.

Денежно-кредитная система и рынок ссудного капитала

Язык: русский
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2346
Скачать документ

Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

Eacaineee i?aeaia “Ciae Ii/aoa” oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneee einoeooo ei.
A.A. Eoeauoaaa

____________________________________________________

Eaoaae?a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay nenoaia e ?uiie nnoaeiiai eaieoaea

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

auiieiaia nooaeaioii

209 a?oiiu IYO

THaeeiui A. A.

Caeeth/aiea i
Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

aeiionea e caueoa
Oaaeaoeeei N. O.

_________________
_____________________

___________1994 a.
_______________________

_________________
Caueuaia _______

“____” ___________1994 a.

_______________________

Eacaiue 1994 aiaea

Aaaaeaiea

Ninoaaiie /anoueth ?uii/iie yeiiiieee yaeyaony aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay
nenoaia ainoaea?noaa. Eiaiii ae aeieaeia auoue ioaaaeaia iniaay ?ieue a
i?aaiecaoeee ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a no?aia. Ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea
o?aaoao ?aaeeeaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee a aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie noa?a.
I/aaeaeia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo iaoiaeia a
oi?aaeaiee aeaiaaeiui iai?ioii no?aiu, e?aaeeoiui iaoaieciii, ae?oaeie
yeiiiie/aneeie ?u/aaaie. Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay nenoaia iineo ia?aoiaeiue
oa?aeoa?, eniuouaaao aeeyiea e?eceniuo yaeaiee a yeiiiieea,
iiaeaa?aaaony ei?aiiie ia?ano?ieea e eiiea, eiaao ?yae nouanoaaiiuo
iaaeinoaoeia a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe. A i?eiyouo caeiiao, ?aaoee?othueo
aeayoaeueiinoue aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu, caeiaeaiu iniiau nicaeaiey
aeaooo?iaiaaie aaieianeie nenoaiu. I?ioeann i?aia?aciaaiey eaeao, ii
iiea i/aiue iaaeeaiii. ?aaioatho Oeaio?aeueiua aaiee ?anioaeee,
?anoe?yaony naoue eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Iaeiaei i?eiyoea caeiiia i
nicaeaiee aaieianeie nenoaiu – yoi oieueei ia?aue oaa, ioaeia
iineaaeiaaoaeueiay ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea a yoie iaeanoe.
?aoi?ie?iaaiea e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uieo eaeao a
ianeieueeeo iai?aaeaieyo, acaeiinaycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie : ia?aia – yoi
niaa?oainoaiaaiea ?aaiou Oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia e eo acaeiiaeaenoaea n
eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie, aoi?ia – yoi nicaeaiea iiauo ?uii/iuo no?oeoo? a
e?aaeeoiie nenoaia, e o?aouea – iooe iienea yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey
yoeo ?u/aaia a aeaiaaeii- e?aaeeoiie noa?a. A ethaii iai?aaeaiee
nouanoaoao oeaeue ?yae ia?aoaiiuo ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue i?iaeai. Ii
neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie a
iaoae no?aia nicaeaaaeinue aaeeiia yeiiiie/aneia i?ino?ainoai,
iniiaaiiia ia iauanoaaiiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, niaoeeaeecaoeee e
eiiia?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa. A a?aieoeao yoiai i?ino?ainoaa
noi?ie?iaaeanue e aaeeiay aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay nenoaia. Naaiaeiy aea
iaiaoiaeeii ia aa ?ac?ooaiea, a “iyaeia” ea/anoaaiiia i?aia?aciaaiea, n
oai, /oiau yoa ?ai?aaieciaaiiay nenoaia anaia?ii niaeaenoaiaaea
?acaeoeth niceaeaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa.

N ia?aoiaeii ia iiaua yeiiiie/aneea oi?iu ioiioaiee /?acau/aeii
aic?anoaao aeooaeueiinoue e aaaeiinoue i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n nnoaeiui
eaieoaeii. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi io nnoaeiiai eaieoaea, ii?iu aai
i?ioeaioa caaenyo eiaanoeoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, naa?aaeaiey, eioi?ua
neoaeao iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie e naycothuei caaiii oeiainiaiai ?uiea e
?aaeueiie noa?u oicyenoaiaaiey. A e?eceniie neooaoeee, i?e eioeyoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannao oeaiiinoue e aaaeiinoue nnoaeiiai eaieoaea ?acei oneeeaaaony.
Oae, ii?ia i?ioeaioa n 1987 ii 1992 aiae aic?inea n 3 % aiaeiauo aei 80
% e auoa, o.a. ii/oe a 17 ?ac. Aiaeec i?iaeaiu nnoaeiiai eaieoaea
oneiaeiyao ionoonoaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiiie noa?u, a
oaeaea iiuoa oeeaeeeciaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey a? aiciiaeiinoae,
iaeiiaa?oe?oaiinoue aaethou, i?eaioaoeey ia oaeouaa iio?aaeaiea e iiiaia
ae?oaia.

Aeaiiay ?aaioa noaaeo oeaeueth ii?aaeaeeoue niaea?aeaiea iaeaieaa ino?uo
e aaaeiuo i?iaeai nnoaeiiai eaieoaea e aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu
iaoae no?aiu aeey ananoi?iiiaai aiaeeca neiaeeaoaainy iieiaeaiey e
iienea iooae auoiaea ec e?ecena.

Iniiaiay /anoue

?uiie nnoaeiiai eaieoaea e e?aaeeo. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iai?aeiaeiui
caeiiii yaeyaony oi, /oi aeaiueae aeieaeiu iaoiaeeoueny a iinoiyiiii
iai?ioa, niaa?oaoue iai?a?uaiia ia?auaiea. A?aiaiii naiaiaeiua
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa aeieaeiu iacaiaaeeeoaeueii iinooiaoue ia ?uiie
nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia, aeeoioee?iaaoueny a e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo
o/?aaeaeaieyo, a caoai yooaeoeaii ioneaoueny a aeaei, ?aciauaoueny a oao
io?aneyo yeiiiieee, aaea anoue iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaieyo.

Nnoaeiue – yoi aeaiaaeiue eaieoae, ioaeaaaaiue aai nianoaaiieeaie a
nnoaeo ooieoeeiie?othuei i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi e i?eiinyuee aeioiae a aeaea
nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa. Aiciee ii ia iniiaa e?oaiiai?ioa i?iiuoeaiiiai
eaieoaea, ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniaoth, ioaeaeeaoothny io iaai
naiinoiyoaeueioth oi?io eaieoaea, oa?aeoa?ecothuothny e?oaiiai?ioii,
ioee/iui io e?oaiiai?ioa i?iiuoeaiiiai e oi?aiaiai eaieoaeia. Ia?aui
aaaeiui enoi/ieeii nnoaeiiai eaieoaea yaeythony aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu
i?iiuoeaiiuo eaieoaeenoia, a?aiaiii aunaiaiaeaeathueany a i?ioeanna
e?oaiiai?ioa i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea. A i?ioeanna e?oaiiai?ioa
i?iiuoeaiiue eaieoae i?ioiaeeo 3 noaaeee e niioaaonoaaiii ei i?eieiaao 3
ooieoeeiiaeueiua oi?iu: aeaiaaeioth, i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth e oiaa?ioth.
Iineieueeo i?iecaiaenoai yaeyaony iai?a?uaiui, oi eaieoae iaeiia?aiaiii
i?aauaaao ia anao noaaeeyo e?oaiiai?ioa e a niioaaonoaothueo ei
?acee/iuo oi?iao, eioi?ua ii iineaaeiaaoaeueii iaiyao a nai?i
aeaeaeaiee. A i?ioeanna aeaeaeaiey /anoue i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea ii
?acee/iiai ?iaea i?e/eiai a?aiaiii aunaiaiaeaeaaony a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia.
E oaeei i?e/eiai ioiinyony neaaeothuea:

1) Iinoaiaiiia niaoeaaiea aauanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia iniiaiiai eaieoaea. A
oa/aiea ia?eiaea io ia/aea yenieoaoaoeee aei iieiiai eo eciina e caiaiu
iiauie yeaiaioaie ia?aiineiay eie ia nicaeaaaaiua oiaa?u noieiinoue
iaeaieeaaaony a oi?ia aii?oecaoeee e yaeyaony a?aiaiii naiaiaeiui
aeaiaaeiui eaieoaeii.

2) Ianiaiaaeaiea ia?eiaeia ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ni a?aiaiai iieoiee
aauanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia iai?ioiiai eaieoaea (Nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia,
iieooaa?eeaoia, oiieeaa). Oaeia ianiaiaaeaiea eiaao ianoi ai anao
io?aneyo i?iecaiaenoaa, ii iaeaieaa y?ei au?aaeaii a io?aneyo n naciiiui
oa?aeoa?ii i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio au?o/aiiay io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia
aeaiaaeiay noiia, aiciauathuay noieiinoue aauanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia
iai?ioiiai eaieoaea ia i?iecaiaenoai yoeo oiaa?ia, aoaeao naiaiaeiie aei
ianooieaiey iiiaioa iieaou iiauo iinooieaiee oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae.

3) Ianiaiaaeaiea ia?eiaeia ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia n ia?eiaeaie auieaou
ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aai/ei e neoaeauei. A nayce n yoei /anoue
aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee, eioi?ay i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iieaou ?aai/ae neeu,
oaeaea yaeyaony a?aiaiii naiaiaeiui aeaiaaeiui eaieoaeii io iiiaioa
?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia aei auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou.

4) Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaeiieaiey i?eauee a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ia?eiaea a?aiaie aei ?acia?ia, aeinoaoi/iuo aeey inouanoaeaiey
caieaie?iaaiiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee. A oa/aiea ia?eiaea iaeiieaiey
i?eaueue aoaeao yaeyoueny a?aiaiii naiaiaeiui aeaiaaeiui eaieoaeii.

A oi a?aiy eae o iaeieo ooieoeeiie?othueo eaieoaeenoia ia?aciauaathony
a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu, o ae?oaeo aicieeaao
aeiiieieoaeueiay iio?aaiinoue a ieo. Iai?eia?, eaieoaeeno au? ia
caeii/ee ecaioiaeaiea naiae i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?oth iiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue,
ii aeey i?iaeieaeaiey i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa ii aeieaeai
aeiiieieoaeueii caeoieoue nu?ue?, iaoa?eaeu, eiaoue aeaiueae aeey iieaou
?aai/ae neeu, eee ii au? ia iaeiiee aii?oecaoeeiiiuo ia/eneaiee e
i?eauee a aeinoaoi/iuo ?acia?ao, ii n/eoaao e?aeia iaiaoiaeeiui
inouanoaeoue iiaea?iecaoeeth eee ?anoe?aiea naiaai i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaeei ia?acii, a i?ioeanna e?oaiiai?ioa i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea aicieeaao
iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia
iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie, eioi?ia inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia
e?aaeeoa.

Aoi?ui enoi/ieeii nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia yaeythony eaieoaeu i?acaeiuo
aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeenoia – ?aiouea, iniiaiia aiaaonoai eioi?uo iaoiaeeony
a oi?ia aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea. Iie ia caieiathony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, a i?aaeinoaaeytho naie eaieoaeu a nnoaeo
ooieoeeiie?othuei eaieoaeenoai eee ainoaea?noao.

O?aoee enoi/iee nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia – aeioiaeu e naa?aaeaiey ?acee/iuo
nei?a iauanoaa. N ?acaeoeai aaieianeia nenoaiu iie an? aieaa iieii
aeeoioee?othony ath e oai naiui i?aa?auathony a nnoaeiue eaieoae.

Enoi/ieeii nnoaeiiai eaieoaea neoaeao oaeaea a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa e iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee. I?e/ai ?acia?u aeaiaaeiuo iaeiieaiee ainoaea?noaa
ii?aaeaeythony ianooaaaie ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e aeieae
aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (AII), ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaiiai /a?ac
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao (a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao aei 40 – 55%).
/4-32-33 no?./

Iniaaiiinoe nnoaeiiai eaieoaea. Nnoaeiue eaieoae ioee/aaony io
i?iiuoeaiiiai e oi?aiaiai eaieoaea. Aaaeiaeoea iniaaiiinoe nnoaeiiai
eaieoaea oaeiau :

1. Nnoaeiue eaieoae – yoi eaieoae-nianoaaiiinoue. N aai ia?aciaaieai
i?iecioei ?acaeaiaiea eaieoaea ia eaieoae-nianoaaiiinoue, eioi?ue
ia?aaeaaony ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea n oeaeueth iieo/aiey i?ioeaioia,
e eaieoae-ooieoeeth. Ooieoeeiie?othuee eaieoae i?iaeaeuaaao e?oaiiai?io
a i?aaei?eyoee caaiueea e i?eiineo i?eaueue. Nnoaeiue eaieoaeeno
aunooiaao eeoue a ea/anoaa nianoaaiieea eaieoaea, i?eiaiyaiiai a /oaeeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo. ?aaeueiui au?aaeaieai yoie nianoaaiiinoe yaeyaony
iaycaiiinoue caaiueea aa?iooue iieo/aiioth nnoaeo a n?ie n oieaoie
i?ioeaioia.

2. Nnoaeiue eaieoae – naiaia?aciue oiaa?. Aai iio?aaeoaeueiay
noieiinoue ninoieo a niiniaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a ea/anoaa eaieoaea e
i?eiineoue aeioiae a oi?ia i?eauee. *anoue i?eauee – i?ioeaio, eee
oeaia nnoaeiiai eaieoaea,- yaeyaony iieaoie yoie aai niiniaiinoe a
ioee/ea io oeaiu iau/iuo oiaa?ia, i?aaenoaaeythuae aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea
noieiinoe.

3. Nnoaeiue eaieoae eiaao niaoeeoe/aneoth oi?io io/oaeaeaiey. A
ioee/ea io eoiee-i?iaeaaee, aaea iaeiia?aiaiii oiaa? ia?aiauaaony io
i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaeth, a aeaiueae – io iieoiaoaey e i?iaeaaoeo, i?e
e?aaeeoiie naeaeea nnoaeiue eaieoae ia?aaeaaony iaeiinoi?iiia: i?e
i?aaeinoaaeaiee nnoaeu – io e?aaeeoi?a e caaiueeo, i?e a? iiaaoaiee –
io caaiueea e e?aaeeoi?o n oieaoie i?ioeaioa.

4. Aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea ioee/aaony io aeaeaeaiey
ooieoeeiie?othuaai eaieoaea. I?iiuoeaiiue eaieoae iineaaeiaaoaeueii
i?eieiaao o?e oi?iu – aeaiaaeioth, i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth e oiaa?ioth,
i?iaeaeuaay e?oaiiai?io Ae – O… I… O’ – Ae’. Oi?aiaue eaieoae
i?eieiaao aeaa oi?iu – oiaa?ioth e aeaiaaeioth. Nnoaeiue eaieoae
iinoiyiii iaoiaeeony a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia, oae eae naycai n
i?aaeinoaaeaieai aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea a nnoaeo e a? aica?aoii n
i?ioeaioaie (Ae – Ae’). /3-35-37 no?./

Nnoaeiue eaieoae e aeaiueae. Nnoaeiue eaieoae anaaaea aunooiaao a
oi?ia aeaiaaeiiai. Iaeiaei yoi ia icia/aao, /oi iiiyoey aeaiaaeiiai e
nnoaeiiai eaieoaea oiaeaeanoaaiiu. Aeaiaaeiue eaieoae ia anaaaea
i?eieiaao oi?io nnoaeiiai. Ii eae iaeia ec ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oi?i
i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea i?eieiaao oi?io nnoaeiiai eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea
ieacuaaaony naiaiaeiui aeey naiaai aeaaeaeueoea. Anee aea
ooieoeeiie?othuee eaieoaeeno au?o/aiiua io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia aeaiueae
eniieuecoao aeey iieaou iiauo aauanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia iai?ioiiai eee
iniiaiiai eaieoaeia eee aeey auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aai/eo, oi
aeaiueae eniieuecothony ia eae nnoaeiue, a eae aeaiaaeiue eaieoae.

Nnoaeiue eaieoae nouanoaoao a oi?ia aeaiaa. Iaeiaei ii ia anoue
aeaiueae e ioee/aaony io aeaiaa ea/anoaaiii e eiee/anoaaiii.
Ea/anoaaiiia ioee/ea ninoieo a oii, /oi aeaiueae, eaeoth au ooieoeeth
iie ia auiieiyee, naie ii naaa ia i?eiinyo i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.
Nnoaeiue aea eaieoae – yoi noieiinoue, i?eiinyuay i?eaaai/ioth
noieiinoue a oi?ia nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa. Ioee/ea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea io
aeaiaa a eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee ninoieo a oii, /oi ianna eaieoaea
i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai a nnoaeo, i?aauoaao eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee. Yoi
iauyniyaony aeaoiy i?e/eiaie : Ai-ia?auo, iaeia e oa aea aeaiaaeiay
aaeeieoea iiaeao ianeieueei ?ac ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae nnoaeiue
eaieoae.(Iai?eia?, eaieoaeeno A aian a aaie aeeaae a noiia 10
oun.aeieea?ia, aaie i?aaeinoaaee yoe aeaiueae a nnoaeo eaieoaeenoo A,
aeey iieaou oiaa?ia, eoieaiiuo o eaieoaeenoa Ae, a iineaaeiee aian
aeaiueae a aaie. A ?acoeueoaoa oieueei aeaoo yoeo iia?aoeee nnoaeiue
eaieoae oaeaieeny ii n?aaiaieth n eiee/anoaii iaee/iuo aeaiaa.). A
aeaiiii neo/aa eiee/anoaaiiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie e
iannie nnoaeiiai eaieoaea anaoeaei ii?aaeaeyaony nei?inoueth ia?auaiey
aeaiaa a ooieoeeyo n?aaenoa ia?auaiey e ieaoaaea. Yoi, a naith
i/a?aaeue, caaeneo io noaiaie ?acaeoey e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu.

Ai-aoi?uo, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue nnoaeiiai eaieoaea inouanoaeyao naia
aeaeaeaiea e iaeaieeaaaony aac eniieueciaaiey iaee/iuo aeaiaa ia
iniiaa e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee. /4-33-34 no?./

Nouiinoue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa. Eaieoaeenoe/aneea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey ii?aaeaeytho nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth i?e?iaeo i?ioeaioa,
eioi?ue aunooiaao eae oeaia nnoaeiiai eaieoaea. A ioee/ea io oeaiu
iau/iuo oiaa?ia, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie au?aaeaiea noieiinoe,
i?ioeaio yaeyaony iieaoie iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoe nnoaeiiai eaieoaea,
aai niiniaiinoe i?eiineoue i?eaueue.

?anniio?ei yoi iiiyoea n oi/ee c?aiey Ia?enenoneie oai?ee e oai?ee
Aeaeiia Eaeina. Ia?en n/eoae, /oi enoi/ieeii i?ioeaioa yaeyaony
i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue. I?ioeaio io?aaeaao ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
e?aaeeoi?aie e caaiueeaie. I?ioeaio – i?aa?auaiiay oi?ia i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe, /anoue i?eauee, nicaeaaaaiie ?aai/eie a noa?a
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeiia cia/aiea Eaein i?eienuaae
nnoaeiiio i?ioeaioo e aai ii?ia. ?anniao?eaay aeaiueae eae iaeaieaa
eeeaeaeiia eiouanoai, Eaein iauyniye aceiaiea i?ioeaioa ii nnoaeai
oai, /oi aeaaeaeueoeu aeaiaa ia neeiiiu “?annoaaaoueny n
eeeaeaeiinoueth” e /oi ca oaeia a?aiaiiia “?annoaaaiea n
eeeaeaeiinoueth” iie aeieaeiu auoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiu iieo/aieai
i?ioeaioa. Oaeei ia?acii, ii Eaeino, “ii?ia i?ioeaioa anoue
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca ?annoaaaiea n eeeaeaeiinoueth ia ii?aaeaeaiiue
ia?eiae”. Aaee/eia yoiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, n aai oi/ee c?aiey,
ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy oaeoi?aie: 1)eiee/anoaii aeaiaa e 2)
noaiaiueth “i?aaeii/oaiey eeeaeaeiinoe” aeaaeaeueoeaie aeaiaa. Ii neiaai
Eaeina, “eiee/anoai aeaiaa – yoi au? iaeei oaeoi?, eioi?ue a
niaaeeiaiee n i?aaeii/oaieai eeeaeaeiinoe ii?aaeaeyao aeaenoaeoaeueioth
ii?io i?ioeaioa i?e aeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao “. /2/

Ii?ia i?ioeaioa e oaeoi?u, a? ii?aaeaeythuea. Ii?ia i?ioeaioa – yoi
ioiioaiea aiaeiaiai aeioiaea, iieo/aiiiai ia nnoaeiue eaieoae, e
noiia i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai e?aaeeoa, oiiiaeaiiia ia 100. Iai?eia? , anee
a nnoaeo ioaeai eaieoae a 100 oun. aeieea?ia, a aiaeiaie aeioiae n
yoiai eaieoaea 12 oun. aeieea?ia, oi ii?ia i?ioeaioa ninoaaeyao 12.
Ii?ia i?ioeaioa caaeneo io i?eauee, eioi?ay aeaeeony ia i?ioeaio e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee aeioiae. I?ioeaio ia iiaeao auoue aieueoa ii?iu
i?eauee.

Ii?ia i?ioeaioa caaeneo io niioiioaiey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey
nnoaeiiai eaieoaea, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony iiiaeie oaeoi?aie:

1) ianooaaaie i?iecaiaenoaa; 2) ?acia?aie aeaiaaeiuo iaeiieaiee,
naa?aaeaiee anao eeannia e neiaa iauanoaa; 3) niioiioaieai iaaeaeo
?acia?aie e?aaeeoia, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ainoaea?noaii, e aai
caaeieaeaiiinoueth; 4) oeeeee/aneeie eieaaaieyie i?iecaiaenoaa; 5) aai
naciiiuie oneiaeyie; 6) oaiiii eioeyoeee: i?e oneeaiee eioeyoeee
i?ioeaioiua noaaee ?anooo. ?acee/athony iiieiaeueiua i?ioeaioiua noaaee
e ?aaeueiua (ca au/aoii n?aaeiaaiaeiaiai iaanoeaiaiey aeaiaa). Anee oaii
eioeyoeee iaaiiyao ?ino i?ioeaioia, iineaaeiea noaiiayony “iaaaoeaiuie”
(io?eoeaoaeueiuie), o.a. aceiathony n aeeaae/eeia; 7)
ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneei ?aaoee?iaaieai i?ioeaioiuo noaaie.
Ainoaea?noai a eioa?anao iiiiiieee aeeooa?aioee?oao i?ioeaioiua noaaee
aeey noeioee?iaaiey eniieueciaaiey e?aaeeoa ia iio?aaiinoe, auoaeathuea
ec caaea/ ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee, a a ?yaea no?ai ec
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey; 8)
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie oaeoi?aie – iao?aaiiaaoaiiinoueth ieaoaaeiuo
aaeainia, eieaaaieyie aaethoiiai eo?na, aaethoiui e?ecenii,
aaneiio?ieueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth ie?iaiai ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia,
aeaeaeaieai eaieoaeia, iniaaiii “ai?y/eo aeaiaa”, “aieiie i?ioeaioiuo
noaaie”.

A nayce n auoaneacaiiui aeeiaieea ii?iu i?ioeaioa ii?aaeaeyaony
noeoeeiui ?uii/iui iaoaieciii, a oaeaea a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a caaeneo
io ainoaea?noaaiii – iiiiiieenoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Nnoaeiue
i?ioeaio eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey auiieiyao aeaa ooieoeee : a)
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea /anoe i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee eee aeioiaeia ee/iiai
naeoi?a; a) ?aaoee?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iooai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
?aciauaiey nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie e io?aneyie.
I?ioeaio yaeyaony aeaeaeouei iioeaii i?aa?auaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo
eaieoaeia e aeioiaeia a nnoaeiue eaieoae e aaaeiui, oioy e ia
aaeeinoaaiiui, noeioeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey e?aaeeoia ii io?aneyi e
i?aaei?eyoeyi, eiiaaea neoaeeo n?aaenoaii no?aoiaaiey ?enea iaanoeaiaiey
aeaiaa. /3-35-39 no?./

E?aaeeo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea,
inouanoaeyaiia ia ia/aeao n?i/iinoe, aica?aoiinoe e ieaoiinoe. Oioy yoa
yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey ca?iaeeeanue au? a ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneii iauanoaa,
eiaaea aeaiueae i?aaeinoaaeyeenue a aeiea ?inoiaueeaie, iia iieo/eea
iaeaieueoaa ?acaeoea a ao?aeoaciii iauanoaa, iie?aynue ia ?ano?nu
nnoaeiiai eaieoaea. Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoa
ca?iueeai neaaeothuea : 1) aica?aoiinoue; 2) n?i/iinoue; 3) ieaoiinoue.
Eia/a aiai?y, ca?iuee iaycai aica?aoeoue e?aaeeo /a?ac no?iai
ii?aaeae?iiue n?ie n iieaoie ca?aiaa iaoneiaeaiiiai i?ioeaioa ca aai
iieo/aiea e eniieueciaaiea (i?ioeaioiua ieaoaaee iau/ii iaiaa?eaathony
ia aiaeiaie iniiaa, iai?eia? 5% aiaeiauo n niioaaonoaothueie
ia?a?an/aoaie a neo/aa aieaa ei?ioeeo ia?eiaeia i?aaeinoaaeaiey
e?aaeeoa). E?iia oiai, e?aaeeo aieueoae /anoueth naycai n au? aeaoiy
i?eioeeiaie : iaoa?eaeueiui iaania/aieai e oeaeaaie oa?aeoa?enoeeie.
Aiiaua-oi i?eioeeiu iaoa?eaeueiiai iaania/aiey, oi anoue eaeeo-oi
iaoa?eaeueiuo aa?aioee e?aaeeoi?o, i?enoonoaotho a ethaie e?aaeeoiie
iia?aoeee, ii oi?iu iiaeiaiiai i?enoonoaey iiaoo auoue ?acee/iu : eeai
yoi oaa?aiiinoue e?aaeeoi?a a e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe oiai, eoi aa??o nnoaeo
(aeiaa?ea, iniiaaiiia, eae i?aaeei, ia oi?ioai ciaiee iaoa?eaeueiiai e
eiiia?/aneiai iieiaeaiey ca?iueea), eeai yoi i?yiay iaoa?eaeueiay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca?iueea (oi anoue aai iaycaoaeuenoai a neo/aa
iaaiciiaeiinoe aica?auaiey nnoaeu a niioaaonoaothuea n?iee
eiiiaine?iaaoue a? ia?aaea/ae e?aaeeoi?o eaeiai-oi naiaai eiouanoaa).
*oi eanaaony i?eioeeia oeaeaaie oa?aeoa?enoeee, oi iiae?acoiaaaaony
i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoa iiae ioiineoaeueii /?oeoth oeaeue aai
eniieueciaaiey (oioy ia i?aeoeea nouanoaotho e ioeeiiaiey io yoiai
i?eioeeia). /18 – 19 no?./

Aacaeaenoaea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa i?ioeai?a/eo caeiio yeiiiiee a?aiaie.
E?aaeeo ?ac?aoaao yoi i?ioeai?a/ea. A oiaea aini?iecaiaenoaa iinoiyiii
aicieeaao iio?aaiinoue a ca?iiuo n?aaenoaao. Iio?aaiinoue a e?aaeeoa
iaoneiaeaia ?acee/eyie a aaee/eia e n?ieao aica?aoa aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, aaaine?iaaiiuo ia i?iecaiaenoai, iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
iaeiia?aiaiiie eiaanoeoeee e?oiiuo noii aeey ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa.
*anoi a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu e iio?aaiinoe a ieo ia
niaiaaeatho ii noauaeoai eo ia?aciaaiey e ii a?aiaie. N iiiiuueth
e?aaeeoa a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu, aeioiaeu e
naa?aaeaiey i?aa?auathony a nnoaeiue eaieoae e aiiaue aiaeaeathony a
e?oaiiai?io, iaania/eaay i?eaueue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi e aania?aaieiinoue
i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Oi?iu e?aaeeoa. E?aaeeo aunooiaao a aeaoo aeaaiuo oi?iao : eiiia?/aneiai
e aaieianeiai, eioi?ua ?acee/athony ii ninoaao o/anoieeia, iauaeoai
nnoae, aeeiaieea, aaee/eia i?ioeaioa e noa?a ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.
Eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo – yoi e?aaeeo, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue iaeieie
ooieoeeiie?othueie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie ae?oaei a aeaea i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia
n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea. Eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo ioi?ieyaony aaenaeai.
Aaenaeue – yoi oeaiiay aoiaaa, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie aaconeiaiia
aeaiaaeiia iaycaoaeuenoai aaenaeaaeaoaey oieaoeoue ii ianooieaieth n?iea
ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio aeaiaa aeaaeaeueoeo aaenaey. Iauaeo eiiia?/aneiai
e?aaeeoa – oiaa?iue eaieoae. Ii iaiin?aaenoaaiii ianeoaeeaaao
e?oaiiai?io i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea, aeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia ec noa?u
i?iecaiaenoaa a noa?o iio?aaeaiey. Iniaaiiinoue eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa
ninoieo a oii, /oi nnoaeiue eaieoae caeanue neeo n i?iiuoeaiiui. Oeaeue
eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa – onei?eoue ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?ia e caeeth/aiiie
a ieo i?eauee. I?ioeaio ii iaio, aoiaeyuee a oeaio oiaa?a e a noiio
aaenaey, ieaea, /ai ii aaieianeiio e?aaeeoo, oeaeue eioi?iai – iieo/aiea
i?eauee ii nnoaeai. ?acia?u yoiai e?aaeeoa ia?aie/aiu aaee/eiie
?aca?aiuo eaieoaeia i?iiuoeaiiuo e oi?aiauo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Ia?aaea/a
yoeo eaieoaeia aiciiaeia oieueei a iai?aaeaieyo, ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyie
naeaeee : io i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, ia i?aaei?eyoeyo eioi?uo i?iecaiaeyony
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, e i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi, ia i?aaei?eyoeyo eioi?uo
iie iio?aaeythony, eee io i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaa?ia, e oi?aiaui oe?iai,
?aaeecothuei eo. Aaieianeee e?aaeeo – yoi e?aaeeo, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauie o/?aaeaeaieyie (aaieaie, oiiaeaie,
annioeeaoeeyie) ethaui oicyenoaothuei noauaeoai (/anoiui
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi, i?aaei?eyoeyi, i?aaiecaoeeyi) a aeaea aeaiaaeiuo
nnoae. Iauaeo aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa – aeaiaaeiue eaieoae, iainiaeaoeeny
io i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea. Naeaeea nnoaeu caeanue ioaeaeaia io aeoia
eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Aaieianeee e?aaeeo i?aiaeieaaaao a?aieoeu eiiia?/aneiai
e?aaeeoa, oae eae ii ia ia?aie/ai iai?aaeaieai, n?ieaie e noiiaie
e?aaeeoiuo naeaeie. Noa?a aai eniieueciaaiey oe?a : eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo
ianeoaeeaaao eeoue ia?auaiea oiaa?ia, aaieianeee e?aaeeo – e iaeiieaiea
eaieoaea, i?aa?auay a eaieoae /anoue aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia e naa?aaeaiee
anao eeannia iauanoaa. Caiaia eiiia?/aneiai aaenaey aaieianeei aeaeaao
e?aaeeo aieaa yeanoe/iui, ?anoe?yao aai ianooaau, iiauoaao
iaania/aiiinoue. Aaiee aa?aioe?otho e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue ca?iueeia.
Aeeiaieea aaieianeiai e eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa ?acee/ia. Iau?i
eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa oaaee/eaaaony n ?inoii i?iecaiaenoaa e
oiaa?iiai?ioa e nie?auaaony n eo oiaiueoaieai. I?aaeeiaeaiea e ni?in
ia iaai aic?anoatho a ia?eiaeu i?iiuoeaiiuo iiaeu?iia e oiaiueoathony ai
a?aiy e?ecenia. Iiae aeeyieai e?ecenia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeey
oiaa?ia nie?auathony, a ni?in ia aaieianeee e?aaeeo aeey oieaou aeieaia
aic?anoaao. A ia?eiae iaeeaeaiey e iiaeu?ia ?ano?o iau?i
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai eaieoaea, oaaee/eaaaony ni?in ia aaieianeea nnoaeu
aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo oeaeae. Ionthaea auoaeaao aeaienoaaiiinoue
aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa, eioi?ue aunooiaao oi eae nnoaea eaieoaea, eiaaea
ca?iueee eniieuecotho aai aeey oaaee/aiey iau?ia ooieoeeiie?othuaai
eaieoaea, oi a aeaea nnoaeu aeaiaa – ieao?aeiuo n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey iiaaoaiey aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa. Oneiaiia aeaeaiea aaieianeiai
e?aaeeoa ia nnoaeo aeaiaa e nnoaeo eaieoaea n oi/ee c?aiey
aini?iecaiaenoaa iauanoaaiiiai eaieoaea caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a
eniieueciaaiey nnoae ca?iueeii e aeeyiey eo ia iau?i ooieoeeiie?othuaai
eaieoaea. N oi/ee c?aiey aini?iecaiaenoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai eaieoaea
aaieianeee e?aaeeo aeaeeony ii i?eciaeo iaania/aiey nnoaeu ia nnoaeo
aeaiaa e nnoaeo eaieoaea e iieacuaaao ?acee/iia aicaeaenoaea e?aaeeoa ia
aaee/eio eaieoaea ca?iueea. I?e e?aaeeoa iiae caeia oiaa?ia, aaenaeae,
oeaiiuo aoiaa ca?iuee ia iieo/aao aeiiieieoaeueiiai eaieoaea io aaiea.
Aeey ca?iueea – yoi nnoaea aeaiaa. Eiaaea aea aeieaeiee iieo/aao io
aaiea iaiaania/aiiue e?aaeeo, ii i?eia?aoaao aeiiieieoaeueiue eaieoae.
Oaeie e?aaeeo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nnoaeo eaieoaea. Ianiio?y ia
i?aiaeaaeaiea aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa, a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iiyaeeanue
oaiaeaioeey e oaaee/aieth ?iee eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa, a /anoiinoe
aioo?eei?ii?aoeeiiiiai. Yoio e?aaeeo iie?uaaao aei 2/3 oeiainiauo
iio?aaiinoae o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee NOA. Aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiuo
eaieoaeia a OIE i?ienoiaeeo a aeaea oiaa?iuo iinoaaie (iai?eia?,
ia?aaea/a ii?aeueii onoa?aaoaai iai?oaeiaaiey oeeeaeo) e a aeaiaaeiie
oi?ia.

?aciiaeaeiinoyie e?aaeeoa yaeythony iio?aaeoaeueneee,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiue, eiioa/iue, ainoaea?noaaiiue, iaaeaeoia?iaeiue.
Iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony a oi?ia eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa
(i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea /a?ac ?icie/iua iaaaceiu) e
aaieianeiai (nnoaeu ia iio?aaeoaeueneea oeaee). Aai iauaeoii yaeythony
iau/ii oiaa?u aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey, ?aciiia?aciua oneoae.
Iaeneiaeueiue n?ie iio?aaeoaeueneiai e?aaeeoa 3 aiaea. Iio?aaeoaeueneee
e?aaeeo noae iaiouaieaiui yeaiaioii ?aaeecaoeee ca n/ao aoaeoueo
aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, iineieueeo ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ianaeaiey
ia?aie/ai, a i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia naycaia n o?iie/aneeie o?oaeiinoyie. Ca
eniieueciaaiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai e?aaeeoa aceiathony, eae i?aaeei,
aunieea i?ioeaiou (a NOA – 20% a aiae e aieaa, ai O?aioeee aianoa n
eiienneiiiuie aei 35%), eioi?ua auiea/eaathony ec aeioiaeia ianaeaiey
e aunooiatho eae aoi?e/iay oi?ia ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea a iieueco iiiiiieee. Iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo
i?aaeinoaaeyaony oaeaea a oi?ia aeieain?i/iuo aaieianeeo nnoae /anoiui
eeoeai ia i?eia?aoaiea eee no?ieoaeuenoai aeeeeu – aeeeeuiue e?aaeeo.
Naeueneioicyenoaaiiue e?aaeeo – oi?ia aeiaeaiey nnoaeiiai eaieoaea a
iniiaiie e iai?ioiue eaieoae a naeueneii oicyenoaa. Aeey iie?uoey
e?oiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee yoio e?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony aaieaie ia
aeeeoaeueiue n?ie – aei ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia eao e iau/ii iiae
iaania/aiea iaaeaeaeeiinoueth. Naeueneioicyenoaaiiue e?aaeeo ia
a?aiaiiua ioaeaeu iineo e?aoein?i/iue oa?aeoa? e iiaaoaaony, eae
i?aaeei, iinea ?aaeecaoeee o?iaeay. Aaiee o?aaotho nieeaeiiai
iaania/aiey e auieaou aunieeo i?ioeaioia. Iiyoiio aeinooi e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiio e?aaeeoo eiatho i?aeiouanoaaiii e?oiiua oa?ia?u
e oicyenoaa. Eiioa/iue e?aaeeo – aeieain?i/iua nnoaeu iiae caeia
iaaeaeaeeiinoe (caiee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e aeeeuo caeaiee). Iniiaiui aai
enoi/ieeii neoaeeo yienney eiioa/iuo iaeeaaoeee ei?ii?aoeeyie e
aaieaie. Eiioa/iue e?aaeeo eniieuecoaony aeey iaiiaeaiey iniiaiuo
oiiaeia a naeueneii oicyenoaa e niinianoaoao eiioeaio?aoeee eaieoaea a
yoie noa?a. Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo – niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoiuo
ioiioaiee, a eioi?uo ca?iueeii eee e?aaeeoi?ii aunooiatho ainoaea?noai e
ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe ii ioiioaieth e a?aaeaeaiai e th?eaee/aneei
eeoeai. O?aaeeoeeiiiay oi?ia yoiai e?aaeeoa – auione ainoaea?noaaiiuo
caeiia, eioi?ua ecuiatho io 1/3 (NOA) aei 2/3 (O?A) ?ano?nia ?uiea
nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia aeey iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu yaeythony aoi?ui iinea iaeiaia enoi/ieeii
aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa, eniieuecoaiuo ei aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo
ooieoeee. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo – aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea a
noa?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

?uiie nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia. Iineieueeo nnoaeiue eaieoae – yoi
niaoeeoe/aneee oiaa?, oi nouanoaoao ?uiie, aaea ii ia?auaaony. ?uiie
nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia – niaoeeoe/aneay noa?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee,
aaea iauaeoii naeaeee yaeyaony aeaiaaeiue eaieoae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue a
nnoaeo ia oneiaeyo aica?aoiinoe e oieaou i?ioeaioa, e oi?ie?othony ni?in
e i?aaeeiaeaiea yoiai eaieoaea. A ioee/ea io iau/iuo oiaa?iuo ?uieia
?uiie nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaeii?iaeiinoueth. Iaeiaei
iaeii?iaeiinoue ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia ia eneeth/aao aeeooa?aioeeaoeee
oneiaee naeaeee nnoaeu : noiiu, n?iea, iaania/aiey, i?ioeaioiuo noaaie e
ae?. N ooieoeeiiaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey ?uiie nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia – yoi
nenoaia ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, iaania/eaathueo aeeoioeyoeeth e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia a oeaeyo iaania/aiey e?aaeeoii
aini?iecaiaenoaa. N einoeoooeeiiaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey – yoi niaieoiiinoue
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee e oiiaeiaie ae?aee, /a?ac eioi?ua
inouanoaeyaony aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea. ?uiie nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia
aeeth/aao ianeieueei naeoi?ia. Ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea inouanoaeythony
e?aoein?i/iua iia?aoeee aei 1 aiaea, ianeoaeeaathuea aeaaiui ia?acii
aeaeaeaiea iai?ioiiai eaieoaea, ia ?uiea eaieoaeia – n?aaeia- e
aeieain?i/iua iia?aoeee, ianeoaeeaathuea aeaeaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea.
Iaaeaeo ieie i?ienoiaeeo iai?a?uaiue ia?aeea eaieoaeia. E?aoein?i/iua
aeeaaeu i?aia?acothony a n?aaeia- e aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou iau/ii n
iiiiuueth aaieianeeo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee. ?uiie eaieoaeia a
naith i/a?aaeue aeeth/aao eiioa/iue ?uiie (e?aaeeou iiae iaania/aiea
iaaeaeaeeiinoueth) e oeiainiaue ?uiie (iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie).
Iainiaeaiiui naeoi?ii ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia noae ?uiie “?eneiaaiiiai
eaieoaea” (venture capital), eioi?ue aeeoioee?oao aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu
/anoiuo e einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo eiaanoi?ia n oeaeueth oeiaine?iaaiey e
e?aaeeoiaaiey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee n iiauoaiiui ?eneii a noa?a iiaaeoeo
i?iecaiaenoa a oneiaeyo no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee. Yoe eaieoaeu
iau/ii aeeoioee?othony a niaoeeaeueiuo oiiaeao, oi?aaeyaiuo
iaiaaeaea?aie, e ?aciauathony n oeaeueth oiaiueoaiey iioa?ue a ?aciuo
io?aneyo a oi?ia iieoiee aeoeee e i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoa (n
iineaaeothuae eiiaa?neae a iaeeaaoeee). Ainoaea?noai, iniaaiii a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, i?aaeinoaaeyao iaeiaiaua eueaiou e aa?aioee ii
iia?aoeeyi, naycaiiui n iiauoaiiui ?eneii. ?uiie “?eneiaaiiiai eaieoaea”
i?eaioe?oaony ia iieo/aiea iiauoaiiuo, a oii /enea niaeoeyoeaiuo,
i?eaueae (20-40% a NOA). Iiae auaaneie noeioee?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo
iiaiaaaaeaiee caeanue /anoi i?iaiaeyony niiieoaeueiua iia?aoeee. /3 –
45-49 no?./

Ooieoeee e?aaeeoa. E?aaeeo auiieiyao ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueioth ooieoeeth.
I?e aai iiiiue naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu e aeioiaeu i?aaei?eyoee,
ee/iiai naeoi?a, ainoaea?noaa aeeoioee?othony e i?aa?auathony a nnoaeiue
eaieoae, eioi?ue ia?aaeaaony ca ieaoo ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea. *a?ac
e?aaeeoiue iaoaieci nnoaeiue eaieoae ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa
aica?aoiinoe iaaeaeo io?aneyie oicyenoaa, ono?aieyynue a oa noa?u,
eioi?ua iaania/eaatho iieo/aiea aieueoae i?eauee, eee eioi?ui
ioaeaaony i?aaeii/oaiea a niioaaonoaee n iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuie i?ia?aiiaie
?acaeoey yeiiiieee. E?aaeeo niinianoaoao au?aaieaaieth io?aneaauo ii?i
i?eauee a n?aaeithth, iiauoaieth ii?iu e iannu i?eauee. Oai naiui
inouanoaeythony ?aaoee?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?iii?oeee e oi?aaeaiea
niaieoiiui aeaiaaeiui eaieoaeii. E?aaeeo auiieiyao ooieoeeth yeiiiiee
ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey iin?aaenoaii aicaeaenoaey ia no?oeoo?o aeaiaaeiie
iannu, ieaoaaeiiai iai?ioa, nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa. A nia?aiaiiue
ia?eiae e?aaeeo auiieiyao ooieoeeth yeiiiiee ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey,
niinianoaoy ?acaeoeth ?aciiia?aciuo n?aaenoa eniieueciaaiey aaieianeeo
n/aoia e aeeaaeia (aeaiiceoiuo na?oeoeeaoia, e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae,
?acee/iuo n/aoia – “iao,”AON”), auoaniaieth iaee/iiai ieaoaaeiiai
iai?ioa aaciaee/iui , onei?aieth aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo iioieia. Aaaeiie
ooieoeeae e?aaeeoa yaeyaony onei?aiea eiioeaio?aoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee
eaieoaea. Aeaaiaea?y e?aaeeoiiio iaoaiecio i?ienoiaeeo aieaa auno?ue
i?ioeann eaieoaeecaoeee i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. Aunooiay eae iiuiue
oaeoi? eiioeaio?aoeee eaieoaea e?aaeeo ?acaeaeaaao a?aieoeu aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iaeiieaiey. Niaieoiiinoue anao oi?i e?aaeeoa
iaania/eaaao aai acaeiiaeaenoaea n aini?iecaiaenoaii.

Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea, aai no?oeoo?a

Aeaiueae ea?atho eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeioth ?ieue a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.
?uiie iaaiciiaeai aac aeaiaa, aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Aeaiaaeiia
ia?auaiea – aeaeaeaiea aeaiaa ai aioo?aiiai iai?ioa a iaee/iie e
aaciaee/iie oi?ia, ianeoaeeaathuaa ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?ia, a oaeaea
iaoiaa?iua ieaoaaee a oicyenoaa. Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea iiin?aaenoaoao
iai?iou niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, aeeth/ay aeioiaeu ?aciuo
eeannia. Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea ianeoaeeaaao aeaeaeaiea ia oieueei
oiaa?ia, ii e nnoaeiiai e oeeoeaiiai eaieoaea. A NOA 3/5 ieao?aeiiai
iai?ioa i?eoiaeeony ia oeiainiaua iia?aoeee (naeaeee n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie, nnoaeiua iia?aoeee, iaeiaiaua ieaoaaee e o.ae.). Eaoaai?ey
aeaiaa i?iyaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai a eo ooieoeeyo; a ea/anoaa iniiaiuo
/aua anaai auaeaeythony ooieoeee: n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey; ia?u noieiinoe;
nio?aiaiey noieiinoe (eee, /oi oi aea naiia, ooieoeey naa?aaeaiey,
iaeiieaiey, ion?i/aiiuo ieaoaaeae e o.i.). A caaeneiinoe io auiieiaiey
?acee/iuie ieaoaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie aeaiaaeiuo ooieoeee e noi?ie?iaaii e
ianoiyuaio a?aiaie ia i?aeoeea iiiyoea aeaiaa. Iii iineo iaiaeii?iaeiue
e iiiaio?iaiaaue oa?aeoa?. ?acee/athony neaaeothuea enoi?e/aneea
oi?iu aeaiaa: iieiioeaiiua, iiieiaeueiay e ?aaeueiay noieiinoue eioi?uo
a iniiaiii niaiaaeaao (ooo/iua, aaniaua, iiiaou), e eo caianoeoaee,
ciaee noieiinoe – iaiieiioeaiiua iiiaou, aoiaaeiua aeaiueae
(eacia/aeneea aeeaou), e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae (aaenaeue, aaieiioa, /ae).
?acee/iua oi?iu aeaiaa naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i noaiaie ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iieiioeaiiua aeaiueae, iiieiaeueiay
noieiinoue eioi?uo a iniiaiii niioaaonoaoao noieiinoe niaea?aeauaainy a
ieo iaoaeea, i?e iaoaeee/aneii ia?auaiee iaeiia?aiaiii ea?aee ?ieue
anaiauaai noieiinoiiai yeaeaaeaioa e auiieiyee ana ooieoeee aeaiaa. Ii
ia?a ?acaeoey oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa aoiaaeiua ciaee noieiinoe
auoaniytho cieioua iiiaou, eioi?ua ieii/aoaeueii ooee ec ia?auaiey a
nie?iaeua, ii i?iaeieaeatho o/anoaiaaoue a yeiiiie/aneii iai?ioa eae
?aaeueiua ?aca?aiua aeoeau, oiiae ie?iauo aeaiaa e aiieiuaiea
aaniethoiiai aiaaonoaa. Aeey ianeoaeeaaiey iaeeeo ieaoaaeae ecaeaaia
/aeaieony ?aciaiiay iiiaoa aia/aea eae ae?iaiay aaeeieoea iieiioeaiiie
iiiaou, caoai eae iaiieiioeaiiay (aeeiiiay) iiiaoa, iiieiaeueiay
noieiinoue eioi?ie i?aauoaao noieiinoue niaea?aeauaainy a iae iaoaeea e
?anoiaeu ia /aeaieo. Iineieueeo ?aciaiiay iiiaoa ec-ca aunieie nei?inoe
iai?ioa auno?i noe?aeanue, a? /aeaieee ec ieceii?iaiiai na?aa?a,
iaae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia. Nia?aiaiiua ?aciaiiua iiiaou ecaioiaeythony
aeaaiui ia?acii ec nieaaia. Eo oaeaeueiue aan a aeaiaaeiii ia?auaiee
iaaaeee. ?aciaiiua iiiaou auioneathony a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?acia?ao e, eae
i?aaeei, iaeaaeatho ia?aie/aiiie ieaoaaeiie neeie. Iieoiaoaeue eee
aeieaeiee eiatho i?aai inouanoaeoue ieaoaae yoeie iiiaoaie eeoue ia
noiio, ia i?aauoathuoth onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiii eeieo. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
a ia?auaiee ainiiaenoaotho aeaiaaeiua ciaee – iaiieiioeaiiua aeaiueae,
iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue eioi?uo ia niioaaonoaoao eo i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie
noieiinoe. Oaeiauie yaeythony aoiaaeiua ciaee noieiinoe, i?aaeaea anaai
e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae. N ?acaeoeai oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey e
ieaoaaeii-?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee iaiyaony no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiie iannu , a
oaeaea niioiioaiea iaaeaeo iaee/iie e aaciaee/iie noa?aie aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey. I?aiaeaaeaao aaciaee/iia aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea, eioi?ia
ianeoaeeaaaony /aeaie, e?aaeeoiuie ea?oi/eaie, aee?ii?eeacaie iooai
ia?a/eneaiey noii ii n/aoai aaieia e naa?eann, yeaeo?iiiuie ia?aaiaeaie.
Aeaaiaea?y eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee ?an/aoia caienaiiua ia n/aoa aeaiueae
eaaei ia?aoiaeyo ec aaciaee/iiai a iaee/iia aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea. E?iia
oiai, a aeaiaaeiue iai?io i?iieeatho eacia/aeneea aaenaey, iaeeaaoeee,
na?oeoeeaou, oaeinoiaa?ythuea aciin a aaie ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu eee
cieioa. Iiyaeeenue ?acee/iua eino?oiaiou eniieueciaaiey aaieianeeo
oaeoueo n/aoia e aeeaaeia. N?aaee ieo: e?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee; n/aoa “iao”
aeey ieaoaaeae n iiiiuueth i?eeacia i nienaiee n?aaenoa ni
naa?aaaoaeueiiai n/aoa; n/aoa aeey ia?aaiaea aeaiaa o?aoei eeoeai; e
ae?.

?acaeaeaiea iaee/iuo aeaiaa ia aoiaaeiua aaieiiou e iaoaeee/aneoth
?aciaiioth iiiaoo ii?aaeaeyaony i?aeoe/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie oaeianoaa
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. A NOA, iai?eia?, aei 15% iaee/iuo aeaiaa
n/eoaaony oeaeaniia?aciui aea?aeaoue a ?aciaiiie iiiaoa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ianiio?y ia ?aoeeiiaeecaoeeth ieaoaaeii-?an/aoiiai
iaoaiecia e oaiaeaioeeth e ?acaeoeth yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiaa, oiaa?iia
i?iecaiaenoai ia iiaeao iaieoenue aac iaee/iuo aeaiaa. Iie nio?aiytho
cia/aiea : 1) aeey iaeiiaania/aiiuo nei?a ianaeaiey; 2) a oneiaeyo
e?eceniuo iio?ynaiee, eiaaea oneeeaaaony iiaiiy ca iaee/iuie; 3) aeey
iacaeiiiie yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, oeeiiaiey io oieaou iaeiaa ia
nianoaaiiinoue, iineieueeo /aee, e?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee, ia?aaiaeu
eniieuecothony thnoeoeeae aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaoeiaoeee e
i?anooieaiee. /3 – 108-111 no?./

Nia?aiaiiua aeaiueae – yoi nioeeaeueiia yaeaiea. Iie iacia/athony
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth. Eo oeaao e ?acia? eee ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
aeinoieinoaa ia ea?atho aieueoie ?iee aeey iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia.
Aeiaa?ea e aeaiueaai ii?aaeaeyaony aeiaa?eai e aaoi?eoaoo oie eee eiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Iu iiaeai neacaoue, /oi aeaiueae o/eouaathony
ioaeaeueiuie a?aaeaeaiaie ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi iie iieuecothony
aeiaa?eai anaai iauanoaa. Iauanoai a eeoea ainoaea?noaa iiaeao i?inoi
iacia/eoue aeaiueaaie ae?oaea ii oi?ia e ?enoieo aoiaaeiua e
ieanoeeiaua eenoi/ee, e ioaeaeueiua a?aaeaeaia aoaeoo eo eniieueciaaoue
eae aeaiueae aeey naieo ioaeae. Iiyoiio aeaiueae naaiaeiy iacuaatho
“aeae?aoiuie” aeaiueaaie. Ainoaea?noai aea?aeeo iiae eiio?ieai
oe?aaee-yiennee aeaiaa. Anee au auione aeaiaa aue ia ia?aie/ai eee eo
iia au ia/aoaoue eaaeaeue, oi oeaiu au ?acei iiaenei/eee, aeaiueae
iaanoeaieeenue e eo au ieeoi ia eniieueciaae. Iauanoai aica?aoeeinue au
e iaoo?aeueiiio iaiaio. Nia?aiaiiua aeaiueae aeaeyony ia aoiaaeiua e
aaieianeea aeaiueae. E aoiaaeiui aeaiueaai ioiineony aaenaeue e
aaieiioa. Iiae aaenaeai iiieiaaony iaycaoaeuenoai ioaeaeueiiai
i?iiuoeaiieea eee oi?aiaoea oieaoeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie aeaiueae ca
iieo/aiiua a e?aaeeo oiaa?u. Aaieiioa – yoi ?aciiaeaeiinoue e?aaeeoiuo
aeaiaa, eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaoiy i?eciaeaie : 1) auioneaaony
oeaio?aeueiui aaieii acaiai eiiia?/aneeo aaenaeae; 2) ?aciaiia ia cieioi
ii ia?aiio o?aaiaaieth. E aaieianeei aeaiueaai ioiinyo /aee, e?aaeeoiua
ea?oi/ee e ae?oaea aeaeu e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa. *ae – yoi ienueiaiiue i?eeac
aeaaeaeueoea oaeouaai n/aoa aaieo oieaoeoue iaee/iuie eee ia?aaanoe ia
oaeouee n/ao ae?oaiai eeoea ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio aeaiaa. *ae iniiaai ia
oaeoueo n/aoao, a oaeaea ia nnoaeiuo iia?aoeeyo (iieiuo aeeaaeao).
E?aaeeoiay ea?oi/ea – eiaiiie aeaiaaeiue aeieoiaio, auiouaiiue aaieii
eee oi?aiaie oe?iie, oaeinoiaa?ythuee ee/iinoue aeaaeaeueoea n/aoa a
aaiea e aeathuee aio i?aai ia i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa a ?icie/iie
oi?aiaea aac iieaou iaee/iuie. Ia?a/eneaiiua auoa ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa,
ianeoaeeaathuea iaee/iue e aaciaee/iue iai?io, ninoaaeytho aeoeaioth
/anoue aeaiaaeiie iannu. Aeaiaaeiay ianna – yoi niaieoiiinoue iaee/iuo e
aaciaee/iuo iieoiaoaeueiuo e ieaoaaeiuo n?aaenoa, iaania/eaathueo
ia?auaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa e i?eiaaeeaaeaueo
/anoiui eeoeai, i?aaei?eyoeyi e ainoaea?noao. A no?oeoo?o aeaiaaeiie
iannu aeeth/athony aeoeaiua aeaiueae e ianneaiua (iaeiieaiey, ?aca?au,
inoaoee ia n/aoao), eioi?ua iioaioeeaeueii iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
aeey ?an/aoia. ?a/ue eaeao i aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao ia n?i/iuo n/aoao,
naa?aaaoaeueiuo aeeaaeao a eiiia?/aneeo aaieao, ae?oaeo
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaieyo, aeaiiceoiuo na?oeoeeaoao, aeoeeyo
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia, eioi?ua aeeaaeuaatho n?aaenoaa oieueei a
e?aoein?i/iua aeaiaaeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa e o.i. Ia?a/eneaiiua eiiiiiaiou
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey iieo/eee iauaa iacaaiea “eaace-aeaiueae” (io
eaoeineiai quasi – eae-aoaeoi, ii/oe). Yoi eeoue iiaeiaea aeaiaa, oae
eae eo iaeuecy iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaaoue eae iieoiaoaeueiia e
ieaoaaeiia n?aaenoai. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo eaace-aeaiueae yaeythony
iniiaiui e iaeaieaa aeeiaie/iui eiiiiiaioii aeaiaaeiuo aa?aaaoia.
I?ioanni? I. Naioyeuenii iacuaaao eaace- aeaiueae eeeaeaeiuie aeoeaaie.
Iiiyoea eeeaeaeiinoe aaaeii aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eaoaai?ee aeaiaa. Iiae
eeeaeaeiinoueth eaeiai-eeai eiouanoaa eee aeoeaia iiieiaaony eo
eaaei?aaeecoaiinoue, aiciiaeiinoue eo ia?auaiey a aeaiaaeioth oi?io aac
iioa?e noieiinoe. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, naiui eeeaeaeiui aeaeii aeoeaia
yaeythony aeaiueae (aiai?yo, /oi iaee/iua aeaiueae iaeaaeatho
aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoueth). E aunieieeeaeaeiui aeaeai eiouanoaa
ioiinyo cieioi, ae?oaea ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu, ae?aaioeaiiua eaiie,
iaooue, i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa. Iaiueoae eeeaeaeiinoueth iaeaaeatho
caeaiey, iai?oaeiaaiea (aecianiaiu iacuaatho eo “caii?iaeaiiuie”
n?aaenoaaie). Eaace- aeaiueae aeaenoaeoaeueii ioiinyony e eeeaeaeiui
aeaeai aiaaonoaa, iineieueeo n?i/iua aeeaaeu, iaeeaaoeee e iaeioi?ua
aeaeu aeoeee iiaeii auno?i i?aa?aoeoue a iaee/iua aeaiueae. /5-298
no?./,/6-283 no?./

Caeii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. E. Ia?en aeae iao/iia iauyniaiea nayce
yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae – aeaiaaeiie iannu, noiiu oeai oiaa?ia e
oneoa, e?aaeeoa, acaeiiuo e aaciaee/iuo ieaoaaeae, nei?inoe ia?auaiey
aeaiaa, noi?ioee?iaaa caeii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey :

NOeO – E + I – AI

EAe = ——————

N

aaea EAe – eiee/anoai aeaiaa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ia?auaiey;

NOeO – noiia oeai ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa;

E – noiia oeai oiaa?ia, i?iaeaiiuo a e?aaeeo ;

I – noiia ieaoaaeae ii iaycaoaeuenoaai;

AI – noiia acaeiii iiaaoaiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa;

N – nei?inoue iai?ioa iaeiieiaiiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu.

Caeii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey aace?oaony ia i?iyaeaiee caeiia noieiinoe
a oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaieyo. “I?e aeaiiie nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa
… iauay noiia aeaiaa, iaoiaeyueony i ia?auaiee ia aeaiiii io?acea
a?aiaie, ii?aaeaeyaony iauae noiiie iiaeeaaeaueo ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?iuo
oeai iethn iauay noiia ieaoaaeae, i?eoiaeyueony ia yoio aea ia?eiae
a?aiaie, ieion ieaoaaee, acaeiii oie/oiaeathueany iooai iiaaoaiey. Iauee
caeii, ii eioi?iio ianna iaoiaeyueony a ia?auaiee aeaiaa caaeneo io
oiaa?iuo oeai, ie a iaeaeoae ia?a yoei ia ia?ooaaony, eai naia noiia
ieaoaaeae ii?aaeaeyaony oeaiaie, onoaiiaeaiiuie a eiio?aeoao “. Ec yoiai
caeiia auoaeaao i?eioeei aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey – ia?aie/aiea aeaiaaeiie
iannu iio?aaiinoyie iai?ioa. Oneiaey e caeiiiia?iinoe iiaeaea?aeaiey
aeaiaaeiiai ?aaiiaaney ii?aaeaeythony acaeiiaeaenoaeai aeaoo oaeoi?ia:
iio?aaiinoyie oicyenoaa a aeaiueaao e oaeoe/aneei iinooieaieai aeaiaa a
iai?io. Oai?aoe/anee ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio iio?aaiinoae oiaa?iiai?ioa a
aeaiueaao a oneiaeyo ia?auaiey ia?aciaiiu aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia iiaeii eae
eiee/anoai aeaiaa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey i?e
neiaeeaoainy a aeaiiii ia?eiaea o?iaia oeai (a oii /enea e oeaiu
cieioa), o.a. ?aaeueiie eo iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe – niiniaiinoe
aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu iaiaieaaoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai oiaa?ia e
oneoa. I?aeoe/anee iio?aaiinoue oicyenoaa a aeaiueaao iiae/eiyaony
aa?iyoiinoii-noaoenoe/aeei caeiiiia?iinoyi. Iiyoiio enneaaeiaaiea
aeaenoaey caeiia aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey o?aaoao iiiaioaeoi?iiai aiaeeca.
Iineieueeo aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea ianeoaeeaaao oiaa?iiai?io, oi noiia
oeai oiaa?ia e oneoa, ?aaeecoaiuo ca iaee/iua e a e?aaeeo, yaeyao
aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei iio?aaiinoue oicyenoaa a aeaiueaao. Yoa
iio?aaiinoue caaeneo io ni?ina i?aaei?eyoee, ainoaea?noaa e /anoiuo eeoe
ia iieoiaoaeueiua e ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa, a oaeaea ia n?aaenoaa
iaeiieaiee. /3 – 125 no?./

Iiiyoea nia?aiaiiuo aeaiaa naycaii n auaeaeaieai aeaoo oae iacuaaaiuo
aeaiaaeiuo aa?aaaoia, eioi?ua aeeth/atho ?acee/iua a?oiiu ieaoaaeiuo
n?aaenoa. Ia?a/eneei yoe aeaiaaeiua aa?aaaou : I 1 – yoi aeaiueae a
oceii niunea neiaa, eioi?ua au? iacuaatho “aeaiueaaie aeey naeaeie” e
iie aeeth/atho a naay iaee/iua aeaiueae (aoiaaeiua aeaiueae e iiiaou),
ia?auathueany aia aaieia, a oaeaea aeaiueae ia oaeoueo n/aoao (n/aoao
aei “aino?aaiaaiey”) a aaieao. Aeaiiceou ia oaeoueo n/aoao auiieiytho
ana ooieoeee aeaiaa e iiaoo auoue eaaei i?aa?auaiu a iaee/iua. I 2 –
yoi aeaiueae a oe?ieii niunea neiaa, eioi?ua aeeth/atho a naay ana
eiiiiiaiou I 1 iethn aeaiueae ia n?i/iuo e naa?aaaoaeueiuo n/aoao
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, aeaiiceou a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oeiainiauo
einoeoooao. Aeaaeaeueoeu n?i/iuo aeeaaeia iieo/atho aieaa aunieee
i?ioeaio ii n?aaiaieth n aeaaeaeueoeaie oaeoueo aeeaaeia, ii iie ia
iiaoo ecuyoue yoe aeeaaeu ?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai oneiaeai aeeaaea n?iea.
Iiyoiio aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ia n?i/iuo e naa?aaaoaeueiuo n/aoao iaeuecy
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaaoue eae iieoiaoaeueiia e ieaoaaeiia
n?aaenoai, oioy iioaioeeaeueii iie iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey
?an/aoia. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo I 1 e I 2 caeeth/aaony i?aaeaea anaai a oii,
/oi a ninoaa I2 aeeth/aiu eaace-aeaiueae, eioi?ua, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
cao?oaeieoaeueii eniieueciaaoue aeey naeaeie, iaeaaei ia?aaanoe a
iaee/iua. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a iaoae no?aia aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie
aeaiaaeiua aa?aaaou ia ?ann/eouaaeenue e ia eniieueciaaeenue.
Oai?aoe/anee yoi iainiiauaaeinue iinooeaoaie ia?enenoneie yeiiiie/aneie
iaoee, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie n/eoaaony iaaeiionoeiui iauaaeeiaiea
eaace-aeaiaa e iaee/iuo aeaiaa, eai niaoeaathony niaa?oaiii ?aciua
eaoaai?ee – aeaiueae, oeaiiua aoiaae, e?aaeeo. Iaeiaei, ynii, /oi
iaaeaeo aeaiaaeiui ?uieii (aeaeaeaiea e?aoein?i/iuo nnoae), ?uieii
eiaanoeoeee (ia?auaiea n?aaeia- e aeieain?i/iiai nnoaeiiai eaieoaea) e
?uieii oeaiiuo aoiaa nouanoaoao oaniay acaeiinaycue. Iioaioeeaeueii
inoaoee ia n?i/iuo n/aoao e oeaiiua aoiaae iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
aeey ?an/aoia. E?iia oiai, aeaaeaeueoeu n?i/iuo n/aoia eiatho
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aioi?ieoue eo a n/aoa aei aino?aaiaaiey. Aeioiaeu io
oeaiiuo aoiaa iiaoo o?aieoueny ia oaeoueo n/aoao, oaeaea eae aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa, au?o/aiiua io eo i?iaeaaee. Aeaiaaeiua aa?aaaou ia i?aeoeea
ea?atho iiceoeaioth ?ieue eae i?eaioe?u aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee
ainoaea?noaa. N o/aoii noe?aiey a?aiae iaaeaeo iaee/iui e aaciaee/iui
iai?ioii a iaoae no?aia, neaaeiaaei au ia?aeoe e eo aeoeaiiio
eniieueciaaieth. A neaaeothuae oaaeeoea i?eaiaeyony aeaiiua i aeeiaieea
eciaiaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu a NOA, ecia?yaiie aeaiaaeiuie
aa?aaaoaie./6-283 no?./

Aeaiaaeiay ianna a NOA e a? aiaeiaua oaiiu i?e?inoa, ie?ae aeiee.

Aiae I1/M2 M1 I?e?ino,% I2 I?e?ino,%

1960

1970

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985 45,4

34,4

25,4

24,6

24,6

24,1

23,5

23,4 141,8

216,6

414,8

441,8

480,8

528,0

558,5

626,3 0,6

5,2

6,6

6,5

8,8

9,8

5,8

12,1 312,3

628,2

1631,4

1794,4

1954,9

2188,8

2371,7

2654,1 4,9

6,6

8,9

10,0

8,9

12,0

8,4

8,1

Enoi/iee: I.Oaeia. Yeiiiie/aneee ia?ac iuoeaiey. I., 1991. N.542

Yoe aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi n 1960 ii 1985 aa. aeaiaaeiay ianna
a NOA cia/eoaeueii au?inea. I?e yoii iau?i I 1 au?in a 4,4 ?aca, a
iau?i I 2 – a 8,5 ?ac, /oi aiai?eo i ai?acaei aieaa aunieeo oaiiao
oaaee/aiey eaace-aeaiaa ii n?aaiaieth n iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie.

Eciaiaiea iau?ia aeaiaaeiie iannu iiaeao auoue ?acoeueoaoii eae
oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee, oae e onei?aiey eo iai?ioa.
Iiae nei?inoueth ia?auaiey aeaiaa iiieiaaony auno?ioa eo iai?ioa i?e
ianeoaeeaaiee naeaeie. Iieacaoaeue nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa
oa?aeoa?ecoaony /eneii iiaoi?aiee iaeieie e oaie aea aeaiaaeiuie
aaeeieoeaie ooieoeee n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey e n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea a
ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie. Yoio iieacaoaeue o?oaeii
iiaeaeaaony eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea, iiyoiio i?eoiaeeony
aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny einaaiiuie aeaiiuie. En/eneythony aeaa iieacaoaey
nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa: 1) ii iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeaiaa a e?oaiiai?ioa
aeioiaeia (ioiioaieai AII, eiiaaea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, e n?aaeiae
aaee/eia aeaiaaeiie iannu ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae); 2) ii
iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeaiaa a ieaoaaeiii iai?ioa (aeaeaieai noiiu
ia?aaaaeaiiuo n?aaenoa ii aaieianeei oaeouei n/aoai ia n?aaeithth
aaee/eio aeaiaaeiie iannu). Aoi?ie iieacaoaeue io?aaeaao ia?iiiue iau?i
niaeoeyoeaiuo naeaeie, ia aoiaeyueo a AII. Nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa
caaeneo io aeieaia?aiaiiuo e eiiuthieoo?iuo oaeoi?ia, io ?acia?ia e
/enea eo iai?ioia, io oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, noaiaie
iai?yaeaiiinoe aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu e
niaaeu iau/ii nii?iaiaeaeathony nieaeaieai nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa
(iai?eia?, a 1929-1933 a. ia 40%), iiaeu?i eiiuthieoo?u – onei?aieai eo
iai?ioa. Ia?yaeo n aaee/eiie iioiea iieoiie e i?iaeaae ia onei?aiea
iai?ioa aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa aeeytho noaiaiue acaeiinaycaiiinoe oiaa?iuo
iaoaii?oic, a oaeaea oaeoi?u, ?aaoee?othuea o?aiaiea aeaiaa a ea/anoaa
n?aaenoaa iaeiieaiee. Ia?iiioth ?ieue a eioaineoeeaoeee iai?ioa aeaiaa
ea?aao ?acaeoea e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu e aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia. Aaieianeay
nenoaia oe?iei eniieuecoao aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee ia oieueei ?aaee
yeiiiiee o?oaea, naycaiiiai n aaieianeeie iia?aoeeyie, ii e aeey
onei?aiey iai?ioa aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaa oneeeaaao
no?aieaiea eoieoue “ia anyeee neo/ae”. Iio?aaeoaee oaaee/eaatho iieoiee,
/oiau iaiaiaoue ?ino oeai e ia?aaeeoue naay io iaaeaiey iieoiaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoe aeaiaa. Ii yoei i?e/eiai ?anooo caeacu ia oiaa?u
aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey e ?anoe?yaony iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo. I?e
neeueiii iaanoeaiaiee aeaiaa ia/eiaaony aaanoai io ieo e oiaa?ai, /oi
onei?yao aeaiaaeiue iai?io. I?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo oaaee/aiea
nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa ?aaiicia/ii aic?anoaieth aeaiaaeiie iannu e
yaeyaony iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee. Aeaiaaeiay ianna a ia?auaiee i?e
ia?aciaiiuo e?aaeeoiuo aeaiueaao aeeyao ia i?aaenoaaeoaeueioth
noieiinoue aeaiaa. A nayce n yoei aeaenoaea caeiia aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey
i?e e?aaeeoiuo e aoiaaeiuo aeaiueaao inouanoaeyaony ianeeueii /a?ac
iaoaieci oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Anee oaaee/eaaaony ianna e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa
naa?o iio?aaiinoae iai?ioa, oi oiaiueoaaony eo i?aaenoaaeoaeueiay
noieiinoue, eioi?ay au?aaeaaony a iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeaiaa ii
ioiioaieth e oiaa?ai, a oii /enea e cieioo. Iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaa ?aii eee
iicaeii i?iyaeyaony a ?inoa ?uii/iie oeaiu cieioa a e?aaeeoiuo
aeaiueaao. *a?ac iaoaieci iaanoeaiaiey aeaiaa e ?ino oeai noeoeeii
onoaiaaeeaaaony ia?ooaiiia ?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo iio?aaiinoueth oicyenoaa
a aeaiueaao e oaeoe/aneei iinooieaieai eo a iai?io.

A ie?a nouanoaotho ?acee/iua nenoaiu aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, eioi?ua
neiaeeeenue enoi?e/anee e cae?aieaiu caeiiiaeaoaeueii eaaeaeui
ainoaea?noaii. E aaaeiaeoei eiiiiiaioai aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu ioiinyony
: 1) iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea (aeieea?, ?oaeue, o?aie, ia?ea,
eaia, e?iia e o.ae.), a eioi?ie au?aaeathony oeaiu oiaa?ia e oneoa; 2)
nenoaia e?aaeeoiuo aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa, ?aciaiiuo iiiao, eioi?ua yaeythony
caeiiiuie ieaoaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie a iaee/iii iai?ioa; 3) nenoaia
yiennee aeaiaa, o.a. caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaiiue ii?yaeie auionea
aeaiaa a ia?auaiea; 4) ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu,
aaaeathuea aii?inaie ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. A caaeneiinoe
io aeaea ia?auaaiuo aeaiaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa iniiaiuo oeia nenoai
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey : 1) nenoaiu ia?auaiey iaoaeee/aneeo aeaiaa,
eiaaea a ia?auaiee iaoiaeyony iieiioeaiiua cieioua e (eee) na?aa?yiua
iiiaou, eioi?ua auiieiytho ana ooieoeee aeaiaa, a e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae
iiaoo naiaiaeii iaiaieaaoueny ia aeaiaaeiue iaoaee (a iiiaoao eee
neeoeao); 2) nenoaiu ia?auaiey e?aaeeoiuo e aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa,
eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue iaiaiaiu ia cieioi, a naii cieioi auoaniaii ec
ia?auaiey. /6-281 no?./

E?aaeeoiay nenoaia

Nia?aiaiiay e?aaeeoiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acoeueoao
aeeeoaeueiiai enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey e i?eniiniaeaiey e iio?aaiinoyi
?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. ?acee/athony aeaa iiiyoey e?aaeeoiie
nenoaiu : 1) niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoii-?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee, oi?i e
iaoiaeia e?aaeeoiaaiey; 2) niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo
o/?aaeaeaiee, aeoeaii eniieuecoaiuo ainoaea?noaii a oeaeyo
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. E?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey naycaiu n aeaeaeaieai
nnoaeiiai eaieoaea e aeeth/atho ?aciua oi?iu e?aaeeoa. E?aaeeoiay
nenoaia eae niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee
aeeoioee?oao naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu, aeioiaeu e naa?aaeaiey
?acee/iuo eeannia iauanoaa e i?aaeinoaaeyao eo a nnoaeo i?aaei?eyoeyi,
i?aaeoaeuenoao e /anoiui eeoeai. E?aaeeoiay nenoaia iiin?aaenoaoao aanue
iaoaieci iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa e neoaeeo iiuiui oaeoi?ii
eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e oeaio?aeecaoeee eaieoaea, niinianoaoao
auno?ie iiaeeecaoeee naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e eo
eniieueciaaieth a yeiiiieea no?aiu. Nia?aiaiiay e?aaeeoiay nenoaia a
caiaaeiuo no?aiao noi?ie?iaaeanue iiae aeeyieai oaeeo aaaeiaeoeo
i?ioeannia, eae: eiioeaio?aoeey e oeaio?aeecaoeey aaieianeiai
eaieoaea, i?eaaaeoay e aicieeiiaaieth aaieia-aeaaioia; niaoeeaeecaoeey
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee e oneiaeiaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiie
no?oeoo?u e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu; neeyiea eee n?aueaaiea aaieianeeo e
i?iiuoeaiiuo iiiiiieee e ia?aciaaiea oeiainiaiai eaieoaea;
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey aaieianeiai aeaea, iiyaeaiea o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo
aaieia e oeiainiauo a?oii. Eoi aea a ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea
auiieiyao ?ieue e?aaeeoiuo einoeoooia-iin?aaeieeia, eioi?ua n iaeiie
noi?iiu , aeeoioee?otho a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua n?aaenoaa noauaeoia
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaoiaeyo eaiaeu eiiia?/anee
auaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey yoeo n?aaenoa. Ethaie iin?aaeiee, naycaiiue n
e?aaeeoiuie iia?aoeeyie, aunooiaao a aeaiyeie ?iee – e eae caaiuee,
i?eaeaeathuee nnoaeiua eaieoaeu, e eae e?aaeeoi?, iaoiaeyuee eiiia?/anee
auaiaeiua iooe ?aciauaiey i?eaea/aiiuo n?aaenoa. Ionthaea e aicieeaao
?acaeaeaiea anao iia?aoeee, naycaiiuo n e?aaeeoii, ia ianneaiua e
aeoeaiua; ia?aua ioaaouaatho ana aeaenoaey ii i?eaea/aieth aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa; aoi?ua- aeaenoaey ii iai?aaeaieth yoeo n?aaenoa a eiiia?/anee
auaiaeiua aeiaeaiey e iia?aoeee. E ii ianneaiui, e ii aeoeaiui
iia?aoeeyi a ea/anoaa iieaou aunooiaao i?ioeaio; iineieueeo aeoeaiua
iia?aoeee iau/ii i?iaiaeyony ni n?aaenoaaie, iieo/aiiuie io ianneaiuo
iia?aoeee; ?aciinoue iaaeaeo yoeie i?ioeaioaie (ia?aea) e ninoaaeyao
iniiaiie aeioiae e?aaeeoiuo einoeoooia. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e eaoaai?ee
oaeeo einoeoooia: a) oe?iei ?acaaoaeaiiay nenoaia e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo
o/?aaeaeaiee, aeeth/athuay aaieianeea e iaaaieianeea i?aaiecaoeee; a)
?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa; a) nio?aieaoeany a ?acaeoie
yeiiiieea oaeea e?aaeeoiua iin?aaeieee, eioi?ua auee oeie/iu aeey
i?ioeuo, a oii e oaiaeaeueiuo yiio (?inoiaueee e ?iaenoaaiiua ei
o/?aaeaeaiey).?aoathuoth ?ieue nae/an ea?atho e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua
o/?aaeaeaiey e ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa; eiaiii iie aeeoioee?otho e
?ani?aaeaeytho nauoa 90% anaai nnoaeiiai eaieoaea. A no?oeoo?a
oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee nouanoaotho aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu – iin?aaeieee
oieaa?naeueiiai i?ioeey, caieiathueany, ii nouanoao, anaie eee
i?aiaeaaeathuei aieueoeinoaii e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo iia?aoeee ianneaiiai
e aeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a, e iin?aaeieee, niaoeeaeece?othueany ia eaeeo-oi
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iia?aoeeyo. Iniiaioth a?oiio e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo
o/?aaeaeaiee ninoaaeytho aaiee. Aaieianeia aeaei i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niaoeeoe/aneoth oi?io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiioth
n i?eaea/aieai e ?ani?aaeaeaieai nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia. Ooieoeee aaieia. E
iniiaiui ooieoeeyi aaieia ioiinyony: 1)i?eaea/aiea a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo
aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia e i?aa?auaiea eo a nnoaeiue eaieoae;
2)e?aaeeoiaaiea i?aaei?eyoee, ainoaea?noaa, /anoiuo eeoe, iia?aoeee n
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie; 3)inouanoaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia e ieaoaaeae a
oicyenoaa; 4)auione e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa ia?auaiey; 5)eiinoeueoaoeee e
i?aaeinoaaeaiea yeiiiie/aneie e oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee. I?eaea/aiea
a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa – iaeia ec noa?aeoeo aaieianeeo
ooieoeee. Aaiee eiioeaio?e?otho cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ia?acothueony a
oicyenoaa iaeiieaiee e naa?aaeaiee. Aianaiiua a e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey
aeaiaaeiua noiiu i?eiinyo aeeaae/eeai aeioiae a aeaea i?ioeaioa. Ii
oaeouei n/aoai i?ioeaio ia oiea/eaaaony, aianoi yoiai aaie aanieaoii
auiieiyao aeey eeeaioa ?aciiia?aciua oneoae ii ia?aaiaeo e auieaoa
aeaiaa. Aaie niinianoaoao auiieiaieth ooieoeee e?aaeeoa ii i?aa?auaieth
a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia e iaeiieaiee a nnoaeiue
eaieoae. I?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoa. N ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa, ?inoii
o?oaeiinoae ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia noa?a aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa ?anoe?yaony:
iia aeeth/aao eae oaeouaa i?iecaiaenoai e ia?auaiea oiaa?ia, oae e
aeieain?i/iua iio?aaiinoe a eaieoaea (iieoieo iai?oaeiaaiey, aeoeee,
iaeeaaoeee e o.ae.). Aei 50-o aiaeia aaiee ianeoaeeaaee i?aeiouanoaaiii
e?oiioth eeeaioo?o (“iioiaua” iia?aoeee). A nayce n iiauoaieai ?iee
aeaiaaeiuo iaeiieaiee ee/iiai naeoi?a iieo/atho ?acaeoea “?icie/iua”
iia?aoeee – i?eai iaeeeo aeeaaeia, iio?aaeoaeueneea nnoaeu e o.ae.
Aeaiaaeiua ?an/aou e ieaoaaee ii oicyenoaaiiui naeaeeai caieiatho
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iia?aoeeiiiiai a?aiaie aaieianeiai ia?niiaea. A
NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Eaiaaea e ae?oaeo no?aiao e?oiiua n?aaenoaa
cao?a/eaathony ia iia?aoeee ii acaeiiiio ca/aoo (eee?eiao) /aeia. A
O?A, Ieaea?eaiaeao, O?aioeee, Eoaeee, iaeioi?uo no?aiao Ao?eee e
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea ae?oaay oi?ia aaciaee/iuo
?an/aoia – aee?iiai?io, o.a. ia?a/eneaiea n?aaenoa ii niaoeeaeueiui
n/aoai ia iniiaa iniauo ii?o/aiee (aee?ii?eeacia) aac i?eiaiaiey
iaee/iuo aeaiaa. Auione e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa ia?auaiey. Aaiee e?aaeeootho
eeeaioo?o ia oieueei ca n/ao aeeoioee?iaaiiuo a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo
eaieoaeia e naa?aaeaiee, ii e iooai aeaiiceoii-/aeiaie yiennee. Iie naie
nicaeatho aeeaaeu a i?ioeanna auaea/e nnoaeu. Ioe?uaay e?aaeeo, aaie
ca/eneyao aeaiueae ia aeeaae n i?aaii auienee /aeia a i?aaeaeao inoaoea
ia n/aoa. A yoii neo/aa auaea/a e?aaeeoa i?aaeoanoaoao ioe?uoeth
aeeaaea. Ia iniiaa aeeaaea aicieeatho /aee. E?iia oiai, eeeaioo ii aai
o?aaiaaieth iiaoo auoue auiea/aiu iaee/iua aeaiueae – aaieiiou.
E?aaeeoiaay caienue aaiea ia oaeouee n/ao eeeaioa, ia
nii?iaiaeaeathuayny i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui aciinii aeaiaa, iacuaaaony iieiui
aeeaaeii, a ioee/ea io ?aaeueiiai aeeaaea, ia?acoaiiai ca n/ao
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai aciina aeaiaa. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
?aaeueiuie e iieiuie aeeaaeaie iinoaiaiii noe?aaony: aciin a aaie
iaee/iuo aeaiaa iiaeao iniiauaaoueny ia nicaeaiee iieiiai aeeaaea a
ae?oaii aaiea. Ioaeaeeoue iieiua aeeaaeu io ?aaeueiuo i?aeoe/anee
iaaiciiaeii. Nicaeaiea aaieaie aeaiiceoia e auione e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa
eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiinoeueoaoeee e
i?aaeinoaaeaiea yeiiiie/aneie e oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee. Aaiee
eiioeaio?e?otho o naay naaaeaiey iauayeiiiie/aneiai e oeiainiaiai
oa?aeoa?a, i?aaenoaaeythuea eioa?an aeey i?aaei?eyoee. Aaiee
i?aaeinoaaeytho ?aciiia?acioth ae?aeaaoth e oeiainiaoth eioi?iaoeeth,
/anoi eiioeaeaioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?aaei?eyoeyi,
naycaiiui n ieie iauiinoueth eioa?ania, oeiainiauie ocaie. Aeaeu
e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eaieoaea ana aaiee e
ae?oaea e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua einoeooou iiae?acaeaeythony ia
ainoaea?noaaiiua e /anoiua. E ainoaea?noaaiiui ioiinyony oeaio?aeueiua
aaiee, eioi?ua iaaeaeaiu iiiiiieueiui i?aaii auionea aaieiio,
ii/oiai-naa?aaaoaeueiay nenoaia e iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeueiua
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua einoeooou (iai?eia?, aia?eeaineea oaaea?aeueiua
caiaeueiua aaiee, yenii?oii-eiii?oiue aaie NOA). A ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao
(O?aioeee, Eoaeee e ae?.) ainoaea?noao i?eiaaeeaaeao e e?oiiua
eiiia?/aneea aaiee. Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? a e?aaeeoiie nenoaia
aic?anoaao n ?anoe?aieai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. Aicieeatho e
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua aaethoii-e?aaeeoiua e oeiainiaua einoeooou:
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie ?aeiino?oeoeee e
?acaeoey, ?aaeiiaeueiua aaiee ?acaeoey e ae?. Ianiio?y ia
iainoaea?noaeaiea iaeioi?uo e?aaeeoiuo einoeoooia, iniiaiua ooieoeee ii
ianeoaeeaaieth oicyenoaa auiieiytho /anoiua o/?aaeaeaiey. E?aaeeoiua
einoeooou iiae?acaeaeythony ia 1)oeaio?aeueiua aaiee; 2)eiiia?/aneea
aaiee; 3)niaoeeaeueiua e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua einoeooou. Aicieeiiaaiea
oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia. Ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo eaieoaeecia eiiia?/aneea aaiee
oe?iei eniieueciaaee auione aaieiio eae iaeei ec enoi/ieeia
iiaeeecaoeee eaieoaea. Iaeiaei a oiaea ?acaeoey e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu
yienney aeaiaa neiioeaio?e?iaaeanue o iaiiiaeo e?oiiuo aaieia,
iieueciaaaoeony anaiauei aeiaa?eai, /oi iaania/eei oe?ieia
eniieueciaaiea aaieiio a ieaoaaeiii iai?ioa. Yoio i?ioeann i?eaae e
iiiiiieueiiio cae?aieaieth i?aaa auionea aaieiio ca iaeiei aaieii.
Ia?aiia/aeueii oaeie aaie iacuaaeny iaoeeiiaeueiui, eee yienneiiiui,
caoai oeaio?aeueiui aaieii, /oi niioaaonoaiaaei aai aeaaainoaothuaio
iieiaeaieth a e?aaeeoiie nenoaia. Ooieoeee oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia. E
iniiaiui ooieoeeyi nia?aiaiiuo oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia ioiinyony: 1)yienney
e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa; 2)aeeoioeyoeey e o?aiaiea eanniauo ?aca?aia ae?oaeo
e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee; 3)o?aiaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo cieioi-aaethoiuo
?aca?aia; 4)e?aaeeoiaaiea eiiia?/aneeo aaieia; 5)i?aaeinoaaeaiea
e?aaeeoia e auiieiaiea ?an/aoiuo iia?aoeee aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa;
6)inouanoaeaiea ?an/aoia e ia?aaiaeiuo iia?aoeee; 7)aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiia
?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee; 8)eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth e?aaeeoiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee. Yienneiiiay ooieoeey yaeyaony noa?aeoae e iaeiie ec
iaeaieaa aaaeiuo ooieoeee oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea. A oneiaeyo cieioiai
noaiaea?oa aaieiiou oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea eiaee aeaiyeia iaania/aiea –
eiiia?/aneeie aaenaeyie e cieioii. Iuia yienney e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa
inouanoaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii iiae i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua iaeeaaoeee. A
neeo yoiai iaiin?aaenoaaiiay naycue yiennee aaieiio n oiaa?iui
ia?auaieai a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ineaaaea, a cieioia iaania/aiea aa
ioiaiaii. Ianiio?y ia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u aeaiaaeiie iannu, aaieiioiay
yienney oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia nio?aiyao aaaeiia cia/aiea, iineieueeo
iaee/iua aeaiueae iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ieaoaaeae a ?icie/iie oi?aiaea e
iaania/aiey eeeaeaeiinoe e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu, eioi?ay aeieaeia eiaoue
n?aaenoai ieii/aoaeueiiai iiaaoaiey aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa. Ooieoeey
aeeoioeyoeee e o?aiaiey ?aca?aia eiiia?/aneeo aaieia oaeaea i?aoa?iaea
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey. A ia/aea OO a. yoe ?aca?au o?aieeenue a
oeaio?aeueiii aaiea eae aa?aioeeiue oiiae aeey iiaaoaiey aeaiiceoia.
Iicaeiaa ?acia? eanniauo ?aca?aia ia/ae ?aaoee?iaaoueny caeiiii. Aia?aua
iiaeiaiue ii?yaeie aue aaaaeai a NOA i?e nicaeaiee a 1913a.
Oaaea?aeueiie ?aca?aiie nenoaiu (O?N). Eaaeaeue aaie – /eai nenoaiu
iaycai o?aieoue ia ?aca?aiii n/aoa a oaaea?aeueiii ?aca?aiii aaiea
noiio a ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iii?oeee e ?acia?o aai aeeaaeia. Aiineaaenoaee
O?N iieo/eea i?aai ia?aniao?eaaoue ii?io iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia.
Eciaiaiea ii?iu ?aca?aia noaei iaeiei ec iaoiaeia aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie
iieeoeee. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ii o?aaeeoeee yaeyaony o?aieoaeai
cieioi-aaethoiuo ?aca?aia no?aiu. Ioeoeeaeueiue cieioie ?aca?a auiieiyao
iuia ?ieue ?aca?aiiai aeoeaa e aa?aioeeii-no?aoiaiai oiiaea a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao. Oeaio?aeueiua aaiee eiioeaio?e?otho o naay
aieueoea caianu cieioa. A iaeioi?uo no?aiao yoei caianii ?anii?yaeaaony
ieienoa?noai oeiainia, a aaie inouanoaeyao oaoie/aneea iia?aoeee n
cieioii. A oeaio?aeueiuo aaieao nin?aaeioi/aiu e caianu eiino?aiiie
aaethou. Yoe ?aca?au eniieuecothony aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia,
iie?uoey aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina e iiaeaea?aeaiey eo?na aaetho.
Eae e o?aiaiea aaieianeeo ?aca?aia , e?aaeeoiaaiea eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
enoi?e/anee auei naycaii n aaieiioiie yienneae oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia.
Auione eie aaieiio e eiioeaio?aoeey ioeoeeaeueiuo cieioi-aaethoiuo
?aca?aia e aeaiiceoia e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee iineoaeeee aacie aeey
?anoe?aiey e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee. Iie noaee “e?aaeeoi?aie iineaaeiae
einoaioeee” a ia?eiaeu e?ecenia e e?aaeeoiuo cao?oaeiaiee. Iaeia ec
noa?aeoeo ooieoeee oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia – i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia e
auiieiaiea ?an/aoiuo iia?aoeee aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiia.
Oeaio?aeueiua aaiee aaaeoo n/aoa i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e
i?aaiecaoeee, eacia/aenoai, ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe, aeeoioee?otho ia
yoeo n/aoao n?aaenoaa e i?iecaiaeyo auieaou n ieo; inouanoaeytho
iia?aoeee n ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeaiiuie aoiaaaie; i?aaeinoaaeytho
ainoaea?noao e?aaeeo a oi?ia i?yiuo e?aoein?i/iuo e aeieain?i/iuo nnoae
eee iieoiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee; i?iaiaeyo ii ii?o/aieth
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiia iia?aoeee n cieioii e eiino?aiiie aaethoie.
A ainoaea?noaaiiuo athaeaeaoao aaaeoueo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai
aeeoioee?oaony aei iieiaeiu e aieueoa AII. Yoe n?aaenoaa iaeaieeaathony
ia n/aoao a oeaio?aeueiuo aaieao e ?anoiaeothony n yoeo n/aoia. A ?yaea
no?ai iaeioi?ua ooieoeee oeiainiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa iiieii oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia auiieiytho e /anoiua aaiee.
Oeaio?aeueiua aaiee ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a ianeoaeeaaiee nenoaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa, ?aciauaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo caeiia. E?iia
?aciauaiey iaeeaaoeee n?aaee ae?oaeo aea?aeaoaeae, oeaio?aeueiua aaiee
cao?a/eaatho ia?iiiua n?aaenoaa ia iieoieo ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo
aoiaa ca naie n/ao, o.a. oe?iei e?aaeeootho i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Neoiea
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa inouanoaeyaony iau/ii ca n/ao yiennee
aeaiaa, /oi noeioee?oao eioeyoeeth. Aaaeiie ooieoeeae oeaio?aeueiuo
aaieia yaeythony aaciaee/iua ?an/aou, iniiaaiiua ia ca/aoa acaeiiuo
o?aaiaaiee e iaycaoaeuenoa, o.a. eee?eiae. A ?yaea no?ai oeaio?aeueiua
aaiee aaaeoo iia?aoeee ii iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiio eee?eiao, aunooiay
iin?aaeieeaie iaaeaeo eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie a ?aciuo
?aeiiao no?aiu. Iiieii eee?eiaiauo ?an/aoia oeaio?aeueiua aaiee
inouanoaeytho a aieueoeo ianooaaao ia?aaiaeu aeaiaaeiuo
noii./3-68-78no?./,/6-289no?./,/18-19-20no?./

Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia. Niaieoiiinoue
ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia eciaiaiea aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee,
iauaia e?aaeeoia, o?iaiy i?ioeaioiuo noaaie e ae?oaeo iieacaoaeae
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia, iieo/eea iacaaiea
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee. Aa oeaeue caeeth/aaony a ?aaoee?iaaiee
oicyenoaaiiie eiiuthieoo?u iooai aicaeaenoaey ia ninoiyiea e?aaeeoa e
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea iai?aaeaia eeai ia
noeioee?iaaiea e?aaeeoa e aeaiaaeiie yiennee (e?aaeeoiay yeniainey),
eeai ia eo naea?aeeaaiea e ia?aie/aiea (e?aaeeoiay ?ano?eeoeey). A
oneiaeyo iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e oaaee/aiey aac?aaioeoeu oeaio?aeueiua
aaiee iuoathony iaeeaeoue eiiuthieoo?o iooai ?anoe?aiey e?aaeeoa e
nieaeaiey ii?iu i?ioeaioa. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi e?aaeeoiay yeniainey
iiaeao ieacaoue iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia aeeiaieeo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee,
iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in e niinianoaiaaoue auaaaeaieth yeiiiieee ec
e?eceniiai ninoiyiey. Iai?ieia?, yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai iau/ii
nii?iaiaeaeaaony “ae?aeaaie ai?y/eie”, niaeoeyoeeae, ?inoii oeai,
ia?anoaieai aeeni?iii?oeee a yeiiiieea. A oaeeo neo/ayo oeaio?aeueiua
aaiee no?aiyony i?aaeioa?aoeoue “ia?aa?aa” eiiuthieoo?u i?e iiiiue
e?aaeeoiie ?ano?eeoeee: ia?aie/aiea e?aaeeoa, iiauoaiey i?ioeaioa,
naea?aeeaaiey oaiiia yiennee ieaoaaeiuo n?aaenoa e o.i. Oeaeue
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea – iaania/aiea
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey oeiainiaiai eaieoaea. Yoa oeaeue
eiie?aoece?oaony a caaea/ao i?aaiia aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiiai eiio?iey:
niya/aiea eee ono?aiaiea oeeeee/aneeo eieaaaiee i?iecaiaenoaa e
caiyoinoe ?aai/ae neeu; ?aaoee?iaaiea oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa;
naea?aeeaaiea eioeyoeee; au?aaieaaiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina. Iiiuoee
ono?aieoue ei?aiiua i?ioeai?a/ey i?iecaiaenoaa n iiiiuueth
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee, eae i?aaeei, ia aeinoeaatho oeaee.
Iiyoiio aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiua ia?ii?eyoey aeiiieiythony i?yiuie oi?iaie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo. Iaeiaei e a yoeo neo/ayo
oaeaaony eeoue niya/eoue ino?ioo e?eceniuo yaeaiee oeaiie
aeeni?iii?oeee a yeiiiieea. Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea ioee/aaony io
ae?oaeo iaoiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey einaaiiui oa?aeoa?ii
aicaeaenoaey ia i?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaia
neaaeothuay noaia ?aaoee?iaaiey: aeaiaaeiay ianna – ii?ia i?ioeaioa –
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey – iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iuoaaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eciaiyoue oieueei iauai aeaiaaeiie yiennee e e?aaeeoa.
Yoe iia?aoeee aeeytho ia ?uiie nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia, /oi iaoiaeeo
au?aaeaiea a aeeiaieea ii?iu i?ioeaioa. O?iaaiue i?ioeaioa, ii iiaieth
iaeioi?uo yeiiiienoia, aaaeai aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey eaieoaea. Eciaiyy
oneiaey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, oeaio?aeueiua aaiee a eiia/iii n/aoa
ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia i?iecaiaenoai e caiyoinoue. Eiaiii oaeoth noaio
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey auaeaeioe a 30-o aiaeao OOa.
ao?aeoaciue yeiiiieno Aeae.I.Eaein. Ia?ae/iui iauaeoii ?aaoee?othueo
ia?ii?eyoee oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea neoaeeo ia aeaiaaeiay yienney eee iauai
e?aaeeoa, a aaee/eia noii ia ?aca?aiuo n/aoao e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee a
yoii aaiea. Iaaeaeo ?acia?ii ?aca?aia e e?aaeeoiuie iia?aoeeyie aaieia
nouanoaoao acaeiinaycue, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i ieieiaeueiuo ii?iao iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia. N
?inoii aeaiiceoia (a oii /enea iieiuo aeeaaeia) noiia ?aca?aia aeieaeia
aic?anoaoue. Iiyoiio, anee a oiaea e?aaeeoiie yeniainee o aaieia
ia?acoaony iaaeinoaoie n?aaenoa ia ?aca?aiii n/aoa, iie auioaeaeaiu
caoi?iiceoue eee i?ae?aoeoue auaea/o iiauo e?aaeeoia, i?iaeaoue /anoue
ii?ooaey oeaiiuo aoiaa e i?eiyoue ae?oaea ia?u aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey
niioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?aca?aaie e ?acia?ii naieo iia?aoeee. Yoi iiaeao
i?eaanoe e caiaaeeaieth e aeaaea i?ae?auaieth ?inoa aaieianeeo
e?aaeeoia. Iai?eia?, anee aaiee ?aniieaaatho ecauoeii n?aaenoa ia
?aca?aiii n/aoa (ii n?aaiaieth n ii?iaie ?aca?aia), iie eiatho
aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?eoue e?aaeeou e nicaeaaaoue iiaua aeaiiceou. A eoiaa
i?eoie aaieianeiai eaieoaea ia ?uiie oaaee/eaaaony. ?aaoee?oy ?aca?aioth
iiceoeeth aaieia, oeaio?aeueiue aaie iuoaaony aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia
ninoiyiea ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia.

Iaoiaeu aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee aeaeyony ia aeaa a?oiiu: iauea,
aeeythuea ia ?uiie nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia a oeaeii, e naeaeoeaiua,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey eiie?aoiuo aeaeia e?aaeeoa eee
e?aaeeoiaaiey ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae, e?oiiuo oe?i e o.ae. E iauei
iaoiaeai ioiinyony: o/aoiay (aeeneiioiay) iieeoeea; iia?aoeee ia
ioe?uoii ?uiea; eciaiaiea ii?i iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia.

O/aoiay iieeoeea – noa?aeoee iaoiae e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey: iia
i?eiaiyeanue Aaieii Aiaeee n na?aaeeiu OIOa. Yoio iaoiae aue naycai n
i?aa?auaieai oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea a e?aaeeoi?a eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.
Iineaaeiea ia?ao/eouaaee o iaai naie aaenaey eee iieo/aee e?aaeeou iiae
nianoaaiiua aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa. Iiauoay noaaeo ii e?aaeeoai,
oeaio?aeueiue aaie iiaoaeaeae ae?oaea e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey nie?aoeoue
caeinoaiaaiey. Yoi cao?oaeiyei iiiieiaiea ?aca?aiuo n/aoia, aaei e
iiauoaieth i?ioeaioiuo noaaie e a eoiaa e nie?auaieth e?aaeeoiuo
iia?aoeee. Anee oeaio?aeueiue aaie nieaeae ia?ao/aoioth noaaeo, ii
iaeaa/ae aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia iiiieiaiea ?aca?aiuo n/aoia e oai
naiui iiiu?ye e?aaeeoioth yeniaineth. Aaaeiinoue ia?ao/aoiuo iia?aoeee
ii?aaeaeyaony i ioiineoaeueiie naiaiaeie ia?aaeaeaeaiey eaieoaeia
iaaeaeo no?aiaie : iiauoaiea ia?ao/aoiie noaaee iiiiaaao i?eaea/ue a
no?aio eiino?aiiua eaieoaeu e oiaiueoeoue aeaoeoeeo ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina;
nieaeaiea noaaee niinianoaoao ioeeao eaieoaeia ec no?aiu. Ia?aie/aiea
aeaeaeaiey eaieoaeia e e?aaeeoia ineaaeyao yooaeoeaiinoue ia?ao/aoiie
iieeoeee e a yoie iaeanoe. A 30 – 40 aiaeao oeaio?aeueiua aaiee
i?iaiaeeee ?aeiiaiaeiaaiioth Eaeinii iieeoeeo “aeaoaauo aeaiaa”, oi
anoue ieceeo i?ioeaioiuo noaaie e iaeeueiiai e?aaeeoa. A Aaeeeia?eoaiee
n 1932 ii 1951 aiae ia?ao/aoiay noaaea nio?aiyeanue ia o?iaia 2 %, a
NOA n 1937 ii 1948 a. – 1 % . Aieueooth ?ieue a iiaeaea?aeaiee ieceeo
noaaie nua?aei no?aieaiea iaania/eoue e?aaeeoiaaiea eacia/aenoaa ia
eueaioiuo oneiaeyo a ia?eiae e iinea Aoi?ie Ie?iaie aieiu. N 50-o a. ai
iiiaeo no?aiao aiiaue aic?iaeeeanue aeoeaiay o/aoiay iieeoeea. Iaeiaei
a oeaeii cia/aiea yoiai iaoiaea ?aaoee?iaaiey ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie
nieceeinue.

Iia?aoeee ia ioe?uoii ?uiea caeeth/athony a iieoiea eee i?iaeaaea
oeaio?aeueiui aaieii ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, aaieianeeo
aeoeaioia e ae?oaeo e?aaeeoiuo iaycaoaeuenoa ii ?uii/iiio eee ca?aiaa
iauyaeaiiiio eo?no. A neo/aa iieoiee oeaio?aeueiue aaie ia?aaiaeeo
niioaaonoaothuea noiiu eiiia?/aneei aaieai, oaaee/eaay oai naiui inoaoee
ia eo ?aca?aiuo n/aoao. I?e i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa oeaio?aeueiue aaie
nienuaaao noiiu n yoeo n/aoia. Oaeei ia?acii, oeacaiiua iia?aoeee
eniieuecothony eae iaoiae ?aaoee?iaaiey ?aca?aia aaieia, a oaeaea
i?ioeaioiuo noaaie e eo?na ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa. Oaaee/aiea
?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee e ia?aoiae e aeoeaiie iieoiea
oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie a 40-o aiaeao OOa. nicaeaee i?aaeiinueee aeey
i?aa?auaiey iia?aoeee ia ioe?uoii ?uiea a aeaaiue iaoiae
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee. Yoe iia?aoeee oe?iei i?eiaiythony a NOA,
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Eaiaaea, Aiaae?aiea eo a ae?oaeo no?aiao oi?iiceony
ionoonoaeai oai aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieiai e aeoeaiiai ?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo
iaeeaaoeee; n 50-o aiaeia i?eiaiythony a O?A, Ieaea?eaiaeao, ssiiiee,
neaiaeeiaaneeo no?aiao.

Eciaiaiea ii?i iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia, o?aieiuo e?aaeeoiuie
o/?aaeaeaieyie a oeaio?aeueiii aaiea, – iaoiae i?yiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
aaee/eio aaieianeeo ?aca?aia. Aia?aua yoio iaoiae aue aaaaeai a NOA a
1933 a. Iuia ii eniieuecoaony ai iiiaeo no?aiao. A aeiiieiaiea e iauei
iaoiaeai aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a i?aeoeea oeaio?aeueiuo
aaieia i?eiaiythony naeaeoeaiua. E eo /eneo ioiinyony: i?yiia
ia?aie/aiea ?acia?ia aaieianeeo e?aaeeoia; eiio?ieue ii ioaeaeueiui
aeaeai e?aaeeoia. I?yiia ia?aie/aiea ?acia?ia aaieianeeo e?aaeeoia
i?eiyei oi?io onoaiiaeaiey i?aaeaeueiuo eeieoia ii o/aoo aaenaeae aeey
ioaeaeueiuo aaieianeeo o/?aaeaeaiee. Eiio?ieue ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai
e?aaeeoia /anoi i?aeoeeoaony ii e?aaeeoai iiae caeia ae?aeaauo oeaiiuo
aoiaa, ii iio?aaeoaeueneei nnoaeai ia iieoieo oiaa?ia a ?ann?i/eo, ii
eiioa/iiio e?aaeeoo. ?aaoee?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai e?aaeeoa iau/ii
aaiaeeony a ia?eiaeu iai?yaeaiey ia ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia, eiaaea
ainoaea?noai no?aieony ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoue yoe eaieoaeu a iieueco
i?ei?eoaoiuo io?aneae eee ia?aie/eoue iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in.

A 70 – 80-o aiaeao i?iecioee aaaeiua eciaiaiey a aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie
iieeoeea. Iau/ii oeaio?aeueiua aaiee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee eo?na iieeoeee
eniieueciaaee a ea/anoaa i?eaioe?a aeaiiua ia o?iaia e aeeiaieea
i?ioeaioiuo noaaie. Iiaeiaiay i?aeoeea niioaaonoaiaaea aeiaiai
eaeineaineie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee i eeth/aaie ?iee i?ioeaioa a
eiaanoeoeeiiiii i?ioeanna. Iiae aeeyieai eaeae iaieeanne/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey a ao?aeoaciie iieeoyeiiiiee oeaio?aeueiua aaiee n na?aaeeiu
70-o aiaeia aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeytho ?aaoee?iaaieth aaee/eiu e oaiiia
?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu. Niaeanii oai?ee iiiaoa?ecia aeaaiie i?oaeeiie
oeeeee/aneeo eieaaaiee eiiuthieoo?u e eioeyoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna yaeythony
aanii?yaei/iia eciaiaiea aeaiaaeiie iannu. Iiiaoa?iay iieeoeea – iaeei
ec iniiaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo eino?oiaioia, iie?athueeny ia
niiniaiinoue aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu aeeyoue ia aeaiaaeiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea e niioaaonoaaiii ia noaaeo i?ioeaioa. Iniiauaaaony ia
oai?aoe/aneii iieiaeaiee i naii?aaoee?othuaeny yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia.
Nooue – a aeaoo oacenao: aeaiueae – aeaaiay aeaeaeouay neea ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee; oeaio?aeueiue aaie iiaeao aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia aeaiaaeiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea. I?aaeeaaaaony iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oaii i?e?inoa aeaiaaeiie
iannu ia o?iaia 3-5% a aiae. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa ia?ooaaony iaoaieci
/anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ia?anoaao eioeyoeey. Aicaeaenoaea ia
yeiiiieeo naiaeeony e iiaeaea?aeaieth iinoiyiiuo oaiiia ?inoa
aeaiaaeiie iannu. A nayce n yoei ai iiiaeo no?aiao auei aaaaeaii
oa?aaoe?iaaiea aeaiaaeiie iannu (io aia. target – oeaeue),
caeeth/aaoaany a onoaiiaeaiee oeaeaauo i?eaioe?ia – iecoaai e aunoaai
i?aaeaeia ?acee/iuo aeaiaaeiuo aa?aaaoia ia i?aaenoiyuee ia?eiae
(eaa?oae, aiae e o.i.). A NOA e O?A oa?aaoe?iaaiea auei aaaaeaii a
ia/aea 70-o aiaeia, Eaiaaea – a 1975a., O?aioeee e Aaeeeia?eoaiee – a
1978a. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai oa?aaoe?iaaiea au?iaeeeinue a i?inooth
oi?iaeueiinoue: “aeeee” i?aaeaeia ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu iiaeaiiythony
e oaeoe/aneei oaiiai aa ?inoa ca i?aaeoanoaothuee ia?eiae, a ca
ia?ooaiea yoeo i?aaeaeia oeaio?aeueiue aaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia
ianao./3-82-89no?./,/8-171no?./,/5-297/

A?aieoeu aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Oeaio?aeueiua aaiee iiaoo
ieacuaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia aeeyiea ia ninoiyiea ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia e
/a?ac iaai – ia yeiiiieeo. Ii iie ia niiniaiu i?aiaeieaoue
caeiiiia?iinoe aini?iecaiaenoaa, ii?iaeaeathuea e?eceniua niaaeu e
ae?oaea ia?ooaiey oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia. Aeaenoaeyi oeaio?aeueiuo
aaieia i?enoue i?ioeai?a/ey, oae eae iie iai?aaeaiu iaeiia?aiaiii ia
aeinoeaeaiea ?acee/iuo, /anoi ianiaianoeiuo oeaeae. Oaeaoaaeaiea
e?aaeeoa e iiiuoee noeioee?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoai, eae i?aaeei,
niinianoaotho ia?ooaieth i?iii?oeee a oicyenoaa e oneeeaatho eioeyoeeth.
Iieeoeea aeanoeiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu ia aeaao aeaeaaiuo
?acoeueoaoia, oae eae eioeyoeey – neiaeiue iiiaioaeoi?iue i?ioeann,
eioi?ue iaaiciiaeii naea?aeaoue aeaiaaeiuie ia?aie. A oneiaeyo
aaethoiiai e?ecena e iaaeaiey eo?nia aaetho oeaio?aeueiua aaiee
iuoathony oeo/oeoue ninoiyiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina iooai iiauoaiey
i?ioeaioa e i?eaea/aiey a no?aio eaieoaeia. Oaei?iaeaiea e?aaeeoa
i?ioeai?a/eo i?eaioaoeee ia ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eiiia?/aneea aaiee e eo iia?aoeee. Eiiia?/aneea aaiee yaeythony
o/?aaeaeaieyie oieaa?naeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Iie i?iecaiaeyo e?aaeeoiua,
oiiaeiaua, iin?aaeie/aneea, ?an/aoiua iia?aoeee, ianeoaeeaatho
?acee/ioth eeeaioo?o – io e?oiiaeoeo ei?ii?aoeee aei iaeeeo caaiueeia e
aeeaae/eeia. Iia?aoeee aaiea aeaeyony ia o?e iniiaiua a?oiiu: ianneaiua
(i?eaea/aiea n?aaenoa); aeoeaiua (?aciauaiea n?aaenoa);
eiienneiiii-iin?aaeie/aneea (ii ii?o/aieth eeeaioa ia eiienneiiiuo
ia/aeao) e aeiaa?eoaeueiua.

Ianneaiua iia?aoeee aaiea. ?ano?nu aaiea neeaaeuaathony ec nianoaaiiuo,
i?eaea/aiiuo e yieoe?iaaiiuo n?aaenoa. E nianoaaiiui n?aaenoaai
ioiinyony aeoeeiia?iue e ?aca?aiue eaieoae, a oaeaea ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay
i?eaueue. Aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae iiaeeecoaony iin?aaenoaii ?aciauaiey
aeoeee ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa. ?aca?aiue eaieoae ia?acoaony ca n/ao
io/eneaiee ec oaeouae i?eauee. Ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iie?uoey
iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo oauoeia, iioa?ue io iaaeaiey eo?nia oeaiiuo aoiaa. N/ao
ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee – yoi i?iiaaeooi/iue, o?aiceoiue n/ao. Ia iai
iaeaieeaaaony i?eaueue, eioi?ay ia ?ani?aaeaeaia iaaeaeo aeoeeiia?aie a
aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia e ia ca/eneaia a ?aca?a. Io/eneaiea i?eauee a ?aca?a
/anoi neoaeeo iaoiaeii nieaeaiey iaeiaiauo auieao, oae eae iiiaea aeaeu
?aca?aia inaiaiaeaeaiu io iaeiaia. Nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa ninoaaeytho
i?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa a oi?ia aeaiiceoia (aeeaaeia), a oaeaea
eiioiei??aioiuo e ei??aniiiaeaioneeo n/aoia. Enoi/ieeii ?ano?nia aaieia
yaeythony oaeaea yieoe?iaaiiua oiiaeu, ia?acoaiua iooai nicaeaiey
aaieaie iieiuo aeeaaeia e aeoeaioii-aaaeueiuo iia?aoeee. Aeoeaio –
niaeanea ia iieaoo aeaiaaeiuo e oiaa?iuo aeieoiaioia – aeaeaaony a aeaea
iaaeiene aaiea, iai?eia?, ia aaenaea, /aea. Aaaeue, o.a. aa?aioey
ieaoaaea, ioi?ieyaony eeai aa?aioeeiie iaaeienueth ia aaenaea, eeai
auaea/ae niaoeeaeueiiai aeieoiaioa. Ii aeoeaioiaaiiiio aaenaeth ieaoaae
i?iecaiaeeo aaie ca n/ao eeeaioa, eioi?ue ca?aiaa ia?aaiaeeo aio
iaiaoiaeeioth noiio, a i?e aaaeueiie iia?aoeee aaie inouanoaeyao ieaoaae
eeoue a neo/aa aaie?ionoaa aeieaeieea. Aeoeaioii-aaaeueiua iia?aoeee
iaeiia?aiaiii e a ?aaiuo noiiao io?aaeathony a aeoeaa aaieianeiai
aaeaina (o?aaiaaiey e eeeaioo, ii i?eeaco eioi?iai aeaeathony yoe
iia?aoeee) e a ianneaa (iaycaoaeuenoai aaiea ii aeoeaioiaaiiiio
aeieoiaioo).

Aeoeaiua iia?aoeee aaiea. A aeoeaao aaieia auaeaeythony e?aaeeoiua
(o/aoii-nnoaeiua) iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie (oiiaeiaua). Ia ieo
i?eoiaeeony aei 80% anaai aaeaina. E?iia oiai, aaiee inouanoaeytho
eanniaua, aeoeaioiua iia?aoeee, naeaeee n eiino?aiiie aaethoie,
iaaeaeaeeiinoueth e o.ae. Niioiioaiea iniiaiuo aeaeia aaieianeeo
iia?aoeee iaiyaony iiae aeeyieai oicyenoaaiiie eiiuthieoo?u,
i?iiuoeaiiiai oeeeea, aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo niauoee e o.ae. E?aaeeoiua
iia?aoeee eeanneoeoee?othony ia nnoaeu aac iaania/aiey (aeaieiaua) e
eiathuea iaania/aiea; iieieueiua (aei aino?aaiaaiey), e?aoei-, n?aaeia-
e aeieain?i/iua; iiaaoaaiua aaeeiia?aiaiiui aciinii e a ?ann?i/eo e ae?.
Oiiaeiaua iia?aoeee aaieia – ?aciiia?aciua iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie: iieoiea oeaiiuo aoiaa aeey nianoaaiiiai ii?ooaey
(eiaanoeoeee), ia?ae/iia ?aciauaiea aiiaue auiouaiiuo aoiaa n?aaee
aea?aeaoaeae, iieoiea e i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa ii ii?o/aieth eeeaioa
(ianeoaeeaaiea aoi?e/iiai iai?ioa oeaiiuo aoiaa), nnoaeu iiae oeaiiua
aoiaae.

Eiienneiiii-iin?aaeie/aneea e aeiaa?eoaeueiua iia?aoeee. Aaaeiaeoea
iin?aaeie/aneea iia?aoeee: eieanniaua, aee?aaeeoeaiua, ia?aaiaeiua e
oi?aiai-eiienneiiiua. Iniaia ianoi caieiatho aeiaa?eoaeueiua iia?aoeee,
eioi?ua aiaoia noiaeiu n iin?aaeie/aneeie, ii auoiaeyo ca eo ?aiee, e
eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee. Eieanniaua iia?aoeee – iia?aoeee, i?e iin?aaenoaa
eioi?uo aaie ii ii?o/aieth naiaai eeeaioa iieo/aao aeaiueae ii
aeaiaaeiui e oiaa?ii-?an/aoiui aeieoiaioai. Ia eieanni i?eieiathony
/aee, aaenaey, oeaiiua aoiaae, eiino?aiiay aaethoa e o.ae. Aee?aaeeoea –
yoi ii?o/aiea i auieaoa ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu eeoeo eee eiiiaiee i?e
auiieiaiee oeacaiiuo a aee?aaeeoeaiii ienueia oneiaee. Ia?aaiaeiua
iia?aoeee caeeth/athony a ia?a/eneaiee aianaiiuo a aaie aeaiaa
iieo/aoaeth, iaoiaeyuaiony a ae?oaii ianoa. Eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee – yoi
i?eia?aoaiea iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey e naea/a eo a a?aiaeo
oe?ia-a?aiaeaoi?o, eioi?ay iiea/eaaao noieiinoue a?aiaeu ii ia?a
eniieueciaaiey eiouanoaa.

Niaoeeaeueiua e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua einoeooou caieiathony e?aaeeoiaaieai
ii?aaeaeaiiuo noa? e io?aneae oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe –
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneiai oicyenoaa, aiaoiae oi?aiaee, eiiia?aoeee e
o.ae. A eo aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeii, eae i?aaeei, auaeaeeoue iaeio eee aeaa
iniiaiua iia?aoeee. Yoe einoeooou aeiieie?otho a ioiineoaeueii oceeo
naeoi?ao ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia e eiatho, eae i?aaeei,
niaoeeoe/aneoth eeeaioo?o. Eiaanoeoeeiiiua aaiee caieiathony
yienneiiii-o/?aaeeoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth, o.a. i?iaiaeyo iia?aoeee
ii auioneo e ?aciauaieth ia ?uiea i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa.
Naa?aaaoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey i?eaeaeatho iaeeea naa?aaeaiey e aeioiaeu,
eioi?ua aac iiiiue e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu ia iiaoo ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae
eaieoae. Aaaeiaeoeie ec niaoeeaeueiuo e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee
yaeythony no?aoiaua eiiiaiee. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ia niaoeeoe/aneay oi?ia
i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa – i?iaeaaea no?aoiauo iieenia. Iaineiiiua oiiaeu
nicaeathony eiiiaieyie e ainoaea?noaaiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie aeey auieaou
iainee. Eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee ?aciauatho n?aaee iaeeeo aea?aeaoaeae
naie iaycaoaeuenoaa (aeoeee) e eniieuecotho iieo/aiiua n?aaenoaa aeey
iieoiee oeaiiuo aoiaa i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo io?aneae oicyenoaa. E
oeiainiaui eiiiaieyi ioiinyony ?aciiia?aciua einoeooou, e?aaeeoothuea
i?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia a iioiaie e ?icie/iie oi?aiaea. /3 – 101 no?./

Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay nenoaia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee :

i?iaeaiu e iooe eo ?ac?aoaiey

E?aaeeoiay nenoaia iaoae no?aiu ia ianoiyuai yoaia aa ?acaeoey iineo
ia?aoiaeiue oa?aeoa?, eniuouaaao aeeyiea oeaio?iaaaeiuo iieeoe/aneeo
oaiaeaioeee e e?ecena a yeiiiieea. A yoio e?eoe/aneee ia?eiae
aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho iiiuoee nenoaiiiai aiaeeca
aicieeathueo i?iaeai, niiinoaaeaiea iiaiee ?acee/iuo a?oii niaoeeaeenoia
n oeaeueth niaeaniaaiey aeaenoaee aaieia e iauaaeeiaiey
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo nee.

Nianoaaiiinoue a aaieianeii aeaea. Aii?in i nianoaaiiinoe a
aaieianeii aeaea, eae, ai?i/ai, e a ae?oaeo noa?ao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiui. Ii ii?aaeaeyao ia oieueei i?aaiaoth
iniiao aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii e yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo,
aiciiaeiinoe aaieia a yeiiiie/aneii ?aaoee?iaaiee, i?iaaaeaiee aaeeiie
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee. Ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe cao?aaeaatho e
aeayoaeueiinoue eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Eae e ?aiaa, i?aiaeaaeathuaa ianoi
a aaieianeie noa?a caieiaao ainoaea?noaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue eeai
aeoeeiia?iay (iaaaay) nianoaaiiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e eo
iauaaeeiaiee. Iiiaea aaiee nio?aiytho oa?aeoa? io?aneaauo eeai
i?aaeii/eoatho inoaaaoueny a noa?a aeeyiey oao e?oiiuo no?oeoo?
ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a, eioi?ua ?aniieaaatho cia/eoaeueiuie
oeiainiauie ?ano?naie, iieuecothony i?e cao?oaeiaieyo iiaeaea?aeeie
ainoaea?noaa, a oaeaea a ?yaea neo/aaa eiatho i?ei?eoaoiia
athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea. Ia?aoaiiinoue i?iaeaiu nianoaaiiinoe a
aaieianeii aeaea neacuaaaony e ia o?iaia ea/anoaa aaieianeeo oneoa.
Ianniaue ia?aaiae e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ia eiiia?/aneea ia/aea, eae
ecaanoii, oaea nae/an aucuaaao ioeacu aaieia a ianeoaeeaaiee iaauaiaeiie
eeeaioo?u ( oauoi/iua e iaei?aioaaaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey, iaeua
athaeaeaoiua i?aaiecaoeee, iaeeea /anoiua e eieeaeoeaiua i?aaei?eyoey,
?ene ii naeaeeai n eioi?uie iniaaiii aaeee). Anee e caeanue iaaeeeoue n
i?ioeannii ?ai?aaiecaoeee oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, oi a ia?niaeoeaa aeaiiay
i?iaeaia aua aieaa iaino?eony. Eae aea auoue? Iiaeii i?eiyoue ianeieueei
?aoaiee. Iiaeii, e i?eia?o, ia?aaeaoue iia?aoeee ii ianeoaeeaaieth oaeie
eeeaioo?u o/?aaeaeaieyi oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia ?anioaeee eeai nicaeaoue a
yoeo oeaeyo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aaiee, iaoiaeyueany a ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Yoi auee au ooaeoea aa?eaiou ?aoaiey aeaiiie i?iaeaiu.
Aeueoa?iaoeaiui ?aoaieai yaeyaony ieacaiea aaieai ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee n oai, /oiau naeaeaoue aeey ieo auaiaeiui ianeoaeeaaiea
oeacaiiuo auoa a?oii eeeaioia. Oi?iu iiaeaea?aeee – iaeiaiaua eueaiou,
eiiiaine?othuea aeaiiua cao?aou eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, i?aeiouanoaa a
oneiaeyo i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoia ni noi?iiu oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea,
eueaiou ii ii?iaoeaai ?aaoee?iaaiey aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe e o.i.

?acoiaaony, yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe aaieia caaeneo ia oieueei io
ieo naieo, ii e io aiaoieo oneiaee, a oii /enea io acaeiiioiioaiee n
i?aaiaie aeanoe. Iniaaiiia aeaaeaiea aoaeoo eniuouaaoue oeaio?aeueiua e
eiiia?/aneea aaiee ii aii?inai e?aaeeoiaaiey aeaoeoeeoia
?anioaeeeaineiai e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia, iniaaiii a nayce n e?oiiuie
i?ia?aiiaie oeiaine?iaaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe eniuouaatho e
eiiia?/aneea aaiee. A iineaaeiea aeaa aiaea ?acaeoea
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia oei iia?aaeathueie oaiiaie a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie
?uii/iuie no?oeoo?aie, eioi?ua aei neo ii? iaoiaeyony ia ia/aeueiuo
yoaiao noaiiaeaiey (eiathony a aeaeo ae?aeaaie, no?aoiaie aecian,
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua einoeooou e o.i.). A neeo yoiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa eiiia?/aneea aaiee ioioii i?enooieee e ?aaeecaoeee
oneoa ia oiaa?iii, no?aoiaii, oeiainiaii ?uieao, ?uiea o?oaea, auiieiyy,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, ianaienoaaiiua ei iia?aoeee ca naie n/ao, a n ae?oaie
– eieoeee?oy oai naiui ?acaeoea oeacaiiuo ?uieia e ainiieiyy ionoonoaea
ae?oaeo ?uii/iuo no?oeoo?. Iia?aoeee aaieia ia iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?uieao
ioaeaeathony a iiiu?aiee, iineieueeo iie auno?i ?anoe?ytho aieinoue
?uieia e ainnicaeatho eo eiio?aaaioneoth naoue. Nia?aiaiiay i?aeoeea
iioea ii eiiio iooe. Oiaa?iua e no?aoiaua iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
ca naie n/ao cai?auaiu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, /oi iaycaoaeueii ieaaeao
iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea niioaaonoaothueo ?uieia. / “E?aaeeoiay
nenoaia a ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e ?uieo”, I.E. Eaa?ooei (ae-? yeii. iaoe),
ss.I. Ie?eei (eaiae. yeii. iaoe), Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo, etheue 91 a., no?.
5 /

Aaiee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee 1991-1994 aiaeu : ioeaiee e i?iaiicu. *enei
iiauo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia – ?aaeiiaeueiuo (inouanoaeytho i?aeoe/anee ana
eiiia?/aneea iia?aoeee), io?aneaauo (noeioee?otho ?acaeoea i?aaei?eyoee
niioaaonoaothueo io?aneae), eiiia?aoeaiuo (i?iecaiaeyo eiiieaeniia
ianeoaeeaaiea eiiia?aoeaia), eiiiaaoeeiiiuo (e?aaeeootho cao?aou ii
aiaae?aieth a i?iecaiaenoai oaoie/aneeo iiaoanoa) – i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe.
Ii i?iaiicai niaoeeaeenoia, iiyaeaiea eiiia?/aneeo aaieia i?eaaaeao e
nicaeaieth a ?innee aeaooo?iaiaaie aaieianeie nenoaiu – Oeaio?aeueiue
aaie e eiiia?/aneea aaiee. A 1991 aiaeo aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay nenoaia
auaoaai NNN? iaoiaeeeanue a oyaeaeii ninoiyiee, iaoi?aaeyaiua aeaiaaeiay
e e?aaeeoiay yiennee i?eaaee e aeaeueiaeoaio ?ane?o/eaaieth
eioeyoeeiiiie nie?aee. Ana yoi i?ienoiaeeei ia oiia iauae iieeoe/aneie e
yeiiiie/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe : niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ac?ooaiey
nithciuo no?oeoo? e, eae neaaenoaea, ia?ooaiey oeaeinoiinoe
oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, ?ac?uaa naycae. Iaeiaei, a oneiaeyo a oneiaeyo
neiaeiiai oeiainiaiai e yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey no?aiu a oeaeii e
aaieia a /anoiinoe, eiaaea ieiei /aoaa?oe anao iineianeeo aaieia i?eoee
e eiioeo 1991a. n aeaoeoeeoii aaeaina, niaieoiiay noiia aaeainia
ioa/anoaaiiuo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia aia?aua i?aauneea 1 o?ei.?oaeae. Iauai
iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia, ia?acoaiuo ca n/ao aaieianeie i?eauee, aeinoea
10 ie?ae.?oa., a niaieoiiue onoaaiie eaieoae au?in aei 39,4 ie?ae,?oa.
Aaiee – iaeaaeaoaee eeoeaicee ia inouanoaeaiea e?aaeeoiuo e ?an/aoiuo
iia?aoeee a eiino?aiiie aaethoa – oaaee/eee ca aiae ?acia?u aaethoiuo
e?aaeeoia aieaa /ai a 7 ?ac, aeiaaaey aei 2 ie?ae.?oaeae. Iaeiaei,
?aceee ?ino anao iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo aeeiaieeo ?acaeoey
aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo iia?aoeee aaieia, noae aiciiaeai aeaaiaea?y
aani?aoeaaeaioiie eioeyoeee. Iauay /eneaiiinoue aaieia ia oa??eoi?ee
auaoaai NNN? aeinoeaea e 1 yiaa?y 1992a. 1616 (oieueei a Iineaa
ooieoeeiie?oao 460 eiiia?/aneeo aaieia). Aeeaaeu ianaeaiey a aaeainao
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ninoaaeee 1,6 ie?ae.?oa. /Aeaeiaie ie?,1992a.17 yia.
n.5./. Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa inoathony n?i/iua
aeaiiceou e aeeaaeu aei aino?aaiaaiey i?aaei?eyoee e eiiia?aoeaia. Iauai
n?aaenoa, i?eaea/aiiuo io eiiia?aoeaia, aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, iaeuo e
niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, oaaee/eeny ca i?ioeue aiae ao?ia.

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?innee a 1992
a. N?aaee yoeo iai?aaeaiee i?aaeaea anaai iacuaathony: nicaeaiea iiaie
nenoaiu ?an/aoia iaaeaeo auaoeie ?anioaeeeaie NNN? a oi?ia
ei??aniiiaeaioneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie;
oi?ie?iaaiea iaae?anioaeeeaineiai aaieianeiai nithca; ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu
aioo?aiiaai aeieaa auaoaai NNN?; nicaeaiea oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia a
Oaoa?noaia, Aaoee?ee, sseooee, Oaeio?oee; o?aaoee?iaaiea acaeiiioiioaiee
OeA? n Ieienoa?noaii yeiiiieee, niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aeoeee o/aoa
aeioiaeia e ii?yaeea ?anoiaeiaaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa, nicaeaiea aeey
Ieioeia aaeeiiai ianneaiiai n/aoa.

Acaeiiioiioaiey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia n Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii ?innee.
Yooaeoeaiinoue aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe a eiia/iii n/aoa ii?aaeaeyaony
oie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeeie, eioi?oth i?iaiaeyo aaiee enoiaey ec
aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo i?aaeiinueie. A ea/anoaa aaia?aeueiie eaeae aeaiiie
iieeoeee auea eeiey ia ia?aie/aiea e?aaeeoiaaiey. AEanoeay
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea OeA? aucuaaao iaaaoeaioth ?aaeoeeth ni
noi?iiu eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony ?anii?yaeaiee OeA?,
naeaeaiiuo a ia/aea 1992 a. ?a/ue eaeao, i?aaeaea anaai, ia ia?aie/aiee
eniieueciaaiey eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e?aaeeoiuo
?ano?nia, a eiaiii i nieaeaiee ianooaaia aaciaee/iie e?aaeeoiie
yiennee. A niioaaonoaee n yoei aeieoiaioii, eiiia?/aneea aaiee niiaoo
iieueciaaoueny oeaio?aeeciaaiiuie e?aaeeoaie OeA? oieueei a neo/aa eo
iaania/aiey caeiaii a aeaea aaenaeae, iaeeaaoeee aincaeia, iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae. Oeiaine?iaaiea iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee ioiuia cai?auaii.
Aaiaeyony oo?aoiua naieoeee: a neo/aa aeaoeoeeoa aaeaina aaiee aoaeoo
ieaoeoue ia 25% aiaeiauo, a a aeaa ?aca aieueoa. Anee aea eiiia?/aneiio
aaieo ia oaeanony aa?iooue oeaio?aeeciaaiiue e?aaeeo a n?ie, i?ioeaioiay
noaaea aoaeao onoaiaaeeaaoueny eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, ii ia ieaea
iyoeaeanyoe i?ioeaioia. E?iia oiai, anee eioeyoeeiiiua i?ioeannu
oneeyony, OeA? ia eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoe oaeanoi/aiey naiae iieeoeee.
Ii iiaieth niaoeeaeenoia eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, oeaeueth iineaaeiaai
iinoaiiaeaiey yaeyaony ia?aie/aiea iai?ioa e aaciaee/iiai eaieoaea,
iauaia e?aaeeoiaaiey a no?aia. Aianoa n oai ?ano?eeoeeiiiay e?aaeeoiay
iieeoeea a ea/anoaa aioeeioeyoeeiiiie ia?u iaecaaaeii aeieaeia
ieacaoue iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia aeaeiaoth aeoeaiinoue e ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoio oaeo oi?ioi ecaanoai a ie?iaie aaieianeie i?aeoeea,
aicieeathuee i?e yoii iaoaieci oi?iiaeaiey aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe
enneaaeiaai a iaoe?iie eeoa?aoo?a. Aeaeueiaeoaa ia?anoaiea e?eceniuo
yaeaiee a i?iecaiaenoaa, aai nie?auaiea – neeoeii aei?iaay oeaia
aioeeioeyoeeiiiuo ia?, i?iaiaeeiuo a oneiaeyo aeanoaaeeecaoeee
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. A yoii ninoieo iniiaiia i?ioeai?a/ea e?aaeeoiie
iieeoeee ia aeaiiii yoaia ia?aoiaea e ?uieo.

Ae?oaia ?anii?yaeaiea OeA? i 20-i?ioeaioiii ?aca?ae?iaaiee eaieoaeia a
oeaio?aeueiii aaiea oaeaea aucaaei iaaaoeaioth ?aaeoeeth ni noi?iiu
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, oae eae aeey iaeioi?uo ec ieo yoi i/aiue aunieay
ii?ia ?aca?aa. Iaeaunoay noaaea ?aca?aia ai anai ie?a ia i?aauoaao 7-15
% . A yoeo oneiaeyo e?aaeeoiaaiea eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee noaiiaeony
i?inoi iaauaiaeiui. Eiaiii iiyoiio e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou, auaeaiiua a
1991 aiaeo, ninoaaeee aieaa 70 % io iauae noiiu e?aaeeoiuo aeiaeaiee. /
Aeaeiaie ie?, 1992 aiae, 18 oaa?aey, no?. 5 / N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?acei
nie?aoeeinue eiee/anoai cai?aoeaaaiuo e?aaeeoia ia eaieoaeueiia
no?ieoaeuenoai : i?e o?iaia i?ioeaioiuo noaaie 30-40 % i?aaei?eyoey ia
caeioa?aniaaiu nicaeaaaoue iiaua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe. Ii iiaieth
?yaea yeiiiienoia, OeA? eniieuecoao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaa ?u/aaa
aicaeaenoaey ia aeaiaaeioth ianno : o/aoioth noaaeo e ii?io ?aca?aa.
Ia?aay aaaeao e ?inoo oeaiu e?aaeeoa, e ii noaiiaeony iaiineeueiui aeey
iniiaiie iannu i?aaei?eyoee, nie?auaaony iauai e?aaeeoiie yiennee.
Aoi?ay – i?inoi ecuiaao eaeea-oi n?aaenoaa ec iai?ioa, e, ii ?an/aoai
niaoeeaeenoia OeA?, iaeei ecuyoue ?oaeue nieaeaao iauai aeaiaaeiie iannu
ia 3 ?oaey. Yoe ia?u i?iaiaeyony a ?aieao iineaaeiaaoaeueiie
iiiaoa?enoneie iieeoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo ei??aeoe?iaea
aeanoeie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee OeA?. I?aaeoaeuenoai e OeA? a
ai?aea 1992 a. i?eiyee niaianoiia niaeaoaiea “I ia?ao ii ii?iaeecaoeee
?an/aoia a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa ?O”. Iii auei aucaaii neiaeeaoaeny
neooaoeeae. Aeaoeoeeo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, aucaaiiue
?aceei nea/eii oeai ia nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, iai?oaeiaaiea e o.ae., a?icee
inoaiiaeie i?iecaiaenoaa. Noiia iaieaoaaeae ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee a
oaa?aea 1992 a. ninoaaeyea ieiei 140 ie?ae. ?oa., a a ai?aea – nauoa
800. Ionoonoaea n?aaenoa o i?aaei?eyoee canoaaeei eo iianaianoii
ia?aoiaeeoue ia aa?oa?, i?e/ai aeaei aeioiaeeei aei oiai, /oi yoe
iia?aoeee aeaaea ia i?iaiaeeeenue ii n/aoai i?aaei?eyoee. I?aaeoaeuenoaa
e OeA? i?eiyee ?aoaiea i auaeaeaiee 200 ie?ae. ?oa. e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia
eiiia?/aneei aaieai aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey eie ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
i?ei?eoaoiuo io?aneae oicyenoaa e iieaou aeoeaioiaaiiuo eie n/aoia ca
nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, eiiieaeoothuea, ia caaa?oaiea no?ieoaeuenoaa
iauaeoia n aunieie noaiaiueth aioiaiinoe. ?acia?u e?aaeeoia naeueneiio
oicyenoao ninoaayo aei 70 ie?ae. ?oa., i?iiuoeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi –
aei 50, ia eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?ia?aiiu – aei 70, i?i/ei io?aneyi – aei 10
ie?ae. ?oa. Ii ioiioaieth e o?iaith oeai oaaee/aiea aeaiaaeiie iannu ia
200 ie?ae. ?oa., o.a. ia 16% io nouanoaothuaai iauaia ?oaeaaie iannu a
ia?auaiee, a iauai-oi ia oae no?aoii n oi/ee c?aiey eioeyoeee. Aieueoie
a?aae i?eianei au ionoonoaea eaeeo-eeai ?aoaiee aiiaua, /?aaaoia
oeaii/eie aaie?ionoa i?aaei?eyoee e aaieia, nieaeaieai iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa e, niioaaonoaaiii, ?inoii oeai, /oi i?eaaei au e aua
aieueoae eioeyoeee. E niaeaeaieth, yoa aeaiaaeiay eiuaeoeey ia ?aoeo
i?iaeai anao aac eneeth/aiey i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua i?inyo 800 ie?ae.
?oa. / “Yeiiiieea e aecian”, Eaiaaa no?. 273-275 /

N?aaeiaiany/iue ?ino oeai ninoaaee a 1993 a. 20-25 %, eee 900-1000 % a
aiaeiaii en/eneaiee. Noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey OeA? i?aauneea 220 %.
I?in?i/aiiay caaeieaeaiiinoue iieoiaoaeae i?aaei?eyoeyi i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
no?ieoaeuenoaa a naioya?a ninoaaeea 180% e iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa.
“Oeiainiaay noaaeeecaoeey”, aueeaoayny a oioaeueioth
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoee e ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa
(aeieae i?aaei?eyoeyi AIE, aa?a?eyi, athaeaeaoieeai, iaooyieeai,
naaa?yiai, oaieueueeai e o.i.), i?eoea a ino?ia i?ioeai?a/ea n
o?aaiaaieyie nio?aiaiey e oicyenoaaiiie, e nioeeaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe a
no?aia. ?aaeueiue iauai aeaiaaeiie iannu a oa/aiea 1992 a. oiaiueoeeny
aei 35%, a n o/aoii iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e “naeaoey” aioo?aiiaai ?uiea
– aei 45% io enoiaeiiai o?iaiy a yiaa?a 1991 a. Eioeyoeey ni?ina a
/enoii aeaea ionoonoaiaaea aei oaa?aey 1992 a. Oaii i?e?inoa ?aaeueiie
eiaeaene?iaaiiie aeaiaaeiie yiennee aue io?eoeaoaeueiui. Yoi
i?aaeii?aaeaeeei ?aceia oneeaiea niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa. N iay ii iiya?ue
1992 a. a ?acoeueoaoa ?ac?aoaiey e?ecena iaieaoaaeae ianuuaiiinoue ?uiea
aeaiaaeiie iannu oaaee/eeanue aei 60%, neaaenoaeai /aai auei
nouanoaaiiia caiaaeeaiea niaaea inaiueth – ceiie 1992-1993 aa. Iaeiaei
i?eiyoua aeaoeyoeeiiiua ia?u i?eaaee e oiio, /oi o?iaaiue ianuuaiey
?uiea aeaiaaeiie iannie oiae aei 30%, /oi aiiaue yaeeinue i?e/eiie
ieaoaaeiiai e?ecena e iiaiai niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa. I?aaei?eyoey
inoaiiaeeenue ec-ca iaieaoaaeae ei, e a /anoiinoe, ec-ca
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe ainoaea?noaa, ia ?ann/eoaaoaainy ca auiieiaiiua
aincaeacu. Iaeiaei i?aeoeeoaiua naaiaeiy ia?u ?ac?aoaiey e?ecena iooai
i?eioaeeoaeueiiai aaaaeaiey aaenaeueiiai iai?ioa, aaie?ionoaa
i?aaei?eyoee- aeieaeieeia e eaieoaeecaoeey aeieaia aaaeoo eeoue e
niaia oeooeia aeieaeieeia, a ia e ecaeeaaieth iaieaoaaeae a oicyenoaa.
Io?anee oicyenoaa, iiieii nu?ueaauo, ia auaea?aeeaatho eiieo?aioeee n
ca?oaaaeiuie oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie e auioaeaeaiu naa?ouaaoue eee
i?ae?auaoue i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aaieianeay nenoaia
aeieaeia ?aoaoue caaea/o: ai-ia?auo, ainnoaiiaeoue oi?aaeyaiinoue
yeiiiieeie ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa; ai-aoi?uo, nicaeaoue e ?aaeeciaaoue
/aoeee iaoaieci aeieain?i/iiai aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa; a-o?aoueeo, onei?eoue
?acaeoea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee ai anao naeoi?ao yeiiiieee. Iinoaaeaiiui
oeaeyi niioaaonoaoao ia aeaooo?iaiaaay (oeaio?iaaie – eiiia?/aneea
aaiee), a o?aoo?iaiaaay aaieianeay nenoaia, ninoiyuay ec oeaio?aeueiiai
yienneiiiiai aaiea, iiaeaea?aeeaathuaai oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeioth
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue yeiiiieee e o?iaie oeai; aaieia aeieain?i/iuo
aeiaeaiee ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, iaania/eaathueo oi?ie?iaaiea
iniiaiuo eaieoaeia oicyenoaa; e eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, inouanoaeythueo
aanue niaeo? e?aoein?i/iuo aaieianeeo iia?aoeee n i?aaei?eyoeyie e
/anoiuie eeoeaie. A ia?eiae e?ecena iaiaoiaeeiu i?yiua iaoiaeu
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu. E iei ioiinyony :
i?yiia e iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea e?aaeeoiie
yienneae, eiio?ieue ca iaee/iiaeaiaaeiui iai?ioii; ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea oeai e aeioiaeia; ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiae
oi?aiaee. ainoaea?noai aeieaeii aeanoei eiio?iee?iaaoue e noeioee?iaaoue
eniieueciaaiea e?aaeeoia ii i?ei?eoaoiui iai?aaeaieyi :
i?iaeiaieuenoaea, aaaeiaeoea iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u, aeeeuea,
yia?aaoeea e o.i. I?aaei?eyoeyi aeieaeii noaoue iaauaiaeiui i?eaeaeaoue
e?aoein?i/iua aaieianeea e?aaeeou aeey oeiainiauo i?i?uaia e
iaeeeaeaeiuo aeiaeaiee. Noeioee?iaaiea aea aeieain?i/iuo aeiaeaiee
aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey nnoae iiae eueaioiua
i?ioeaiou, iaeiaiauo eueaio, noaaeeecaoeee eo?no ?oaey. E oa, e ae?oaay
caaea/e iiaoo ?aoaoueny i?e oaeie i?aaiecaoeee aaieianeiai aeaea, eiaaea
oeiaine?othuee aaie ia i?inoi auaeaeyao n?aaenoaa, a eiio?iee?oao
i?aaiia?iinoue iieaou eaaeaeiai n/aoa eeeaioa.

Eciaiaiey a aaieianeie nenoaia aeieaeiu i?ienoiaeeoue iinoaiaiii,
yaiethoeeiiiui iooai, aace?oynue ia /aoeeo i?ia?aiiao e ieaiao. A yoie
nayce iaioeiaeiuie i?aaenoaaeythony neaaeothuea caaea/e : ai-ia?auo,
ninoaaeaiea aaeaina ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina a oicyenoaa ai anae aai
niaieoiiinoe e niiinoaaeaiea n ?ano?naie, iie?uaathueie yoio ni?in, e
ai-aoi?uo, ?ac?aaioea aaeaina aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa no?aiu, aeeth/athuaai
ii?aaeaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiie iannu aeaiaa (a iaee/iie e aaciaee/iie oi?iao)
eae yeiiiie/aneie a?aieoeu e?aaeeoa. Ieaoaaeiue e?ecen – yoi e?ecen,
naycaiiue n oo?aoie iai?ioiiai e iniiaiiai eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoee. Aeey
i?aaeioa?auaiey oioaeueiie inoaiiaee i?iecaiaenoaa neaaeoao
iiaeaioiaeoue e inouanoaeoue niaoeeaeueioth i?ia?aiio onei?aiey
aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa : niioaaonoaothuea eciaiaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiie
no?oeoo?u aaieia n iiauoaieai naiinoiyoaeueiinoe eiiia?/aneeo aaieia,
i?iaaaeaiea aeinoaoi/iie e?aaeeoiie yiennee aeey eeeaeaeaoeee acaeiiie
caaeieaeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e eiaeaenaoeee eo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia.
Iaeiia?aiaiii neaaeoao inouanoaeoue aioeeioeyoeeiiiua ia?u, eniieuecoy
aeey yoiai n?i/iua aeeaaeu aeey aieueoeo aeaiaaeiuo iaeiieaiee,
aiaea/aiea a aeaiaaeiue iai?io ia o?iaia oiiaeiauo ?uieia aeieaiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa i?aaei?eyoee, ?acaeoea caeiaiaiai (aeoeee) e?aaeeoiaaiey,
aeoeaiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oaeouae eiiuthieoo?u e aa oaeoi?ia, a oii /enea
oeai e aeioiaeia (a /anoiinoe, iooai nicaeaiey ea?oaeae, neiaeeeaoia e
o.i., aeaenoaothueo yooaeoeaii a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae).

A iniiao ?aoi?iu aeieaeia auoue iieiaeaia iauaainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea
no?oeoo?iiai i?aia?aciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu.
Aeaaiay aa aaca – nicaeaiea ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u eiaanoe?iaaiey. N
oeaeueth i?aiaeieaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai e?ecena iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaiea
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii – e?oiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo no?oeoo? n
iainiaeaieai oeiainiai-eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ooieoeee, iaania/eaathueo
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa a ?aieao ioaeaeueiuo naeoi?ia
yeiiiieee, a oaeaea yooaeoeaioth aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo. E
caeanue ainoaea?noai aeieaeii aeoeaii aunooiaoue eae noauaeo ?uiea,
nicaeaaay naie ?uii/iua no?oeoo?u eee ?uii/iua eiio?aeou. Oae, aincaeac
aeieaeai eiaoue naie ae?aee, naith ?uii/ioth eio?ano?oeoo?o e
ainoaea?noaaiii-eiiia?/aneia no?aoiaaiea.

Aeey auoiaea ec e?ecena iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeoue ?yae ia?aii/a?aaeiuo
ia?. Ia?aia. I?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?a i
nicaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaiea NIA n oaie auaoeie ?anioaeeeaie NNN?,
eioi?ua aioiau inoaoueny a “ciia ?oaey”. *oi eanaaony ae?oaeo auaoeo
niaaoneeo ?anioaeee, oi ei aeieaeii auoue i?aaeeiaeaii ia?aciaaoue
ieaoaaeiue nithc ia i?eioeeiao “aaethoiie ei?ceiu”. Iinea
iacaiaaeeeoaeueiiai nicaeaiey iacaaiiuo oeiainiaiaaethoiuo einoeoooia
ioiioaiey ni anaie eiuie ainoaea?noaaie neaaeoao no?ieoue ia iniiaa
ie?iauo oeai e naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethou. “?oaeaaay ciia”
aeieaeia auoue iaaeaaeii caueuaia io aeaiaaeiuo e eiuo eioa?aaioeee. A
ia?eiae e?ecena Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iaaeeaaeeo iaaeaeeoue iieiiii/eyie
?aaoee?iaaoue ana aaethoiua ioiioaiey, aeeth/ay i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aaaaeaiea i?eioaeeoaeueiiai eo?na ?oaey e ae?oaei aaethoai e
onoaiiaeaiea ?aaeeia aaica e auaica aaetho, eaieoaeia e i?eaueae. A
oa/aiea e?eceniiai ia?eiaea aaaeii oaeaea i?iaiaeeoue ?aoeeiiaeueioth
ainoaea?noaaiioth iieeoeeo caueou aioo?aiiaai ?uiea e no?iaiai eiio?iey
/anoiie yenii?oiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ana yenii?oiua iia?aoeee noieo
inouanoaeyoue /a?ac iaiiiaea e?oiiua oe?iu e neiaeeeaou, eiio?iee?oaiua
ainoaea?noaii e iieo/athuea niioaaonoaothuea eiienneiiiua. Aoi?ia. Iaaei
iaania/eoue a aeinoaoea i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. Aeey iaeaaeeaaiey
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai aeaea a no?aia o?aaoaony ieacaoue
ainoaea?noaaiioth oeiainiaoth iiiiuue naeueneioicyenoaaiiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi anao oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. O?aouea. Ainnicaeaiea
?ac?ooaiiiai ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai iiey.
Eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a ia?iaeiia oicyenoai ca iieoi?a aiaea nie?aoeeenue
aaeaia, a aaiae a aeaenoaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia – e oiai aieaa.
Aeaaea a ia?aue aiae Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu eiaanoeoeeiiiue na?in aue
iaiueoei, ii ia aeinoea o?aoe. Ianeieueei eao e?oiiiianooaaiiai
iaaeaiey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ia iiaeao auaea?aeaoue ie iaeia yeiiiieea.
I?eeaeaony i?aaeaea anaai ainnoaiiaeoue ia aaieianeeo n/aoao
i?aaei?eyoee iooai eiaeaene?iaaiey oo?a/aiiua (ec-ca ?aceiai ?inoa oeai
e iaanoeaiaiey ?oaey) noiiu aii?oecaoeee e nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa (aeaiaaeiuo). Oieueei auno?ue ?ino auionea i?iaeoeoeee e noaei
auoue o?iaiy aeecie ethaeae, oe?iuaao eioeyoeeth. Iaeiia?aiaiii
iaycaoaeueii nicaeaiea naoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo, aeoeeiia?iuo e
eiiia?aoeaiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo aaieia. Iie i?ecaaiu i?aaieciaaoue ia
eiiia?/aneie iniiaa aanue eiaanoeoeeiiii-oeiainiaue iai?io: naea/o
i?aaei?eyoee a a?aiaeo, iieoieo e i?iaeaaeo aeoeee, auaea/o
aeieain?i/iuo nnoae, a oii /enea iiae caeia eiouanoaa. Nenoaia oaeeo
aaieia nicaeaea au iaaeaaeiue ooiaeaiaio aeey oi?aaeaiey ia?aoiaeii e
?uieo a ?aieao iauaainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu. Eaeouay aea iuia noeoeeiay
ia?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey iaeiicia/ii oaeoaeo e?ecen e aeaci?aaiecoao
oicyenoai. Eiaanoeoeeiiiua aaiee iiaee au noaoue e yooaeoeaiuie
i?aaiecaoi?aie anaai i?ioeanna i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. I?e yoii iie aunooiatho ia/aeueiuie aea?aeaoaeyie aeoeee,
iineieueeo i?eaaoecaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioiioaiea (eoiey-i?iaeaaea)
iaaeaeo oicyenoaaiiuie noauaeoaie: aaieaie e eaaeaeui ec aoaeoueo
eieeaeoeaiuo eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia. *aoaa?oia. Ii?a
iaeaaeeoue niaaaeai/anei-nauoiaua nayce iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie. Eo
oicyenoaaiiua nayce a ?uii/iii ?aaeeia iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiu, anee eaeoo
a iniiaiii /a?ac nenoaio e?oiiuo “iioiauo eoioeia” – neiaeeeaoia. Iyoia.
Iaiaoiaeei i?inoie e yniue iaoaieci iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aeioiaeia e
eaieoaeia. Aianoi aieaa 50 nouanoaothueo oaaea?aeueiuo e ianoiuo
iaeiaia neaaeoao inoaaeoue o?e-/aou?a oaaea?aeueiuo n aeanoeeie
ii?iaoeaaie io/eneaiee io ieo a ianoiue iaoeeiiaeueiue athaeaeao.
Oanoia. Ia a?aiy e?ecena iaiaoiaeeii oeaio?aeeciaaoue aaieianeoth
nenoaio ?innee, eiay a aeaeo iaycaoaeueiia eniieiaiea eiiia?/aneeie e
eiaanoeoeeiiiuie aaieaie aee?aeoea Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ii
i?ei?eoaoiinoe e eueaioiinoe e?aaeeoiaaiey ?aaeiiia, io?aneae,
i?aaei?eyoee, niaethaeaieth ii?iaoeaiuo n?ieia aeieoiaioiiai?ioa.
I?eiaiyoue a neo/aa ia?ooaiey aeanoeea naieoeee aieioue aei
eeeaeaeaoeee niioaaonoaothueo aaieianeeo no?oeoo?. Naaeueiia.
Yooaeoeaiui noaei au anaia?iia ?acaeoea iio?aaeoaeueneie eiiia?aoeee.
/”Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay nenoaia ?innee : ninoiyiea e iooe auoiaea ec
e?ecena”, A.Ia?eaioo?ia (aeieeaae Einoeoooa i?iaeai ?uiea ?AI), Aeaiueae
e e?aaeeo, oaa?aeue 1994 aiaea, no?. 3-6 /

I?iaiaeeiay a 1992-1993 aiaeao e?aaeeoiay ?ano?eeoeey ia i?eianea
aeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia. *oi aea iiaeao noaoue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
aeueoa?iaoeaie aeanoeie e?aaeeoiie ?ano?eeoeee ?

Ea/anoaaiii eiie oa?aeoa? e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea i?eia?aoaao i?e
i?iaaaeaiee i?eaaoecaoeee a oe?ieeo ianooaaao, aieaa oe?ieii
aeoeeiie?iaaiee oicyenoaaiiie e aaieianeie noa?. Anee oioy au /aoaa?oue
iauaia iniiaiuo oiiaeia, ninoaaeythuaai (ca au/aoii eciina) ieiei 2
o?ei. ?oa., iinooieo ia ?uiie, oi ?acia? oiaa?iiai iie?uoey
cia/eoaeueii i?aacieaeao naiua niaeua ioeaiee eceeoiaai
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina a iaee/iie e aaciaee/iie oi?iao. A yoii neo/aa
iieeoeea naea?aeeaaiey ?inoa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeia nnoae aeieaeia
nii?iaiaeaeaoueny e?aaeeoiie yeniaineae ia oeaee aueoia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa. Aaaeue iiyaeaiea a ia?auaiee cia/eoaeueiuo
iauaiia iiauo oiaa?iuo iann, i?aauoathueo eiathueeny ieaoaaeaniiniaiue
ni?in, o?aaoao auionea a ia?auaiea ia iniiaa e?aaeeoa aeiiieieoaeueiuo
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a iaee/iie e aaciaee/iie oi?iao. Eioeyoeey
naea?aeeaaaony oiaa?iui ianuuaieai ?uiea, ?anoe?aiea e?aaeeoia (ia ia
iie?uoea ?anoiaeia e aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa, a ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae) niinianoaoao ?inoo aeaeiaie
aeoeaiinoe. I?e yoii oeiainiaia icaei?iaeaiea oicyenoaa, nieaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa iaania/eaathony ia ca n/ao ia? ?ano?eeoeee, a
ia iniiaa iai?aaeaiey cia/eoaeueiie /anoe n?aaenoa io aueoia ia
iiaaoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. Aaieianeea e?aaeeou athaeaeaoo, ia
eiathuea eiia/iuo enoi/ieeia iiaaoaiey, o?ainoi?ie?othony a e?aaeeou ia
aueoi oiiaeia n ?aaeueiuie ia?niaeoeaaie aica?aoa ca n/ao aeioiaeia io
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A oeaeii ?acia? e?aaeeoa ia
nie?auaaony, a i?eia?aoaao iieacioth i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth (a ia
athaeaeaoioth) oi?io, aoyaeaaao ee/iua aeioiaeu ianaeaiey (/a?ac
iaoaieci iiaaoaiey nnoaeu) a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua cao?aou. I?aaeii/oaiea
a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaiaoiaeeii ioaeaoue ?ano?eeoeee o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
aeaeia nnoae i?e e?aaeeoiie yeniainee ia oeaee i?eaaoecaoeee.
Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi aeanoeay ?ano?eeoeeiiiay iieeoeea,
i?iaiaeeiay a iaeaoa noaaeeecaoeeiiiuo ia?, ?acei ineaaeyao
aiciiaeiinoe aeey iineaaeothuae i?eaaoecaoeee oicyenoaa. Ecuyoea /anoe
aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoee e ianaeaiey /a?ac iaeiae, /a?ac ia?u
aeanoeie aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu ?aaeueii nie?auaao aeaiaaeiua iaeiieaiey,
eioi?ua iiaee au noaoue iniiaie aueoia ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa e
iiaaoaiey ca n/ao yoiai cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa.
Aeaaea i?e iauae ?ano?eeoeeiiiie nouiinoe e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee aaaeiui
aii?inii inoaaony auai? iai?aaeaiiinoe e aeeiaieee e?aaeeoiuo aeiaeaiee
ii ioaeaeueiui naeoi?ai yeiiiieee. O?aaeeoeeiiiua iae?iyeiiiie/aneea
iiaeaee i?e aiaeeca acaeiiioiioaiee aaiea e aai eiio?aaaioia oneiaii
auaeaeytho /aou?a e?oiiuo naeoi?a : oicyenoai (oaeouay e eiaanoeoeeiiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue), athaeaeao, ianaeaiea e aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay n?aaea.

I/aaeaeii, /oi e?aaeeoiay ?ano?eeoeey ia iiaeao ?ani?aaeaeyoueny
?aaiiia?ii iaaeaeo yoeie naeoi?aie yeiiiieee. Nie?auaiea e?aaeeoiaaiey
iio?aaeoaeueneeo ioaeae ianaeaiey a oneiaeyo ?anoouaai i?aauoaiey
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina iaae oiaa?iui iie?uoeai yaeyaony anoanoaaiiie
ia?ie. Nouanoaaiiia nie?auaiea e?aaeeoiaaiey aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoia
(?anioaeeeaineiai e ianoiiai) anoue iaiaoiaeeiay i?aaeiinueea
oeiainiaiai icaei?iaeaiey. Aaaeue eiaiii yoio aeae nnoae a 1985-1990 aa.
noae iniiaiui enoi/ieeii iinooieaiey eceeoieo aeaiaa a iai?io. Eiia
aeaei iai?aaeaiiinoue e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee ii ioiioaieth e oicyenoao.
Anee e naeaoeth aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea, aucaaiiiio ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia iaaeaeo athaeaeaoii e oicyenoaii, aoaeao aeiaaaeaia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiay e?aaeeoiay ?ano?eeoeey a ioiioaiee ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa, oi yooaeo oi?iiaeaiey aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe iiaeao aic?anoe
aaeaieia. Iiyoiio i?aaeeaaaaony aeanoei naea?aeeaaoue e?aaeeou,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi, e a oi aea a?aiy
iaania/eaaoue aa?aioe?iaaiiua iauaiu e ?ino e?aaeeoia /anoiiio naeoi?o
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aai ?acaeoeth.

Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo nouanoaaiiuie yaeythony i?iaiice?iaaiea i?eiyouo
?aoaiee, aeoaieee aiaeec eo iiiaoa?iuo iineaaenoaee aeey aeaiaaeiiai
iai?ioa. Caeanue aieueooth iiiiuue iiaeao ieacaoue ananoi?iiiaa
ianoaeaeaiea i?iaeai aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee.

PAGE

No?. PAGE 29

No?. PAGE 1

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019