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Учет затрат в молочном скотоводстве

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Niaea?aeaiea.

1. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea
e niaa?oainoaiaaiea cao?ao a iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa.

1.1 Cia/aiea e ninoiyiea iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa ?innee, oaeoi?u ia iaai
aeeythuea.

1.2 Iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a iao/iie
eeoa?aoo?a.

2. I?e?iaeiay e yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea IIO “Ieineia” Eino?iineiai
?aeiia Eino?iineie iaeanoe.

3. I?aaiecaoeey e niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee
iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a IIO”Ieineia” Eino?iineiai ?aeiia Eino?iineie
iaeanoe.

3.1 Cia/aiea e caaea/e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

3.2 Ia?ae/iue e naiaeiue o/ao cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee.

3.3 I?aaiecaoeey neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa.

3.4 Eaeueeoeyoeey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa e
cae?uoee n/aoa.

3.5 Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee a iiei/iii
neioiaiaenoaa.

4. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea a IIO”Ieineia” Eino?iineiai ?aeiia Eino?iineie iaeanoe.

4.1 Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea e oaeoi?u ia iaai aeeythuea.

4.2 Aiaeec cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e naaanoieiinoue iieiea.

4.3 Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea e ?aca?au aa
iiauoaiey.

5. Aaciianiinoue e yeieiae/iinoue ?aaiou.

Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee nienie.

Ni?aaea ? 1.

1. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea
e niaa?oainoaiaaiea cao?ao a iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa.

1.1 Cia/aiea e ninoiyiea iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa ?innee, oaeoi?u ia iaai
aeeythuea.

Aiaeec nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey neioiaiaenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
iieacuaaao, /oi ca ia?eiae n 1990aiaea ii 1996 aiae /eneaiiinoue
e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa nie?aoeeanue ia 21.3 iei.aieia, eee ia 37.3%,
ei?ia niioaaonoaaiii ia 4.4 iei.aieia eee ia 21.2%. I?e yoii
i?iecaiaenoai iieiea oiaiueoeeinue ia 35.9 %. Oaeia iieiaeaiea yaeeinue
neaaenoaeai eae nie?auaiey iiaieiauey, oae e cia/eoaeueiiai niaaea
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe neioa. N?aaeiee oaeie ca yoe aiaeu nieceeny ia 24.4% [
1 ] . Oaiaeaioeey niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa a AIE nio?aiyaony e naaiaeiy.
*enei ?aaeiiia ?innee n aiaeiaie i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth iaiaa 200 ea.
aic?inei a 1998 aiaeo n 11 aei 48.

I?aeoeeie ie?iaiai e ioa/anoaaiiiai neioiaiaenoaa aeieacaii, /oi
aeioiaeiinoue nia?aiaiiiai iiei/iiai oicyenoaa iai?yioth naycaia n
oaeiai ei?ia. Aneaaenoaea yoiai aeeaioiiaiaeu no?ai n ?acaeoui iiei/iui
neioiaiaenoaii ?aciuie ciioaoie/aneeie i?eaiaie aeiaeaathony ?inoa eo
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe. I?e yoii eiee/anoai iiei/iuo ei?ia, eae i?aaeei
nie?auaaony, i?e oaaee/aiee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Ecaanoii , /oi aunieii?iaeoeoeaiay ei?iaa – yoi niioaaonoaothuee
o?iaaiue eoeueoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa e iaiueoee ?anoiae ei?iia ia eaaeaeue
eeo? iieiea e aeecianiiniaiue i?eieiae, e caei?iaay ie?oaeathuay N?aaea.
Aeey oiai, /oiau aacoauoi/ii niaea?aeaoue noaaei ei?ia, neaaeoao
inaiaiaeaeaoueny io anao iai?eaiaeiuo e eniieueciaaieth aeeaioiuo.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a iaeioi?uo oicyenoaao eo/oea iieacaoaee oaaee/aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia e nieaeaiea cao?ao
ia aaeeieoeo iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeee aeinoeaioou a ?acoeueoaoa nie?auaiey
iiaieiauey ei?ia. Ia o?aaoao aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ii-aeaeeiiio, i/aaeaeiue
oaeo : yooaeoeaiaa niaea?aeaoue iaeio ei?iao n aunieei oaeiai, iaaeaee
2-3 n ieceei [ 2 ] .

I?iecaiaenoai iyniuo iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
enoi/ieeia oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey a aunieiaaeeiauo
i?iaeoeoao ieoaiey. E?eceniay neooaoeey iineaaeieo eao i?eaaea e
nieaeaieth iauaiia e yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iyniie, iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoeee e nie?auaieth eo iio?aaeaiey. Iaaeie iieiea io iaeiie ei?iau
ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo ninoaaeee a 1995 aiaeo 2 007ea.,
o.a. nieceeenue i?ioea o?iaiy 1990aiaea ia 38.5%.

Nieaeaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeee aucaaii i?aaeaea
anaai iacaeioa?aniaaiiinoueth oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae a ?acaeoee io?anee a
oneiaeyo aeenia?eoaoa oeai, ?inoa iaieaoaaeae, oooaeoaiea iaania/aiiinoe
ei?iaie e ae?oaeie iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeie ?ano?naie, nieaeaiea o?iaiy
naeaeoeeiiii ieaiaiiie ?aaiou.

Oae a ?acoeueoaoa neiaeeaoeony oeai ia ca?iioo?aae ?acia? au?o/ee io aai
?aaeecaoeee a ianeieueei ?ac auoa, /ai i?e o?ainoi?iaoeee ca?iiauo
ei?iia a iiei/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth.

Ia iieiaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ieacaee oneiaey
i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaei?eyoee ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee,
eioi?ua, eniieuecoy naia iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea, i?enaaeaatho
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa.

?aaeecaoeey iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeee naea?aeeaaaony oai, /oi ianoiua
aaeieieno?aoeaiua i?aaiu ia?aaeei ia?aie/eaatho aa auaic a ae?oaea
?aaeiiu. Neooaoeey oneiaeiyaony oaeaea ec-ca ?inoa oa?eoia ia
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa e aunieeo ecaea?aeae i?e aaoiiiaeeueiuo
ia?aaiceao.

?ac?aaioaiiue ia ia?niaeoeao i?iaiic ?acaeoey io?aneae aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
a 1996-2000 a.a. iaia/aao noaaeeecaoeeth /eneaiiinoe iiaieiauey neioa e
iaeioi?ue ?ino aai i?iaeoeoeaiinoe. Ia iniiaa aiaae?aiey eioaineaiuo
oaoiieiaee e ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee io?anee i?aaeiieaaaao
nouanoaaiii iiauneoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo e oaaee/eoue
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

A aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai i?aaeiieaaaaony ia?aeoe ia iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua,
?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, iicaieythuaa
iiauneoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aei 3 000ea. ia iaeio ei?iao.

A ia?niaeoeaa iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie ?acaeoey io?aneae aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
aeieaeiu noaoue- ?aoeeiiaeueiia ni/aoaiea e?oiiiai, n?aaeiaai e
iaeeioiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eniieueciaaiea eioaineaiuo e
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia aai ?acaeoey ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai ?aoaiey a
?aieao oeaeaauo i?ia?aii caaea/ oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia,
niaa?oainoaiaaiey naeaeoeeiiii-ieaiaiiie ?aaiou, iiauoaiey
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae a eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoao.

Nie?auaiea /eneaiiinoe aeeaioiuo i?aaeiieaaaao eiiiaine?iaaoue aieaa
eioaineaiui eniieueciaaieai iiaieiauey, iiauoaieai aai i?iaeoeoeaiinoe,
?inoii oiaa?iinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo iai?aaeaiee noaaeeecaoeee e aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
io?anee yaeyaony ia?aoiae e aunieioiaa?iiio i?iecaiaenoao ia iniiaa
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai oeiaine?iaaiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Aeaaainoaothuei a ?aoi?ie?iaaiee i?iecaiaenoaa, ii iiaieth aeaaeaieea
?ANOI A.?. Aiaaa, yaeyaony ia niaia oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e oicyenoaiaaiey,
a nicaeaiea caei?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai eeeiaoa aeey ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaa ia ?anoe?aiiie iniiaa, /oi aeinoeaaaony ia aaca
niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu oeai, e?aaeeoiaaiey e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Eia/a
aiai?y, iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue oaeea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie
e iio?aaeoaeyie, i?e eioi?uo au a i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
aiciauaeenue cao?aou ia iieo/aiea iieuecothuaeny ni?inii i?iaeoeoeee e
nicaeaaaeanue i?eaueue, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia caei?iaie yeiiiie/aneie iniiaa. Iai?aeiaeiui oneiaeai
aeaiiiai i?ioeanna aeieaeiu auoue i?yiay caeioa?aniaaiiinoue e
ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae ai anao noa?ao i?eeiaeaiey o?oaea ca
?acoeueoaou naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

1.2 Iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a iao/iie
eeoa?aoo?a.

Iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?aeoeeie
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii, /oi n iiauoaieai iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia
nieaeathony cao?aou ei?iia e o?oaea ia aaeeieoeo iieo/aaiie i?iaeoeoeee.
Ia iaiaa aaaeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u ?anoiaea
ei?iia e nieaeaiea noieiinoe ?anoiaeoaiuo ei?iia ia iieo/aaioth
i?iaeoeoeeth. Caeanue eiathony aieueoea ?aca?au ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey
anoanoaaiiuo e oeo/oaiiuo ianoaeu, oaaee/aiea a ?aoeeiia oaeaeueiiai
aana naia oi?ioaai ea/anoaa, i?e ieieiaeueiii ?anoiaeiaaiee
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ei?iia. Oaeay nenoaia iaania/eaaao aeieiae/aneoth
iieiioeaiiinoue ei?ieaiey e aiieia naay ii?aaaeuaaao [ 1 ] .

Niaoeeoeea io?aneae aeeaioiiaiaenoaa iaoneaaeeaaao iniaaiiinoe
eioaineoeeaoeee, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony a oii, /oi i?iaeoeoeaiinoue e
yooaeoeaiinoue io?aneae caaeneo io noaiaie eniieueciaaiey iioaioeeaea
aeeaioiuo, eo aiciiaeiinoae.

Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey iaeneiaeueiie ?aaeecaoeee
aeaiiuo oaeoi?ia. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao oe?ieoth i?ia?aiio ia?ii?eyoee ii
iaania/aieth iaiaoiaeeiiai o?iaiy, ea/anoaa e ni/aoaiey aeieiae/aneeo,
oaoie/aneeo, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia.

I?inoie eiee/anoaaiiue ?ino iiaieiauey aac oeo/oaiey aai ea/anoaa e
no?oeoo?u, i?eiaiaiey iiauo, aieaa nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo e
oaoie/aneeo nenoai, aac eniieueciaaiey aunieiyooaeoeaiuo iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey, ei?iiauo n?aaenoa aeinoaoi/iiai iauaia e ea/anoaa
i?eaiaeeo naaiaeiy e cia/eoaeueiiio oaaee/aieth iio?aaiinoe a o?oaeiauo
e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nao, /oi i?e ieceii o?iaia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea iaoneaaeeaaao a eiia/iii n/aoa cia/eoaeueiue ?ino oiiaeiaieinoe,
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe e naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Aaaeiaeoeie oaeoi?aie e
oneiaeyie iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e yooaeoeaiinoe a
io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa yaeythony: ia?aoiae e iiaui aieaa i?ia?anneaiui
oaoiieiaeyi, nenoaiai i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaea . oeo/oaiea
ii?iaeiuo e ieaiaiiuo i?eciaeia aeeaioiuo, i?e cia/eoaeueiii iiauoaiee
iaania/aiiinoe eo aunieiea/anoaaiiuie ii?iaie aeinoaoi/iiai iauaia.

O?oaeiaieinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea inoaaony i/aiue aunieie e oaiiu aa
nieaeaiey aua i/aiue ieceea. Aeaaiie i?e/eiie yaeythony aunieea cao?aou
o?oaea a ?an/aoa ia iaeio ei?iao ec-ca ieceiai o?iaiy iaoaiecaoeee,
eioi?ue ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea e yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue iieiea a oeaeii.

Oaeoi?ii, ieacuaathuei aeeyiea ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea a
iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa, yaeyaony noaae ?aaiou, o?iaaiue
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e aiciiaeiinoe aa oeo/oaiey. I?ioeann
noa?aiey eaae?ia ,i?e iauai eo iaaeinoaoea iaaaoeaii io?aaeaaony ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. O?iaaiue i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeai ?acaeoey io?anee iiei/iiai
neioiaiaenoaa. Ia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo ieacuaaao aeeyiea aieueoia
eiee/anoai oaeoi?ia. Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo i?aaeaea anaai
eiiieaen oaeoi?ia e oneiaee, eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n naieie
aeeaioiuie, eo aeieiae/aneeie e oeceieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie [ 3 ] .

Yooaeoeaiinoue ?acaeaeaiey iiei/iiai neioa a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
caaeneo io eioaineaiinoe iaoi/iiai iiaieiauey. Iaeiaei aeaaea a eo/oeo
oicyenoaao no?aiu n?ie i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeieaieaoey ei?ia ninoaaeyao 3.5 –
4 eaeoaoeee, oi anoue aieueoeinoai aeeaioiuo ia aeiaeeaatho aei oiai
aic?anoa, eiaaea iie ?aaeecotho iaeaunooth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue. Yoi
caiaaeeyao oaiiu ?inoa iiaieiauey, i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, aaaeao e
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiui cao?aoai e yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa [ 4 ] .

Aaee/eia oaeiaa ei?ia ?aciuo aic?anoia iieacuaaao, /oi iaiueoa iieo/atho
iieiea io ia?aioaeie. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi o ieo aua ia ieii/aiu
?ino e oi?ie?iaaiea i?aaiecia e ia yoi cao?a/eaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay aeiey
yia?aee, iieo/aaiay n ei?iii. E?iia oiai , nae?aoi?iay /anoue auiaie o
ia?aioaeie aua ia aeinoeaea iaeneiaeecia, iiyoiio oaeie ei?ia ia?aiai
ioaea ninoaaeyao anaai 70-75% io aoaeouae iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e
aeinoeaatho iaeneiaeecia e /aoaa?oiio ioaeo. O aeeaioiuo o?aoueaai –
iyoiai ioaeia ?ino e ?acaeoea i?aaiecia, a oii /enea e auiaie caeii/aiu,
iiyoiio iiei/iay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue naiay aunieay.

Ii n?aaiaieth n ia?aioaeeaie , a yoii aic?anoa iieo/atho ia 30 – 40%
iieiea aieueoa. Ia naaeueiii – aeaayoii ioaea oaeie ei?ia nieaeaaony ia
10-13% , ii ii ana aea auoa, /ai o ia?aioaeie ia 18-30 % . Ei?iau
noa?oeo aic?anoia , i?e iinoiyiiii i?eayciii niaea?aeaiee, nio?aiytho
ianeieueei eao aeinoaoi/ii aunieoth noaaeeueioth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue,
iiyoiio eo iaee/ea a iiei/iii noaaea yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaii [ 5 ] .

Aeeeoaeueii eniieuecoaiua ei?iau, eioi?ua aaeaaiaeii oaeyony e
nio?aiytho a oa/aiee iiiaeo eaeoaoeee noaaeeueiua e aunieea oaeie,
iniaaiii oeaiiu. Iiyoiio iiene iooae oaaee/aiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo ei?ia yaeyaony
aeooaeueiui. Eioaineaiia eniieueciaaiea iiei/iuo ei?ia aeieaeii auoue
iaania/aii iioeiaeueiuie oneiaeyie aeey au?aueaaiey iieiaeiyea e
iiaeaioiaee aeeaioiuo e eaeoaoeee, /oi iicaieyao aeinoeaiooue aeeaie
iannu ei?ia i?e ia?aii ioaea a aic?anoa 24-28 ianyoeaa 500-600 ea.,
iieo/eoue oaeie ca ia?aoth eaeoaoeeth 4 400ea. , ca o?aoueth – 5 208ea.
e yenieoaoe?iaaoue ei?ia a oa/aiee /aou?ao – naie eaeoaoeee [ 4 ] .

Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao o?iaaiue e ea/anoai ei?ieaiey , eioi?ue ia 60 -70
% ii?aaeaeyao ?acee/ey a i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia.

I?e ii?ie?iaaiee e ioeaiea iieiioeaiiinoe ei?ieaiey e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai
neioa aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ia ia?aia ianoi auaeaeaaaony
ieoaoaeueiinoue ?aoeeiia , ii eiiaaea iaaeiioeaieaaaony aai no?oeoo?a.
Ioaeaeueiua aaoi?u n/eoatho, /oi ?aoathuei oneiaeai, aeeythuei ia iaiai
aauanoa a i?aaiecia aeeaioiuo e yooaeoeaiinoue ei?ieaiey yaeyaony ia
iaai? ei?iia a ?aoeeiia, a naaeaine?iaaiiinoue aai ii yia?aee,
ieoaoaeueiui e aeieiae/aneei aauanoaai.

Aianoa n oai , ooieoeeiiaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey aeieiae/aneie iaoee ii
oeceieiaee ieuaaa?aiey e iaiaio aauanoa o aeaa/iuo, iieo/aiiua ca
iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey, iiiaieaoiyy i?aeoeea iauanoaaiiiai
neioiaiaenoaa iaoae no?aiu iaoneiaeee iaiaoiaeeiinoue aianaiey
nouanoaaiiuo ei??aeoea a oeiu e ?aoeeiiu ei?ieaiey e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai
neioa a ceiianoieeiaue ia?eiae.

Iiiaieaoiyy i?aeoeea iauanoaaiiiai neioiaiaenoaa iieacaea, /oi oe?ieia
i?eiaiaiea neeiniiai, neeinii-eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai e
neeinii-naiaaeii-eiioeaio?aoiiai oeiia ei?ieaiey ei?ia ia iaania/eaaao
eo aunieie e onoie/eaie iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe, nio?aiaiey caei?iauey,
aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiie niiniaiinoe e ii?iaeueiiai n?iea oicyenoaaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey . I?e yoii iaaethaeathony ianniaua ia?ooaiey iaiaia
aauanoa o ei?ia, aunieay caaieaaaaiinoue iiai?iaeaeaiiuo oaeyo
aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iuie aieaciyie e aieueoay yeiainoue iaoi/iiai
iiaieiauey. Aneaaenoaea caaieaaaiee ei?ia aoeeaeicii, eaoicii,
aanieiaeeai e ae?oaeie aieaciyie, naycaiiuie n ia?ooaieai iaiaia
aauanoa, iie /anoi iiaeaa?aathony auioaeaeaiiiio oaith eee
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie aua?aeiaea e naea/a ia oaie. A ?acoeueoaoa anaai yoiai
ai iiiaeo oicyenoaao, aea e a oeaeii ii ?innee, eiatho ianoi i/aiue
ei?ioeea n?iee oicyenoaaiiie yenieoaoaoeee iiei/iuo ei?ia ( aeaiiua 1995
aiaea ), a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aua?aeiaea ei?ia ii no?aia ninoaaeyao ieiei
30 % , /oi iacaaeneii io o?iaiy aini?iecaiaenoaa e ea/anoaa iieiaeiyea,
o?aaoao iieiiai iaiiaeaiey iiei/iiai noaaea eaaeaeua o?e aiaea.

Iniiaiie aaaeouae i?e/eiie auoaoeacaiiiai iaaeaaiiieo/ey a iiei/iii
neioiaiaenoaa yaeyaony iai?aaeeueiia , oeceieiae/anee iaiainiiaaiiia
ei?ieaiea ei?ia a ceiianoieeiaue ia?eiae ii ?aoeeiiai, no?oeoo?a eioi?uo
ia niioaaonoaoao oeceieiae/aneei iniaaiiinoyi ieuaaa?aiey o aeaa/iuo
o?aaiyaeiuo aeeaioiuo. Yoi e iaoneaaeeaaaony neeiniui e
nieinii-eiioeaio?aoiui oeiaie ei?ieaiey , eiaaea a ?aoeeiiao
i?aiaeaaeaao niaea?aeaiea eeneuo ( neeina e eiioeaio?aoia ) –
iaanoanoaaiiuo aeey aeaa/iuo ei?iia, e i/aiue iaei niaea?aeeony naia –
naiiai anoanoaaiiiai ei?ia, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey aeeaioiuo.

Nouanoaoao caaeneiinoue iniiaiuo ciiaaoa?eia?iuo iieacaoaeae iiei/iiai
neioiaiaenoaa io eiee/anoaa ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ei?iia. I?e yoii, /ai
auoa iaania/aiiinoue naiii e ei?iaieiaeaie, oai aieueoa auoiae oaeyo e
iaiueoa eo caaieaaaaiinoue e iauee iaaeaae. N?aaeiaaiaeiaie iaaeie
iieiea ia iaeio ei?iao i?yii caaeneo io iauae iaania/aiiinoe ei?iaie a
ei?iiauo aaeeieoeao, oae e ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ei?iia.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaiaoiaeeii nouanoaaiii eciaieoue no?oeoo?o ceiieo
?aoeeiiia aeey ei?ia a noi?iio oaaee/aiey a ieo aeiee a?oauo ei?iia,
iniaaiii naia a 2 – 2.5 ?aca e nieaeaiea aeiee neeina ia iaiaa /ai a 2
?aca. A no?oeoo?a ?anoiaea ca aiae oaeaeueiue aan ei?iia aeieaeai auoue
28 -30 % , a oii /enea naia 22 – 25 % aianoi 10-14% , ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Aeieth neeina neaaeoao oiaiueoeoue aei 9 – 12 % ,
aianoi 22 – 25 % . Aeey noaeueiuo nooinoieiuo ei?ia iniiaie ceiieo
?aoeeiiia aeieaeii auoue oi?ioaa naii ( ia iaiaa 50 % ii ieoaoaeueiinoe
) .

N/eoaai, /oi neein iaeuecy ioiineoue e a?oiia ni/iuo ei?iia , a
auaeaeeoue aai a ioaeaeueioth a?oiio “eiina?ae?iaaiiua ei?ia” , eae yoi
i?eiyoi a ?yaea ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai [ 6 ] .

Neaai iinoaaeai o/ao e eiio?ieue ?anoiaeoaiuo ei?iia. I?aeoe/anee ia
iiei/iia noaaei nienuaaaony ia oaeoe/anee nea?ieeaaaiue iauai ei?iia, a
caaioiaeaiiua ei?ia, aeeth/ay iioa?e i?e o?aiaiee e o.i. , /oi
cia/eoaeueii caauoaao oaeoe/aneee o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey. I?e ieceii
o?iaia e ea/anoaa ei?ieaiey – ia iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe.
Naaeaine?iaaiiia ei?ieaiea , i?e aunieii oaeaeueiii aana eiioeaio?aoia a
?aoeeiia ( aei 30 % ) iaania/eaaao iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia e
ieoiaaiinoue cao?ao.

Eiathony oaeaea nouanoaaiiua naciiiua ?acee/ey n?aaeiaiany/iiai oaeiy
ei?ia e yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea. Oae, oaeie a ianoaeuiue
ia?eiae a n?aaeiai ca ianyoe auoa oaeiy a noieeiaue. I?e yoii ioia/aaony
caiaoiia nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe 1 oeaioia?a iieiea, ca n/ao aieueoaai
eniieueciaaiey aeaoaauo ei?iia, nouanoaaiiiai oaaee/aiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e ieoiaaiinoe ei?ia i?iaeoeoeeae.

A oeaeii, oaeoi?u iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia ieacuaatho
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia oieueei ia oaeie, ii e ia ae?oaea iieacaoaee
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, oaeaea ia –
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, cao?aou ei?iia ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea,
naaanoieiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa 1 oeaioia?a iieiea, oiiaeiioaea/o,
ieoiaaiinoue ei?iia.

Iniiaiui yeaiaioii ieaiaiiie ?aaiou a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, yaeyaony ioeaiea
aeeaioiuo e ia yoie aaca eo iiaeai?, ioai? e eniieueciaaiea. I?e ioeaiea
iiei/iuo ei?ia ii i?iaeoeoeaiinoe o/eouaatho eo iiei/iinoue,
niaea?aeaiea a iieiea aaeea e aee?a , i?eaiaeiinoue e iaoeiiiio
aeiaieth.

Naeaeoeeiiiay ?aaioa iicaieyao nouanoaaiii iiauneoue aaiaoe/aneee
iioaioeeae i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iooai oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey
aunieiea/anoaaiiiai aaiioiiaea eiii?oiuo ii?iae. Iaaeii?iaeiia
ne?aueaaiea i?eaiaeeo e caiaoiiio iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea.

Iaiauay ioa/anoaaiiue e ie?iaie iiuo ?acaeoey iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa e
o/eouaay neiaeeaoothny ianoaiiaeo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, iaiaoiaeeii
nin?aaeioi/eoue aieiaiea ia ia oaaee/aiee, a ia noaaeeecaoeee iiaieiauey
iiei/iuo ei?ia e iai?aaeoue ana aieiaiea ia iiauoaiea eioaineaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey eiathuaainy iiaieiauey, ia ?ino iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
ca n/ao inouanoaeaiey eiiieaena ciioaoie/aneeo , i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e
yeiiiie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee.

A yoie nayce iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea niaoeeaeenoia,
?oeiaiaeeoaeae oicyenoa e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiia, a oaeaea
oa?ia?ia ia inouanoaeaiea neaaeothueo oaoiieiae/aneeo yeaiaioia e
yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia:

– nouanoaaiii oeo/oeoue aini?iecaiaenoai, naanoe aei ieieioia yeiainoue
ei?ia, naiaa?aiaiii i?iaiaeeoue aua?aeiaeo iai?eaiaeiuo e
aini?iecaiaenoao ei?ia e iaoaeae;

– iaeneiaeueii nio?aieoue i?eieiae, oeo/oeoue au?aueaaiea iieiaeiyea,
iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeiia eiee/anoai oaeie aeey ?aiiioa noaaea;

– iiauneoue o?iaaiue ei?ieaiey e oeo/oeoue niaea?aeaiea ei?ia a
nooinoieiue

ia?eiae e oai naiui iaania/eoue aeieiae/aneea e ciioaoie/aneea
i?aaeiinueee iiauoaiey iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe, i?e iiaeaioiaea ei?ia e
?acaeith;

– i?e aini?iecaiaenoaa eniieueciaaoue oieueei aueia-oeo/oaoaeae ii
aaaeouei i?eciaeai i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ;

– oe?a i?aeoeeiaaoue ia?u yeiiiie/aneiai e ii?aeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey
?aaioieeia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa e niaoeeaeenoia ca iiauoaiea iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e ea/anoaa iieiea;

– oe?a aiaae?youe iiaaeoea n?aaenoaa iaoaiecaoeee aeiaiey, o?aiaiey e
ia?a?aaioee , iaania/eaathuea iieo/aiea yeieiae/anee /enoiai e aunieiai
ea/anoaa iieiea;

– onoaiiaeoue aieaa oaniua eioaa?aoeeiiiua nayce i?iecaiaeeoaeae n
ia?a?aaaouaathueie i?aaei?eyoeyie e oi?aiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie,
onoaiiaeoue a?iiaaeiue aeenia?eoao oeai ia iieiei e iiei/iua i?iaeoeou;

Aaaeiui ?aca?aii iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea yaeyaony nie?auaiea aic?anoa ia?aiai ioaea. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
aeiionoeii inaiaiaiea oaeie a ?aiiai aic?anoa, eiaaea iie aua ia
aeinoeaee iieiiai oeceieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey , oae eae a yoii neo/aa
iieo/aaony neaai?acaeoue i?eieiae, oaaee/eaaaony i?ioeaio yeiainoe
ei?ia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iicaeiea ioaeu iaiinyo yeiiiie/aneee oua?a
neioiaiaenoao, oae eae oaeeeiyaony ia?eiae iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey aeeaioiuo. Yoi naycaii n iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeeae au?aueaaiey oaeie, /oi caaea?aeeaaao eo iie?uoea .

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaaiui iaaeinoaoeii a i?ioeanna au?aueaaiey
iaoaeae yaeyaony iaaeiei?i, ieioea oneiaey niaea?aeaiey e ooiaea. Ana
yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aeeaioiua ia iaae?atho e niioaaonoaothuaio
aic?anoo, ioaeiie iannu. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi naiue aunieee
?acia? i?eauee iiaeii iieo/eoue i?e inaiaiaiee a 18 – 19 ianyoeaa.

Oaeeeiaiea nooinoieiiai ia?eiaea i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio iaaeiai?o
iieiea, oaeaea eae e oaeeeiaiea na?aen-ia?eiaea i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth
oaeiy e caiaoiiio nieaeaieth auoiaea oaeyo.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a nie?auaiee iaaeioaeueiiai ia?eiaea ea?aao naiaa?aiaiiia
inaiaiaiea ei?ia , a oaeaea iaoiaeu neo/ee. I?eiaiaiea eneonnoaaiiiai
inaiaiaiey iicaieyao a e?ao/aeoea n?iee nicaeaoue aunieii?iaeoeoeaiia
noaaei ei?ia.

Aieueoeinoai ioaeia i?eoiaeeony ia eiiaoe ceiu e ia/aei aaniu,
aneaaenoaea /aai a inaiia-ceiiea ianyoeu aieueoeinoai ei?ia iaoiaeeony
ia nooinoia. Oaeia yaeaiea naycaii n ?ani?aaeaeaieai neo/ae ei?ia ii
ianyoeai aiaea, eioi?ia, aneaaenoaea , neio?iiii aeeyao ia n?iee ioaeia.
Naciiiinoue ioaeia oaeaea naycaia n iaiieiioeaiiui e iaaeinoaoi/iui
ei?ieaieai aeeaioiuo a ceiiee ia?eiae.

Eiioeaio?aoeey ioaeia ia n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeii io?acea a?aiaie ia?ooaao
ii?iaeueiue ?eoi ia oa?iao, nicaeaao ia?eiaeu iniaiai iai?yaeaiey,
ia?aa?ocee ?aaioieeia, ia?aiieiaiea ?iaeeeueiiai ioaeaeaiey e
oaeyoieeia. Yoi cao?oaeiyao i?aaeeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth o?oaea, aaaeao e
?inoo caaieaaaaiinoe e iaaeaaeo oaeyo.

Oniao ?aaiou ii oi?ie?iaaieth aunieii?iaeoeoeaiiai noaaea caaeneo io
oneiaee niaea?aeaiey io oneiaee niaea?aeaiey, o?iaiy ciiaaoa?eia?iie
?aaiou, naiaa?aiaiiinoe aua?aeiaee aieueiuo e iaeii?iaeoeoeaiuo
aeeaioiuo, ia ioaa/athueo o?aaiaaieyi eioaineaiuo oaoiieiaee . Iniiaiuie
i?e/eiaie aua?aeiaee ei?ia yaeythony yeiainoue e ieceay
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

Oaeei ia?acii, oi?ie?iaaiea aunieii?iaeoeoeaiiai noaaea – ?acoeueoao
aeeeoaeueiiai o?oaea. Ia aai nicaeaiea o?aaoaony iiiai a?aiaie e
aieueoea iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou. A oaeii e?iiioeeaii aeaea iaaeiionoeiu
iia?aoiinoe, oae eae iie naycaiu n aieueoeie oauoeaie. Ii?iaeiue neio
eiaao aunieoth iiei/ioth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, oi?ioi iiea/eaaao ei?i
i?iaeoeoeeae, /oi niinianoaoao nieaeaieth naaanoieiinoe 1 oeaioia?a
iieiea [ 7 ] .

Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa – aaaeiaeoee yeiiiie/aneee iieacaoaeue
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ethaie i?iaeoeoeee. Aeaenoaeoaeueiua
ecaea?aeee ii naiae nooe i?aaenoaaeytho niaie cao?aou aeeaiai e
iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai. A iaueo cao?aoao o?oaea, o.a. a
aeaenoaeoaeueiuo ecaea?aeeao i?iecaiaenoaa auaeaeyaony /anoue ,
ninoiyuay ec cao?ao i?ioeiai o?oaea e cao?ao aeeaiai o?oaea, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o?oae “ia naay” . Cao?aou i?ioeiai o?oaea e o?oaea
“ia naay” ninoaaeyao aeaenoaeoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea iniaie eaoaai?ee
cao?ao, iieo/eaoae iacaaiea naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. I?e en/eneaiee
naaanoieiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, e?iia ioia/aiiuo
cao?ao, a iaa aeeth/athony yeaiaiou /enoiai aeioiaea. Iiyoiio ia
i?aeoeea naaanoieiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoa?eaeueii-aeaiaaeiua
cao?aou i?aaei?eyoey ia i?iecaiaenoai aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee.

3. I?aaiecaoeey e niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee
iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a IIO “Ieineia” Eino?iineiai ?aeiia Eino?iineie
iaeanoe.

3.1 Cia/aiea e caaea/e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa .

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee ia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee, a o./. e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo, yaeythony aeaiiua ,
niaea?aeaueany a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa .

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a naeueneii oicyenoaa i?ecaai aeaaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua
naaaeaiey i oiaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia , i auiieiaiee ieaiiauo
caaeaiee , niaeaenoaiaaoue iaania/aieth nio?aiiinoe oicyenoa,
oe?aieaieth oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa , ?inoo ?aioaaaeueiinoe, iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe e oeo/oaieth ea/anoaa ?aaiou. Ana ia?a/eneaiiia iiaeii
naanoe oe?oiiaii e aeaoi ooieoeeyi, aiceiaeaiiui ia o/ao :
eioi?iaoeeiiiie e eiio?ieueiie .

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao – iniiaiie enoi/iee eioi?iaoeee i ?aaioa
i?aaei?eyoee, i oiaea auiieiaiiuo ieaiiauo caaeaiee. Ii oeene?oao ana
eciaiaiey , i?ienoiaeyuea a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie , niaaaeai/aneie e
nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. aeaao iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth i
e?oaiiai?ioa n?aaenoa a i?ioeanna ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Ana i?ienoiaeyuea eciaiaiey a
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee ?aaeecothony a aooaaeoa?neii
o/aoa n oeaeueth aeoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia oeo/oaiea eo ?aaiou.

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaii . Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, i?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeei aeey
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ia anao aa o?iaiyo. A
/anoiinoe, o/aoiay eioi?iaoeey i?eaeaeaaony aeey oi?aaeaiey e i?eiyoey
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee ia neaaeothueo o?iaiyo: aioo?eoicyenoaaiiii (a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo ), iauaoicyenoaaiiii (ii oicyenoao a
oeaeii ) e ia aiaoieo o?iaiyo oi?aaeaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiui
i?iecaiaenoaii.

A nayce n yoei ii?aaeaeythony caaea/e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie o/aoa cao?ao a io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa yaeythony :

– yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiia ?aca?aie/aiea cao?ao ii aeaeai i?iecaiaenoa
e a?oiiai neioa ;

– oi/iia ?acaeaeaiea anao cao?ao ii yeiiiie/anee iaeii?iaeiui yeaiaioai
e noaoueyi , ec eioi?uo neeaaeuaaaony naaanoieiinoue i?iecaiaeeiie
i?iaeoeoeee;

– nia?aiaiiia , oi/iia e iieiia io?aaeaiea auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee ,
iieo/aaiie io aeeaioiiaiaenoaa;

– oi/iia io?aaeaiea cao?ao ii iiae?acaeaeaieyi oicyenoaa;

– yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea naaanoieiinoe iniiaiie ,
nii?yaeaiiie e iiai/iie i?iaeoeoeee;

– aeieoiaioaeueiia io?aaeaiea oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a ia?ae/iii o/aoa
, neioaoe/aneii e aiaeeoe/aneii;

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea iia?aoeaiie eioi?iaoeee aeey oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii
a iioeiaeueiii aa?eaioa;

3.2 Ia?ae/iue e naiaeiue o/ao cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee.

A IIO “Ieineia” aaaeaony aeo?iaeueii-i?aea?iay oi?ia o/aoa. I?e aeaiiie
oi?ia o/aoa i?eiaiyaony 18 aeo?iaeia -i?aea?ia, 27 aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
aaaeiiinoae e ?aano?ia, 8 i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo io/aoia, oaaeeoeu
aiaeeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo e aeo?iaeai – i?aea?ai, eenoee ?anoeo?iaee.

Aeieoiaioiiai?io eiaao aieueoia i?aaiecothuaa cia/aiea a aooaaeoa?neii
o/aoa . Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaeaeaiea aeieoiaioia a o/aoiii
i?ioeanna io iiiaioa eo ninoaaeaiey aei caaa?oaiey eniieueciaaiey e
naea/e a a?oea. Aeey /aoeie ?aaeecaoeee aeaeaeaiey aeieoiaioia,
aeieoiaioiiai?io ioi?ieyaony a aeaea a?aoeea, aaea oeacuaathony:
iaeiaiiaaiea e iiia? eaaeaeie oi?iu aeieoiaioa, aai iacia/aiea, n?iee,
eiee/anoai , eai ninoaaeyaony , eoi iiaeienuaaao aeieoiaio. A?aoee
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa ninoaaeyaony aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii e iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey
?oeiaiaeeoaeai oicyenoaa noaiiaeony iaycaoaeueiui aeey eniieiaiey . A
oicyenoaa a?aoee aeieoiaioiiai?ioa auiieiyaony oneiaii , ia?aaeei n
ia?ooaieyie. Oae , naea/a oaaaeae e ia?yaeia , io/aou eeaaeiaueeia,
ca?aaioiay ieaoa ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao naeathony e 1-io /eneo eaaeaeiai
ianyoea, o/aoiua eenou oioa?ia e o?aeoi?enoia – ii 25-ia /enei eaaeaeiai
ianyoea. Naiae ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa naeatho e 6-io /eneo eaaeaeiai
ianyoea.

A ia?ae/iii o/aoa eniieuecoaony aieueoia eiee/anoai ?aciiia?aciuo
aeieoiaioia , ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo i?iecaiaeyony ana iineaaeothuea
caiene. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea a?oiiu aeieoiaioia:

1) ii o/aoo cao?ao o?oaea;

2) i?aaeiaoia o?oaea ( a o./. ii ?anoiaeo ei?iia e i?i/eo iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae ) ;

3) ii eniieueciaaieth n?aaenoa o?oaea ;

4) ii o/aoo auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee e o.ae.

Iniiaiui aeieoiaioii ii o/aoo cao?ao o?oaea ?aaioieeia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
yaeyaony “?an/ao ia/eneaiey iieaou o?oaea ?aaioieeai aeeaioiiaiaenoaa”
(n/ao 69). A yoii ?an/aoa ii?aaeaeyaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa aeiy?ie e
neioieeia. ?an/ao iieaou o?oaea aeiy?eai, neioieeai aaaeaony a
caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa iaaeiaiiiai iieiea e iieo/aiiiai i?eieiaea.

Yoio aeieoiaio a oicyenoaa caiieiyaony i?aaeeueii e naiaa?aiaiii, ii
o/eouaaao ana aeaeu aeiieao e iiiu?aiee .

O/ao io?aaioaiiiai a?aiaie ?aaioieeaie aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aaaeaony
aaeaaeiaaii ii eaaeaeiio ?aaioieeo oa?iu a oaaaea o/aoa ?aai/aai a?aiaie
(oi?ia 64). Yoio aeieoiaio caiieiyao a?eaaaee? oa?i oicyenoaa. Aeey
aeaiiiai oicyenoaa yoio aeieoiaio ianeieueei onoa?ae , aai ioaeii
oi?inoeoue, o.e. eniieuecoaony oieueei /anoue o/eouaathuay io?aaioaiiia
a?aiy , a inoaeueiay /anoue ?an/aoa : ca?aaioiay ieaoa n o/aoii ieeaaeia
ia eniieuecoaony.

Iniiaiui aeaeii ?anoiaeia i?aaeiaoia o?oaea a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa yaeyaony
“Aaaeiiinoue ?anoiaea ei?iia ” (oi?ia ? 94) – iia yaeyaony
eiiaeie?iaaiiui iaeiieoaeueiui aeieoiaioii , ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai
i?iecaiaeyo e auaea/o (ioione) ei?iia e nienaiea eo a ?anoiaeioth
“Aaaeiiinoue ?anoiaea ei?iia” – iia ninoaaeyaony ciioaoieeii.

A yoii aeieoiaioa eaeao ?an/ao iauae noiiu eeieoa ia iniiaa ?aoeeiiia
ei?ieaiey, ninoaaeaiiuo aeaaiui ciioaoieeii, ia eaaeaeue ianyoe ii
aeaeai ei?iia e a?oiiai aeeaioiuo.

?anoiae ei?iia oeene?oaony ii aeaeai ?anoiaeoaiuo ei?iia e ii eaiaeai
?anoiaea (a eiee/anoaaiiii e noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ) a “Io/aoa i
aeaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ”(oi?ia ? 121) ca ianyoe.

Aai ninoaaeyao eeaaeiauee ii ei?iai. A eiioea ianyoea auaiaeeony iauay
noiia ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo ei?iia ii aeai?ai, oa?iai, iiaeio/aoiui eeoeai e
o.i. Ei?ia ioaeathony ni neeaaea ia oa?iu a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee e
ioiinyony ia cao?aou .

Ei?ia ioaeaiiua iiae io/ao a?eaaaee?ai ?anoiaeothony eie ia ei?i neioo ,
e a eiioea ianyoea iie ninoaaeytho io/ao a aeaea naeueaeiaie aaaeiiinoe
(i?iecaieueiie oi?iu) , aaea oeacuaathony eaiaeu iinooieaiey ei?ia e
eaiaeu ?anoiaeiaaiey (e?oiiue ?iaaoue neio eee iieiaeiye e?oiiiai
?iaaoiai neioa ).

Ni neeaaea ia ei?iioeao iinooiatho ei?ia ii “*aeai ia ioione
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ”. Aeaeaa a eiioea ianyoea ninoaaeyaony “Io/ao
ii ei?iioeaoo” ca ianyoe i?iecaieueiie oi?iu. “Io/ao ii ei?iioeaoo ”
iiaeienuaaao aeaaiue ciioaoiee. E io/aoo i?eeaaathony ana i?eoiaeiua e
?anoiaeiua “ *aee ia ioione iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae “. Iioii aeaiiua
io/aoa ii ei?iioeaoo ia?aiinyony a “Naeueaeiaoth aaaeiiinoue” (oi?ia ?
41a).

Naiaeiue o/ao ?anoiaea ei?iia ia oa?ia aaaeoo a “AEo?iaea o/aoa ?anoiaea
ei?iia ”(oi?ia ? 35) . A iai ia eaaeaeoth a?oiio aeeaioiuo ioaiaeyo
ioaeaeueiua no?aieoeu aeey caiene ?anoiaea ei?iia ii eaaeaeiio eo aeaeo
a oece/aneie ianna, a ia?aaiaea ia ei?iiaua aaeeieoeu e i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ii niaea?aeaieth ia?aaa?eaaaiiai i?ioaeia.

Cao?aou n?aaenoa o?oaea a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa oeene?otho , a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, a aeieoiaioao ii ia/eneaieth aii?oecaoeee. Ia/eneaiea
aii?oecaoeee aaaeaony a “Aaaeiiinoe ia/eneaiey aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
ia/eneaiee ” ca ianyoe ( oi?ia ? 62 ) , aaea iniiaiua n?aaenoaa e eo
eciin oaea na?oiie?iaaiu ii noaoueyi ioianaiey aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee.

?an/ao aiaeiaie noiiu aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee aaaeaony a “Aaaeiiinoe
?an/aoa aii?oecaoeee ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai” ia aiae. Io/eneaiey a
?aiiioiue oiiae a IIO”Ieineia” ia i?iecaiaeeony .

?anoiae i?i/eo iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa (
ai?th/a-niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia, no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, iaaeeeaiaioia,
aeii?aia?aoia e o.ae. ) ioi?ieytho a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea:

ioione ni neeaaea i?iecaiaeyo ia iniiaaiee eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o ia
iieo/aiea iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae (oi?ia ? 117) , eeai i?e ?aciauo
iia?aoeeyo ia iniiaaiee iaeeaaeiuo (oi?ia ? 87) . Yoio aeieoiaio
iiaeienuaaao aeaaiue aooaaeoa?. Aeaiiua eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o
eniieuecothony aeey ninoaaeaiey “Naeueaeiaie aaaeiiinoe” (oi?ia ? 41a) ,
aeaiiua a naeueaeiaie aaaeiiinoe ia?aiinyony a i?iecaiaenoaaiiue io/ao ,
caoai ec iaai a AE-I ? 10 e Aeaaioth eieao.

?aiiio oao eee eiuo caeaiee , a oaeaea ae?oaea aeaeu ?aaio e oneoa
inouanoaeythony noi?iiieie i?aaiecaoeeyie e nianoaaiiuie ?aaioieeaie
no?ie oeaoa. Anee ?aaiou e oneoae ieacuaathony noi?iiieie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, oi ia iniiaaiee “Aeoa auiieiaiiuo ?aaio e ieacaiiuo
oneoa” i?aaei?eyoea iiea/eaaao n/aoa – oaeoo?u , ninoaaeaiiua
iinoaaueeii.

Anee ?aiiio e i?i/ea oneoae auee auiieiaiu ?aaioieeaie naiiai
i?aaei?eyoey, oi ninoaaeythony “Ia?yaeu ia naeaeueioth ?aaioo“ , aaea
?ann/eouaaaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aaioieeai , caiyoui ?aiiioii. Iaoa?eaeu
ec?anoiaeiaaiiua ia ?aiiio nienuaathony ia i?iecaiaenoai ia iniiaaiee
eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o (oi?ia ? 117).

Aeey o/aoa auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa i?eiaiytho aieueoia
eiee/anoai aeieoiaioia. Aeey o/aoa iaaeiaiiiai iieiea a IIO “Ieineia”
i?eiaiythony “AEo?iae aeey o/aoa iaaeiaiiiai iieiea” (oi?ia ? ) , aaea
oeacuaathony neaaeothuea iieacaoaee: oaieeey, eiy, io/anoai aeiy?ie;
iiaieiauea ei?ia ; aaeiaie iaaeie; ia?an/ao n ?iaeeeueiiai ioaeaeaiey ;
ioeeiiaiey (+,- ) e i?ioeiio aiaeo ca oio aea ianyoe (ea.) ; aaeiaie
iaaeie n ia/aea aiaea (o.) ; ioeeiiaiea (+,-) e i?ioeiio aiaeo, nia/aea
aiaea (o.) . A a?aoa “Ia?an/ao n ?iaeeeueiiai ioaeaeaiey” oeacuaaaony
eiee/anoai iieiea , iaaeiaiiiai io ei?ia . iaoiaeeaoeony a ?iaeeeueiii
ioaeaeaiee . Yoi iieiei i?eaaaeyoueny e aaeiaiio iaaeith iieiea io ei?ia
e oaaee/eaaao aai aaee/eio, eniieuecoaony iii ia auiieeo oaeyoai.

AEo?iae aeey o/aoa iaaeiaiiiai iieiea i?eniiniaeai e neiaeeaoaiony ia
i?aaei?eyoee o/aoo, yoi aai iniiaiia i?aeiouanoai, ii ?aaoey?ii
caiieiyaony aeey ia/eneaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioieeai
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, ninoaaeaiea “Io/aoa i aeaeaeaiee iieiea”: eaiaeu
eniieueciaaiey iieiea.

“Io/ao i aeaeaeaiee iieiea” ( i?iecaieueiie oi?iu) ca ianyoe
ninoaaeyaony aooaaeoa?ii, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao i?iecaiaenoaaiiue io/ao ii
n/aoo 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai” . A
“Io/aoa i aeaeaeaiee iieiea” iieacuaaaony : aaeaaeiaaiia iinooieaiea
iieiea ca ianyoe, aaeaaeiaaiia ?anoiaeiaaiea iieiea ii eaiaeai
?aaeecaoeee , aaee/eia iauaai ?anoiaea , ia/aeueiia e eiia/iia naeueaei.

Ca aeaiiue ia?eiae i?iaeoeoeey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ?aaeeciaaeanue:

iieiei i?iaeaaaeinue a AIIO “Aieaeneay”-150ea., auea naeaeaia
neaaeothuay caienue

AeAAAO 46 / E?AAeEO 40 – io?aaeaia naaanoieiinoue iieiea – 225 000
?oaeae, caoai AeAAAO 62 / E?AAeEO 46 – naeaeaia caienue ia noiio au?o/ee
195 000 ?oaeae.

I?e ?aaeecaoeee 65 ea. iieiea ?aaioieeai IIO “Ieineia” ca iaee/iue
?an/ao , iia?aoeey io?aaeaeanue AeAAAO 46 / E?AAeEO 40 – ia noiio
ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe 97 500 ?oaeae, caoai i?e iieaoa ?aaioieeaie –
AeAAAO 50 / E?AAeEO 46 – ia noiio 84 500 ?oaeae.

I?e ?aaeecaoeee iieiea ?acee/iui caaioiaeoaeueiui i?aaiecaoeeyi ia
iniiaa aeiaiai?ia a eiee/anoaa 250 ea. aeaeaaony caienue AeAAAO 46 /
E?AAeEO 40 – ia noiio 375 000 ?oaeae, i?e io?aaeaiee au?o/ee ca
?aaeeciaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth AeAAAO 60.2 “?an/aou n caaioiaeoaeueiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie” (o.e. a oicyenoaa aianoi 62 n/aoa aaaeaony aeaiiue n/ao
) / E?AAeEO 46 – ia noiio 325 000 ?oaeae.

Oaeaea a aeaeaa?a i?iecaiaeeeanue ?aaeecaoeey iieiea ia
aioo?eoicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu a eiee/anoaa 84 ea. , i?e yoii ninoaaeyeanue
neaaeothuay caienue – AeAAAO 46 / E?AAeEO 40 – ia noiio 126 000 ?oaeae,
i?e io?aaeaiee au?o/ee – AeAAAO 79 “Aioo?eoicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu” /
E?AAeEO 46 – ia noiio 109 779 ?oaeae. Ia n/ao 46 “?aaeecaoeey
i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio , oneoa” a ninoaaa iinooiathuae au?o/ee o/eouaatho
noiiu iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue , aaaaeaiioth a 1992 aiaeo.

Noiiu iaeiaa iinooiatho a ninoaaa au?o/ee io iieoiaoaeae e ca/eneythony
a iauai ii?yaeea ia E?AAeEO 46 . Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei noiiu iaeiaa
io?aaeatho ii AeAAAOO 46 e ca/eneytho a E?AAeEO 68 “?an/aou n
athaeaeaoii” ia niaoeeaeueii ioe?uaaaiue aeey yoie oeaee noan/ao
“?an/aou ii iaeiao ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ”.Oaeei ia?acii, ia n/aoa
46 iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ia aeeyao ia oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao
aeayoaeueiinoe, o.e. ii i?ioiaeeo ii AeAAAOO e E?AAeEOO a iaeeiaeiaie
noiia .

Aeey io?aaeaiey iia?aoeee ii o/aoo i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaio e oneoa ia i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeiu auoue neaaeothuea ?aaeno?u:

aeo?iae-i?aea? ? 11-AIE;

aaaeiiinoue ? 62 -AIE o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee , iaoa?eaeia, ?aaio
, oneoa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee;

aaaeiiinoue ? 63 -AIE “?aano? aeieoiaioia ii ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee”;

aaaeiiinoue ? 64-AIE “?aano? aeieoiaioia ii ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?i-

iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ?aaio, oneoa”.

Ana ?aaeno?u naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie . Ii a IIO “Ieineia” ec auoa
ia?a/eneaiiuo aaaeaony oieueei aaaeiiinoue ? 63-AIE e aeo?iae-i?aea? ?
11-AIE, yoi yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii aooaaeoa?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia aeaiiii o/anoea o/aoa.

Aeey ii?eoiaeiaaiey i?eieiaea i?eiaiyaony “Aeo ia ii?eoiaeiaaiea
i?eieiaea aeeaioiuo” (oi?ia ? 95), ii iiaeienuaaaony a?eaaaee?ii e
aeaaiui ciioaoieeii. O/ao aaaeaony ca eaaeaeia /enei a oa/aiea ianyoea.

?aaeno?ii, a eioi?ii iaiauatho aeaiiua ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia i cao?aoao
e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
io/ao ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao (oi?ia ? 18a). Aai ninoaaeytho ii eoiaai
aeaiiuo ca ianyoe ec niioaaonoaothueo ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue io/ao ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao ninoieo ec ?acaeaeia :

1. Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa (AeAAAO 20.2);

2. Auoiae i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa;

3. Iai?iou ii E?AAeEOO 20.2 n/aoa

A ?acaeaea “Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa”
o/eouaatho ana cao?aou, oaeea eae ca?aaioiay ieaoa , ?anoiae ei?iia,
aii?oecaoeey, no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu.

“Auoiae i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa”- io?aaeatho auoiae iniiaiie e
iiai/iie i?iaeoeoeee io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, ioiineiie n E?AAeEOA 20.2
“AEeaioiiaiaenoai” a AeAAAO ei??aniiiaee?othueo n/aoia, n oeacaieai
eiee/anoaa e noiiu.

3.3 I?aaiecaoeey neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa

Cao?aou e auoiae i?iaeoeoeee io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa o/eouaatho ia
aeoeaiii iia?aoeeiiiii, eaeueeoeyoeaiii n/aoa 20 “Iniiaiia
i?iecaiaenoai”, noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”, ii AeAAAOO eioi?iai
io?aaeatho – cao?aou , a ii E?AAeEOO- auoiae i?iaeoeoeee.

A ea/anoaa iauaeoia o/aoa cao?ao ii aeaiiiio noan/aoo auaeaeytho
ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu aeeaioiuo a i?aaeaeao io?anee.

Iiei/iue e?oiiue ?iaaoue neio : iniiaiia noaaei iiei/iiai neioa (ei?iau
e auee-i?iecaiaeeoaee).

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao aaaeoo a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii io/aoa ii neaaeothuae
iiiaieeaoo?a noaoae cao?ao:

1.”Iieaoa o?oaea n io/eneaieyie ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu”

2.”N?aaenoaa caueou aeeaioiuo”

3.”Ei?ia”

4.” Niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa” , a o./.

a) iaooai?iaeoeou

a) ?aiiio iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

5.”?aaiou e oneoae”

6.”I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey”

7. “I?i/ea cao?aou”

8. “No?aoiaua ieaoaaee”

9.”Iioa?e io iaaeaaea aeeaioiuo”

A IIO “Ieineia” aaaeoo o/ao ii neaaeothuei noaoueyi cao?ao:

1. Iieaoa o?oaea n io/eneaieyie ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu

2.N?aaenoaa caueou aeeaioiuo

3.Ei?ia

4.Niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, a o./. iaooai?iaeoeou, aii?oecaoeey
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, ?aiiio iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

5.?aaiou e oneoae

6.I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey

7.I?i/ea cao?aou

A noaouea “Iieaoa o?oaea n io/eneaieyie ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu”
o/eouaatho iniiaioth e aeiiieieoaeueioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo ?aaioieeia
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, caiyouo iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ianeoaeeaaiee aeaiiie
a?oiiu aeeaioiuo: aeiy?ie, neioieeia, a?eaaaee?ia, iiaeniaiiuo ?aai/eo,
oaeyoieoe. Nthaea aeeth/atho iieaoo ooaea ii oa?eoiui noaaeai. aeiieaou
e i?aiee ca i?iaeoeoeeth, ca iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo,
nio?aiaiea iiaieiauey, ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, ca eeanniinoue, iaaeaaaee
ca ianeoaeeaaiea neioa ia ioaeaeueiuo ianoaeuao.

Oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue , /oi i?eiaiyaiay a oicyenoaa iieaoa o?oaea ii
oa?eoiui noaaeai ecaeeea naay, iaiaoiaeeii aaeaeaa?oaeueii i?iaiaeeoue
eo eiaeaenaoeeth.

A IIO”Ieineia” i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea oa?eoiua noaaee :

– aeey aeiy?ie oanoiai ?ac?yaea – ca 1 /an – 96eiiaae,

ca 1 aeaiue – 6?oaeae 73 eiiaeee

ca ianyoe – 160 ?oaeae

– aeey neioieea iyoiai ?ac?yaea – ca 1 /an – 82eiiaeee

ca 1 aeaiue – 5 ?oaeae 80 eiiaae

ca 1 ianyoe – 138 ?oaeae.

?an/ao iieaou o?oaea aeiy?eai aaaeaony a caaeneiinoe io iaaeiaiiiai
iieiea e iieo/aiiiai i?eieiaea ii eaaeaeie oa?ia a ioaeaeueiinoe , i?e
yoii ca eaaeaeue iaaeiaiiue eeeia?aii iieiea ieaoeony 1.31 ?oaeae a
ia?an/aoa ia 1 % iieiea e

6.58?oaeae ca eaaeaeoth aieiao i?eieiaea a ia?an/aoa ia 1% iieiea.
Neioieee i?e yoii iieo/atho 0.27 a ia?an/aoa ia 1% iieiea e 3.29 ca
eaaeaeoth aieiao i?eieiaea.

O aaoa?a/ae, a?eaaaee?ia , ciioaoieeia e i?i/eo ?aaioieeia
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aeey ?an/aoa ca?aaioiie ieaou eniieuecoaony ieeaae.

Ca eeanniinoue aeiieaou ?ann/eouaathony n o/aoii neaaeothueo i?ioeaioia:
aeiy?ee 1 eeanna – 20% io iany/iie ca?aaioiie ieaou n o/aoii
io?aaioaiiuo aeiae ; 2 eeanna – 10%.

Ca aeiiieieoaeueii io?aaioaiiua ii/iua /anu aeiy?ee iieo/atho enoiaey ec
/aniaie ?anoeaiee, eioi?ay ninoaaeyao 40 % /aniaie oa?eoiie noaaee

I?aieaeueiua ?ann/eouaaao a?eaaaee? oa?iu. I?aiey eee aeiieaoa ca
naa?oaeinoeaiooue o?iaaiue ia 1 oo?aaeioth ei?iao , ii n?aaiaieth n
o?iaiai i?ioeiai aiaea yoiai aea ianyoea. Anee o?iaaiue yoiai aiaea
ninoaaee 100% io i?ioeiai, oi ?ann/eouaaaony 15% aeiieaou ;

io 101% aei 105% – 30% aeiieaou;

nauoa 105% – 50% aeiieaou.

Ii yoie aea noaouea o/eouaatho:

– noiiu io/eneaiee ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea a ?acia?a 5.4% io iauae
noiiu ia/eneaiiie ca?aaioiie ieaou ;

-noiiu io/eneaiee a Iaineiiiue oiiae a ?acia?a 20.6% io ia/eneaiiie
noiiu iieaou o?oaea;

-io/eneaiey a oiiae iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey a ?acia?a 3.6 % io
ia/eneaiiie noiiu iieaou o?oaea,

a oaeaea a oiiae caiyoinoe a ?acia?a 1.5% io ia/eneaiiie noiiu iieaou
o?oaea.

AeAAAO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”

aiaeeoe/aneee n/ao “Iniiaiia noaaei”

E?AAeEO 70 “?an/aou n ia?niiaeii ii iieaoa o?oaea ” ia noiio ia/eneaiiie
iieaou o?oaea ?aaioieeai aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a ?acia?a 416 565 941 ?oaeue.

E?AAeEO 69 “Io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea” ia aaee/eio
io/eneaiee io noiiu ia/eneaiiie ca?aaioiie ieaou a ?acia?a 135 043 934
?oaey.

E?AAeEO “Iaineiiiue oiiae” – 85812584 ?oaey

E?AAeEO “Oiiae iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey” – 14996374 ?oaey

E?AAeEO “Oiiae caiyoinoe” – 6248489 ?oaeae

“N?aaenoaa caueou aeeaioiuo ” io?aaeatho ?anoiae ia aeaiioth o/aoioth
a?oiio neioa aeii?aia?aoia, iaaeeeaiaioia, aeaceioeoee?othueo n?aaenoa.

AeAAAO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” / E?AAeEO 10 “Iaoa?eaeu” noan/ao
“Iaaeeeaiaiou” – ia noiio 8 523 545 ?oaeae

AeAAAO 20 noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai” aiaeeoe/aneee n/ao “Iniiaiia
noaaei”

E?AAeEO 10 noan/ao 1 “N?aaenoaa caueou aeeaioiuo” a ?acia?a 18 848 856
?oaeae.

“Ei?ia” o/eouaatho ?anoiae ei?iia nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iieoiiuo
ia niaea?aeaiea aeaiiie a?oiiu aeeaioiuo. O/ao ei?iia aaaeoo
iauaaeeiaiiue, o.a. ec?anoiaeiaaiiua ei?ia eaaeaeiai iaeiaiiaaiey
o/eouaatho a ioaeaeueiii “?aano?a – aeo?iaea o/aoa ?anoiaea ei?iia”
(oi?ia ? 35). Ia yoo noaoueth ioiinyo oaeaea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n
i?eaioiaeaieai e ia?aaioeie ei?iia a ei?iioeaoao iooai nienaiey eo n
niioaaonoaothuaai aiaeeoe/aneiai n/aoa e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia iauaeou o/aoa
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ianna i?eaioiaeaiiuo ei?iia.

?anoiae ei?iia ii aeaiiie noaouea io?aaeatho a eo aaeainiaie ioeaiea ;
ia?aoaaeoeo n i?ioeiai aiaea ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe;
i?iecaaaeaiiuo a oaeouai aiaeo – ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe n
ei??aeoe?iaeie a eiioea aiaea aei oaeoe/aneie ; iieoiiuo – ii oeaiai
i?eia?aoaiey , aeeth/ay ?anoiaeu ia aeinoaaeo a oicyenoai. ?anoiaeu ii
aeinoaaea ei?iia ec iano eo iinoiyiiiai o?aiaiey a oicyenoaa ia oa?iu
aeey nea?ieeaaiey neioo ia aeaiioth noaoueth ia ioiinyo. Eo nienuaatho
ia n/ao iauaeoia o/aoa cao?ao a niioaaonoaee a?oiiai aeeaioiuo ia
niioaaonoaothuea noaouee ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe : ia ?aaiou e oneoae –
ia?aaicee aaoiiiaeeueiui o?ainii?oii , o?ainii?oiua ?aaiou o?aeoi?ia .

AeAAAO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”

aiaeeoe/aneee n/ao “Iniiaiia noaaei”

E?AAeEO 10 “Iaoa?eaeu” noan/ao 10 “Ei?ia” -a ?acia?a 2 712 122 597?oaeae

E?AAeEO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 3 “?anoiaeu ii
i?eaioiaeaieth ei?iia ia ei?iieooiyo” – a ?acia?a 81 632 366 ?oaeae.

“Niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa” auaeaeaia aeey o/aoa aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee , cao?ao ia ?aiiio e ae?oaeo cao?ao ii niaea?aeaieth iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa, eniieuecoaiuo a aeaiiie io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ( caeaiey,
aeieeueiua onoaiiaee e ae?oaea iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, aeeth/ay eciin e
cao?aou ia ainnoaiiaeaiea iaeioeaiiuo auno?ieciaoeaathueony eino?oiaioia
e i?eniiniaeaiee), ioianaiea niioaaonoaothueo cao?ao ia aeaiioth a?oiio
aeeaioiuo i?iecaiaeyony ii aiciiaeiinoe i?yiui iooai.

AeAAAO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”

aiaeeoe/aneee n/ao “Iniiaiia noaaei”

E?AAeEO 02 “Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa” – ia noiio aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee , ia/eneaiiuo ia caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey , eniieuecoaiua a
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, a ?acia?a 128 486 894 ?oaey.

E?AAeEO 10 “Iaoa?eaeu” noan/ao 8 “No?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu ” – ia noiio
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ua iioee ia ?aiiio ei?iaieeia,
nooinoieiiai e ?iaeeeueiiai aeai?a, eioi?ay a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaeea 44
743.36 ?oaey.

E?AAeEO 13 “Eciin IAI” – ia noiio eciina a ?acia?a 17 552.85 ?oaeae.

“?aaiou e oneoae” i?aaeiacia/aia aeey o/aoa auiieiaiiuo a
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ?aaio e oneoa aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa e noi?iiieo
i?aaiecaoeee . Iaeaieaa aaaeiua aeaeu ?aaio e oneoa aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
i?iecaiaenoa oeaeaniia?acii auaeaeyoue: aaoio?ainii?o, o?ainii?oiua
?aaiou o?aeoi?ia, yeaeo?iniaaaeaiea, aiaeiniaaaeaiea . Ii eaaeaeiio
aeaeo ?aaio e oneoa iieacuaatho eo eiee/anoai e noieiinoue (a oa/aiea
aiaea ieaiiaay n aeiaaaeaieai a eiioea aiaea aei oaeoe/aneie ).

1.Aaoio?ainii?o ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia AeAAAO 20.2 i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
auiieiaiiui o/ei. ;

2. Oneoae iaoeiii-o?aeoi?iiai ia?ea i?iii?oeeiiaeueii oneiaiui yoaeiiai
aaeoa?ai;

3.Yeaeo?iyia?aey niaeanii aeaiiuo yeaeo?in/ao/eeia;

4.Aiaeiniaaaeaiea ioiineony ii ii?iai.

Ia yoo aea noaoueth ioiinyo noieiinoue ?aaio , auiieiaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyie ii oaoie/aneiio ianeoaeeaaieth aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, noaioeee
ii eneonnoaaiiiio inaiaiaieth aeeaioiuo. A oa/aiee aiaea ioeaiea yoeo
?anoiaeia inouanoaeyaony ii ieaiiaui oeaiai , a a eiioea aiaea
aeiaiaeeony aei oaeoe/aneie e ?ani?aaeaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n
auiieiaiiuie ?aaioaie.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 2 “Oneoae a?ociaiai
o?ainii?oa” – a ?acia?a 15 007 045 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 3
“Yeaeo?iniaaaeaiea” a ?acia?a 7 250 168 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 5 “Oneoae aoaeaaiai
aaoio?ainii?oa” – a ?acia?a 176 495 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 6 “Oaieiniaaaeaiea”
– a ?acia?a 3 290 438 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 7 “Oneoae iaoeiiiai
o?aeoi?iiai ia?ea” – a ?acia?a 140 844 077 ?oaeae.

“I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey” io?aaeatho ?anoiaeu ia
i?aaiecaoeeth e oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii a io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a
aeiea , i?eoiaeeaoaeny ia aeaiiue iauaeo o/aoa cao?ao. A aeaiiii neo/aa
, a IIO “Ieineia” noiiu eoiaia ii n/aoo 25 “Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua
?anoiaeu” aoi?iai noan/aoa aa?oo ec i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai io/aoa e
aaeaeaa?oaeueii ?ani?aaeaeytho neaaeothuei ia?acii : 60% – iieiei e 40%-
iieiaeiye, oi aea naiia i?ienoiaeeo e n 26 n/aoii “Iauaoicyenoaaiiua
?anoiaeu”, eioi?ua oeene?othony a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii io/aoa . A eiioea
aiaea ninoaaeythony ni?aaee ii cae?uoeth yoeo n/aoia; ii?aaeaeyaony
?acieoea iaaeaeo oaeoe/aneie noiiie cao?ao e ieaie?oaiuie, iieo/aaioth
?acieoeo eee i?eaaaeytho e cao?aoai n ia/aea aiaea eee au/eoatho
iaoiaeii e?aniiai noi?ii ( noiio ioeeiiaiee ?ani?aaeaeytho 60% – iieiei,
40% – i?eieiaea).

E?AAeEO 25 “Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu” – a ?acia?a 95 483
401?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 26 “Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu” – a ?acia?a 129 982 779 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 60 “?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie e iiae?yae/eeaie” – a ?acia?a 397 296
?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 40 “Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey” – a ?acia?a 25 069 693 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 10 “Iaoa?eaeu” noan/ao 3 “Ai?th/a-niaci/iua iaoa?eaeu” – a
?acia?a 3 040 267 ?oaeae.

“I?i/ea cao?aou ” auaeaeaia aeey o/aoa ?acee/iuo iaeeeo ?anoiaeia e
?anoiaeia ?aciaiai oa?aeoa?a. Nthaea aea ioiinyony cao?aou, iaaioaaeoea
a i?aaeuaeouea noaouee, a o./.

-cao?aou ii ia?aaeaeaieth oa?i, iai?oaeiaaieth aeacaa?uea?ia,
no?ieoaeuenoao naii?iioneieeia e ae?oaeo iauaeoia, naycaiiuo n
aaoe?eia?ii-naieoa?iuie ia?ii?eyoeyie;

– noieiinoue iiaenoeeee aeey aeeaioiuo;

– eciin niaoeiaeaaeaeu e iaoae, auaeaaaaiuo aeiy?eai;

– cao?aou ia no?ieoaeuenoai caaiiia, iaaania e ae?oaeo nii?oaeaiee
iaeiieoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a aeey aeeaioiuo, nienuaaaiua a onoaiiaeaiiii
ii?yaeea ni n/aoa “?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia” n/ao 31.

“I?i/ea cao?aou”, eae i?aaeei, ioiinyo ia niioaaonoaothuoth o/aoioth
a?oiio neioa i?yiui iooai .

Eoiai ii AeAAAOO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2
”AEeaioiiaiaenoai” ca 1997 aiae noiia ninoaaeea -4 189 035 895 ?oaeae.

Ii E?AAeEOO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”
o/eouaaaony auoiae i?iaeoeoeee a ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe.

Iieo/aii: iieiea a eiee/anoaa 2 174 134ea. ia noiio 3 478 614 400
?oaeae

AeAAAO 40 “Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey”

E?AAeEO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”

i?eieiaea a eiee/anoaa 709 aieia ia noiio 425 400 000 ?oaeae

AeAAAO 11”AEeaioiua ia au?aueaaiee e ioei?ia”

iiai/iiai i?iaeoeoa a eiee/anoaa 22 900oiii ia noiio 572 500 000 ?oaeae
ii ii?iaoeaai.

Eoiai ii E?AAeEOO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”
noieiinoue iieiea, i?eieiaea e iaaica ninoaaeea 6 730 874.4 ?oaeae.

3.4 Eaeueeoeyoeey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa e
cae?uoea n/aoa .

A aeeaioiiaiaenoaa iauaeoaie en/eneaiey naaanoieiinoe yaeyaony iniiaiay
i?iaeoeoeey : iieiei e i?eieiae . Eioi?ua a oa/aiea aiaea o/eouaatho ii
ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe, n aeiaaaeaieai a eiioea aiaea aei oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe. Iiai/iay i?iaeoeoeey – iaaic , o/eouaaaony ii ii?iaoeaai
.

Ii AeAAAOO aiaeeoe/aneiai n/aoa “Iniiaiia iiei/iia noaaei” e iiiaioo aai
cae?uoey io?aaeathony ana cao?aou n o/aoii ei??aeoe?iaee noieiinoe ?aaio
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa, i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa. E iiiaioo
cae?uoey oaeaea nthaea ioiinyo niioaaonoaothuea cao?aou ii ei?iieooia
eee ei?iioeaoo i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ?anoiaeo ei?iia . Ii E?AAeEOO yoiai
n/aoa e eiioeo aiaea io?aaeaia ii ieaiiaie ioeaiea any iniiaiay
i?iaeoeoeey ?acieoea iaaeaeo aeaaaoiaui e e?aaeeoiaui iai?ioii ii n/aoo
ninoaaeytho noiio ioeeiiaiee oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao io ieaiiaie
naaanoieiinoe iieo/aiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

A IIO “Ieineia” a eiioea aiaea ec iauae noiiu cao?ao ii e?oiiiio
?iaaoiio neioo ( iiei/iia noaaei ) au/eoatho cao?aou ia iaaic,
inoaaoothny noiio ?ani?aaeaeyo a niioaaonoaee n ?anoiaeii iaiaiiie
yia?aee ei?iia : ia iieiei – 90%, ia i?eieiae – 10 %.

?anniio?ei en/eneaiea oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe 1 oeaioia?a iieiea e 1
aieiau i?eieiaea ii aeaiiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai io/aoa ca 1997 aiae.

Ec anao cao?ao au/eoaai cao?aou ia iiai/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth

( 4 189 035 895 – 572 500 000)= 3 616 535 895 ?oaeae.

Inoaaoothny noiio ?ani?aaeaeyai ia i?eieiae 10%

( 3 616 535 895 ?oaeae * 10% ) = 416 064 ?oaeae.

ia iieiei 90%

( 3 616 535 895 ?oaeae * 90%) = 3 761 ?oaeue.

Aeaeaa ii?aaeaeyai naaanoieiinoue 1 oeaioia?a iieiea:

(3 761 ?oaeue / 2 174ea.) = 1.73 ?oaey.

Naaanoieiinoue 1 aieiau i?eieiaea :

( 416 064 ?oaeae / 709 aieia) = 591 ?oaeue.

Iinea n?aaieaaai oaeoe/aneoth naaanoieiinoue n ieaiiaie e
eaeueeoeyoeeiiioth ?acieoeo nienuaaai aeaoiy iaoiaeaie:

1. Anee oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue auoa ieaiiaie , oi eaeueeoeyoeeiiioth
?acieoeo nienuaaai iaoiaeii aeiiieieoaeueiie i?iaiaeee.

2. Anee oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue ieaea ieaiiaie, oi nienuaaai iaoiaeii
“e?aniia noi?ii”.

A IIO “Ieineia” ieaiiaay naaanoieiinoue ca 1997 aiae ieacaeanue auoa ,
/ai oaeoe/aneay (ieaiiaay ii iieieo 1?oaeue84eiiaeee , oaeoe/aneay –
1?oaeue 73 eiiaeee, ieaiiaay ii i?eieiaeo – 662 ?oaey , oaeoe/aneay -591
?oaeue), nienuaaai ?acieoeo iaoiaeii “e?aniia noi?ii” ii eaiaeai
eniieueciaaiey (niio?e ni?aaeo ?1).

3.5 Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee a iiei/iii
neioiaiaenoaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy , i?e ia?aoiaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea
aeey iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee anoaao aeooaeueiay ,aeey
naaiaeiyoieo aeiae caaea/a – aaaeaiea n/aoa n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa
yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee (YAI). Cia/aiea aaoiiaoecaoeee
aaeeei, oae eae , i?e aai aiaae?aiee oaaee/eaaaony iia?aoeaiinoue o/aoa
, oneeeaathony eiio?ieueiua ooieoeee ii auiieiaieth aeiaiai?iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa e naiaa?aiaiiuo ieaoaaeae iaeiaia a athaeaeao. Ia aeaiiue
iiiaio a IIO”Ieineia” eiaaony iaeei eiiiuethoa? “Gold Star”.

Aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee ?aaio eniieuecoaony i?ia?aiia “Eioeiaooaaeoa?ey”.
O/ao a i?ia?aiia iino?iai ia iniiaa ?aaeno?aoeee aooaaeoa?neeo i?iaiaeie
(oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee), /oi iicaieyao aaeeiiia?acii aaoiiaoece?iaaoue
ana o/anoee o/aoa . Oieaa?naeueiue i?ia?aiiiue eiiieaen “Eioei”
i?aaeiacia/ai aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee o/aoa i?aaei?eyoee anao oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe. Aeaeinoue e oieaa?naeueiinoue , caeiaeaiiua a i?ia?aiio ,
iicaieytho eaaei aaeaioe?iaaoue aa e ethaie iaoiaeeea aaaeaiey o/aoa .
I?ia?aiia inaiaiaeaeaao ?aaioieeia aooaaeoa?ee io ?ooeiiie ?an/aoiie
?aaiou , io ?aciinee i?iaiaeie ii aeo?iaeai -i?aea?ai e a aeaaioth
eieao. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a oicyenoaa aaaeoony ia eiiiuethoa?a i?ia?aiiu:
12 n/ao “IAI” iai?ioiay aaaeiiinoue ; 60 n/ao “?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie e
iiae?yae/eeaie” ; ca?aaioiay ieaoa ; aeaaiay eieaa ; n/aoa-oaeoo?u ii
aeeaioiiaiaenoao ; n/aoa- oaeoo?u ia ?aaeecaoeeth ; “aaaeiiinoue
acaaoeaaiey aeeaioiuo ii a?oiiai neioa”.

Oaeaea i?eiaiyaony i?ia?aiia “Windows – 95” , iia ianeieueei onoa?aea e
iiaeii ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue i?eia?anoe i?ia?aiio “Windows-97” .

Ii ioi?ieaieth aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e eo nienaiea
?aeiiaiaeoai eniieueciaaoue oi?iu ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia ? 261 AIE
“Eeioii-caai?iay aaaeiiinoue”; ? 264-AIE “Io/ao i aeaeaeaiee
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae”; ? 266 -AIE “Io/ao i aeaeaeaiee ai?th/aai e
niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia ”. E?iia oiai, iiaeii ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue i?eiaiyoue
neaaeothuea iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiua oeiiaua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oi?iu ? IA-2
“Ea?oi/ea o/aoa iaeioeaiiuo e auno?ieciaoeaathueony i?aaeiaoia” e ? EA-6
“Ee/iay ea?oi/ea niaoeiaeaaeaeu, niaoeiaoae e i?aaeio?aieoaeueiuo
i?eniiniaeaiee” (eeno ? 37).

Oaeaea aeey i?aaiecaoeee aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa , aac eioi?iai iaiuneeii
iieiioeaiiia aaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e n/aoai eee noan/aoai iiaeii
i?ee?aieoue naie ni?aai/ieee aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa , eiee/anoai eioi?uo
iiaeao aeinoeaaoue iyoe. Yoi iicaieeo ii ethaiio n/aoo i?aaieciaaoue
iyoeo?iaiaaue aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao. I?ia?aiia “Windows-97”aeano
aiciiaeiinoue iinea aaaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee n ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia aac
aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiaee?iaaiey iieo/eoue ?acoeueoaoeaioth eioi?iaoeeth a
aeaea iai?ioiie aaaeiiinoe, eioi?ay caiaieo niaie “?aano? ii ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee” (?aaio,oneoa) (oi?ia ? 63 -AIE e AE-I ? 11).

4. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea .

4.1 Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea e oaeoi?u ia iaai aeeythuea.

A yeiiiieea iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea eiaao ?ino
n?aaeiaaiaeiauo oaeiaa. Oaaee/aiea aaeiauo iaaeiaa io oiai aea
iiaieiauey – aaaeiue oaeoi? iiauoaiey ieoiaaiinoe cao?ao iooai
nie?auaiey aeiee iiaeaea?aeeaathuae /anoe ei?ia e cao?ao o?oaea ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee. Aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeeae iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa
yaeyaony iauee iauai i?iaeoeoeee io?anee, i?iecaaaeaiiie ca oio eee eiie
ia?eiae a?aiaie. Iniiaiay aaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey – iieiei, iieo/aaiia io
iiei/iiai noaaea ei?ia, nii?yaeaiiay – i?eieiae, a iiai/iay – iaaic. Eae
iieacuaaao aiaeec a IIO “ Ieineia ” a aeeiaieea ca ?yae eao i?iecioee
eciaiaiey a aaeiaii i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea. ?anniio?ei, eae iaiyeanue
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo, iiaieiauea ei?ia ca 1993 – 1997 aiaeu e eae
yoi iiaeeyei ia aaeiaue iaaeie, a?aoe/anee.

?en.1 Aeeyiea eciaiaiey /eneaiiinoe ei?ia e eo i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aaeiaia

i?iecaiaenoai iieiea.

Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey:

– oaeie ia iaeio ei?iao, ea.

– aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea, oe.

– n?aaeiaaiaeiaia iiaieiauea ei?ia , aieia.

Ia nieaeaiea aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea a 1997 aiaeo iiaeeyei
nieaeaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo ia 6%, a ia aai iiauoaiea a 1994
aiaeo iaiai?io iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe . A yoii aiaeo iiaieiauea ei?ia
nieaeaeinue, ii iacia/eoaeueiuie oaiiaie (1% ), /oi ia ieacaei aeeyiey
ia aaeiaue iaaeie. A 1995 aiaeo ea?oeia eciaieeanue : aaeiaue iaaeie
iaaeaao ( ia 4 % ), a nayce ni nieaeaieai /eneaiiinoe ei?ia ( ia 4 % ),
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo aeinoaoi/ii aunieay e ninoaaeea 101% io
o?iaiy 1993 aiaea . A 1997 aiaeo aaeiaue iaaeie e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
aeeaioiuo ianeieueei nieaeaaony( 1% ), a eiee/anoai aeeaioiuo aeinoeaaao
naiae ieieiaeueiie aaee/eiu.

Aeaiiue a?aoee aue iino?iai ia iniiaaiee oeeo?, i?eaaaeaiiuo a oaaeeoea
9.

Oaaeeoea 9

Aeeiaieea aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iiaieiauey e i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia a
IIO “Ieineia”.

Iieacaoaee

AiaeuIoeeiiaiey 1997 aiaea io 1993 aiaea A n?aaeiai ii ?aeiio ca 1997
aiae19931994199519961997+;-; oe.

10e,ea%Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea, oeaioia?ia

22849

24418

22853

22986

21741

-1108

5%

4 716Ia eiiaoe aiaea anaai, aieia

———————-

a o./. ei?ia (n?aaeia-aiaeiaia iiaieiauea)

1 912

——-

684

1 859

——–

672

1 872

——–

638

1 767

——–

636

1 681

——–

629

-231

——

-55

12,08%

—-

8,04%

654

———

268Oaeie ia iaeio ei?iao, ea.

3 340

3 633

3 581

3 614

3 456

+116

3,47

1 750Oaeaeueiue aan ei?ia a noaaea, %

35,5

34,3

34,4

34,8

35,25

2,75

—-

33.9

A IIO “Ieineia” a aeeiaieea ca ?yae eao i?iecioee eciaiaiey a aaeiaii
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, o.a. iii nie?aoeeinue a 1997 aiaeo ii n?aaiaieth n
1993 aiaeii ia 11.08oe. eee ia 5%, yoi i?iecioei a nayce n nie?auaieai
/eneaiiinoe ei?ia ia 55 aieia eee ia 8%, ii yoe eciaiaiey
nii?iaiaeaeaeenue iiauoaieai i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo ia 116 ea. eee ia
3.47% . Anee n?aaieaaoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo a IIO “Ieineia” ni
n?aaeia?aeiiiuie aeaiiuie, oi aeaeii, /oi a oicyenoaa iia auoa a aeaa
?aca . *enei ei?ia a noaaea oaaee/eaaaony, anee n?aaieaaoue aeaiiua 1993
e 1997 aiaeia. Oaaee/aiea i?iecioei ia 2.7 % . Eciaiaiea ?acia?a
aaeiaiai iaaeiy iieiea a 1997 aiaeo, ii n?aaiaieth n ieaiii ca yoio aea
aiae, e n 1993 aiaeii anaai, a o./. ca n/ao ioaeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, a
eiaiii /eneaiiinoe, i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia, no?oeoo?u iiaieiauey, iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue n iiiiuueth eiaeaeniiai aiaeeca a ?ac?aca oa?i.
I?iecaiaenoai iieiea a IIO “Ieineia” inouanoaeyaony ia aeaoo aeai?ao
?aniieiaeaiiuo ?yaeii.

Oaaeeoea 10

Eiaeaeniue aiaeec aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Oa?iuOaeie ia iaeio ei?iao, ea.Iiaieiauea ei?ia ia ia/aei aiaea, aieia

Aaeiaue iaaeie, oe.1993aiae1997aiae1993aiae1997aiae1993

aiae1997

aiaeoneiaiiEiaeaenuOiO1IiI1OiIiO1I1OiI11 aeai?

———————-

2 aeai?3 657

———-

3 3543 945

———-

3 529300

———

384300

——-31610 971

———12 87911 835

——–

11 15110 971

——–

10 598EOIAI:——68461623 85022 98621 569

1.Eiaeaen aaeiaiai iaaeiy iieiea

Oi I1 22 986oe.

——————– ———————- = 0.96

OiIi 23 850oe.

2. Eiaeaen i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa

O1 O1 I1 Oi Ii

———- aaea O1 = ——————- ; Oi =
——————– ;

Oi I1 Ii

22 986oe. 23 850oe.

O1 = ———– =37.3oe. ; Oi = ————- = 34.8oe.

616 aie. 684 aie.

37.3oe.

Eiaeaen ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa ———- = 1.07

34.8oe.

3. Eiaeaen i?iaeoeoeaiinoe oeene?iaaiiiai ninoaaa

O1 I1 22 986oe. 1.06

O0 I1 21 569oe.

4. Eiaeaen no?oeoo?u iiaieiauey

O i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa 1.07 = 1.00

O i?iaeoeoeaiinoe oeene?iaaiiiai ninoaaa 1.06

5. Eiaeaen /eneaiiinoe ei?ia

I 1 616 aie. =0.9

I i 684 aie.

6. Aaniethoiia eciaiaiea aaeiaiai iaaeiy

= O1 I1 – O0 I0 ; 22 986oe. – 23 850oe. = -864oe.

a o./. ca n/ao i?iaeoeoeaiinoe

o = ( O1 – O0 ) * I1 ; ( 37.37 – 34.85 )* 616 = 1 540oe.

ca n/ao /eneaiiinoe ei?ia .

i = ( I1 – I0) * O0 ; ( 616 – 684) * 34.8 = – 2 366oe.

Nieaeaiea aaeiaiai iaaeiy a 1997 aiaeo i?iecioei ia 4%, ii n?aaiaieth n
1993 aiaeii. I?e oaeiyo ia iaeio ei?iao ia o?iaia 1993 aiaea e
iiaieiauey 1997 aiaea aaeiaue iaaeie 1993 aiaea ia 6% ieaea aaeiaiai
iaaeiy 1997 aiaea. N?aaeiee oaeie ia iaeio ei?iao 1997 aiaea ia 7 % auoa
n?aaeiaai oaeiy 1993 aiaea . *eneaiiinoue ei?ia a 1997 aiaeo nieceeanue
ia 10 %. A 1997 aiaeo aaeiaue iaaeie iieiea aue ia 864 oeaioia?ia
iaiueoa, ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey /eneaiiinoe ei?ia – ia 2 366oe. iieiea, a
ca n/ao oaaee/aiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo i?aaei?eyoea
aeiiieieoaeueii iieo/eei 1 540 oeaioia?ia iieiea.

A nayce n oai, /oi eciaiaiea iiaieiauey ei?ia i?yii aeeyao ia aaeiaia
i?iecaiaenoai iieiea, ?anniio?ei i?e/eiu yoiai yaeaiey. A oicyenoaa ia
nieaeaiea iiaieiauey aeeyao auioaeaeaiiue caaie ei?ia ec-ca eo
caaieaaaaiinoe, yeiainoe, iaania/aiiinoue ei?ia noa?oa aeaoo eao.

Iieacaoaee aini?iecaiaenoaa noaaea eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea o.e. aeeytho
ia o?iaaiue i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo.

Oaaeeoea 11

Iieacaoaee aini?iecaiaenoaa noaaea.

IieacaoaeeAiaeu

——————————————————

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997Ioeeiia-iey 1997 aiaea io 1993
aiaeaIieo/aii oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia, aieia9091909189-0.8Iaania/aiiinoue
ei?ia oaeeaie noa?oa aeaoo eao , %1518171925+9.2Aua?aeiaaii ei?ia (e
iiaieiaueth ia ia/aei aiaea ) , %2832232928—Iaaeaae i?eieiaea ,
%6361186—sseiainoue ei?ia , %5.53.46.58.72-3.5

Aeiionoeiue iieacaoaeue yeiainoe 3-5 %. A IIO “Ieineia” ca iineaaeiea
aiaeu yoio iieacaoaeue aieueoa ii?iu, oae a 1996 aiaeo ii ninoaaee 8.7 %
. Ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae yeiainoue ei?ia nieceeanue ia 6 % . Auoiae
oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia niioaaonoaoao ciioaoie/aneei ii?iai, ca aiaeece?oaiue
ia?eiae yoio iieacaoaeue nieaeaaony ia 0.8 %. Iieacaoaeue iaania/aiiinoe
ei?ia oaeeaie noa?oa aeaoo eao aeieaeiu auoue 25 % e aieaa, a oicyenoaa
aea yoio iieacaoaeue cia/eoaeueii ieaea a n?aaeiai 17% , ii ca
aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae ii aic?in ia 9.2 % .

IIO “ Ieineia ” ia i?ienoiaeeo ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa iiaieiauey
ei?ia, o.e. i?ioeaio aua?aeiaee aeeaioiuo ec noaaea auoa ( 3 % a
n?aaeiai ), /ai i?ioeaio iaania/aiiinoe ei?ia oaeeaie noa?oa 2-o eao.

Iaaeaae i?eieiaea a oicyenoaa aunieee , yoi i?ienoiaeeo ia oieueei ec-ca
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie ciioaoie/aneie ?aaiou , ii e ec-ca ianiaa?oaiiie
eiiiaie aacu, oeceieiae/aneie aua?aeiaee.

Aic?ano neo/ee a oicyenoaa 21 – 23 ianyoea. Oaeia iicaeiaa inaiaiaiea
i?ienoiaeeo ec-ca oiai, /oi aeeaioiua ia oniaaatho iaa?aoue
aeinoaoi/ioth aeeaoth ianno e 18 – 20 ianyoeai ( iioeiaeueiue aic?ano
aeey ia?aie neo/ee ) , ec-ca ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoe ?aoeeiiia.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeiiieieoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea ei?ia aei neo/ee ( 3 – 5
ianyoeaa ) iiauoaao cao?aou ia iaeio aieiao. Oaeaea nooinoieiue ia?eiae
i?aauoaao ia 17 aeiae ii?io ( 60 aeiae ) , e na?aen-ia?eiae ia 23 aeiy
i?aauoaao ii?io ( 80 aeiae ). Ec-ca oaaee/aiey cao?ao ia iaeio aieiao,
naaanoieiinoue iieiea iiauoaaony, nieaeay, oai naiui yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a oicyenoaa eiathony aeinoaoi/ii aieueoea
?aca?au oeo/oaiey ciioaoie/aneie ?aaiou.

Aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai oniaoiiai ?acaeoey iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a
oicyenoaa yaeyaony iaania/aiiinoue neioa ei?iaie. Aeey yoiai ?aoathuaa
cia/aiea eiaao oe?aieaiea ei?iiaie aacu, oi anoue nenoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa
ei?iia, iaania/eaathuae iio?aaiinoue aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 12

Aiaeec oaeoe/aneiai oeia ei?ieaiey .

IieacaoaeeAiaeu

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997Ioeeiia-iey 1997 aiaea io 1993
aiaea.Anaai ec?anoiaeiaaii ia iiei/iia noaaei, oe.e.aae.36 17637 92934
77234 45429 543o Eiioeaio?aou, oe. e. aae.9 6629 026 9 02312 71310
901o Ni/iua, anaai 16 02522 06214 96513 31111 412 a o./.
neein —5 4624 678 ei?iaieiaeu—3 4132 921
ea?oioaeue —4 4363 800 caeaiue ei?i—1
7061 460 A?oaua , anaai2 7842 882 2 6002 4482 740 a o./.
naii—2 0982 348I?i/ea7 7053 9598 1845 9824 451Iiaieiauea ei?ia ,
aieia680672635636629-51O?iaaiue ei?ieaiey ,
oe.e.aae.53.256.454.754.146.97-6.23I?iaeoeoeaiinoue , ea.3 3003 6333
5813 6143 456156?anoiae ia 1 oe. iieiea,
oe.e.aae.1.611.551.521.491.36-0.25O?iaaiue ei?ieaiey a IIO”Ieineia”
nieceeny ia 6.23oe.e.aae. , ii inoaeny ia aunieii o?iaia, a n?aaeiai ca
iyoue eao ii ?aaai 55.0 oe.e.aae. , /oi cia/eoaeueii auoa ciioaoie/aneeo
ii?i ( 38.8 oe.e.aae.). Ii ciioaoie/aneei ii?iai ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea
aeieaeii ?anoiaeiaaoueny 1.1oe.e.aae. , neaaeiaaoaeueii, /oiau
iaania/eoue n?aaeiee oaeie 3 529ea. ( a n?aaeiai ca 5 eao) iaiaoiaeeii,
/oiau o?iaaiue ei?ieaiey aeieaeai

auoue ?aaai 38.8 oe.e.aae.. A IIO ”Ieineia” ia?a?anoiae ei?iia , oae ia
iaeio aieiao,oae e ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea , oae eae ei?ia ieceiai ea/anoaa
e ?aoeeiiu ia naaeaine?iaaiu.

*oiau ?anniio?aoue oei ei?ieaiey, iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue no?oeoo?o
?aoeeiia, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeaia naeoi?iie aeeaa?aiiie.

A IIO “Ieineia” eiioeaio?e?iaaiiue oei ei?ieaiey n aieueoei
niaea?aeaieai ni/iuo ei?iia e iacia/eoaeueiui niaea?aeaieai a?oauo.
Aeiey neeina a ?aoeeiiao aeieaeia auoue nieaeaia aei 9 – 12 % , a naia
oaaee/aia aei 22-25 % . Naii – anoanoaaiiue ei?i aeey ei?ia e iaeaieaa
aeaaioai?ii aeeythuee eae ia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo, oae e ia eo
iauaa ninoiyiea. Aeiey a?oauo ei?iia a IIO “Ieineia” i/aiue ieceay 7% ,
iia aeieaeia auoue oaaee/aia aei 28 – 30 % . Ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue
?aoeeiia iauyniyaony oai, /oi oicyenoai ei?ieo ei?ia ia oai /ai ioaeii ,
a oai ia /oi oaaoaao n?aaenoa. Aeey oaaee/aiey iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
aaaeii ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ei?iia, oae eae a ia?aoiii neo/aa,
ia?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ei?iia i?eaiaeeo e eo ia?a?anoiaeo e a
neaaenoaea yoiai iiauoaaony naaanoieiinoue iieiea.

Oaaeeoea 13

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ei?iia ia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea.

IieacaoaeeAiaeu

1993 1994 1995 1996 19971.I?iecaaaeaii i?iaeoeoeee , oe.22
84924 41822 85322 98621 7412.?anoiae ei?iia ia 1oe. iieiea,
oe.e.aae.1.581.51.521.491.363.Naaanoieiinoue 1oe.e.aae.
(oun.?oa.)2.799.18831.054.8891.794. Cao?aou ia ei?ia a ?an/aoa ia 1oe.
i?iaeoeoeee (oun.?oa.)

4.408

13.78

47.12

81.77

124.745.N?aaeiyy oeaia ?aaeecaoeee ca 1oe. iieiea (oun.?oa.)

5.0

24.0

97.7

106.4

122.266.Ieoiaaiinoue cao?ao ia ei?ia

(5 : 4)1.131.742.071.30.98

A IIO “Ieineia” ieoiaaiinoue cao?ao ia ei?ia nieceeanue a 1.2 ?aca , a
nayce n oai , /oi ia?yaeo n ?inoii n?aaeiae oeaiu ?aaeecaoeee a 24.4
?aca ?anooo e cao?aou ei?ia a ?an/aoa ia 1oeaioia? iieiea a 28.3 ?aca.

Ionoaaaiea ?inoa i?iaeoeoeaiinoe io oaiiia oaei?iaeaiey ei?iia
iauyniyaony , n iaeiie noi?iiu ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoueth ?aoeeiiia, a n
ae?oaie noi?iiu -ianiaethaeaiea i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeeo eae : ieaiaiiie e aic?anoiie ninoaa ,
aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ooieoeee aeeaioiuo , a oaeaea eaaeeoeeaoeey
eaae?ia e oneiaey niaea?aeaiey ei?ia .

A IIO” Ieineia ” i?eiaiyaony noieeiai-ianoaeuiia niaea?aeaiea
aeeaioiuo, i?e yoii ia eaaeaeoth ei?iao i?eoiaeeony a n?aaeiai 1.23 aa
ianoaeua , i?e ii?ia 2 aa. A oicyenoaa i?eiaiyaony eneonnoaaiiia
inaiaiaiea . Eeanniue ninoaa noaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie : ei?ia yeeoa
-?aei?ae 56.5 % ;

yeeoa – 34.1 % ;

1 eeanna – 9.1 %;

2 eeanna – 0.3 %;

Aaeaiany/ii a oicyenoaa i?iaiaeyony eiio?ieueiua aeieee n ii?aaeaeaieai
i?ioeaioa aee?iinoe a iieiea.

Ciioaoie/aneay ?aaioa i?iaiaeeony neaai a nayce n iaoaaoeie
iaoa?eaeueii-aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua aeeytho a eiia/iii eoiaa ia
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo.

A oicyenoaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?ioeannu aeinoaoi/ii iaoaiece?iaaiu.
Aeiaiea ei?ia inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth iieieii?iaiaea AeAN-2-5, aeey
iiaea/e aiaeu iai?oaeiaaiu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iieeee.

I/enoea iiiauaiee inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth o?ainii?oa?a ONI-160A.
?acaea/a ei?iia, a iniiaiii , inouanoaeyaony ?o/iui niiniaii , e?iia
iiaeaicee o?aayiie caeaiie iannu. EOO -10 e IOC-80 e 2ION-4
ei?ii?acaeaoi/iee ea?oioaey.

Ia oa?iao aeaooniaiiay ?aaioa aeiy?ie, ca eaaeaeie a n?aaeiai cae?aieaii
ii 50 ei?ia . I?ienoiaeeo iaoaaoea ?aaioieeia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, o.a.
aeiy?ie, oae eae noa?ua ?aaioieee ooiaeyo ia iaineth, iieiaeua ia oioyo
eaeoe ,oae eae ieceay ca?aaioiay ieaoa e iao iaoa?eaeueiiai
noeioee?iaaiey .

Oaaeeoea 14

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e cao?aou o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai 1 oeaioia?a
iieiea.

IieacaoaeeAiaeu

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997Ioeeiia-iey 1997 aiaea io 1993
aiaea, + , -A n?aaeiai ii ?aeiio ca 1997 aiaeI?iecaiaenoai iieiea ia 1
/ae./an.ea.

19.6

18.6

21.1

20.5

19.07

– 0.53

8Cao?aou o?oaea

ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea,

/ae./an.

5.0

5.3

4.7

4.8

5.2

0.2

12.0

A IIO “Ieineia” i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia
0.53 ea. , iiauoaiea o?oaeiaieinoe ia 0.2 /aeiaaei-/ana . Ii yoe naeaeae
ia cia/eoaeueiu , anee acyoue ai aieiaiea n?aaeia?aeiiiua aeaiiua ca
1997 aiae.

?aaioieee oa?i iaei caeioa?aniaaiiu a ?acoeueoaoao naiaai o?oaea.
Aeiy?eai aeiiea/eaatho ca aee?iinoue iieiea, ca /enoioo iieiea, ii yoe
aeiieaou ia aeatho iuooeiie i?eaaaee e ca?ieaoa. A n?aaeiai ca 1997 aiae
ca?aaioiay ieaoa aeiy?ie ninoaaeea 795 ?oaeae.

Iaoa?eaeueiia noeioee?iaaiea niinianoaoao ?inoo o?oaeiaie aeoeaiinoe
?aaioieeia e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

4.2 Aiaeec cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e naaanoieiinoue iieiea.

Iiauoaiea yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea ia iniiaa
oaaee/aiey auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee, i?e oiaiueoaiee cao?ao a ?an/aoa ia
aaeeieoeo, yaeyaony iaeiie ec iiiai/eneaiiuo caaea/ , iinoaaeaiiuo
ia?aae naeueneei oicyenoaii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaaeiui iieacaoaeai
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea , yaeyaony o?iaaiue aai
?aioaaaeueiinoe. Anee ia aoaeao nieaeaia naaanoieiinoue iieiea, oi
aeaaea aunieea oeaiu ?aaeecaoeee ia niiaoo iaania/eoue cia/eoaeueiiai
?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. *ai ieaea naaanoieiinoue , oai
aieueoa i?aaei?eyoea iieo/aao i?eauee e oai cia/eoaeueiaa n?aaenoaa,
eioi?uie iia ?aniieaaaao , aeey inouanoaeaiey ?anoe?aiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 15

Aeeyiea eciaiaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo e cao?ao ia niaea?aeaiea
iaeiie aieiau , ia naaanoieiinoue 1 oeaioia?a iieiea.

AiaeuCao?aou ia 1 aieiao,

oun.?oa.I?iaeoeoeaiinoue, oe.Naaanoieiinoue 1 oe. Iieiea,
oun.?oa.Ioeeiiaiey, ( +;-)

————————–

a o./. ca n/ao eciaiaiey

i?iaiic

oaeo

i?iaiic

oaeo

i?ia-iic

oaeoi?e i?iaiice?iaaiiuo cao?aoao oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoeANAAIi?iaeoeoeaiinoecao?ao ia 1 oe.
iieiea1993109.7232.234.333.43.26.93.23.703.719947631
01335.036.3321.827.821.06-0.86.819952 4763
06636.035.8197.085.669.1-11.39-27.916.519967 5414
68835.036.14193.0129.7208.6-63.315.6-78.919977 6405
99336.034.56194.0173.4221.06-20.616.4-37

Auyaeoue i?e/eiu ioeeiiaiey oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe io i?iaiice?oaiie
ca ?yae eao iiiiaeao i?eai yeeeoeie?iaaiey iooai oeaiiuo iiaenoaiiaie.
Anee ?anniio?aoue ieaiiaua iieacaoaee e oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua , oi iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi IIO “Ieineia” i?eaea?aeeaaaony ieaia e
ia?aauiieiyao iaeioi?ua iieacaoaee.

A oicyenoaa oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue iieiea ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae
auea ieaea ieaiiaie , oaeaea eae e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ca yoe aiaeu.

Oae a 1997 aiaeo nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe iauyniyaony nieaeaieai cao?ao
ia 37 % . A 1995 aiaeo ca n/ao oaaee/aiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo ia
27.9 % i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe 1 oeaioia?a iieiea ia 11.39
%.

Oaaee/aiea aea naaanoieiinoe iieiea a 1993 aiaeo e 1994 aiaeo
iauyniyaony aic?inoeie cao?aoaie ia iaeio aieiao. A eoiaa iiaeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi ia naaanoieiinoue 1 oeaioia?a iieiea ieacuaatho aeeyiea e
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ei?ia e cao?aou ia iaeio aieiao.

Aeey iaoiaeaeaiey ?aca?aia nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe iieiea eae iieacaoaey
cao?ao ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee , ioaeii i?iaiaeeoue iia?aoeaiue
eiio?ieue ca cao?aoaie. I?e yoii aaaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eciaiaiey ii
eaaeaeie noaouea cao?ao, onoaiiaeoue i?e/eiu, eioi?ua aucaaee oaaee/aiea
?acia?a aeioiaeia ii yoie eee eiie noaouea cao?ao , iauaeoeaii
ioeaieaaoue oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia e i?eieiaoue
niioaaonoaothuea ia?u e eo nieaeaieth.

Oaaeeoea 16

Aiaeec cao?ao ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea.

Noaouee cao?aoCao?aou ia 1 oe. iieiea, oun.?oa.

———————————————-

1997 aiae

———————————–

1996aiae ieai oaeo ioeeiia

iey +;-Cao?aou n io/eneaieyie ia nioeeaeueiua
ioaeaeu22.125.529.4+3.9Ei?ia80.1107.3107.0-11.7Cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa3.416.24.5+11.7?aaiou e oneoae10.122.413.4-9Cao?aou ii
i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaieth1114.914.7-0.2I?i/ea cao?aou37.14.4-2.7Anaai
cao?ao129.7193.4173.4-2.0

A 1997 aiaeo cao?aou ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea aic?inee ii n?aaiaieth n 1996
aiaeii a 1.3 ?aca ii anai noaoueyi cao?ao.

Caieaie?iaaee a 1997 aiaeo iaiiiai aieueoa, /ai oaeoe/anee auei
cao?a/aii ia i?iecaiaenoai 1 oeaioia?a iieiea, iiyoiio iieacaoaee ii
anai noaoueyi cao?ao ieaea ieaiiauo a 1.1 ?aca.

I?i/ea cao?aou 2.44%

Cao?aou ia IO n

io/eneaieyie 17 %

Ei?ia 61.7 %

Cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea

iniiaiuo n?aaenoa 2.6 %

?aaiou e oneoae 7.78 %

Cao?aou ia i?aaiecaoeeth

e oi?aaeaiea 8.48 %

Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai

1 oeaioia?a iieiea, oun.?oa. 173.4 eee 100 %

?en.3 No?oeoo?a cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai 1oeaioia?a iieiea.

Eae aeaeii ia ?enoiea 3, iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan a no?oeoo?a cao?ao
caieiatho ei?ia a 1996 e 1997 aiaeao – 61.7 % . Aoi?ia ianoi caieiaao
oaeay noaouey cao?ao, eae iieaoa o?oaea n io/eneaieyie a 1996 e 1997
aiaeao – 17.3 %, caoai ?aaiou e oneoae, a oaeaea cao?aou ia
i?aaiecaoeeth e oi?aaeaiea , Cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
caieiatho iaeiaiueoee oaeaeueiue aan a no?oeoo?a cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai
1 oeaioia?a iieiea. A i?aaeaeao 2 % .

Oaaeeoea 17

Aiaeec ioaeaeueiuo noaoae cao?ao ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea.

Iieacaoaee1997 aiae

———————————————-

ieai oaeo Ioeeiia

iea, +;- Ca?aaioiay ieeoa n io/eneaieyie,
oun.?oa25.529.4-3.9Cao?aou o?oaea, /aeiaaei-/ania5.65.20.4Iieaoa o?oaea
n ia/eneaieyie 1 /aeiaaei-/ana,oun.?oa.

4.5

4.8-0.3Ei?ia. oun.?oa.107.31070.3?anoiae ei?iia ,
oe.e.aae.1.31.36-0.06Naaanoieiinoue 1 oe.e.aae.,
oun.?oa.82.591.79-9.29Iieaoa o?oaea n ia/eneaieyie 1 /aeiaaei-/ana a
1997 aiaeoninoaaeea 4.8 oun.?oa. , /oi aieueoa ieaiiaie aaee/eiu ia 0.3
oun.?oa. A 1997 aiaeo i?iecioei aieueoaa ?anoiaeiaaiea oeaioia?ia
ei?iiauo aaeeieoe ia i?iecaiaenoai 1 oeaioia?a iieiea , a n?aaiaiee n
ieaiii ia 0.06oe.e.aae.. Naaanoieiinoue 1 oe.e.aae. oaeoe/anee auea
auoa, /ai caieaie?iaaia- ia 9.29 oun.?oa.

Aeey nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe iieiea, aaaeii nieaeaoue o?oaeiaieinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia aeiioneaoue ia?a?anoiaea ei?iia ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea,
a oaeaea i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec ae?oaeo noaoae cao?ao a oa/aiea aiaea .

4.3 Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea e ?aca?au aa
iiauoaiey.

Ia noaaeee ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee caaa?oaaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
i?ioeann, ii?aaeaeyaony aai ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue. Aaaeii ia oieueei
i?iecaanoe ioiineoaeueii aeaoaaoth naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth,
ii e auaiaeii aa i?iaeaoue. Yoi iaycuaaao inouanoaeyoue eiiia?/aneee
iiaeoiae e i?iecaiaenoao e oi?aiaea, oi anoue e onoaiiaeaieth
iaiaoiaeeiie acaeiinayce ieaia n ?uieii, eco/aieth ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey . Eaaeaeia naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea a i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee aeieaeii no?aieony e aiciauaieth cao?ao e iieo/aieth
i?eauee. A IIO” Ieineia” ia i?ioyaeaiee 1993 – 1997 aiaeia i?ienoiaeeei
nieaeaiea eiee/anoaa ?aaeeciaaiiiai iieiea, oae eae nie?aoeeinue aaeiaia
i?iecaiaenoai. Eiee/anoai ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee iaoiaeeony a i?yiie
caaeneiinoe io aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai

e ?aaeecaoeey iieiea , oe.

24 500

24 000

23 500

23 000

22 500

22 000

21 500

21 000

20 500

20 000

___________________________________________________

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Aiaeu

Aeeaa?aiia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee iieiea.

Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey: i?iecaaaeaii iieiea ?aaeeciaaii iieiea

Eae aeaeii ia ?enoiea, a IIO “Ieineia” ?aaeecoaony 91-94 %
i?iecaaaeaiiiai iieiea, inoaeueiay /anoue eaeao ?aaioieeai a n/ao iieaou
o?oaea, a oaeaea ia auiieeo oaeyoai. ?aaeecoaony iieiei caaioiaeoaeueiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi , a o./. Eino?iineiio iiei/iiio eiiaeiaoo.

Ia oiaa?iinoue iieiea, iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea ieacuaaao ea/anoai
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee : niaea?aeaiea aaeea, aee?a, eeneioiinoe,
aaeoa?eaeueiie ianaiaiaiiinoe, iaoaie/aneie cani?aiiinoe , ni?oai,
aaniethoiui auoiaeii ianea e aaeea, iaee/eai eiaeae?othueo e
iaeo?aeecothueo aauanoa.

Oaaeeoea 18

Aeeyiea ea/anoaa iieiea, ?aaeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noao, ia yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aiaeu?aaeeciaaii, oe.

———————-

a iaoo?a a ca/ao-

iie iannaIoeeiia-iey , +;-N?aaeiyy oeaia ?aaeecaoeee,
oun.?oa.Auaiaea, oun.?oa.199317 19617 6074415.02 055.0199419 52820
44992124.022 104199518 11218 80068897.767 217199618 39419 092698106.474
267199718 81819 514696122.2685 092

A IIO “Ieineia” iieiei i?iecaiaeeony oi?ioaai ea/anoaa, oae eae ca/aoiay
ianna auoa iaoo?aeueiie. A nayce n yoei oaaee/eaaaony au?o/ea.

*aua anaai IIO “Ieineia” ?aaeecoao iieiei aee?iinoueth 3.7 % ,i?e
aaceniie – 3.6 %.

Ea/anoai iieiea nicaeaaony a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, a o/eouaaaony
oieueei i?e ?aaeecaoeee e iio?aaeaiee . Oicyenoai ia eiaao iiea
aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey ea/anoaa anae i?iecaiaeeiie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi nicaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe
a auyaeaiee i?e/ei e oaeoi?ia, io?eoeaoaeueii aeeythueo ia ea/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee.

A nayce n oai, /oi oeaia ?aaeecaoeee caaeneo io ea/anoaa iieiea, oi aeey
iieo/aiey aieueoie aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee, aaaeii iiauoaoue ea/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iai?aaeaia ia aeinoeaeaiea ?aioaaaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. ?aioaaaeueiinoue yaeyaony, oa?aeoa?ecothuei yeiiiie/aneei
iieacaoaeai ii?aaeaeythuei yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa. A iai
io?aaeathony ?acoeueoaou cao?ao ia oieueei aeeaiai e i?ioeiai o?oaea, ii
e ea/anoai ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee, o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee, i?iecaiaenoaa
e oi?aaeaiey.

A IIO “Ieineia” i?iecaiaenoai iieiea yaeyaony yeiiiie/anee iaauaiaeiui.
Anee a 1995 aiaeo auea iieo/aia i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee iieiea, oi a
inoaeueiuo aiaeao, a nayce n o?oaeiui oeiainiaui iieiaeaieai , oicyenoai
ia/eiaao iieo/aoue oauoie. Eae iieacuaaao i?aaeuaeouay oaaeeoea, oeaiu
?aaeecaoeee ia iie?uaatho aeiaeaiiua a i?iecaiaenoai iieiea cao?aou, e
oiio aea e eiee/anoai ?aaeeciaaiiiai iieiea, aneaaenoaea nieaeaiey
aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa oiaiueoeeinue.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea a
oicyenoaa aaaeii ecuneeaaoue aioo?aiiea ?aca?au nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe
e oaaee/aiea aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea yaeyaony
?ino i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia, auiieiaiea ieaia ii n?aaeiaaiaeiaiio
i?iaeoeoeaiiio iiaieiaueth , ia aeiiouaiea iioa?ue io iaaeaaea e
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ei?ia i?e niaea?aeaiee. Oaeaea ?ino
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iiaeao auoue aeinoeaioo ca n/ao iaaeiiouaiey iioa?ue
ec-ca yeiainoe iaoi/iiai iiaieiauey, iaania/aiey auiieiaiey ieaia ii
ii?iaeiinoe neioa e oeo/oaiey niaea?aeaiey aeeaioiuo.

Iaeiei ec iieacaoaeae i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iiei/iiai noaaea yaeyaony auoiae
oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia e oaeie noa?oa 2-o eao ia eiiaoe aiaea.

Oaaeeoea 21

Aeaeiaie i?eieiae a oicyenoaa ca 1997 aiae, aieia.

IieacaoaeeIi oicyenoaoIiaieiauea ei?ia e oaeie noa?oa 2 eao

oaeo

ieai

802

___________

812Aeaeiaie i?eieiae

oaeo

ieai

793

___________

700Auoiae oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia e oaeie noa?oa 2-o eao, aieia

oaeo

ieai

98.9

___________

90Auiieiaiea ieaia- i?iaiica , % .100

A IIO “Ieineia” ia eiiaoe 1997 aiaea auei 802 aieiau ei?ia e oaeie
noa?oa 2-o eao, ec ieo yeiauo 16 aieia, /oi ninoaaeei 2% . Ii?aaeaeei
iioa?e iieiea io niaea?aeaiey 16 aieia yeiauo ei?ia. Aeey yoiai
n?aaeiaaiaeiaie oaeie io iaeiie ei?iau oiiiaeaai ia i?ioeaio nieaeaiey
oaeiy yeiauo ei?ia , ia eo eiee/anoai.

Ciay ,/oi yeiainoue ei?ia aaaeao e nieaeaieth oaeiy ia 30-50 % ,
aicueiai aeey iiaen/aoa n?aaeithth aaee/eio. Oiaaea iioa?e io 16 ei?ia
ninoaayo :

(3 456 * 40% )*16 = 1 382,4 * 16=22 118,4 ea.

Ae?oaei ?aca?aii a oicyenoaa iiaeii iacaaoue ?ino i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
iiaieiauey aei o?iaiy aeinoeaiooiai ia?aaeiaie oa?iie. Oae a 1997 aiaeo
iaeaieueoee aiaeiaie oaeie io 1 ei?iau ia 1 aeai?a 3 724 ea. Oiaaea
?aca?a oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea aoaeao ?aaai 3 945 ea. – 3 529
ea. * 300 aieia = 1 248,0 oe. Neaaeothuei ?aca?aii yaeyaony yeiiiiiia
?anoiaeiaaiea ea/anoaaiiuo ei?iia.

Oaaeeoea 22

?aca?a oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea ca n/ao yeiiiiiiai eniieueciaaiey
ei?iia.

IieacaoaeeIi oicyenoao1.Aaeiaue iaaeie , oe.217412.?anoiae ei?iia,
oe.e.aae.

2.1 Ii ieaio ia 1 oe. Iieiea

2.2 Ii ieaiiaui ii?iai ia oaeoe/anee iieo/aiioth i?iaeoeoeeth ( 1*2.1 )

2.3 Oaeoe/anee ia 1 oe. iieiea

2.4 Oaeoe/anee ia anth i?iaeoeoeeth

1.33

28 915

1.36

29 5433. Ioeeiiaiea io ieaia ?anoiaea ei?iia , anaai, oe.e.aae.

( 2.4 – 2.2 )6284. ?aca?a oaaee/aiey i?iaeoeoeee, oe. ( 4 / 2.1)472

Ca n/ao aieaa yeiiiiiiai eniieueciaaiey ei?iia iiaeii iieo/eoue
aeiiieieoaeueii 2 919 oeaioia?ia iieiea.

Oaaeeoea 23

Iaiauaiea aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Aeaeu ?aca?aia Eiee/anoai, oe.Oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea ca n/ao :

_______________________________________________________

1. ?inoa i?iaeoeoeaiinoe

a) io iaaeiiouaiey yeiainoe iaoi/iiai iiaieiauey

a) aei o?iaiy ia?aaeiaie oa?iu

221.2

1 248.0 2. yeiiiiiiai ?anoiaeiaaiey ei?iia

Anaai ?aca?aia, oe.

Oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaii iieiea, oe.

Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea + ?aca?a, oe.

Oaiiu ?inoa ?aca?aa aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee , %472

1 941.2

21 741

23 682,2

17.3

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea a IIO
“Ieineia” aiciiaeii oaaee/eoue aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai ca n/ao aioo?aiieo
?aca?aia , a eiaiii : yeiiiiiiai ?anoiaeiaaiey ei?iia e ?inoa
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo. Ca n/ao yoeo ?aca?aia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea
iiauneony ia 5 091,8 oeaioia?ia.

Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

I?aaeeueiay i?aaiecaoeey e o/ao i?iaeoeoeee iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa
eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea a oicyenoaaiiie e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. No?iaeaeoaa niaethaeaiea aeiaiai?iie
aeenoeeieeiu, i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaiiue o/ao i?iaeoeoeee o?aaoao
iinoiyiiiai oi/iiai oeene?iaaiey. ?aoaoue yoe aii?inu i?aaenoieo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyi naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Iaeiei ec e?oiiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee a Eino?iineie iaeanoe yaeyaony IIO “Ieineia” . Oicyenoai
niaoeeaeece?oaony ia i?iecaiaenoaa naiaiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee. Iii
iaeaaeaao iiuiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aacie , yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeoueo
oicyenoa iaeanoe.

Ca iineaaeiea ianeieueei eao oicyenoai iieo/eei oauoee, o.e. iieo/aaiay
io ?aaeecaoeee aeaiaaeiay au?o/ea ia iiaeao iie?uoue cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai. Aieueooth /anoue oauoeia oicyenoai iieo/aao io io?anee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Oae a 1997 aiaeo oauoie ninoaaee 54 iei. ?oaeae.

Aeey oeo/oaiey iieacaoaeae oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao aooaaeoa?neee o/ao. A oeaeii ii
ioaa/aao i?aaeuyaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi , ii eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeaiiua
o?aoae aeaau, eiaaony ?yae iaaeinoaoeia:

– ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou caiieiythony n iaoi/iinoyie, eni?aaeaieyie, ia
anaaaea i?inoaaeaiu iiaeiene ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe;

– ia anaaaea auiieiyaony a?aoee aeieoiaioiiai?ioa;

Aeey eeeaeaeaoeee oeacaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia i?aaeeaaaaony iaycaoue
?aaioieeia aooaaeoa?ee:

1) Oneeeoue eiio?ieue ca aaaeaieai ia?ae/iiai e naiaeiiai o/aoa .

2) Auiieiyoue a?aoee aeieoiaioiiai?ioa .

Aiaeec, i?aaenoaaeaiiue a aeeieiiiie ?aaioa iieacae, /oi i?iecaiaenoai
iieiea a IIO”Ieineia” yaeyaony yeiiiie/anee ia auaiaeiui . Oeaiu
?aaeecaoeee ia iie?uaatho aeiaeaiiua a i?iecaiaenoai iieiea cao?aou.
Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea a
oicyenoaa aaaeii ecuneaoue aioo?aiiea ?aca?au nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe e
oaaee/aiey aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, oe?aieaiea ei?iiaie aacu.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea yaeyaony
?ino i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia, auiieiaiea ieaia ii n?aaeiaaiaeiaiio
i?iaeoeoeaiiio iiaieiaueth, iaaeiiouaiea iioa?ue io iaaeaaea e
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ei?ia i?e niaea?aeaiee . Oaeaea ?ino
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iiaeao auoue aeinoeaioo ca n/ao iaaeiiouaiey iioa?ue
ec-ca yeiainoe iaoi/iiai iiaieiauey , iaania/aiea auiieiaiey ieaia ii
ii?iaeiinoe neioa e oeo/oaiey niaea?aeaiey aeeaioiuo. Iaiaoiaeeii
iiauneoue auoiae oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia e eo nio?aiaiea

Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee nienie.

1. Eaaaioei Ae. “Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey neioiaiaenoaa ?innee ”

//Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai ? 6 1997 aiae.

2. *ioaoa?eaee A. “Ioaeii ee iai aieueoa ei?ia ? ”

//Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai ?6 1997aiae.

3. Aeoaei I.I. , Oaaoeia ?.I. “Yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea”

// Iineaa Ieaa ?innee 1992 aiae.

4.A?eai?ueaa TH. , Iio?aaiye A. “Io/aai caaeneo i?iaeoeoeaiia
aeieaieaoea ei?ia” // Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997aiae ? 1.

5. Aeia?iaieueneee A. “Aeeyiea aic?anoa ia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ei?ia ”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997 aiae ? 4.

6. A?oeiia A. , Aeoeueiaa A. “I oeiao e ?aoeeiiao ei?ieaiey neioa ”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997 aiae ? 1.

7. Aeia?iaieueneee A. , Oaaei?yea A. “I?iaiice?iaaiea iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoea iinoe ei?ia ii oaeith i?aaeeia”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997 aiae ? 5.

8. Aaiieeia A.I. , Aaeoeei A.A. , ?ooaiia A.E. “Iniiau yeieiaee e io?aiu

ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu”

// Iineaa “Eiein” 1996 aiae .

9. Ei?yeeia E. “Aeeyiea yeieiaee ia caaieaaaaiinoue neioa eaeeicii”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997 aiae ? 2.

10. Niaaoyi A. “Eiio?ieue eiioeaio?aoeee ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a ei?iao e
aiayaee-

ia” // Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1996 aiae ? 2

11. Ayecaiai A. , Naaei A. “Ianei eueiyiia – eo/oaa n?aaenoai aeey
auaaaeaiey

?aaeeiioeeeaeia ec i?aaiecia ei?ia”

// Iyniia e iiei/iia neioiaiaenoai 1997 ? 1.

12. ” Aeieeaae i ninoiyiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu Eino?iineie iaeanoe a
1996

aiaeo“

// Eino?iia 1997 aiae. Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae

n?aaeu Eino?iineie iaeanoe.

13.Aaaeuiaeeeia E. “Eioaineoeeaoeey e yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?i

ecaiaenoaa iieiea”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1991 aiae ?1.

14. Aeai?ia ?.A. “Ioeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania e nieaeaiea naaanoie

iinoe i?iaeoeoeee a oneiaeyo ?uiea”.

// Yeiiiieea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoee

1991 aiae ? 1.

15. Aa?ooiia O.A. “Oeaiu ia iieiei i?e ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo”

//Aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee 1994 aiae ? 2-3.

16.Aaeiaaeaoeeee E.A. “Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa : aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e
aoaeeo”

// Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao 1994 aiae ? 2.

17.Aaeiaaeaoeeee O.A. “AEeaioiiaiaenoai a ?innee a 1996 aiaeo”

// Yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?innee 1997 aiae ? 2.

18.Aieiaaiia A.A. “O/ao cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai , aeioiaeia e oeiainiauo
?a

coeueoaoia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee ”

// Yeiiiieea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoee

1993 aiae ?4.

19.Aieiaaiia A.A. “O/ao ia i?aaei?eyoeyo AIE”

// Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao 1996 aiae ? 5.

20. Aeoaea?aa N.A. “I niaa?oainoaiaaiee o/aoa cao?ao”

// Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao 1993 aiae ? 12.

21.Caaai?iaeiee A.E. , Iieioaaa O.A. “Aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe

naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee”

// Iineaa Aa?ii?iiecaeao 1987 aiae.

22.Cioia A.E. e ae?oaea “Io?aia o?oaea a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa”

// Iineaa 1991 aiae.

23. Aaeeaiia I.E. Oa?aiao A.Ae. “Oai?ey yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca” 1995
aiae.

24.Niaeaeia E.A. I?aaaneay A.A. “Aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
naeue

neioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee” 1991 aiae

25. Iecaiaieueoe I.C. Aa?iaa A.I. Aanueeei O.E. “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a
naeuen

eii oicyenoaa”// Iineaa “Eiein” 1994 aiae

NI?AAEA ? 1.

Nienaiea eaeueeoeyoeeiiiuo ?acieoe ii eaiaeai eniieueciaaiey .

IAEIAIIAAIEA I?I-

AeOEOeEE.Iieiei

(oeaioia?)I?eieiae (aieia)Iaaic(oi.) EOIAI

E?AAeEO 20

Auoiae i?iaeoeoeee

2 174

709

Ieaiiaay naaanoieiinoue:

– aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee

————————————————

– anae i?iaeoeoeee

1.84

—————-

4 000

662

—————-

469 358

—————-

—————Oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue:

– aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee

————————————————-

– anae i?iaeoeoeee

1.73

—————-

3 761

591

—————-

416 064

—————-

—————Eaeueeoeyoeeiiiay ?acieoea iaaeaeo ieaiiaie e oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoueth:

– aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee

————————————————-

– anae i?iaeoeoeee

[0.11]

—————-

239

[7.1]

—————-

53 294

—————-

—————Eaiaeu eniieueciaaiey

AeAAAO 46 : ?aaeecaoeey ainoaea?noao

– eiee/anoai

——————————————-

– noiia

400

—————-

[44.00]

—————-

—————-

—————AeAAAO 46 : Naiei ?aai/ei

– eiee/anoai

——————————————-

– noiia

65

—————-

[7.15]

—————-

—————-

—————AeAAAO 46 : ?uiie

– eiee/anoai

——————————————-

– noiia

1 709

—————-

187.99

—————-

—————-

—————AeAAAO 11: I?eieiae

– eiee/anoai

——————————————-

– noiia

—————–

709

—————-[ 71 ]

—————-

—————

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