Значение бухгалтерского учета в реализации сельхоз продукции и финансовых результатов деятельности сельскохоз предприятий

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AAAAeAIEA.

Ia ?acaeoea e yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo ia?iiiia aeeyiea ieacuaatho ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee e
iieo/aaiua i?e yoii oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou. I?ioeann ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, ecaioiaeaiiie i?aaei?eyoeai, yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei a aai
aeayoaeueiinoe, oae eae caaa?oay iai?io n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey, ii
iicaieyao aicianoeoue cao?aou e auiieieoue iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae
athaeaeaoii ii iaeiaiaui ieaoaaeai, aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie,
o/?aaeaeaieyie aaieia ii iieo/aiiui e?aaeeoai, iinoaaueeaie e
e?aaeeoi?aie, ii iieaoa o?oaea /eaiia eieeaeoeaa e ae?oaeie
e?aaeeoi?aie.

Anee ia iaania/ai naiaa?aiaiiue e auaiaeiue nauo , oi i/aiue neiaeii, a
/anoi e iaaiciiaeii ?anoe?youe i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee. Enoiaey ec
yoiai, a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo cia/eoaeueii oneeaii cia/aiea
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia
aeayoaeueiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

I?iaiaeeiay a naeueneii oicyenoaa yeiiiie/aneay ?aoi?ia nouanoaaiii
iiaeeyea ia oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.
Yoi ii?aaeaeyaony eioeyoeeae e aeenia?eoaoii oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth,
iio?aaeyaioth e ?aaeecoaioth naeueneei oicyenoaii.[ 20 ] Iiyoiio iaeiei
ec aaaeiuo iai?aaeaiee ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a
neiaeeaoeony oneiaeyo yaeyaony iinoaaea aa aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae.
A oeaeyo oi?ie?iaaiey oaaea?aeueiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo oiiaeia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, nu?uey e i?iaeiaieuenoaey aaaaeai a
aeaenoaea. Oaaea?aeueiue caeii io 14 ethey 1997 aiaea ? 100-OC «I
ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa»,eioi?ue
onoaiaaeeaaao i?aaiaua iniiau yeiiiie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaa
ia aa?ii?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai [ 1 ].

Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu nouanoaaiii eciaieeenue eae i?aaiaua ii?iu,
?aaoee?othuea ioiioaiey ii ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, oae e naie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu yoeo ioiioaiee.
Oae ,n?aaee oi?i ?aaeecaoeee a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ana aieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea iaoiaeyo aa?oa?iua naeaeee e ?icie/iay eoiey-i?iaeaaea.
N?aaee iiauo, ?aiaa iaaaaeiiuo iai oi?i ?aaeecaoeee neaaeoao iacaaoue
naeaeee ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, caeeth/aiiua ia oiaa?ii-nu?ueaauo
ae?aeao. Ii ae?aeaaay oi?aiaey aeaeaao a ?innee eeoue ia?aua oaae [ 15
].

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ?acei iaino?eeanue i?iaeaia iieo/aiey i?eauee io
?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, eaeao ?aoaiea aii?inia i
?anoe?aiee ?uieia nauoa. Ana yoe i?iaeaiu yaeeenue iniiaaieai aeey
auai?a oaiu aeaiiie aeeieiiiie ?aaiou.

Oeaeueth ?aaiou yaeyaony eco/aiea yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoey, ioeaiea ninoiyiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia o/anoea
«?aaeecaoeey», ?ac?aaioea iooae oeo/oaiey i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa.

Enoiaeiuie aeaiiuie aeey iaienaiey yaeeenue: ia?ae/iua e naiaeiua
aeieoiaiou ii o/aoo ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
aiaeiaua io/aou (1993-1997 a.a.), ieaiu yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai
?acaeoey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey (1993-1997 a.a.),
aecian-ieaiu ?acaeoey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey (1996-1997
a.a.), eeoa?aoo?iua e ni?aai/iua enoi/ieee, noaouee e eiiiaioa?ee
?inneeneeo yeiiiienoia, iioaeeeiaaiiua a ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe.

I?e iaienaiee aeeieiiiie ?aaiou eniieueciaaeenue neaaeothuea iaoiaeu:
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneee, iiiia?aoe/aneee, oaaee/iue, iaoiae n?aaiaiey.

OAI?AOE*ANEEA I?IAEAIU O*AOA ?AAEECAOeEE I?IAeOEOeEE.

Naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey iniiaioth ianno i?iecaaaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee ?aaeecotho. Iie ?aaeecotho oaeaea auiieiaiiua ia noi?iio
oneoae e ?aaiou naieo aniiiiaaoaeueiuo, ianeoaeeaathueo i?iecaiaenoa.

I?e ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu oeiainiaie noaaeeueiinoe, oeo/oaiey
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoee AIE aeaaiui yaeyaony nicaeaiea oneiaee
aeey aani?aiyonoaaiiiai auaiaeiiai nauoa i?iaeoeoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
«oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyi» a noa?a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
aa?aioe?oaony aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeiie ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, nu?uey e i?iaeiaieuenoaey. I?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe
noeioee?otho oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iie nenoaiu nauoa e ?aaeecaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, nu?uey e i?iaeiaieuenoaey a
niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii [ 1 ]. Iaeiaei,
onoaiaaeeaathony iauaiu iinoaaie e caeoiie e aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
ioaeae. I?aaeoaeuenoai onoaiaaeeaaao aa?aioe?iaaiiua caeoii/iua oeaiu
(no. 10 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia). Aeey aaaine?iaaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeae
aaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee ni no.6 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia ainoaea?noaaiiua
caeiaiaua iia?aoeee n naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae.

A i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee oi?ie?oaony eiia/iue oeiainiaue
?acoeueoao i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe – i?eaueue eee
oauoie. I?eaueue (oauoie) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) –
yoi iieiaeeoaeueiay (io?eoeaoaeueiay) ?acieoea iaaeaeo au?o/eie io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a aeaenoaothueo oeaiao aac IAeN e aeoeecia e
cao?aoaie ia aa i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth.

Ei?aiiay ia?ano?ieea yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a AIE iiaeaeea ca niaie
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. A «Iieiaeaiee i
ninoaaa cao?ao ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio,
oneoa), aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) e i
ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, o/eouaaaiuo i?e
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee», ooaa?aeaeaiiia iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa
?O io 5 aaaonoa 1992 a. ? 552 n o/aoii eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee,
oicyenoaothuei noauaeoai auei aeaii i?aai naiinoiyoaeueii onoaiaaeeaaoue
iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)
«ia aeeeoaeueiue n?ie (?yae eao) enoiaey ec oneiaee oicyenoaiaaiey e
caeeth/aaiuo aeiaiai?ia». Ioieo 13 Iieiaeaiey aeaneo: «Aeey oeaeae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)
ii?aaeaeyaony eeai ii ia?a aa iieaou (i?e aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoao – ii ia?a
iinooieaiey n?aaenoa ca oiaa?u (?aaiou, oneoae) ia n/aoa a o/?aaeaeaiey
aaieia, a i?e ?an/aoa iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie – ii iinooieaiee n?aaenoa a
eanno), eeai ii ia?a ioa?ocee oiaa?ia (auiieiaiey ?aaio e oneoa) e
i?aaeuyaeaiey iieoiaoaeth (caeac/eeo) ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia».[ 2 ] Eia/a
aiai?y, aeaiiui Iieiaeaieai /aoei ii?aaeaeaia no?oeoo?a ?anoiaeia e
aeioiaeia, eioi?ua nienuaathony ia oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou.

O/aiua e niaoeeaeenou aaaeoo nii?u ii iiaiaeo oeaeaniia?aciinoe auai?a
oiai eee eiiai aa?eaioa. Ia?aue aa?eaio i?eciaiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
ii ia?a iieaou ioa?oaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony o?aaeeoeeiiiui aeey
ioa/anoaaiiiai o/aoa. Ii /aua eniieuecoaony i?aaiecaoeeyie aua e iioiio,
/oi a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee e iaieaoaaeae eae au aa?aioe?oao oeiainiaoth
aiciiaeiinoue ?an/aoia n athaeaeaoii ii iaeiaai, iineieueeo aeaiueae io
iieoiaoaeae ca/eneaiu ia n/aoa i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeiaei A?aeiaa C.I. e
Ei/o?iaa E.E. [ 14 ] n/eoatho, /oi anee ioeaieaaoue au?o/eo ii ia?a
iinooieaiey ieaoaaeae, oi ioaeaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey ca/anooth ia niaoao
auiieieoue naie iaycaoaeuenoaa ii ioa?ocea oiaa?ia e ieacaieth oneoa,
noa?aynue ainiieueciaaoueny aeaiueaaie a naieo eioa?anao. A anee aia?aiy
ioa?oaeatho, oi eee ia oo i?iaeoeoeeth, eee ia a oii iauaia, eee ia oiai
ea/anoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa o iieoiaoaey ?anoao aeaaeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue, eioi?ay aiineaaenoaee aaaeao e oauoeai e
aicieeiiaaieth a?aeo?aaeiuo nii?ia.

Aaeaaieeiaa I.A. n/eoaao, /oi aiaoiee iieueciaaoaeue io/aoiinoe,
aiaeece?oy aaeain i?aaei?eyoey, i?eeacii ia o/aoiie iieeoeea eioi?iai
eca?ai niinia ii?aaeaeaiey oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa io ?aaeecaoeee ii
ia?a iinooieaiey io iieoiaoaeae iieaou, ia niiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue
oaeoe/aneoth noiio caaeieaeaiiinoe aeaaeoi?ia, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey
ioeaiee aai oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey [ 13 ].

A?iaeia O.I., naeaeaoaeuenoaoy a iieueco auai?a aoi?iai aa?eaioa o/aoa
?aaeecaoeee (ii ioa?ocea) ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ec-ca nieaeaiey ?acia?ia
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoea, i?eiaiythuaa aa?eaio o/aoa
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii iieaoa, aoaeao eiaoue (i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo
oneiaeyo) aieaa ieceea cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioa i?iiaaeooi/iiai iie?uoey e
eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe, /ai i?aaei?eyoea, i?eiaiythuaa
ae?oaie aa?eaio o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee. A ioeaiea oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoey i?e auai?a i?aaei?eyoey-ia?oia?a aeaaony ia iniiaa
auoaoiiiyioouo iieacaoaeae [ 12 ].

Iaeiaei, A?aeiaa C.I. e Ei/o?iaa E.E. n/eoatho, /oi i?e ioeaiea au?o/ee
ii ia?a ioa?ocee neooaoeey oneiaeiyaony oai, /oi oiaa? ioa?oaeai, a
aeaiueae ia ?an/aoiue n/ao ia iinooieee. Iieo/aaony, /oi i?aaei?eyoea
?aioaaaeueiia, ii ia ieaoaaeaniiniaiia. E oiio aea iii aua iaycaii
ieaoeoue iaith ca eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae [ 14 ].
Aeaeaei ia anaaaea e ia io anao aeaaeoi?ia caaeieaeaiiinoue auaaao
iieo/aia a iieiii iauaia. I?aaei?eyoea, a niioaaonoaee n Iieiaeaieai ii
aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?O, ooaa?aeaeaiiiai
i?eeacii Ieioeia ?O io 26 ethey 1998a. ? 34i «iiaeao nicaeaaaoue ?aca?au
niiieoaeueiuo aeieaia ii ?an/aoai n ae?oaeie i?aaiecaoeeyie e
a?aaeaeaiaie ca i?iaeoeoeeth, oiaa?u, ?aaiou e oneoae n ioianaieai noii
?aca?aia ia oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou»[ 3 ]. Iaeiaei, ia naaiaeiyoiee
aeaiue oaeie ?aca?a iiaeao nicaeaaaoueny eeoue «o i?aaiecaoeee,
i?eiaiythuae iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa) ii ia?a ioa?ocee oiaa?ia (auiieiaiey ?aaio, oneoa) e
i?aaeuyaeaiey iieoiaoaeth (caeac/eeo) ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia».(i.3.54
iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii eiaaioa?ecaoeee eiouanoaa e oeiainiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa, ooaa?aeaeaiu i?eeacii Ieioeia io 13 ethiy 1995a. ?49)[ 4
].

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiae iaeio e oo aea caaeieaeaiiinoue i?e ?aciuo
iaoiaeao ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee a iaeiii neo/aa
?ac?aoaaony, a a ae?oaii aini?auaaony nicaeaaaoue ca n/ao oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia niioaaonoaothuea ?aca?au. «I/aaeaeii, /oi ai aoi?ii neo/aa
i?aaeienuaaaiue ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie ii?yaeie i?eaiaeeo e
caauoaieth io?aaeaaiie a o/aoa i?eauee, /oi i?ienoiaeeo ec-ca io?aaeaiey
ia?aaeueiie e iieo/aieth caaeieaeaiiinoe eae aunieieeeaeaeiiai aeoeaa.
Oaeei ia?acii, nicaeaaony i?aiyonoaea aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeia
iniio?eoaeueiinoe, caeeth/athuaainy a aieueoae aioiaiinoe e
aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo iioa?ue (?anoiaeia) e ianneaia, /ai aiciiaeiuo
aeoeaia e aeioiaeia», n/eoaao Aaeaaieeiaa I.A.[ 13 ]. A oi aea a?aiy
«iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee ii ioa?ocea», ii iiaieth A?aeiaie C.I. e
Ei/o?iaie E.E.[ 14 ] eiaao ?yae nouanoaaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia: ii iaeiaiaiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i?aaeiieaoa aea/ao ca niaie i?eiaiaiea yoiai iaoiaea
ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee e i?aaeuyaeaiey iieoiaoaeth
?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia. Caeanue iiiaia caaeneo io i?aaei?eyoey,
iieo/eaoaai i?aaeiieaoo: iii iiaeao caaea?aeaoue ioa?oceo oiaa?ia ii
?acee/iui i?e/eiai. Ii anee aeaaea i?iaeoeoeey ioa?oaeaaony
naiaa?aiaiii, oi o i?aaei?eyoey iieoiaoaey ana ?aaii i?iaeaiu:
iieoiaoaeue auioaeaeai aeaeaoue i?iaeoeoeeth eaeia-oi a?aiy iinea oiai,
eae aeaiueae ia?a/eneaiu ia ?an/aoiue n/ao iinoaaueea. E eae ?acoeueoao
– caiaaeeaiea iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, nieaeaiea
eiyooeoeeaioa iie?uoey. Eiathony i?iaeaiu e o i?aaei?eyoey-iinoaaueea.
Iieo/ea i?aaeiieaoo, iii iaycaii ia?a/eneeoue a athaeaeao iaeia ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, ia ieacaa oneoa e ia auiieiea ?aaio ii
ioa?ocea oiaa?ia. A neo/aa, anee iieoiaoaeue ioeacuaaaony io oiaa?a,
iinoaauee ia a ninoiyiee aa?iooue aio ana aeaiueae, o.e. /anoue ec ieo
ia?a/eneaia a athaeaeao a aeaea iaeiaia. Iiyoiio A?aeiaa C.I. e Ei/o?iaa
E.E. n/eoatho, /oi iaeuecy ieaoeoue naie aeieae e acuneeaaoue /oaeea ii
i?aaeiae ioeaiea, o.e. eo iaanoeaieaaiea aaaeao e oiio, /oi iaeie
i?aaei?eyoey aeeaoo ca n/ao ae?oaeo [14 ]. ?aoaiea aeaiiie i?iaeaiu yoe
aaoi?u aeaeyo a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea ?aoaiey acaeiiuo i?aoaicee
i?aaei?eyoee n o/aoii ia?eiaee/anee ioaeeeoaiiai eiyooeoeeaioa
eioeyoeee».

Inoaaeyy ca oicyenoaothuei noauaeoii i?aai ia naiinoiyoaeueiue auai?
iiiaioa i?eciaiey oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa io ?aaeecaoeee iieo/aiiui,
Ea?aiaeaoaaa E.E.[ 18 ] n/eoaao, /oi iaiaoiaeeii eciaieoue ii?yaeie
io?aaeaiey ?aaeecaoeee a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa i?iaeaaoea i?e onoaiiaeaiee
ei iiiaioa ?aaeecaoeee «ii iieaoa» a oeaeyo ?aaeueiiai io?aaeaiey
i?iecioaaeoae i?iaeaaee (?aaeecaoeee). I?e auai?a i?aaei?eyoeai niiniaa
i?eciaiey oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa io ?aaeecaoeee «ii ioa?ocea» yoe
iiiaiou aoaeoo niaiaaeaoue, a niiniaa «ii iieaoa» ?anniao?eaaoueny aeey
oeaeae aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iainiaeaiii [ 18 ].

Eoae, iaiauay ana auoaneacaiiia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eaaeaeue ec
iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)
eiaao eae aeinoieinoaa, oae e iaaeinoaoee. Iu n/eoaai, /oi i?e
neiaeeaoaeny a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee, eiaaea
i?iaeaia iaieaoaaeae yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo, «iiiaio ?aaeecaoeee –
iieaoa» yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo aeaenoaaiiuo eino?oiaioia ooiaea io
ecaa/iiai ia?aaeiena aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa: «i?eaueue o i?aaei?eyoey
anoue, a aeieae iiea/eaaoue ia/ai», eioi?ue nicaeaao nouanoaaiiua
o?oaeiinoe e i?e ai?acaei aieaa aeaaii?eyoiie yeiiiie/aneie ianoaiiaea.

Ii iaeaieaa a?aiioiui e iainiiaaiiui, ia iao acaeyae, yaeyaony
i?aaeeiaeaiea A?iaeiie O.I. [ 12 ] oe?a eniieueciaaoue ie?iaie iiuo e
ioa/anoaaiioth i?aeoeeo aiaoiae oi?aiaee. A /anoiinoe, a no?aiao n
?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie aeey oiai, /oiau iieoiaoaeue auno?aa
?anieaoeeny ca iinoaaeaiiua oiaa?u, a eiio?aeo aiinyony iii?aaee ia
oneiaey ieaoaaea: ca nie?auaiea n?ieia ?an/aoia i?aaeinoaaeythony
neeaeee aei 5% io noieiinoe naeaeee. I?eiaiaiea neeaeie i?e iieaoa a
n?ie iiaoaeaeaao iieoiaoaeae naiaa?aiaiii iiea/eaaoue n/aoa. A i?e oaeie
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe iieoiaoaeae i?aaei?eyoea – iinoaauee iiaeao niaei
ia?aoiaeeoue ia iaoiae o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee «ii ioa?ocea».

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ainoaea?noai iuoaaony ?aoeoue i?iaeaio iaieaoaaeae a
AIE no?aiu. Oae, noaouey 15 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia [ 1 ] aeaneo:
«aaciaee/iua ?an/aou th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, yaeythueony iio?aaeoaeyie
(iieoiaoaeyie) naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, nu?uey e
i?iaeiaieuenoaey, n oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie (iinoaaueeaie), iaoiaeyueieny
ia oa??eoi?ee ?O, i?iecaiaeyony eieanni, anee eiie ii?yaeie ia
i?aaeoniio?ai a aeiaiai?a.

N?ie iieaou ca naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth e nu?uea,
iinoaaeaiiua ia?a?aaaouaathuei e ae?oaei i?aaiecaoeeyi, oaeaea ca
i?iaeiaieuenoaea, iinoaaeaiiia oi?aiaui i?aaiecaoeeyi, onoaiaaeeaaaony
i?e eieanni aei aeanyoe aeiae iinea iinooieaiey ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia a
aaie ieaoaeueueea.

I?e iaee/ee onoie/eauo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae ?an/aou ca
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, nu?uea e i?iaeiaieuenoaea
inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae ia ?aaea o?ao ?ac a
ianyoe». Iaeiaei, eae aoaeao auiieiyoueny aeaiiue caeii ia i?aeoeea,
iieaaeao a?aiy.

A i?ioeanna nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoa AIE aicieeatho
aeiiieieoaeueiua cao?aou, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeea
cao?aou e aeaeu ?aaio ioiinyony e eiiia?/aneei ?anoiaeai. Eiiia?/aneea
?anoiaeu a iniiaiii aicieeatho ia caaa?oathuai yoaia e?oaiiai?ioa
n?aaenoa. Yoe ?anoiaeu iicaieytho oi?ie?iaaoue oiaa?iia niaea?aeaiea
i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeaeueiue aan oaeeo ?anoiaeia a iieiie naaanoieiinoe ii
naeueneioicyenoaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi iiaeao eieaaaoueny (ii noaiaea?oiui
i?iaeoeoai) io 5,9 aei 37,0%. *anoue oicyenoa ioiinyo cao?aou oaeiai
?iaea eeai ia n/ao 20 noan/aoa «?anoaieaaiaenoai» e «AEeaioiiaiaenoai» n
iineaaeothuei ?ani?aaeaeaieai ii aeaeai e a?oiiai eoeueoo? eee n
iineaaeothuei ioianaieai yoeo ?anoiaeia a eiioea aiaea ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, eeai
ioiinyo eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ?aaeeciaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, oi anoue ia n/ao 46. Iaeiaei, ii iiaieth Aieiaaiiaa A.A. [
15 ] yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiui yaeyaony oaeie ii?yaeie aaaeaiey o/aoa
eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia, eiaaea ana ?anoiaeu ii nauoo i?iaeoeoeee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii o/eouaatho ia n/aoa 43, a caoai aaeaiany/ii nienuaatho
ni n/aoa 43 ia n/aoa 45 eee 46 a iieiie noiia eee a aeiea, ioiinyuaeny
niioaaonoaaiii e ioa?oaeaiiie eee ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Yoe
?anoiaeu a eiioea aiaea i?eniaaeeiytho e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie naaanoieiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee ia iniiaaiee ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia. I?e
iaaiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia ii aeaiiui ia?ae/iuo
aeieoiaioia, Aieiaaiia A.A. i?aaeeaaaao ?ani?aaeaeyoue eo iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie aeaeaie i?iaeoeoeee i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ianna, iauaio,
eiee/anoao eee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie naaanoieiinoe. Aeey o/aoa
aeiiieieoaeueiuo cao?ao, naycaiiuo n iiauoaieai ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee,
neaaeiaaei au a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa ia n/aoa 20 «Iniiaiia
i?iecaiaenoai», ii iiaieth o/aiiai, auaeaeeoue niaoeeaeueiue noan/ao,
aaea a ?ac?aca ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee o/eouaaoue
aeiiieieoaeueiua cao?aou ia iiauoaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.
Aeiiieieoaeueiua eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey, iai?aaeaiiiua ia i?iaaaeaiea
ia?ii?eyoee ii iiauoaieth ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, oaeaea aeieaeiu, ii
iiaieth Aieiaaiiaa A.A.[ 15 ] auaeaeyoueny a o/aoa e aiaeece?iaaoueny
ioaeaeueii .

Ia iao acaeyae, iienaiiue ii?yaeie o/aoa eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia eiaao
?yae nouanoaaiiuo i?aeiouanoa, ii iicaieyao iiauneoue ?aaeueiinoue e
eioi?iaoeaiinoue o/aoiie eioi?iaoeee i?e o/aoa i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey i?aaei?eyoee aeooaeueia i?iaeaia ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ii oeaiai ia auoa (ieaea) naaanoieiinoe:
iieo/aiiue ii aa?oa?o oiaa? eee aai /anoue i?aaei?eyoeth iaiaoiaeeii
?aaeeciaaoue n iieaoie a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia aeey iieo/aiey n?aaenoa ia
auieaoo ca?aaioiie ieaou, eiiioiaeueiuo ieaoaaeae, ?an/aoia n
athaeaeaoii. *anoi oiaa? ia oaeaaony ?aaeeciaaoue aeaaea ii oeaia
i?eia?aoaiey. ?aaeecoy oiaa? ieaea naaanoieiinoe, i?aaei?eyoea iieo/aao
?aaeueiua oauoee. Aeaenoaothuaa iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
i?aaeoniao?eaaao oo?aoiua naieoeee ca iiaeiaiua oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee.
Oae a i.9 Eino?oeoeee AIN ?O ?39 «I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou a
athaeaeao iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue», a i.2 e 17 Eino?oeoeee
AIN ?O ?30 «I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou iaeiaia, iinooiathueo a
aei?iaeiua oiiaeu», oeacaii, /oi a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa) e oiaa?ia ia auoa eo oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe aeey
oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eieiaaony ?uii/iay oeaia ia oaeoth aea eee
aiaeiae/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth, ii ia ieaea oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe.

O i?aaei?eyoee nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ii oeaiai
ieaea naaanoieiinoe aac oo?aoiuo naieoeee a neo/aa nieaeaiey
iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa oiaa?a eeai, anee neiaeeaoeany ?uii/iua oeaiu
ieacaeenue ieaea naaanoieiinoe. Iaeiaei, aiciiaeiinoue i?eieiaoue aeey
oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey oaeoe/aneea oeaiu ?aaeecaoeee (a neo/aa, eiaaea
neiaeeaoeany ?uii/iua oeaiu ieacaeenue ieaea naaanoieiinoe) i?aaei?eyoea
iiaeao ?aaeeciaaoue oieueei a ioiioaiea IAeN e iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, a
ioiioaiea iaeiaa ia ?aaeecaoeeth ANI e iaeiaa ia iieueciaaoaeae
aaoiaei?ia Eino?oeoeeae AIN ?O ?30 oaeay aiciiaeiinoue ia i?aaeoniio?aia
[ 24 ].

Aeey aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey iia?aoeee ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a
naeueneii oicyenoaa a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa aeaenoaotho oeiiaua
iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiua oi?iu ia?ae/iie aeieoiaioaoeee. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy
aicieeea n?i/iay iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aniio?a oi?i, a ii iiaui iia?aoeeyi,
aicieeoei a iineaaeiea aiaeu – ?ac?aaioea iiauo oi?i ia?ae/iiai o/aoa. A
ooaa?aeaeaiiuo iiauo oi?iao aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeaii ?aeaeceoai aeey
io?aaeaiey ea/anoaa iieo/aaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeioi?ua oi?iu (iai?eia?,
oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiua iaeeaaeiua ia ioi?aaeo i?iaeoeoeee) nouanoaaiii
oi?iuaiu, ec ieo eneeth/aiu ?aeaeceou aoi?inoaiaiiiai oa?aeoa?a.

?acaeae o/aoiie aeieoiaioaoeee ii aeaeaeaieth aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee aeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ieacaeny naiui aieueoei. A nayce n
?acaeoeai ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a iineaaeiea aiaeu aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/eee iia?aoeee ii i?yiie i?iaeaaea oicyenoaaie, ieioy o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
caaioiaeoaeae, naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ianaeaieth, a oii /enea
/a?ac noaoeeiia?iua ioieou oi?aiaee, i?eiaaeeaaeauea oicyenoaai. Aeey
oao iiauo iia?aoeee a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo aue ?ac?aaioai
?yae niaoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia: ?184-AIE «Io/ao i i?iaeaaea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (ia ?uiea)». A «Aeoa i i?eaiea
i?iaeoeoeee aeey ?aaeecaoeee» oeacuaatho ana iaiaoiaeeiua ?aeaeceou ii
ea/anoao, eiee/anoao, ni?oiinoe, noiia iinooieaoae aeey ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee ii eaaeaeiio aa aeaeo, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiaeienyie
eeoe, naeaaoeo i?iaeoeoeeth e i?eiyaoeo aa aeey ?aaeecaoeee.

Aeey ioi?ieaiey iia?aoeee ii nienaieth i?iaeoeoeee a aeaaao n/aoa 46
«?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)» e io?aaeaieth au?o/ee ii
e?aaeeoo yoiai n/aoa eniieuecotho io/ao i ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. A
aeieoiaioa i?eaiaeyony aeaiiua e ia eniieueciaaiee au?o/ee «Io/ao i
i?iaeaaea naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee» ninoaaeyaony i?e ?aciaie
i?iaeaaea i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiea e ae?oaeo ianoao oi?aiaee. E io/aoo
i?eeaaathony ii?aaaeaoaeueiua aeieoiaiou ia i?eaieo i?iaeoeoeee e
eniieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee [ 9 ].

A niioaaonoaee n Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 iay 1996a. ?685 [ 6 ]
i?aaei?eyoey anao i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i n 1 yiaa?y 1997a.
Ia?aoee ia ?an/ao n athaeaeaoii ii IAeN ia iniiaa i?eiaiaiey
n/aoia-oaeoo?. Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa io 29 ethey 1996a. ?914 (n
eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie io 2 oaa?aey 1998a. ?108) [ 7] ooaa?aeaeaii:
oeiiaay oi?ia n/aoa-oaeoo?u, ii?yaeie aaaeaiey aeo?iaeia o/aoa
n/aoia-oaeoo? aeaoo aeaeia: aeo?iaea o/aoa auaeaaaaiuo iieoiaoaeth
n/aoia-oaeoo? e aeo?iaea o/aoa iieo/aiiuo io iinoaaueeia n/aoia-oaeoo?,
oi?ia eieae i?iaeaae e eieae iieoiie e o?aaiaaiey e eo aaaeaieth.

Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea inouanoaeyao ?aaeno?aoeeth auienaiiuo
n/aoia-oaeoo? iieoiaoaeyie a eieaa i?iaeaae, a iieo/aiiuo io iinoaaueeia
– a eieaa iieoiie. E eieaai iaaeo oi?i i?aaeuyaeythony iauea o?aaiaaiey:
iie aeieaeiu auoue i?ioio?iaaiu, eo no?aieoeu- i?iioia?iaaiu e ne?aieaiu
ia/aoueth i?aaei?eyoey; eieae iiaeeaaeao o?aiaieth a oa/aiea 5 eao.
Eieae aaaeoony aeey oiai, /oiau iaania/eoue iieo/aiea iieiie e
aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeee ii IAeN, ia/eneaiiiio ia ?aaeeciaaiiua oiaa?u,
?aaiou e oneoae (aeaaao n/aoia 46, 47,48, e?aaeeo n/aoa 68) ia iniiaa
eieae i?iaeaae e iiaeeaaeauaio ca/aoo (aeaaao 68 n/aoa, e?aaeeo n/aoa
19), ia iniiaa eieae iieoiie eee ainnoaiiaeaieth (aeaaao n/aoia 20, 29,
81-2, 84, 88, 96, e?aaeeo n/aoa 68) ii IAeN, oiea/aiiiio (aeaaao n/aoa
19, e?aaeeo n/aoia 60, 76) a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie Eino?oeoeee ?39
ANI ?O. Aaaeaiea eieae i?iaeaae eiaao iniaaiiinoe a caaeneiinoe io oiai,
eaeoth o/aoioth iieeoeeo i?eiyei i?aaei?eyoea aeey o/aoa i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee – ii ia?a ioa?ocee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa (ii
i?aaeuyaeaiiui n/aoai) eee ii eanniaiio iaoiaeo (ii iiea/aiiui n/aoai).

I?e o/aoa i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee ii ia?a ioa?ocee a eieaa i?iaeaae
?aaeno?e?othony a o?iiieiae/aneie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe auienaiiua
n/aoa-oaeoo?u, a?o/aiiua iieoiaoaeyi ca ioa?oaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth
(?aaiou, oneoae) e oiaa?u (aeaaao n/aoa 62, e?aaeeo n/aoa 46), iniiaiua
n?aaenoaa (aeaaao n/aoa76, e?aaeeo n/aoa46) e ae?oaia eiouanoai (aeaaao
n/aoa 62, e?aaeeo n/aoa 48).

I?e eniieueciaaiee eanniaiai iaoiaea n/aoa-oaeoo?u auienuaathony e
?aaeno?e?othony a eieaa i?iaeaae ii ia?a iinooieaiey aeaiaa a eanno, ia
?an/aoiue eee aaethoiue n/ao i?aaei?eyoey. Oaeei ia?acii, eoiaiaua noiiu
eieae i?iaeaae ca io/aoiue ia?eiae i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
iiaeeaaeauaai e ia/eneaieth IAeN (aeaaao n/aoa 46,47,48, e?aaeeo n/aoa
68). A iae oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu e ana aaainiaua
iinooieaiey (aeaaao n/aoia50,51,52, e?aaeeo 64 n/aoa), a oaeaea
ninoaaeaiiua i?aaei?eyoeai n/aoa-oaeoo?u i?e aacaiciacaeiie ia?aaea/a
oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa) (aeaaao n/aoia 81-2,88, e?aaeeo n/aoa 46),
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia (e?aaeeo n/aoa 47) e
ae?oaiai eiouanoaa (e?aaeeo n/aoa 48), ia?aaea/e eiouanoaa a ea/anoaa
aeeaaea a onoaaiie eaieoae (aeaaao n/aoa 06, e?aaeeo n/aoia 46,47,48),
aeeaaeu a niaianoioth aeayoaeueiinoue (aeaaao n/aoa 06, e?aaeeo n/aoa
58). A aeaeueiaeoai, ii ia?a oaeoe/aneiai ioionea oiaa?ia, auiieiaiey
?aaio, ieacaiey oneoa, noiiu i?aaeiieao (aaainia) io?aaeatho iiaoi?ii a
eieaa i?iaeaae noi?ie?iai/iie caienueth e ?aaeno?e?otho iiaue
n/ao-oaeoo?o ia anth iinoaaeo. A eieaa iieoiie ?aaeno?e?othony
iiea/aiiua n/aoa-oaeoo?u iinoaaueeia (aeaaao n/aoia 60,76, e?aaeeo
n/aoia 50,51,52) ca i?eia?aoaiiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa e iaiaoa?eaeueiua
aeoeau (aeaaao n/aoia 07,08, e?aaeeo 60 eee 76 n/aoa), iinooieaoea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu (aeaaao n/aoa 10), iaeioeaiiua i?aaeiaou
(aeaaao n/aoa 12), oiaa?u (aeaaao n/aoa 41) e ieacaiiua oneoae,
iio?aaeaiiua ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oeaee (aeaaao n/aoia
20,23,25,26,29,31,43,89) e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua (aeaaao n/aoia
81-2,88,96). Eoiaiaua aeaiiua eieae iieoiie neoaeao iniiaaieai aeey
ca/aoa IAeN oiea/aiiiai (aeaaao n/aoa 68, e?aaeeo n/aoa 19).
I?iecaaaeaiiua i?aaei?eyoeai aaainiaua ieaoaaee a ii?yaeea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaou oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa) ia io?aaeathony a eieaa
iieoiie, oae eae ii iei ia i?iecaiaeeony ca/ao IAeN oiea/aiiiai.

Ii iiaieth Caoa?iaie A.A. [ 17 ], i?aaeeiaeaiiay a ienueia
Ainiaeianeoaeau e Ieioeia ?O io 25 aeaeaa?y 1996a. ?AC-6-03/890, ?109 «I
i?eiaiaiee n/aoia-oaeoo? i?e ?an/aoao ii IAeN n 1 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea»
noaia aaaeaiey n/aoia-oaeoo? e eo ?aaeno?aoeee a eieaa i?iaeaae e
iieoiie cia/eoaeueii oneiaeieei ?aaioo i?aaei?eyoee, ii?iaeea
aeoaee?iaaiea.

Iu niaeaniu n iiaieai Caoa?iaie A.A. e n/eoaai, /oi iaeaa/ea ?aaioo
iaeiaiaie neoaeau, Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O nouanoaaiii oneiaeiee ?aaioo
aooaaeoa?ia, oae eae naaaeaiey eieae i?iaeaae e eieae iieoiie ia iiaoo
auoue eniieueciaaiu i?aaei?eyoeai aeey ia/eneaiey iaeiaa. Ana
auoaia?a/eneaiiua aeieoiaiou ia i?aaenoaaeytho aeey aooaaeoa?ia ieeaeiai
eioa?ana, oae eae ia ianoo a naaa ie/aai iiaiai eee iieaciiai a o/aoiie
?aaioa.

Iaiauay aanue auoaeceiaeaiiue iaoa?eae, iu ooaa?aeaeaai, /oi ?aoaiea
ia?a/eneaiiuo i?iaeai niinianoaiaaei au iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe
?ac?aaioee e inouanoaeaiey oeiainiaie iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoey e oeo/oaieth
yeiiiie/aneie ianoaiiaee a no?aia a oeaeii.

1. I?AAIECAOeEIIII-YEIIIIE*ANEAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA IIO «IEINEIA».

Aeaiiia oicyenoai yaeyaony th?eaee/aneei eeoeii. Niaeanii a
ii?aaeaeaiee, aeaiiii a A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena, th?eaee/aneia eeoei –
yoi i?aaiecaoeey, eiathuay a nianoaaiiinoe, oicyenoaaiiii aaaeaiee eee
iia?aoeaiii oi?aaeaiee iainiaeaiiia eiouanoai e ioaa/athuay ii naiei
iaycaoaeuenoaai eiouanoaii.

TH?eaee/aneia eeoei iiaeao io naiaai eiaie i?eia?aoaoue e inouanoaeyoue
eiouanoaaiiua e ee/iua i?aaa e ianoe iaycaiiinoe, auoue enooeii e
ioaao/eeii a noaea. Aeayoaeueiinoue th?eaee/aneiai eeoea iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny ia iniiaa onoaaa eee o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a.

IIO «Ieineia» ia?aciaaii a 1961 aiaeo ia aaca eieoica «Iiaaaea». IIO
«Ieineia» – yoi iiuoii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiia oicyenoai, yaeythuaany
ainoaea?noaaiiui naeueneioicyenoaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeai. Iiae/eiyaony
Eino?iineiio IEENO ioaeaeaiey ii Ia/a?iicaiiie ciia ?O
?innaeueoicaeaaeaiee.

Oeaeueth i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeey naiyi yeeoiuo
ni?oia ca?iiauo eoeueoo? e ea?oioaey , a oaeaea iieo/aiea i?eauee io eo
?aaeecaoeee.

?anniio?ei i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o oicyenoaa:

aooaaeoa?ey IIO «Ieineia» eiaeaia?iay neoaeaa

?II iaoeiiue aeai? aaoiaa?aae

i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai

nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iay noa?a (eeoa)

ieei?aia oaieiue oeao oeao iaoaiecaoeee iaooaoicyenoai

e yeaeo?ioeeaoeee

no?ieoaeueiue oeao iaoeiiue aeai? IOI ?II aaoiaa?aae

aaiy AEEO

aeeeuea eioaeueiay

oeao ?anoaieaaiaenoaa

oeao aeeaioiiaiaenoaa

neeaae ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee

a?eaaaea ?1

neeaae

a?eaaaea ?2

o?aeoi?ii-iieaaiae/aneay a?eaaaea

a?eaaaea ?3

ca?iioie ?1

NEI

ca?iioie ?2

?en.2. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey IIO «Ieineia».

Caieaiieueciaaiea IIO «Ieineia» ?aniieiaeaii a thaeiie /anoe
Eino-?iineiai ?aeiia ia eaaii aa?aao ?aee Aieae thai-ainoi/iaa a.
Eino?iiu e ninoieo ec i?enaeueiiai ianneaa i?ioyaeaiiinoueth n naaa?a ia
tha 10 ei e n caiaaea ia ainoie 8 ei e iaeiiai /a?aniieiniiai ianneaa
Noia?ieiai, iaoiaeyuaainy a 10 ei io iniiaiiai.

Oeaio?aeueiay onaaeueaa n. Ieineia iaoiaeeony a 15 ei io ?aeiiiiai e
iaeanoiiai oeaio?a a. Eino?iiu, naycue n eioi?ui inouanoaeyaony ii
aaoiaei?iaa n anoaeueoiaui iie?uoeai Eino?iia – Eiceiau ai?u. Ioieou
naea/e n.-o .i?iaeoeoeee ?aniieiaeaiu a a. Eino?iia. Iauay ieiuaaeue IIO
ninoaaeyao 3855 aa, a o./. 2786 aa n.-o. Oaiaeee (72%), ec ieo iaoie
2312 aa , naiieinia 94 aa, ianoaeu 380 aa.. Oa??eoi?ey IIO «Ieineia»
ioiineony e thaeiiio aa?ieeeiaoe/aneiio ?aeiio, oa?aeoa?ecothueiny
oia?aiii-eiioeiaioaeueiui eeeiaoii ni n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeei,
oia?aiii-oaieui eaoii e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie, oieiaeiie e aeinoaoi/ii
niaaeiie ceiie. N?aaeiaaiaeiaay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa ninoaaeyao +2,80 N,
noiia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo aeoeaiuo oaiia?aoo? (auoa 100 N) 19000 .
Niaaeiue iie?ia ia oa??eoi?ee oicyenoaa aea?aeeony 156 -158 aeiae,
iaeaieueoay aai aunioa aeinoeaaao 45 ni. ?aeii ioiineony e ciia
aeinoaoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey. Eiee/anoai inaaeeia ca aiae auiaaeaao 550 ii,
a oii /enea ca aaaaoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae – 300 ii. A oeaeii eeeiaoe/aneea
oneiaey aeaaii?eyoiu aeey iieo/aiey onoie/eauo o?iaeaaa aicaeaeuaaaiuo
eoeueoo?, ii a ioaeaeueiua aiaeu iaaethaeaaony iaaeinoaoie i?iaeoeoeaiie
aeaae a ii/aa. Oa??eoi?ey oicyenoaa ?aniieiaeaia ia aiaei?acaeaeueiii
ieaoi, ia?aoiaeyuai a caiaaeiie /anoe oicyenoaa a aeieeio ?aee Aieae.
Aiaei?acaeaeueiia ieaoi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iieiai-aieienooth ?aaieio,
ec?acaiioth ia?aaaie e aaeeaie. Ia?aae ia oa??eoi?ee oicyenoaa aeoaieea,
e?ay caaea?iiaaiu e caeanaiu. Iieiu ?ae Iieoe e Naiaeaae au?aaeaiu
neaai. Ia ?aaieiiuo o/anoeao e aa?oeiao aiaei?acaeaea oicyenoaa
?aniieiaeaiu aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua neaai-aeaaaaoua ii/au.

?acia?u IIO «Ieineia» i?iaiaeece?oai n iiiiuueth neaaeothuae oaaeeoeu:

Oaaeeoea 1.

?acia?u IIO “Ieineia”

Iieacaoaee Aiaeu * **

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Aaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao 1994a., iei.?oa.

3327

4163

4534

3571

3114

3742

482,4

Aeaiaaeiay au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee n.-o. i?i-aeoeoeee, iei.?oa.

323,5

1878

7065

6660

7433

4671

1204

Aaeiaie aeioiae, iei.?oa. 331,8 1200 4782 1916 2155 2077 -237

I?eaueue io ?aaeeca-oeee n.-o. i?iaeoeoeee, iei.?oa.

51,9

442

2260

-811

-875

214

-855

Ieiuaaeue n.-o. oaiaeee, aa 2416 2414 2414 2413 2375 2406 2132

a o./. iaoie, aa 2216 2214 2214 2213 2178 2207 1682

N?aaeiaaiaeiaay noie-iinoue i?iecaiaenoaai-iuo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa,
ie?ae.?oa.

0,349

8,158

41,84

121,5

120,5

58,47

25,13

a o./. iniiaiie aeay-oaeueiinoe, ie?ae.?oa. 0,304 7,153 29,44 76,55
75,58 37,8 24,24

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 1.

N?aaeiaaiaeiaay noie-iinoue i?iecaiaenoaai-iuo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa,
ie?ae.?oa.

165,7

71,53

4,04

8,81

11,27

5,01

2,11

N?aaeiaaiaeiaia eiee-/anoai ?aaioieeia, /ae.

418

402

380

364

357

384

98

a o./. caiyouo a n.-o. i?iecaiaenoaa, /ae. 305 302 305 289 282 296 87

E?N – anaai, aieia 1912 1859 1872 1767 1681 1818 432

a o./. ei?iau, aieia 680 638 645 616 643 644 181

*- a n?aaeiai ca 5 eao

**- a n?aaeiai ii iaeanoe ca 1997 aiae.

Aiaeece?oy aeaiiua oaaeeoeu 1, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi IIO
«Ieineia» – e?oiiia oicyenoai. Iniiaiie iieacaoaeue – iauai aaeiaie
i?iaeoeoeee a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaee 3114 iei. ?oa., /oi a 6,5 ?ac aieueoa,
/ai a n?aaeiai ii iaeanoe.

A 1993-1995 aa. Aeaiaaeiay au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee eiaea ?aceoth oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo ca n/ao iiauoaiey
caeoii/iuo oeai ia iniiaiua aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee. A 1996 aiaeo iieacaoaeue
aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee nieceeny ia 405 iei.?oa. ii n?aaiaieth n 1995 aiaeii,
nieceeny aaeiaie aeioiae. Yoi /anoe/ii iiaeii iauynieoue oai, /oi a
ia?eiae oai?i/iie a 1996 aiaeo iiia?cei ieiei 2000o ea?oioaey e IIO
«Ieineia» ?aaeeciaaei aai n aieueoei oauoeii, /oi io?aceeinue ia iauai
oeiainiaii ?acoeueoaoa. A 1997 aiaeo aeaiaaeiay au?o/ea aic?inea ia 773
iei.?oa. ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii e a 6 ?ac i?aauoaao
n?aaeiaiaeanoiie iieacaoaeue (1204 iei.?oa.).

A 1993-1995 aiaeao IIO «Ieineia» iieo/eei i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, a 1996-1997 aiaeao – oauoie. Yoi
yaeyaony neaaenoaeai oiai, /oi io?aneue aeeaioiiaiaenoaa eiaao
io?eoeaoaeueiue iieacaoaeue ?aioaaaeueiinoe, ca eneeth/aieai 1995 aiaea,
eiaaea oauoee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa auee ia?ae?uou
ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioaoeee.

Nouanoaaiii aic?inea noieiinoue iniiaiuo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa a 1997
a. Ii n?aaiaieth n 1993a. a ?acoeueoaoa eo iaiaeiie?aoiie ia?aioeaiee,
i?e yoii eo noieiinoue a 3,1 ?aca i?aauoaao aiaeiae/iue n?aaeiaiaeanoiie
iieacaoaeue. Ieiuaaeue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee a 1997 a.
nieceeanue ii n?aaiaieth n 1993a. ia 41 aa, ii oai ia iaiaa iia ia 243
aa i?aauoaao iaeanoiie iieacaoaeue (2132 aa).Iiaieiauea E?N a 1997a.
nieceeinue ia 231 aieiao (n 1912 aieia a 1993a. aei 1681 aieiau a 1997
aiaeo). N?aaeiaaiaeiaay /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia ca 5 eao nie?aoeeanue ia
61 /aeiaae (n 418 /aeiaae a 1993a. aei 357 /aeiaae a 1997 aiaeo). A
oeaeii ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey e oiaiueoaieth
?acia?ia IIO «Ieineia», iaeiaei a n?aaiaiee ni n?aaeiaiaeanoiuie
?acia?aie – yoi e?oiiia oicyenoai ii anai iieacaoaeyi.

Ii?aaeaeei niaoeeaeecaoeeth IIO «Ieineia» n iiiiuueth neaaeothuae
oaaeeoeu:

Oaaeeoea 2.

No?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee

naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, iei. ?oa.

Iaeiaiiaaiea Aiaeu, iei. ?oa. A n?aaeiai ca 1993-1997a.

?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 iei. ?oa e eoi-ao a%
ii io-?an-eyi,%

?anoaieaaiae-noai, anaai 158,8 1297,6 4370,6 3521 4230 2712 58,1 100

a o./. ca?ii 72,8 475,2 1504 1966 2540 1311 28,1 48,4

ea?oioaeue 75,3 679 2731 1443 1379 1261 27,0 46,5

iaiue ioe?u-oiai a?oioa 0,022 71,2 107,8 36 – 43 0,9 1,6

I?i/ay i?iaeoeoeey 10,7 54,4 26,9 76 311 96 2,1 3,5

AEeaioiiaiae-noai – anaai 164,7 598 2694 3139 3203 1960 41,9 100

a o./. iieiei 105,8 536 2035 2250 2386 1463 31,3 74,6

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 2.

iyni 49,3 47,7 239 219 72 125,5 2,6 6,4

i?iaeaaea E?N ia ieaiaiiua oeaee

7,16

12,7

51,5

49,1

24,1

0,5

1,8

I?i/ay i?iaeoeoeey 2,4 0,58 419,8 618 696 347,4 7,5 17,8

Anaai n.-o. i?iaeoeoeee 323,5 1877,6 7065 6660 7433 4672 100 o

Iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan a no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee ninoaaeyao
io?aneue ?anoaieaaiaenoaa (58,1%). A no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee
io?anee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa ia ca?ii i?eoiaeeony 48,4%, ia ea?oioaeue
46,5%. Aeiey io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee
ninoaaeyao 41,9%. A no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee io?anee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ia iieiei i?eoiaeeony 74,6%, a oi a?aiy eae ia iyni a
aeeaie ianna e iieiaeiye E?N ia ieaiaiiua oeaee – eeoue 6,4 e 1,2%
niioaaonoaaiii.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiie i?iaeoeoeeae aeey ?aaeecaoeee a IIO «Ieineia»
yaeyaony ca?ii, ea?oioaeue, iieiei. Yoi naiaiiaiae/aneia oicyenoai,
iniiaiie aai caaea/ae yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai naiyi aunoeo ?ai?iaeoeoeee
ca?iiauo e ea?oioaey.

Oaia?ue i?iaiaeece?oai ninoaa e no?oeoo?o caiaeueiuo oaiaeee oicyenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 3.

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a caiaeueiuo oaiaeee.

Aeaeu caiaeueiuo Ieiuaaeue, aa 1997a. a % e

oaiaeee 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 * **

Iauay caiaeueiay ieiuaaeue 3319 3316 3314 3313 3271 100 o

Anaai n.-o. oaiaeee 2416 2414 2414 2413 2375 72,6 100

a o./. iaoiy 2216 2214 2214 2213 2178 66,6 91,7

naiieinu 24 24 24 24 24 0,7 1,0

ianoaeua 176 176 176 176 173 5,3 7,3

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 3.

Ieiuaaeue eana 747 747 747 747 747 22,8 o

I?eonaaeaaiua o/anoee – – 95 95 95 2,9 o

I?i/ea oaiaeuey 156 155 58 58 54 1,7 o

*- iauae caiaeueiie ieiuaaee

**- ieiuaaee n.-o. oaiaeee

?en. 3. No?oeoo?a caiaeueiuo oaiaeee ca 1997 aiae.

Aeaiiua oaaeeoeu 3 naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi iauay caiaeueiay
ieiuaaeue IIO «Ieineia» a 1997 aiaeo nie?aoeeanue ia 1,4%, eae, ai?i/ai,
nie?aoeeanue e ieiuaaeue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee – ia 1,7%, a oii
/enea ieiuaaeue iaoie ia 1,7% e ieiuaaeue ianoaeu ia 1,7%, ii
n?aaiaieth n 1993 aiaeii. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi /anoue caiaeue (n.-o.
oaiaeee) auea ia?aaeaia ai?iaeo (ai?iae acaiai no?ieo a IIO
60-eaa?oe?iue aeii), a /anoue caiaeue auea ia?aaeaia aaeieieno?aoeee
Ieineiai naeueneiai niaaoa aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa iaaeaeo aeeoaeyie
aeaeueieo aea?aaaiue.

Oaaeeoea 4.

Iieacaoaee o?iaiy eioaineaiinoe.

Aiaeu A n?aaeiai ii

Iieacaoaee 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 iaeanoe ca 1997a.

A ?an/aoa ia 100 aa

n.-o. oaiaeee

– i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iniiaiie aeayoaeueii-noe, iei.
?oa.

12,6

296,3

1220

3172

3182

1136

– i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao (aac aii?oeca-oeee), iei. ?oa.

28,6

102,7

291,5

465

568

147

– cao?ao o?oaea, oun./ae.-/an. 16,0 15,5 14,9 14,3 15,4 6,2

– E?N anaai, aieia 79 77 78 73 71 20

Yia?aaoe/aneeo iiuiinoae ia 100 aa iinaaia, e.n.

802,2

860,2

847,0

802,8

748,0

385,5

A IIO «Ieineia» i/aiue aunieay eioaineaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa –
oiiaeiiaania/aiiinoue a 2,8 ?aca auoa, /ai a n?aaeiai ii iaeanoe. Ca
aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae ?acei aic?inea noieiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua cao?aou, /oi aucaaii aunieeie
oaiiaie eioeyoeee. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua cao?aou ia 100 aa n.-o. oaiaeee a
IIO «Ieineia» a 1997 a. ninoaaeee 568,1 iei. ?oa., /oi a 3,9 ?aca
aieueoa n?aaeiaiaeanoiiai iieacaoaey (147 iei. ?oa.). Yoi aucaaii
oaaee/aieai iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iieacaoaeue cao?ao o?oaea ia 100 aa
n.-o. oaiaeee ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae nieaeaaony (ia 13,2% ii
n?aaiaieth n 1993 aiaeii.), /oi aiai?eo i ?inoa eioaineaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei, yoio iieacaoaeue auoa n?aaeiaiaeanoiiai a 3,7
?aca, oae eae i?iecaiaenoai naiyi yaeyaony i/aiue o?oaeiaieei
i?ioeannii. Naiaiiaiaenoai yaeyaony oaeaea e yia?aiaieei i?ioeannii,
iieacaoaeue yia?aaoe/aneeo iiuiinoae ia 100 aa iinaaia a IIO «Ieineia» a
1997 aiaeo (748,0 e.n.) a 1,9 ?aca auoa, /ai aiaeiae/iue
n?aaeiaiaeanoiie iieacaoaeue (385,5 e.n.).

Iieacaoaee yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ?anniio?ei a neaaeothuae
oaaeeoea:

Oaaeeoea 5.

Iieacaoaee yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eioaineoeeaoeee.

Aiaeu A n?aaeiai

Iieacaoaee 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 ii iaeanoe ca 1997a.

A ?an/aoa ia 100 aa n.-o oaiaeee:

– aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee, iei. ?oa. 137,7 172,5 187,8 148 131,1 22,6

– aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee n.-o. i?iaeoeoeee, iei. ?oa.

13,4

77,8

292,7

276

313

56,4

-i?eauee (+), oauoea

(-) io ?aaeecaoeee n.-o. i?iaeoeoeee, iei. ?oa.

2,15

18,3

93,6

-33,6

-36,8

-40,1

– auoiae iieiea, oe 945,7 1012 946,7 952,6 915,4 160,2

– i?e?ino E?N, oe 113,9 101,2 95,3 80,2 69,6 14,8

Oaeie io 1 ei?iau, ea 3340 3634 3478 3614 3456 1887

O?iaeaeiinoue: ca?ia, oe 31,0 41,6 29,1 33,7 34,0 12,3

ea?oioaey, oe 233,5 260,0 320,4 220,4 209,2 113,3

I?iecaiaenoai aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee, oun. ?oa.:

ia 1 oun. ?oa. niaieoiiuo cao?ao 3,34 0,43 0,12 0,04 0,03 0,02

ia 1 n?aaeiaaiaeiaiai ?aaioieea 7959 10356 11932 9810 8723 4922

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?aae-i?eyoey io iniiaiiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe, %

19,1

30,8

47,0

-10,9

-10,5

-1,9

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo caaea/ aiaeeca eioaineoeeaoeee yaeyaony ioeaiea aa
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe. Eaaeaeue iieacaoaeue oa?aeoa?ecoao
ioaeaeueioth no?ieo i?ioeanna eioaineoeeaoeee – aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa,
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, yooaeoeaiinoue. Niiinoaaeyy eo, iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, ianeieueei yooaeoeaiu aeiiieieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey
n?aaenoa, niinianoaotho ee iie ?inoo i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee,
ieoiaaiinoe cao?ao, oaaee/aieth i?eauee oicyenoaa. Oae, a IIO «Ieineia»
aeiiieieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiu: ana
noieiinoiua iieacaoaee aaeaaiaeii oaaee/eaathony e a 1997 aiaeo
cia/eoaeueii i?aauoatho n?aaeiaiaeanoiua. A IIO a 1997 aiaeo noieiinoue
aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia 100 aa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee (131,1 iei.
?oa.) i?aauneea n?aaeiaiaeanoiie iieacaoaeue (22,6 iei. ?oa.) a 5,8
?aca.. O?iaeaeiinoue ca?iiauo a 1997 aiaeo au?inea ia 9,7% ii n?aaiaieth
n 1993 aiaeii, o?iaeaeiinoue ea?oioaey auoa, /ai n?aaeiyy ii iaeanoe a
1,8 ?aca. Auoiae iieiea e i?e?ino E?N ia 100 aa n.-o. oaiaeee i?aauoaao
n?aaeiaiaeanoiua iieacaoaee a 5,7 e 4,7 ?aca niioaaonoaaiii, iaeiaei iie
aaeaaiaeii nieaeathony, aneaaenoaea /aai oicyenoai ianao oauoee.
Iniiaiui iieacaoaeai, oa?aeoa?ecothuei yooaeoeaiinoue eioaineoeeaoeee,
yaeyaony i?e?ino i?iecaiaenoaa aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee a ?an/aoa ia 1 oun.
?oaeae niaieoiiuo cao?ao. Aeaiiue iieacaoaeue a IIO «Ieineia» a 1,5 ?aca
auoa, /ai n?aaeiee ii iaeanoe. Ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi a
oicyenoaa aunieay yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, iniaaiiie
a io?anee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa. IIO «Ieineia» eiaei aunieee o?iaaiue
?aioaaaeueiinoe (47% – a 1995 aiaeo). Iaeiaei ?aioaaaeueiinoue ca
aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae nieceeanue ec-ca aieaa aunieeo oaiiia ?inoa
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, ii n?aaiaieth n oaiiaie ?inoa oeai
?aaeecaoeee.

?anniio?ei iaania/aiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie e
i?iaiaeece?oai aa eciaiaiey ia i?ioyaeaiee 5 eao.

Oaaeeoea 6.

Iaania/aiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie.

Eaoaai?ee Aiaeu 1997a.

?aaioieeia 1993 1994 1995 1996 ieai oaeo %

Anaai ii i?aaei?eyoeth, /ae. 418 402 380 364 350 357 102,0

a o./. ?aaioieee, caiyoua a n.-o. i?iecaiaenoaa 305 302 305 289 280 282
100,7

ec ieo: ?aai/ea iinoiyi-iua 219 212 210 216 200 213 106,5

?aai/ea naciiiua e a?aiaiiua 40 45 51 32 40 29 72,5

Neoaeauea 46 45 44 41 40 40 100,0

ec ieo: ?oeiaiaeeoaee 16 16 16 16 15 16 106,6

niaoeeaeenou 28 27 26 23 23 22 95,6

I?i/ea ?aaioieee 113 100 75 75 70 75 107,1

Aiaeece?oy iaania/aiiinoue IIO «Ieineia» o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie, iiaeii
caiaoeoue, /oi a 1997 aiaeo oicyenoai ia eniuouaaei iaoaaoeo ?aaioieeia.
*eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia anaai ii i?aaei?eyoeth ca 5 eao nie?aoeeanue ia
61 /aeiaae. Ii naciiiui e a?aiaiiui ?aai/ei a 1997 aiaeo ieai aue
ia?aauiieiai ia 27,5%. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi a oicyenoaa iao
?aaoey?iie auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou, a oaeaea ionoonoaoao iaoa?eaeueiay
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue ?aai/eo. *eneaiiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae inoaaony
noaaeeueiie.

Aeey aieaa iieiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i oicyenoaa e aai io?aneyo ?anniio?ei
neaaeothuea oaaeeoeu:

Oaaeeoea 7.

O?iaeaeiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? a IIO «Ieineia», oe/aa.

Iaeiaiiaaiea Aiaeu * **

eoeueoo? 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Ca?iiaua 31,0 41,6 29,1 33,7 34,0 33,9 109,7

a o./. iceiua 31,8 49,5 33,1 32,6 32,1 35,8 100,9

y?iaua 42,8 39,5 27,8 34,3 34,8 35,8 81,3

Ea?oioaeue 233,5 260,0 320,4 220,4 209,2 248,7 89,6

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 7.

Ei?iaieiaeu 371,1 79,0 123,4 – – 191,1 –

Iiiaieaoiea o?aau 43,7 43,5 46,7 40,0 50,0 44,8 114,4

Eoeo?oca ia neein 170,0 67,8 212,0 297,7 279,0 205,3 164,1

Anoanoaaiiua naiieinu 20,0 – – – – – –

Oeo/oaiiua naiieinu 147,0 169,0 149,0 189,0 121,5 155,1 82,6

*- a n?aaeiai ca 1993-1997aa.

**- 1997a. a % e 1993a.

Auoai?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee
iineaaeieo iyoe eao o?iaeaeiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?
iaoiaeeony ia aeinoaoi/ii aunieii o?iaia. Iaeiaei, ca aiaeece?oaiue
ia?eiae i?iecioei ?aceia nieaeaiea o?iaeaeiinoe oaeeo eoeueoo?, eae
y?iaua (ia 18,7%), ei?iaieiaeu (ia33,2% a 1995 aiaeo ii n?aaiaieth n
1993 aiaeii). Ii a oi aea a?aiy aic?inea o?iaeaeiinoue eoeo?ocu ia neein
(a 1,6 ?aca) e o?iaeaeiinoue iceiuo (ia 0,9%). O?iaeaeiinoue ea?oioaey n
1993a. ii 1995a. nouanoaaiii aic?inea, iaeiaei a 1996-1997aa. i?iecioei
aa nieaeaiea (a 1997a. ia 10,4% o?iaeaeiinoue ea?oioaey ieaea, /ai a
1993a.). IIO «Ieineia» niaoeeaeece?oaony ia i?iecaiaenoaa naiyi ca?iiauo
e ea?oioaey; i oii, /oi o oicyenoaa eiaaony aieueoie iioaioeeae e
oaaee/aieth o?iaeaeiinoe naeaeaoaeuenoaoao auoai?eaaaeaiiay oaaeeoea.

?en. 4. O?iaeaeinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?.

Aeaeaa ?anniio?ei iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea aeayoaeueiinoue io?anee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa oicyenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 8.

Aeeiaieea eciaiaiee aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa,
iiaieiauey e i?iaeoeoeaiinoe.

Iieacaoaee Aiaeu Ioeeiiaiey

1997a io 1993a

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 +/- %

Aaeiaia i?iecaiae-noai iieiea, oe 22849 24418 22853 22968 21741 -1108
95,2

Aaeiaie i?e?ino E?N, oe 2540 2240 2103 1737 1470 -1070 57,9

E?N – anaai, aieia 1912 1859 1872 1767 1681 -231 87,9

a o./. ei?iau 680 638 645 616 643 -34 94,6

Oaeaeueiue aan ei?ia a noaaea, % 35,6 34,3 34,5 34,9 38,2 2,6 107,3

Oaeie ia 1 ei?iao, ea 3340 3634 3478 3614 3456 116 103,5

Auoai?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi a 1997 aiaeo
cia-/eoaeueii nieceeinue aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea (ia 4,8%) ii
n?aaiaieth n 1993 aiaeii, aaeiaie i?e?ino E?N nieceeny ia 42,1%,
iiaieiauea noaaea E?N ca 5 eao nie?aoeeinue ia 231 aieiao (ia 12,1%), a
oii /enea iiaieiauea ei?ia oiaiueoeeinue ia 37 aieia (ia 5,4%). Ii
ianiio?y ia nieaeaiea iiaieiauey ei?ia a noaaea, oaeie ia 1 ei?iao ca
aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae oaaee/eeny ia 116 ea (ia 3,5%). A oeaeii ,
iaiaoeeanue onoie/eaay oaiaeaioeey e nieaeaieth aaeiaiai i?i-ecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

Aaaeiie caaea/ae oeiainiaiai aiaeeca yaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea aaniethoiuo
iieacaoaeae oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe i?aaei?eyoey. Aeey aeaiiiai aiaeeca
eiaao ?aoathuaa cia/aiea aii?in i oii, eaeea aaniethoiua iieacaoaee
io?aaeatho nouiinoue oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iaee/ey enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey caiania e cao?ao
?ann/eoaai neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:

Oaaeeoea 9.

Iieacaoaee oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe a 1997 aiaeo, iei. ?oa.

Iieacaoaee ia ia/aei aiaea ia eiiaoe aiaea

1. Enoi/ieee nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa 100201,0 103265,2

2. Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa e aeiaeaiey 96551,1 98041,4

3. Iaee/ea nianoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey caiania e cao?ao 3650,4
5223,8

4. Aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou e caeiu 554,8 471,5

5. Iaee/ea nianoaaiiuo e aeieain?i/iuo caaiiuo enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey
caiania e cao?ao

4205,5

5695,3

6. E?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou e caeiu 1334,6 1323,5

7. Iauay aaee/eia iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey caiania e cao?ao
5540,1 7018,9

8. Iauay aaee/eia caiania e cao?ao 7203,1 9499,8

9. Eceeoae (iaaeinoaoie) nianoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
-3552,7 -4276,0

10.Eceeoae (iaaeinoaoie) nianoaaiiuo e aeieain?i/iuo caaiiuo enoi/ieeia
oi?ie?iaaiey caiania e cao?ao

-2997,6 -3804,5

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 9.

11.Eceeoae (iaaeinoaoie) iauae aaee/eiu en-oi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey caiania
e cao?ao -1663,0 -2481,0

O?aoeiiiiiaioiue iieacaoaeue oeia oeiainiaie neooaoeee S(0;0;0) S(0;0;0)

N iiiiuueth aiaeeca iieacaoaeae oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe IIO «Ieineia» iu
iieo/eee o?aoia?iue iieacaoaeue ia ia/aei e eiiaoe aiaea,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothuee i e?eceniii oeiainiaii ninoiyiee. A yoie neooaoeee
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, e?aoein?i/iua aeiaeaiey e aeoeaiua ?an/aou ia
iie?uaatho aeaaea e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe e e?aaeeoia, ia
iiaaoaiiuo a n?ie.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey niiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey iiaaoaoue naith
caaeieaeaiiinoue eniieuecothony iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe e
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. Aaeain n/eoaaony eeeaeaeiui, anee eaaeaeay a?oiia
noaoae aeoeaa iie?uaaao niioaaonoaothuoth a?oiio iaycaoaeuenoa ii
ianneao. Aiaeec eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina caeeth/aaony a n?aaiaiee n?aaenoa
ii aeoeao, na?oiie?iaaiiuo ii noaiaie eo eeeaeaeiinoe n iaycaoaeuenoaaie
ii ianneao, na?oiie?iaaiiuie ii n?ieai eo iiaaoaiey e ?anienaiiuo a
ii?yaeea aic?anoaiey n?iea.

Oaaeeoea 10.

Aiaeec eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina IIO «Ieineia» ca 1997 aiae, iei. ?oa.

Aeoea * ** Iannea * ** Eceeoae eee iaaeinoaoie A % e aaee-/eia eoiaa
ianneaa

* ** * **

Iaeai-eaa eeeaeae-iua aeoeau 3,2 2,5 Iaeai-eaa n?i/iua iaycaoa-euenoaa
3269 5769 -3266 -5767 -99,9 -99,9

Auno?i?aaeeco-aiua aeoeau 1529 2210 E?aoei-n?i/iua iayca-oaeuenoaa 1335
1323 195 887 14,6 67,0

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 10.

Iaaeeaiii?aaee-coaiua aeoeau 7283 9511 Aeieai-n?i/iua iayca-oaeuenoaa
555 471 6729 9039 1213 1917

O?oaeii-?aaeeco-aiua aeoeau 96543 108616 Iinoiyi-iua ianneau 100201
103265 3657 5351 3,6 5,2

Aaeain 105360 110829 Aaeain 105360 110829 – – – –

*- ia ia/aei aiaea

**- ia eiiaoe aiaea

Aooaaeoa?neee aaeain n/eoaaony aaniethoii eeeaeaeiui, anee auiieiythony
neaaeothuea niioiioaiey:

A 1 = I 1

A 2 = I 2

A 3 = I 3

A 4 = I 4

A aeaiiie ?aaioa aooaaeoa?neee aaeain IIO «Ieineia» ia niioaao-noaoao
noaiaie aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe, oae eae iaaeinoaoie iaeaieaa
eeeaeae-iuo aeoeaia ia iie?uaaao n?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa a 1997 a. ia
3266 iei. ?oaeae ia ia/aei aiaea e ia 5767 iei. ?oaeae ia eiiaoe aiaea.
Iaaeinoaoie iaeaieaa eeeaeaeiuo aeoeaia ia ia/aei aiaea ninoaaee – 99,9%
io aaee/eiu eoiaa a?oiiu ianneaa e -99,9% ia eiiaoe aiaea. Yoi aiai?eo i
oii, /oi o oicyenoaa ia?ooaia oaeouay eeeaeaeiinoue. Niaethaeaii o?aouea
oneiaea A3 = I3. Oaeei ia?acii, IIO a 1997 aiaeo eiaao ia?niaeoeaioth
eeeaeaeiinoue aaeaina.

A caaa?oaiea oeiainiaiai aiaeeca i?iaaaeai aiaeec ieaoaaeaniinia-iinoe
IIO «Ieineia».

Oaaeeoea 11.

Aiaeec ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe IIO «Ieineia».

Iieacaoaee Iioeiaeue-iia cia/aiea Ia ia/aei aiaea Ia eiiaoe aiaea
Eciaia-iea ca aiae

1.Eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe (0,2 0,0007 0,0004 -0,0003

2.Eiyooeoeeaio eeeaeaeiinoe (0,8 0,33 0,31 -0,02

3.Eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey 2,0 1,9 1,6 -0,3

4.Iai?ioiue eaieoae,

iei. ?oa. (0 4,21 4,63 0,42

5.Eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe (0,5 0,04 0,05 0,01

Eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ia
ia/aei 1997 aiaea IIO iiaei iiaaneoue 0,07% e?aaeeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe, a e eiioeo aiaea eeoue 0,04%. Ieceee eiyooeoeeaio
aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe aiai?eo i ianiiniaiinoe oicyenoaa ?ann/eoaoueny
ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai iaiaaeeaiii ii ia?aiio o?aaiaaieth e?aaeeoi?ia.
Eiyooeoeeaio eeeaeaeiinoe eae ia ia/aei 1997 aiaea, oae e ia eiiaoe
aiaea ia aeinoea iioeiaeueiiai cia/aiey. Iaeiaei, anee ia ia/aei aiaea
IIO «Ieineia» ia oieueei ca n/ao aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, ii e ca n/ao
iaeeaeaaiuo iinooieaiee ca ioa?oaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, auiieiaiiua
?aaiou e ieacaiiua oneoae iiaei iiaaneoue 0,33 /anoe oaeoueo
iaycaoaeuenoa, oi e eiioeo aiaea aaee/eia yoiai eiyooeoeeaioa nieceeanue
aei 0,31, /oi aiai?eo i iaaeinoaoea auno?i?aaeecoaiuo aeoeaia aeey
iie?uoey e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa, o.a. oicyenoai ia niiniaii
?ann/eoaoueny ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy.

Ca 1997 aiae cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa iie?uoey nieceeinue ia 0,3, o.a.
ieaoaaeiua aiciiaeiinoe IIO «Ieineia», ioeaieaaaiua i?e oneiaee ia
oieueei naiaa?aiaiiuo ?an/aoia n aeaaeoi?aie e aeaaii?eyoiie ?aaeecaoeee
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, ii e i?iaeaaee a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?i/eo
yeaiaioia iaoa?eaeueii-iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, iaoiaeeeenue ia iaaunieii
o?iaia.

Eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe iieacuaaao, eaeay /anoue nianoaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia aeiaeaia a iaeaieaa iaiaa?aiiua aeoeau. Ii ?ann/eouaaaony eae
ioiioaiea iai?ioiiai eaieoaea e enoi/ieeai nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e aai
cia/aiea aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa 0,5. A 1997 aiaeo eiyooeoeeaio
iaiaa?aiiinoe aeaeae io iioeiaeueiiai cia/aiey (0,05), /oi aiai?eo i
iaaeinoaoea nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a oicyenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaei?eyoea iaoiaeeony a e?eceniii oeiainiaii ninoiyiee
e yaeyaony iaeieeeaeaeiui. NIAA?OAINOAIAAIEA O*AOA ?AAEECAOeEE
NAEUeNEIOICssENOAAIIIE I?IAeOEOeEE A IIO «IEINEIA»

3.1. Cia/aiea e caaea/e o/aoa i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee.

N ?acaeoeai ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee oneeeaaaony aieiaiea iiiaeo eo o/anoieeia
(i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, aooaaeoa?ia, yeiiiienoia, th?enoia e ae?oaeo
iieueciaaoaeae) e aooaaeoa?neie eioi?iaoeee eae iaeiiio ec aaaeiaeoeo
eino?oiaioia yoeo ioiioaiee, ana aeooaeueiaa noaiiaeony i?iaeaia
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e eae iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu, e
eae i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Anooieaiea ?O a ?uii/iua ioiioaiey
naycaii n iiiaaeaieai iaoeo i?aaei?eyoee a ciio oicyenoaaiiie
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e iiauoaiiiai ?enea. Iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa ii
ia?aoiaeo e ?uieo oi?ie?oao iiaua oneiaey aaaeaiey oicyenoaa eae ia
o?iaia naiiai i?aaei?eyoey, oae e ia o?iaia aai iiae?acaeaeaiee. Iauae e
iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie yoeo oneiaee yaeyaony i?aaeinoaaeaiea
eieeaeoeaai yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu, oi anoue aiciiaeiinoae inouanoaeyoue
oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a ia?o naieo niiniaiinoae. Iieo/ea i?aai
ia naiinoiyoaeueiia caeeth/aiea naeaeie ia aioo?aiiai e aiaoiai ?uiea,
aieueoeinoai i?aaei?eyoee aia?aua noaei ia?aae i?iaeaiie ioeaiee
oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey e iaaeaaeiinoe iioaioeeaeueiuo ia?oia?ia. A yoeo
oneiaeyo ?acei aic?inei cia/aiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Eae
ecaanoii, i?e auai?a i?aaei?eyoey-ia?oia?a iaycaoaeueii o/eouaaaony aai
oeiainiaia ninoiyiea, iieacaoaeyie eioi?iai ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie iiaeao
neoaeeoue e i?eiaiyaiue aa?eaio o/aoa ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.
Iai?eia?, anee ioeaiea oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey aeaaony ia
iniiaa iieacaoaeae eeeaeaeiinoe, oi i?e ?an/aoa niioaaonoaothueo
iieacaoaeae (i?iiaaeooi/iiai eiyooeoeeaioa iie?uoey e eiyooeoeeaioa
oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe) o/eouaaaony e aaee/eia aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe, ?acia? eioi?ie (i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo) caaeneo io
aa?eaioa o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. Aeaeueiaeoaa «auaeeaaiea»
i?aaei?eyoey iai?yioth naycaii n aai aeioiaeiinoueth, n aai
niiniaiinoueth iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naith ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue. Oeiainiaue
?acoeueoao – aaaeiaeoee eoiaiaue iieacaoaeue oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. A iai iaoiaeyo io?aaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea anao eiathueony o i?aaei?eyoey ?ano?nia, o?iaaiue
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, oe?aieaiea ?aaeeia yeiiiiee, iiaeeecaoeee
aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo ?aca?aia, ninoiyiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia
i?aaei?eyoee.

Aooaaeoa?neea ?aaeno?u o/aoa i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee e oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ca io/aoiue ia?eiae neoaeao
iieacaoaeai aeinoeaiooiai i?aaei?eyoeai eiiia?/aneiai yooaeoa e
yaeythony e?eoa?eai auai?a iioeiaeueiuo iai?aaeaiee e iaoiaeia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a aoaeouai.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee yaeythony neaaeothuea:

eiio?ieue ca auiieiaieai ieaia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii aa aeaeai,
eiee/anoao, ea/anoao e iai?aaeaieyi ?aaeecaoeee;

i?aaeeueiia e naiaa?aiaiiia ninoaaeaiea anao ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia,
io?aaeathueo i?ioeann ?aaeecaoeee;

eiio?ieue ca niioaaonoaothuei i?eiaiaieai ?aaeecaoeeiiiuo oeai;

eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai ?an/aoia n caaioiaeoaeueiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e
i?i/eie iieoiaoaeyie e caeac/eeaie e ca naiaa?aiaiiia iinooieaiea
i?e/eoathuaeny au?o/ee a oicyenoai;

auyaeaiea oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e
oneoa ia noi?iio, iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e i?i/eo aeoeaia.

Ana yoe caaea/e ?aoathony iooai i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeeueiiai
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa, ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iino?iaiey aiaeeoe/aneiai e
neioaoe/aneiai o/aoa i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee aeaaiaea?y i?eiaiaieth
i?ia?anneaiuo oi?i e iaoiaeia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaenoaaeyao naeueneioicyenoaaiiui
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyi oe?ieee auai? oi?i e niiniaia ?aaeecaoeee.

Aeey IIO «Ieineia» a iaaeaaiai i?ioeii iniiaiie oi?iie ?aaeecaoeee
yaeyeenue caeoiee caaioiaeoaeueiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie ii aeiaiai?ai n
i?aaei?eyoeai. I?e yoie oi?ia ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee anth ?aaioo ii caeeth/aieth aeiaiai?ia i?aaiecotho
ainoaea?noaaiiua caeac/eee. Iie inouanoaeytho naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia
iniiaaiee niioaaonoaothueo eeoeaicee. Ia ieo aea aiceiaeaii ii?aaeaeaiea
eiie?aoiuo iinoaaueeia e iieoiaoaeae i?iaeoeoeee, nu?uey e
i?iaeiaieuenoaey, niaeaniaaiea n iieoiaoaeai anni?oeiaioa, iauaiia e
n?ieia iinoaaie i?iaeoeoeee a niioaaonoaee n aeiaaaeaiiuie aei ieo
caaeaieyie ia i?aaenoiyuee ia?eiae [ ].

Oaeaea a aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniao?eaathony naieoeee ca iaiaaeeaaeauaa
eniieiaiea oneiaee aeiaiai?a. *aoeia eniieiaiea i?aaei?eyoeai naieo
iaycaoaeuenoa ii caeeth/aiiui aeiaiai?ai eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea i?aaeaea
anaai aeey naiiai i?aaei?eyoey, iiauoaao aai aaoi?eoao, niaeaenoaoao aai
onoie/eainoe a ?aaioa a oneiaeyo ?uiea.

A niioaaonoaee n caeeth/aiiui aeiaiai?ii aooaaeoa?ey auienuaaao e
ia?aaeaao ia neeaae aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee aeey eniieiaiey
i?eeac-iaeeaaeioth ia ioa?oceo (ioi?aaeo) i?iaeoeoeee iio?aaeoaeyi. Anee
i?iaeoeoeey ioioneaaony ni neeaaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aaenoaaeoaeth
iieoiaoaey, oi caaaaeothuee neeaaeii o?aaoao o iaai aeiaa?aiiinoue ia
iieo/aiea a?oca, a i?aaenoaaeoaeue iieoiaoaey aeaao a i?eeaca-iaeeaaeiie
?anieneo i oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiii a?oca.

Iaeiaei, eae i?aaeei, i?iaeoeoeey ioi?aaeyaony iieoiaoaeth aac o/anoey
aai i?aaenoaaeoaey aaoiiiaeeueiui o?ainii?oii. A yoii neo/aa
o?ainii?oiay i?aaiecaoeey ioi?ieyao i?iaiciua aeieoiaiou, eioi?ua
yeniaaeeoi? ia?aaeaao a aooaaeoa?eth aeey ioiaoee ia eniieiaiee
aeiaiai?a-iinoaaee e auienee n/aoa-oaeoo?u. N/ao-oaeoo?a auienuaaaony a
aeaoo yecaiiey?ao. Ia?aue a?o/aaony ieaoaeueueeo ia iicaeiaa 10 aeiae n
aeaou ioa?ocee i?iaeoeoeee (auiieiaiey ?aaio, ieacaiey oneoa), a aoi?ie
o?aieony a IIO «Ieineia» a aeo?iaea o/aoa auaeaaaaiuo n/aoia-oaeoo?.

Anee i?iaeoeoeeth auaiceo i?aaenoaaeoaeue iieoiaoaey, oi a n/aoa-oaeoo?a
oeacuaatho aeaoo e iiia? iaoeiu, ia eioi?ie auaacaia i?iaeoeoeey. I?e
ioi?aaea i?iaeoeoeee iieoiaoaeth o?ainii?oiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie a n/aoa
ioia/atho: aeae o?ainii?oa, eiee/anoai iano, aan, iiia? e aeaoo
o?ainii?oiiai aeieoiaioa. Caoai aiinyo naaaeaiey ia ioi?aaeyaiuo
oeaiiinoyo: iaeiaiiaaiea i?iaeoeoeee e oa?u, ioaeaeueiuie ii?oeeyie –
iaeiaiaua ieaoaaee n iieoiaoaey.

O?ainii?oiue oa?eo, iiea/aiiue iinoaaueeii e iiaeeaaeauee aiciauaieth
iieoiaoaeai, a n/aoa-oaeoo?a aeieaeai auoue iieacai ioaeaeueiie no?ieie,
iaeiaei a IIO «Ieineia» yoiai ia aeaeaaony. I?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a
aeaaiue yeiiiieno IIO «Ieineia» ninoaaeyao ?an/ao noieiinoe oneoa ia
ia?aaiceo neioa e eaeueeoeyoeeth ia o?ainii?oe?iaeo iieiea ia
ai?iieieicaaiae. I?e ia?aaicea neioa a yoii ?an/aoa niaea?aeaony
neaaeothuea aeaeu cao?ao: ia?aaicea (?annoiyiea) a iaa eiioea, a?aiy
noiyiee iiae iia?oceie e ?aca?oceie, a?aiy iaoiaeaeaiey a iooe,
noieiinoue 1 /ana ?aaiou, noieiinoue 1 ei i?iaaaa e aanue i?iaaa, eoiai,
ieaiiaia iaeiieaiea (25%), anaai ?anoiaeia.

?an/ao ia o?ainii?oe?iaeo iieiea aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea noaouee
cao?ao: ca?aaioiay ieaoa n ia/eneaieyie, oiieeai, oaeouee ?aiiio,
aii?oecaoeey, niaoeiaeaaeaea, oneoae, iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu (9% io iaueo
cao?ao), ieaiiaua iaeiieaiey (25%). Oaeea ?an/aou a IIO «Ieineia»
ninoaaeythony a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao: iaeei inoaaony a oicyenoaa, aoi?ie –
ioi?aaeyaony iieoiaoaeyi i?iaeoeoeee e ia aai iniiaaiee i?iecaiaeyony
?an/aou ca ieacaiiua oneoae ii o?ainii?oe?iaea.

I?e onoaiiaeaiee ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ca i?iaeaaeo
iaea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee neaaeoao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny
niioaaonoaothueie noaoueyie A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?O.

Ia i?aeoeea ia?ooaiea oneiaee aeiaiai?a /aua iaaethaeaeinue ni noi?iiu
caeac/eeia. Caaioiaeoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee ia niaoeee ?ann/eouaaoueny ii
naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai. A yoii neo/aa caeac/eee auiea/eaatho oicyenoao
oo?aou e iaie ca eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee. Iaeiaei, enee a noae ia
iieoiaoaeae, ia iieaoeaoeo i?iaeoeoeeth nianai, IIO ia iiaeaaaei ie
?aco. I?e/eio yoiai aeaaiue yeiiiieno oicyenoaa iauynieoue ioeacaeanue.
Oaeei ia?acii, noieiinoue oiaa?ia, ia iiea/aiiuo a n?ie iieoiaoaeyie IIO
«Ieineia» ii eoiaai io/aoiiai aiaea ioiineo ia oauoee i?aaei?eyoey. A
iineaaeiaa a?aiy oicyenoai ii/oe iieiinoueth ia?aoei ia aa?oa?iue ?an/ao
e acaeiica/aou. ?an/aou eaeoo a iniiaiii ia a aeaiaaeiie, a a
iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia.

O IIO «Ieineia» oaniua acaeiiioiioaiey n III «Einiie» (aei/a?iaa
i?aaei?eyoea Eino?iineiai ai?iieieicaaiaea), n AI «Eino?iiaoeaa». Aeaaii
iaeaaeaiiua yeiiiie/aneea acaeiiioiioaiey o oicyenoaa n iynieiiaeiaoii e
Ieaiaeeaiauaaeeiaieai. Iaeiaei, IIO euao iiaua eaiaeu nauoa, oioue e a
iacia/eoaeueiii ?acia?a, ii ?aaeecothony naiaia ca?iiauo e ea?oioaey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi Aaei?onnee, a oaeaea Iineianeie,
Eaaiianeie, ?inoianeie Iaeanoyi.

Iyni a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ?aaeecotho /a?ac ea?ae, iaoiaeyueeny ia
oa??eoi?ee oicyenoaa, /a?ac oi?aiaoth naoue. Yoi aeaao oicyenoao
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue iaee/iua aeaiueae, a oaeaea ecaaaeaoue
iaieaoaaeae ni noi?iiu iieoiaoaeae. ?aaeecaoeey iieiea eaeao a III
«Einiie», AI «Eino?iiaoeaa» e ieiei 20% iieiea ?aaeecotho /a?ac
oi?aiaoth naoue. N?aaee iieoiaoaeae iieiea e iyna oaeaea neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue EAIO e Ieineoth naeueneoth aaeieieno?aoeeth. E?iia ?aaeecaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee IIO auiieiyao ?aaiou e ieacuaaao
oneoae ia noi?iio. E iei ioiinyo ia?aaicee a?oca o?ainii?oii oicyenoaa,
auiieiaiea ?aiiioiuo ?aaio, oneoae AEEO, oneoae noieiaie e oaaeiiai
oeaoa e o.ae.

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a i?aaei?eyoee aaaeaony ii aeo?iaeueii-i?aea?iie
oi?ia, a o./. o/ao i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee. AEo?iae-i?aea? ii yoiio n/aoo
aaaeaony ii e?aaeeoo, oaeaea a IIO «Ieineia» i?eiaiyaony Aeaaiay eieaa,
eioi?ay yaeyaony iaiauathuei neioaoe/aneei ?aaeno?ii, eniieuecoaiui aeey
ninoaaeaiey io/aoiiai aaeaina.

A oicyenoaa iiyoaiii aiaae?yaony aaoiiaoecaoeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia
eiiiuethoa?a PS -486. Auea i?eia?aoaia i?ia?aiia «Eioei»,
«Iaene-aooaaeoa?ey». A ianoiyuaa a?aiy inaiai iiaeoeue «Ca?ieaoa» – n
iiiiuueth yoie i?ia?aiiu cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/eeny ia?an/ao oa?eoiuo
noaaie ca?aaioiie ieaou e o.ae. N iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?a aaaeaony
caiieiaiea Aeaaiie eieae. Aeaiiua a eiiiuethoa? caiinyony ia iniiaaiee
iiaeoeaie ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia ii eaaeaeiio n/aoo. Iinea aianaiey
aeaiiuo aeaeathony ?ania/aoee iai?ioiuo aaaeiiinoae ii eaaeaeiio n/aoo,
aeo?iaeu-i?aea?a e iai?ioiue aaeain ca ianyoe.

Ia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiue o/ao oicyenoai ia?aoei eeoue /anoe/ii e iiyoiio
aaaeiiinoe, aeo?iaeu-i?aea?a e Aeaaiay eieaa aeoaee?othony a?o/ioth,
o.a. ninoaaeythony ia?aeeaeueii n ia?niiaeueiui eiiiuethoa?ii. N 1998
aiaea a IIO «Ieineia» iiyoaiii aiaae?yaony aaoiiaoece?iaaiiue o/ao
i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa.

Ia?ae/iue o/ao i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa.

Aeey aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey iia?aoeee ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
i?aaeoniio?aiu niioaaonoaothuea ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou. Ia eaaeaeoth
ia?oeth ca?ia, ioi?aaeyaioth ia caaioiaeoaeueiua ioieou, a IIO «Ieineia»
auienuaatho i?aaeoniio?aiioth ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie
oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oioth iaeeaaeioth ia ioi?aaeo-i?eaieo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (oi?ia ?1 n-o/ca?ii). I?e ?aaeecaoeee
ca?ia n ni?oiauo iinaaia e oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiie iaeeaaeiie i?eeaaatho
ni?oiaua oaeinoiaa?aiey (oi?ia ? 213).

Ia eaaeaeoth ia?oeth iieiea, ioi?aaeyaiiai ia i?eaiiua ioieou, ia
iieieicaaiae, a iaaaceiu, aeaoneea o/?aaeaeaiey e o.i. a IIO «Ieineia»
auienuaatho oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oioth iaeeaaeioth ia ioi?aaeo iieiea e
iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia (oi?ia ?1-no (iienu?uea)). I?e ioi?aaea aeeaioiuo ia
i?eaiiua ioieou iynieiiaeiaoa a oicyenoaa auienuaatho
oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oioth iaeeaaeioth (oi?ia ?1-no (aeeaioiua)), e eioi?ie
i?eeaaatho aaoa?eia?iia naeaeaoaeuenoai.

Iineieueeo a IIO «Ieineia» oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe n/eoathony
?aaeeciaaiiuie ia a iiiaio iieaou, a ii ia?a naea/e, ioionea eee
ioa?ocee caaioiaeoaeueiui e ae?oaei i?aaiecaoeeyi, oi
oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiua iaeeaaeiua neoaeao iniiaaieai aeey nienaiey
ioi?aaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a ?aaeecaoeeth. I?e ioi?aaea i?iaeoeoeee ?aciui
i?aaiecaoeeyi (e?iia caaioiaeoaeueiuo) IIO «Ieineia» auienuaaao
n/aoa-oaeoo?u. N 1 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea a IIO i?eiaiythony iiaua oi?iu
n/aoia-oaeoo?, eioi?ua a ioee/ea io noa?uo oi?i yaeythony aieaa iieiuie
a /anoe io?aaeaiey noii iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

I?iaeoeou ia iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea a noieiaoth IIO ioioneatho ii
iaeeaaeiui (aioo?eoicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey) (oi?ia ? 87) e
eeieoii-caai?iui ea?oai (oi?ia ? 117). Ioione i?iaeoeoeee aeey
?aaeecaoeee aa ?aai/ei oicyenoaa /a?ac ea?ae ioi?ieytho oaeaea
iaeeaaeiuie. Nenoaiaoe/anee i?iaeaaaoe i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeyao a aeaoo
yecaiiey?ao «Io/ao i i?iaeaaea naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee» ia
aeaiea i?iecaieueiie oi?iu, a eioi?ie io?aaeaaony eae aeaeaeaiea
i?iaeoeoeee, ioiouaiiie /a?ac ea?ae aeey ?aaeecaoeee, oae e aeaeaeaiea
aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee.

I?e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ioaeaeueiui ?aaioieeai oicyenoaa e ?aciui
eeoeai ni neeaaeia ca iaee/iue ?an/ao eniieuecotho iaeeaaeiua oi?iu ?87
e i?eoiaeiue eanniaue i?aea? (oeiiaay oi?ia ?EI-1), oioy niaeanii
ienueia Ieioeia ?O io 26.04.95a. ? 16-00-30-35 aeey yoeo oeaeae
iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue eaeoaioeeth (oeiiaay oi?ia na?ey AA ? 155184)
(i?eeiaeaiey ?1), eioi?ay yaeyaony aeaieii no?iaie io/aoiinoe.
Eaeoaioeeth aeieaeiu auienuaaoue a 3 yecaiiey?ao. Ia?aue yecaiiey?
eaeoaioeee neoaeeo i?eoiaeiui eanniaui i?aea?ii, aoi?ie io/aoiui
aeieoiaioii iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiiai eeoea, o?aoee yecaiiey? ioaeatho
caeac/eeo (iieoiaoaeth).

Ioione i?iaeoeoeee ?aaioieeai IIO a n/ao iieaou o?oaea ioi?ieytho
aaaeiiinoyie, a eioi?uo iieo/athuea iaoo?aeueioth iieaoo ?anienuaathony
a aa iieo/aiee. Aaaeiiinoe iiaeienuaatho ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaei?eyoey e
aeaaiue aooaaeoa?. Ia auiieiaiiua ia noi?iio ?aaiou e oneoae IIO
«Ieineia» auienuaaao n/aoa-oaeoo?u. Ana caaioiaeoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee ia
i?eiyooth i?iaeoeoeeth auienuaatho i?eaiiua eaeoaioeee. A ieo
oeacuaatho, eaeay i?iaeoeoeey auea i?eiyoa, a eaeii eiee/anoaa e
i?e/eoathuayny ca iaa ieaoa. I?e i?eaia i?iaeoeoeee a n/ao auiieiaiey
caeeth/aiiuo aeiaiai?ia i?inoaaeytho oece/aneoth e ca/aoioth ianno. A
aeiaiai?a iaiaa?eaaaony (i?e ?aaeecaoeee iieiea) eae aoaeao i?ioiaeeoue
i?iaeaaea: n o/aoii aee?iinoe eee aac. Anee i?iaeaaea aoaeao i?ioiaeeoue
aac o/aoa aee?iinoe, oi ii i/aiue auaiaeiie aeey IIO oeaia, anee n
o/aoii aee?iinoe – oi i?e ?aaeecaoeee iieiea iieoiaoaeyi aeaeatho
ia?an/ao ia aee?iinoue.

A caaeneiinoe io aeaea ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee a IIO «Ieineia»
i?eiaiytho neaaeothuea i?eaiiua eaeoaioeee: ia caeoieo neioa, ioeoeu e
e?ieeeia o eieoicia, niaoicia e ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo oicyenoa (oi?ia
? IE-1), iieiea e iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia (? IE -3).

Oaeaea a IIO «Ieineia» iinooiaao ioaan-iaeeaaeiay (oi?ia ? I-22-iyni).
Eaaeaeay ec ia?a/eneaiiuo oi?i aeeth/aao a naay niioaaonoaothuea
?aeaeceou, io?aaeathuea iniaua oa?aeoa?enoeee ii ecia?aieth ea/anoaa,
iannu e ae?oaea iaiaoiaeeiua ia?aiao?u oiai eee eiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee.
Anee aeieoiaiou ii ioi?aaea i?iaeoeoeee (oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua
iaeeaaeiua e ae?.) yaeythony iniiaaieai aeey nienaiey i?iaeoeoeee n
inoaoeia e ioianaiey ia ?aaeecaoeeth, oi i?eaiiua eaeoaioeee yaeythony
iniiaaieai aeey ia/eneaiey au?o/ee ca ?aaeeciaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. Ana
ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou, iinooiathuea a aooaaeoa?eth, a aeaeueiaeoai iinea
i?iaa?ee a?oiie?otho e ?aaeno?e?otho a niioaaonoaothueo ?aaeno?ao.

A oeaeii ia?ae/iue o/ao ?aaeecaoeee a IIO «Ieineia» i?aaieciaai a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia. Ana aeieoiaiou
caiieiythony iieii e ea/anoaaiii, naiaa?aiaiii iinooiatho a aooaaeoa?eth
ec i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Iniiaiui iaaeinoaoeii ia?ae/iiai o/aoa i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee a IIO
«Ieineia» yaeyaony oi, /oi /anoue aeieoiaioia caiieiyaony ia aeaieao
i?iecaieueiie oi?iu, ca /anooth ia niioaaonoaothueo oeiiaui oi?iai
aeieoiaioaoeee. I?eiaiaiea i?iecaieueiuo oi?i aeieoiaioia iaoneiaeaii
iaoaaoeie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia i?eia?aoaiea aeieoiaioia oeiiaie oi?iu.
Aeaiee i?iecaieueiie oi?iu i?eiaiythony i?e ioi?ieaiee aaaeiiinoae ia
auaea/o iaoo?iieaou ?aai/ei, ia ioi?ieaiea ?anoiaeaeaiey a ca/aoiie e
iaoo?aeueiie ianna iieiea i?e naea/a aai a III «Einiie» ninoaaeyaony aeo
naa?ee. A yoii aeieoiaioa io?aaeaaony ?anoiaeaeaiea a aana naeaaaaiiai e
i?eieiaaiiai a caaioiaeoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee iieiea, aeaoa naea/e
iieiea, iaeiaiiaaiea caaioiaeoaey. Oaeea aeaiiua, eae aee?iinoue,
ni?oiinoue iieiea a yoii aeieoiaioa ia oeao?e?otho. Aeaiee i?iecaieueiie
oi?iu ia niaea?aeao eioi?iaoeee ia ioi?aaeaiiie eee ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee a iieiii iauaia, oae eae iie ?ac?aaioaiu aooaaeoa?aie
oicyenoaa e niaea?aeao ieieiaeueiue ia?a/aiue ?aeaeceoia, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey aeaeueiaeoaai o/aoa i?iaeoeoeee.

A aeaeueiaeoae ?aaioa oicyenoaa oaeia ianiaethaeaiea i?aaee aaaeaiey
ia?ae/iie aeieoiaioaoeee iiaeao i?eaanoe e na?ueaciui ia?ooaieyi a
o/aoa. Iiyoiio aeaaiiio aooaaeoa?o oicyenoaa iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue
iniaia aieiaiea ia ono?aiaiea auoaia?a/eneaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia.

Neioaoe/aneee e aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao i?ioeanna

?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa.

Aeey io?aaeaiey ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa, a oaeaea
?an/aoia n iieoiaoaeyie a ieaia oaeouaai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee i?aaeoniio?aii o?e neioaoe/aneeo
n/aoa: 46 «?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)», 62 «?an/aou n
iieoiaoaeyie e caeac/eeaie», 43 «Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu».[ 5 ]

N/ao 46 yaeyaony iia?aoeeiiiui, niiinoaaeythuei. N iiiiuueth yoiai n/aoa
inouanoaeytho eiio?ieue ca oiaeii i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee e auyaeytho
oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua oicyenoaii io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiiuo ?aaio e ieacaiiuo oneoa ia noi?iio, a oaeaea
naiaio eaieoaeueiiio no?ieoaeuenoao.

A IIO «Ieineia» ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 46 o/eouaathony noiiu io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee – ii aaeainiaie noieiinoe, iieiaeiyea e aeeaioiuo ia
au?aueaaiee e ioei?ia, ?aaio e oneoa ia noi?iio ii oaeoe/aneie
noieiinoe, a oaeaea noiiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey 20,23,26 n/aoia e ae?.

Neio, i?eiyoue io ianaeaiey aeey ?aaeecaoeee nia/aea i?eoiaeoaony ia
Aeaaao 11 n/aoa «AEeaioiua ia au?aueaaiee e ioei?ia» n E?aaeeoa 76 n/aoa
«?an/aou n ?aciuie aeaaeoi?aie e e?aaeeoi?aie» noan/ao 5 «Caeoiea neioa
o ianaeaiey aeey ?aaeecaoeee», a caoai noaaeony ia Aeaaao n/aoa 46.

Ii E?aaeeoo n/aoa 46 a IIO io?aaeathony noiiu io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa, nienuaathony i?iaeoeou nianoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia i?eaioiaeaiea aethae noieiauo ii ioioneiui oeaiai e
ae?.

Niiinoaaeaieai eoiaa aeaaaoiaiai iai?ioa ii n/aoo 46 n e?aaeeoiaui
auyaeytho oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee. I?aauoaiea e?aaeeoiaiai
iai?ioa iaae aeaaaoiaui ii?aaeaeyao aaee/eio iieo/aiiie i?eauee. A
neo/aa i?aauoaiey aeaaaoiaiai iai?ioa iaae e?aaeeoiaui oicyenoai
iieo/aao oauoie io ?aaeecaoeee.

Iieiay (eiiia?/aneay) naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (aeaaao
n/aoa 46) aeeth/aao a naay:

i?iecaiaenoaaiioth naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee;

?anoiaeu ii ?aaeecaoeee, ia aiciauaaiua iieoiaoaeyie (iia?ocea,
aua?ocea, o?ainii?o, ni?oe?iaea, oiaeiaea e o.i.);

i?i/ea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee (niaea?aeaiea
ea?ueea, iaaeinoa/e ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a i?aaeaeao ii?i
anoanoaaiiie oauee e o.i.).

Auyaeaiea oaeoe/aneiai oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaa oaeouaai aiaea ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo aiciiaeii eeoue a eiioea aiaea, oae eae oieueei a yoi
a?aiy iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aa oaeoe/aneoth naaanoieiinoue. Iiyoiio a
oa/aiea aiaea ?aaeeciaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth nienuaatho ia aeaaao n/aoa 46
«?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa» a ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe.
Aeiaiaeyo aa aei oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe a eiioea aiaea iooai
ei??aeoe?iai/iuo caienae iinea i?iaaaeaiey ?an/aoia naaanoieiinoe.
Auyaeaiiue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao nienuaatho ni n/aoa 46, n/ao cae?uaatho
e a caeeth/eoaeueiii aaeaina ii ia oeao?e?oao.

E n/aoo 46 ioe?uoi 3 noan/aoa: 1. ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee
?anoaieaaiaenoaa, 2. ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, 3.
?aaeecaoeey i?i/ay. Ii eaaeaeiio ec noan/aoia ioe?uou aiaeeoe/aneea
n/aoa: ii ia?aiio – ii aeaeai eoeueoo?; ii aoi?iio – ii iieieo, iyno a
oaieiii aana, naea/a neioa ainoaea?noao, ieaiaiiie neio; ii o?aoueaio –
ii aeaeai i?iiuoeaiiiuo i?iecaiaenoa.

Aioo?e aiaeeoe/aneeo n/aoia o/ao no?iyo ii neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi
?aaeecaoeee:

i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noao;

i?iaeaaea ?aaioieeai oicyenoaa e ioione i?iaeoeoeee ia iauanoaaiiia
ieoaiea

auaea/a iaoo?ie a n/ao iieaou o?oaea;

i?iaeaaea a oi?aiaoth naoue;

?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa ca iaee/iue ?an/ao;

aa?oa?iue ?an/ao.

N/ao 46 «?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)» a IIO «Ieineia»
ei??aniiiaee?oao ni neaaeothueie n/aoaie: a oa/aiea aiaea ia Aeaaao
n/aoa 46 caienuaatho noiiu n E?aaeeoa n/aoia: 40 «Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey»,
11 «AEeaioiua ia au?aueaaiee e ioei?ia», 20 «Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai»
,noan/aoa 1. «?anoaieaaiaenoai», 2. «AEeaioiiaiaenoai», 3. «I?iiuoeaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai», 23 «Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa», 29 «Ianeoaeeaathuea
i?iecaiaenoaa e oicyenoaa».

Ia e?aaeeoa n/aoa 46 «?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)» a oa/aiea
aiaea io?aaeatho ia/eneaiioth noiio au?o/ee e iaeiia?aiaiii aeaaaootho:
n/ao 60 «?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie e iiae?yae/eeaie», e eioi?iio a IIO
«Ieineia» ioe?uoi aeaa noan/aoa: 1. Iinoaaueee e iieoiaoaee, 2.
Caaioiaeoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee. 62 n/ao «?an/aou n iieoiaoaeyie e
caeac/eeaie» a oicyenoaa oi?acaeiai aeey oaeianoaa (/oiau aeaaaeaey ia
aiineoue anao iinoaaueeia e iieoiaoaeae a eiiiuethoa?). N aieueoeinoaii
ec yoeo i?aaei?eyoee IIO eniieuecoao acaeiica/aou e aa?oa?iue ?an/ao,
iiyoiio io?aaeaiea ?an/aoia ni anaie iinoaaueeaie e iieoiaoaeyie aieaa
oaeiaii ia iaeiii n/aoa; n/ao 70 «?an/aou n ia?niiaeii ii iieaoa
o?oaea», 71 «?an/aou n iiaeio/aoiuie eeoeaie», 76 «?an/aou n ?aciuie
aeaaeoi?aie e e?aaeeoi?aie» noan/ao 7 «I?i/ea».

?anniio?ei oaia?ue, eaeea aooaaeoa?neea caiene ninoaaeythony a IIO
«Ieineia» i?e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii eaaeaeiio ec auoaia?a/eneaiiuo
eaiaeia.

Ii n/aoo 46 noan/aoo 1:

i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noao – Ae 46-1 E 40-1 – ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee
?anoaieaaiaenoaa caaioiaeoaeueiui i?aaiecaoeeyi; Ae 60-2 E 46-1 –
io?aaeaiea noii, aeeth/ay IAeN, i?aaeuyaeaiiuo caaioiaeoaeueiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi ca ?aaeeciaaiioth ei i?iaeoeoeeth ?anoaieaaiaenoaa;

i?iaeaaea ?aaioieeai oicyenoaa e ioione i?iaeoeoeee ia iauanoaaiiia
ieoaiea: Ae 76-7 E 46-1 – i?iaeaaea iceiie ioaieoeu ?aaioieeai oicyenoaa
ia noiio 5590090 ?oaeae a eiee/anoaa 76000 ea ca iaee/iue ?an/ao ii
oeaiai ?aaeecaoeee, aeeth/ay IAeN Ae 46-1 E 68- ia noiio IAeN a ?acia?a
5590009 ?oa.;

auaea/a iaoo?ie a n/ao iieaou o?oaea: Ae 46-1 E 10-9 – nienaiea ca?ia ii
ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe a eiee/anoaa 76000 ea ia noiio 48377460 ?oa.;

Ae 70 E 46-1 – auaea/a ca?ia a n/ao iieaou o?oaea ia noiio 48377460
?oaeae a eiee/anoaa 76000 ea a ioeaiea ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe ia
iniiaaiee aaaeiiinoe;

i?iaeaaea a oi?aiaoth naoue: Ae 46-1 E 40 – ?aaeeciaai ea?oioaeue a
naiaoi?ee «Eiein» a eiee/anoaa 1500 ea ia noiio 1800000 ?oaeae a ioeaiea
ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe;

Ae 46-1 E 68 – ia noiio IAeN a ?acia?a 180000 ?oaeae.

Ae 60-1 E 46-1 – ii oeaiai ?aaeecaoeee ia noiio 2340000 ?oaeae;

?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa ca iaee/iue ?an/ao : Ae 46-1 E
40-1 – ?aaeeciaaii 30000 ea iceiie ioaieoeu ia noiio 20777460 ?oaeae
AICO «Ia?aooneia» a ioeaiea ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe.

Ae 46-1 E 68 – ia noiio IAeN a ?acia?a 2077746 ?oaeae.

Ae 76-7 E 46-1 – io?aaeaiea noii ?aaeecaoeee iceiie ioaieoeu, aeeth/ay
IAeN ia noiio 24545454 ?oaey;

a oneiaeyo iaieaoaaeae a iineaaeiaa a?aiy IIO «Ieineia» oe?iei
eniieuecoao aa?oa?iue ?an/ao. A yoii neo/aa ninoaaeythony neaaeothuea
aooaaeoa?neea caiene:

Ae 46-1 E 40-1 – iaiai iceiie ?aee a ioeaiea ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe
ia noiio 7740000 ?oaeae a eiee/anoaa 14190 oe

Ae 60-1 E 46-1 – ioianaii ia nie?ocaaiae 1419 oe iceiie ?aee ii oeaiai
?aaeecaoeee a noiia 10216000 ?oaeae.

I?e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aioo?e aiaeeoe/aneeo n/aoia
o/ao no?iyo ii neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee:

?aaeecaoeey /a?ac ea?ae:

Ae 46-2 E 40 – ?aaeeciaaii 5669 e iieiea /a?ac ea?ae IIO «Ieineia» ia
noiio 11347720 ?oaeae a ioeaiea ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe, a oii /enea:

?aaeeciaaii ca iaee/iue ?an/ao 3504,5 e iieiea ia noiio 3823091 ?oaeue
ii oeaiai ?aaeecaoeee: Ae 76-7 E 46-2;

@?acia?a 18436208 ?oaeae.

?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa /a?ac oi?aiaoth naoue ?acee/iui
i?aaei?eyoeyi:

Ae 46-2 E 40-2 – iieiei a naiaoi?ee «Eiein» a eiee/anoaa 1745 e ii
ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe a noiia 3385300 ?oaeae.

Ae 60-1 E 46-2 – iieiei a eiee/anoaa 1745 e ii oeaiai ?aaeecaoeee ia
noiio 2002000 ?oaeae ioianaii ia naiaoi?ee «Eiein».

?aaeecaoeey iieiea ca iaee/iue ?an/ao oe?ia «Oi?aiiioaae»: Ae 46-2 E
40-2 – ?aaeeciaaii 710 e iieiea a ioeaiea ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe ia
noiio 1377400 ?oaeae.

Ae 76-7 E 46-2 – ioianaiea noii a ?acia?a 814273 ?oaey ca 710 e iieiea
ii oeaiai ?aaeecaoeee ia «Oi?aiiioaae»;

naea/a neioa ainoaea?noao: Ae 46-2 E 40-1- naeaii ainoaea?noao 5390 ea
iyna ia noiio 36382500 ?oaeae a ioeaiea ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe.

Ae 60-1 E 46-2 – ioianaii ia iieoiaoaeae ii oeaiai ?aaeecaoeee a noiia
20392000 ?oaeae ca naeaiiue neio a ca/aoiie ianna 5266 ea.

Ia 46 n/aoa 3 noan/aoa o/ao aioo?e aiaeeoe/aneeo n/aoia no?iyo ii
neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee:

i?iaeaaea ca iaee/iue ?an/ao;

auaea/a iaoo?ie a n/ao iieaou o?oaea (iyni, iaaic, ecaeaeey oaaeiiai
oeaoa);

?aaeecaoeey /a?ac ea?ae iyna a neo/ayo auioaeaeaiiiai eee niaoeeaeueiiai
caaiy aeeaioiuo;

?aaeecaoeey a n/ao ?an/aoia.

I?e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a n/ao acaeiica/aoia a IIO «Ieineia»
ninoaaeythony neaaeothuea aooaaeoa?neea caiene: Ae 46-3 E 10-1 –
?aaeecaoeey ni neeaaea IIO iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeee III «Einiie» Ai?aaco ia
noiio 7635076 ?oaeae (eaoe?, niaoaia, neeaee e ae?.)

Ae 60-1 E 46-3 – ioianaii ia Ai?aac a n/ao iiaaoaiey aeieaia ca aac,
eniieuecoaiue oicyenoaii.

Oae eae IIO «Ieineia» a oaeeo neo/ayo ?aaeecoao i?iaeoeoeeth ia
nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oi ia noiio naeaeee aeieaeia i?eiaiyoueny
oi?aiaay iaoeaiea a ?acia?a 1%. A oae eae a oneiaeyo aeiaiai?a yoi ia
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ieeiaaea (eia/a ia aoaeoo iiaaoaiu aeieae oicyenoao),
oi oi?aiaoth iaoeaieo oicyenoai ioiineo ia oauoee i?aaei?eyoey e
iiaaoaao aa ca n/ao i?eauee:

Ae 81-2 E 46-3 – iaoeaiea 1% a ?acia?a 76351 ?oaeue.

A eiioea aiaea ia aeaaaoa n/aoa 46 a IIO «Ieineia» aeaeatho
ei??aeoe?iai/iua caiene ii ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
oaeouaai aiaea n e?aaeeoa n/aoia ii o/aoo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai: 20-1,
20-2, 20-3, 23, 11 – ii ?aaeeciaaiiui iieiaeiyeo aeeaioiuo e aeeaioiui
ia ioei?ia. Caiene aeaeatho iaoiaeii «e?aniia noi?ii», anee oaeoe/aneay
naaanoieiinoue ieaaeaony ieaea ieaiiaie e iaoiaeii aeiiieieoaeueiuo
caienae, anee oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue ieaaeaony auoa ieaiiaie. Ia
naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiuo oneoa e ?aaio ia noi?iio a eiioea aiaea
ioiinyo oaeaea niioaaonoaothuoth aeieth iauaoicyenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia i?e
eo ?ani?aaeaeaiee: Ae 46 E 26. A eiioea aiaea iinea anao iaiaoiaeeiuo
caienae ia n/aoa 46 auyaeytho oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee,
eioi?ue auaiaeyo iooai niiinoaaeaiey aeaaaoiaiai iai?ioa n e?aaeeoiaui.
?acieoeu ?acaa?iooi nienuaatho ia n/ao 80 «I?eauee e oauoee» ia
iniiaaiee aooaaeoa?neie ni?aaee ia cae?uoea n/aoa 46.

Oaaeeoea 12

?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiiua ?aaiou

e ieacaiiua oneoae ca 1997 aiae, iei. ?oa.

N/aoa Iaeiaiiaaiea Aeaaao E?aaeeo + (-)

46-1 Ca?ii 1787 2540 753

Ea?oioaeue 1246 1378 132

I?i/ea 361 310,9 -49,9

Anaai ii n/aoo 46-1 3393 4229 836

46-2 Iieiei 3407 2386 -1021

Iyni 1501 802,7 -698

I?i/ea 6,75 14,8 8,12

Anaai ii n/aoo 46-2 4914 3203 -1711

46-3 Iaoaeeieii 0,65 0,39 -0,25

Oaaeiue oeao 38,8 20,8 -17,9

Noieiaay 368 368 -0,30

Yeaeo?iyia?aey 5,46 5,8 0,36

Aac aaeiiiue 0,07 0,07 –

Oneoae aaoio?ainii?oa 45,4 50,7 5,3

Eniieueciaaiea ieei?aiu 1,48 5,17 3,68

Oneoae AEEO 829 829 0,013

Ae?iaa 0,35 0,35 –

Oan 1,63 1,34 -0,29

Eiaee 1,74 12,3 10,6

Iaaic 0,41 1,08 0,67

I?i/ay 262 248 -14,1

Anaai ii n/aoo 46-3 15,67 15,43 -23,2

Anaai ii 46 n/aoo 9861 8963 -898,2

Oaeei ia?acii, auyaeyaony oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee. A 1997
aiaeo IIO iiianei oauoee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa a
?acia?a 898218069 ?oaeae. Ia noiio oauoea ninoaaeyaony aooaaeoa?neay
caienue: Ae 80 E 46. Caoai n/ao 46 «?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e
oneoa» cae?uaaaony. A IIO «Ieineia» n/ao 46 cae?uaaaony a eiioea aiaea n
ia?a/eneaieai ?acoeueoaoa ia n/ao 80 «I?eauee e oauoee» iinea
eaeueeoeyoeee oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe e aeiaaaeaiey ieaiiaie ioeaiee
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aei oaeoe/aneie. Iieo/aiiay i?eaueue a eiioea
aiaea (a ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao, i?iiuoeaiiui e ianeoaeeaathuei
i?iecaiaenoaai aaeaiany/ii) iai?aaeyaony ii eaiaeai ?ani?aaeaeaiey (ia
oieaoo iaeiaia, ia?aciaaieth niaoeoiiaeia e ae?.), oi anoue /a?ac 81
n/ao «Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee». Iinea yoiai 81 n/ao cae?uaaaony ia
iniiaaiee caeeth/eoaeueiie caiene aeaeaa?y. A eiioea aiaea aeaeaaony
caeeth/eoaeueiay caienue ii 80 n/aoo: iieo/aiiay e ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay
i?eaueue eee oauoie iai?aaeyaony ia 88 n/ao «Oiiaeu niaoeeaeueiiai
iacia/aiey».

Ia n/aoa 46 «?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio e oneoa)» a ninoaaa
iinooiathuae au?o/ee o/eouaatho noiiu IAeN, aaaaeaiiiai a 1992 aiaeo.
Noiiu IAeN iinooiatho a ninoaaa iauae au?o/ee io iieoiaoaeae e
ca/eneythony a iauai ii?yaeea ia e?aaeeo n/aoa 46. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei
noiiu iaeiaa io?aaeatho ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 46 e ca/eneytho a e?aaeeo n/aoa
68 «?an/aou n athaeaeaoii» ia niaoeeaeueii ioe?uoii aeey yoie oeaee
noan/aoa 2 «?an/aou ii IAeN». Oaeei ia?acii, ia n/aoa 46 IAeN ia aeeyao
ia oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe, oae eae ii i?ioiaeeo ii
e?aaeeoo e ii aeaaaoo n/aoa a iaeeiaeiaie noiia.

IIO «Ieineia» ia?yaeo n iieo/aieai io iieoiaoaeae oaeaea oiea/eaaao
iinoaaueeai noiiu IAeN ca iinooiathuea iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe e oneoae.
Yoe noiiu io?aaeatho ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 60 e aeaaaoo n/aoa 19 e caoai
iinea iieaou n/aoia eo ioiinyo n e?aaeeoa n/aoa 19 ia aeaaao n/aoa 68-2.
A eoiaa ia n/aoa 68 ii e?aaeeoo oeacaiiiai noan/aoa niae?athony ana
noiiu iieo/aiiiai io iieoiaoaeae IAeN, a ii aeaaaoo noiiu, oiea/aiiua
iinoaaueeaie.

E?aaeeoiaia naeueaei noan/aoa (i?aauoaiea iieo/aiiuo noii iaae
oiea/aiiuie) ia?a/eneyaony a athaeaeao e io?aaeaaony aooaaeoa?neie
caienueth: Ae 68 E 51 «?an/aoiue n/ao», a neo/aa ia?aciaaiey aeaaaoiaiai
naeueaei noiia i?aauoaiey oiea/aiiiai iaeiaa iaae iieo/aiiui iiaeeaaeeo
aiciauaieth ec athaeaeaoa.

A niioaaonoaee n Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 iay 1996a. ?685 [ 6 ]
i?aaei?eyoey anao i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i n 1 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea
ia?aoee ia ?an/aou n athaeaeaoii ii IAeN ia iniiaa i?eiaiaiey
n/aoia-oaeoo?. Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 29 ethey 1996a. ?914
n eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie io 2 oaa?aey 1998a. [ 7 ] ooaa?aeaeaiu:
oeiiaay oi?ia n/aoa-oaeoo?u, ii?yaeie aaaeaiey aeo?iaeia o/aoa
n/aoia-oaeoo? aeaoo aeaeia: aeo?iaeia o/aoa auaeaaaaiuo iieoiaoaeth
n/aoia-oaeoo? e aeo?iaea o/aoa iieo/aiiuo io iinoaaueeia n/aoia-oaeoo?,
oi?ia eieae i?iaeaae e eieae iieoiie e o?aaiaaiey e eo aaaeaieth. A IIO
«Ieineia» n 1 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea aaaaeaiu ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua
aeieoiaiou e ii?yaeie eo aaaeaiey no?iai niaethaeaaony. Iaeiaei, ii
iiaieth aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a IIO Aeaeo?ei I.N., i?aaeeiaeaiiay a ienueia
Ainiaeianeoaeau e Ieioeia ?O io 26 aeaeaa?y 1996a. ?133-6-03/890 ?109
«I i?eiaiaiee n/aoia-oaeoo? i?e ?an/aoao ii IAeN n 1 yiaa?y 1997a. [10]
noaia aaaeaiey n/aoia-oaeoo? e eo ?aaeno?aoeey a eieaa i?iaeaae e
iieoiie cia/eoaeueii oneiaeieea ?aaioo aooaaeoa?ia, ia?aciaaa
aeoaee?iaaiea.

Aeey io?aaeaiey iia?aoeee ii o/aoo i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaio e oneoa a IIO i?eiaiytho neaaeothuea ?aaeno?u:

aeo?iae-i?aea? ?11-AIE ii e?aaeeoo n/aoia 40, 46, 47-1;

eieaa o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa);

oi?ia ?11 a «?aano? aeieoiaioia ii ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee»;

Yoe ?aaeno?u acaeiinaycaiu iaaeaeo niaie. Nii?iaiaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou
ia ioi?aaeaiioth naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth aaeaaeiaaii a IIO
«Ieineia» ?aaeno?e?otho a oeaio?aeueiie aooaaeoa?ee a ?aano?a oi?iu ?11
a. Ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie i?aaeoniio?aii aaaeaiea ?aano?ia ii
eaaeaeiio aeaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei a IIO
«Ieineia» ?aano?u aaaeoony ii noan/aoai, ioe?uoui e 46 n/aoo: 1
«?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa», 2 «?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa», 3 «?aaeecaoeey i?i/ay», aaea ia eaaeaeue aeae
i?iaeoeoeee ioaiaeeony iaeia no?iea. I?aaeoniio?aiiue ii?yaeie
caiieiaiey ?aano?ia a IIO niaethaeaaony ia oi/ii: a ?aano?ao nianai ia
oeene?oaony aeaoa e iiia? nii?iaiaeeoaeueiiai aeieoiaioa, /oi oneiaeiyao
?aaioo iieueciaaoaeae aeieoiaioaoeee. A ?acaeaea «Ioi?aaeaii» (aeaaao
n/aoa 46) io?aaeatho oaeoe/aneia eiee/anoai ioi?aaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
noieiinoue a ieaiiaie ioeaiea, ei??aniiiaee?othuee n/ao. A ?acaeaea
«I?eiyoi e iieaoa» (e?aaeeo n/aoa 46) a oicyenoaa ia oeacuaatho iiia?
i?eaiiie eaeoaioeee eee ?aano?a caaioiaeoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee eee
ae?oaiai aeieoiaioa, /oi yaeyaony oaeaea nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii
o/aoiie ?aaiou ia o/anoea «?aaeecaoeey». I?eiyoia eiee/anoai a
oece/aneie e ca/aoiie ianna (i?eiaiyaony caiieiaiea yoeo a?ao i?e
?aaeecaoeee iieiea), au?o/eo ii oeaiai ?aaeecaoeee i?inoaaeytho a
?aano?ao a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie e caiieiaieth aeaiiiai
aeieoiaioa. A?aou ioiaoee ia iieaoa (aeaoa, noiia, ei??aniiiaee?othuee
n/ao) ia i?aaei?eyoee ia caiieiythony . Ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua
iaaeinoaoee o/aoiie ?aaiou ia o/anoea «?aaeecaoeey» nouanoaaiii
oneiaeiytho ?aaioo aiaoiaai iieueciaaoaey aeieoiaioaoeee oicyenoaa e
i?eaiaeeo e aeiiieieoaeueiui iieneai eiiaaea naieie aea aooaaeoa?aie
auoaiacaaiiuo aeieoiaioia, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo auea i?iecaaaeaia
?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee.

Iinea iieaou anao aeieoiaioia a ?aano?a iiaen/eouaatho iauaa eiee/anoai
ioi?aaeaiiie e i?eiyoie i?iaeoeoeee e iauoth noiio, i?aaeuyaeaiioth
oicyenoaii e iieaoa. E?aaeeoiaua iai?iou ?aano?ia ii noan/aoai, ioe?uoui
e n/aoo 46, aaeaiany/ii ia?aiinyo a eieao o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaio e oneoa ii eaaeaeiio iaeiaiiaaieth i?iaeoeoeee ioaeaeueii. Eieaa
o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa yaeyaony iaiauathuei
?aaeno?ii, a eioi?ii a IIO «Ieineia» io?aaeatho eoiaiaua aeaiiua ca
ianyoe e n ia/aea aiaea ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa n
a?oiie?iaeie n o/aoii iai?aaeaiee ?aaeecaoeee (i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noao,
ca iaee/iue ?an/ao, a oi?aiaoth naoue e o.ae.), aeaeia iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae, ?aaio e oneoa i?eiaieoaeueii e aeaenoaothuei iiiaieeaoo?ai
iauaeoia o/aoa a oi?ia aiaeiaiai io/aoa «?aaeecaoeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee». Eieaa o/aoa i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee
iieiinoueth aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee oicyenoaa,
yaeyaony ?aaeno?ii aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa, iaeiaei a aa caiieiaiee anoue
?yae ia?ooaiee. Oae, iao /aoeeo n?ieia caiieiaiey yoiai aeieoiaioa,
eieaa caiieiyaony a ?aciua n?iee e ii nooe ia yaeyaony i?iiaaeooi/iui
iaiauathuei aeieoiaioii iaaeaeo ?aano?aie e aeo?iaeii-i?aea?ii ? 11-AIE.
Eoiaiaua aeaiiua ?aano?ia, ca/anooth ieioy eieao o/aoa i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee, na?oiie?iaaiiua a aooaaeoa?neie ni?aaea, ia?aiinyony a
aeo?iae-i?aea? ?11-AIE. I?e yoii e?aaeeoiaue iai?io ii n/aoo 46
iieacuaatho n ?anoeo?iaeie ii a?oiiai ?aaeecoaiuo OIOe: «I?iaeoeoeey
?anoaieaaiaenoaa», «I?iaeoeoeey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa», «I?i/ay i?iaeoeoeey».
Eoiae aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?11-AIE eiio?iee?othony ae?oaeie ?aaeno?aie,
iinea /aai eo ia?aiinyo a Aeaaioth eieao.

Ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou

?aano?u oi?iu ?11 a

Aooaaeoa?neay ni?aaea naa?ea Eieaa aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)

AEo?iae-i?aea? ?11-AIE

Aeaaiay eieaa

Aaeain

?en.1.Noaia o/aoa i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) a IIO
«Ieineia».

3.4.O/ao eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia.

A i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoa a AIE
aicieeatho aeiiieieoaeueiua cao?aou, naycaiiua n iiauoaieai ea/anoaaiiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeea cao?aou e aeaeu ?aaio ioiinyony e
eiiia?/aneei (aiai?iecaiaenoaaiiui) ?anoiaeai. Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu a
iniiaiii aicieeatho ia caaa?oathuai yoaia e?oaiiai?ioa n?aaenoa. Yoe
?anoiaeu iicaieytho oi?ie?iaaoue oiaa?iia niaea?aeaiea i?iaeoeoeee
(niioaaonoaothuee aeae, oi?io, noaiaea?oiinoue, ae?oaea ea/anoaaiiua
i?eciaee). Oaeaeueiue aan oaeeo ?anoiaeia a iieiie naaanoieiinoe ii
naeueneioicyenoaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi iiaeao eieaaaoueny io 5,9 aei 37,0%.

A IIO «Ieineia» eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu o/eouaathony ia 46 n/aoa. Nthaea
ioiinyo ?anoiaeu ia oa?o, oiaeiaeo, o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu, ia
aiciauaaiua i?aaei?eyoeth. Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu nienuaatho ni n/aoia
02,10, 12, 13, 50, 51, 60 e ae?oaeo ia aeaaao n/aoa 46

A IIO «Ieineia» oaeaeueiue aan oaeeo ?anoiaeia eiaao ia aieueoia
cia/aiea a iieiie naaanoieiinoe. Iiyoiio /anoue ?anoiaeia o/eouaaaony ia
20 n/aoa «Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai», /anoue n?aco ia 46 n/aoa.

Iaeiaei, Ieaiii n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee AIE e eino?oeoeeae, ooaa?aeaeaiiuie
Ieienoa?noaii naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?O io 28 aeaeaa?y 1994 aiaea ? 173 [
5 ] aeey o/aoa eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia i?aaeoniio?ai n/ao 43
«Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu». Ia yoii n/aoa i?iiuoeaiiua,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua e ae?oaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey
io?aaeatho ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee, a oii /enea:

cao?aou ia oa?o e oiaeiaeo i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaeao aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee,
ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, eiaaea ii oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
ioione i?iaeoeoeee aac caoa?eaaiey e oiaeiaee eee noieiinoue oa?u
aiciauaaony naa?o iieoiiie oeaiu i?iaeoeoeee. Anee caoa?eaaiea
i?iaeoeoeee (a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiui oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii)
i?iecaiaeeony a oeaoao aei naea/e aa ia neeaae aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee,
cao?aou ia oa?o e oiaeiaeo aeeth/athony a i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (a niioaaonoaothuea noaouee eee eiiieaen
noaoae, anee oa?o ecaioiaeytho ca?aiaa e iainiaeaiii io ecaioiaeaiey
i?iaeoeoeee e ecaeaeee);

?anoiaeu ii aeinoaaea i?iaeoeoeee ia noaioeeth (i?enoaiue) ioi?aaeaiey,
iia?ocee a aaaiiu, noaea, aaoiiiaeee e ae?oaea o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa;

eiienneiiiua nai?u (io/eneaiey), oiea/eaaaiua nauoiaui e ae?oaei
iin?aaeie/aneei i?aaiecaoeeyi a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie ii?iaie e
aeiaiai?aie ca ?aaeecaoeeth eie ecaeaeee i?aaei?eyoey ia eiienneiiiuo
ia/aeao;

neeaeee e oeaiu ca i?aaiecoaiue iai?io, i?e/eoathueeny n
i?aaei?eyoee-iinoaaueeia niaaaeai/anei-nauoiaui i?aaiecaoeeyi ca
?aaeecaoeeth eie i?iaeoeoeee o?aiceoii aac o/anoey e n o/anoeai, a
oaeaea eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, oiea/eaaaiia oi?aiaui,
niaaaeai/aneei eee nauoiaui i?aaiecaoeeyi ca i?iaeaaeo eie i?iaeoeoeee,
eioi?oth ia niiaoo ?aaeeciaaoue i?aaei?eyoey e iiyoiio iie ia?aaeatho aa
aeey ?aaeecaoeee ia eiienneiiiuo ia/aeao;

niaea?aeaiea iiiauaiee aeey o?aiaiey i?iaeoeoeee a ianoao aa
?aaeecaoeee, iieaoa o?oaea i?iaeaaoeia (aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee);

?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio;

?anoiaeu ii iia?ocea, ?aca?ocea e o?ainii?oe?iaaieth ?aiiioiuo
iaoa?eaeia (ia ?aiiioii-oaoie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo);

io/eneaiey ia niaea?aeaiea oaoie/aneeo iaiaiiuo ioieoia ia
?aiiioii-oaoie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo;

i?i/ea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua ni nauoii i?iaeoeoeee, iai?eia?, ?anoiaeu ia
niaoeeaeueiua aiaeecu i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaeeiua i?e aa ioionea e ae?.

Ia ioiinyo e eiiia?/aneei ?anoiaeai cao?aou ii oiaeiaea e
o?ainii?oe?iaea i?iaeoeoeee, aiciauaaiua iieoiaoaeyie. Oeacaiiua
?anoiaeu o/eouaatho ia n/aoa 62 «?an/aou n iieoiaoaeyie e caeac/eeaie».
Ia n/aoa 43 ia o/eouaatho oaeaea iieaoo aeinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee aei
noaioeee (i?enoaie) iacia/aiey, anee ?anoiaeu ii oaeie aeinoaaea
aeeth/aiu a oeaio ia i?iaeoeoeeth e aiciauathony iinoaaueeo a ninoaaa
noieiinoe ioa?oaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aac o/anoey nauoiaie i?aaiecaoeee. Ia
aeeth/atho a ninoaa eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia e neeaeee n oeaiu,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua iioiaui oi?aiaui i?aaiecaoeeyi aeey aiciauaiey eo
o?ainii?oiuo ?anoiaeia ii aeaeueiaeoae ioi?aaea oiaa?ia ?acee/iui
oi?aiaui i?aaei?eyoeyi (i?aaiecaoeeyi). Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu, o/oaiiua
ia n/aoa 43, aaeaiany/ii nienuaatho ia n/ao 46 a iieiie noiia eee a
aeiea, ioiinyuaeny e ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Yoe ?anoiaeu
i?eniaaeeiytho e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie naaanoieiinoe ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee ia iniiaaiee ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia. I?e iaaiciiaeiinoe
ii?aaeaeaiey eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia ii aeaiiui ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia eo
?ani?aaeaeytho iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie aeaeaie i?iaeoeoeee
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ianna, iauaio, eiee/anoao eee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
naaanoieiinoe.

Ia oiaa?u ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey, ecaeaeey i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai
iacia/aiey, iieooaa?eeaou e caaioiaee, ecaioiaeaiiua ec iooiaeia
i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u ia?iaeiiai
iio?aaeaiey, ecaioiaeaiiua ec ianoiiai nu?uey, eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu
ioiinyo oieueei a /anoe, naycaiiie n ?aaeecaoeeae.

O/ao ia n/aoa 43 aaaeoo ia noan/aoao:

43-1 «?anoiaeu, naycaiiua ni nauoii i?iaeoeoeee»;

43-2 «I?i/ea eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu».

Ia noan/aoa 43-1 io?aaeatho ana ?anoiaeu iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiua n
oiaeiaeie, iia?oci/ii-?aca?oci/iuie ?anoiaeaie e ioi?aaeie i?iaeoeoeee a
niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?aie.

Ia noan/aoa 43-2 o/eouaatho ana ae?oaea eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua
ni nauoii i?iaeoeoeee. A /anoiinoe e iei ioiinyo cao?aou ii
niaea?aeaieth iiiauaiee aeey o?aiaiey i?iaeoeoeee a ianoao aa
?aaeecaoeee, io/eneaiey ia niaea?aeaiea oaoie/aneeo iaiaiiuo ioieoia,
cao?aou ia i?iaaaeaiea aiaeecia i?iaeoeoeee i?e aa ioionea, ?anoiaeu ia
?aeeaio e o.ae.. Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ii n/aoo 43 «Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu»
aaaeoo ii eaaeaeie noaouea ?anoiaeia.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee oaeaeueiue aan eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia a
iieiie naaanoieiinoe aic?anoaao, oae eae iiaua ?uiee nauoa i?iaeoeoeee
i?aaeuyaeytho e iae iniaua o?aaiaaiey: ynoaoe/aneay oiaeiaea,
ouaoaeueiia caoa?eaaiea, niaea?aeaoaeueiay ?aeeaia e o.ae.. Ia iao
acaeyae, aeey iaania/aiey eiio?iey ca eiiia?/aneeie ?anoiaeaie a IIO
«Ieineia» aanueia oeaeaniia?acii aaanoe 43 n/ao.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee

ia aaca aaoiiaoecaoeee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?e ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea aeey iiiaeo
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee anoaao aeooaeueiay aeey naaiaeiyoieo aeiae
caaea/a – aaaeaiea o/aoa n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee (YAI). Cia/aiea aaoiiaoecaoeee aaeeei, oae eae i?e aai
aiaae?aiee oaaee/eaaaony iia?aoeaiinoue o/aoa, oneeeaathony eiio?ieueiua
ooieoeee ii auiieiaieth iaycaoaeuenoa e naiaa?aiaiiuo ieaoaaeae iaeiaia
a athaeaeao. I?e aaoiiaoecaoeee o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee nie?aoeony
ia oieueei a?aiy, cao?a/eaaaiia ia ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee, ii e
iiauneony ea/anoai yoie ia?aaioee. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio a IIO “Ieineia”
eiaaony iaeei eiiiuethoa? “Gold Star”, ii oaeie o/anoie ?aaiou, eae o/ao
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) iiea aua ia aaoiiaoece?iaai.

Aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee ?aaio ia aeaiiii o/anoea i?aaeeaaaaony
eniieueciaaiea i?ia?aiiu “Eioei-aooaaeoa?ey”. O/ao a i?ia?aiia iino?iai
ia iniiaa ?aaeno?aoeee aooaaeoa?neeo i?iaiaeie (oicyenoaaiiuo
iia?aoeee), /oi iicaieeo aaeeiiia?acii aaoiiaoece?iaaoue ana o/anoee
o/aoa e oii /enea o/ao ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. Oieaa?naeueiue
i?ia?aiiiue eiiieaen “Eioei” i?aaeiacia/ai aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee o/aoa
i?aaei?eyoee anao oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. Aeaeinoue e oieaa?naeueiinoue,
caeiaeaiiua a i?ia?aiio, iicaieytho eaaei aaeaioe?iaaoue aa e ethaie
iaoiaeeea aaaeaiey o/aoa. I?ia?aiia inaiaiaeeo ?aaioieeia aooaaeoa?ee io
?ooeiiie ?an/aoiie ?aaiou, io ?aciinee i?iaiaeie ii aeo?iaeai-i?aea?ai e
a Aeaaioth eieao. E?iia oiai, i?e niioaaonoaothuae iano?ieea i?ia?aiia
iiaeao a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiii ?aaeeia oi?ie?iaaoue i?iaiaeee ii cae?uoeth
46 n/aoa. Iaeiiaoe, i?ia?aiia iicaieyao iieo/eoue e ?ania/aoaoue ana
iaiaoiaeeiua oi?iu aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.

Aeey i?aaiecaoeee aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa, aac eioi?iai iaiuneeii
iieiioeaiiia aaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e n/aoai eee noan/aoai iiaeii
i?ee?aieoue naie ni?aai/ieee aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa, eiee/anoai eioi?uo
iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 5. Yoi iicaieyao ii ethaiio n/aoo i?aaieciaaoue
iyoeo?iaiaaue aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao. I?ia?aiia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iinea
aaaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee n ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia aac aeiiieieoaeueiiai
eiaee?iaaiey iieo/eoue ?acoeueoaoeaioth eioi?iaoeeth a aeaea iai?ioiie
aaaeiiinoe, eioi?ay caiaieo niaie “?aano? ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa) (oi?ia ? 63-AIE) e 11 aeo?iae-i?aea?.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aiaae?aiey aeaiiie i?ia?aiiu i?iecaaaeai
?an/ao yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ia IYAI.

?an/ao yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe aaoiiaoecaoeee o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee a
IIO “Ieineia” n iiiiuueth i?ia?aiiu “Effekt” i?iecaaaeai ia iniiaa
enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee, iieo/aiiie ec aeaiiuo aooaaeoa?neie,
noaoenoe/aneie io/aoiinoe, a oaeaea ia iniiaa yenia?oiuo ioeaiie.

Niaeanii i?iecaaaeaiiiai ?an/aoa auee iieo/aiu neaaeothuea aeaiiua
(I?eeiaeaiea 2). Eae iieacaaatho ?ann/aoiua aeaiiua, cao?aou o?oaea i?e
?o/iie ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee ninoaaeytho 1050 /ania, a i?e aiaae?aiee
aaoiiaoecaoeee o/aoiie ?aaiou iie nieceeenue ia 315 /ania e ninoaaeee
525 /ania. Niioaaonoaaiii cao?aou ?o/iiai o?oaea nieceeenue a aeaa ?aca
e iiaeaeee ca niaie oiaiueoaiea noieiinoe ?aaio a aeaa ?aca n 3600 ?oa.
aei 1800 ?oa. I?e yoii yeiiiiey io aiaae?aiey aaoiiaoecaoeee o/aoa
ninoaaeea 953,98 ?oa., a n?ie ieoiaaiinoe cao?ao ninoaaeyao 3 ianyoea.

Aeey aeaeueiaeoaai niaa?oainoaiaaiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai o/aoa i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee a IIO “Ieineia” iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaoue ?aaioo
ia IYAI. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy anth ?aaioo n IYAI inouanoaeyao iaeei
aooaaeoa?, i?ioaaeoee niaoeeaeecaoeeth ia eo?nao. Aeaaiue aea aooaaeoa?
e aeaaiue yeiiiieno oicyenoaa, eiathuea iaeaieueoaa i?aaeinoaaeaiea i
ana o/aoiie ?aaioa i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii e ia o?iaia iiae?acaeaeaiee ia
ciaeiiu n ?aaioie IYAI e iiyoiio i?e i?eiyoee iia?aoeaiuo ?aoaiee iie ia
eniieuecotho naie iioaioeeae a iieiii iauaia.

Ia iao acaeyae, a IIO “Ieineia” anoue niune i?aaieciaaoue A?I aeaaiiai
aooaaeoa?a e aeaaiiai yeiiiienoa, iiauneoue eaaeeoeeaoeeth yoeo
niaoeeaeenoia a ieaia ?aaiou n IYAI.

AIAEEC ?AAEECAOeEE I?IAeOEOeEE A IIO «IEINEIA».

Aiaeec aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Auoai?eaaaeaiiua iaoa?eaeu aeatho ioeaieo ninoiyiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
ia i?aaei?eyoee ia o/anoea «?aaeecaoeey», niaea?aeao iieiaeeoaeueiua e
io?eoeaoaeueiua iiiaiou o/aoa yoiai i?ioeanna a IIO «Ieineia». Iaeiaei,
naeaeaiiua ia iniiaaiee yoeo iaoa?eaeia auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth o/aoa ia aeatho iieiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a oicyenoaa. Iiyoiio iai
neaaeoao aieaa iiae?iaii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?ioeann ?aaeecaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a yoii oicyenoaa. I?e aiaeeca aaaeii
auyaeoue e eiee/anoaaiii ecia?eoue aeeyiea iauaia, no?oeoo?u e
naaanoieiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oaeaea ?aaeecaoeeiiiuo oeai ia
ioeeiiaiea oaeoe/aneie i?eauee io i?iaiice?oaiie.

I?e yoii iai iaiaoiaeeii auyaeoue i?e/eiu io?eoeaoaeueiuo eee
iieiaeeoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
eiie?aoiuo aeaeia, caaeneiinoue eo io aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaa eee
aicieeiiaaiea ia ii aai aeia, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aaioaoue
eiie?aoiua i?aaeiieiaeaiey ii oeo/oaieth yoeo iieacaoaeae aeayoaeueiinoe
oicyenoaa, iicaieyao eneaoue iiaua oi?iu oicyenoaiaaiey.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo caaea/ aiaeeca yaeyaony auyaeaiea acaeiinayce
?acia?a i?eauee e aa aeeyiea ia iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe. Aiaeec
iieacaoaeae ?aioaaaeueiinoe aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue ia?aiaaeu
eioaineoeeaoeee ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae oicyenoaa, oaeaeaoue ?aca?au
aeaeueiaeoaai oaaee/aiey i?eauee.

Aaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey, iieo/aiiay a ?acoeueoaoa i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa,
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa /anoe: oiaa?ioth /anoue e iio?aaeyaioth ia
aioo?eoicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu. Eaeay /anoue i?iaeoeoeee aoaeao iai?aaeaia
ia ?aaeecaoeeth, ai iiiaii caaeneo io iieo/aiiiai iauaia aaeiaie
i?iaeoeoeee. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue eciaiaiey iauaia aaeiaie
i?iaeoeoeee ca 1993 – 1997 aiaeu.

Oaaeeoea 14.

Aeeiaieea eciaiaiee aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oe

Iaeiaiiaaiea

Aiaeu Ioeeiiaiey 1997a. io 1993a.

i?iaeoeoeee 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 + / – %

Ca?iiaua – anaai 27850 33493 26037 30326 29595 1745 106,3

a o. /. iceiua 5464 8417 7882 10751 8431 2967 154,3

y?iaua 22198 25076 18155 19575 21164 -1034 95,3

Ea?oioaeue 57229 63704 89719 60600 48120 -9109 84,1

Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea, oe 22849 24418 22853 22986 21741 -1108
95,2

Aaeiaie i?e?ino E?N, oe 2540 2240 2103 1737 1470 -1070 57,9

Aiaeece?oy eciaiaiey aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa ca iineaaeiea 5 eao iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi a IIO nouanoaaiii oaaee/eeinue i?iecaiaenoai
iceiuo ca?iiauo e nie?aoeeinue i?iecaiaenoai y?iauo ca?iiauo. A oeaeii
aea a i?iecaiaenoaa ca?iiauo eoeueoo? a IIO «Ieineia» iaiaoeeanue
oaiaeaioeey e iiauoaieth aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa (ia 6,3% a 1997 aiaeo
oaaee/eeny iauai aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa ii n?aaiaieth n 1993 aiaeii).
Cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeeny iauai aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa ea?oioaey. A 1997
a. yoio iieacaoaeue ninoaaee 84,1% io iieacaoaey 1993 a., eee iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa ea?oioaey oiaiueoeeny ia 9109 oe ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae.

Nouanoaaiii nieceeny o?iaaiue aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae: ia 43,1% aaeiaie i?e?ino
aeeaie iannu E?N, eee ia 1070oe, i?iecaiaenoai iieiea – ia 1108oe, eee
ia 4,8%.

Auiieiaiea ieaia aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa ii iniiaiui aeaeai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu a neaaeothuae oaaeeoea.

Oaaeeoea 15.

Auiieiaiea ieaia ii aaeiaiio i?iecaiaenoao

a IIO «Ieineia» a 1997 aiaeo.

Iaeiaiiaaiea Eiee/anoai, oe Auiieiaiea ieaia

i?iaeoeoeee ieai oaeo % + / –

Ca?iiaua , anaai 30600 29595 96,7 -1005

a o./. iceiua ca?iiaua 11300 8431 74,6 -2869

y?iaua ca?iiaua 19300 21164 109,6 1864

Ea?oioaeue 42000 48120 114,6 6120

Iieiei 21350 21741 101,8 391

I?e?ino E?N 2080 1470 70,7 -610

Ieai ii aaeiaiio i?iecaiaenoao ca?iiauo eoeueoo? a oeaeii aue
iaaeiauiieiai ia 3,3% (1005 oe), oaeoe/aneia i?iecaiaenoai iceiuo
ca?iiauo a 1997 aiaeo ieacaeinue ieaea ieaiiaiai iieacaoaey ia 25,4%
(2869 oe). A oi a?aiy, eae ieai ii i?iecaiaenoao y?iauo ca?iiauo
eoeueoo? aue ia?aauiieiai ia 9,6% (1864 oe).

Ieai i?iecaiaenoaa ea?oioaey aue ia?aauiieiai ia 6120 oe eee ia 14,6%.
Oaeoe/aneia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea a 1997a. a IIO «Ieineia» i?aauneei
ieaiiaue iieacaoaeue ia 1,8% eee ia 391 oe. Oaeie iieacaoaeue, eae
i?e?ino aeeaie iannu E?N ia aeinoea o?iaiy ieaiiaiai iieacaoaey. Ieai
aue iaaeiauiieiai ia 29,3% eee ia 610 oe.

Aeey oiai, /oiau auyaeoue i?e/eiu ioeeiiaiey oaeoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae io
ieaiiauo, i?iaaaeai aieaa aeaoaeueiue aiaeec ia i?eia?a i?iaeoeoeee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 16.

Auiieiaiea ieaia ii aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee

aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a IIO «Ieineia» a 1997aiaeo.

Iieacaoaee Iieiei I?e?ino E?N

N?aaeiaaiaeiaia iiaieiauea, aie.

ieai 610 1000

oaeo 629 1123

I?iaeoeoeaiinoue iaeiie aieiau, oe

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 16.

ieai 35,00 2,08

oaeo 34,56 1,31

Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai, oe

ieai 21350 2080

oaeo 21741 1470

oneiaii 22015 2335,8

Ioeeiiaiea io i?iaiica a aaeiaii i?iecaiaenoaa, oe

anaai +391 -610

a oii /enea ca n/ao eciaiaiey: iiaieiauey 665 255,8

i?iaeoeoeaiinoe -274 -865,8

Aeaiiua oaaeeoeu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi a 1997 aiaeo
n?aaeiaaiaeiaia iiaieiauea aeeaioiuo iiei/iiai iai?aaeaiey i?aauneei
ieaiiaue iieacaoaeue ia 19 aieia, /oi i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth aaeiaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea ia 665oe. Iaeiaei, ec-ca nieaeaiey oaeoe/aneie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe 1 aieiau aeeaioiuo a n?aaiaiee n ieaiiaie ia 0,44oe, /oi
iiaeaeei ca niaie nieaeaiea aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea ia 274oe,
aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea a oeaeii ii oicyenoao oaaee/eeinue eeoue ia
391oe.

I?e niiinoaaeaiee ieaiiauo iieacaoaeae e oaeoe/aneeo ii i?e?inoo
e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa auei auyaeaii neaaeothuaa: iiaieiauea aeeaioiuo
ia au?aueaaiee e ioei?ia a 1997a. i?aauneei ieaiiaia ia 123 aieiau, a
aio i?iaeoeoeaiinoue 1 aieiau auea ia 0,77oe ieaea ieaia. Iiyoiio
oaaee/aiea iiaieiauey aeeaioiuo ia au?aueaaiee e ioei?ia a 1997a.
iiaeaeei ca niaie oaaee/aiea aaeiaiai i?e?inoa E?N ia 255,8oe, iaeiaei,
ec-ca eciaiaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo ioeeiiaiea aaeiaiai i?e?inoa
E?N io ieaiiaiai iieacaoaey ninoaaeei 865,8oe. A oeaeii, aaeiaia
i?iecaiaenoai i?e?inoa E?N ia aeinoeaei ieaiiaiai o?iaiy e ioeeiiaiea
ninoaaeei 610oe.

Oaeiio aea aeaoaeueiiio aiaeeco iiaeaa?aiai i?e/eiu ioeeiiaiey
oaeoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae io ieaiiauo a io?anee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 17.

Aeeyiea oaeoi?ia ia iauai aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee

io?anee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa a IIO «Ieineia» a 1997 aiaeo.

Iieacaoaee Ca?iiaua – anaai, a o./. iceiua y?iaua Ea?oioaeue

Iinaaiua ieiuaaee, aa

ieai 900 316 584 210

oaeo 871 263 608 230

O?iaeaeiinoue, oe/aa

ieai 34,0 35,7 33,0 200,0

oaeo 33,9 32,1 34,8 209,2

Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai, oe

ieai 30600 11300 19300 42100

oaeo 29595 8431 21164 48120

oneiaii 29614 9389 20064 46000

Ioeeiiaiey (+)(-), anaai -1005 -2879 1864 6020

a o./. ca n/ao eciaiaiey:

iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae -986 -1921 764 3900

o?iaeaeiinoe -19 -958 1100 2120

Eae aeaeii ec aeaiiuo oaaeeoeu, a 1997 aiaeo ieai i?iecaiaenoaa ca?iiauo
eoeueoo? aue iaaeiauiieiai ia 1005oe. Yoi i?iecioei ec-ca ioeeiiaiey
oaeoe/aneie ieiuaaee iinaaa ca?iiauo io ieaie?oaiie ia 29aa, ec-ca aieaa
ieceie o?iaeaeiinoe, /ai i?aaeiieaaaeinue (ia 0,1oe). A 1997 aiaeo ieai
i?iecaiaenoaa iceiuo eoeueoo? aue iaaeiauiieiai: ec-ca ioeeiiaiey
oaeoe/aneie ieiuaaee iinaaa iceiuo ca?iiauo io ieaiiaie ia 53aa, iioa?e
a aaeiaii nai?a ninoaaeee1921oe, a ec-ca aieaa ieceie o?iaeaeiinoe, /ai
i?aaeiieaaaaiay (ia 3,6oe) ieai ii aaeiaiio nai?o aue iaaeiauiieiai ia
958oe.

Ii y?iaui ca?iiaui eoeueoo?ai i?aauoaiea aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaae
ieaiiaui ninoaaeei 1864oe: ec-ca oaaee/aiea o?iaeaeiinoe ia 1100oe e
ec-ca oaaee/aiey iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae ia 764oe.

Ieai iinaaeee ea?oioaey a IIO «Ieineia» aue ia?aauiieiai ia 20 aa, /oi
iiaeaeei ca niaie oaaee/aiea aaeiaiai nai?a ea?oioaey ia 3900oe, ca n/ao
oaaee/aiey o?iaeaeiinoe ea?oioaey ia 9,2 oe/aa ii n?aaiaieth n ieaiii
oaaee/aiea aaeiaiai nai?a ea?oioaey a 1997a. ninoaaeei 2120oe. A oeaeii
oaaee/aiea aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa ea?oioaey ii n?aaiaieth n ieaiii a
1997a. ninoaaeei 6020oe.

Aiaeec auiieiaiey ieaia ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie

i?iaeoeoeee a 1997 aiaeo a IIO «Ieineia».

Iniiaioth /anoue i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee IIO ?aaeecoao. ?aaeecaoeey
eaeao a niioaaonoaee n a?aoeeaie iinoaaie i?iaeoeoeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuie
aecian-ieaiii. Auiieiaiea ieaia ?aaeecaoeee eiaao ia?ainoaiaiiia
cia/aiea aeey eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey. Ai-ia?auo, iioiio, /oi a i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiea i?ienoiaeeo aiciauaiea ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. Ai-aoi?uo, ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee – yoi aanueia
e?eoe/aneee iiiaio a i?ioeanna aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Aaaeue
eiaiii ia ?uiea i?iecaaaeaiiue i?iaeoeo e cao?a/aiiue ia iaai o?oae
aeieacuaatho naith nioeeaeueioth cia/eiinoue, iieo/atho iauanoaaiiia
i?eciaiea. A-o?aoueeo, a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee oi?ie?oaony
oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ca io/aoiue ia?eiae
[22].

Oaaeeoea 18.

Auiieiaiea ieaia ii ?aaeecaoeee

naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a 1997 aiaeo, oe

Aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee Iaeiaiiaaiea iio?aaeoaey Eiee/anoai Auiieiaiea ieaia

ieai oaeo +(-) %

Ca?ii – anaai, a o./. Naeueneioicyenoaaiiua 21000 23311 2311 111,0

iceiua ca?iiaua:

7000 6900 -100 98,6

ioaieoea iceiay i?aaei?eyoey 3500 3795 295 108,4

?iaeue iceiay

3500 3105 -395 88,7

y?iaua ca?iiaua: Eino?iineie 14000 16411 2411 117,2

ioaieoea y?iaay

5500 6728 1128 122,3

y/iaiue y?iaie iaeanoe 7500 8369 869 111,6

iaan y?iaie

1000 1314 314 131,4

Ea?oioaeue Anaai: 2000 14828 -5172 74,2

?aenaeueoicu 5600 5600 – 100,0

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 18.

Oi?aiaay naoue 14400 9228 -5172 64,1

Iieiei Anaai: 19400 19515 115 100,6

III «Einiie» 8000 8376 376 104,7

«Eino?iiaoeaa» 7000 7357 357 105,1

Oi?aiaay naoue 4400 3782 618 86,0

E?oiiue ?iaaoue neio (aeeaay ianna) Iynieiiaeiao 500 122 -376 24,4

Iyni neioa (a ia?an/aoa ia aeeaie aan) Oi?aiaay naoue 1380 1395 15 101,1

Ieaiaiiie neio Ieaiaeeaiauaaeeiaiea 80 75 -5 93,8

A IIO «Ieineia» nouanoaoao /aoeee a?aoee iinoaaie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue a
1997a. aue auiieiai ia iieiinoueth. Oae, ieai i?iaeaaee ca?iiauo
eoeueoo? aue ia?aauiieiai ia 2311oe. Iauai ?aaeecaoeee ea?oioaey a
1997a. aue auiieiai eeoue ia 74,2%. Ii iaycaoaeueiue iauai i?iaeaaee
naiaiiiai ea?oioaey (yeeou) aue auiieiai iieiinoueth. ?aaeecaoeey
ea?oioaey /a?ac oi?aiaoth naoue ninoaaeea 64,1% io caieaie?iaaiiiai
iauaia.

Iauai i?iaeaae iieiea aue auiieiai a oeaeii ii IIO «Ieineia» ia 100,6%,
iaeiaei auei iaaeiiinoaaeaii oicyenoaii a oi?aiaoth naoue 618oe iieiea
ec-ca i?aauoaiey oaeoe/aneiai iauaia ?aaeecaoeee iieiea iaae ieaiiaui a
AI «Eino?iiaoeaa» e a III «Einiie» (aei/a?iaa i?aaei?eyoea Eino?iineiai
ai?iieieicaaiaea) ia 357oe e 376oe niioaaonoaaiii.

Iauai ?aaeecaoeee e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa a aeeaie ianna Eino?iineiio
iynieiiaeiaoo aue iaaeiauiieiai ia 378oe eee ia 75,6%. Iyna neioa /a?ac
oi?aiaoth naoue auei ?aaeeciaaii aieueoa ia 1,1% (15oe), /ai auei
i?aaeoniio?aii ieaiii.

Iauai ?aaeecaoeee ieaiaiiiai neioa oaeoe/anee iaiueoa ieaiiaiai
iieacaoaey ia 6,2% eee ia 5oe.

A nayce ni anai auoaneacaiiui oeaeaniia?acii ?ann/eoaoue o?iaaiue
oiaa?iinoe eiie?aoiuo aeaeia naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a IIO
«Ieineia». Iiauoaiea o?iaiy oiaa?iinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa eiaao aaaeiia ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea. Aeey
oicyenoa oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee i?eaiaeeo e
iiauoaieth aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia, oaaee/aieth au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee. Oiaa?iinoue ii?aaeaeyaony a i?ioeaioao ioiioaieai
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e i?iecaaaeaiiie a iaoo?aeueiii ecia?aiee.

O?iaaiue oiaa?iinoe eiie?aoiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee a IIO «Ieineia»
?ann/eoaai a neaaeothuae oaaeeoea.

Oaaeeoea 19.

O?iaaiue oiaa?iinoe i?iaeoeoeee

Aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee Aiaeu Aaeiaie nai?, oe ?aaeeciaaii, oe Oiaa?iinoue, %

Ca?iiaua 1993 27850 11260 40,4

1994 33493 23862 71,2

1995 26037 28059 107,8

1996 30326 22282 73,5

1997 29595 23311 78,8

Ea?oioaeue 1993 57229 13055 22,8

1994 63704 33656 52,8

1995 89719 46051 51,3

1996 60600 32194 52,3

1997 48120 14828 30,8

Iieiei 1993 22849 20971 91,8

1994 24418 22314 91,4

1995 22853 20819 91,1

1996 22986 21143 92,0

1997 21741 19515 89,8

Iyni neioa 1993 2540 1734 68,3

(a ia?an/aoa ia 1994 2240 507 22,6

aeeaie aan) 1995 2103 712 33,9

1996 1787 564 32,5

1997 1470 1395 94,9

Iaeaieaa oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeeae a IIO «Ieineia» yaeyaony iieiei, caoai
ca?ii e ea?oioaeue. O?iaaiue oiaa?iinoe ca?iiauo eoeueoo? eiaao
oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo e a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaee 78,8%. A 1995 aiaeo auei
?aaeeciaaii ca?ii i?iecaiaenoaa ia oieueei yoiai aiaea, ii e
i?aaeuaeouaai. Iiyoiio o?iaaiue oiaa?iinoe a yoii aiaeo i?aauoae 100%.
O?iaaiue oiaa?iinoe ea?oioaey eiaao onoie/eaoth oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo,
iaeiaei a 1997 a. iauai ?aaeecaoeee ea?oioaey nouanoaaiii nieceeny ec-ca
?aceiai nieaeaiey aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa yoie eoeueoo?u ii n?aaiaieth n
1996 e 1996 aiaeaie. O?iaaiue oiaa?iinoe iieiea aaeaaiaeii i?aauoae 90%
e eeoue a 1997a. ninoaaee 89,8%, /oi ieaea ia 2% ii n?aaiaieth n 1993
aiaeii. O?iaaiue oiaa?iinoe iyna e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa eiaao
onoie/eaoth oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth (eeoue a 1997a. – 94,9%), /oi
iaoneiaeaii, ai-ia?auo nieaeaieai aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a ai-aoi?uo,
oai, /oi ?ino cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai aeeaie iannu E?N cia/eoaeueii
iia?aaeaao ?ino oeai ?aaeecaoeee.

?en. 3. O?iaaiue oiaa?iinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Auoai?eaaaeaiiue aiaeec iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiaeu, /oi o?iaaiue
oiaa?iinoe IIO «Ieineia» iaeaieaa aunie ii iieieo, ca?io e ea?oioaeth.
Iiyoiio a aoaeouai oicyenoao aanueia oeaeaniia?acii oaaee/eoue aaeiaia
i?iecaiaenoai e iauaiu ?aaeecaoeee yoeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee e oai naiui
oaaee/eoue aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu oicyenoaa.

Aiaeec oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ethaiai naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey caaa?oaaony auyaeaieai oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia e
?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. I?aaei?eyoea ia iieo/eaoaa i?eaueue a
io/aoiii aiaeo, eeoaaony nianoaaiiuo oeiainiauo enoi/ieeia aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai oe?aieaiey iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu, noeioee?iaaiey
?aaioieeia, inouanoaeaiey nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo ia?ii?eyoee e
aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. Iiyoiio n iniaie ouaoaeueiinoueth i?iaaaeai
aiaeec i?e/ei iaauiieiaiey ieaia ii i?eauee a IIO «Ieineia» a 1997 aiaeo
e caaa?oei aai ?ac?aaioeie ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou oicyenoaa.

?anniio?ei auiieiaiea ieaia-i?iaiica ii oeiainiaui ?acoeueoaoai a IIO
«Ieineia» a 1997a. n iiiiuueth neaaeothuae oaaeeoeu.

Oaaeeoea 20.

Auiieiaiea ieaia-i?iaiica ii oeiainiaui ?acoeueoaoai

a IIO «Ieineia» a 1997 aiaeo, iei. ?oa.

Aeaeu I?eaueue Ioeeiiaiey io ieaia

i?iaeoeoeee ieai oaeo + (-) %

Ca?iiaua 733 753 20 102,7

Ea?oioaeue 320 133 -187 41,6

Iyni E?N -743 -619 124 83,3

Iieiei -1280 -1021 -259 79,8

Eoiai ii anae i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiiui ?aaioai, ieacaiiui oneoaai

-948

-898

49,78

94,7

1997 aiae ieacaeny aeey IIO «Ieineia» iaaeaaii?eyoiui a oeiainiaii
ieaia. Oicyenoai n?aaioaei n oauoeii a 898 iei. ?oa. I?eaueue auea
iieo/aia eeoue io ?aaeecaoeee ca?iiauo eoeueoo?, aa ?acia? ninoaaee
102,7% io ieaiiaiai iieacaoaey. I?iecaiaenoai ea?oioaey e aai
?aaeecaoeey a 1997 aiaeo aeaei oicyenoao i?eaueue 133 iei. ?oaeae.
I?aaeiieaaaaiua io?eoeaoaeueiua oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou ii i?iaeoeoeee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ieacaeenue iaiueoa ii iyno E?N (oauoie ninoaaee 83,3%
io i?iaiice?oaiiai) e ii i?iecaiaenoao iieiea oaeoe/aneee oauoie
ninoaaee 79,8% io ieaiiaiai.

Oaia?ue ia?aeaeai e aieaa aeaoaeueiiio aiaeeco oaeoi?ia, iiaeaeoeo ca
niaie a 1997 aiaeo oauoie oicyenoaa. I?e aiaeeca ii?aaeaeei, eaeea
oaeoi?u ieacaee iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao e eaeea
ec ieo io?eoeaoaeueiia. Aeey yoiai ?anniio?ei neaaeothuoth oaaeeoeo.

Oaaeeoea 21.

Aeeyiea ioaeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia ia ?acoeueoaou

?aaeecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee a 1997 aiaeo.

Iieacaoaee Ca?iiaua Ea?oioaeue Iieiei Iyni E?N Ieai. neio

Eiee/anoai, oe

ieai 21000 20000 19400 1380 80

oaeo 23311 14828 1915 1395 75

Naaanoieiinoue 1oe, oun.?

ieai 75,1 84,0 195,9 905,6 900

oaeo 76,6 84,0 174,6 931,9 990,1

Oeaia ?aaeecaoeee 1oe, oun.?oa.

ieai 110 100 130 512 550

oaeo 108,9 93,0 122,3 488 655,1

?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee, oun. ?oa.

ieai 732900 320000 -12778500 -542900 -28000

oaeo 753000 133000 -1021300 -619300 -25100

Ioeeiiaiey io ieaia

eiee/anoaa 2311 -5172 115 15 -5

i?eauee, oauoea 20100 -187000 257197 -76414 2875

Eciaiaiea ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee ca n/ao eciaiaiey:

eiee/anoaa 80654 -82752 -7578 -5904 1750

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 21.

naaanoieiinoe -34966 – 415670 -36688 -6758

n?aaeia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo oeai -25588 -104248 -150895 -33822 7883

Ia eciaiaiea oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa, iieo/aaiiai oicyenoaii io
?aaeecaoeee auoai?eaaaeaiiuo aeaeia naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
ieacuaatho aeeyiea: eciaiaiey a iauaia ?aaeecaoeee, eciaiaiey a
naaanoieiinoe yoie i?iaeoeoeee e eciaiaiey a n?aaeia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo
oeaiao. Oae a 1997 aiaeo iauai ?aaeecaoeee ca?iiauo eoeueoo? i?aaunee
ieaiiaue ia 2311oe, /oi i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth i?eauee ia 80654 oun.
?oa., iaeiaei naaanoieiinoue ca?iiauo a aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae ninoaaeea
102% io caieaie?iaaiiiai o?iaiy – yoi i?eaaei e oiaiueoaieth i?eauee ia
34966 oun. ?oaeae, n?aaeia?aaeecaoeeiiiua oeaiu ninoaaeee a 1997 aiaeo
eeoue 99% io i?iaiice?oaiuo, /oi iiaeaeei ca niaie ioeeiiaiea
?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee ii ca?iiaui eoeueoo?ai ia 25588 oun. ?oaeae. A
oeaeii a 1997 a. ioeeiiaiea oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa ii ?aaeecaoeee
ca?iiauo eoeueoo? io ieaie?oaiiai eiaei iieiaeeoaeueiia cia/aiea e
ninoaaeei 20100 oun. ?oaeae.

A 1997 aiaeo ea?oioaey a IIO auei ?aaeeciaaii eeoue 74,1% io
caieaie?iaaiiiai iauaia, neaaenoaeai /aai yaeeinue oiaiueoaiea i?eauee
ii yoie eoeueoo?a ia 82752 oun. ?oaeae, n?aaeia?aaeecaoeeiiiua oeaiu ia
ea?oioaeue ninoaaeee 93% io i?iaiice?oaiuo, /oi i?eaaei e
io?eoeaoaeueiiio ioeeiiaieth a oeiainiaii ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee ia
104248 oun. ?oaeae. Oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue ea?oioaey a 1997 a. auea
ia o?iaia i?iaiice?oaiie. Ioeeiiaiea i?eauee io i?iaiica ii ea?oioaeth
ninoaaeei 187000 oun. ?oaeae.

Oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee
oicyenoaa oaea a aecian-ieaia i?aaeiieaaaaony io?eoeaoaeueiui. Iaeiaei a
1997 aiaeo oauoie ii iieieo aue iieo/ai a ?acia?a, iaiueoai ieaie?oaiiai
(79,9%). Oaeoe/aneee oauoie ii iyno E?N i?aaunee i?iaiice?oaiue. Yoi
i?iecioei ec-ca oaaee/aiey i?aaeiieaaaaiuo iauaiia ?aaeecaoeee yoiai
aeaea i?iaeoeoeee, aunieie naaanoieiinoe e ec-ca ieceeo oeai
?aaeecaoeee. Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue
ieaiaiiiai neioa cia/eoaeueii i?aauneea i?iaiice?oaioth, oaaee/ea oai
naiui ioeeiiaiea ?acoeueoao ?aaeecaoeee io i?iaiice?oaiiai a noi?iio
oiaiueoaiey.

Aiaeec oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia io ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

I?eaueue e ?aioaaaeueiinoue – yoi ?acoeueoaoeaiua iieacaoaee
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa. A oneiaeyo ?uiea
i?eaioaoeey ia iieo/aiea i?eauee yaeyaony iai?aiaiiui ?acoeueoaoii
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, e?eoa?eai auai?a iioeiaeueiuo
iai?aaeaiee e iaoiaeia yoie aeayoaeueiinoe, iieacaoaeai aeinoeaiooiai
i?aaei?eyoeai eiiia?/aneiai yooaeoa. I?eaueue io?aaeaao iniiaiua
oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaey e aeaao aio
aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaanoe ana auieaou a ainathaeaeao, aaieai e naiei
eiio?aaaioai. N iiiiuueth i?eauee e ia aa aaca i?eaiaeyony a aeaeaeaiea
aaaeiaeoea ?u/aae eiiia?/aneiai ?an/aoa e n?aaaouaaao aanue aai
iaoaieci. A i?eauee caaycuaathony a aaeeiue ocae oeiainiaia ninoiyiea
i?aaei?eyoey, ia?a eieeaeoeaiiai iiiu?aiey aai ?aaioieeia e
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia.

Iiyoiio ia aeaiiii yoaia aiaeeca ia?aae iaie noieo caaea/a – auyaeoue
acaeiinaycue ?acia?a i?eauee n eiee/anoaii e ea/anoaii ?aaeecoaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea auyaeoue aeeyiea i?eauee ia iieacaoaee
?aioaaaeueiinoe a IIO «Ieineia».

Aeey aiaeeca oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a IIO
«Ieineia» ?anniio?ei neaaeothuoth oaaeeoeo.

Oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou io ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
a IIO «Ieineia», iei. ?oa.

Iieacaoaee Aiaeu Iaeiaiiaaiea i?iaeoeoeee Anaai

ca?ii-

auaaua ea?oi-oaeue i?i/ay eoiai ii ?anoaieaa E?N aeeaay ianna E?N iyni
ieaiai.iie neio iieiei i?i/ay eoiai ii aeea-ao

aua oaeue

?anoai-ao ae. ian. iyni neio

ii aeea.

Eiee/anoai 1993 11260 13055 o o 1645 913 176 20971 o o o

?aaeeciaaiiie 1994 23862 33656 o o 507 780 91 22314 o o o

i?iaeoeoeee, 1995 28059 46051 o o 712 1306 – 20819 o o o

oe 1996 22282 32194 o o 564 1230,5 118,5 21148 o o o

1997 23311 14828 o o 122 1395 75 19515 o o o

Au?o/aii 1993 72,8 75,3 10,7 158,9 49,3 23 7,17 105,8 0,112 164,67
323,54

anaai, 1994 475,3 678,8 125,6 1279,6 47,7 146,6 12,76 536,9 0,084 597,96
1877,6

iei. ?oa. 1995 1504,8 2731,1 134,7 4371 239,4 416,6 – 2035 3,25 2694
7065

1996 1966 1443 112 3521 219 615,4 51,56 2250 3 3139 6660

1997 2540 1379 311 4230 72 681 49,13 2386 14,87 3203 7433

Iieiay 1993 41,4 44,6 5,62 91,6 33,1 20,5 2,99 147 0,077 180 271,6

naaanoieiinoue 1994 157,4 390,4 91,6 639,4 60,3 166,1 11,4 724 0,063 796
1435,4

?aaeeciaaiiie 1995 747,1 1754,6 121,7 2623 113,5 222,3 – 1841 4,98 2182
4805

i?iaeoeoeee, 1996 1134 1853 243 3230 377 963 85 2809 7 4241 7471

iei. ?oa. 1997 1787 1246 361 3394 126 1300 74,3 3407 6,75 4914 8308

Oeiainiaue 1993 31,4 30,7 5,14 67,3 16,4 2,45 4,17 -41,2 0,035 -15,34
51,92

?acoeueoao 1994 317,9 288,3 34 640,2 -12,8 -19,88 1,36 -187,2 0,021 -198
442,19

io ?aaeecaoeee 1995 757,7 976,5 12,96 1748 125,8 194,3 – 194,5 -1,72
512,85 2260

(+) (-) 1996 832 -410 -131 291 -158 -348 -33,48 -559 -4 -1102 -811

iei. ?oa. 1997 753 133 -50 836 -54 619 -25,12 -1021 8,12 -1711 -875

?aioaaaeueiinoue, 1993 75,9 68,9 91 73,4 49,6 11,9 139,4 -28 45,5 -8,5
19,1

% 1994 202,0 73,8 37,1 100,1 -21,1 -11,9 11,9 -25,8 33,3 -24,9 30,8

1995 101,4 55,7 10,5 66,6 110,7 37,0 – 10,6 -57,1 23,5 47,0

1996 73,3 -22,1 -53,9 9,0 -41,9 39,4 -41,7 -19,9 -4,6 -26,0 -10,9

1997 42,1 10,7 13,8 24,6 -42,8 47,6 -33,8 -30 120,4 -34,8 -10,5

Auoai?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi IIO «Ieineia»
aaeaaiaeii ?aaioaei yooaeoeaii, cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ieoiaeenue e i?aaei?eyoea ?aaoey?ii
iieo/aei i?eaueue. I?iecaiaenoai ?anoaieaaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee
inoaaaeinue ?aioaaaeueiui ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo iyoe eao, iaeiaei,
iaiaoeaoayny a iineaaeiea o?e aiaea oaiaeaioeey e nieaeaieth o?iaiy
?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa io?anee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa (ea?oioaey e
ca?iiauo) i?eaaea e oiio, /oi a 1997 aiaeo o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe
io?anee nieceeny aei 24,6% ec-ca ?aceiai nieaeaiey o?iaiy
?aioaaaeueiinoe ea?oioaey (10,7%) e i?i/eo aeaeia ?anoaieaaiae/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee (13,8%) ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa ea?oioaey ca
iineaaeiea iyoue eao iinoaiaiii nieaeaeanue. A 1996 aiaeo i?iecaiaenoai
ea?oioaey iaioeinue IIO a oauoie a ?acia?a 410 iei. ?oaeae. A 1996 a. ii
io?anee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa i?eaueue auea iieo/aia oieueei io ca?iiauo
eoeueoo? 832 iei. ?oaeae, iaeiaei o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca?iiauo
eoeueoo? a 1996a. iaoiaeeeny ia iaaunieii aeey oicyenoaa o?iaia. A
oeaeii ii ?anoaieaaiaenoao a 1997a. IIO «Ieineia» iieo/eei i?eaueue a
?acia?a 836 iei. ?oaeae, iaeiaei oauoie io i?iecaiaenoaa io?anee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ia aue iie?uo e iauee oauoie oicyenoaa io ?aaeecaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaee 875 iei. ?oaeae.

I?e i?iecaiaenoaa aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee oicyenoai aaeaaiaeii
ianei oauoee, oae eae ?ino cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee ia
i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo iyoe eao cia/eoaeueii iia?aaeae ?ino oeai e a
1993, 1994, 1996, 1997 aiaeao iieiay naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee cia/eoaeueii i?aauneea iieacaoaeue au?o/ee.

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa E?N e iieiea a 1997a. eiaao
io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea, niioaaonoaaiii -47,6% e -30,0%. Aiciaiiaeaiiay
a 1996 aiaeo ?aaeecaoeey ieaiaiiiai neioa i?eianea a 1997a. oicyenoao
oauoie a ?acia?a 25,1 iei. ?oaeae e ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
ieaiaiiiai neioa ninoaaeea -33,8%. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oicyenoao ia
auaiaeii au?aueaaoue ieaiaiiie neio, oae eae nouanoaiaaaoea ?aiaa
iaaeaaaee ca ieaiaiiie neio ioiaiaiu, a ?ino cao?ao ia aai au?aueaaiea a
1,5 ?aca iia?aaeaao ?ino oeai ?aaeecaoeee.

Oauoi/iui yaeyaony e i?iecaiaenoai iieiea. Iauai ?aaeecaoeee iinoaiaiii
oiaiueoaaony, naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee ?anoao e aeinoeaea a 1997 aiaeo
3407 iei. ?oeae, oiaaea eae au?o/ea ninoaaeea 2386 iei. ?oaeae,
niioaaonoaaiii oicyenoai iieo/eei oauoie. Aeaiiay io?aneue ioaeaeaaony a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioaoeeyo, eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia i?iecaiaeyony.

Auyaeaiea iiaen/ao e iaiauaiea ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee

IIO “Ieineia” – oicyenoai aunieie eoeueoo?u caieaaeaeey. Iiyoiio
aiai?eoue i ?aca?aao oeo/oaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia io ?aaeecaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee o?oaeii.

A no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii aeaiiui
1997 aiaea iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan caieiaao io?aneue ?anoaieaaiaenoaa
(58,1%), a oaeea eoeueoo?u, eae ca?iiaua a no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee
io?anee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa caieiatho 48,4%.

Ec ca?iiauo eoeueoo? a IIO “Ieineia” aicaeaeuaathony: iceiay e y?iaay
ioaieoea, iceiay ?iaeue, iaan, y/iaiue. ss?iaay ioaieoea – ni?o “Yieoa”
o?iaeaeiinoue aeinoeaaao 60 oe/aa, ii n 1993a. oicyenoai inouanoaeyao
ia?aoiae ia ni?o y?iaie ioaieoeu “I?eieneay”, o?iaeaeiinoue eioi?ie
oioue e ieaea, /ai o “Yieou” (aei 50 oe/aa), ii yoio ni?o iaeaaeaao
aieaa aunieeie oeaaiiaea?iuie ea/anoaaie.

Aei 1996a. a IIO aicaeaeuaaeenue aeaa ni?oa iceiie ioaieoeu: ni?o
“Iaiyoe Oaaeeia” (33,1 oe/aa) e ni?o “Eiia” (36,2 oe/aa). A 1997 aiaeo
oicyenoai aaaei a no?oeoo?o iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae ni?o “Iineianeay” (35,6
oe/aa) e caiaieei ei ni?o “Iaiyoe Oaaeeia”.

A IIO aicaeaeuaaaony iaeei ni?o iceiie ?aee – ni?o “Aieoiaa”, a 1997a.
o?iaeaeiinoue aai ninoaaeea 28,6 oe/aa. Ii 1997 aiae ia yaeyaony
iieacaoaeueiui aeey oicyenoaa, oae eae iiaiaeiua oneiaey a yoii aiaeo
iineee ia?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?. A 1994a. o?iaeaeiinoue ni?oa “Aieoiaa”
aeinoeaea 44,9 oe/aa.

Iaan. A oicyenoaa aicaeaeuaaaony ni?o “Eiian” iieueneie naeaeoeee,
eioi?ue a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy aoaeao caiaiyoueny ia eo/oea ni?oa “Aa?aio” e
“Aiae?ae”. Aaaaeaiiue a 1993 aiaeo a no?oeoo?o iinaaia ni?o “Oaeia”,
ianiio?y ia aunieoth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, aue niyo n i?iecaiaenoaa a 1996a.
ec-ca inuiaaiinoe. A 1997 aiaeo o?iaeaeiinoue ni?oa “Eiian” auea 29,2
oe/aa.

ss/iaiue. A IIO “Ieineia” aicaeaeuaaaony ni?o “Caica?neee-85”
(o?iaeaeiinoue a 1997a. -35,5 oe/aa, a 1994a. 45,4 oe/aa) e ni?o “Oiia?”
(o?iaeaeiinoue a 1997a. – 41 oe/aa).

Oaeea aunieea o?iaeaeiinoe aeey oicyenoaa ia i?aaeae. I?iaeoeoeaiua
aiciiaeiinoe eniieuecothony iaeneiaeueii e aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea
aiciiaeii eeoue ni?oiniaiie. Oae, a 1996a. ia iiuoiuo aeaeyieao
Eino?iineiai IEENO i?ioiaeee eniuoaiea nei?iniaeue ni?o iana “Aiae?ae”
Ee?ianeie naeaeoeee. Yoio ni?o iiniaaaao ia aeaa iaaeaee ?aiueoa
aunaaaaiuo a oicyenoaa ni?oia e aeinoeaaao o?iaeaeiinoe aei 65 oe/aa.

Neaaeiaaoaeue, iaeiei ec ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey i?eauee yaeyaony oeo/oaiea
ea/anoaa ni?oia ca?iiauo eoeueoo?, eniieuecoaiuo a oicyenoaa. IIO
iinoiyiii ?aaioaao a yoii iai?aaeaiee.

Oicyenoai anaaaea noa?aaony i?iaanoe oai?eo a n?ie e a n?aaeiai ca
iineaaeiea iyoue eao i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oai?ee ii ca?iiaui eoeueoo?ai
ninoaaeea 31 aeaiue, a a 1995 aiaeo – 20 aeiae.

A IIO “Ieineia” eiaaony i/aiue oi?ioay aaca aeey oai?ee o?iaeay aei 60
oe/aa a n?ie: ca?iioiea, IOI, aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua niaoeeaeenou e
?aai/ea.

A 1997a. i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oai?ee ii ca?iiaui eoeueoo?ai ninoaaeea
26 aeiae. Iiyoiio oaeea eoeueoo?u, eae iaan e y?iaay ioaieoea oae?aeenue
a iaaeaaii?eyoiua n?iee – a naioya?a. Iiyoiio oicyenoai iiianei iioa?e
ec-ca inuiaiey ca?ia (iaan) e i?i?anoaiey a eieina (y?iaay ioaieoea).
Iiyoiio, ianiio?y ia aunieoth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aicaeaeuaaaiuo a
oicyenoaa ni?oia iana e y?iaie ioaieoeu o?iaeaeiinoue eo a 1997 aiaeo
ieacaeanue ieaea, /ai iiaea au auoue.

Ii ea?oioaeth o?iaeaeiinoue a IIO “Ieineia” oaeaea i/aiue aunieay. A
1995a. a n?aaeiai ii ni?oai o?iaeaeiinoue ninoaaeea 320 oe/aa, a 1997a.
– 209,2 oe/aa.

Oaaeeoea 22.

O?iaeaeiinoue ea?oioaey a 1997 aiaeo.

Ni?oa Iinaaiay ieiuaaeue, aa O?iaeaeiinoue, oe/aa

Iaaneee 15 173

A?iiieoeeee 37 193

Eci?a 40 187

Eoaianeie 98 220

?aca?a 10 272

AEaeoue ?aiiee 8 250

Ee?a 1 110

Iino-86 1 94

Iooeeiaoe 20 221

A IIO aicaeaeuaaaony 9 ni?oia ea?oioaey. Iniiaiua ec ieo: “Eci?a”,
“AEaeoue ?aiiee” – ?aiiea, “A?iiieoeeee”, “Iooeeiaoe” – n?aaeianiaeua. A
?aciiiaeaiee iaoiaeyony oaeea ni?oa ea?oioaey, eae “Eoaianeie”,
“Eanoiae”, “Ieaea“, “?aca?a”.

I?iecaiaenoai ea?oioaey a oicyenoaa iniiaaii ia ii?aaeaeaiee iiauo,
aunieiyooaeoeaiuo ni?oia. A nayce n yoei a 1995 aiaeo IIO ia ieiuaaee 25
aa aunaaeeei i?iaiue ni?o “Eanoiae”, eioi?ue ieacaeny i/aiue o?iaeaeiui
(310 oe/aa). Cia/eoaeueii a 1997 aiaeo auee ?anoe?aiu ieiuaaee iiae
ni?oa “A?iiieoeeee”(123 oe/aa) e “Eoaianeie” (220 oe/aa) n 55aa aei 100
aa e n 60 aei 63 aa niioaaonoaaiii.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?aaei?eyoea aaeaaiaeii ieaie?oao oauoi/iinoue
io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, iaeiaei ?aca?au nieaeaiey oauoeia a io?anee
eiathony.

Aaaeiaeoei iieacaoaeai yooaeoeaiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecainoaa
e oneiaeai aa iiauoaiey yaeyaony oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

?anniio?ei eciaiaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee ia i?eia?a iieiea a aeeiaieea
ca 5 eao.

Oaaeeoea 23.

Iieacaoaee ea/anoaa iieiea, %

Iieacaoaee 1993a. 1994a. 1995a. 1996a. 1997a.

Ia?aue ni?o 73 85 83 82 90

Aoi?ie ni?o 26 13 16 16 8

Iani?oiaia 1 2 1 2 2

Niaea?aeaiea aee?a a iieiea 3,85 3,85 3,84 3,83 3,85

A oicyenoaa a iniiaiii i?iecaieony e ?aaeecoaony ia?aini?oiia iieiei, e
iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e aai oaaee/aieth. A 1997 aiaeo auei
i?iecaaaeaii 2174,1o iieiea, any iniiaiay ianna auea ?aaeeciaaia ia
iieieicaaiae (1957 o) e iaaieueoay, ianoaiaea?oiay /anoue (217,1o) iioea
ia ei?i neioo. Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei ec oaaeeoeu, /oi i?aaei?eyoea
eiaao ?aca?a oaaee/aiey ea/anoaa iieiea (ia 10%), a cia/eo e oaaee/aiey
au?o/ee io aai ?aaeecaoeee a noiia 265,3 iei. ?oaeae.

Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi iieiei ia i?aaei?eyoee i?iecaiaeeony a
n?aaeiai n aee?iinoueth 3,85%, a naeaaony ii aaceniie aee?iinoe 3,6%.

?aaeecaoeey neioa i?ienoiaeeo a iniiaiii n?aaeiae oieoaiiinoe, iiyoiio
i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao oaaee/eoue au?o/eo ca n/ao iiauoaiey oieoaiiinoe
?aaeecoaiuo aeeaioiuo.

A caeeth/aiee aiaeeca yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?acii ia iniiaaiee
oiiiyioouo ?aiaa a oaenoa ?aca?aia, ?ann/eoaoue eo e naeaeaoue
niioaaonoaothuea auaiaeu. Iaeiei ec oaeeo ?aca?aia, eae iieacae aiaeec,
yaeyaony oaaee/aiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

Anee o?iaeaeiinoue ca?ia oaaee/eoue n 34 oe/aa (o?iaaiue 1997 aiaea) aei
41,6 oe/aa (o?iaaiue 1994 aiaea), oi aaeiaie nai? aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
oaaee/eony n 29595 oe/aa aei 36233,6 oe/aa, oi anoue ia 6638,6 oe/aa,
enoiaey ec yoiai i?iecieaeao nie?auaiea naaanoieiinoe 1oe i?iaeoeoeee n
66,80 oun. ?oaeae aei 54,56 oun. ?oaeae, oaeei ia?acii iieiay
naaanoieiinoue caieaie?iaaiiiai aaeiaiai nai?a (36233,6 oe/aa) i?e
oaeoe/aneii o?iaia naaanoieiinoe ninoaaeea au 2420364 oun. ?oa., a i?e
ieaie?oaiii 1976905,2 oun. ?oa.. Ionthaea ?aca?a nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe
– 443458,8 oun. ?oaeae.

Oaaee/ea o?iaeaeiinoue ea?oioaey aei 320,4 oe/aa (o?iaaiue 1995a.) n
209,2 oe/aa (o?iaaiue 1997a.), aaeiaie nai? ea?oioaey oaaee/eony n 48120
oe/aa aei 73692 oe/aa, oi anoue ia 25572 oe/aa, enoiaey ec yoiai
nie?aoeony e naaanoieiinoue 1oe n 79,43 oun. ?oa. aei 51,86 oun. ?oa..
Oaeei ia?acii, iieiay naaanoieiinoue caieaie?iaaiiiai aaeiaiai nai?a
(73692 oe/aa) i?e oaeoe/aneii o?iaia naaanoieiinoe ninoaaeea au 5853355
oun. ?oa., a i?e ieie?oaiie 3821667, 1 oun. ?oa., ?aca?a nieaeaiey
iieiie naaanoieiinoe – 2031687,9 oun. ?oaeae.

Aiaeiae/iue ?an/ao i?iaaaeai ii i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa: anee oaeie
io iaeiie ei?iau oaaee/eoue n 3456 ea (o?iaaiue 1997a.) aei 3614 ea
(o?iaaiue 1994a.), aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai au?anoao aei22732 oe n 21741
oe, naaanoieiinoue 1oe i?iaeoeoeee nieceony n 173,4 oun. ?oa. aei 165,8
oun. ?oa., a aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa n 3941728,8 oun. ?oa. aei 3768965,6
oun.?oa., oi anoue ia 172763 oun ?oa.

Oaaee/ea i?e?ino e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa n 1470 oe (o?iaaiue 1997a) aei
2540 oe (o?iaaiue 1993a.) n iaeiie aieiau, naaanoieiinoue 1oe i?e?inoa
nie?aoeony n 1701,0 oun. ?oa. aei 984,3 oun. ?oa., a ii aaeiaiio
i?iecaiaenoao n 1910223 oun. ?oa. aei 1105368,9 oun. ?oa., ?aca?a
nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe ninoaaeo 804854,1 oun. ?oa.

Oaaee/aiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee iicaieeo nieceoue naaanoieiinoue, a cia/eo e
oaaee/eoue au?o/eo io i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Oaaeeoea 24.

?an/ao ?aca?aia.

Iieaca-oaee

Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai

Ieaiiaay naaanoieiinoue, oun. ?oa. ?aca?a nieae. naaano.,

Aae.i?iae., oe/aa Aaeiaue nai?, oe/aa Aae. i?iae., oun. ?oa. Anaai
iei.?oa

Ca?ii 41,6 34,0 36233,6 29595 54,56 66,80 1976905,2 2420364 443458,8

Ea?oi-oaeue 320,4 209,2 73692 48120 51,86 79,43 3821667,1 5853355
2031687,9

Iiei-ei 3614 3456 22732 21741 165,8 173,4 3768965,6 3941728,8 172763,2

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 24.

I?e-?ino E?N 2540 1470 2852420 1650810 984,3 1701, 1105368,9 1910223
804854,1

Oaeei ia?acii, ?ann/eoaiiua ?aca?au oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa e nieaeaiey
naaanoieiinoe iicaieyo iiauneoue iauaiu ?aaeecaoeee, oaaee/eoue
i?eaueue.

Oaaeeoea 25.

?an/ao ?aca?aia.

Aeae i?iaeoeoeee ?aca?a nie-aeaiey naaa-noieiinoe,

oun. ?oa O?iaaiue oiaa?iinoe

?an/ao ?aca?aa ?aca?a oaaee/aiey i?eauee, oun.?oa.

Ca?iiaua 443458,8 78,7 (443458,8o78,7)/100 399002,07

Ea?oioaeue 2031687,9 30,8 (2031687,9o30,8)/100 625759,8

Iieiei 172763 89,7 (172763o89,7)/100 154968,4

I?e?ino E?N 804854,1 8,2 (804854,1o8,2)/100 65998

I?eiaiea auoaia?a/eneaiiua ?aca?au IIO “Ieineia” iiaeao oaaee/eoue
i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee ia 1195728,27
oun.?oaeae. AACIIANIINOUe E YEIEIAE*IINOUe ?AAIOU.

Aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe – yoi iaoea i nio?aiaiee caei?iauey e
aaciianiinoe /aeiaaea a n?aaea iaeoaiey, i?ecaaiiay auyaeyoue e
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue iianiua e a?aaeiua oaeoi?u, ?ac?aaaouaaoue iaoiaeu e
n?aaenoaa caueou /aeiaaea, nieaeaiea iianiuo e a?aaeiuo oaeoi?ia aei
i?eaieaiuo cia/aiee, au?aaaouaaoue ia?u ii eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee
/?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee. [ 11 ]

*aeiaa/aneia iauanoai eae /anoue i?e?iaeu iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue oieueei
ai acaeiinayce n iae. Iniiaiie caaea/ae io?aiu i?e?iaeu yaeyaony
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, caueoa ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu io caa?yciaiee.

Aeey aa?aioee auiieiaiey o?aaiaaiee aaciianiinoe o?oaea, ainoaea?noai
i?eaeaei aio neeo caeiia. Ana ?ac?aaioaiiua o?aaiaaiey iauaaeeiaiu a
INOu, AINOu e noaiaea?ou. Oaeaea aii?inu aaciianiinoe o?oaea io?aaeaiu a
ECIOa, ooaa?aeaeaiiii 25 naioya?y 1992a. Aeaaa 10 ECIO ?O iinayuaia
iieiinoueth io?aia o?oaea. A noaouea 139 oeacaiu iaycaiiinoe
aaeieieno?aoeee i nicaeaiee aaciianiuo oneiaee o?oaea, a noaoueyo
146-155 iaycaiiinoe aaeieieno?aoeee i auaeaeaiee n?aaenoa ia ia?ii?eyoey
ii io?aia o?oaea, ia iieiei, ia niaoeeaeueiia ieoaiea, ia iuei, ia
n?aaenoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie caueou, ia caueoiua n?aaenoaa; noaouey 159
iinayuaia aii?inai iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia?ooaiea oaoieee
aaciianiinoe [ 19 ].

Ia?aae niaoeeaeenoaie naeueneiai oicyenoaa noieo caaea/a i?aaieciaaoue e
i?iaiaeeoue ia?ii?eyoey ii io?aia o?oaea e i?e?iaeu a ni/aoaiee n
caaea/aie naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa [ 10 ].

Ioaaonoaaiiui ca ninoiyiea io?aiu o?oaea a oeaeii ii IIO «Ieineia»
yaeyaony aee?aeoi? IIO. Naiei i?eeacii ii aaeaaiaeii iacia/aao ec /enea
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ioaaonoaaiiuo ca ninoiyiea e i?aaiecaoeeth ?aaiou ii
io?aia o?oaea ia eiie?aoiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo o/anoeao. Anth ?aaioo ii
io?aia o?oaea a oicyenoaa i?aaiecoao inaiaiaeaeaiiue eiaeaia? ii io?aia
o?oaea. Iniiaiie iaycaiiinoueth eiaeaia?a ii io?aia o?oaea a IIO
«Ieineia» yaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?oeiaiaenoai ?ac?aaioeie e
inouanoaeaieai ia?ii?eyoee a yoie iaeanoe. Ii i?iaa?yao ninoiyiea
oaoieee aaciianiinoe, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie naieoa?ee e i?aaeeueiinoue
eino?oeoaaeae. Oaeaea eiaeaia? i?iaiaeeo ?ac?aaioeo eino?oeoeee,
aaiaeiue, ia?ae/iue ia ?aai/ai ianoa, iiaoi?iue, aiaieaiiaue e oeaeaaie
eino?oeoaaee, iao/aiea ?aai/eo, niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoieee e iaoiaeia
?aaiou aeey oeo/oaiey oneiaee o?oaea, o/anoaoao a ?anneaaeiaaiee
ian/anoiuo neo/aaa, i?eieiaao ia?u ii eo ono?aiaieth, aaaeao eiio?ieue
ca aaaeaieai aeo?iaea ii oaoieea aaciianiinoe. O eiaeaia?a ii io?aia
o?oaea anoue eaaeiao, niaaaeaiiue eeoa?aoo?ie e iaaeyaeiuie iiniaeyie. A
aeaiiii eaaeiaoa ii i?iaiaeeo caiyoey ii io?aia o?oaea n ioaaonoaaiiuie
eeoeaie e eino?oeoaaee i?e i?eaia ia ?aaioo. A n?iee, onoaiiaeaiiua
Eino?oeoeeae ii io?aia o?oaea, a IIO «Ieineia» i?iaiaeeony aaiaeiue
eino?oeoaae, ia?ae/iue ia ?aai/ai ianoa, aiaieaiiaue, a iiaoi?iue e
oeaeaaie eino?oeoaaee ia i?iaiaeyony aiiaua. Aaiaeiue eino?oeoaae
i?iaiaeeo eiaeaia? ii io?aia o?oaea ni anaie aiiaue i?eauaoeie ia
?aaioo. I?iaaaeaieai eino?oeoaaeae caieiaaony ioaaonoaaiiue ii io?aia
o?oaea a oeaoao oicyenoaa e niaoeeaeenou eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey,
eioi?ua ioaa/atho ca ninoiyiea caei?iauey naieo iiae/eiaiiuo ai a?aiy
?aaiou. Ca/aou ii i?iaa?ea ciaiee oaoieee aaciianiinoe a IIO ia
i?iaiaeyony. Iinea eaaeaeiai eino?oeoaaea i?iecaiaeeony caienue a
aeo?iae ?aaeno?aoeee eino?oeoaaeae e noaaeony iiaeienue
eino?oeoe?othuaai e eaaeaeiai eino?oeoe?iaaiiiai ?aaioieea. AEo?iae
?aaeno?aoeee eino?oeoaaeae a oicyenoaa i?iioia?iaai, i?ioio?iaai,
ne?aieai ia/aoueth.

A IIO «Ieineia» ia?ii?eyoey ii io?aia o?oaea i?iaiaeyony ia iniiaa
eiiieaeniiai ieaia oeo/oaiey oneiaee ?aaiou, io?aiu o?oaea e
naieoa?ii-icaei?iaeoaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Eiiieaeniue ieai
?ac?aaaouaaaony niaianoii aaeieieno?aoeeae n i?ioeiiii i?e o/anoee
?aai/eo e eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneeo ?aaioieeia ii eoiaai aiaeeca
naieoa?ii-oaoie/aneiai ninoiyiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iauaeoia, iiiauaiee,
?aai/eo iano n o/aoii i?aaeeiaeaiee iauanoaaiiuo einiaeoi?ia e
i?aaeienaiee oaoie/aneeo einiaeoi?ia o?oaea. A eiiieaeniii ieaia
io?aaeathony neaaeothuea ia?ii?eyoey: iiaea?iecaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey e
aiaae?aiey aaoiiaoeee, aeenoaioeeiiiiai oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey,
i?eiaiaiey aeiee?iai/iuo e caueoiuo ono?ienoa, ioeeth/athueo
iai?oaeiaaiea i?e aai iaeni?aaiinoe, i?eaaaeaiea ?aai/eo iano a
niioaaonoaea n naieoa?iuie o?aaiaaieyie e o.ae.. Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiiai
ieaia aaeieieno?aoeey ii niaeaniaaieth n i?ioeiiii ninoaaeyao aiaeiaie
ieai a aeaea eieeaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo aaeieieno?aoeeae IIO
«Ieineia» e o?oaeiaui eieeaeoeaii oicyenoaa. A eieeaeoeaiii aeiaiai?a
ii?aaeaeaiu oneiaey ?aaiou aeaiuei e iiae?inoeia: nie?auaiea ?aai/aai
a?aiaie aeey aa?aiaiiuo e iiae?inoeia aei 4 /ania a aeaiue, a oaeaea
inaiaiaeaeaiea eo io ?aaiou a ii/ioth niaio. Eaaeaeua iieaiaea a IIO
«Ieineia» i?iaiaeeony aooanoaoeey ?aai/eo iano ii auiieiaieth
ia?ii?eyoee ii io?aia o?oaea. Yoi ia?ii?eyoea a oicyenoaa iineo iacaaiea
«Aeaiue io?aiu o?oaea».

Aaeaaiaeii a oaa?aea-ia?oa ianyoea a oicyenoaa i?aaiecoaony
iaycaoaeueiue iaaeeoeeineee iniio? eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea n oeaeueth
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey eee ?aiiaai aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
caaieaaaiey. ?aaioieee, o eioi?uo auyaeaiu ioeeiiaiey a caei?iauea,
noaiiayony ia o/ao, a a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, aeey ieo /a?ac i?ioeii
i?eia?aoatho iooaaee a naiaoi?ee «Eiein», aaea aeey ?aaioieeia oicyenoaa
iino?iai ea/aaiue ei?ion.

A eiiieaeniii ieaia oicyenoaa io?aaeaaony oaeaea e ia?eiaee/iinoue
niaaaeaiey ?aai/eo niaoeiaeaaeaeie, caueoiuie i?eniiniaeaieyie e
o/aaiuie iiniaeyie. Ii?iu auaea/e niaoeiaeaaeaeu, onoaiiaeaiiua a
noaouea 149 ECIO, a IIO «Ieineia» niaethaeathony. Ia a?aaeiuo
i?iecaiaenoaao: ii?uneeaaiea iinaaia ianoeoeeaeaie, i?io?aaeeaaiea naiyi
yaeioeieeaoaie, ia?aaioea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee e o. ae. ?aaioieee
iaania/eaathony n?aaenoaaie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie caueou. Anai ?aaioieeai
oicyenoaa, caiyoui ia a?aaeiuo i?iecaiaenoaao, auaeaaony iieiei ca
a?aaeiinoue (0,5 e a aeaiue) e onoaiaaeeaaaony nie?auaiiue ?aai/ee
aeaiue (5-6 /ania).

Any ?aaioa n iaoaiecaoi?aie ii iiauoaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee, caiyoey ii
oaoieea aaciianiinoe i?iaiaeyony a niaoeeaeueii iai?oaeiaaiiii caeaiee
«Aeiia iaoaiecaoi?a», ?aniieiaeaiiii ia oa??eoi?ee iaoeiiiai aeai?a. A
yoii caeaiee eiaaony iai?oaeiaaiiue iaeaoaie e iaaeyaeiuie iiniaeyie
eeann, anoue aeeniao/a?neay, eiiiaoa ioaeuoa, naoia, coaia?a/aaiue
eaaeiao.

Aieueoia aieiaiea a oicyenoaa oaeaeyaony aaciianiie ?aaioa n iaoeiaie e
iai?oaeiaaieai. Ana a?auathueany /anoe iaoei e aa?aaaoia eiatho
ia?aaeaeaiey e cae?uou eiaeooaie. Ia?aoiaeu e iinoeee ia ca?iioieao
oaeaea eiatho ia?aaeaeaiey. Eaaeaeoth iiaoth iaoeio eee iai?oaeiaaiea a
oicyenoaa caioneatho a ?aaioo oieueei iinea oiai, eae aa i?iaa?eo
eiaeaia? ii io?aia o?oaea ia i?aaeiao aaciianiinoe. Ia?aae ia/aeii
eaaeaeiai aeaea ?aaio: iinaaiay, ooiae ca iinaaaie, oai?ea o?iaeay e
o.ae., ana iaoaieciu e iaoeiu, o/anoaothuea a aeaiiuo ?aaioao i?ioiaeyo
aooanoaoeeth o eiaeaia?a ii io?aia o?oaea. Aeey yoiai i?aaiecothony
niio?u oaoieee, a eioi?uo i?eieiatho o/anoea: i?aaenaaeaoaeue i?ioeiia,
niaoeeaeenou e ?oeiaiaeeoaee iiae?acaeaeaiee ai aeaaa n eiaeaia?ii ii
io?aia o?oaea. I?e i?iaaaeaiee niio?a aooanoaoeeth i?ioiaeyo oaeaea
yeaeo?ionoaiiaee, a?ociiiaeuaiiua iaoaieciu, iieieaioaiaeu e o. ae..

A IIO «Ieineia» /aoei iinoaaeaia i?aaiecaoeey o?oaea e auiieiaiea
o?aaiaaiee o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu. Ia?ooaiea o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu e
oaoieee aaciianiinoe, /oi yaeyaony aeey oicyenoaa ?aaeeei yaeaieai,
i?eaiaeeo e iiauoaieth o?aaiiiianiinoe. Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie o?aai
yaeythony iaaieiaoaeueiinoue, iainoi?iaeiinoue ?aai/eo ia naiai ?aai/ai
ianoa, ia?ooaiea i?aaee oaoieee aaciianiinoe. Iaeaieaa o?aaiiiianiui
oeaoii a IIO «Ieineia» yaeyaony oeao aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Aeey
?anneaaeiaaiey ian/anoiiai neo/ay n?aco iinea i?ienoanoaey nicaeaaony
niaoeeaeueiay eiienney, eioi?ay auyniyao i?e/eiu ian/anoiuo neo/aaa, a
caoai ninoaaeyao aeo oi?iu I-1.

Ia iniiaa io/aoa oi?iu 7 O-ai ?ann/eoaai iieacaoaee o?aaiaoecia ca
iineaaeiea 5 eao.

?ann/eouaathony 4 iniiaiuo iieacaoaey o?aaiaoecia: eiyooeoeeaio /anoiou
o?aaiaoecia, eiyooeoeeaio oyaeanoe e eiyooeoeeaio iioa?e ?aai/aai
a?aiaie, a oaeaea eiyooeoeeaio eioaineaiinoe caaieaaaiee.

Iieacaoaeue /anoiou o?aaiaoecia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioiioaiea eiee/anoaa
iino?aaeaaoeo (I1) e n?aaeianieni/iiio /eneo ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo ca
o/aoiue ia?eiae (I?), ioianaiiia e 1000 ?aaioathueo. E/ =(I1 / I?)1000.

Iieacaoaeue oyaeanoe o?aaiaoecia oa?aeoa?ecoao n?aaeithth
aeeeoaeueiinoue a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe iino?aaeaaoeo Eo = Aei /
I2, aaea Aei – /enei /aeiaaei-aeiae iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe o anao
iino?aaeaaoeo ca o/aoiue ia?eiae, /ae.-aeie; I2 – /enei iino?aaeaaoeo ca
o/aoiue ia?eiae n oo?aoie o?oaeiniiniaiinoe ia n?ie aieaa iaeiiai aeiy
aac o/aoa iiaeaoeo, /ae.

Iieacaoaeue iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie ia 1000 ?aaioathueo ca
ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie (1 aiae) aieaa iieii oa?aeoa?ecoao
ninoiyiea o?aaiaoecia a oicyenoaa. Ei = (Aei/I?)1000, aaea I? –
n?aaeianieni/iia /enei ?aaioathueo, /ae.

Iieacaoaeue eioaineaiinoe caaieaaaiee au/eneyaony a ?an/aoa ia 100
?aaioieeia ca aiae. Ee.c. = (Oc/I?)100, aaea Oc – eiee/anoai neo/aaa
caaieaaaiee ca o/eouaaaiue ia?eiae.

Oaaeeoea 26.

Iieacaoaee o?aaiaoecia

Iacaaiea iieacaoaeae o?aaiaoecia

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

E/ = (I1/I?)1000 16,3 16,6 31,6 16,5 33,6

Eo = Aei/I2 13,2 8,2 14,1 12,3 17,8

Ei = (Aei/ I?)1000 215,7 186,2 444,7 203,3 596,6

Ee.c. = (Oc/I?)100 72,9 71,14 97,5 75,4 96,6

Aeey iaaeyaeiinoe i?eaaaeai a?aoee e aeeaa?aiio, aaea iieacaiu
eiyooeoeeaiou o?aaiaoecia.

?en.3. Iieacaoaee o?aaiaoecia

?en. 4. Iieacaoaeue iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie a IIO “Ieineia”.

I?e iieo/aiee ?acee/iuo o?aai e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaieaaaiee oicyenoai
ianao iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou. Noiiu n?aaenoa, oa?yaiuo oicyenoaii,
iaoiaeyo naia io?aaeaiea a neaaeothuae oaaeeoea.

Oaaeeoea 27.

Iaoa?eaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ian/anoiuo neo/aaa.

Iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a, ?oa

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1.Auiea/aii ii eenoo iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe

133513

600011

2181095

1203262

3405022

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu 27.

2.Noieiinoue enii?/aiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey

10230

351600

3.Noieiinoue enii?/aiiiai eino?oiaioa

2105

54400

32300

58100

Oaaee/aiea noii iaoa?eaeueiuo iineaaenoaee aucaaii, aeaaiui ia?acii,
i?ioeannii eioeyoeee. A oeaeii, oua?a io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa ia i/aiue
aunie. Ii?/e iai?oaeiaaiey e eino?oiaioia ec-ca ian/anoiuo neo/aaa
i?aeoe/anee ia auaaao.

Aeaeaa ?anniio?ei cao?aou IIO «Ieineia» ia io?aio o?oaea e ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu.

Oaaeeoea 28.

Cao?aou ia iiiaieeaoo?iua ia?ii?eyoey ii io?aia o?oaea e yeieiaee ii
anai enoi/ieeai oeiaine?iaaiey, oun. ?oa.

Iieacaoaee 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Anneaiiaaiey e cao?aou

ieai 900 8200 9000 85000 80000

oaeo 863 7215 4682 84631 79200

Ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae cao?aou ii yeieiaee ioaeaeueiie no?ieie ia
auaeaeythony. Ieai cao?ao ia io?aio o?oaea iieiinoueth ia auiieiyaony.
N?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua ia yoe oeaee, ?anoiaeothony oieueei ii oeaeaaiio
iacia/aieth: ia iaono?ienoai iiiauaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ciiu,
i?eia?aoaiea iaaeyaeiuo iiniaee, ieaeaoia, niaoeiaeaaeaeu e i?i/aai. A
oeaeii, ia niio?y ia iaaeaaii?eyoiua yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey, noiia
n?aaenoa, iai?aaeaiiuo ia io?aio o?oaea, ia oiaiueoaaony e eniieuecoaony
ia i?aaei?eyoee no?iai ii iacia/aieth.

O?aaiaoeci e caaieaaaiey eiatho aeey oicyenoaa yeiiiie/aneea
iineaaenoaey. Iauee yeiiiie/aneee oua?a neeaaeuaaaony ec oneiaiuo
iaoa?eaeueiuo e nioeeaeueiuo iioa?ue. Iauee yeiiiie/aneee oua?a,
aucaaiiue o?aaiaoeciii a IIO «Ieineia» ca 1997 aiae ninoaaee 49107 oun.
?oaeae, a oii /enea oua?a, naycaiiue n iaaeiiieo/aieai i?iaeoeoeee
aneaaenoaea iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie ninoaaeyao 40989 oun. ?oaeae.
Nioeeaeueiua iioa?e, naycaiiua n auieaoie iiniaee ii ian/anoiui neo/ayi
ninoaaeee 8118 oun. ?oaeae. I?e yoii ca ia?eiae n 1993 aiaea
iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e ?inoo yeiiiie/aneiai oua?aa, /oi iaoneiaeaii
a oii /enea e i?ioeannii eioeyoeee.

Iauee yeiiiie/aneee oua?a, aucaaiiue caaieaaaieyie ia i?iecaiaenoaa a
IIO «Ieineia» ca 1997 aiae ninoaaee 196641 oun. ?oaeae, a oii /enea
cao?aou, naycaiiua n iaaeiiieo/aieai i?iaeoeoeee aneaaenoaea caaieaaaiee
?aaioieeia ninoaaeee 170308 oun. ?oaeae.

Ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae iieacaoaeue /anoiou o?aaiaoecia a 1995 e 1997
aiaeao eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi /enei
iino?aaeaaoeo n oo?aoie o?oaeiniiniaiinoe ia n?ie aieaa iaeiiai aeiy
aic?inei a 3,3-3,5 ?aca. Iii ?anoao aieueoeie oaiiaie, /ai nie?auaiea
n?aaeianieni/iiai /enea ?aaioathueo. Iieacaoaeue oyaeanoe o?aaiaoecia
eieaaeaony. Iaeaieueoaai cia/aiey ii aeinoea a 1997 aiaeo e ninoaaee
17,8 , oae eae a yoii aiaeo auei iaeaieueoaa /enei ian/anoiuo neo/aaa.

Iaeiei ec iieacaoaeae, iaeaieaa iieii oa?aeoa?ecothueo ninoiyiea
o?aaiaoecia ia i?aaei?eyoee, yaeyaony iieacaoaeue iioa?ue ?aai/aai
a?aiaie, eioi?ue a 1997 aiaeo oaeaea eiae iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea – 596,6.
*enei caaieaaaiee a aiae a oicyenoaa ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae aic?inei.
Ia yoii aiai?eo iieacaoaeue eioaineaiinoe caaieaaaiee. Oae a 1997 aiaeo
ii ninoaaee 96,6, iaeiaei iaeaunoaa cia/aiea yoio iieacaoaeue eiae a
1995 aiaeo – 97,5.

Aeaiiua yeiiiie/aneiai oua?aa io o?aaiaoecia e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
caaieaaaiee i?aaenoaaeaiu a neaaeothuae oaaeeoea.

Oaaeeoea 29.

Yeiiiie/aneee oua?a io o?aaiaoecia e

i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaieaaaiee, oun. ?oaeae

Iieacaoaee 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Yeiiiie/aneee oua?a io o?aaiaoecia 212,132 2793,88 17716,36 12672,36
49107,0

Yeiiiie/aneee oua?a io i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaieaaaiee 198,74 2180,76
78294,4 126303,0 196641,0

Iaeaieueoee yeiiiie/aneee oua?a ec-ca aieueoiai /enea ian/anoiuo
neo/aaa, iiaeaeoeo ca niaie iioa?e o?oaeiniiniaiinoe, ii?/o
eino?oiaioia, a oaeaea a ?acoeueoaoa eioeyoeee, aue a 1997 aiaeo.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey IIO «Ieineia» eiaao io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.
Io?aia i?e?iaeu – yoi i?aaiaay nenoaia ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea, io?aio, ainnoaiiaeaiea i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia, ia caueoo ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io caa?yciaiee e ?ac?ooaiee.
Aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea aucuaaao cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey a i?e?iaea.

A IIO «Ieineia» i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ciia ?aniieiaeaia iainiaeaiii io
aeeeiai eiiieaena, /oi iaania/eaaao aaciianiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa.
I?e?iaeiio?aiiua neoaeau aua ie ?aco ia ioia/aee neo/aaa ia?ooaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai yeieiae/aneeo o?aaiaaiee. Oaeea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iauaeou,
eae ioieo oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey, ca?iioiee, neeaaeu ieia?aeueiuo
oaeia?aiee e yaeioeieeaoia, ieiuaaeee aeey i?eaioiaeaiey i?aaie/aneeo
oaeia?aiee, oa?iu ?aniieiaeaiu a ianoao, eioi?ua ie a aanaiiee iaaiaeie,
ie a nacii eaoieo e inaiieo aeiaeaeae ia niinianoaotho caa?yciaieth
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Ieuaaay aiaea ia i?aaei?eyoee iiaeaaony ec naie a?oaceaineeo neaaaeei,
?aniieiaeaiiuo ia oa??eoi?ee oicyenoaa. Ieoueaaay aiaea niioaaonoaoao
anai o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeoniio?aiiui NIEI.

Ia oa??eoi?ee i?aaiecaoeee eiaaony naaeea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iooiaeia
i?aaie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey. Iia iaoiaeeony a auaoai ian/aiii ea?uea?a,
ec eioi?iai iao auoiaea noi/iuo aiae ie a eaeea enoi/ieee. Auoiaua
iooiaeu e noiee na?anuaathony /a?ac eaiaeecaoeeiiioth nenoaio ia iiey
oeeueo?aoeee, iai?oaeiaaiiua a niioaaonoaee n AINO. Iaeiaei, aeey
eneeth/aiey aaa?eeiuo aua?inia auoiauo noieia a ?aeo Aieaa o?aaoaony
eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia eaiaeecaoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

IIO «Ieineia» eiaao ?acaeooth naoue aeaaii?eyoiuo aei?ia
(anoaeueoe?iaaiiua, aaoiiiua, a?aaeeiua). A oicyenoaa i?iaaaeaii
aeaaiono?ienoai i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e aeeeie ciiu n icaeaiaieai,
anoaeueoe?iaaieai iiaeuacaeia e i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iauaeoai e aeeeui
aeiiai.

Iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu yaeythony ianoa
o?aiaiey ieia?aeueiuo e i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee e yaeioeieeaoia.
Ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey e yaeioeieeaou o?aiyony a aeaoo
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo neeaaeao aaoiiiiai eniieiaiey n oi?ioei iiaeuacaeii.
Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nio?aiiinoue oaeia?aiee ianao eeaaeiauee. Auaea/a
oeieeaoia i?iecaiaeeony iiae no?iaie io/aoiinoueth ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe.
I?aaie/aneea oaeia?aiey o?aiyony ia aeaoo ioe?uouo caieyiuo ieiuaaeeao,
eiathueo oaeiaiue iiaeuacae. Ia ieo i?iecaiaeeony i?eaioiaeaiea
i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee, eiiiinoe?iaaiea n oi?oii e nieiiie. Auaic
iaaica io oa?i ia ieiuaaeee, niaoeaaiea eiiiiiaioia eiiiinoa i?iecaiaeeo
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiue io?yae iaoaiecaoi?ia. Ieiuaaeee ?aniieiaeaiu a
ianoao, cae?uouo aeey noi/iuo aiae. IIO «Ieineia» iaoiaeeony ia aa?aao
?aee Aieae, eioi?ay io?aiyaony aannaeiiaie einiaeoeeae. Iiyoiio
eniieueciaaiea i?aaie/aneeo e ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, a oaeaea
yaeioeieeaoia a aiaeiio?aiiie ciia i?iecaiaeeony iiae no?iaei eiio?ieai
aeaaiiai aa?iiiia, ioaa/athuaai ca yeieiae/aneoth aaciianiinoue.
Aianaiea oaeia?aiee ceiie e aaniie ai a?aiy oayiey eaoaai?e/anee
cai?auaii. Oaeaea cai?auaii aianaiea oeie/aneeo aauanoa n naiieaoia e
aa?oieaoia.

Eco/aiea iaoa?eaeia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo ia i?aaiecaoeee neoaeau io?aiu
o?oaea e yeieiaee a IIO «Ieineia», a oaeaea aeaiiuo i aeeiaieea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o?aaiaoecia e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaieaaaiee iicaieyao
naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi neoaeaa io?aiu o?oaea ia i?aaei?eyoee
iaoiaeeony ia oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiii o?iaia, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoia /enei ian/anoiuo neo/aaa. I?e/ai aieueoay
/anoue o?aai iineo iacia/eoaeueiuo oa?aeoa? n iioa?ae o?oaeiniiniaiinoe
ia 1-3 aeiy. Ninoiyiea yeieiaee a oicyenoaa ioaa/aao niioaaonoaothuei
o?aaiaaieyi ii iniiaiui iieacaoaeyi.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca io?aiu o?oaea e yeieiaee iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue
neaaeothuea ia?ii?eyoey ii oeo/oaieth ninoiyiey auoaiacaaiiuo noa?
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee:

?oeiaiaeeoaeyi iiae?acaeaeaiee iaiaoiaeeii naiaa?aiaiii e ea/anoaaiii
i?iaiaeeoue n ?aai/eie aiaieaiiaue e oeaeaaie eino?oeoaaee n
iineaaeothuae eo ?aaeno?aoeeae a aeo?iaea;

aeaaiiio aooaaeoa?o ecuneaoue n?aaenoaa ia i?eia?aoaiea n?aaenoa
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie caueou aeey ?aaioieeia ?anoaieaaiaenoaa;

a?eaaaee?ai iiae?acaeaeaiee aeioeiiieaeoiaaoue iiaea?iua ueou
iaaeinoathuei eiaaioa?ai a aaoiaa?aaea e ia oa?iao;

eiaeaia?o ii io?aia o?oaea iaiaoiaeeii i?aaieciaaoue i?iaaaeaiea
ianii?oecaoeee naieoa?ii-oaoie/aneiai ninoiyiey iauaeoia;

aeaaiiio eiaeaia?o iaiaoiaeeii neaaeeoue ca eni?aaiinoueth o?aeoi?ia e
aaoiiiaeeae n oeaeueth oiaiueoaiey oiene/iuo aua?inia a aoiinoa?o e
nieaeaiey o?iaiy ooia;

aeaaiiio aa?iiiio i?aaieciaaoue ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea anao
eiathueony a oicyenoaa caiaeueiuo, aiaeiuo e eaniuo ?ano?nia;

aeaaiiio aooaaeoa?o auaeaeeoue n?aaenoaa aeey i?iaaaeaiey eaieoaeueiiai
?aiiioa ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia eaiaeecaoeeiiiie nenoaiu;

eiaeaia?o ii io?aia o?oaea iaiaoiaeeii i?aaieciaaoue aaeaiany/ii
i?iaaaeaiea «Aeiy io?aiu o?oaea».

Auiieiaiea anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue
nieaeaieth iieacaoaeae o?aaiaoecia, a oaeaea oeo/oaieth yeieiae/aneie
ianoaiiaee a IIO «Ieineia». Aneaaenoaea /aai yeiiiie/aneee oua?a
nouanoaaiii nieceony. AUAIAeU E I?AAeEIAEAIEss.

I?aaeeueiay i?aaiecaoeey e o/ao ?aaeecaoeee eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea a
oicyenoaaiiie e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee.

A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a o/ao i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee aeoeaii
ianoaeaeaaony e iniaaiii aaaeiui yaeyaony aii?in ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee n
oeaeueth iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. A ianoiyoaa a?aiy aeaiiay i?iaeaia
ieii/aoaeueii ia ?ac?aoaia.

Aeey oeo/oaiey iieacaoaeae oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao aooaaeoa?neee o/ao. O/ao ia aeaiiii
i?aaei?eyoee aaaeaony ia iniiaaiee I?eeaca ii o/aoiie iieeoeea e
ia/eneaiea au?o/ee i?ieuaiaeeony ii ioa?ouea naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao aaaeaony ii aeo?iaeueii-i?aea?iie oi?ia n /anoe/iie
aaoiiaoecaoeeae. A oeaeii ii ioaa/aao i?aaeuyaeyaiui o?aaiaaieyi, ii,
eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeaiiua o?aoueae aeaau, eiaaony ?yae
iaaeinoaoeia:

– ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou caiieiythony n iaoi/iinoyie, eni?aaeaieyie, ia
anaaaea i?inoaaeaiu iiaeiene ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe;

– ia anaaaea auiieiyaony a?aoee aeieoiaioiiai?ioa;

– i?e aaaeaiee aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa ia aeaiiii o/anoea eniieuecothony
naiaeiua aaaeiiinoe i?iecaieueiie oi?iu.

Aeey oeo/oaiey i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa ia aeaiiii o/anoea, i?aaei?eyoeth
iaiaoiaeeii:

1. Auiieiyoue a?aoee aeieoiaioiiai?ioa.

2. Oneeeoue eiio?ieue ca aaaeaieai ia?ae/iiai e naiaeiiai o/aoa.

3. I?eiaiyoue oeiiaua oi?iu aooaaeoa?neeo aeieoiaioia, /oi iaiaoiaeeii
io?aceoue a i?eeaca ii o/aoiie iieeoeea.

4. Ono?aieoue aeoaee?iaaiea a aaaeaiee iia?aoeee, aeey /aai ia?aeoe e
aaoiiaoecaoeee aeaiiiai o/anoea i?e iiiiue i?ia?aiiu
“Eioei-aooaaeoa?ey”. Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo io aiaae?aiey
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee aoaeao 24499.05 ?oaeae.

Ia iniiaaiee auiieiaiiiai aiaeeca iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iniiaiuie
aeaeaie naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a IIO “Ieineia” yaeythony:
ca?ii, ea?oioaeue, iieiei, /oi ii?aaaeuaaao niaoeeaeecaoeeth oicyenoaa.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy nie?aoeeny iauai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee,
aneaaenoaea /aai nie?aoeeny e iauai ?aaeecaoeee, nieaeaiea o?iaiy
oiaa?iinoe iaaethaeaaony i?aeoe/anee ii anai aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee. A
iineaaeiea aiaeu i?aaei?eyoea ?aaeecoao naeueoici?iaeoeoeeth, iieo/ay
au?o/eo iaiueoa caieaie?iaaiiie.

A IIO “Ieineia” nouanoaoao /aoeee a?aoee iinoaaie i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei a
1997a. ii aue auiieiai ia iieiinoueth: ii ea?oioaeth – ia 74,2%, ii E?N
(aeeaay ianna) – ia 24,4%. Iaeaieaa oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeeae a oicyenoaa
yaeyaony iieiei – ?aaeecaoeey 89,8% io i?iecaaaeaiiiai iauaia, caoai
ca?ii e ea?oioaeue. A 1997 aiaeo oicyenoai iieo/eei i?eaueue ii io?anee
?anoaieaaiaenoaa 836 iei. ?oaeae, a oii /enea io ?aaeecaoeee ca?iiauo
eoeueoo? 753 iei. ?oaeae, ea?oioaey 133 iei. ?oaeae. Oauoie ii io?anee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ninoaaee 1711 iei.?oaeae ec-ca oiai, /oi ?ino cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee cia/eoaeueii iia?aaeaao
?ino oeai ?aaeecaoeee. ?an/aou iieacaee, /oi IIO “Ieineia” eiaao ?aca?au
oaaee/aiey i?eauee, iai?eia?, ca n/ao oaaee/aiey aaeiaiai nai?a ca?ia a
noiia 399002,07 oun. ?oaeae, ea?oioaey – a noiia 625759,8 oun. ?oaeae. A
oeaeii ii oicyenoao ?ann/eoaiiua ?aca?au iiaoo oaaee/eoue i?eaueue io
?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee ia 1195728,27 oun. ?oaeae.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie ?aca?aaie, eae iieacae i?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec,
yaeythony: oaaee/aiea iauaiia ?aaeecaoeee e oaaee/aiea i?eauee ca n/ao
oaaee/aiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe ?aaeecoaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea iiauoaiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeey i?eaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea aeaiiuo ?aca?aia, iaiaoiaeeii:

1. Iiauneoue o?iaeaeiinoue i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa (ca?ii e
ea?oioaeue).

2. A io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa oaaee/eoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ca n/ao
oeo/oaiey ei?iiaie aacu, iiauoaiey aa ea/anoaa.

3. Inaiaiea iiauo ?uieia nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.

Ninoiyiea aaciianiinoe e yeieiae/iinoe a oicyenoaa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia.

AEAEEIA?AOE*ANEEE NIENIE.

1. Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii ?O “I aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa” io 21.11.96a. ?129-OC
( n eciaiaieyie io 23.07.98a.) AEo?iae “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao” ? 11 –
1998a.

2. “Iieiaeaiea i ninoaaa cao?ao ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa), e i ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia ,
o/eouaaaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee”,Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa
?O io 05.08.92a. ? 552 a ?aaeaeoeee eciaiaiee Iinoaiiaeaiey
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 01.07.95a. ? 661 e iineaaeothueo.Aaeaaiaeiee
“Aaciaue eiiieaeo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia ii iaeiaai, iaycaoaeueiui
ieaoaaeai e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo” 1997a., o.2, n. 178.

3. Iieiaeaiea ii aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”. I?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 26.12.94a. ? 170 a
?aaeaeoeee eciaiaiee IO ?O io 19.12.95a. ? 130 e io 28.11.96a. ?
101.“Oeiainiaay aacaoa” ?37 – 1998a.

4. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii eiaaioa?ecaoeee eiouanoaa e oeiainiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa”. I?eeiaeaiea e i?eeaco Ieioeia ?O io 13.06.95a. ? 49.
Aaeaaiaeiee “AEIAe”, 1997a., o.5, n. 149.

5. “Ieai n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e Eino?oeoeey ii aai i?eiaiaieth”. I?eeac
Ieioeia NNN? io 01.11.91a. ? 56 a ?aaeaeoeee eciaiaiee Ieioeia ?O io
28.12.94a. ? 173 e iineaaeothueo.Aaaeaaiaeiee “AEIAe”, 1997a., o. 7, n.
9.

6. Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 iay 1996a. ? 685 “Ia iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo
iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu a ?O e ia?ao ii oe?aiaieth iaeiaiaie e ieaoaeiie
aeenoeeieeiu”, aaeaaiaeiee “AEIAe”,1997a., o.3, n. 97.

7.Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 29 ethey 1996a. ? 914 “Ia
ooaa?aeaeaiee Ii?yaeea aaaeaiey aeo?iaeia o/aoa n/aoia-oaeoo? i?e
?an/aoao ii iaeiao ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue”, aaeaaiaeiee
“AEIAe”,1997a.,o. 3, n. 108.

8. “Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, O/aoiay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey
(IAO 1/94)”.I?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 28.07.94a. ? 120 a ?aaeaeoeee i?eeaca
Ieioeia ?O io 26.12.94a. ? 170. Aaeaaiaeiee “AEIAe”, 1997a., o. 5, n.
46.

9. Aaniaeiaa E.E., Iyoia I.E. “Ia io?aaeaiee a o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee”, aeo?iae “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao” ?7-1996 a.

10. Aaeia N.A. e ae?. “Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu”, Iineaa,
ecaeaoaeuenoai “Aunoay oeiea”, 1991a.

11. Aaeyeia A.E. “Io?aia o?oaea”, Iineaa, 1990a.

12. A?iaeia O.I. “I niiniaao o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee”, aeo?iae
“Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao”? 8-1996a., n. 52.

13. Aaieniieeiaa I.A., Iyoia I.E. “O/ao oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia io
?aaeecaoeee ii iieaoa”, aeo?iae “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao” ?2-1996a., n.51.

14. A?aeiaa C.I., Ei/o?iaa E.E. “Oeiainiaay no?aoaaey i?aaei?eyoey”,
aeo?iae “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao” ? 7-1997a.

15. Aieiaaiia A.A. “O/ao ia i?aaei?eyoeyo AIE”, aeo?iae “Aooaaeoa?neee
o/ao” ? 5-1997a., n. 41.

16. Aoeiiaa I.A. “Aiaeiaay io/aoiinoue aeey oeaeae oeiainiaiai aiaeeca”,
aeo?iae “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao” ? 2-1998a., n.66.

17. Caoa?iaa A.A. “?an/aou n athaeaeaoii ii IAeN ia iniiaa
n/aoia-oaeoo?”, aeo?iae “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao” ? 4-1997a., n. 16.

18. Ea?aiaeaoaaa E.E. “Oeie/iua ioeaee i?e ninoaaeaiee aooaaeoa?neie
io/aoiinoe”, aeo?iae “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao” ?2-1998a., n. 18.

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