaiaiey a onoaa IAO.
Iiaay aeaiaaeiay nenoaia oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothuei:

ie?iauie aeaiueaaie yaeythony niaoeeaeueiua i?aaa caeinoaiaaiey (SDR),
eioi?ua noaiiaeeenue iaaeaeoia?iaeiie n/aoiie aaeeieoeae;

aeieea? NOA nio?aiye aaaeioth ?ieue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao e a
aaethoiuo ?aca?aao ae?oaeo no?ai;

th?eaee/anee auea caaa?oaia aeaiiiaoecaoeey cieioa. Cieioi inoaaony
?aca?aii ainoaea?noaa e eniieuecoaony aeey i?eia?aoaiey aeaiaaeiuo
aaeeieoe ae?oaeo no?ai.

Nia?aiaiiay aeaiaaeiay nenoaia oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothuei: ioiaiaii
ioeoeeaeueii cieioia niaea?aeaiea aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe (aeaiiiaoece?iaaii
cieioi); inouanoaeai ia?aoiae e ia?aciaiiui ia cieioi e?aaeeoiui
aeaiueaai, iaiiiaei ioee/athueony ii naiae i?e?iaea io aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa;
ia?yaeo n e?aaeeoiuie aeaiueaaie a aeaiaaeiii iai?ioa iaeioi?uo no?ai
nio?aiaiu aoiaaeiua aeaiueae a oi?ia eacia/aeneeo aeeaoia; a ii?yaeea
e?aaeeoiaaiey ainoaea?noaa, a oaeaea iiae i?e?ino ioeoeeaeueiuo cieiouo
e aaethoiuo ?aca?aii auioneathony aaieiiou; a aeaiaaeiii iai?ioa
i?aiaeaaeatho aaciaee/iua ?an/aou; iinoiyiiia ia?ooaiea niioaaonoaey
eiee/anoaa aeaiaa iauaeoeaiui iio?aaiinoyi yeiiiie/aneiai iai?ioa e
oneeaieai ?iee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

2.5 Aeaiaaeiay nenoaia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Aeaiaaeiay nenoaia ?O ooieoeeiie?oao a niioaaonoaee n oaaea?aeueiui
caeiiii i Oeaio?aeueiii Aaiea ?O io 12 ai?aey 1995 a. Ioeoeeaeueiie
aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeae (aaethoie) yaeyaony ?oaeue. Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
?oaeai e cieioii Caeiiii ia onoaiiaeaii. Ioeoeeaeueiue eo?n ?oaey e
eiino?aiiui aeaiaaeiui aaeeieoeai ii?aaeaeyaony OeA ?O e ioaeeeoaony a
ia/aoe. Oeene?iaaiiue ianooaa oeai ionoonoaoao. Aeaeaie aeaiaa,
eiathueie caeiiioth ieaoaaeioth neeo, yaeythony aaieiiou e iaoaeee/aneea
iiiaou, eioi?ua iaania/eaathony anaie aeoeaaie Aaiea ?innee. E?iia
iaee/iuo aeaiaa ooieoeeiie?otho e aaciaee/iua aeaiueae (a aeaea n?aaenoa
ia n/aoao a e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo). Eneeth/eoaeueiui i?aaii yiennee
iaee/iuo aeaiaa, i?aaiecaoeee e eo ia?auaiey e ecuyoey iaeaaeaao OeA?.
Ia Aaie ?innee aiceiaeaiu neaaeothuea iaycaiiinoe:

i?iaiice?iaaiea e i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aaicea e o?aiaiea
aaieiio e iiiao, a oaeaea nicaeaiea eo ?aca?aiuo oiiaeia;

onoaiiaeaiea i?aaee o?aiaiey, ia?aaicee e eieannaoeee iaee/iuo aeaiaa
aeey e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee;

ii?aaeaeaiea i?eciaeia ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia e ii?yaeea
caiaiu e oie/oiaeaiey iia?aaeaeaiiuo;

?ac?aaioea ii?yaeea aaaeaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee aeey e?aaeeoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee;

ii?aaeaeaiea i?aaee, oi?iu, n?ieia e noaiaea?oia inouanoaeaiey
aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia;

eeoeaice?iaaiea ?an/aoiuo nenoai e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Caeiiii i?aaeoniio?ai iauee n?ie i?ioiaeaeaiey aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia: ia
aieaa aeaoo iia?aoeeiiiuo aeiae a i?aaeaeao noauaeoa ?O e iyoe aeiae a
i?aaeaeao ?O.

N oeaeueth ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee OeA? i?eaeaeaao neaaeothuea
eino?oiaiou: noaaee o/aoiiai i?ioeaioa; ii?iu iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia
e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee; iia?aoeee ia ioe?uoii ?uiea; inouanoaeyao
?aaeaiaioaoeeth yeiiiie/aneeo ii?iaoeaia aeey e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey eanniaiai ianeoaeeaaiey e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, a
oaeaea ae?oaeo th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, ia oa??eoi?ee ?O nicaeathony
?an/aoii-eanniaua oeaio?u (?EOe) i?e oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aeaaiuo
oi?aaeaieyo Aaiea ?innee. Yoe oeaio?u oi?ie?otho iai?ioioth eanno ii
i?eaio e auaea/a iaee/iuo aeaiaa, a oaeaea ?aca?aiua oiiaeu aeaiaaeiuo
aaieianeeo aeeaoia e iiiao.

?aca?aiua oiiaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie caianu ia auiouaiiuo a ia?auaiea
aaieiio e iiiao a o?aieeeuao OeA? e eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey
i?aaiecaoeee e oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eanniauo ?ano?nia.
Inoaoie iaee/iuo aeaiaa a iai?ioiie eanna eeieoe?oaony e i?e i?aauoaiee
eeieoa eceeoee aeaiaa ia?aaeathony ec iai?ioiie eannu a ?aca?aiua
oiiaeu. Iauaeoeaiay iio?aaiinoue a ?aca?aiuo oiiaeao iaoneiaeaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth: oaeiaeaoai?aiey ioaeae yeiiiieee a iaee/iuo
aeaiueaao; iaiiaeaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee a nayce n i?eoiaeii a
iaaiaeiinoue ioaeaeueiuo aaieiio; iiaeaea?aeaiey iaycaoaeueiiai
iieoith?iiai ninoaaa aeaiaaeiie iannu a oeaeii ii no?aia e ?aaeiiai;
nie?auaiey ?anoiaeia ia ia?aaicee e o?aiaiea aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia. Iaee/iua
aeaiueae auioneathony a ia?auaiea ia iniiaa yienneiiiiai ?ac?aoaiey –
aeieoiaioa, aeathuaai i?aai OeA? iiaee?aieyoue iai?ioioth eanno ca n/ao
?aca?aiuo oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo aaieiio e iiiao. Yoio aeieoiaio auaeaaony
I?aaeaieai Aaiea ?innee a i?aaeaeao yienneiiiie aee?aeoeau, o.a.
i?aaeaeueiiai ?acia?a auionea aeaiaa a ia?auaiea, onoaiiaeaiiiai
I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O.

3.0 I?iaeaiu aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey a ?innee

A eiioea OIO a. a ?innee iaaethaeaeny i/aaeaeiue e oaa?aiiue iiaeuai
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, iniaaiii a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oae, ec 1292 ?onneeo
aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee, aeaenoaiaaaoeo a 1903 a. , 794 auee o/?aaeaeaiu
ca 1892-1902 aa., a ec 241 eiino?aiiie eiiiaiee – 205 iiyaeeenue a
?innee a oeacaiiia aeanyoeeaoea. A 90-a aiaeu i?ieeaaeuaaeinue
aaeaaiaeii a n?aaeiai 2,5 oun. aa?no iiauo aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo
iaaeno?aeae (yoio iieacaoaeue ieeiaaea ia aue aiineaaenoaee i?aauoai).
Ca a?aiy ieienoa?noaa N. TH. Aeooa a ?inneth auei eiaanoe?iaaii ec-ca
a?aieoeu ieiei 3 ie?ae. ?oa. Nouanoaaiii eciaiyeenue aeaaiua noaouee
athaeaeaoa, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaei yeiiiie/aneee aeeiaieci.

Ca yoe ainaiue eao ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu oaaee/eeenue ii/oe ia 40%
, a ?anoiaeu aieaa, /ai ia 60%. Ca yoe aiaeu o ?innee eeoue o?eaeaeu
auei iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei, e eacaeinue au, /oi iianaiey e no?aoe ca
noaeueao yeiiiieee auee aiieia iainiiaaiiuie. Ii ?inney ia
i?eaeeaeaeanue e oeiainiaiio aaie?ionoao, eae i oii ienaee e aiai?eee a
oi a?aiy. ?acieoea iiaaoaeanue ca n/ao eiino?aiiuo caeiia, cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue eioi?uo oea ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ioaeaeu, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai. Iiaeiaiay i?aeoeea ia auea iaeeo/oae,
ii iia iicaieyea ia oieueei iaania/eaaoue oaeouoth noaaeeueiinoue
oeiainiaie nenoaiu, ii e niinianoaiaaea ?acaeoeth aaaeiaeoeo yeaiaioia
eiaeono?eaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u.

A /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneie yeiiiieea iaaethaeaeanue ao?iay aeaeiaay
aeoeaiinoue, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaoay i?aaeeueiinoue i?iaiaeeiiai
yeiiiie/aneiai eo?na. Iaeiaei anei?a neooaoeey ?acei oooaeoeeanue.
Eciaiaiea ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u i?eaaei nia/aea e niaaeo
aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, a n 1900 a. – e e e?eceno a io?aneyo i?iecaiaenoaa,
eioaineaii ?acaeaaaoeony a 90-a aiaeu: iaoaeeo?aee, iaoeiino?iaiee,
iaooa- e oaeaaeiau/a, yeaeo?ieiaeono?ee. Eiino?aiiua oe?iu iaeia ca
ae?oaie oa?iaee aaie?ionoaa. A ?inneeneeo aeaeiauo e?oaao oea?eee oiuiea
e ?anoa?yiiinoue, onoaoaeyaoeany a?iieeie e?aoaie ianeieueeeo aaaeoueo
ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo e oeiainiauo a?oii: I. I. oii Aea?aeca, N. E.
Iaiiioiaa, A. E. Ae/aaneiai. Ana yoi aeoeaece?iaaei i?ioeaieeia ieieno?a
oeiainia, ai aanue aiein caaiai?eaoeo i oii, /oi aai iieeoeea –
aaaioth?a. Iniaaiii aieueoie iauanoaaiiue ?aciiain aucaaei e?ooaiea
aeaea Naaau Iaiiioiaa, ecaanoiaeoaai i?aaei?eieiaoaey e iaoeaiaoa.
Aaniiuaaeiay iieaa i?eienuaaea aai iaaeaiea ia yeiiiie/aneei oaeoi?ai, a
eneeth/eoaeueii ceie aiea ieieno?a oeiainia e yeiau noiyaoeo ca iei
«aa?aeneeo aaiee?ia».

Ei?aiiay i?e/eia auea, eiia/ii aea, a ae?oaii. Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen
ia/aea OO a. iaaeyaeii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiue
iaoa?iaeeci, eioa?aaioeeiiiia ?ane?o/eaaiea yeiiiieee eiatho naie
eiae/aneea i?aaeaeu. Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue i?e naiuo aeaaeo
iaia?aieyo aa i?iaiaeieeia e iineoaeae iino?ieoue i?aaie/ioth
eaieoaeenoe/aneoth nenoaio ia iiaeao. Eacaiiue ea?iai, eacaiiay
noaneaeey, ainoaea?noaaiiia aniiiiuanoaiaaiea iiaoo auoue aaaeiuie, ii
ia iiaoo auoue aeieai aaeeinoaaiiuie iii?aie /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneiai
oicyenoaa. Caei?iaay e i?iaeoeoeaiay oicyenoaaiiay n?aaea oi?ie?oaony e
ooieoeeiie?oao ia iniiaa naii?aaoeyoeee, i?e nio?aiaiee ca
ainoaea?noaaiiuie einoeoooaie eeoue iaeioi?uo caeiiioai?/aneeo e
eiio?ieueiuo ooieoeee. A ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee aicaeaenoaea
ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu ia oicyenoaaiiia ?acaeoea auei ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo i?aiaeaaeathuei, iniaaiii a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea yoi eanaeinue
aieueoeo oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo i?iaeoia, iiiaea ec eioi?uo
einie?e?iaaeenue ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie e iaoiaeeeenue iiae eo
iao?iiaaeai, a /anoi e ia eo niaea?aeaiee. Iiyoiio oaiiu, eioaineaiinoue
e ianooaau oicyenoaaiiuo oneeee aeaeaei ia anaaaea aeeeoiaaeenue
aioo?aiieie yeiiiie/aneeie oaeoi?aie, anoanoaaiiuie e iaoneiaeaiiuie
i?ioeannaie.

Auaiae :

A iaoa a?aiy aeaiueae aeey iiiaeo noaee niuneii aeecie. I/aiue iiiai
ethaeae o?aoyo an? nai? a?aiy ia ca?aaaouaaiea aeaiaa, aea?oaoy naiae
naiue?e, ?iaeiuie, ee/iie aeeciueth. Aaoi?u o/aaieea “Yeiiiieen”
eniieueciaaee a naiae eieaa caia/aoaeueioth o?aco, eioi?ay ei?ioei e
ynii oa?aeoa?ecoao aeaiueae:

“Aeaiueae caeieaeiauaatho ethaeae. Ec-ca ieo iie io/athony, aeey ieo iie
o?oaeyony. Iie i?eaeoiuaatho iaeaieaa eneoniua niiniau iio?aoeoue eo.
Aeaiueae – aaeeinoaaiiue oiaa?, eioi?ue iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue eia/a,
e?iia eae inaiaiaeeoueny io ieo. Iie ia iaei?iyo aan, ia iaeaioo, ia
aeaaeoo i?ethoa e ia ?acaeaeoo aei oao ii?, iiea au ia eno?aoeoa eee ia
eiaanoe?oaoa eo. Ethaee ii/oe ana naeaeatho aeey aeaiaa, e aeaiueae
ii/oe ana naeaeatho aeey ethaeae. Aeaiueae – yoi ieaieoaeueiay,
iiaoi?ythuayny, iaiythuay ianee .

Ooieoeey ie?iauo aeaiaa

Aeaiueae eae n?aaenoai ieaoaaea

Aeaiueae eae n?aaenoai iaeiieaiey

Aeaiueae eae n?aaenoai iaiaia

Aeaiueae eae ia?a noieiinoe

Ooieoeee iaoaeee/aneeo aeaiaa

I?ienoiaeaeaiea aeaiaa eae aeeeoaeueiue enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann ?acaeoey
yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa, eae ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey i?ioeanna
iaiaia.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea aeaiaa eae ?acoeueoao niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie,
eioi?ua iiiyee, /oi aeey oeo/oaiey oneiaee iaiaia ioaeiu niaoeeaeueiua
eino?oiaiou.

?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey

Yaiethoeeiiii-enoi?e/aneay eiioeaioeey

I?ienoiaeaeaiea aeaiaa

Naienoaa eae oiaa?a

Iaiiaay noieiinoue

Iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue

Aeaiueae

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