.

Совершенствование учета и анализа использования сырья и материалов в производстве

Язык: русский
Формат: дипломна
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 4729
Скачать документ

Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Oaa?neie ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

Yeiiiie/aneee oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

Ea?ouoiaa Ia?eia Aaea?ueaaia

Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

ia oaio “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa e aiaeeca eniieueciaaiey

nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa

(ia i?eia?a aeayoaeueiinoe AIIO Oaa?ueoeaai?ii

Oeeeae Eiiaeianeee Oeaaieiiaeiao)

Auiieieea
nooaeaioea

3-ai eo?na

(ICI) ioaeaeaiey

yeiiiie/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

niaoeeaeueiinoe
060500

“Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, aiaeec

e aoaeeo”

Iao/iue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue

noa?oee
i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

eaoaae?u aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

Oaaei?iaa O.I.

?aaioa aeiiouaia

e caueoa__________

(aeaoa)

Caa. eaoaae?ie

aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
________ A?ooei A.N.

(iiaeienue)

Oaa?ue 2001

Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Oaa?neie ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

Yeiiiie/aneee oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

Iiaeeiaa Ethaeieea Aeaaeeie?iaia

Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

ia oaio “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa e aiaeeca eniieueciaaiey

nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa

(ia i?eia?a aeayoaeueiinoe AIIO Oaa?ueoeaai?ii

Oeeeae Eiiaeianeee Oeaaieiiaeiao)

Auiieieea
nooaeaioea

3-ai eo?na

(ICI) ioaeaeaiey

yeiiiie/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

niaoeeaeueiinoe
060500

“Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, aiaeec

e aoaeeo”

Iao/iue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue

noa?oee
i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

eaoaae?u aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

Oaaei?iaa O.I.

?aaioa aeiiouaia

e caueoa__________

(aeaoa)

Caa. eaoaae?ie

aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
________ A?ooei A.N.

(iiaeienue)

Oaa?ue 2001

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea…………………………………………………………………

Aeaaa I. IIIssOEA E NINOAA NU?Uess E IAOA?EAEIA………..

1.1. Iiiyoea e eeanneoeeaoeey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e eo ?ieue…

1.2. Iaoiaeu ioeaiee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, nienuaaaiuo a

i?iecaiaenoai…………………………………………………

1.3. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe

eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia………………………..

1.4. Eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a

i?iecaiaenoaa…………………………………………………

Aeaaa II. I?AAIECAOeEss O*AOA NU?Uess E IAOA?EAEIA A
I?IECAIAeNOAA………………………………………….

2.1. Aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea ii aeaeaeaieth nu?uey e

iaoa?eaeia…………………………………………………

2.2. I?aaiecaoeey neeaaeneiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia……………..

2.3. O/ao iia?aoeee ii i?eia?aoaieth, caaioiaeaieth e

iinooieaieth iaoa?eaeia………………………………….

2.4. Eiaaioa?ecaoeey iaoa?eaeia………………………………

2.5. I?aaiecaoeey iia?aoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia..

Aeaaa III. AIAEEC YOOAEOEAIINOE ENIIEUeCIAAIEss

NU?Uess E IAOA?EAEIA A I?IECAIAeNOAA…………

3.1. Caaea/e aiaeeca, enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee………………….

3.2. Aiaeec iaania/aiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey nu?ueai e

iaoa?eaeaie…………………………………………………

3.3. Nenoaia iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey

nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa……………………….

3.4. Aiaeec ninoiyiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia……………………

3.5. Aiaeec iieacaoaeae eniieueciaaiey iaoa?. ?ano?nia…….

3.6. Aiaeec ?anoiaea nu?uey ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee………

Caeeth/aiea………………………………………………………………

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u…………………………………..

Aaaaeaiea

Nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu ninoaaeytho cia/eoaeueioth /anoue cao?ao i?aaei?eyoey
a naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Iiyoiio iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eo
eniieueciaaiey yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia nieaeaiey
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e ?inoa i?eauee. ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony iinoaiiaeie aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa e i?aaiecaoeee aiaeeoe/aneeo ?aaio, /oi a oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey
?uii/iie yeiiiieee o?aaoaony iniaiai iniuneaiey. A nayce n i?eaeeaeaieai
o/aoa e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai, ?ieue e cia/aiea o/aoa iaoa?eaeia
e nu?uey o?oaeii ia?aioeaieoue, a ianoaeaeaiea aeooaeueiuo i?iaeai o/aoa
aanueia naiaa?aiaiii. Yoio oaeo i?eaeaao aieueoia cia/aiea o/aoo e
aiaeeco ii nu?ueth e iaoa?eaeai e iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae ia
aeooaeueiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eco/aiey e enneaaeiaaiey aeaiiie oaiu a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiee ianoiyuae aeeieiiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony Aeoeeiia?iia
iauanoai ioe?uoiai oeia “Oaa?ueoeaai?ii” Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao
(aeaeaa ii oaenoo AIIO “Oaa?ueoeaai?ii Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao)

AIIO “Oaa?ueoeaai?ii” Oeeeae Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao ioiineony e
i?aaei?eyoeyi ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oeaaiiaea?iie io?anee e caieiaaony
i?iecaiaenoaii oeaaiaoei/iuo e io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee e auiieiyao
caaea/o ii au?aaioea aeey ianaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

I?aaei?eyoea ?acoeueoaoii naiae aeayoaeueiinoe aeaeeo iieo/aiea
iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee. Oaeoi?ii ?inoa eioi?ie yaeyaony iiaay
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey e niaaaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie.
Iiyoiio a aeaiiie aeeieiiiie ?aaioa iinoaaeaiu neaaeothuea caaea/e:

?anniio?aoue ?ieue nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa;

?anniio?aoue i?aeoeeo aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey e aaaeaiey o/aoa
iinooieaiey e ioionea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia;

niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeia eiio?iey ca eo eniieueciaaieai;

?anniio?aoue iaoiaeieiaeth i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeca nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e
inouanoaeoue aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ia
i?aeoeea oeaaieiiaeiaoa;

?ac?aaioaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e aianoe i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
o/aoa nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e eiio?ieue ca eo eniieueciaaieai.

Aanue niaeoi? yoeo aii?inia e i?iaeai aeaeaao oaio aeeieiiiie ?aaiou
aanueia aeooaeueiie.

Iniaaiiinoue aeaiiie ?aaiou a oii, /oi aua?aiiue iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey
?anniao?eaaaony n ?aciuo iiceoeee:

n iiceoeee o/aoa;

n iiceoeee aiaeeca i?iaaaeaiey eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

I?e iaienaiee aeeieiiiie ?aaiou eniieueciaaeanue eeoa?aoo?a, iinayuaiiay
aii?inai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aiaeeca, a oaeaea oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua
AIIO “Oaa?ueoeaai?ii Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao”

Aeaaa I. IIIssOEA E NINOAA NU?Uess E IAOA?EAEIA.

1.1. Iiiyoea e eeanneoeeaoeey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e eo ?ieue.

Nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaaeiaeoee yeaiaio
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania. Nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu – yoi oa i?aaeiaou o?oaea,
ec eioi?uo ecaioiaeytho i?iaeoeo. Iaoa?eaeu, eniieuecoaiua a
i?iecaiaenoaa oneiaii aeaeyo ia iniiaiua e aniiiiaaoaeueiua. Yoi naycaii
n oai, /oi iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu ia?acotho iaoa?eaeueioth (aauanoaaiioth)
iniiao i?iaeoeoa, aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?iai eniieuecoaony.

Aniiiiaaoaeueiua, eae e iniiaiua, eee aauanoaaiiua aoiaeyo a ninoaa
au?aaaouaaaiiai i?iaeoeoa, ii a ioee/ee io iniiaiuo ia ia?acotho
iaoa?eaeueiie aai iniiau, aeiaaaeythony e iniiaiui iaoa?eaeai n oeaeueth
aucaaoue a ieo iaiaoiaeeiua ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey, eee aea ia aoiaeyo
aauanoaaiii a ecaioaaeeaaaiue i?iaeoeo, a iio?aaeythony n?aaenoaaie
o?oaea, eeai ?anoiaeothony aeey oeo/oaiee oneiaee o?oaea ( iai?eia?,
?aiiio e niaea?aeaiea caeaiey e iniiaiuo aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iiiauaiee).
Iaeiaei ia anaaaea aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu auaeaeytho a
naiinoiyoaeueioth a?oiio, /oi caaeneo io aeaea i?iecaiaenoaa. Oae,
iai?eia?, a iaeioi?uo io?aneyo iaoeiino?iaiey o?oaeii, a a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa iaaiciiaeii ?aca?aie/eoue iniiaiua e aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu.

Ia iaeioi?uo i?iecaiaenoaao ecaioiaeaiee i?iaeoeoeee ia?aaia n
iniiaiuie iaoa?eaeaie eniieuecothony iieoiiua ecaeaeey e iieooaa?eeaou.

Iieoiiua ecaeaeey e iieooaa?eeaou – yoi iaoa?eaeu, i?ioaaeoea
ii?aaeaeaiiua noaaeee ia?aaioee, ii ia yaeythueany aua aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeeae. Iie oaeaea ninoaaeytho iaoa?eaeueioth iniiao
au?aaaouaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. E yoie a?oiia ioiinyony, eae i?aaeei,
caaioiaee (iiaeaeei), iinoaaeyaiua ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, eioi?ua
eaeoo ia eiiieaeoiaaiea i?iaeoeoeee eee iiaeaa?aathony aeiiieieoaeueiie
ia?aaioea aeey iieo/aiey aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

Ec a?oiiu aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia a nayce n iniaaiiinoueth
eniieueciaaiey auaeaeytho oiieeai, oa?o e oa?iua iaoa?eaeu e ae.?.

Oiieeai iiae?acaeaeytho ia oaoiieiae/aneia (aeey oaoiieiae/aneeo
oeaeae), aeaeaaoaeueiia (ai?th/aa) e oicyenoaaiiia (ia ioiieaiea).

Oa?o e oa?iua iaoa?eaeu ninoaaeytho i?aaeiaou, eniieuecoaiua aeey
oiaeiaee, o?ainii?oe?iaee, o?aiaiey ?acee/iuo iaoa?eaeia e i?iaeoeoeee.
Oa?a e oiaeiai/iua iaoa?eaeu iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu eae iaeiie?aoii
(aoiaaa, ea?oii), oae e iiiaie?aoii (yueee, iaoee e ae?.).

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a iaeioi?uo i?iecaiaenoaao ia?acothony iooiaeu
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia – inoaoee enoiaeiiai nu?uey, eioi?ua oo?aoeee
iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii naia ia?aiia/aeueiia naienoai (ea/anoai) e ia
iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny ii i?yiiio iacia/aieth. Oaeea iooiaeu aeaeyony ia
aica?aoiua e aacaica?aoiua.

Aacaica?aoiuie iacuaatho iooiaeu, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
i?aaei?eyoeai eee ?aaeeciaaiu ia noi?iio. Aica?aoiua iooiaeu iaiaoiaeeii
ioeaieaaoue – yoi iicaieyao nieceoue cao?aou iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A
caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey oaeea iooiaeu ioeaieaathony ii-?aciiio.

Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea eiaao aieueoia eiee/anoai ?acee/iiai nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia, iiyoiio eo eeanneoeeaoeey ia iiaeao ia?aie/eaaoueny nenoaiie
n/aoia neioaoe/aneiai o/aoa. Iaiaoiaeeia aieaa aeaoaeueiay
eeanneoeeaoeey ia a?oiiu e iiaea?oiiu ii oaoie/aneei naienoaai eee
i?eciaeai. *enei a?oii e iiaea?oii ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec iiiaieeaoo?u
iaoa?eaeia e oa?aeoa?a ecaioiaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei a iniiao eo
aeieaeia auoue iieiaeaia a?oiie?iaea, i?eiyoay a noaoenoe/aneie
io/aoiinoe i aeaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeia.

Aioo?e eaaeaeie a?oiiu iaoa?eaeu iiae?acaeaeythony ii iaeiaiiaaieyi,
ni?oai, ?acia?ai.

Eaaeaeiio aeaeo iaoa?eaeia i?enaaeaaaony iiiaieeaoo?iue iiia? (oeo?),
eioi?ue aiineony a ia?a/aiue iacuaaaiue iiiaieeaoo?ie iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae, a oaeaea oeacuaaaony ia anao ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioao ii
aeaeaeaieth iaoa?eaeia.

Aeey nie?auaiey o/aoiie iiiaieeaoo?u iaoa?eaeia e oi?iuaiey o/aoa
iaeii?iaeiua e aeeceea ii naiei naienoaai iaoa?eaeu iiaoo iauaaeeiyoueny
a iaeei iiiaieeaoo?iue iiia?. Oeo?u no?iyo oae, /oiau ii iiiaieeaoo?iiio
iiia?o iiaeii auei ii?aaeaeeoue a?oiio iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea ae?oaea eo
i?eciaee.

Iiiaieeaoo?a-oeaiiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaiaoece?iaaiiue ni?aai/iee,
ioaaouaathuee ana iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe, iaoiaeyueany ia i?aaei?eyoee.
I?e aai ?ac?aaioea neaaeoao ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea ia i?aaeeueiinoue
iaeiaiiaaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e aaeeieoe ecia?aiey.

I?enaiaiiua iaoa?eaeai iiiaieeaoo?iua iiia?a a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea
oeacuaathony ai anao aeieoiaioao ii aeaeaeaieth nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, ia
iaoa?eaeueiuo y?eu/eao e ea?oi/eao neeaaeneiai o/aoa. Yoi iaeaa/aao
iineaaeothuoth ia?aaioeo aeieoiaioia e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao aicieeiiaaiea
ioeaie i?e ii?eoiaeiaaiee eee nienaiee iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey.

Eae ioia/aeinue, ?aciiia?acea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia caaeneo io aeaea
i?iecaiaenoaa.

AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao” ioiineony e i?aaei?eyoeyi
ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oeaaiiaea?iie iaeanoe. I?aaei?eyoea caieiaaony
i?iecaiaenoaii oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee e io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee
aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey. Yoiio niinianoaoao oeaeue
?yae ?aaio, naycaiiue n i?eia?aoaieai, o?aiaieai, ia?a?aaioeie nu?uey e
?aaeecaoeeae aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee iio?aaeoaeyi. I?aaei?eyoea
naiinoiyoaeueii ieaie?oao naith aeayoaeueiinoue e ii?aaeaeyao
ia?niaeoeau enoiaey ec ni?ina ia i?iecaiaenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth.

AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao” ?aniieiaeai a ciia
nin?aaeioi/aiey iio?aaeaiey, yoi iaoneaaeeaaaony oai, /oi oeaaiaoei/iua
e eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey yaeythony i?iaeoeoeeae iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina.
Oeaaiiaea?iia i?iecaiaenoai iniauaii nia?aiaiiui iai?oaeiaaieai,
iiaaeoeie oaoiieiaeyie, ?aniieaaathuaa iiuiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aacie.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann iineo ianniaue iai?a?uaiue oa?aeoa?, o.a.
i?iecaiaenoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony iinoiyinoaii no?oeoo?u i?ioeanna o?oaea,
ia ?aai/eo ianoao iiaoi?ythony iaeie e oa aea i?ioeannu o?oaea,
naycaiiua n ecaioiaeaieai iaeii?iaeiie i?iaeoeoeee, eniieueciaaiea
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Aeey oaeiai oeia i?iecaiaenoaa
oa?aeoa?iu aieueoie iauai i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aie/aiiay iiiaieeaoo?a
i?iaeoeoeee, aunieay noaiaiue iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee,
?eoie/iinoue e iioi/iinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, a i?aa?auaiea nu?uey a
i?iaeoeoeeth neeaaaony a aaeeiue ia?ac?uaiue i?ioeann. Oaeay
i?aaiecaoeey iicaieyao iieo/eoue i?iecaiaenoai n caeii/aiiui
oaoiieiae/aneei oeeeeii – io i?eaia nu?uey aei ioa?ocee aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee. Ia i?aaei?eyoee nicaeaia aaeeiay nenoaia iaania/aiey
ea/anoaa e eiio?iey ii anae oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ea – io ea/anoaa
iiaeaioiaeyaiiai e ia?a?aaioea nu?uey aei ea/anoaa aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

Niaieoiiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee (oeaoe, o/anoee, aaea
ecaioiaeyaony i?iaeoeoeey, neeaaeu, eaai?aoi?ee, ianoa?neea e ae?.) eo
eiee/anoai e ninoaa ii?aaeaeytho i?iecaiaenoaaiioth no?oeoo?o
i?aaei?eyoey.

Iniiaiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iiae?acaeaeaieai yaeyaony o/anoie. ?acee/atho
neaaeothuea aeaeu oeaoia: iniiaiie, aniiiiaaoaeueiue, ianeoaeeaathuee.

Iniiaiie – yoi oeao, aaea inouanoaeyaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann ii
i?aa?auaieth nu?uey eee iieooaa?eeaoa a aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth (ioee – a
oanoi, oanoi – a aioiaue oeaa eee ae?.) au?aaaouaatho i?iaeoeoeeth,
ii?aaeaeythuoth iniiaiia iacia/aiea i?aaei?eyoey.

Aniiiiaaoaeueiua oeaoe e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua o/anoee inouanoaeytho oaeoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay nicaeaao oneiaea aeey ii?iaeueiie yooaeoeaiie
?aaiou oeaoia e o/anoeia.

Ana i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioaeaeaiey ia oeaaiiaea?iii i?aaei?eyoee oanii
naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie. Nu?uea e iieooaa?eeaou ia?a?aaaouaathony a
aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth iooai iineaaeiaaoaeueiie eo ia?aaea/e n iaeiiai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/anoea ia ae?oaie.

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony iaee/ea
aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ia?aianoeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee e aioo?eoeaoiauo
ia?aiauaiee a?ocia nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a iniiaiii i?ieicaiaenoaa.

Iniiaiie i?ioeann oeaaiiaea?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia i?aaei?eyoee ninoieo
ec neaaeothueo noaaeee : iiaeaioiaea nu?uey e i?iecaiaenoao,
i?eaioiaeaiea iia?u, i?eaioiaeaiea oanoa, ?acaeaeea e oi?ie?iaaiea
oanoa, ?annoieea oanoiauo caaioiaie, auione aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeie
i?ioeann n/eoaaony iioi/iui.

A eaeueeoeyoeeiiiuo noaoueyo ec ninoaaa noaouee “Nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu” ec
auoaneacaiiiai ia oeaaicaaiaea auaeaeytho ioeo e naoa?, aeiiieieoaeueiia
nu?uea. Ana nu?uea a oeaaiia/aiee iiae?acaeaeytho ia iniiaiia e
aeiiieieoaeueiia. Ioaie/iay e ?aeaiay ioea ?aciuo ni?oia, naoa?
yaeythony ia AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa” iniiaiui nu?ueai,
eioi?ia caieiaao iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan a ninoaaa iaoa?eaeueiuo
cao?ao. N?aaee eniieuecoaiuo a aeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa neaaeoao ioiaoeoue
neaaeothuea ni?oa ioee: ?aeaiay iaaee?iay, ?aeaiay nayiay, iniaay, 1
ni?o, 2 ni?o, aunoee ni?o.

I/aiue aaaeiu oeaaiiaea?iua naienoaa ioee, iiae eioi?uie iiieiatho
niiniaiinoue ioee aeaaaoue oeaa e io/iua eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey oiai eee
eiiai ea/anoaa. Io oeaaiiaea?iuo naienoa ioee caaeneo ea/anoai
oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee, a eiaiii oaeea aai iieacaoaee, eae iauai, oi?ia
(iniaaiii iiaeiaiai), aeon e o.ae. A caaeneiinoe io oeaaiiaea?iuo
naienoa ioee onoaiaaeeaatho ia?aiao?u oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, a
oaeaea naienoaa ioee ii?aaeaeytho aeaaeiinoue oanoa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
oaeie aaaeiue yeiiiie/aneee iieacaoaeue ?aaiou oeaaicaaiaea, eae auoiae
i?iaeoeoeee.

E aeiiieieoaeueiiio nu?ueth ia “Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa” ioiinyo
aiaeo, ae?iaeaee, nieue, yeoea, i?iaeoeou, i?eaioiaeaiiua ec o?oeoia e
yaiae e ae?. Iiieii yoiai a iineaaeiea aiaeu oe?iei eniieuecothony
oeo/oeoaee – oa?iaioiua i?aia?aou, iiaa?oiinoii aeoeaiua aauanoaa. E
n?aaieoaeueii iiaui aeaeai nu?uey oaeaea iiaeii ioianoe iiei/ioth
nuai?ioeo, ?anoai? naoa?a, iiaua aee?iaua i?iaeoeou e oeo/oeoaee. Nu?uea
i?eiaiyaony ii ?aoeaioo?a aeey iiauoaiey ieuaaie oeaiiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, noaey ii oaeaeueiiio aano iniiaiiai nu?uey a iauae noiia
cao?ao, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi oeaaiiaea?iia i?iecaiaenoai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii naycaii n ioeiiieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth,
iaania/eaathuae iniiaiui nu?ueai – ioeie ?acee/iuo ni?oia e iiiieia. A
aeiiieieoaeueiia nu?uea oeaaieiiaeiao iieo/aao io i?aaei?eyoee naoa?iie,
ianeiaee?iaie, nieyiie, ae?iaeaeaaie e iiei/iie io?aneae.

I?aaei?eyoea iinoiyiii naycaii iinoaaeaie ?acee/iuo aeaeia nu?uey e oa?u
n i?aaei?eyoeyie eiuo niaaeiuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e eiaao
?acaaoaeaiiua o?ainii?oiua nayce n ieie, a oaeaea n iaaaceiaie ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee. Iniiaiua aeaeu a?ocia ia i?aaei?eyoea aeinoaaeythony
aaoio?ainii?oii, Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui aaoio?ainii?oii aeinoaaeyaony
oaeaea aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey a oi?aiaoth naoue.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee ana
nu?uea aeieaeii iaeaaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiuie ea/anoaaiiuie iieacaoaeyie,
ioia?aaeaiiuie a Ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaiaea?oao, oaoie/aneeo oneiaeyo e
ae?oaeo aeieoiaioao. Iiyoiio ia?aae ioioneii nu?uey oeaaieiiaeiaoo*
eaaeaeue iinoaauee i?iaiaeeo iaiaoiaeeioth eaai?aoi?ioth i?iaa?eo ia
ea/anoai.

E eniieuecoaiiio ia i?aaei?eyoee nu?ueth oaeaea ioiinyo aica?auaaioth ec
oi?aiaie naoe ia ia?a?aaioeo /a?noaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, eioi?ay
i?eoiaeoaony ia neeaae nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ii noieiinoe,
i?aaeoniio?aiiie a iniiaiuo oneiaeyo iinoaaee oeaaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e ?anniio?aiee ninoaaa nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aeaeii, /oi
iie eiatho cia/eoaeueiue oaeaeueiue aan ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie
noaoueyie, a?oiie?othony enoiaey ec iiiaieeaoo?u eniieuecoaiuo
iaoa?eaeia e niaoeeoeee i?aaei?eyoey, a oaeaea ninoaaeytho
iaoa?eaeueioth iniiao i?iaeoeoeee.

1.2. Iaoiaeu ioeaiee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, nienuaaaiuo a

i?iecaiaenoai.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea a o/aoa iaoa?eaeia eiaao eo ioeaiea. Nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu
a aaeaina o/eouaathony ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe. Oi?iaie cao?ao
ia i?eia?aoaiea iaoa?eaeia iiaoo auoue:

noiia, oiea/eaaaiay i?aaiecaoeeyi ca eioi?iaoeeiiiua e
eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae, naycaiiua n eo i?eia?aoaieai;

iaaiciauaaiua iaeiae, oiea/eaaaiua a nayce n i?eia?aoaieai aaeeieoeu
iaoa?eaeia;

aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, oiea/eaaaiua iin?aaeie/aneie i?aaiecaoeee;

cao?aou ii caaioiaea e aeinoaaea aei ianoa eo eniieueciaaiey,
aeeth/athony ?anoiaeu ii no?aoiaaieth;

cao?aou ii nicaeaieth caaioiaeoaeueii-neeaaeneiai aiia?aoa,
i?aaiecaoeee, cao?aou ia oneoae o?ainii?oa ii aeinoaaea iaoa?eaeia aei
ianoa eo eniieueciaaiey.

Ia aeeth/athony a oaeoe/aneea cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea iaoa?eaeia
iauaoicyenoaaiiua e aiaeiae/iua ?anoiaeu, e?iia neo/aaa, eiaaea iie
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n i?eia?aoaieai.

Oaeoe/anee naaanoieiinoue iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania,
aianaiiuo a n/ao aeeaaea a onoaaiie eaieoae i?aaiecaoeee, ii?aaeaeyaony
enoiaey ec aeaiaaeiie ioeaiee, niaeaniaaiiie o/?aaeeoaeueiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?eoaeueii caeiiii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee.

Oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue iaoa?eaeia, iieo/aiiuo
aacaiciacaeii, ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec eo ?uii/iie noieiinoe ia aeaoo
ii?eoiaeiaaiey.

Oaeoe/aneoth naaanoieiinoue iaoa?eaeia iiaeii ?anniio?aoue oieueei ii
ieii/aiee ianyoea, eiaaea aoaeoo neaaaaiua yoie naaanoieiinoe
(ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou iinoaaueeia iaoa?eaeia ei ca ia?aaiceo e i?i/ea
?anoiaeu). Aeaeaeaiea aea iaoa?eaeia i?ienoiaeeo a i?aaiecaoeeyo
aaeaaeiaaii e aeieoiaiou ia i?eoiae e ?anoiae iaoa?eaeia aeieaeiu
ioi?ieyoueny naiaa?aiaiii, ii ia?a niaa?oaiey iia?aoeee e iaoiaeeoue
io?aaeaiea a o/aoa. Iiyoiio iiyaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaoue a
oaeouai o/aoa oaa?aeua, ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiua oeaiu, iacuaaaiua o/aoiuie
eee iiaeao auoue ieaiiaua eee aeiaiai?iua oeaiu.

A neo/aa eniieueciaaiey a oaeouai o/aoa aeiaiai?iuo oeai ii ieii/aiee
ianyoea ?ann/eouaaaony noiia e i?ioeaio o?ainii?oii-caaioiaeoaeueiuo
?anoiaeia aeey aeiaaaeaiey eo aei oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe. I?e
eniieueciaaiee ieaiiauo oeai aaeaiany/ii ?anniao?eaaaony noiia e
i?ioeaio ioeeiiaiee oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe io ieaiiaie (yeiiiiey eee
ia?a?anoiae). Yoio iieacaoaeue i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue aeaoue
ioeaieo i?ioeanno caaioiaeaiey iaoa?eaeia. O?ainii?oii-caaioiaeoaeueiua
?anoiaeu eee ioeeiiaiey io ieaiiauo oeai ?ann/eouaathony ia ii
eaaeaeiio iiiaieeaoo?iiio iiia?o iaoa?eaea, a ii a?oiiai iaoa?eaeia
(iniiaiua, iieooaa?eeaou e o.ae.). Ca iniiao ?an/aoa aa?oony inoaoee
iaoa?eaeia ia ia/aei ianyoea e eo iinooieaiea ca io/aoiue ia?eiae.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue aaeeieoeu eaaeaeiai aeaea
iaoa?eaeia neeaaeuaaaony ec oeaiu e o?ainii?oii-caaioiaeoaeueiuo
?anoiaeia.

Ia AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeii* oeaaieiiaeiaoa” a oaeouai o/aoa iaoa?eaeu
o/eouaathony aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ii eiee/anoao e oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe eo i?eia?aoaiey e caaioiaeaiey.

Nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu ia?auathony ia n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a
aeaiaaeiie ioeaiea, eioi?ay oneiaeiyaony n ?acaeoeai ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee.
?uii/iua oeaiu iiaeaa?aeaiu eieaaaieyi, iie iaiythony. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iaiyaony e noieiinoue nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

Yoi io?aaeaaony ia aaee/eia iieacaoaeae naaanoieiinoe e i?eauee a
oaeouae ioeaiea. Iiyoiio n o/aoii neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee ia ?uiea, i?e
auai?a o/aoiie iieeoeee ia i?aaenoiyuee aiae, i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo
i?aaeoniio?aoue iaeei ec neaaeothueo iaoiaeia ioeaiee nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia, nienuaaaiuo a i?iecaiaenoai:

ii naaanoieiinoe eaaeaeie aaeeieoeu;

ii n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie naaanoieiinoe;

ii naaanoieiinoe ia?auo ii a?aiaie i?eia?aoaiee (iaoiae OEOI);

ii naaanoieiinoe iineaaeieo ii a?aiaie i?eia?aoaiey (iaoiae EEOI).

I?eiaiaiea iaeiiai ec iaoiaeia ii eiie?aoiiio iaeiaiiaaieth
i?iecaiaeeony a oa/aiee anaai io/aoiiai aiaea.

Eaaeaeue ec ia?a/eneaiiuo iaoiaeia eiaao naie aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee
e ia yaeyaony eaeaaeueiui. A oa/aiee aiaea i?aaei?eyoea ia iiaeao
i?iecaieueii iaiyoue ec eiiutheoo?iuo niia?aaeaiee n oeaeueth
ei??aeoe?iaee oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia aua?aiiie ei i?e i?eiyoee o/aoiie
iieeoeee ia i?aaenoiyuee aiae iaoiae ioeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania.

Iaoiae ioeaiee iaoa?eaeia ii oaeoe/aneie n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie
naaanoieiinoe yaeyaony o?aaeeoeeiiiuie aeey iaoae ioa/anoaaiiie o/aoiie
iieeoeee.

I?e ia?aoiaea ia i?aaiecaoeeth o/aoa a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony i?e nienaiee iaoa?eaeia
ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, ioeaieaaoue eo ii iaoiaeai OEOI e EEOI.
Ioeaiea iaoa?eaeia ii iaoiaeo OEOI e EEOI oa?aeoa?ia aeey no?ai n
?uii/iie ?acaeoie yeiiiieeie e a iaoae no?aia iiea ia iieo/eea oe?ieiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey aaeaeo ianoaaeeueiinoe ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee (?ac?aoaiu n
1995a.). Iiieii yoiai ?aaeecaoeey oeacaiiuo iaoiaeia ioeaiee iaoa?eaeia
a i?aeoeea ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee aiciiaeia eeoue a oneiaeyo
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee o/aoa aeaiiiai iauaeoa.

?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa auoaia?a/eneaiiua iaoiaeu ioeaiee nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia.

Iaoiae ioeaiee iaoa?eaeia ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe eaaeaeie
aaeeieoeu iaoa?eaeia.

Yoio iaoiae eniieuecoaony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ia i?aaei?eyoee eiathony
oaoie/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey o/aoa iieoiiuo oeai e
eiuo cao?ao ii eaaeaeiio eiie?aoiiio aeaeo iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea eiaaea
iaiaoiaeeii /aoei eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue e iaania/eoue eo oece/aneia e
noieiinoiia aeaeaeaiea io iiiaioa i?eia?aoaiey aei iiiaioa iio?aaeaiey.

A iniiaiii yoio iaoiae eniieuecoaony ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, i?iecaiaeyueo
aei?iainoiyuee oiaa? (iniaaiii yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey aaeeie/iuo
i?iecaiaenoa). Yoi aaeeinoaaiiue iaoiae, i?e eioi?ii io?aaeaaiue a
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa noieiinoiie iioie iieiinoueth niioaaonoaoao
oece/aneiio iioieo o/eouaaaiuo oeaiiinoae. Yoio iaoiae iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue naiui o?oaeiaieei.

Iaoiae ioeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania ii oaeoe/aneie n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie
naaanoieiinoe.

Ia i?iecaiaenoaa, aaea ni?oiaie o/ao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania aaaeoo ii
oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe, i?e eo ioionea a i?iecaiaenoai,
yenieoaoaoeeiiiua, ?aiiioiua ioaeaeu e ae?oaea oeaee ec?anoiaeiaaiiua
iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu ioeaieaatho ii n?aaeiae naaanoieiinoe, eioi?ay
neeaaeuaaaony ec naaanoieiinoe inoaoea iaoa?eaeia ia ia/aei ianyoea e
naaanoieiinoe eo caaioiaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa a io/aoiii ianyoea.
Ii?aaeaeaiea n?aaeiae oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeiaiei,
o.e. o?aaoao i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ?aciinee a ea?oi/ee
eiee/anoaaiii-noiiiaiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia aeaiiuo ia eo iineaaeiae
iinoaaea.

Aeey en/eneaiey n?aaeiae naaanoieiinoe iaoa?eaeia iaiaoiaeeii
ii?aaeaeeoue:

1. Ianno e noieiinoue oaeoe/aneiai eiee/anoaa iaoa?eaeia aeaiiiai aeaea,
iaoiaeyueony a iai?ioa i?aaei?eyoey. I?e yoii ianna iaoa?eaeia – yoi
eiee/anoai ia ia/aei ianyoea iethn eiee/anoai iinooieaoeo ca ianyoe
iaoa?eaeia, a noieiinoue yoeo iaoa?eaeia – yoi noieiinoue iaoa?eaeia,
inoaaoeony ia ia/aei ianyoea iethn noieiinoue iaoa?eaeia, iinooieaoeo ca
ianyoe;

2. N?aaeiaoaeoe/aneoth naaanoieiinoue aaeeieoeu aeaiiiai iaoa?eaea eae
ioiioaiea noieiinoe oaeoe/aneiai eiee/anoaa iaoa?eaeia e eo ianna;

3. Oaeoe/aneoth naaanoieiinoue oaeoe/anee ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo iaoa-?eaeia
eae i?iecaaaeaiea n?aaeia oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe aaeeieoeu iaoa?eaea
e iannu oaeoe/anee ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia ca ianyoe.

Oaeie ?an/ao iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo
iaoa?eaeia.

Ia i?aeoeea ?acee/atho aeaa niiniaa en/eneaiey n?aaeiae naaanoieiinoe:

iinoiyiii ?ann/eouaaaiay n?aaeiaacaaoaiiay noieiinoue;

ia?eiaee/anee ?ann/eouaaaiay n?aaeiaacaaoaiiay noieiinoue.

Iaoiae ioeaiee iaoa?eaeia ii naaanoieiinoe iineaaeieo ii a?aiaie caeoiie
(iaoiae EEOI).

I?aaei?eyoea, eniieuecothuaa iaoiae EEOI nienuaaao iaoa?eaeu a eiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe (i?ioeaiiieiaeiie), /ai i?e iaoiaea OEOI.
Nienuaaiea iaoa?eaeia i?e yoii iaoiaea i?iecaiaenoaa ii i?eioeeio
“iineaaeiyy ia?oey a i?eoiae – ia?aay a ?anoiae”. I?e i?eiaiaiee yoiai
iaoiaea iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, /eneyueany a caiana ia neeaaea, ia eiiaoe
ianyoea ioeaieaatho ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe ?aiieo (ia?auo) ii
a?aiaie caeoiie, a a naaanoieiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee o/eouaaaony
noieiinoue iineaaeieo ii a?aiaie caeoiie.

“Iaoiae ioeaiee iaoa?eaeia ii naaanoieiinoe ia?auo ii a?aiaie caeoiie
(iaoiae OEOI)” .

Nouiinoue iaoiaea OEOI ninoieo a oii, /oi iaoa?eaeu nienuaathony
iineaaeiaaoaeueii, a ii?yaeea eo iinoaaie ia i?aaei?eyoea ii i?eioeeio
“ia?aay ia?oey a i?eoiae – ia?aay a ?anoiae”. I?e i?eiaiaiee yoiai
iaoiaea iaoa?eaeu, /eneyueany a caiana ia neeaaea ia eiiaoe ianyoea,
ioeaieaathony ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe iineaaeieo ii a?aiaie
caeoiie, a a naaanoieiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee o/eouaaaony
noieiinoue ?aiieo (ia?auo) caeoiie.

Ii oaoieea i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa iaoiaeu EEOI aiaeiae/iu OEOI, oieueei
nienaiea i?iecaiaeeony a ia?aoiii ii?yaeea – io iineaaeieo ia?oee e
ia?aui. I?aaiecaoeey o/aoa iaoiaeaie OEOI e EEOI o?aaoao aaaeaiea
noiiiaiai o/aoa ii eaaeaeie ia?oee iaoa?eaea, n ioneaaeeaaieai a?aiaie
i?eoiaea e nienaiey. I?e ?o/iii o/aoa o?aaotho i/aiue aieueoeo oneeee.

I?e eniieueciaaiee iaoiaeia OEOI e EEOI aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ioeaiee eaaeaeie ia?oee ?anoiaeoaiuo iaoa?eaeia, /oi ia i?aeoeea
inouanoaeoue aeiaieueii neiaeii. Oeaeaniia?aciaa noieiinoue
ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia i?e eo ioeaiea iaoiaeaie OEOI e EEOI
ii?aaeaeeoue ?an/aoiui iooai, eniieuecoy oi?ioeo:

? = Ii + I – Ie ,

aaea: ? – noieiinoue ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia;

I – noieiinoue iinooieaoeo iaoa?eaeia;

Ii e Ie – noieiinoue ia/aeueiiai e eiia/iiai inoaoea iaoa?eaeia.

AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao”, eiay aiciiaeiinoue auai?a
iaoiaea ioeaiee iaoa?eaeia, caoeene?iaae a o/aoiie iieeoeea ii iaoiaeo
ioeaiee iaoa?eaeia n?aaeiae noieiinoe. I?e na?ueaciuo iniiaaiee
i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao eciaieoue aua?aiiue iaoiae, eceiaeea i?eioeeiu e
iineaaenoaey ia?aoiaea a iiynieoaeueiie caienea ia o/aoiie iieeoeea,
i?eeaaaaiie e aiaeiaiio io/aoo.

AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao”* a niioaaonoaee n o/aoiie
iieeoeeie i?eieiaao iaoa?eaeu e o/aoo ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe, a
nienaiea i?iecaiaeeo ii n?aaeiae noieiinoe, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony ii
eaaeaeie a?oiia iaoa?eaeia, eae /anoiia ioaeaeaiea iauae naaanoieiinoe
a?oiiu iaoa?eaeia ia eo eiee/anoai, niioaaonoaaiii neeaaeuaathueany ec
naaanoieiinoe e eiee/anoaa ii inoaoeo ia ia/aei ianyoea e ii iinooieaoei
caianai a yoii ianyoea.

I?iecaiaeei ?an/aou aeey yeiiiie/aneiai iainiiaaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
auoaeceiaeaiiuo iaoiaeia ioeaiee iaoa?eaeia AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeiai
oeaaieiiaeiaoa” eniieuecoy aeaiiua ec aeo?iaea.

Oaaeeoea ? 1.1.

Aeaiiua i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea nu?uey

Aeaoa iinooieaiey ioeeEiee/anoai

eaOeaia ca eaNoiiaNienaii

EaInoaoie ia 19.03.00

12360

3.26

40293.60

-19.034160

4020

37253.00

3.00

3.2012480

12060

11920

828021.034070

40253.40

3.6513838

14691.25

1030022.034075

40503.50

4.1514262.50

16807.50

9300Eoiai

28125o

3.4896059.2527880

1. Nienaiea a i?iecaiaenoai ii iaoiaeo n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie naaanoieiinoe:

naaanoieiinoue aaeeieoeu ioee:

96059. 25/28125 = 3.415 .

Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi oaeoe/aneay noieiinoue ec?anoiaeiaaiiie ioee
aoaeao:

27880. 3.415 = 95210.20 (?oa.).

2. Ii?aaeaeei noieiinoue ec?anoiaeiaaiiie ioee neaaeothuei ia?acii:

nienaii 8280.3.26 = 56992.80 (?oa.);

?an/ao n?aaeiae oeaiu:

(12360.3.26 + 4160.3 + 4020.3 + 3725.3.2)/(12360 + 4160 + 4020 + 3725) =

=3.16 (?oa.).

nienaii: 9300. 3.28 = 30504

oaeoe/aneay noieiinoue ec?anoiaeiaaiiie
ioee:

26992.8 + 32580.34 + 30504 = 90077.14.

3. I?e ioeaiea caiania ii iaoiaeo OEOI:

oaeoe/aneay noieiinoue ec?anoiaeiaaiiie ioee:

8280. 3.26 + 4080. 3.26 + 4160. 3 + 2060.3 + 1960.3 + 3725. 3.2 +
3615.3.4 =

= 89044.6.

4. I?e ioeaiea caiania ii iaoiaeo EEOI:

oaeoe/aneay noieiinoue ec?anoiaeiaaiiie ioee:

3725. 3.25 + 4020. 3 + 535. 3 + 4025. 3.65 + 4070. 3.4 + 2205.
3 + 4050. 4.15 +

+ 4075. 3.5 + 11.75. 3 = 95324.25

Ec auoaia?a/eneaiiuo ?an/aoia oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe nienaiiie a
i?iecaiaenoai aeaeii, /oi noieiinoue ec?anoiaeiaaiiiai nu?uey i?e
?an/aoa n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie naaanoieiinoe ninoaaeea 95222,66 ?oa., i?e
?an/aoa n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie naaanoieiinoe n o/aoii aaeaaeiaaiuo iinoaaie –
90077,14 ?oaey, i?e eniieueciaaiee iaoiaeia OEOI – 89044,6; EEOI –
95324,25.

Ia i?aaei?eyoee i?eiaiytho iaoiae iinoiyiii ?ann/eouaaaiie n?aaeiae
naaanoieiinoe. Yoi icia/aao, /oi n?aaeiyy oeaia ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea
iaoa?eaeia ?ann/eouaaaony caiiai i?e eaaeaeii iiaii iinooieaiee
iaoa?eaeia. Ii iae iaoa?eaeu nienuaathony a i?iecaiaenoai aei iiiaioa
neaaeothuaai iinooieaiey iaoa?eaeia ia neeaae. Iinooieaiey iniiaiiai
aeaea nu?uey ia i?aaei?eyoea i?ienoiaeeo aaeaaeiaaii. Oaeei ia?acii,
ioea nienuaaaony a i?iecaiaenoai aaeaaeiaaii ii aiiaue ii?aaeaeaiiui
oeaiai.

I?ioeann ii?aaeaeaiey n?aaeiae noieiinoe iaoa?eaeia ia i?aaei?eyoee
iieiinoueth aaoiiaoece?iaai, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa aai inouanoaeaiea a
?aieao aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey auei au iaaiciiaeiui a neeo aieueoie
iiiaieeaoo?u e /anoiou iinooieaiee e nienaiee iaoa?eaeia.

Eciaiaiea noieiinoe iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey i?ienoiaeeo iiae aicaeaenoaeai
eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. Nia?aiaiiay yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey e?aeia
ianoaaeeueia, /oi ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia oeaiu ?uiea nu?uey.

Iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueii a aeaiiuo oneiaeyo aeey AIIO Oeeeae
“Eiiaeianeiai oeaaieiiaeiaoa” i?e ioeaiea iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey
iieueciaaoueny iaoiaeii n?aaeiae noieiinoe, oai naiui no?aooai naay io
?aceeo eieaaaiee oeai ia nu?uea. Iaoiae n?aaeiae noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e
iieo/aaiay i?eaueue a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee e iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue i?iaeai
n iaeiaiiaeiaeaieai. Iiieii yoiai, iaoiae n?aaeiae noieiinoe
iaeaieaa i?eau/ai aooaaeoa?neiio ia?niiaeo n aieueoei iiuoii ?aaiou.

1.3. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey nu?uey
e iaoa?eaeia.

Aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee o?aaoaony aieueoia eiee/anoai
nu?uey e ?aciiia?aciiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Ia iioi/ii-iaoaiece?iaaiiuo
eeieyo, nicaeaiiuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, i?iecaiaeeony iiiai io/iuo
eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee, /oi iicaieyao n/eoaoue eiiaeeoa?neia
i?iecaiaenoai ia aeaiiii oeaaieiiaeiaoa iaoaiece?iaaiiui e
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui. A eiiaeeoa?neii oeaoa nicaeaiu e oniaoii
niaa?oainoaothony iaoaiece?iaaiiua iioi/iua eeiee i?iecaiaenoaa ianniauo
ni?oia io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee. a iaeioi?uo iniiaiuo aeaeao
i?iecaiaenoaa, iai?eia? caoyaeiiai ia/aiuey, i?ioeannu i?iecaiaenoaa
iaoaiece?iaaiu io iinooieaiey nu?uey aei oiaeiaee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee a
oi?aiaoth oa?o.

Aiaae?aiea iaoaiece?iaaiiuo iioi/iuo eeiee e ?aoeaioo?ii-nianeoaeueiuo
eiiieaenia a eiiaeeoa?neii oeaoa iicaieyao iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa, oaaee/eoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, iaoaiece?iaaoue
o?oaeiaieea i?ioeannu, oiaiueoeoue iioa?e oeaiiiai nu?uey, cia/eoaeueii
oeo/oeoue ea/anoai e ae?.

Ana i?ioeannu ia?a?aaioee nu?uey, eo ia?aiao?u e aeiione aeieaeiu auoue
auaea?aeaiu a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie AINOaie, oaoie/aneeie
oneiaeyie e i?aaeeaie i?aaiecaoeee e auiieiaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia i?e i?iecaiaenoaa io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee.

I?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee a oicyenoaao iicaieyao aieaa iieii e
?aoeeiiaeueii eniieueciaaoue eiathueany nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu, oiaiueoeoue
cao?aou ia aai ia?aaiceo, nieceoue naaanoieiinoue e ae?.

I?iaeoeoeeth oi?ioaai ea/anoaa iiaeii iieo/eoue ec nu?uey ioaeiuo
eiiaeeoeee. Io aeice?iaaiey eiiiiiaioia caaeneo ia oieueei ea/anoai, ii
e naaanoieiinoue ecaeaeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eiaiyaony iauaiiia e
aaniaia aeice?iaaiea. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauaiiuo aeicaoi?ia
iiaeae?atho oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iie ?aaioaee i?e iioeiaeueiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Iineieueeo ?aaioa i?e ieieiaeueiie e iaeneiaeueiie
ii?iao auaea/e eiiiiiaioia nii?yaeaia n aieueoeie ioeeiiaieyie io
caaeaiiuo aeic, i?eiaiaiea iauaiiiai aeice?iaaiey ia?aie/aii, aeiioneay
iaoi/iinoue ia aieaa +3% io caaeaiiie ii?iu. Ia aaniauo aeicaoi?ao
yeaeo?iiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey iaania/eaaao aunieoth oi/iinoue
aeice?iaaiey eiiiiiaioia.

Acaaoeaaiea, o?aiaiea e eniieueciaaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ia
i?aaei?eyoee – yoi iniiaiua oaoiieiae/aneea iia?aoeee, io eioi?uo a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaeneo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, ea/anoai
e nio?aiiinoue i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeia ec iniiaiuo caaea/ ia nia?aiaiiii
yoaia – iiauoaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee. Aaaeiui n?aaenoaii iaania/aiey
ea/anoaa yaeyaony auai? n?aaenoa ecia?aiee. N ?acaeoeai iaoaiecaoeee e
aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia ai anao iaeanoyo
i?iiuoeaiiinoe oneeaiii niaa?oainoaoaony aaoiiaoecaoeey a acaaoeaaiee.

Nouanoaothuay oaoieea e o/ao o?aaotho acaaoeaaiea iaoa?eaeia n aieueoie
oi/iinoueth, ia/eiay n ieeeea?aiiia e eii/ay nioiyie oiii. I?e yoii a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa o?aaoaony aieueoay nei?inoue acaaoeaaiey e
aeieoiaioaeueiay ?aaeno?aoeey.

Onei?aiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ioeanna, eioaineoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
auaeaeaatho iiauoaiiua o?aaiaaiey e aeaeueiaeoaio niaa?oainoaiaaieth
iaoiaeeee, oaoieee e n?aaenoa ecia?aiey.

AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao”* aeiaeeny cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia,
aai aeaeueiaeoaa niaa?oainoaiaaiea ia?ac?uaii naycaii n oe?ieei
eniieueciaaieai aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e ia?aaeiaie i?aeoeee.
Oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann ecaioiaeaiey io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee
aeeth/aao ii?aaeaeaiioth niaieoiiinoue iaoiaeia, i?eaiia e iia?aoeee
ia?a?aaioee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aeey iieo/aiey aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee
iaiaoiaeeiiai ea/anoaa.

*oiau iieiaa eniieueciaaoue iaeiieaiiue iiuo i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee,
iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaiaaoue oaoieeo e oaoiieiaeth i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue niaoeeaeenoia, oi?ioi aeaaeathueo aii?inaie
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, ciathueo nu?uea, iai?oaeiaaiea, i?aaiecaoeeth
e iinoaaeo oaoieei-oeie/aneiai eiio?iey, ae?oaea aniaeou e iniaaiiinoe
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey io?anee, a oaeaea niiniaiuo ?aoaoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caaea/e ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann ecaioiaeaiey io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee
caaeneo io neaaeothueo iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia: ea/anoaa nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
iinooiathuaai a i?iecaiaenoai, noaiaie niaa?oainoaa oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna.

1.4 Eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo yaeyaony iaeiie ec
oieaa?naeueiuo ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii, i?ecaaiiie
inouanoaeyoue iianaaeiaaiue e aeaenoaaiiue eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai
onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i e ii?iaoeaia, nio?aiiinoueth nianoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea
iaania/eaaoue iieo/aiea aeinoiaa?iie e a oi aea a?aiy iia?aoeaiie
eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey eiio?iey ca auiieiaieai ieaia e i?eiyoey
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiauoaiea ?iee o/aoa iaoa?eaeia, iauaeoeaiinoue aai
eioi?iaoeee caaenyo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io oi?i e iaoiaeia eiio?iey,
eioi?ua aeaaaee au aiciiaeiinoue iia?aoeaii, naiaa?aiaiii iiaeaiaeeoue
eoiae ?aaiou ii yeiiiiee ai anao caaiueyo i?iecaiaenoaa, auyaeyoue
aioo?eoeaoiaua ?aca?au, naiaa?aiaiii enei?aiyoue oaeou
aanoicyenoaaiiinoe e ?anoi/eoaeuenoaa.

Oneeaiea eiio?iey ca ninoiyieai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e ?aoeeiiaeueiii eo
eniieueciaaiee ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey e a oeaeii ia aai oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea. Oae eae nu?uea e
iaoa?eaeu ninoaaeytho cia/eoaeueioth /anoue eiouanoaa e cao?aou ia eo
ninoaaeytho aei 80% a naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
iaoa?eaeia yaeyaony aiaae?aiea iaoa?eaeinaa?aaathueo, iaeiiooiaeiuo e
aaciooiaeiuo oaoiieiaee.

?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey caaeneo oaeaea io
iieiiou nai?ia e eniieueciaaiea iooiaeia e iainiiaaiiie eo ioeaiee.

Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia
ai iiiaii caaeneo ia oieueei io o/aoa aeaeaeaiey, ii e io i?aaiecaoeee
eo o?aiaiey.

A nio?aiiinoe nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho oaoie/aneea
iniauaiiua neeaaeneea iiiauaiey n nia?aiaiiuie aaniecia?eoaeueiuie
i?eai?aie e ono?ienoaaie, iicaieythueie iaoaiece?iaaoue e
aaoiiaoece?iaaoue neeaaeneea iia?aoeee e neeaaeneie o/ao.

Ia AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa” iaeiei ec oneiaee
?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia yaeyaony
ii?ie?iaaiea neeaaeneeo iaoa?eaeia.

Iiae ii?iie nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia iiieiatho n?aaeiee a oa/aiee aiaea caian
eaaeaeiai aeaea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, i?eieiaaiue eae ia?aoiaeyuee caian
ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai aiaea (ia?eiaea). Yoa ii?ia ecia?yaony a aeiyo
n?aaeianooi/iiai iio?aaeaiey eaaeaeiai aeaea iaoa?eaeia.

“Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao”* no?aieoueny e niaethaeaieth ii?i
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania eaaeaeiai aeaea iaoa?eaea, iineieueeo eo
eceeoae i?eaiaeeo e caiaaeeaieth iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, a
iaaeinoaoie iiaeao i?eaanoe e n?uao i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna.

Aeey eiio?iey ca ninoiyieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania aaaeiia cia/aiea
eiaao i?aaiecaoeey neeaaeneiai o/aoa caiania.

E i?aaiecaoeee neeaaeneiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia i?aaeuyaeyaony neaaeothuea
o?aaiaaiey:

neeaaeu i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu auoue niaoeeaeece?iaaiu, o.e. iaoa?eaeu
?acee/iuo oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa o?aaotho ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiia o?aiaiey
(iai?eia?, eiio?ieue oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe);

neeaaeneea iiiauaiey iai?oaeothony noaeeaaeaie, iieeaie, oeaoaie,
yueeaie aeey o?aiaiey iaoa?eaeia;

ia eaaeaeue aeae iaoa?eaea auienuaaaony y?eue, a eioi?ii oeacuaatho aai
iaeiaiiaaiea, iiiaieeaoo?iue iiia?, ia?eo, ni?o, ?acia?u, aaeeieoeu
ecia?aiey;

aeey caueou naienoa nu?uey o?aaothuaai oaiia?aoo?o ieaea ioey, aeieaeii
o?aieoueny a niaoeeaeueiuo oieiaeeeueiuo eaia?ao e ae?.

Eeaaeiauee iaycai naiaa?aiaiii eioi?ie?iaaoue neoaeao niaaaeaiey ia
ioeeiiaieyo oaeoe/aneiai inoaoea iaoa?eaeia io onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i, a
oaeaea ia inoaoeao iaoa?eaeia, aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iaoiaeyueony aac
aeaeaeaiey.

Aooaaeoa?ee iinoiyiii i?ecaaiu inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue ca ea/anoaii ii?i
e ii?iaoeaia, i?eieiaoue ia?u ii ia?aniio?o ii?i n o/aoii iiaie oaoieee,
oaoiieiaee e eciaiaiee a i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea e i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eniieueciaaiea ii?i a o/aoa i?aaeiieaaaao i?aaeaea anaai eeieoe?iaaiea
ioionea iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoai. Ioione iaoa?eaeia ia ecaioiaeaiea
i?iaeoeoeee ia anaaaea yaeyaony oaeoii eniieueciaaiey yoeo iaoa?eaeia.
Aeey i?aaeeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey cao?ao aaaeii eiio?iee?iaaoue
?anoiaeiaaiea iaoa?eaeia a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

Aioo?aiiee eiio?ieue ca ?anoiaeiaaieai iaoa?eaeia a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee i?aaiecoaony n o/aoii ?anoiaeoaiuo iaoa?eaeia
e oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio iineaaeothuae noaaeeae eiio?iey ca
eniieueciaaieai iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony auyaeaiea ioeeiiaiee
oaeoe/aneiai ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia io onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i. Iniiaiuie
iaoiaeaie auyaeaiey oeacaiiuo ioeeiiaiee yaeythony: aeieoiaioaeueiia
ioi?ieaiea ioeeiiaiee io ii?i; ia?oeiiiue ?ane?ie iaoa?eaea; oaoie/aneee
?an/ao n i?eiaiaieai eiaaioa?ecaoeee (eiaaioa?iue iaoiae).

Niinia aeieoiaioe?iaaiey iniiaai ia aeieoiaioaeueiii ioi?ieaiee
ioeeiiaiee oaeoe/aneiai ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia io onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i,
ii?iaoeaia e oneiaee. Oaeea ioeeiiaiey ai iiiaeo neo/ayo aicieeatho
ec-ca iani?acia?iinoe iaeiiaeeoeeiiiinoe caiaiu iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea a
?acoeueoaoa iai?aaeeueiiai eo eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iau/ii ?acee/iua aeaeu ioeeiiaiee io ii?i ii-?aciiio ioi?ieythony a
ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioao. Oae, aeieoiaio ia auaea/o iaoa?eaea naa?o eeieoa
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia ioeeiiaieyo, eioi?ua o?aaotho iineaaeothuaai
aiaeeca. Anee aea naa?oeeieoiui ioioneii ia?ae?uoue iioa?e iaoa?eaeia ca
n/ao ia?a?anoiaea eee a?aea – yoi neo/ae yaiuo ioeeiiaiee io ii?i.

I?e ioionea iaoa?eaeia, ianiioaaonoaothueo niaoeeoeeaoeeyi e
oaoiieiae/aneiio i?ioeanno i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee ec-ca
iani?acia?iinoe eee iaeiiaeeoeeiiiinoe e ae?oaeo i?e/ei, ioeeiiaiey
iau/ii ii?aaeaeytho iaiin?aaenoaaiii a aeieoiaioao ia ioione iaoa?eaeia
a i?iecaiaenoai. A ieo, eae i?aaeei, oeacuaatho ?acia? ioeeiiaiee io
ii?i ii eiee/anoao, noieiinoe e i?e/eiu yoeo ioeeiiaiee.

I?e ?aciauo caiaiao iaeiiai iaoa?eaea ia ae?oaea, i?e eniieueciaaiee
iieiioeaiiiai iaoa?eaea a caiai iooiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaony ioioneaoue
iaoa?eaeu ii niaoeeaeueiui neaiaeueiui aeieoiaioai (o?aaiaaieyi ia
caiaio). A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa i?e caiaia iaoa?eaeia oaei?iaeaaony eo
naaanoieiinoue e oaaee/eaaaony o?oaeiaieinoue eo ia?aaioee. Iiyoiio a
aeieoiaioao oae aea ioia/atho i?e/eiu caiaiu, ?acia? ioeeiiaiee ii
eiee/anoao e noieiinoe ec ?an/aoa ioiouaiiiai iaoa?eaea.

Niinia ia?oeiiiiai ?ane?iy iniiaai ia aeieoiaioe?iaaiee ?acoeueoaoia
?ane?iy e auyaeaiee ioeeiiaiee io aeaenoaothueo ii?i ?anoiaea ii
iaoa?eaeai, iiaeaa?aathueiny ?ane?ith ia aeaoaee e caaioiaee /anoae
i?iaeoeoeee. Ii yoio niinia i?eiaiytho a e?oiiina?eeiuo e ianniauo
i?iecaiaenoaao, a eioi?uo iiaea/a iaoa?eaeia ia ?ane?ie inouanoaeyaony
ia?oeyie e i?iaeoeoeey iieo/aaony aeaaiui ia?acii iooai ia?aaioee
iieo/aiiuo caaioiaie e ecaioiaeaiey eo ieo ioaeaeueiuo aeaoaeae, /anoae
e oceia, a caoai iaoaie/aneiai niaaeeiaiey eo a aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth.
Iiyoiio caeanue aaaeai eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai iaoa?eaeia ia ia?aie
iia?aoeee i?aa?auaiey eo a aeaoaee e caaioiaee.

Ia AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaiiaoa”* n oeaeueth eiio?iey ca
eniieueciaaieai nu?uey a i?iecaiaenoaa i?eiaiytho oaa?aei onoaiiaeaiiua
ii?iu ?anoiaea nu?uey a i?iecaiaenoaa ia auia/eo eiie?aoiuo aeaeia
ecaeaeee. Ii?ie?iaaiea iiiiaaao ia oieueei i?e ninoaaeaiee ieaiiauo
eaeueeoeyoeee, ii e iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
nu?uey a i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aa?auaao iiyaeaiea ioeeiiaiee. Ii?iaoeaiue
?anoiae nu?uey ca ?an/aoiue eiio?iee?oaiue ia?eiae en/eneyaony iooai
oiiiaeaiey eiee/anoaa iieo/aiiuo ecaeaeee ia aeaenoaothuoth ii?io
?anoiaea.

Oaeoe/aneee ?anoiae iaoa?eaeia ii eaaeaeie eaeueeoeyoeeiiiie a?oiia
n?aaieaaaony n ii?iaoeaiui ?anoiaeii ii aeaiiie a?oiia e
onoaiaaeeaathony oaeou ioeeiiaiey io ii?i, eioi?ua n iiiiuueth
eiyooeoeeaioia, au?aaeathueo ioiioaiea ioeeiiaiee e ii?iaoeaiiio
?anoiaeo, ?ani?aaeaeythony ia niioaaonoaothuea iauaeou o/aoa cao?ao. Oi
anoue, aeinoeaaaony ?acaeaeueiia io?aaeaiea a o/aoa cao?ao iaoa?eaeia ii
ii?iai e ioeeiiaieyi io ii?i.

Ia “Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa”* neo/aaa ia?a?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia a
i?iecaiaenoaa ia auei oaea aeaaii, oae eae ia i?aaei?eyoee i?aaieciaaia
aeinoaoi/ii aeanoeay nenoaia eiio?iey eae ia noaaeee ioionea iaoa?eaeia
a i?iecaiaenoai, oae e ca oa/aieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia e
yooaeoeaiie iaeaaeeie iai?oaeiaaiey.

A i?ioeaiii neo/aa eioi?iaoeey ia ioeeiiaieyo eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea
aeey yeiiiie/iiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia e aieaa
oi/iiai en/eneaiey naaanoieiinoe ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee.

A /anoe eiio?iey ca nio?aiiinoueth iaoa?eaeia ia ianoao o?aiaiey e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo o/anoeao eniieuecotho eiaaioa?iue niinia, oae eae ii
yaeyaony iaeaieaa iainiiaaiiui a ?aieao ?anniao?eaaaiiai i?aaei?eyoey.
Eiaaioa?ecaoeey eiouanoaa eiaao oeaeueth iaania/aiey aeinoiaa?iinoe
aeaiiuo aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. ?anniao?eaaaiue iaoiae iniiaai ia aaeaina
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae.

Ia?eiaee/iinoue i?iaaaeaiey iiaeiaiuo i?iaa?ie a o/aoiie iieeoeea
i?aaei?eyoey. Eiaaioa?ecaoeey oaeaea iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny ca iaiaa
ei?ioeee ia?eiae ii oniio?aieth naiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa” nio?aiiinoe iaoa?eaeia
oaeaeytho iaiaeiaaaeiia aieiaiea. Aeey inouanoaeaiee oaeiai eiio?iey ia
i?aaei?eyoee i?aaeaea anaai neaaeyo ca nio?aiiinoueth nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia ia noaaeee eo o?aiaiey, oae eae iniiaiui nu?ueai ia
oeaaieiiaeiaoa yaeyaony ioea e naoa?-ianie, a iie a i?ioeanna o?aiaiey
iiaoo eciaiyoue naie ea/anoaa. Aaaeue i?aaeeueiia o?aiaiea iicaieeo
ecaaaeaoue iioa?ue, iaaeinoa/ e iieiinoueth eniieueciaaoue nu?uea e
iaoa?eaeu a i?iecaiaenoaa.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee neeaaeneiai oicyenoaa ia
i?aaei?eyoee i?aeoe/anee iao iioa?ue nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a i?ioeanna eo
o?aiaiey.

Aeaaa II. I?AAIECAOeEss O*AOA NU?Uess E IAOA?EAEIA A
I?IECAIAeNOAA.

2.1. Aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea ii aeaeaeaieth nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

Aeey o/aoa aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeia oeaaieiiaeiaoa i?eiaiyaony ia?ae/iay
o/aoiay aeieoiaioaoeey, ioaa/athuay o?aaiaaieyi iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee ii
o/aoo iaoa?eaeia e i?eniiniaeaiiay aeey aaoiiaoe/aneie ia?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee. Eiee/anoai yecaiiey?ia auienuaaaiuo aeieoiaioia e eo
aeieoiaioiiai?io onoaiaaeeaaaony a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a oaoie/aneiai
niaaaeaiey e io nenoaiu i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa. Eiee/anoai yecaiiey?ia
aeieaeii auoue ieieiaeueiui; i?e eniieueciaaiee YAI – iaeei yecaiiey?, a
i?e ?o/iie ia?aaioea – ia aieaa aeaoo.

Ia AIIO Oeeeae «Eiiaeianeee Oeaaieiiaeiao» iinooieaiea iaoa?eaeia a
i?aaiecaoeeth eiio?iee?oao a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa,
eioi?ue neaaeeo ca auiieiaieai iinoaaueeii aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa,
i?aaeuyaeyao ei i?aoaicee ii ea/anoao e iaaeinoa/ai iaoa?eaeia,
?acuneeaaao a?ocu, anee iie naiaa?aiaiii ia i?eauee a i?aaiecaoeeth.

Iaoa?eaeu ia neeaae io ianoiuo e eiiai?iaeieo iinoaaueeia, iau/ii,
aeinoaaeyao yeniaaeeoi?. I?eieiay a?ocu io o?ainii?oiuo i?aaiecaoeee,
yeniaaeeoi? iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyao ninoiyieth oa?u, ieiia, a a neo/aa
eo iia?aaeaeaiee o?aaoao i?iaa?ee e naea/e a?oca. Anee iaia?oaeaony eee
ii?/a a?oca, ninoaaeyaony eiiia?/aneee aeo ia i?aai i?aaeuyaeaiey
i?aoaicee e o?ainii?oiie i?aaiecaoeee e iinoaaueeo.

A iiiaio naea/e yeniaaeeoi?ii iaoa?eaeia ia neeaae iaoa?eaeueii
ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei i?iaa?yao niioaaonoaea eiee/anoaa, ea/anoaa e
anni?oeiaioa iinooieaoeo iaoa?eaeia aeieoiaioaie iinoaaueea. Iaeie ec
ieo io?aaeatho eiee/anoai ioa?oaeaiiiai a?oca (niaoeeoeeaoeee, ioaanu,
iaeeaaeiua), ae?oaea – ea/anoai (na?oeoeeaou, oaeinoiaa?aiey e o.i.).
i?e iieiii niioaaonoaee eiee/anoaa oaeoe/anee iinooieaoeo oeaiiinoae
aeieoiaioai iinoaaueea iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei auienuaaao
i?eoiaeiue i?aea? (o. ?4).

Aeey nie?auaiey eiee/anoaa ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia ?ac?aoaaony e
aacaeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea iinooieaoeo iaoa?eaeia. Anee
?anoiaeaeaiea ie a eiee/anoaa, ie a ea/anoaa i?eauaoaai a?oca n
aeieoiaioaie iinoaaueea iao, oi ia aeieoiaioao iinoaaueea (ieaoaaeiuo
o?aaiaaiee) i?inoaaeyaony e caienuaaaony niaoeeaeueiue ooaii n iniiaiuie
?aeaeceoaie i?eoiaeiiai i?aea?a.

A neo/aa aeinoaaee iaoa?eaeia aaoio?ainii?oii ni neeaaea iinoaauee
auienuaaao oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oioth iaeeaaeioth (o. ?5, e I-6) a /aou?ao
yecaiiey?ao:

ia?aue – iieoiaoaeth aeey ii?eoiaeiaaiey iaoa?eaeia a ianoi i?eoiaeiiai
i?aea?a;

aoi?ie – aeey nienaiey oeaiiinoae;

o?aoee – aeey ia/eneaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou aiaeeoaeyi aaoio?ainii?oa;

/aoaa?oue – aeey i?aaeuyaeaiey a aaie iieaoo.

I?e iieo/aiee iaoa?eaeia ia noaioeee aeaeaciie aei?iae a ea/anoaa
ia?ae/iiai aeieoiaioa aunooiatho aeaeaciiaei?iaeiay iaeeaaeiay n
niioaaonoaothueie ioiaoeaie ia noaioeee ioi?aaeaiey eee iacia/aiey.

I?e iieo/aiee iaoa?eaeia ia oeaaieiiaeiaoa, aeinoaaaaiuo yeniaaeeoi?ii,
iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei i?iaa?yao niioaaonoaea eiee/anoaa,
ea/anoaa anni?oeiaioa iinooieaoeo iaoa?eaeia aeieoiaioai iinoaaueea.

Aeo i i?eaiea iaoa?eaeia (o. ? I-7) i?eiaiyaony aeey ioi?ieaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae aac ieaoaaeiuo aeieoiaioia e a neo/aa
?anoiaeaeaiee n aeaiiuie nii?iaiaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia iinoaaueea. Aeo
ninoaaeyaony i?eaiiie eiienneae n iaycaoaeueiui o/anoeai i?aaenoaaeoaey
iinoaaueea eee i?aaenoaaeoaey iacaeioa?aniaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee,
caaaaeothuaai neeaaeii i?aaenoaaeoaey ioaeaea niaaaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee.
Eiienney iacia/aaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaiecaoeee. Ninoaaeyaony aeo a
aeaoo yecaiiey?ao: ia?aue i?aaeiacia/ai aeey aooaaeoa?ee eae iniiaaiea
aeey aooaaeoa?neeo caienae ia n/aoao e ?an/aoa noiiu iaaeinoa/ eee
eceeoeia; aoi?ie i?aaeiacia/ai iinoaaueeo eee niiauaaony aio i
i?aaeinoaaeaiee ieaoaaeiiai o?aaiaaiey ia eceeoee. Iaee/ea aeoa
eneeth/aao auieneo i?eoiaeiiai aeieoiaioa.

I?eoiaeiua aeieoiaiou ninoaaeythony a aeaiue iinooieaiey iaoa?eaeia.

Iainiaeaiii o?aiyo ia neeaaeao iaoa?eaeu, iiaeeaaeauea eaai?aoi?iiio
aiaeeco e oaoie/aneiio iniio?o, a oaeaea iaoa?eaeu, i?eiyoua ia
ioaaonoaaiiia o?aiaiea. I?eoiaeiua i?aea?a ia ieo ia auienuaathony,
?anoiaeiaaoue eo ia ?ac?aoaaony aei auyaeaiey ?aca?aia aiaeeca. Eo o/ao
i?aaiecaoeey aaaeao a niaoeeaeueiie eieaa. A ia/aea ?aaeno?e?otho
iinooieaoea iaoa?eaeu, iaoiaeyueany ia eaai?aoi?iii enneaaeiaaiee, a
caoai iaoa?eaeu, i?eiyoua ia ioaaonoaaiiia o?aiaiea. Aaaeaiea yoie eieae
iaania/eaaao eiio?ieue ca nio?aiiinoueth ethauo aeaeia nianoaaiiinoe.

E?iia ia?a/eneaiiuo aeieoiaioia, ninoaaeythony o?aaiaaiey – iaeeaaeiua
ia ioione (aioo?aiiaa ia?aiauaiea iaoa?eaeia (o. ? I-14)). I?e
aioo?aiiai ia?aiauaiee iaoa?eaeia ni neeaaea eee i?e naea/a oeaoai ia
neeaae iaeniieueciaaiiuo eee nyeiiiieaiiuo iaoa?eaeia eee oeaiiuo
iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa (iooiaeia io a?aea i?iaeoeoeee), iaoa?eaeueii
ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea, naeathuea iaoa?eaeu auienuaatho iaeeaaeiua a aeaoo
yecaiiey?ao. Ia?aue – oeaoo aeey nienaiey iaoa?eaeia; ae?oaie yecaiiey?
– neeaaeo aeey eo ii?eoiaeiaaiey.

?anoiaeiua aeieoiaiou io?aaeatho ioione iaoa?eaeia ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioaeaeu (ecaioiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee), ia no?iio eceeoieo, ia
eniieueciaaiiuo a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?eaeia.
E ?anoiaeiui aeieoiaioai ia oeaaicaaiaea ioiinyony eeieoii-caai?iua
ea?ou, o?aaiaaiey, iaeeaaeiua.

Eeieoii-caai?iay ea?oa (o. ?I-8; I-9) auienuaaaony ioaeaeii ia?eaoeiaa
ia iaeio eee ianeieueei iiceoeee ioiinyueony e ii?aaeaeaiiiio eiaeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao.

?an/ao iio?aaiinoe iaiaoiaeeiiai iauaia e aeaea iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae
oeaoa aeey auiieiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu inouanoaeyao
ieaiiai-i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ioaeae. Eeieo ?anoiaeiaaiey e ioionea
iaoa?eaeia i?e yoii nie?auaaony ia eiee/anoai oeaiiinoae aeaiiiai aeaea,
inoaaoeony a oeaoao ia ia/aei ianyoea.

Auienuaathony ea?ou a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao: ia?aue yecaiiey? – oeaoo;
aoi?ie yecaiiey? – neeaaeo.

I?e ioionea oeaiiinoae ni neeaaea eeaaeiauee ?anienuaaaony a
eeieoii-caai?iie ea?oa oeaoa, a i?aaenoaaeoaeue iieo/aoaey – a
eeieoii-caai?iie ea?oa neeaaea. A iaaeo ea?oao iinea eaaeaeiai ioionea
auaiaeeony inoaoie iaeniieuecoaiiai eeieoa. I?e eniieueciaaiee eeieoa e
ii ieii/aiee ianyoea eeieoii-caai?iua ea?ou naeathony a aooaaeoa?eth
i?aaiecaoeee. Ia iniiaaiee eo ioi?ieyaony ioione iaoa?eaeia e
inouanoaeyaony oaeouee eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia
eo ioionea ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioaeaeu.

Ii eeieoii-caai?iie ea?oa aaaeaony oaeaea o/ao iaoa?eaeia,
iaeniieueciaaiiuo a i?iecaiaenoaa (aica?ao). I?e yoii ieeaeeo
aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia ia ninoaaeyaony.

A oeaeyo nie?auaiey eiee/anoaa eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o aiciiaeii
i?eiaiaiea iieaa?oaeueiuo ea?o n io?uaiuie iany/iuie oaeiiaie. Anee
eeieoii-caai?iua ea?ou en/eneythony i?e iinoiyiiii nenoaiiii ioionea
iaoa?eaeia, oi aeey ioi?ieaiey iaeiie?aoiiai eo ioionea ia oicyenoaaiiua
ioaeaeu e i?i/aa i?eiaiyaony aeo – o?aaiaaiea ia caiaio iaoa?eaeia (o.
?14 –10).

Auienuaaaony aeo-o?aaiaaiea a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao oeaoaie, ioaeaeaie.
Ia?aue inoaaony o iieo/aoaey n ?anieneie iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiiai
eeoea neeaaea; aoi?ie inoaaony o caaaaeothuaai neeaaeii n ?anieneie
iieo/aoaey.

Anyeee naa?oeeieoiue ioione iaoa?eaeia ia i?iecaiaenoai (aiciauaiea
a?aea, ia?a?anoiae, ia?aauiieiaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu) eee
caiaia iaoa?eaeia ioi?ieyaony auieneie niaoeeaeueiiai o?aaiaaiey n
ioiaoeie a iai eiaea i?e/eiu e aeiiaieea ia?a?anoiaea. Ioione
?ac?aoaaony n ?ac?aoaiey aee?aeoi?a.

Iaeeaaeiua (o. ? I-11) i?eiaiythony aeey o/aoa e ioi?ieaiey ioionea
iaoa?eaeia ia noi?iio eee oicyenoaai naiae i?aaiecaoeee, ?aniieiaeaiiui
ca i?aaeaeaie aai oa??eoi?ee. Auienuaaaony ioaeaeii nauoa a o?ao
yecaiiey?ao ia iniiaaiee ia?yaeia eee aeiaiai?ia. I?e ia?aaicea –
auienuaaaony oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiay iaeeaaeiay.

2.2. I?aaiecaoeey neeaaeneiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia.

Aeey iaania/aiey aeaenoaaiiiai eiio?iey ca nio?aiiinoueth iaoa?eaeia
iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao ninoiyiea neeaaeneiai e aaniecia?eoaeueiiai
oicyenoaa. N yoie oeaeueth i?eeacii ii i?aaiecaoeee eaaeaeiio neeaaeo
i?enaaeaaaony iinoiyiiue iiia? e a iineaaenoaee oeacuaaaony ia anao
aeieoiaioao, ioiinyueony e iia?aoeeyi aeaiiiai neeaaea.

Ia oeaaicaaiaea eiaaony ianeieueei neeaaeia, aaea nin?aaeioa/eaatho a
eaaeaeii iaoa?eaeu ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?oii. Aioo?e neeaaeia iaoa?eaeu
?aciauathony ii naeoeeyi, caoai ii oeiini?oi?acia?ai a ooaaaeyo, ia
noaeeaaeao e ia iieeao, n oaeei ?an/aoii, /oiau iaania/eoue
aiciiaeiinoue auno?ie eo i?eaiee, ioionea e i?iaa?ee iaee/ey. N yoie
oeaeueth a ianoao o?aiaiey iaoa?eaeia i?ee?aieyaony y?eue. Iai?eia?,
iinooieaoay ioea a iaoeao, o?aieony ia ioaeaeueiii neeaaea oa?iui
niiniaii. Iaoee n ioeie oeeaaeuaatho a ooaaaey ia?oeyie. Eaaeaeay ia?oey
eiaao aeae e ni?o ioee.

Nieue, aee?, ae?iaeaeaaia iieiei, nuai?ioeo, ?anoeoaeueiia ianei o?aiyo
aanoa?iui niiniaii a niaoeeaeueiuo aieinoyo. Nei?iii?oyuaany nu?uea
(neeai/iia ianei, ia?aa?ei, ae?iaeaee e ae?.) – a oieiaeeeueiuo eaia?ao.

Neeaaeu iaania/aiu eni?aaiuie aanaie, ecia?eoaeueiuie i?eai?aie e ia?iie
oa?ie.

Ia neeaaeao auiieiythony neaaeothuea iniiaiua iia?aoeee: i?eai nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia ii eiee/anoao oooe, ianna e ea/anoao, ?aciauaiea nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia e eo o?aiaiea; iiaeaioiaea nu?uey e ioioneo a i?iecaiaenoai
i/enoea ioee, i/enoea e ?anoai?aiea naoa?a, niee, aee?ia; ioione nu?uey
a i?iecaiaenoai; ioi?ieaiea i?eoiaeiuo e ?anoiaeiuo aeieoiaioia, o/ao
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaei?eyoey ooaa?aeaeaao nienie aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
ioaaonoaaiiuo ca i?eaieo e ioione (caaaaeothuea neeaaeaie,
eeaaeiaueeia, yeniaaeeoi?ia e ae?.) i?aaeeueiia e naiaa?aiaiiia
ioi?ieaiea yoeo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea ca nio?aiiinoueth aaa?aiiuo ei
iaoa?eaeia. N yoeie eeoeaie caeeth/athony aeiaiai?u i iaoa?eaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Anai neoaeaai i?aaiecaoeee neaaeoao eiaoue nienie aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
eioi?ui i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai iiaeienuaaoue aeieoiaiou ia iieo/aiea e
ioione ni neeaaeia iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea auaeaaaoue ?ac?aoaiey ia auaic
ec i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey.

Aeey oaeianoaa i?eaiee e o?aiaiey a?ocia, aioo?eneeaaeneiai
o?ainii?oe?iaaiey anao aeaeia nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, neeaaeu ?aniieiaeaiu
aaeece i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo o/anoeia.

Ia AIIO Oeeeae «Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa» neeaaeneea iiiauaiey
eniieuecothony iieiinoueth. Neeaaeu iaania/aiu oaoieeie i?ioeaiiiaea?iie
aaciianiinoe, ii?iaeueii aaioeee?othony e inaauathony, i?aeoe/anee ana
iia?oci/ii-?aca?oci/iua e o?ainii?oii-neeaaeneea ?aaiou iaoaiece?iaaiu,
o.a. nicaeaiu ana iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey aeey o?aiaiey nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia. A iiaeiaiay i?aaiecaoeey neeaaeneiai oicyenoaa cia/eoaeueii
iaeaa/aao ?aaioo ia?niiaea.

Ia?aoiaey e ?anniio?aieth ii?yaeea i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa iaoa?eaeia ii
ianoai o?aiaiey e a aooaaeoa?ee, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iaeiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai aeoa IAO 5/98 aeey yoeo oeaeae iaaeinoaoi/ii. Iiyoiio
aeaiiia iieiaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue n o/aoii ae?oaeo iieiaeaiee ii
aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo. Oaeei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoii yaeyaony «Iniiaiua
iieiaeaiey ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo iaoa?eaeia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e
no?ieeao», ooaa?aeaeaiiue Ieioeiii NNN? io 03.04.74. ? 103. Ei
ii?aaeaeaii, /oi i?aaiecaoeey o/aoa iaoa?eaeia ia neeaaeao e a
aooaaeoa?ee caaeneo io iaoiaea o/aoa iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ue
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ii?yaeie e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue o/aoa iaoa?eaeia,
aeaeu o/aoiuo ?aaeno?ia, eo eiee/anoai e acaeiinaa?eo iieacaoaeae.

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao iaoa?eaeia ia neeaaeao inouanoaeyaony a ni?oiaii
?ac?aca, a niioaaonoaee n ii?yaeeii o?aiaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
aucuaaaiii eae oneiaeyie eo i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey, oae e
o?aaiaaieyie i?aaiecaoeee neeaaeneiai oicyenoaa.

AIIO Oeeeae «Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao» aaaeao iaeaieaa i?ia?anneaiue e
?aoeeiiaeueiue iaoiae o/aoa iaoa?eaeia – iia?aoeaii-aooaaeoa?neee
(naeueaeiaue). Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu iia?aoeaii-aooaaeoa?neiai iaoiaea
neaaeothuea:

iia?aoeaiinoue e aooaaeoa?neay aeinoiaa?iinoue eiee/anoaaiiiai o/aoa ia
neeaaea i?e iiiiue ea?oi/ae neeaaeneiai o/aoa, eioi?ua aaaeoony
iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiuie eeoeaie;

nenoaiaoe/aneee eiio?ieue ?aaioieeia aooaaeoa?ee iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
neeaaea ca i?aaeeueiinoueth e naiaa?aiaiiinoueth aeieoiaioe?iaaiey
iia?aoeee ii aeaeaeaieth iaoa?eaeia e aaaeaieai neeaaeneiai o/aoa
iaoa?eaeia;

i?aaeinoaaeaiea aooaaeoa?ee i?aaa i?iaa?ee niioaaonoaey oaeoe/aneeo
inoaoeia iaoa?eaeia a iaoo?a aeaiiui oaeouaai neeaaeneiai o/aoa;

inouanoaeaiea aooaaeoa?eae o/aoa aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeia oieueei a
aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee ii o/aoiui oeaiai e oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe a
?ac?aca a?oii iaoa?eaeia e iano eo o?aiaiey, a i?e iaee/ee AO – oaeaea
a ?ac?aca iiiaieeaoo?iuo iiia?ia;

nenoaiaoe/aneia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea (acaeiinaa?ea) aeaiiuo neeaaeneiai
o/aoa iooai niiinoaaeaiey inoaoeia iaoa?eaeia ii aeaiiui neeaaeneiai
(eiee/anoaaiiiai) o/aoa, ioeaiaiiuo ii i?eiyoui, o/aoiui oeaiai, n
inoaoeaie iaoa?eaeia ii aeaiiui aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Iia?aoeaii-aooaaeoa?neee iaoiae o/aoa iaoa?eaeia i?aaeeaaaao aaaeaiea ia
neeaaeao oieueei eiee/anoaaiii-ni?oiaiai o/aoa aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeia.
Inouanoaeyaony ii ia ea?oi/eao neeaaeneiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia (oei o. ?
I-17). Aooaaeoa?ey ioe?uaaao ea?oi/ee ia eaaeaeue iiiaieeaoo?iue iiia?
iaoa?eaea e iiae ?anieneo ia?aaeaao eo caaaaeothuaio neeaaeii. Ii ia?a
iinooieaiey ia neeaae iaoa?eaeia eeaaeiauee auienuaaao i?eoiaeiue
i?aea? eee caiaiythuee aai aeieoiaio e ?aaeno?e?oao aai a ea?oi/ea
neeaaeneiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia. Ia iniiaaiee ?anoiaeiuo aeieoiaioia
(eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o, o?aaiaaiee, iaeeaaeiuo) a ea?oi/ea
?aaeno?e?oaony ?anoiae iaoa?eaeia.

?aciinea ec eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o a ea?oi/ee neeaaeneiai o/aoa
iaoa?eaeia aeaiiuo ia ioionea iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny e ii ia?a cae?uoey
ea?o (anee iie ia iaeio iiceoeeth iaoa?eaeia), ii ia iicaeiaa ia?aiai
/enea neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui ianyoea. A yoii neo/aa eeieoiua ea?ou a
oa/aiee ianyoea o?aiyony aianoa n niioaaonoaothueie ea?oi/eaie
neeaaeneiai o/aoa. Inoaoie a ea?oi/ea auaiaeeony iinea eaaeaeie caiene.
A iaycaiiinoe eeaaeiaueea aoiaeyo caienue o/aoiuo oeai a aeieoiaiou ia
i?eoiae e ?anoiae iaoa?eaeia e iiia? caiene ii neeaaeneie ea?oi/ea a
oa/aiee ianyoea o?aiyony aianoa n niioaaonoaothueie ea?oi/eaie
neeaaeneiai o/aoa. Inoaoie a ea?oi/ea auaiaeeony iinea eaaeaeie caiene.
A iaycaiiinoe eeaaeiaueea aoiaeyo caienue o/aoiuo oeai a aeieoiaiou ia
i?eoiae e ?anoiae iaoa?eaeia e iiia? caiene ii neeaaeneie ea?oi/ea. A
onoaiiaeaiiua a?aoeeii n?iee eeaaeiauee ninoaaeyao ?aano?u naea/e
aeieoiaioia ia i?eoiae e ?anoiae iaoa?eaeia (o. ? I-13) n oeacaieai
eiee/anoaa aeioiaeia, eo iiia?ia e a?oii iaoa?eaeia e eioi?ui iie
ioiinyony.

Aooaaeoa? iaoa?eaeueiiai ioaeaea i?eieiaao io
iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiiai eeoea aeieoiaiou i?e ?aano?ao
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia neeaaea, ouaoaeueii i?iaa?yao i?aaeeueiinoue
io?aaeaiey iniiaiuo ?aeaeceoia, aeieoiaioia a ea?oi/eao neeaaeneiai
o/aoa (iiia?, eiee/anoai, inoaoie) e caaa?yao i?iaa?eo naiae
iiaeienueth, iinea /aai ea?oi/ea i?eieiaao neeo aooaaeoa?neiai ?aaeno?a.

?aaioiee aooaaeoa?ee aeieaeai oaeaea i?iaiaeeoue ia neeaaeao
eiio?ieueiua, auai?i/iua i?iaa?ee oaeoe/aneiai iaee/ey inoaoea
iaoa?eaeia, iniaaiii aeaoeoeeoiuo e aei?iainoiyueo. I auyaeaiiuo
ia?ooaieyo a ?aaioa iaoa?eaeueii- ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei e ii ?acoeueoaoai
auai?i/iie i?iaa?ee caia/aiey auiinyony a niaoeeaeueiue aeo?iae neeaaea
e aeieeaaeuaathony aeaaiiio aooaaeoa?o i?aaiecaoeee.

Ii ninoiyieth ia ia?aia /enei eaaeaeiai ianyoea
iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei ia?aiineo eiee/anoaaiiua inoaoee ec
ea?oi/ae a aaaeiiinoe o/aoa inoaoeia iaoa?eaeia (o. ?I-14). Yoa
aaaeiiinoue ioe?uaaaony aooaaeoa?eae ia aiae ii eaaeaeiio neeaaeo.
O?aieony iia a aooaaeoa?ee e auaeaaony eeaaeiaueeo ca aeaiue aei
ieii/aiey ianyoea, a ia?aiai e aoi?iai /enea neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui
ianyoea ii aica?auaao aa a aooaaeoa?eth. A iaycaiiinoue
iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiiai eeoea aoiaeyo eiio?ieue ca niioaaonoaeai
oaeoe/aneeo inoaoeia ii iiiaieeaoo?iui iiia?ai, onoaiiaeaiiui ii?iai
caiania (iaeneioi, ieieioi) e niiauaiea ia ioeeiiaieyo ioaeaeo
ia?eaoeiaa.

?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa naeueaeiaue iaoiae o/aoa iaoa?eaeia.

Ia neeaaea ia iniiaaiee ioi?ieaiiuo a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea ia?ae/iuo
aeieoiaioia (o?aaiaaiee, iaeeaaeiuo, oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiuo iaeeaaeiuo
iinoaaueea) caaaaeothuee aaeaaeiaaii oi?ie?oao aaaeiiinoue aeaeaeaiey e
inoaoeia nu?uey iin?aaenoaii caienae ii iia?aoeeyi i?eoiaea e ioionea a
iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee (a 2-o yecaiiey?ao: iaeei yecaiiey? inoaaony ia
neeaaea, ae?oaie iinea naa?ee n ia?ae/iuie aeieoiaioaie aooaaeoa?
ia?aaeaao ia/aeueieeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey).

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e eniieueciaaiee iiaeiaiuo io/aoia ioiaaeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ninoaaeaiee i?i/eo aeieoiaioia. Oaeei ia?acii,
noi?ie?iaaiiua aaaeiiinoe noaiiayony ?aaeno?aie aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie inouanoaeyaony iia?aoeaiia ?oeiaiaenoai e
eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai e aeaeaeaieai nu?uey ia neeaaea.

Ia iaoa?eaeueiii neeaaea oeaaieiiaeiaoa o/ao aeaeaeaiey inouanoaeyaony
naeueaeiaui iaoiaeii. Aai iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie yaeythony iia?aoeaiinoue
e aooaaeoa?neay aeinoiaa?iinoue o/aoa ia neeaaea i?e iiiiue ea?oi/ae
neeaaeneiai o/aoa, eioi?ua aaaeoony iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiuie eeoeaie;
nenoaiaoe/aneee eiio?ieue ?aaioieeia aooaaeoa?ee ca i?aaeeueiui e
naiaa?aiaiiui aeieoiaioe?iaaieai iia?aoeee ii aeaeaeaieth iaoa?eaeia;
i?iaa?ea niioaaonoaey oaeoe/aneeo inoaoeia iaoa?eaeia iaoo?a aeaiiui
oaeouaai neeaaeneiai o/aoa; inouanoaeaiey aooaaeoa?eae o/aoa aeaeaeaiey
iaoa?eaeia a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee e acaeiii?iaa?ea aeaiiuo neeaaeneiai
e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Ia?acii, ia neeaaea AIIO Oeeeae «Eiiaeianeee oeiaieiiaeiao» ni?oiaie
o/ao inouanoaeyaony ia ea?oi/eao neeaaeneiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia ii oeiiaie
oi?ia ? I-17 (ni. i?eeiaeaiea). Ni?oiaie eiee/anoaaiiue o/ao aaaeaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiui eeoeii ii ia?a iinooieaiey
ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia e a niioaaonoaee n iiiaieeaoo?ie iaoa?eaeia. Ia
eaaeaeue iiiaieeaoo?iue iiia? aooaaeoa?ey ioe?uaaao ioaeaeueioth
ea?oi/eo. I?aaenoaaeoaeue eiiaeeoa?neiai oeaoa i?e iieo/aiee iaoa?eaeia
?anienuaaaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ea?oi/ea neeaaeneiai o/aoa. I?e yoie
nenoaia ea?oi/ea neeaaeneiai o/aoa yaeyaony ?aaeno?ii aiaeeoe/aneiai
o/aoa e iaeiia?aiaiii auiieiyao ooieoeee ii?aaaeaoaeueiiai aeieoiaioa.

O/ao ia neeaaea i?aaei?eyoey /anoe/ii aaoiiaoece?iaai. Ana iia?aoeee ii
aeaeaeaieth iaoa?eaeia (iiieii ea?oi/ae neeaaeneiai o/aoa) aaeaaeiaaii
io?aaeathony a niaoeeaeueiuo io/aoao ii i?eoiaeo e ?anoiaeo a
ioaeaeueiinoe a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee n iineaaeothuei auaaaeaieai
inoaoeia. Oaeaea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai a
oneiaeyo ana aieueoae eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee neeaaeneiai o/aoa ia
«Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa» i?ioeann aaaeaiey ea?oi/ae neeaaeneiai
o/aoa iinoaiaiii aaoiiaoece?oaony iieiinoueth. Yoi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
iaeaa/eo ?aaioo eeaaeiaueea.

Oaeei ia?acii oo?ii neaaeothuaai aeiy iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei
eaaeaeiai neeaaea i?aaenoaaeyao a aooaaeoa?eth aaaeiiinoe ioaeaeueii ii
i?eoiaeo e ?anoiaeo iaoa?eaeia ca aeaiue ii neeaaeo e aaaeiiinoue i
aeaeaeaiee nu?uey e aai inoaoeao ii aeaiiui nu?ueaaiai neeaaea.

Ec io/aoia ninoaaeyaony a 2-o yecaiiey?ao n i?eeiaeaieai ia?ae/iuo
aeieoiaioia. A iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea oeacuaathony eiee/anoai e iiia?a
naeaaaaiuo ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia. Aooaaeoa? naa?yao aeaiiua o/aoiuo
?aaeno?ia n aeaiiuie ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia. Iaeei yecaiiey? io/aoia
aica?auaaony iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiiio eeoeo. Ia iniiaaiee aoi?iai
yecaiiey?a aooaaeoa? caiineo eoiaiaua caiene i aeaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeia e
naaa a eiiiuethoa? e ia?aaeaao io/aou ia/aeueieeai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
o/anoeia aeey ninoaaeaiey aeaeueiaeoeo ?an/aoia.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaa?aiiuo io/aoia eeaaeiaueeai ninoaaeytho naiaeiua
io/aou ii i?eoiaeo e ?anoiaeo ia iaoa?eaeueiii neeaaea e naiaeiay
aaaeiiinoue i aeaeaeaiee nu?uey e aai inoaoeao ii aeaiiui nu?ueaaiai
neeaaea ca ianyoe.

Iacaaeneii io iieo/aiey ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia e oaeouaai eo eiio?iey
?aaioiee aooaaeoa?ee a oeaeyo i?iaa?ee i?aaiecaoeee neeaaeneiai o/aoa
iinauaao iaoa?eaeueiue neeaae ai a?aiy, iacia/aaiia a niaeaniaaiee n
aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii. I?e i?iaa?eao ii?aaeaeythony i?aaeeueiinoue e
naiaa?aiaiiinoue caienae a ea?oi/eao neeaaeneiai o/aoa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo
iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiuie eeoeaie. I?iaa?eo caiene iia?aoeee e
auaaaeaiiuo eeaaeiaueeii inoaoeia ii eaaeaeie iia?aoeee ?aaioiee
aooaaeoa?ee iiaeoaa?aeaeaao naiae iiaeienueth ii niioaaonoaothuae no?iea
ea?oi/ee, i?ienoiaeeo iaycaoaeueiay acaeiinaa?ea aeaiiuo neeaaeneiai e
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iooai niiinoaaeaiey inoaoea iaoa?eaeia ii aeaiiui
neeaaeneiai (eiee/anoaaiiiai) o/aoa n inoaoeaie iaoa?eaeia ii aeaiiui
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Ii ninoiyieth ia ia?aia /enei eaaeaeiai ianyoea caaaaeothuee
iaoa?eaeueiiai neeaaea oi?ie?oao aaaeiiinoue inoaoeia iaoa?eaeia ia
iniiaaiee ea?oi/ae neeaaeneiai o/aoa. Aaaeiiinoue ninoaaeyaony a
eiee/anoaaiiii au?aaeaiee oieueei ii oai iaoa?eaeai, eioi?ua eiaee
aeaeaeaiea a io/aoiii ianyoea.

Anee a oa/aiea ianyoea i?ienoiaeee ioione iaoa?eaeia ia noi?iio, oi
?aaioieeii neeaaea ninoaaeyaony iiae?iaiue io/ao, e eioi?iio
i?eeeaaeuaaaony i?eeac ia ioione i?iaeoeoeee ia noi?iio e iaeeaaeiay.
aeaiiue io/ao oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeyaony ?aaioieeo a aooaaeoa?ee.

Oaeaea aaeaaeiaaii ia/aeueieee oeaoia a eioi?ua ioioneaeenue nu?uea e
iaoa?eaeu, i?aaenoaaeytho a aooaaeoa?eth io/aou i nienaiee nu?uey eee
iaoa?eaeia, caeanue iiae?iaii oeacuaathony ana iaoa?eaeu, eioi?ua auee
iieo/aiu ia neeaaea e ec?anoiaeiaaiu ia ioaeaeu i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eeaaaaony ?an/ao ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai nienuaaeenue
cao?aaiaaiiua nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu.

Aaeaaeiaaii e ?aaioieeo aooaaeoa?ee noaeathony ana aeaiiua ni neeaaea e
oeaoia a aeaea io/aoia e i?eeiaeaiiuo e iei ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia.
Ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou iiaeaa?aathony i?iaa?ea o/aoiuo oeo?ia, a caoai yoe
aeieoiaiou a?oiie?othony ii aeaeai iia?aoeee, enoi/ieeai iinooieaiey e
iai?aaeaiey ioionea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia. Iinea i?iaa?ee aeaiiua i
aeaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey ii i?aaei?eyoeth caiinyony aooaaeoa?ii
iaoa?eaeueiiai noiea a eiiiuethoa?, aaea inouanoaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea
aaaeiiinoe i aeaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey ca ianyoe a
iaoo?aeueii-noieiinoiii ecia?aiee.

Eiiiuethoa? ai iiiaii iicaieyao oi?inoeoue iaoa?eaeueiue o/ao e nieceoue
aai o?oaeiaieinoue.

Aeey acaeiinaa?ee aeaiiuo neeaaeneiai e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia
niiinoaaeythony naeueaei ii n/aoai iaoa?eaeia ia ia/aei e eiiaoe
ianyoea, iieacaiiua a aaaeiiinoe aeaeaeaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a
iaoo?aeueii-noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee n aiaeiae/iuie inoaoeaie ec
aaaeiiinoe o/aoa inoaoeia iaoa?eaeia ia neeaaea. Eo niaiaaeaiea
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia ionoonoaee ioeaie a oaene?iaea ia?ae/iuo
aeieoiaioia ii o/aoo aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeia, i i?aaeeueiinoe e iieiioa
?aciinee aeaiiuo, ia iia?aoeeyo a ea?oi/ee neeaaeneiai o/aoa.

Iieo/aiiua ni neeaaeia ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou iiaeaa?aathony a aooaaeoa?ee
eiio?ieth ii nouanoao iia?aoeee e i?aaeeueiinoe eo ioi?ieaiey. Aeaeaa
ana ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou iiaeaa?aathony ia?aaioea: aoi?ua yecaiiey?u
ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia ?aneeaaeuaathony a ?ac?aca neeaaeia, a ia?aua
yecaiiey?u a?oiie?othony ii aeaeai iia?aoeee, enoi/ieeai iinooieaiey
ioionea iaoa?eaeia a niioaaonoaee n oeeo?aie cao?ao. Ea?oioaea yoeo
aeieoiaioia eniieuecoaony aeey ni?aaie.

Iia?aoeee ii eaaeaeiio ia?ae/iiio aeieoiaioo, iinooieaoaio a
aooaaeoa?eth, caiinyony aooaaeoa?ii iaoa?eaeueiiai noiea a eiiiuethoa?
n oeacaieai iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aeaeceoia e ei??aniiiaee?othueo n/aoia.

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeia a oneiaeyo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie
ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee inouanoaeyaony aooaaeoa?eae a iaoo?aeueii-noiiiaii
au?aaeaiee ia niioaaonoaothueo neioaoe/aneeo n/aoao e noan/aoao.

Noiiu iai?ioia oi?ie?othony aaoiiaoe/anee a niaoeeaeueiie iaeiieoaeueiie
aaaeiiinoe neioaoe/aneiai o/aoa a ?ac?aca neioaoe/aneeo n/aoia e
noan/aoia. A eiioea io/aoiiai ianyoea eoiae yoie aaaeiiinoe ia?aiinyo a
niioaaonoaothuee ?acaeae aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?10 ii o/aoo cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai.

Aeey o/aoa iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey e eo aeaeaeaiey eniieuecotho n/ao ?10.
I?aaei?eyoea naii ii?aaeaeyao, eaeea n/aoa aio eniieueciaaoue, a io
eaeeo ioeacaoueny e oeene?oao yoi a naiae o/aoiie iieeoeea.

Ia n/aoa 10 «Iaoa?eaeu» ioe?uaathony noan/aoa, oae ia noan/aoa 10-1
«Nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu» o/eouaaaony iaee/ea e aeaeaeaiea nu?uey e iniiaiuo
iaoa?eaeia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa aioiauo ecaeaeee, ia?acoea eo iniiao, eee
yaeythueony iaiaoiaeeiuie eiiiiiaioaie i?e eo ecaioiaeaiee.

2.3. O/ao iia?aoeee ii i?eia?aoaieth, caaioiaeaieth e iinooieaieth
iaoa?eaeia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu iaoa?eaeia iiiieiythony ca n/ao eo iinoaaie
i?aaei?eyoeyie-iinoaaueeaie eee i?i/eie i?aaiecaoeeyie ia iniiaa
aeiaiai?ia. A iineaaeieo i?aaeoniao?eaathony: iaeiaiiaaiea iaoa?eaeia,
eo eiee/anoai, oeaia, n?ie iinoaaie, ii?yaeie ?an/aoia, niinia
o?ainii?oe?iaee, naieoeee ca ianiaethaeaiea oneiaee aeiaiai?a, ii?yaeie
i?eaiee e o.i. I?aaei?eyoey-iinoaaueee ia ioa?oaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth
auienuaatho ieaoaaeiia o?aaiaaiea-ii?o/aiea e n/aoa-oaeoo?u, ia?aaeatho
eo iieoiaoaeth, iineaaeiea ia?aaeatho eo a naie aaie aeey iieaou.
Iia?aoeaiue o/ao auiieiaiey aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa ia AIIO Oeeeae
«Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa» inouanoaeyao ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa, iiyoiio
ieaoaaeiua o?aaiaaiey-ii?o/aiey e n/aoa-oaeoo?u a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
iinooiatho a yoio ioaeae eee oeiainiaue. Oai i?iaa?ytho niioaaonoaea eo
aeiaiai?ai, ?aaeno?e?otho a aeo?iaea o/aoa iinooiathueo a?ocia (o ?I-1),
aeaeatho ioiaoeo a eieaa o/aoa auiieiaiey aeiaiai?ia e aeoeaioe?otho,
o.a. aeatho niaeanea ia iieaoo.

Iinea ?aaeno?aoeee ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou iieo/atho aioo?aiiee iiia?
(?aaeno?aoeeiiiue) e ia?aaeathony a aooaaeoa?eth i?aaei?eyoey aeey
iieaou, a eaeoaioeey e oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiay iaeeaaeiay ia?aaeathony a
yeniaaeeoeeiiiue ioaeae aeey iieo/aiey e aeinoaaee a?oca.

N yoiai iiiaioa o aooaaeoa?ee i?aaei?eyoey aicieeatho ?an/aou n
iinoaaueeaie. Iinea iinooieaiey a?oca ia neeaae auienuaaaony i?eoiaeiue
i?aea?, caoai i?e ?aano?a naeaaony a aooaaeoa?eth, aaea oaene?oaony e
i?eeeaaeuaaaony e ieaoaaeiiio aeieoiaioo. Ii ia?a iieaou aaieii yoiai
aeieoiaioa aooaaeoa?ey iieo/aao auieneo ec ?an/aoiiai n/aoa i nienaiee
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a iieueco i?aaei?eyoey-iinoaaueea.

O/ao ?an/aoa n iinoaaueeaie oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e oneoa
i?aaiecoaony ia n/aoa 60 «?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie e iiae?yae/eeaie». N/ao
ii ioiioaieth e aaeaino – ianneaiue: naeueaei e?aaeeoiaia
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i noiiao caaeieaeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey iinoaaueeai e
iiae?yae/eeai ii iaiiea/aiiui n/aoai e iaiooaeoo?e?iaaiiuie iinoaaeaie:
iai?io ii aeaaeoo i noiiao iieao, nienaiee e ca/aoia ca io/aoiue ianyoe;
iai?io ii e?aaeeoo – i noiiao ii i?eiyoui e iieaoa aeoeaioe?iaaiiui
ieaoaaeiui aeieoiaioai e iaiooaeoo?e?iaaiiui iinoaaeai ca io/aoiue
ianyoe.

Aaaeaony o/ao ?an/aoia n iinoaaueeaie a aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?6. Yoi
eiiaeie?iaaiiue aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao a eioi?ii i?aaiecoaony a ?acia?a
eaaeaeiai ieaoaaeiiai aeieoiaioa, i?eoiaeiiai i?aea?a eee i?eaiiiai
aeoa. Ioe?uaaaony yoio aeo?iae-i?aea? noiiaie iacaeii/aiiuo ?an/aoia n
iinoaaueeaie ia ia/aea ianyoea:

ii aeoeaioe?iaaiiui ieaoaaeiui aeieoiaioai, n?ie iieaou eioi?uo ia
ianooiee;

ii aeoeaioe?iaaiiui ieaoaaeiui aeieoiaioai iiea/aiiui – iaoa?eaeu ia
iinooieee (ni?aai/ii: «Ca iai?eauaoee a?oc» naeueaei iao);

ii aeoeaioe?iaaiiui ieaoaaeiui aeieoiaioai iaiiea/aiiui – iaoa?eaeu ia
iinooieaoea (ni?aai/ii «Ca iai?eauaoee a?oc», naeueaei ia ia/aei
ianyoea);

naeueaei ia ia/aei ianyoea ii iaiooaeoo?e?iaaiiui iinoaaeai (iaoa?eaeu
iinooieee, a ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou aeey iieaou eo ia iinooieee).

A oa/aiea io/aoiiai ianyoea aooaaeoa?ey oeaaieiiaeiaoa iieo/aao
ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou iinoaaueeia; i?eieiaao i?eoiaeiua i?aea?a e
i?eaiiua aeou neeaaeia, iieo/aao auienee ec ?an/aoiiai e i?i/eo n/aoia
i?aaei?eyoey. Yoi iicaieyao caeeth/eoue ?an/aou, caeii/eoue eo aaeaeo
auiieiaiey eaaeaeie noi?iiie naieo iaycaoaeuenoa.

AEo?iae-i?aea? ?6 aaaeaony eeiaeii-iiceoeeiiiui niiniaii, /oi aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue noaeeoue i ninoiyiee ?an/aoia n iinoaaueeaie ii eaaeaeiio
aeieoiaioo. E?iia ni?aai/iuo aeaiiuo (iiia? n/aoa, ?aaeno?aoeeiiiue
iiia?, iaeiaiiaaiea iinoaaueea) a aeo?iaea i?aea?a ?6 caienuaathony
iiia? i?eoiaeiiai aeieoiaioa neeaaea, noieiinoue iinooieaoeo iaoa?eaeia
ii o/aoiui oeaiai i?aaei?eyoey e noieiinoue ii ieaoaaeiiio aeieoiaioo n
auaeaeaieai a ioaeaeueioth a?aoo noiiu iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue, oeacaiiie a ?an/aoiii aeieoiaioa. Noiiu ii o/aoiui oeaiai
caienuaathony iacaaeneii io aeaea iinooieaoeo oeaiiinoae iauae noiiie –
a ?ac?aca aeaeia iaoa?eaeia (iniiaiua, iieooaa?eeaou e o.ae.). Noiia
i?aoaicee caienuaaaony ia iniiaaiee aeoia.

Ii auieneai aaiea i?iecaiaeeony ioiaoea ia iieaoa eaaeaeiai ieaoaaeiiai
aeieoiaioa.

Ii?yaeie o/aoa iaiooaeoo?e?iaaiiuo iinoaaie.

Iaiooaeoo?e?iaaiiuie n/eoathony iinoaaee, ii eioi?ui iaoa?eaeueiua
oeaiiinoe iinooieee ia i?aaei?eyoea aac ieaoaaeiiai aeieoiaioa. Ia
neeaaea i?eoiaeotho eo, auienuaaaony i?eaiiue aeo, eioi?ue i?e ?aano?a
iinooiaao a aooaaeoa?eth. Caeanue iaoa?eaeu ii aeoo ?anoeaieaathony ii
o/aoiui oeaiai, caienuaathony a aeo?iae-i?aea? ?6 eae oeaiiinoe,
iinooieaoea ia neeaae, a yoie aea noiia ioiinyony ia a?oiio iaoa?eaeia e
a aeoeaio. Iaiooaeoo?e?iaaiiua iinoaaee ?aaeno?e?othony a
aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?6 a eiioea ianyoea, eiaaea aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey
ieaoaaeiiai aeieoiaioa a aeaiiii ianyoea ioiaea. Iieaoa a io/aoiii
ianyoea iie ia iiaeeaaeao, oae eae iniiaaieai aeey iieaou aaieii
yaeythony ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou (eioi?ua ionoonoaotho). Ii ia?a
iinooieaiey ieaoaaeiuo aeieoiaioia ia yoo iinoaaeo a neaaeothuai ianyoea
iie aeoeaioothony i?aaei?eyoeai, iiea/eaathony aaieii e ?aaeno?e?othony
aooaaeoa?eae a aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?6 a naiaiaeiie no?iea ii a?oiia
iaoa?eaeia e a a?aoa a noiia ieaoaaeiiai o?aaiaaiey. ?an/aou n
iinoaaueeii ii yoie iinoaaea aoaeoo caeii/aiu.

Ii?yaeie o/aoa iaoa?eaeia a iooe.

Iaoa?eaeaie a iooe iacuaathony oaeea iinoaaee, ii eioi?ui i?aaei?eyoey
aeoeaioiaaee ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou, a iaoa?eaeu ia neeaae ii iei aua ia
iieo/eee. E o/aoo i?eieiathony aeoeaioiaaiiua ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou
iacaaeneii io oiai, iiea/aiu iie aaieii eee iaiiea/aiu.

A aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?6 aeieoiaiou ?aaeno?e?othony a oa/aiea ianyoea. Ii
ieii/aiee ianyoea i?aaei?eyoey iaycaiu i?eiyoue yoe oeaiiinoe ia aaeain,
o.a. caienue ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e a?oiia iaoa?eaeia (oneiaii
ii?eoiaeiaaoue), ii ia ia/aei neaaeothuaai ianyoea ?an/aou ii yoei
iinoaaeai ia aoaeoo caeii/aiu. I?e iinooieaiee oeaiiinoae aooaaeoa?ey
iieo/eo i?eoiaeiua i?aea?a neeaaeia, ii?eoiaeoao eo ia neeaae e ia
a?oiio (aac aeoeaioa, oae eae ii oaea aue aeai a iiiaio iinooieaiey
ieaoaaeiuo o?aaiaaiee, a iiaeao auoue, yoe n/aoa oaea e iiea/aiu) ii
no?iea ?aaeno?aoeee yoiai n/aoa a ia caeii/aiiuo ia ia/aei ianyoea
?an/aoao. I?e cae?uoee aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?6, ii ieii/aiee ianyoea, yoi
iinoaaea ii a?oiia iaoa?eaeia aoaeao noi?ie?iaaia eae ii?eoiaeiaaiiay
aeaaaeaeu.

I?e ?an/aoao n iinoaaueeaie ca iaoa?eaeu e nu?uea iiaoo auoue auyaeaiu
iaaeinoa/e eee eceeoee oaeoe/anee iinooieaoaai eiee/anoaa ii n?aaiaieth
n aeieoiaioaie iinoaaueea, eioi?ua ioi?ieythony aeoii (o. ? I-7).
Eceeoee i?eoiaeothony ii aeoo e ?anoeaieaathony ii o/aoiui oeaiai
i?aaei?eyoey eee ii aeiaiai?iui (ioioneiui oeaiai), caoai o/eouaathony a
aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?6 ioaeaeueiie no?ieie eae iaiooaeoo?e?iaaiiay iinoaaea
– ioaeae niaaaeaiey niiauaao iinoaaueeo ia eceeoeao e i?ineo aunoaaeoue
ieaoaaeiia o?aaiaaiea. A neo/aa auyaeaiey iaaeinoa/e aooaaeoa?ey
?ann/eouaaao eo oaeoe/aneoth naaanoieiinoue e i?aaeuyaeyao i?aoaicee e
iinoaaueeo.

Niaeanii i. 5 IAO 5/98 i?eia?aoaaiua iaoa?eaeu o/eouaathony ii
oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe caaioiaeaiey. I?e yoii a niioaaonoaee n
eino?oeoeeae ii i?eiaiaieth ieaia n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee iie io?aaeathony ia
n/aoa 10 eeai ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe, eeai ii o/aoiui
(n?aaeiaacaaoaiiui) oeaiai.

Ioeaiea iaoa?eaeia ii o/aoiui oeaiai oaeiaia a neooaoeee oeiainiaie
ianoaaeeueiinoe e /anoiai eieaaaiey iieoiiuo oeai. I?aaiecaoeey a ia/aea
oi?ie?oao ia n/ao 15 «Cayaeaiea e i?eia?aoaiea iaoa?eaeia» eioi?iaoeeth
i oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe iinooieaoeo ?ano?nia, a caoai i?eoiaeoao eo
ia n/ao 10 ii o/aoiui oeaiai. Aicieeathuea ioeeiiaiey o/eouaathony
iainiaeaiii ia n/aoa 16 «Ioeeiiaiey a noieiinoe iaoa?eaeia».

Oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue caaioiaeaiey neeaaeuaaaony ec noii,
oiea/aiiuo iinoaaueeo a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii (aac IAeN), e noii
o?ainii?oii-caaioiaeoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia (aac IAeN). E iineaaeiei, a
/anoiinoe, ioiinyony:

noiiu, oiea/eaaaiua ca eioi?iaoeeiiiua e eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua
oneoae, naycaiiua n i?eia?aoaieai iaoa?eaeia;

oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu e eiua ieaoaaee;

iaaiciauaaiua iaeiae;

eiienneiiiua aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, oiea/eaaaiua iin?aaeieeai;

cao?aou ia caaioiaeo e aeinoaaeo iaoa?eaeia aei ianoa eo eniieueciaaiey;

eiua cao?aou, iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiua n i?eia?aoaieai aeaiiuo
oeaiiinoae.

I?aaiecoy ioeaieo iaoa?eaeia, iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia
neaaeothuoth iniaaiiinoue.

Oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue iinooiathueo iaoa?eaeia aeieaeia aeeth/aoue a
naay aeaa iao?aaeeoeeiiiua noaouee o?ainii?oii-caaioiaeoaeueiuo
?anoiaeia: ?anoiaeu ii no?aoiaaieth aeaiiuo oeaiiinoae e ?anoiaeu ii
iieaoa (ia/eneaieth) i?ioeaioia ii caaiiui n?aaenoaai aei eo
ii?eoiaeiaaiey ia neeaae i?aaiecaoeee.

Anee iaoa?eaeu i?eia?aoathony /a?ac iiaeio/aoiuo eeoe, eioi?ua ia
i?aaei?eyoee yaeythony iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiuie eeoeaie, oi
iieo/aiiua aaainii aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ec eannu aeey iieoiee
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny neaaeothuei ia?acii:

n?aaenoaa aiinyony iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiui eeoeii io eiaie
i?aaiecaoeee a eanno i?iaeaaoea ii i?eoiaeiiio eanniaiio i?aea?o, i?e
yoii i?iaeaaoeii auienuaaaony iaeeaaeiay e n/ao-oaeoo?a ia i?eia?aoaiiua
oeaiiinoe. A yoii neo/aa noiia IAeN aeey aa ca/aoa (aiciauaiey ec
athaeaeaoa) ai anao ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioao aeieaeia auoue auaeaeaia
ioaeaeueiie no?ieie (i.16 eino?oeoeee ?39);

i?e iieoiea iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a iaaaceia ?icie/iie oi?aiaee
iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei i?iaeaaao /ae ia iieoieo, oiaaea eae
i?iaeaaaoe auienuaaao oiaa?iue /ae. A yoii neo/aa IAeN, aeaaea anee ii
auaeaeai a ia?ae/iuo o/aoiuo aeieoiaioao, e ca/aoo ia i?eieiaaony, a
aeeth/aaony a ia?aiia/aeueioth noieiinoue iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
caiania (eae e ae?oaea iaaiciauaaiua iaeiae).

Aeey o/aoa iaoa?eaeia, iinooieaoeo io iinoaaueeia, a ea/anoaa ia?ae/iiai
aeieoiaioa i?eiaiyaony i?eoiaeiue i?aea? (o ? I-14), eioi?ue ninoaaeyao
iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei a aeaiue iinooieaiey oeaiiinoae ia
neeaae. I?eoiaeiue i?aea? aeieaeai auienuaaoueny ia oaeoe/anee i?eiyoia
eiee/anoai oeaiiinoae ii nii?iaiaeeoaeueiui aeieoiaioai, i?e yoii iaeia
n i?iaeaae, oeacaiiue a yoeo aeieoiaioao a neo/aa iieaou ca iaee/iua
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, aeeth/aaony a iieoiioth noieiinoue iaoa?eaeia.

Aeiaiai?ii eoiee-i?iaeaaee iiaeao auoue i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi /anoue
iaoa?eaeia iiea/eaaaony a aaciaee/iii ii?yaeea, a /anoue – iaee/iuie
aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie. A yoii neo/aa noieiinoue i?eia?aoaiiiai
iaoa?eaea a /anoe, iiea/aiiie iaee/iuie aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie,
oaaee/eaaaony ia noiio iaeiaa n i?iaeaae.

?anniio?ei ia eiie?aoiuo i?eia?ao iieaoo iinoaaueeai i?e i?eia?aoaiee
iaoa?eaeia.

I?eia? 1. I?eia?aoaiea iaoa?eaeia ca iaee/iue ?an/ao iioii.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea i?eia?aei /a?ac iiaeio/aoiia eeoei iioii
ca iaee/iue ?an/ao ioeo ia 7560 ?oa., a o./. IAeN – 1200 ?oa., iaeia n
i?iaeaae – 360 ?oa. (i?e noaaea 5%) I?i/ea ?anoiaeu n i?eia?aoaieai ioee
ionoonoaotho. Io?aaeaiea iia?aoeee ia n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
iieoiaoaey:

Aeaaao n/.71 “?an/aou n iiaeio/aoiuie eeoeaie”

E?aaeeo n/.50 “Eanna”

7600?oa.

aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa aeey iieoiee ioee auaeaiu iiae io/ao

Aeaaao n/.10 “Iaoa?eaeu”

E?aaeeo n/.71 “?an/aou n iiaeio/aoiuie eeoeaie”

6360

iaoa?eae ii oeaiai iinoaaueea niaeanii aeiaiai?o eoiee-i?iaeaaee aac

o/aoa IAeN, ii n o/aoii iaeiaa n i?iaeaae (7560 – 1200 ?oa.)
ii?eoiaeiaai ia neeaae;

Aeaaao n/.19 “IAeN ii i?eia?aoaiee oeaiiinoae”

E?aaeeo n/.71 “?an/aou n iiaeio/aoiuie eeoeaie”

1200 ?oa.

io?aaeai IAeN ii iinooieaoaio iaoa?eaeo;

Aeaaao n/.68 “?an/aou n athaeaeaoii”

E?aaeeo n/.19 “IAeN ii i?eia?aoaiiui oeaiiinoyi”

1200 ?oa.

noiia IAeN ii iinooieaoaio e iiea/aiiiio iaoa?eaeo ioianaia ia

?an/aou n athaeaeaoii;

Aeaaao n/. 50 “Eanna”

E?aaeeo n/. 71 “?an/aou n iiaeio/aoiuie eeoeaie”

40 ?oa.

inoaoie iaeniieueciaaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa aica?auai iiaeio/aoiui

eeoeii (7600 ?oa. – 7560 ?oa.);

Aeaaao n/. 20 “iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai”

E?aaeeo n/. 10 “Iaoa?eaeu”

6360 ?oa.

iaoa?eaeu ioiouaiu aeey eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa.

2.4. Eiaaioa?ecaoeey iaoa?eaeia

Iieiaeaiea i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe iaycuaaao i?aaei?eyoea
i?iaiaeeoue eiaaioa?ecaoeeth oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae:

ia iaiaa iaeiiai ?aca a aiae ii ninoiyieth ia ia?aia ieoya?y io/aoiiai
aiaea (ii ia ?aiaa) n oeaeueth iauaeoeaiiai io?aaeaiey ninoiyiey yoeo
n?aaenoa a aiaeiaii io/aoa;

i?e niaia iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe e i?e noeoeeiuo aaaenoaeyo;

a neo/aa ?anoiaeaeaiee iaaeaeo aeaiiuie aooaaeoa?neiai e neeaaeneiai
o/aoa.

Iniiaiay oeaeue eiaaioa?ecaoeee – auyaeaiea oaeoe/aneiai iaee/ey
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a iaoo?aeueiii e noieiinoiii
au?aaeaiee. A i?ioeanna eiaaioa?ecaoeee i?iaa?ythony:

nio?aiiinoue oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae;

i?aaeeueiinoue eo o?aiaiey, ioionea, ninoiyiea aaniaiai e
ecia?eoaeueiiai eino?oiaioa;

ii?yaeie aaaeaiey o/aoa aeaeaeaiey oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae.

Ii iauaio i?iaa?ee eiaaioa?ecaoeee aeaeyony ia nieioiua e auai?i/iua, a
ii a?aiaie – ia ieaiiaua e aiaieaiiaua. I?aaiecoao e ?oeiaiaeeo
i?iaaaeaieai eiaaioa?ecaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue (aee?aeoi?) i?aaei?eyoey eee
aai caianoeoaeue, eee aeaaiue aooaaeoa?.

?aaioo ii i?iaaaeaieth eiaaioa?ecaoeee inouanoaeyao eiienney, ninoiyuay
ec eiiiaoaioiuo eeoe, iacia/aaiay i?eeacii ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey.

Aooaaeoa? e iiiaioo i?iaaaeaiey eiaaioa?ecaoeee ninoaaeyao
eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiioth iienue oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ii neeaaeai
(o ? eia-3). Neeaaeneea iia?aoeee a yoio ia?eiae ia i?iecaiaeyony:
caaaaeothuee neeaaeii a aeaiiie iiene aeaao ?anieneo a oii, /oi ana
aeieoiaiou neeaaea caienaiu a ea?oi/eo neeaaeneiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia e
naeaiu a aooaaeoa?eth i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeey auyaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia eiaaioa?ecaoeee iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny
eieaa inoaoeia iaoa?eaeia, a eioi?ie i?aaeoniio?aiu niaoeeaeueiua
eieiiee aeey caiene inoaoeia iaoa?eaeia a iaoo?a ii aeaiiui
eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiiuo iienae.

Ai anao neo/ayo ?anoiaeaeaiey, auyaeaiiua a ?acoeueoaoa eiaaioa?ecaoeee
(eceeoee eee iaaeinoaoee) ioi?ieythony ninoaaeaieai nee/eoaeueiuo
aaaeiiinoae ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe. Oeaiiinoe, ieacaaoeany a
eceeoea, iiaeeaaeao ii?eoiaeiaaieth n oiaiueoaieai iauacaaiaeneeo
?anoiaeia (aeaaao n/aoa 10, e?aaeeo n/aoa 26). Iaaeinoa/a oeaiiinoae
nienuaaaony ia n/aoa 84 “Iaaeinoa/a e iioa?e io ii?/e oeaiiinoae” n
oiaiueoaieai noieiinoe e eiee/anoaa eo ii n/aoai iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae.

Ii ?aoaieth ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey noiia iaaeinoa/e a i?aaeaeao ii?i
anoanoaaiiie oauee ioiinyony ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa:

Aeaaao n/. 25 “Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu”

E?aaeeo n/. 84 “Iaaeinoa/e e iioa?e io ii?/e oeaiiinoae”

Iaaeinoa/e naa?o ii?i anoanoaaiiie oauee ioiinyony ia
iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe:

Aeaaao n/. 73-3 “?an/aou ii aiciauaieth iaoa?eaeueiiai oua?aa”

E?aaeeo n/. 84 “Iaaeinoa/e e iioa?e io ii?/e oeaiiinoae”

Iaeiiiaine?oaiua iioa?e iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae io noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee
ioiinyony ia ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey:

Aeaaao n/.80

E?aaeeo n/. 10

Ia i?aaei?eyoee iaaeinoa/a e iioa?e io ii?/e oeaiiinoae , eiaaea
eiie?aoiua aeiiaieee ia onoaiiaeaiu, ioiinyony ia cao?aou i?iecaiaenoaa.

2.5. I?aaiecaoeey iia?aoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia

Ia AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa” iia?aoeaiue o/ao aeaeaeaiey
?anoiaea nu?uey i?aaieciaai oae. Ioione nu?uey n oeaio?aeueiiai neeaaea
a oeaoiaua eeaaeiaua i?iecaiaeeony ii eeieoiui ea?oai. Ia oeaio?aeueiii
neeaaea ia eaaeaeue aeae nu?uey aaaeaony ioaeaeueiay ea?oi/ea
neeaaeneiai o/aoa, a eioi?ie ia eaaeaeue oeao ioaiaeeoueny ioaeaeueiay
a?aoa. A iae i?inoaaeyaony eiee/anoai ioiouaiiiai nu?uey e ?inienue
noa?oaai eeaaeiaueea oeaoa a iieo/aiee. A ooieoeee noa?oaai eeaaeiaueea
oeaoa aoiaeeo iieo/aiea nu?uey n oeaio?aeueiiai neeaaea e aeinoaaea aai
aei oeaoiaie eeaaeiaie. A oeaoa eiathony niaiiua eeaaeiaueee, aeaa eee
o?e, a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa niai.

A oeaoiaie eeaaeiaie aaaeaony eieaa (o. ? 3), a eioi?ie ia eaaeaeia
iaeiaiiaaiea nu?uey ioe?uaaaony ioaeaeueiay no?aieoea. A yoie eieaa
iieacuaaaony inoaoie ia ia/aei niaiu, iinooieaiea e ioione a oeao.
Nu?uea ec oeaoiaie eeaaeiaie iieo/aao noa?oee ?aoeaioo?uee, eioi?ue e
?anienuaaaony a auoaoeacaiiie eieaa a iieo/aiee. Ioione nu?uey a oeao
i?iecaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n ?aai/eie ?aoeaioo?aie.

A iaeioi?uo oeaoiauo eeaaeiauo ninoaaeythony oae iacuaaaiay ?aii?oe/ea,
a eioi?ie ii eaaeaeiio iaeiaiiaaieth nu?uey io?aaeaaony inoaoie ia
ia/aei niaiu, iinooieaiee e ioione a i?iecaiaenoai, ia ia?aoiie noi?iia
– inoaoie nu?uey ii aeaeai ia ia/aei niaiu a ?aoeaioo?iii ioaeaeaiee.
Yoio aeieoiaio ninoaaeyaony ia?aeeaeueii n aaaeaieai eieae ii o. ? 3
aeey oaeianoaa iieueciaaiey, oae eae eieaa caiieiyaony a oa/aiee ianyoea
e a iae o?oaeii i?eaioe?iaaoueny i?e ii?aaeaeaiee inoaoea nu?uey ia
ia/aei eaaeaeie niaiu.

A iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo ieeaeeo ?aoeaioo?iuo aeo?iaeia a oeaoao ia aaaeaony.
I?e oaeii o/aoa iaaiciiaeii i?aaieciaaoue iia?aoeaiue aiaeec ?anoiaea
nu?uey, oae eae iaecaanoii, eaeay i?iaeoeoeey auioneaaony e eaeia nu?uea
ia aa ecaioiaeaiea. Yoi eeanne/aneee i?eia? “eioeiaiai” niiniaa o/aoa,
iaaeinoaoee eioi?iai oi?ioi ecaanoiu.

Oioy aaaeaiea ?aoeaioo?iuo aeo?iaeia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue eiio?iee?iaaoue
niaethaeaiea ?aoeaioo? e aeaeaoue iauee ?anoiae nu?uey ca niaio, iaeiaei
ia iniiaaiee eo iaeuecy ii?aaeaeeoue iauaa ioeeiiaiea io ?aoeaioo?u ia
auiouaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth e aai i?e/eiu.

Ia ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee iia?aoeaiue o/ao ?anoiaea nu?uey ia i?iecaiaenoaa
aiiaua ia aaaeaony eee aaaeaony n iiiiuueth aaaeiiinoe aeaeaeaiey nu?uey
e iaoa?eaeia. A yoie aaaeiiinoe iieacaiu iaeiaiiaaiea nu?uey, aaeeieoeu
ecia?aiey, inoaoie ia ia/aei niaiu, i?eoiae ca niaio, ?anoiae ca niaio,
inoaoie ia eiiaoe niaiu. Ninoaaeyaony iia aaeaiany/ii. Inoaoee ia ia/aei
ianyoea i?inoaaeythony ia iniiaaiee aeoia eiaaioa?ecaoeee ia 1-a /enei
ianyoea, i?eoiae ca niaio – ia iniiaaiee aeieoiaioia i i?eoiaea
(eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o, iaeeaaeiuo). Inoaoie ia eiiaoe niaiu
ii?aaeaeyaony iooai acaaoeaaiey, iaia?a eee iiaen/aoa (ooo/iiai nu?uey,
naoa?a, niee, ioee a iaoeao e ae?.). ?anoiae ca niaio onoaiaaeeaaaony
neaaeothuei ia?acii: a ae?oaea oeaoa – ia iniiaaiee aioo?aiieo
iaeeaaeiuo, a i?iecaiaenoai – ia iniiaaiee ?aoeaioo?iuo aeo?iaeia.
?anoiae a i?iecaiaenoai ca niaio eiio?iee?oaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:
inoaoie ia ia/aei niaiu iethn i?eoiae ca niaio ieion ?anoiae a ae?oaea
oeaoa ieion inoaoie ia eiiaoe niaiu. Oaeie o/ao aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ciaoue aaeaniaiiue ?anoiae nu?uey ia i?iecaiaenoai. Iaeiaei, iineieueeo
a yoie aaaeiiinoe ia iieacuaaaony auoiae i?iaeoeoeee ec cao?a/aiiiai ia
i?iecaiaenoai nu?uey, ii iae iaeuecy i?iaanoe aiaeec aai eniieueciaaiey.

Eae ioia/aeinue ?aiaa, a nayce n iniaaiiinoyie oaoiieiaee o?oaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue auoiae i?iaeoeoeee ec yoiai nu?uey. Naeaeaoue yoi iiaeii
auei au oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee au nu?uea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
iinooiaei aia/aea niaiu no?iai ii ii?iai ia auione caieaie?iaaiiuo
ecaeaeee niaeanii “Noaiaea?oiie iaaeaea”, iieiinoueth eniieueciaaeinue a
yoie aea niaia e aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey naeaaaeanue ia neeaae. Ii yoi
o?oaeii inouanoaeoue i?aeoe/anee.

Iaeaieaa iieii o?aaiaaieyi iia?aoeaiiai aiaeeca ioaa/aao i?aaiecaoeey
iia?aoeaiiai o/aoa ?anoiaea nu?uey e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee a aeneaeoiii
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey yoie oeaee eniieuecothony aaeaniaiiua
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua io/aou, a eioi?uo ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo nu?uey
io?aaeathony neaaeothuea iieacaoaee: oaeoe/aneia i?ioeaioiia
niaea?aeaiea nooeo aauanoa, i?eiyoi io i?aaeuaeouae niaiu, iieo/aii ni
neeaaea, ?anoiae ia au?aaioaiiua aioiaua ecaeaeey (ii ii?iai ia caian e
anaai ii eaaeaeiio ecaeaeeth e ia i?iecaiaenoai a oeaeii). I?e yoii
aanue ?anoiae io?aaeaaony ii ianna e ii nooei aauanoaai (i?e ieaiiaii e
oaeoe/aneii eo niaea?aeaiee). A io/aoa io?aaeaaony oaeaea eiee/anoai
ia?aaeaiiiai nu?uey e inoaoie ia eiiaoe niaiu, eiee/anoai caiania,
aica?aoiua iooiaeu (iieo/aii, ia?a?aaioaii e o.ae.). Oaeie o/ao aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aanoe aeaenoaaiiue eiio?ieue ca nio?aiiinoueth nu?uey,
niaethaeaieai ?aoeaioo?, auoiaeii i?iaeoeoeee ii ianna. Iaeiaei aai
aeaiiua iaeuecy iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaaoue aeey iia?aoeaiiai
aiaeeca naaanoieiinoe.

Aeaaa III. AIAEEC YOOAEOEAIINOE ENIIEUeCIAAIEss NU?Uess E IAOA?EAEIA A
I?IECAIAeNOAA

3.1 Caaea/e aiaeeca, enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee.

?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ieacuaaao
?aciinoi?iiiaa aeeyiea ia i?ioeann yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Yoi iaeei ec
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo iooae auno?iai ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa
no?aiu, iiauoaiea ?iee eioaineaiuo oaeoi?ia ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa e
iiaeuaia ia yoie iniiaa ia?iaeiiai aeaaininoiyiey.

No?iaeaeoay yeiiiiey e aa?aaeeeainoue a ?anoiaeiaaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia auee anaaaea /?acau/aeii aaaeiu aeey iaoae no?aiu.

Oaaee/aiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aiaeaeaao
aieueooth ianno nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoai. Nieaeaiea
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee nicaeaao aieueooth yeiiiieth.

A oeaaiiaea?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe yeiiiiiia eniieueciaaiea nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea, oae eae a no?oeoo?a cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai iie caieiatho iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan.

Ieaea iieacaia no?oeoo?a cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai ii yeiiiie/aneei
yeaiaioai “Eiiaeianeiai oeaaieiiaeiaoa” ca aiae ii io/iui eiiaeeoa?neei
ecaeaeeyi.

Oaaeeoea ? 3.1.

No?oeoo?a cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai

? i/iYe. yeaiaio?oa.%1Nu?uea e iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu4485091 –
2366.32Oiieeai54034 – 670.83Yia?aey21189 – 640.34Ca?aaioiay ieaoa591387
– 518.75Io/eneaiea ia nioe. no?aoiaaiea214490 – 003.26Niaea?aeaiea
iai?oaeiaaiey158152 – 682.37Iauacaaiaeneea ?anoiaeu932331 –
8713.88I?i/ea ?anoiaeu311576 – 224.69Eoiai6768253.82100

Oaeaeueiue aan a no?oeoo?a cao?ao caieiaao nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu e
ninoaaeytho 66,3%

A ?aoaiee caaea/ iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec, eioi?ue
niinianoaoao ecuneaieth aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia aieaa
yeiiiie/aneiai eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia n oeaeueth nie?auaiey
cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee. Aai caaea/aie yaeythony:

ioeaiea ?aaeueiinoe ieaiia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, noaiaie
eo auiieiaiey e aeeyiey ia iauai i?iaeoeoeee;

ii?aaeaeaiea e eiee/anoaaiiia eciaiaiea oaeoi?ia ioeeiiaiey oaeoe/aneiai
?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia io ieaiiaiai;

eco/aiea niaethaeaiey ?aoeaioo?, eiio?ieue auiieiaiey caaeaiee ii
nieaeaieth ii?i iioa?ue a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa;

eco/aiea aeeiaieee iieacaoaeae ii eniieueciaaieth iaoa?eaeia;

ioeaiea o?iaiy yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia;

auyaeaiea aioo?e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aca?aia yeiiiiee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia
e auiieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa ii yeiiiiee e aa?aaeeeainoe.

?ino iio?aaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a iaoa?eaeao iiaeao auoue oaeiaeaoai?ai
yenoaineaiui iooai (i?eia?aoaieai eee caaioiaeaieai aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
iaoa?eaeia e yia?aee) eee eioaineaiui (aieaa yeiiiiiui eniieueciaaieai
eiathueony caiania a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee).

Ia?aue iooue aaaeao e ?inoo oaeaeueiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee, oioy naaanoieiinoue aa iiaeao i?e yoii e nieceoueny ca n/ao
oaaee/aiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e oiaiueoaiey aeiee iinoiyiiuo cao?ao.
Aoi?ie iooue iaania/eaaao nie?auaiea oaeaeueiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao e
nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee. Yeiiiiiia eniieueciaaiea
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ?aaiicia/ii oaaee/aieth eo i?iecaiaenoaa.

Enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee aeey aiaeeca nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia yaeyaony ieai
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, cayaee, aeiaiai?u ia iinoaaeo
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, oi?iu noaoenoe/aneie io/aoiinoe i iaee/ee e
eniieueciaaiee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, iia?aoeaiua aeaiiua ioaeaea
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, naaaeaiey aiaeeoe/aneiai
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i iinooieaiee, ?anoiaea e inoaoeao nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia e ae?. enoi/ieee, enoiaey ec oeaeae e caaea/ i?iaiaeeiiai
aiaeeca.

3.2. Aiaeec iaania/aiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey nu?ueai e iaoa?eaeaie.

Iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo oneiaee auiieiaiey ieaia i?iecaiaenoaa – iieiia e
naiaa?aiaiiia iinooieaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia. Ianaiaa?aiaiiia eee
iaiieiia eo iinooieaiea i?eaiaeeo e ia?aaiyi, o?aaoao nicaeaiey eceeoieo
caiania, auioaeaeaao i?aaei?eyoea ia?ooaoue ieaiiaua a?aoeee auionea
i?iaeoeoeee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iaauiieiaieth ieaia ii anni?oeiaioo e
aeiaiai?ia iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee iieoiaoaey.

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee oaeaeyaony aieueoia aieiaiea
niaa?oainoaiaaieth nenoaiu iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey,
iaiaoiaeeiinoe oe?aieaiey e niaa?oainoaiaaiee nenoaiu
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, iiauoaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea e yeiiiieth ?ano?nia e aania?aaieiia
niaaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey nu?ueai, iaoa?eaeaie e aeey iieiiou aeiaaaei,
iai?oaeiaaieai e caianiuie /anoyie. ?aoaiea yoeo caaea/ nicaeaao
aaaeioth yeiiiie/aneoth aaco aeey onei?aiiiai ia?aaiaea yeiiiieee ia
?aeuenu eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey. Aunieia ea/anoai au?aaaouaaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee iiaeao auoue iaania/aii, anee ieaie?oaiua e oaeoe/aneea
iinooiathuea nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu niioaaonoaotho o?aaiaaieyi noaiaea?oa e
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa.

A oiaea ?ac?aaioee ieaia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey aeieaeia
ananoi?iiia o/eouaaoueny iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiay yeiiiiey iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia, aeinoeaaaiay a ?acoeueoaoa oiaiueoaiey iioa?ue e iooiaeia ca
n/ao aiaae?aiey i?ia?anneaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e oaoie/aneeo i?ioeannia,
caiaiu (aeiionoeiie ii ?aoeaioo?ai) nu?uey e o.i.

Iainiiaaiiinoue ieaia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey e aai
auiieiaiea iaiaoiaeeii aiaeece?iaaoue. A i?ioeanna aiaeeca ?aoathony
neaaeothuea caaea/e:

i?iaa?yaony iainiiaaiiinoue ieaia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey,
oaycea aai n ieaiii i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, n enoi/ieeaie iie?uoey;

aeaaony ioeaiea auiieiaiey oaeoueo (aiaeiauo, eaa?oaeueiuo) ieaiia ii
iauaio iinoaaie, ii anni?oeiaioo, eiee/anoao e ea/anoao, niaethaeaieth
iinoaaueeaie n?ieia e ?eoie/iinoe iinooieaiey;

ii?aaeaeyaony aeeyiea auiieiaiey ieaia niaaaeaiey ia auiieiaiea ieaia
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee;

eco/aaony ninoiyiea caiania nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

Enoi/ieeaie eioi?iaoeee aeey aiaeeca yaeyaony:

1. “Ieai iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey”;

2. o. ?1-ni “Io/ao ia inoaoeao, iinooieaiee e ?anoiaea nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaaiii yenieoaoaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe”;

3. o. ?12-ni “Io/ao i auiieiaiee ii?i caiania ii n?aaeiaio nieaeaieth
ii?i ?anoiaea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia”;

4. o. ?4 “Io/ao i aeaeaeaiee nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e iieooaa?eeaoia a
oeaoa”;

5. Aeaiiua aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa i iinooieaiee, ?anoiaea e inoaoeao
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia

A ieaia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey (naiaeiie oaaeeoea)
niaea?aeaony ?ani?aaeaeaiiua ii aeaeai nu?uey e i?iaeoeoeee aeaiiua i
n?aaeieo ii?iao ?anoiaea, auionea i?iaeoeoeee ii ieaio, iio?aaiinoe ia
ieaiiaue iauai i?iaeoeoeee, ia?aoiaeyuea caiana (eiee/anoai e aeie),
iio?aaiinoue anaai (ia ieaiiaue iauai i?iaeoeoeee iethn inoaoee) e
enoi/ieee iaania/aiey iio?aaiinoe (aioo?aiiea, aiaoiea).

Ia iio?aaiia eiee/anoai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia i?aaei?eyoea AIIO Oeeeae
“Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao” i?aaenoaaeyao cayaee niaaaeathuei i?aaiai
eee caeeth/aao aeiaiai?u n iinoaaueeaie (ia ianoiia nu?uea).

A i?ioeanna aiaeeca onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaeueiinoue ieaia
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, aeey /aai ooi/iyaony i?aaeeueii ee
ii?aaeaeaii eiee/anoai iaiaoiaeeiuo nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ia ieaiiaue
iauai i?iaeoeoeee enoiaey ec n?aaeiai?ia?anneaiuo ii?i ?anoiaea;
i?aaeeueii ee en/eneaiu inoaoee ia ia/aei e eiiaoe ieaie?oaiiai
ia?eiaea; oaeiaeaoai?yao ee ieai iio?aaiinoyi iniiaiiai e
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ii eiiaeeoa?neei oeaoai. Ii ?acoeueoaoai
i?iaa?ee ?aaeueiinoe ieaia niaaaeaiey oeaeaniia?acii ninoaaeoue
aiaeeoe/aneoth oaaeeoeo.

Aiaeec auiieiaiey ieaia iinoaaie nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia inouanoaeyao ioaeae
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey. I?e yoii i?iaiaeeoueny eae
iia?aoeaiue aiaeec, oae e aiaeec ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. I?iua anaai
i?iaa?youe iaania/aiiinoue iio?aaiinoe ii iniiaiui aeaeai nu?uey (naoa?,
ioea) e enoi/ieeaie iie?uoey. A i?aeoeea ?aaiou ninoaaeee aiaeeoe/aneea
?an/aou.

Oaaeeoea ? 3.2.

Iaania/aiiinoue iio?aaiinoe ii iniiaiui aeaeai nu?uey

Aeae iaoa-?eaeaIeaiiaay iio?aa-iinoueEnoi/ieee iie?uoeyCaeeth-/aii
aeiaiai-?ia, oIaania-/aiea iio?aa-iinoe aeiaiai-?aie %Iinooieei io
iinoaa-ueeia, oAuiie-iaiea aeiaiai-?ia, %Aioo?.Aiaoi.Naoa?-ianie

4700

50

4650

4420

95.0

4140

94.8

Aaaeiui oneiaeai aania?aaieiie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony iieiay
iaania/aiiinoue iio?aaiinoe a iaoa?eaeao enoi/ieeaie iie?uoey. Iie iiaoo
auoue aiaoieie e aioo?aiieie. E aiaoiei enoi/ieeai ioiinyony iaoa?eaeu,
iinooiathuea io iinoaaueeia a niioaaonoaee n caeeth/aiiuie aeiaiai?aie.
Aioo?aiiea enoi/ieee – yoi nie?auaiea iooiaeia nu?uey, eniieueciaaiea
aoi?e/iiai nu?uey, nianoaaiiia ecaioiaeaiea iaoa?eaeia e iieooaa?eeaoia,
yeiiiiey iaoa?eaeia a ?acoeueoaoa aiaae?aiey aeinoeaeaiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

?aaeueiay iio?aaiinoue a caaiaea iaoa?eaeia ni noi?iiu – yoi ?aciinoue
iaaeaeo iauae iio?aaiinoueth a ii?aaeaeaiiii aeaea iaoa?eaea e noiiie
nianoaaiiuo aioo?aiieo enoi/ieeia ia iie?uoea.

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi ieai iio?aaiinoe a naoa?a ia iieiinoueth
iaania/ai aeiaiai?aie ia iinoaaeo e aioo?aiieie enoi/ieeaie ia iie?uoey.

Eiyooeoeeaio iaania/aiey ii ieaio:

Eia.ie.= (50+4420) / 4700 = 0,951

Oaeoe/anee aea aeaei ianoieo aua ooaea, oae eae ieai iinoaaee iaoa?eaea
iaaeiauiieiai ia 10%.

Eia.o. = (4190 +50) / 4700 = 0,90

Yoi icia/aao, /oi oieueei ia 90 % oaeiaeaoai?yaony iio?aaiinoue a
naoa?a.

Aeey oaycee ieaia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee n ieaiii
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey ioaeae iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai
niaaaeaiey iieo/aao neaaeothuoth aeieoiaioaoeeth:

io ieaiiai-yeiiiie/aneiai ioaeaea – aiaeiaua e eaa?oaeueiua ieaiu
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, niiauaiey ia eciaiaieyo i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
ieaia;

io i?iecaiaenoaaiii-aeeniao/a?neiai ioaeaea – iany/iua
i?iecaiae-noaaiiua i?ia?aiiu e a?aoeee, naaaeaiey ia eciaiaieyo a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiia;

io ioaeaea aeaaiiai oaoiieiaa – ii?iu ?anoiaea, caiaiu nu?uey e ae?.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaeiaiai ieaia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee e eioi?iaoeee,
iieo/aaiie io niioaaonoaothueo ioaeaeia, ninoaaeythony ?an/aou
iio?aaiinoe e naiaeiua cayaee ia iaoa?eaeu, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey auiieiaiey
ieaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee. N oeaeueth oaycee ieaia i?iecaiaenoaa n
ieaiii iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey ninoaaeyaony ?an/ao n
iiiiuueth YAI, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?eieiaoue iia?aoeaiua ia?u ii
ono?aiaieth aicieeathueo ia?aaiaa a niaaaeaiee ioaeaeueiuie aeaeaie
nu?uey.

Oaaeeoea ?3.3.

Enoi/ieee iie?uoey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia

Nu?ueaInoaoieIio?aa-iinoueOaeoe/. iinooie.Enoi/i. iie?uoeyIoeei-

iaieyNaoa?, o961264502714226944+1455Ioea, o 1
ni?oa8953476294552925-462 Aunoaai
ni?oa21854628613085895+454Eiiaeeoa?neee aee?,
o34254021612190-39.7Iieiei (noo), o-110104110-Eeneioa eeiii., o2675656-9

Ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi ia AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeii
oeaaieiiaeiaoa” iao iieiie iaania/aiiinoe iio?aaiinoe enoi/ieeaie
iie?uoey a ioea 1 ni?oa, eiiaeeoa?neiai aee?a, iieiea, eeiiiiie eeneiou.
Ii iaeioi?ui aeaeai nu?uey iaania/aiiinoue auiaea ii naoa?o, ioea
aunoaai ni?oa. Oaeoe/aneia iinooieaiea oaeaea eiaao ioeeiiaiea. A
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yoe ioeeiiaiey iieiaeeoaeueiua, o.a. iieo/aii
nu?uey aieueoa, /ai enoi/ieee iie?uoey iaania/aiiinoe.

Iaania/aiiinoue nu?ueai AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeiai oeaaieiiaeiaoa” ca
aiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaiiuie ec oaaeeoeu ? 3.4.

O?iaaiue iaania/aiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey nu?ueai e iaoa?eaeaie ia
ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo Ei en/eneyaony eae ioiioaiea oaeoe/anee iinooieaoeo
iaoa?eaeia e eo iio?aaiinoe ii ii?iai eee ieaio.

Oaaeeoea ?3.4.

O?iaaiue iaania/aiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey nu?ueai ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo

Nu?uea, oIio?aai. ii ieaioOaeoe/. iinooie.Inoaoie ia eii. aiaeaInoaoie
ia ia/. aiaeaO?iaaiue iaani-oe
E0Naoa?-ianie232712326712291744102.3A?aoen240544414177127.9Iieiei
nooia457267-359.1Ioea auno. ni?oa4758468023-97.9Ioea 1
ni?oa4069399911-95.6Ianei ?anoeo.59544284.7

?an/ao ei??aeoe?oaony ia aaee/eio ia?aoiaeyueo inoaoeia:

Ei = Io + (I1 – I2) / Ii ;

aaea : Io e Ii – oaeoe/aneia e ieaiiaia eiee/anoai iinooieaoaai nu?uey
eee iaoa?eaeia;

I1 e I2 – ia?aoiaeyuea inoaoee iaoa?eaeia.

Eae iieacuaatho aeaiiua oaaeeoeu, iaania/aiiinoue aiaeiaie iio?aaiinoe
nu?ueai ia?aaiiia?ia. Ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai nu?uey iia ninoaaeyao aieaa
100% (naoa?, a?aoen, ianei ?anoeoaeueiia). Ii inoaeueiui aeaeai nu?uey
iaania/aiiinoue ieaea 100%. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi AIIO Oeeeae
“Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao” auioaeaeai aue a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa
eciaiyoue anni?oeiaio ecaeaeee e i?iecaiaeeoue caiaio nu?uey, /oi iiaeao
i?eaanoe e iiauoaieth naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Iai?eia?, i?e ieaiiaie
iio?aaiinoe a?aoena 240, a oaeoe/anee iinooieei e ec?anoiaeiaaii 267.

Aiaeiae/iia iieiaeaiea iaaethaeaaony e ii iaeioi?ui ae?oaei aeaeai
nu?uey. ?ino inoaoeia nu?uey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ia eiiaoe aiaea iiaeao
auoue iauyniai aai ia?eoie/iie iinoaaeie. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeei
iianaaeiaaiu aiaeec e eiio?ieue auiieiaiey iinoaaee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia
iinoaaueeai.

Ia aieueoeinoaa oeaaiiaea?iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo aeey eiio?iey ca auiieiaieai
aeiaiai?ia iinoaaueeaie aaaeoony ea?oi/ee eee aeo?iaeu. A ieo ii
eaaeaeiio iinoaaueeo io?aaeaaony eiee/anoai nu?uey eee iaoa?eaeia,
eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue iinoaaeaiu, n?ie iinoaaee, aeaoa e eiee/anoai
oaeoe/aneie iinoaaee.

Ii aeaiiui aeoai i?eaiee aiaeece?oaony ea/anoai iinooieaoaai nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia. Iaeiia?aiaiii auyniyaony naiaa?aiaiiinoue i?aaeuyaeaiey
i?aoaicee iinoaaueeai ca iinoaaeo iaaeia?iea/anoaaiiiai nu?uey.

Aiaeec ?eoie/iinoe iinooieaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia i?iecaiaeeony iooai
n?aaiaiey oaeoe/aneie e ieaiiaie ia?eiaee/iinoe iinooieaiey aaaeiaeoeo
aeaeia nu?uey e aaee/eiu ia?oee.

Ioaeae iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey inouanoaeyao iia?aoeaiue
eiio?ieue ca iinooieaieai e iaee/eai ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie ii?iaoeaaie.

A oa/aiee ianyoea iaiaoiaeeii i?iaa?youe niioaaonoaey oaeoe/aneiai
?acia?a caiana aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ii?iaoeaiui. Aeey
yoiai ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo i oaeoe/aneii iaee/ee a iaoo?aeueiuo
aaeeieoeao ecia?aiey e n?aaeianooi/iii ?anoiaea ?ann/eouaaaony
oaeoe/aneay iaania/aiiinoue a aeiyo. N?aaiaiea aa n onoaiiaeaiiui
ieieiaeueiui caianii a aeiyo iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue ioeeiiaiey (oi?ia
3.5).

Neaaeoao i?iaa?eoue ninoiyiea caiania nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia n oi/ee c?aiey
auyniaiee iaioaeiuo e eceeoieo, a oaeaea aeeyiea ieaia
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey ia auiieiaiee ieaia ii iauaio
i?iaeoeoeee. Aeey yoiai ii iniiaiui aeaeai nu?uey ninoaaeyaony ?an/ao ii
oi?ia (oaae.3.5).

Oaaeeoea ?3.5.

Auiieiaiea ieaia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey

Iieacaoaeue ii naoa?oIi ieaioOaeoe/aneeIoeeiiaiea io ieaiaInoaoie ia
ia/. aiaea, o17441744-Iinooieei io iinoaaueea, o2327123267-4?anoiae ia
i?-ai ca aiae, o2376523782+17Inoaoie ia eiiaoe aiaea,
o12501229-21N?aaeiyy ii?ia ?anoiaea, ea/o480472-8I?iecaaaeaii
i?iaeoeoeee, o4951050386+876Aeeyiea auiieiaiey ieaia
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey ii naoa?o ia iauai auionea
i?iaeoeoeee ii anni?oeiaioo i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo iieacaii a oaae.
4.7. Naa?oieaiiaue auione 876 o. aue iaania/ai a iniiaiii nieaeaieai
n?aaeieo ii?i ?anoiaea naoa?a ia 1o. naoa?iuo ecaeaeee. Eciaiaiea
inoaoeia naoa?a oaeaea iieiaeeoaeueii iiaeeyei ia iauai i?iaeoeoeee.

Oaaeeoea ? 3.6.

Oaeoi?u aeeyiey ia iauai i?iaeoeoeee

Oaeoi??an/aoAeeyiea ia Eciaiaiea inoaoea ia ia/. aiaea–Eciaiaiea
iinooieaiey io iinoaaueeia-4000:480=8.4-8Eciaiaiea n?aaeieo ii?i
?anoiaea-8.50386:0.48=839.8+840Eciaiaiea inoaoea ia eiiaoe
aiaea-21:0.48=43.8+44Eoiai+876

Iaauiieiaiea ieaia iinooieaiey nu?uey io iinoaaueeia ia iaycaoaeueii
aea/ao ca niaie iaauiieiaiea ieaia i?iaeoeoeee. Iaaeiiieo/aiea nu?uey
iiaeao auoue ainiieiaii aieaa yeiiiiiui aai ?anoiaeiaaieai, a oaeaea
eciaiaieai anni?oeiaioa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee eee eniieueciaaieai
iieiioeaiiuo caiaieoaeae.

3.3. Nenoaia iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e

iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia AIIO Oeeeae “Eiiaeianeii oeaaieiiaeiaoa” a eiiaeeoa?neii oeaoa
ia?a?aaaouaatho ?aciiia?aciie ii iieaciui naienoaai e oaoiieiaee
ia?a?aaioee nu?uey, e aeey yooaeoeaiinoe aai eniieueciaaiey ieaie?oaony
ianeieueei iieacaoaeae. A /anoiinoe, ooaa?aeaeaaony caaeaiea ii
yeiiiiee (a o.) neaaeothueo aeaeia nu?uey:

ioee – ca n/ao eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u au?aaaouaaaiiai anni?oeiaioa
eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee, caiaiu naoa?a iao?aaeeoeeiiiuie aeaeaie nu?uey,
aiaae?aiea i?ia?anneaiuo ii?i ?anoiaea naoa?a, nieaeaiea aai iioa?ue e
ae?oaeo ia?ii?eyoee;

neeai/iiai ianea – ca n/ao nieaeaiey aai ?anoiaea i?e au?aaioea io/iuo
ecaeaeee iooai niaa?oainoaiaaiey anni?oeiaioa ecaeaeee, i?eiaiaiea
iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiuo aauanoa e o?oeoiai-yaiaeiiai nu?uey e ae?.

A no?aieaiee auiieieoue onoaiiaeaiiua caaeaiey ii ooaa?aeaeaiiui aeaeai
nu?uey iaeioi?ua i?aaei?eyoey aianoi ?ac?aaioee ia?ii?eyoee ii
nieaeaieth iioa?ue niciaoaeueii aeiioneatho caiaio iaeiiai aeaea nu?uey
ae?oaei (iai?eia?, neeai/iiai ianea – ia?aa?eiii e ae?.)

Ooaa?aeaeatho oaeaea e caaeaiey ii yeiiiiee nooeo aauanoa a oiiiao ca
n/ao nie?auaiey eo iioa?ue a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, aiaae?aiea e
niaethaeaiea aieaa niaa?oaiiie oaoiieiaee. Enoiaey ec niaea?aeaiey nooeo
aauanoa oeaoaie iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ieaie?othony oaeaeueiua ii?iu
nu?uey a eeeia?aiiao nooeo aauanoa ia oiiio i?iaeoeoeee, o.a.
ieaie?oaony nu?iaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee, iai?eia?, aeneaeoiiio oeaoo.

Aeey eiiieaeniie oa?aeoa?enoeee eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia
eniieuecothony ?an/aoii-aiaeeoe/aneea iieacaoaee (iauea e /anoiua).

E iauei iieacaoaeyi ioiinyony i?eaueue ia ?oaeue iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao,
iaoa?eaeiioaea/a, iaoa?eaeiaieinoue, eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiee oaiiia
?inoa iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao a naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee, eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia.

Iaoa?eaeiioaea/a ii?aaeaeyaony aeaeaieai noieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee ia noiio iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao. Yoio iieacaoaeue
oa?aeoa?ecoao ioaea/o iaoa?eaeia, o.a. neieueei i?iecaaaeaii i?iaeoeoeee
n eaaeaeiai ?oaey iio?aaeaiiuo nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee – ioiioaiea noiiu iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao e
noieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee – iieacuaaao, neieueei
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaanoe eee oaeoe/anee i?eoiaeeony
ia i?iecaiaenoai aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee.

Eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey oaiiia ?inoa iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai eiaeaena aaeiaie eee
oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiaeaeno iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao. Ii oa?aeoa?ecoao a
ioiineoaeueiii au?aaeaiee aeeiaieeo iaoa?eaeiioaea/e e iaeiia?aiaiii
?ane?uaaao oaeoi?u aa ?inoa.

Oaeaeueiue aan iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao a naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee
en/eneyaony ioiioaieai noiiu iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao e iieiie naaanoieiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Aeeiaieea yoiai iieacaoaey oa?aeoa?ecoao
eciaiaiea iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee.

Eiyooeoeeaio iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioiioaiea
oaeoe/aneie noiiu iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao e ieaiiaie, ia?an/eoaiiie ia
oaeoe/aneee iauai auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii iieacuaaao ianeieueei
yeiiiiii eniieuecothony iaoa?eaeu a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, iao ee eo
ia?a?anoiaea ii n?aaiaieth n onoaiiaeaiiuie ii?iaie. Anee eiyooeoeeaio
aieueoa 1, oi yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ia?a?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia ia
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee, e iaiai?io, anee iaiueoa 1, oi iaoa?eaeu
eniieueciaaeenue aieaa yeiiiiii.

*anoiua iieacaoaee iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?eiaiythony aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia iaoa?eaeia
(nu?iaieinoue), a oaeaea aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee o?iaiy iaoa?eaeiaieinoe
ioaeaeueiuo ecaeaeee.

Oaeaeueiay iaoa?eaeiaieinoue iiaeao auoue en/eneaia eae a noieiinoiii
au?aaeaiee (ioiioaiea noieiinoe iio?aaeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee e aa iioiaie oeaia), oae e a iaoo?aeueiii eee
oneiaii-iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee (ioiioaiea eiee/anoaa eee iannu
ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia i?iecaiaenoai eaeiai-oi aeaea i?iaeoeoeee
e eiee/anoao auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee yoiai aeaea).

A i?ioeanna aiaeeca oaeoe/aneee o?iaaiue iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia n?aaieaatho n ieaiiauie, eco/atho eo aeeiaieeo
e i?e/eiu eciaiaiey, a oaeaea aeeyiea ia iauai i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee.

Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue, eae e iaoa?eaeiioaea/a, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue caaeneo
io iauaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee e noiiu iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ia aa
i?iecaiaenoai. Iauai aea aaeiaie (oiaa?iie) i?iaeoeoeee a noieiinoiii
au?aaeaiee (oiaa?iay i?iaeoeoeey) iiaeao eciaieoueny ca n/ao eiee/anoaa
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (iauai aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee). Aa no?oeoo?u, e
o?iaiy ioioneiuo oeai. Noiia iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao oaeaea caaeneo io
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, aa no?oeoo?u, ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia
ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee, noieiinoe iaoa?eaeia e noiiu iinoiyiiuo
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao, eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue caaeneo io eiee/anoaa
?anoiaeiaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia e eo noieiinoe. A eoiaa iauay
iaoa?eaeiaieinoue caaeneo io iauaia i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, aa
no?oeoo?u, ii?i ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee, oeai ia
iaoa?eaeu e ioioneiuo oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth.

3.4. Aiaeec ninoiyiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa e aiaeeca iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a
oeaaiiaea?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?aaeii?aaeaeythony niaoeeoeeie
iio?aaeyaiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia e oaoiieiae/aneie ia?a?aaioee.
Oeaaieiiaeiao a iniiaiii ia?a?aaaouaaao ?aciiia?aciia nu?uea,
i?iecaiaeeiia ae?oaeie io?aneyie ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aeey eioi?uo
iii yaeyaony aioiaie i?iaeoeoeeae. E nu?ueth e iniiaiui iaoa?eaeai
ioiineony oi, /oi a ninoaa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee a ea/anoaa aa iniiau
eee iaiaoiaeeiuo eiiiiiaioia: iieooaa?eeaou; naoa?, iiaeaeei, iaae e
ae?., ioea, e?aoiae, eniieuecoaiue a ninoaaa ?aoeaioo?u naeiaiuo
ecaeaeee, i?aoe, aee?u, iieiei, iiei/iua e yeoeai?iaeoeou, ieuaaua
eeneiou, a?iiaoecaoi?u, ?acaeeaeeoaee, iaiiia?aciaaoaee, oeie/aneea
?ac?uoeeoaee, ieuaaua e?aneoaee e o.i.

A oeaaiiaea?iii i?iecaiaenoaa aioiaue i?iaeoeo iieo/atho a ?acoeueoaoa
?yaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee, aiineiuo a iaeio e oo aea aieaa eee
iaiaa iaeii?iaeioth ianno enoiaeiiai nu?uey. Yoie aeaaiie iniaaiiinoueth
oeaaiiaea?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoneiaeaiu aunieay noaiaiue iai?a?uaiinoe,
oaniay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo ninoaaiuie /anoyie i?iecaiaenoaa,
ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoay ?an/eaiaiiinoue i?ioeanna e iaeay
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea.

Enoiaeiia nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu aeey anao au?aaaouaaaiuo a aeaiiii oeaoa
ecaeaeee yaeythony iaueie, e iioiio o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eo oaeoe/aneee
?anoiae ia eaaeaeue aeae ecaeaeee. Iai?eia?, eiee/anoai naa?aiiie
ia/eiee ii?aaeaeyaony i?eia?ii ii iauaio aa?i/iiai eioea, ioea
eniieuecoaony ia oieueei aeey auia/ee oeaaa, ii e ae?oaiai anni?oeiaioa
oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee. I?e yoii iiaoo iaaethaeaoueny aieueoea
ioeeiiaiey ca n/ao aeaaeiinoe ia/eiie. Eiee/anoai ioee ii ni?oai oi/ii
o/anoue ia aiciiaeii, oae eae iaeioi?ua aeaeu ecaeaeee ?acee/athony
iaaeaeo niaie ?aoeaioo?ie, iannie eee oi?iie aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee iiiaeo aeaeia oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee io caionea
nu?uey a i?iecaiaenoai aei naea/e i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaae yeniaaeeoeee
aeeeoueny aieaa iaeiie niaiu eee aeaaea nooie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a?aiy
?anoiaea nu?uey e auionea i?iaeoeoeee ec oeaoa ia niaiaaeaao.

A nayce n eceiaeaiiui a eiiaeeoa?neie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia i?aaenoaaeyaony
aiciiaeiui ioeeiiaiea a ?anoiaea nu?uey ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai ecaeaeee e
oacai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeaeueiaeoay iaoaiecaoeey i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa,
nicaeaiea iioi/iuo eeiee nicaeatho aua aieueoea o?oaeiinoe a
i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa ii oacai i?iecaiaenoaa, oae eae nu?uea iiaeaaony ii
iauei eiiioieeaoeeyi, a n/ao/eeia, oeene?othueo ?anoiae nu?uey
iaaeinoaoi/ii. Iiyoiio ioeeiiaiey io ii?i ?anoiaea nu?uey ii?aaeaeythony
a oeaeii ii oeaoo ia anth auiouaiioth ei i?iaeoeoeeth.

A oeaaiiaea?iii i?iecaiaenoaa aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao aeaaeiinoue nu?uey,
oae aeaaeiinoue ioee eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea. Nooay ioea oi?ioi
o?aieoueny, ec iaa iiaeii iieo/eoue aieueoa oeaaa, /ai ec aeaaeiie.
Iiauoaiea aeaaeiinoe ioee ia 1% aea/ao ca niaie oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa
oeaaa ia 1,5%. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?e ?acee/iii niaea?aeaiee nooeo aauanoa
ii iaeeiaeiaie oece/aneie ianna iieo/aaony ?acee/iue auoiae i?iaeoeoeee,
/oi nouanoaaiii io?aaeaaony ia yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeyo. Iiyoiio
ii?ie?iaaiea ?anoiaeia nu?uey a yoie io?anee i?iecaiaeeony n o/aoii
niaea?aeaiey a iai aeaae. Ii anai aeaeai nu?uey ooaa?aeaeaiu ?an/aoiua
iieacaoaee aeaaeiinoe a i?ioeaioao, yaeythueany e ieaiiauie, iai?eia?
ii?ia aeaaeiinoe naoa?a 0,14%, ioee – 0,15%

Ii?iaoeau aeaaeiinoe nu?uey yaeythony iaeciaiiuie e iaeeiaeiauie aeey
anao oeaaiiaea?iuo i?aaei?eyoee, Iaeiaei oaeoe/anee aeaaeiinoue iiaeao
ioeeiiyoueny io onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?iaoeaia, Yoi iauyniyaony i?aaeaea anaai
iaaeinoaoi/iie oi/iinoueth eiio?ieueii-ecia?eoaeueiie aiia?aoo?ie, /oi
eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaiaeeoue nu?uea n oi/ii caaeaiiui
niaea?aeaieai nooeo aauanoa. Iiyoiio ainoaea?noaaiiuie noaiaea?oaie e
oaoie/aneeie oneiaeyie aeiioneathony ii?aaeaeaiiua ioeeiiaiey

Ae?oaie i?e/eiie ioeeiiaiey oaeoe/aneiai niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa io
ieaiiaiai yaeyaony eciaiaiea yoiai iieacaoaey a i?ioeanna o?aiaiey
nu?uey, /oi aeeyao ia auoiae i?iaeoeoeee, ?anoiae nu?uey e ae?oaea
iieacaoaee ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey.

Ec neacaiiiai aeaeii, /oi oeaiiinoue aieueoeinoaa aeaeia nu?uey,
i?eiaiyaiiai a eiiaeeoa?neii i?iecaiaenoaa, ii?aaeaeyaony a iniiaiii
niaea?aeaieai a iai nooeo aauanoa. Aeey i?eaeaiey aea aeona i?eiaiyaony
nu?uea, ia niaea?aeauaa nooeo aauanoa: ynnaioeee e ae?. Aaeaeo oiai, /oi
auoiae i?iaeoeoeee caaeneo aeaaiui ia?acii io eiee/anoaa niaea?aeaueony
a nu?uea nooeo aauanoa, a oeaeyo eiio?iey ca nio?aiiinoueth
nianoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey o/ao cao?ao nu?uey ia i?iecaiaenoaa aaaeaony
a aeaoo ecia?eoaeyo: ii ianna e ii nooei aauanoaai. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue
o/aoa cao?ao nu?uey ii ianna iauyniyaony oaeaea oai, /oi iieaciua
naienoaa ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia nu?uey caaenyo ia oieueei io eiee/anoaa
niaea?aeaueony a ieo nooeo aauanoa.

Iniaaiiinoue oeaaiiaea?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe caeeth/aaony oaeaea e a oii,
/oi ii?ie?iaaiea ?anoiaea nu?uey i?iecaiaeeony n o/aoii auoiaea aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee n ii?aaeaeaiiui niaea?aeaieai a iae nooeo aauanoa. A
?aoeaioo?ao ia i?iaeoeoeeth eaaeaeiai aeaea oeacuaaaony niaea?aeaiea, a
iineaaeiae, nooeo aauanoa. A nayce n oai, /oi auaea?aeaoue oi/iue %
niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee i?aeoe/anee
iaaiciiaeii, a ?aoeaioo?ao, a oaeaea a ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaiaea?oao e
oaoie/aneeo oneiaeyo ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo i?iaeoeoeee i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
aeiioneaaiia ioeeiiaiea io ieaiiaiai niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a
i?aaeaeao ±1,5 e 2%. E?eoa?eai aeey onoaiiaeaiey i?aaeaeia nooeo aauanoa
a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony o?aaiaaiea ea/anoaa e nio?aiiinoe
ecaeaeee.

Ioeeiiaiea io ieaiiaiai niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee
a aeiionoeiuo i?aaeaeao ia yaeyaony ia?ooaieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo
noaiaea?oia e oaoie/aneeo oneiaee, e i?iaeoeoeey n/eoaaony ea/anoaaiiie.
Iaeiaei, iineieueeo ieaie?iaaiea ?anoiaea nu?uey i?iecaiaeeony n o/aoii
ii?aaeaeaiiiai niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee,
ioeeiiaiea io iaai a oo eee eioth noi?iio aaaeao e oiaiueoaieth eee
oaaee/aieth ?anoiaea nu?uey, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue aeeyao ia eciaiaiea
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e ae?oaea iieacaoaee ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey.

A nayce n yoei iaiaoiaeeii ecia?youe aeeyiea niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa
a nu?uea e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia iieacaoaee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey
e aai iiae?acaeaeaiee. Aeaenoaothuea niiniau ii?aaeaeaiey niaea?aeaiey
aauanoa a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ?ac?aaioaiu a iniiaiii aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, a ia eo aeeyiea ia yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy niaea?aeaiea nooeo aauanoa a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee
ii?aaeaeyaony n oeaeueth ei??aeoe?iaee ia eo eciaiaiea ?anoiaea nu?uey
oieueei ii aioiaui ecaeaeeyi iaeii?iaeiiai ninoaaa. Ii yoei aeaeai
i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony n?aaeiee % niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa e ca
ianyoe e aaeaaeiaaii. I?e ioeeiiaiee niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa io
ieaiiauo iieacaoaeae eciaiyaony ?anoiae nu?uey ia oaeoe/anee auiouaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth.

A nayce ni niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie yoie io?anee caeanue iiaoo
i?eiaiyoueny ?acee/iua niiniau auyaeaiey ioeeiiaiee io ii?i: neaiaeueiia
aeieoiaioe?iaaiea, niinia ?an/aoia e eiaaioa?ecaoeee.

Niinia neaiaeueiiai aeieoiaioe?iaaiey i?eiaiyaony aeey auyaeaiey
ioeeiiaiee io ii?i ca n/ao caiaiu nu?uey, a oaeaea a neo/ayo aai yaiiai
ia?a?anoiaea. Ioeeiiaiey aea ?anoiaea nu?uey, aucuaaaiua eciaiaieai
niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a iai e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee eee eciaiaieai
aacaica?aoiuo iioa?ue (oaa?ia), iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu oieueei ia
iniiaaiee aeaiiuo oeie/aneeo aiaeecia eaai?aoi?ee.

Iniiaiui iaoiaeii auyaeaiey ioeeiiaiee io ii?i ii nu?ueth a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy yaeyaony niinia eiaaioa?ecaoeee, i?iaiaeeiie, eae i?aaeei, iaeei
?ac a ianyoe. Aeey i?aaeeueiiai io?aaeaiey ?anoiaea nu?uey iaiaoiaeeii:

niaa?oainoaiaaiea aaniecia?eoaeueiiai oicyenoaa, ii?aaeaeaiea
niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a nu?uea i?e caa?ocea aai a i?iecaiaenoai,
ia?an/ao ?aoeaioo? ia oaeoe/aneia niaea?aeaiea nooeo aauanoa a nu?uea,
aaeaaeiaaiia ii?aaeaeaiea ieioiinoe yoeeaoie e niioaaonoaothuea
ia?an/aou ii nu?ueth, niaa?oainoaiaaiea nouanoaothuaai iia?aoeaiiai
o/aoa cao?ao nu?uey ia i?iecaiaenoai;

?ac?aaioea aeinoaoi/ii auno?uo e oi/iuo iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey
niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa ai anao ecaeaeeyo, /oi nicaeaao oi?ioea
i?aaeiinueee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iia?aoeaiiai aiaeeca eniieueciaaiey
nu?uey a i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iniiaiua ?aca?au yeiiiiee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ecuneeaathony a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiaiii iiyoiio aeaoaeueii ?anniao?eaaaony ninoiyiea o/aoa
e aiaeeca yoiai aii?ina.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo o?aaiaaiee yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca yaeyaony
niiinoaaeiinoue iieacaoaeae, aeinoeaaaiay i?e aaeeiie iaoiaeieiaee
ieaie?iaaiey e o/aoa. Enneaaeiaaiey yoeo aii?inia ia i?aaei?eyoee
io?anee iieacaei, /oi oaeiai aaeeinoaa ia nouanoaoao e iaaethaeathony
?aciiaeaney ii ioaeaeueiui aii?inai ieaie?iaaiey, o/aoa e aiaeeca
?anoiaea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

O/ao aeieaeai io?aaeaoue iaee/ea e aeaeaeaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
eiio?ieue ca auiieiaieai ieaia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, ca
naiaa?aiaiiui e i?aaeeueiui aeieoiaioe?iaaieai anao iia?aoeee ii
i?eoiaeo e ?anoiaeo, ca nio?aiiinoueth iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ia
neeaaeao, niinianoaiaaoue i?aaeeueiiio en/eneaieth naaanoieiinoe
iaoa?eaeia eee aeeyieth ioeeiiaiee io oaa?aeuo o/aoiuo oeai,
nenoaiaoe/aneiio eiio?ieth ca i?aaeeueiinoueth ioionea iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae ia i?iecaiaenoai e niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i eo
?anoiaea.

Aeey ?aoaiey yoeo caaea/ o/ao nu?uey e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia
aeieaeai auoue i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaai. Enneaaeiaaiea ninoiyiey
iia?aoeaiiai o/aoa cao?ao nu?uey iieacaei, /oi a i?aeoeea aai aaaeaiey
iao aaeeiie nenoaiu e aaeeiie aeieoiaioaoeee. Ionoonoaotho eaeea-eeai
iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii aii?inai i?aaiecaoeee e oi?iai iia?aoeaiiai
o/aoa cao?ao nu?uey.

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou e oeiainiaia ninoiyiea
i?aaei?eyoea ieacuaaao ea/anoai iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania. A oeaeyo
ii?iaeueiiai oiaea i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee caianu nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia aeieaeiu auoue iioeiaeueiuie.

Iaeiieaiea aieueoeo caiania naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i niaaea aeoeaiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey. Aieueoea naa?oieaiiaua caianu nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia
i?eaiaeyo e caii?aaeeaaieth iai?ioiiai eaieoaea, caiaaeeaieth aai
iai?a/eaaaiinoe, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai oooaeoaaony oeiainiaia ninoiyiea
i?aaei?eyoey. E?iia oiai, oaaee/eaaaony iaeia ia eiouanoai, aicieeatho
i?iaeaiu n eeeaeaeiinoueth, oaaee/eaaaony ii?/a nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
?anooo neeaaeneea ?anoiaeu, /oi io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyao ia eiia/iua
?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe.

A oi aea a?aiy iaaeinoaoie nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia oaeaea io?eoeaoaeueii
neacuaaaony ia oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, oae eae ?anooo oeaiu
ca n?i/iinoue iinoaaie, nie?auaaony i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee a nayce n
iinoiyie, iiauoaaony /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e ?inoo oeai ia nu?ueaaua
?ano?nu, oiaiueoaaony noiia i?eauee. Iiyoiio i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii
no?aieoueny e oiio, /oiau i?iecaiaenoai aia?aiy e a iieiii iauaia
iaania/eaaeinue anaie iaiaoiaeeiuie ?ano?naie e a oiaea a?aiy /oiau iie
ia caeaaeeaaeenue ia neeaaeao.

?acia? nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee iiaeao eciaieoueny
eae ca n/ao eiee/anoaaiiiai, oae e noieiinoiiai oaeoi?ia. ?an/ao aeeyiey
eiee/anoaaiiiai (E) e noieiinoiiai (O) oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea noiiu
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia (C) ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo inouanoaeyaony niiniaii
aaniethoiuo ?acieoe:

?Ce=(E1-E0)·O0, AeCo=E1· (O1-O0).

Oaaeeoea ?3.7.

Aiaeec ninoiyiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia (auai?i/ii)

Aeae nu?ueyIanna, eaOeaia, ?oa.Inoaoie nu?uey, ?oa.Eciaiaiea noiiu
nu?uey, ?oa.Ia ia/a-ei aiaeaIa eiiaoe aiaeaIa ia/a-ei aiaeaIa eiiaoe
aiaeaIa ia/a-ei aiaeaIa eiiaoe aiaeaAnaaiA o./. ca
n/aoEiee-/anoaaNoie-iinoeNaoa?-ianie122917445,257,76452,2513428,8698255+
2703,75+4278,80A?aoen177114202935403306-1134-1260+126Ianei
?anoeo.401206,61126413201056+528+528Anaai—-10256,2518054,8+690455+1971
,75+4932,8

?an/ao aeeyiey eiee/anoaaiiiai oaeoi?a ia eciaiaiea noiiu:

naoa?-ianie (1744-1229) ·5,25= +2703,75;

a?aoen (114-177) ·20= -1260;

ianei ?anoeoaeueiia (120-40) ·6,6= +528.

?an/ao aeeyiey noieiinoiiai oaeoi?a ia eciaiaiea noiiu:

naoa?-ianie 1744· (7,7-5,25) = +4278,80;

a?aoen 114· (29-20) = +126;

ianea ?anoeoaeueiiai 120· (11-6,6) = +528.

Aeaiiua i?eaaaeaiiua a oaaeeoea iieacuaatho, /oi oaaee/aiea noiiu
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia i?iecioei ia noieueei ca n/ao eo eiee/anoaa,
neieueei ca n/ao ?inoa eo noieiinoe a nayce n eioeyoeeae.

Ia?eiae iai?a/eaaaiinoe iaoa?eaeia ?aaai a?aiaie o?aiaiey eo ia neeaaea
io iiiaioa iinooieaiey aei ia?aaea/e a i?iecaiaenoai. *ai iaiueoa yoio
ia?eiae, oai iaiueoa i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee.

Oaaeeoea ? 3.8.

Aiaeec ninoiyiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ii eiiaeeoa?neei ecaeaeeyi

IieacaoaeueI e II eaa?oaeIII e IV eaa?oaeN?aaeiea inoaoee iaoa?eaeia e
nu?uey, ?oa.755009715Noiia ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia,
?oa.1314555,88316533912I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iai?ioa, aeieiieaiaea

I?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia onei?aiee iai?a/eaaaiinoe
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii i iiauoaiee aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey. Caiaaeeaiea aea iai?a/eaaaiinoe iaoa?eaeia iiaeao
i?iecieoe ca n/ao iaeiieaiey eceeoieo, iaoiaeiauo, caeaaeaeuo
iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea ca n/ao i?eia?aoaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e
nu?uey a nayce n iaeeaeaieai ?inoa oaiiia eioeyoeee. Iiyoiio neaaeoao
auynieoue, iao ee a ninoaaa iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey iaoiaeiauo, caeaaeaeuo,
iaioaeiuo caiania. Yoi eaaei onoaiiaeoue ii aeaiiui neeaaeneiai o/aoa
eee naeueaeiaui aaaeiiinoyi. Anee ii eaeiio-eeai iaoa?eaeo inoaoie
aieueoie, a ?anoiaea ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea ia auei eee ii aue
iacia/eoaeueiui, oi aai iiaeii ioianoe e a?oiia iaoiaeiauo caiania
iaoa?eaeia. Iaee/ea oaeeo iaoa?eaeia aiai?eo i oii, /oi iai?ioiue
eaieoae caii?iaeai ia aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy a caianao, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
caiaaeeyaony aai iai?a/eaaaiinoue.

Anee aea oaeoe/aneay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iai?ioa eaieoaea a iaoa?eaeao
e nu?uea cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao ii?iaoeaiue a oeaeii, /oi oa?aeoa?ii
aeey iaoaai i?aaei?eyoey, oi ioaeii aieaa yooaeoeaii oi?aaeyoue
iaoa?eaeueiuie aeoeaaie, ia aeiioneay ia?aciaaiey naa?oii?iaoeaiuo
caiania nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

3.5. Aiaeec iieacaoaeae eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia
n?aaieaathony neaaeothuei ia?acii: oaeoe/aneea n ieaiiauie; oaeoe/aneea
ca ?yae io/aoiuo ia?eiaeia ii oeaoai.

Aeey ioeaiee auiieiaiey e eco/aiey aeeiaieee iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ninoaaeyaony oaaeeoea ? 3.9.
Enoi/ieeaie eioi?iaoeee aeey aa caiieiaiey yaeythony:

i?eeacu ii ooaa?aeaeaiiui iieacaoaeyi;

oi?iu oaoi?iioeiieaia e ae?.

Aeaiiua oaaeeoeu aiai?yo i oii, /oi i?aaeaeueiue o?iaaiue cao?ao (iauay
iaoa?eaeiaieinoue) a io/aoiii aiaeo iacia/eoaeueii, ii i?aaunee o?iaaiue
aaciaiai aiaea, oaeoe/aneay iaoa?eaeiaieinoue auoa ieaiiaie ia 0,03%.
Iauay nu?iaieinoue a io/aoiii aiaeo aic?inea ii n?aaiaieth n aaciaui
aiaeii e ieaiii e niioaaonoaaiii ia 0,3 e 0,6%. Naoa?aaieinoue onoie/eai
nieaeaaony. Anee ia i?aaei?eyoee nicaeaaony oaeia iieiaeaiea, /oi i?e
cia/eoaeueiie yeiiiiee iniiaiuo aeaeia nu?uey e nooeo aauanoa
nu?iaieinoue (a ?oa.) i?iaeoeoeee ?anoao oi, eae i?aaeei, yoi yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii ?inoa oeai.

Oaaeeoea ? 3.9.

Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue e iaoa?eaeiioaea/a nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia

IieacaoaeeAaci-aue aiaeIo/aoiue aiaeIeaiIo/aoAanie. O?i-aaiue% e
aaci-aiio aiaeoAanie. O?i-aaiue% e aaci-aiio aiaeo% e ieaio1.
Ooaa?aeaeaiiua iao. cao?aou 1.1. Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue, ?oa.

1.2. Yeiiiiey nu?uey

ioea

naoa?79,92

510

779,93

512

8100,0

100,4

114,379,95

515

8100,04

101

114,3100,03

100,6

100 2. ?an/aoii-aiaeeoe/aneea 2.1.Nu?ueaaieinoue iauay, ?oa.

2.1.1. Naoa?iaieinoue, ea/o

2.2. Iaoa?eaeiioaea/a iau. ?oa

2.2.1. Iaoa?eaeiioaea/a

ii?ie?oaiuo iai-

?ioi. n?aaenoa, ?oa.

2.3. Eiyoo-o niioiioaiey

oaiiia i?e?inoa iauaia

i?iecaiaenoaa e iao. Cao?ao

2.4. Ioiineo. Yeiiiiey iaoa?.

cao?ao, ?oa.0,753

501

1,24

10,16

1,0

o0,75

500

1,22

10,7

0,995

+15099,6

99,8

98,4

105,3

o

-0,755

498

1,23

10,35

0,998

+119100,3

99,4

99,2

105,2

o

o100,6

99,6

100,8

96,7

o

o

Iauay iaoa?eaeiioaea/a a io/aoiii aiaeo nieceeanue. Ii iaoa?eaeiioaea/a
ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a io/aoiii aiaeo ii n?aaiaieth n aaciaui
aiaeii ieaie?iaaea i?e?ino ia 5,3%, oaeoe/aneee i?e?ino ninoaaee 5,2%,
o.a. ieaiiaia caaeaiea ieacaeinue iaauiieiaiiui. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi
i?aaei?eyoea ia auiieieei ieaia ii onei?aieth iai?a/eaaaiinoe
ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey oaiiia i?e?inoa iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao a io/aoiii aiaeo ieaea aaeeieoeu, /oi aiai?eo ia
iia?aaeaiee oaiiia ?inoa iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ii n?aaiaieth n oaiiaie
?inoa iauaia i?iaeoeoeee. Yoei iauyniyaony e nieaeaiea iieacaoaeae
iaoa?eaeiioaea/e e ?inoa iaoa?eaeiaieinoe. Aeiiouai oaeaea
ioiineoaeueiue ia?a?anoiae iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a noiia 119 oun.?oa.

Iooyie ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia yaeythony:
nie?auaiea aei ieieioia anao aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue a i?iecaiaenoaa
(iaoaie/aneeo e oaoie/aneeo); ouaoaeueiue eiio?ieue ia noaaeee
iinooieaiey nu?uey ia i?iecaiaenoai, ca iannie aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e
naea/ae aa ia neeaae; nieaeaiea ii?i ?anoiaea; nie?auaiea aica?aoiuo
iooiaeia; nicaeaieai iiauo ni?oia ecaeaeee n iaiueoei ?anoiaeii;
aiaae?aiea iiauo aeaeia nu?uey (iaacaee?aiiia iieiei n nieiaeiaui
yeno?aoii e ae?.) n oeaeueth yeiiiiee aeaoeoeeoiuo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia.

Nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea aeey aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia eiaao niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu iaoa?eaeueiiai
noeioee?iaaiey ca eo yeiiiieth eae aaaeiaeoae ninoaaiie /anoueth
oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaeoniao?eaathony
neaaeothuea ia?u ii noeioee?iaaieth yeiiiiee:

onoaiiaeaiea caaeneiinoe oiiaeia yeiiiie/aneiai noeioee?iaaiey io o?iaiy
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ia 1 ?oaeue i?iaeoeoeee;

i?yiua io/eneaiey a yoe oiiaeu io noiiu yeiiiiee, iieo/aiiie ca n/ao
nieaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ii n?aaiaieth n ooaa?aeaeaiiui eeieoii;

?anoe?aiea i?aie?iaaiey ?aai/eo ca yeiiiieth eiie?aoiuo aeaeia nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia e ae?.

Aii?inu noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia aua aeaeoo naiaai ?aoaiey. Iac?aea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaiai iiaeoiaea e oi?aaeaieth iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a i?ioeanna iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuie
?ano?naie o/anoaotho iiiaea no?oeoo?iua iiae?acaeaeaiey. Iio?aaiinoue a
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nao oi?ie?oaony oaoie/aneie neoaeaie –
oaoiieiae/aneei, i?iecaiaenoaaiiui, eiino?oeoi?neei ioaeaeaie,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu nicaeathony e ?aaoee?othony ioaeaeaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie, niaaaeaiey e nauoa. Aooaaeoa?ey e
ieaiiai-yeiiiie/aneee ioaeae eiio?iee?otho noieiinoue caaioiaeaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia. Ie iaeia ec ia?a/eneaiiuo neoaea ia ioaa/aao ca
oi?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie a oeaeii, a auiieiyao eeoue naith
ooieoeeth a oi?ie?iaaiee iaoa?eaeueiiai iioiea, iiyoiio a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy noaaeony caaea/a ia?aoiaea io ?aoaiey ioaeaeueiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
caaea/ e oi?aaeaieth ?ano?naie a oeaeii.

Aieueoia cia/aiea a ?aoaiee caaea/e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
?ano?nia eiaao ?ani?ino?aiaiea oic?an/aoiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia ana
no?oeoo?iua iiae?acaeaeaiey, o/anoaothuea a oi?aaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuie
?ano?naie, e a i?ioeanna aeaeueiaeoaai aiaeeca aeaoaeueii eco/athony
aaaeiaeoea iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia: eeieo
cao?ao ia 1 ?oaeue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee, nu?ueaaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee,
iaoa?eaeiioaea/a, iieacaoaee ioiineoaeueiie yeiiiiee iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia, oaeoi?u eciaiaiey ?anoiaea nu?uey ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee
e ae?.

Oieueei iinea ouaoaeueiiai eco/aiey anao oaeoi?ia eciaiaiea ?anoiaea
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia iiaeii aeaoue ii-ianoiyuaio iauaeoeaioth ioeaieo
auiieiaiey ieaia yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.
Aeey aiaeeca iaoa?eaeiaieinoe e iaoa?eaeiioaea/e ninoaaeyaony oaaeeoea.

Oaaeeoea ? 3.10

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia

IieacaoaeeIi ieaioOaeoe/aneeAui. ieaia, %1. Oiaa?iay i?iaeoeoeey a
iaeciaiiuo oeaiao, oun. ?oa.7340074450101,42. Iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai, oun. ?oa.5940059500100,23. Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue ii oia.
i?-ee

(no? 2 : no? 1)0,8090,79998,84. Iaoa?eaeiioaea/a ii o. i?-ee

(no? 1: no? 2), ?oa.1,241,25100,8

Ia eciaiaiea iieacaoaey iaoa?eaeiaieinoe ieacuaatho aeeyiea oaeea
oaeoi?u, eae eciaiaiea noiiu iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao e eciaiaiea iauaia
i?iaeoeoeee. ?an/ao i?iecaiaeeony i?eaiii iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai
eciee?iaaiey oaeoi?ia. Oneiaiue iieoiaoaeue – iaoa?eaeiaieinoue i?e
oaeoe/aneeo cao?aoao iaoa?eaeia e ieaiiaii iauaia i?iaeoeoeee. Yoio
iieacaoaeue ?ann/eouaaaony iooai aeaeaiey noiiu oaeoe/aneiai ?anoiaea
iaoa?eaeia ia ieaiiaue iauai i?iaeoeoeee:

59500 : 73400 = 0,811

Aeaiiua oaaeeoeu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aieaa yooaeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, oae eae oaiiu ?inoa iauaia i?iaeoeoeee auoa
oaiiia ?inoa noiiu ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia; iaoa?eaeiaieinoue ii ioiioaieth
e oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee nieceeanue, a iaoa?eaeiioaea/a aic?inea.

Oeaeaniia?acii ii?aaeaeeoue aeeyiea eciaiaiey iaoa?eaeiaieinoe e ?acia?a
iio?aaeaiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia iauai i?iaeoeoeee. ?an/ao
i?iecaiaeeony i?eaiii iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai eciee?iaaiey oaeoi?ia.
Oneiaiue iieacaoaeue – iauai i?iaeoeoeee i?e oaeoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeueiuo
cao?aoao e ieaiiaie iaoa?eaeiaieinoe:

59500 : 0,809 = 73548 ?oa.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioeeiiaiea iauaia i?iaeoeoeee io ieaiiaiai a noiia
+1050 ?oaeae neiaeeeenue iiae aeeyieai:

eciaiaiey iauae noiiu iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao:

73548 – 73400 = + 148;

eciaiaiea iaoa?eaeiaieinoe:

74450 – 73548 = + 902.

Anee iauai i?iaeoeoeee eciaieeny iiae aeeyieai eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u
i?iaeoeoeee, yoio oaeoi? iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea a oaeoi?a “Eciaiaiea
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe”. Iineieueeo o ian ca n/ao eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u
i?iaeoeoeee aa iauai oaaee/eee ia 600 ?oaeae, aeeyiea eciaiaiey
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe ninoaaeyao : + 302 ?oaey (902 – 600).

Iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan a iauai ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia
caieiaao nu?uea, iiyoiio e yooaeoeaiinoe aai eniieueciaaiey aeieaeii
oaeaeyoueny iniaia aieiaiea. Oeaeaniia?acii eco/eoue iieacaoaee /anoiie
nu?ueaaieinoe, eioi?oth iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue eae ioiioaiea noieiinoe
nu?uey ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea e iauaio i?iaeoeoeee e n?aaieoue ii
ia?eiaeai, oeaoai e o.i.

A i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna aacaica?aoii en/acaao ii?aaeaeaiiia
eiee/anoai nu?uey a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia. I?e/eiu ia?aciaaiey iioa?ue
ii?iaeaeathony eae naiei i?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?ioeannii, oae e oneiaeyie,
a eioi?uo yoio i?ioeann i?ioaeaao. Oae iie iiaoo aicieeiooue a
neaaenoaee: ia?ooaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna; iai?aaeeueiinoe eee
iaoi/iinoe acaaoeaaiey; iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iiaaeaiey ?aaioieeaie nu?uey,
iieooaa?eeaoia eee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee; oeuaiee a oie eee eiie oi?ia.

Aaee/eia iioa?ue nu?uey caaeneo io o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. A nayce n
iaoaiecaoeeae e niaa?oainoaiaaieai oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia,
oeo/oaieai i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea nieaeathony oaeoe/aneea iioa?e nooeo
aauanoa a i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee.

Iniiaiua ?aca?au yeiiiiee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia iiaoo auoue auyaeaiu a
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii aiaeece?iaaoue ?anoiae
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee.

3.6. Aiaeec ?anoiaea nu?uey ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee

Eceiaeaiiua ?aiaa iniaaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeii?aaeaeeee
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee aeaoo iaoiaeee aiaeeca ?anoiaea nu?uey ia
i?iecaiaenoaa – ii ianna e ii nooei aauanoaai. ?anniio?ei ia?a/aiue e
nouiinoue aeeyiey oaeoi?ia ii yoei iaoiaeeeai aiaeeca a oaaeeoea, aaea
“O” – aeeyiea aeaiiiai oaeoi?a, a “-” – oaeoi? ia aeaenoaoao.

Eciaiaiea niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a nu?uea ia aea/ao ca niaie
niioaaonoaothuaai eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa nooeo aauanoa, eaeouaai ia
i?iecaiaenoai aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Iiyoiio i?e aiaeeca ii nooei
aauanoaai aeeyiea yoiai oaeoi?a iaoiaeeo naia io?aaeaiea a eciaiaiee
oeaiu aaeeieoeu nooeo aauanoa. E anee oeaia 1oi nu?uey ii ianna a nayce
n eciaiaieai niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa eciaiyaony oieueei ii
ioaeaeueiui aai a?oiiai, oi oeaia nooeo aauanoa eciaiyaony i?e ethaii,
aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiii ioeeiiaiee oaeoe/aneiai % niaea?aeaiey nooeo
aauanoa io ieaiiaiai.

Oaaeeoea ? 3.11.

Aeeyiea oaeoi?ia ii iaoiaeeeai aiaeeca

Oaeoi?uIi iannaIi nooei aauanoaaiEciaiaiea ii?i ?anoiaeaooEciaiaiea
niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a nu?ueao-Eciaiaiea niaea?ae. noo. aauanoa a
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeeeooEciaiaiea no?oeoo?u nu?uey-oCaiaia
nu?ueyooEciaiaiea no?oeoo? iioa?ue nu?uey-oEciaiaiea oeaiooEciaiaiea
ni?oiinoe nu?ueyooEciaiaiea o?iaiy o?ainii?oii-caaio. ?anoiaeiaoo

Iiauoaiea o?iaiy niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee aaaeao
e ia?a?anoiaeo nu?uey, iiieaeaiea a aeiionoeiuo i?aaeaeao e yeiiiiee.

Iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia ?anoiae nu?uey, yaeyaony eciaiaiea
?aoeaioo?u. Eciaiaiea ?aoeaioo?u nu?uey iaeiiai e oiai aea ecaeaeey
iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny a ?acoeueoaoa caiaiu iaeiiai aeaea nu?uey
ae?oaei, yeaeaaeaioiui aio ii iieaciui naienoaai (niaea?aeaieth aee?a,
iai?eia?) neaaeiaaoaeueii eciaiaiea ?aoeaioo?u yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
caiaiu nu?uey, e oaeoi?ii iiaeii n/eoaoue oaeoi?ii “caiaiu”. Oeaiu e
ianna caiaiyaiiai e caiaiythuaai nu?uey ia iaeeiaeiau.

I?e aiaeeca ii ianna nu?uey aeeyiea caiaiu ia aai ?anoiae a noieiinoiie
ioeaiea i?iyaeyaony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo noieiinoueth caiaiythuaai e
caiaiyaiiai nu?uey. I?e aiaeeca aea ii nooei aauanoaai iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue e naa?oieaiiaua iioa?e nooeo aauanoa. Aiaeec ii nooei
aauanoaai iicaieyao ?ann/eoaoue aeeyiea ia ?anoiae nu?uey eciaiaiea aai
no?oeoo?u, o.a. niioiioaiea ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aai a iauai ?anoiaea, oae
eae ana iiiaiia?acea nu?uey naaaeaii ii aaeeiie ea/anoaaiiie
oa?aeoa?enoeea e nooei aauanoaai.

Nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?anoiae nu?uey ieacuaaao ioeeiiaiea io ieaiiauo
ii?i iioa?ue nu?uey. Ia i?aeoeea aeeyiea iioa?ue ia ?anoiae nu?uey
ii?aaeaeytho a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iooai niiinoaaeaiey oaeoe/aneiai
?anoiaea nu?uey a nooeo aauanoaao n aai ?anoiaeii ii ?aoeaioo?iui
ii?iai. N oeaeueth auyaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiiai ?acia?a ioeeiiaiee io
ieaiiauo iioa?ue iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?e ?an/aoa aeeyiea caiai ia
iioa?e, eciaiaiea niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a nu?uea e aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a iioa?yo iaoiaeyo io?aaeaiea e aica?aoiua
iooiaeu e a?ae (iai?eia? e?ioee eiiaeeoa?neeo iann, aeneaeoiiai oanoa).
I?e/eiu, aucuaathuea a?ae ?acee/iu: iai?aaeeueiia aaaeaiea
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, iaaieiaiea e iaa?aaeiinoue,
iaaeia?iea/anoaaiiinoue nu?uey e o.ae.

Nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?anoiae nu?uey a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ieacuaaao
ioeeiiaiea oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe nu?uey io ieaiiaie – oaeoi? oeai.
Ia?aaeee neo/ae, eiaaea i?e yeiiiiee nu?uey ii eiee/anoaaiiui
iieacaoaeyi ca n/ao eciaiaiey oeai i?aaei?eyoey eiatho ia?a?anoiae
nu?uey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iiauoaiea naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee.

Aiaeec ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, i?iecaiaeyuee io/iua ecaeaeey, iieacuaaao,
/oi eae i?aaeei, oaaee/aiea ?anoiaea nu?uey aucuaaaony ia?a?anoiaeii
nu?uey aunoaai ni?oa aianoi ia?aiai. Yoiio aii?ino i?iaaaeaiea aiaeeca
aeieaeii auoue oaeaeaii na?ueaciia aieiaiea. Ieaie?iaaiea ?anoiaea
nu?uey ii ni?oai e aai n?aaeieo oeai i?iecaiaeeony a ii?aaeaeaiiii
niioiioaiee, iai?eia?: ianea neeai/iiai aunoaai ni?oa – 10%, ia?aiai –
70%. Ia?ooaiea yoiai niioiioaiey aaaeao e eciaiaieth ?anoiaea nu?uey.
O/ao nu?uey ii ni?oai iiaeii inouanoaeoue a ea?oi/eao neeaaeneiai o/aoa,
/oi iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue aeeyiea eciaiaiee ni?oiinoe nu?uey ia
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee.

Aieueooth ?ieue a aeiea iaeaieaa yeiiiie/iiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey nu?uey eiaao iia?aoeaiue aiaeec aai ?anoiaea ia
i?iecaiaenoai, oae eae ii iicaieyao auno?i ?aaae?iaaoue ia
io?eoeaoaeueiua yaeaiey.

Iia?aoeaiue aiaeec eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea aeey i?aaiecaoeee
aeaenoaaiiie ai?ueau i?ioea aanoicyenoaaiiinoe, i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea anao
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neoaea e caaiueaa e aii?inai nieaeaiey ?anoiaea
nu?uey, niinianoaoao oe?aieaieth aioo?eoicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa.
Yooaeoeaiinoue iia?aoeaiiai aiaeeca caaeneo io nayce aai n
aioo?ecaaiaeneei oic?an/aoii: /ai oaniaa naycue, oai iaiueoa o?aaoaony
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa, oae eae ?oeiaiaeeoaee oic?an/aoiuo
caaiueaa iaoa?eaeueii caeioa?aniaaiu a auno?aeoai ono?aiaiee ane?uouo
iaaeinoaoeia. A yoie i?iiuoeaiiinoe eiaaony ianoiyoaeueiay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aaiecaoeee iia?aoeaiiai aiaeeca ?anoiaea nu?uey ii
oaeoi?ai “Eciaiaiea niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a nu?uea” e “Caiaia
nu?uey”. Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, aaaeoueo iia?aoeaiue o/ao cao?ao nu?uey a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eenoao eee aiaeiae/iuo aio aeieoiaioao.

Aeeyiea oaeoi?ia ia?aiai ii?yaeea ia iaoa?eaeiioaea/o eee
iaoa?eaeiaieinoue iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue niiniaii oeaiiie iiaenoaiiaee.

A aeeieiiiie ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu neaaeothuea aeaiiua aeey aiaeeca
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee.

1. Cao?aou iaoa?eaeia ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee:

ii ieaio- 14084 iei. ?oa.;

ii ieaio, ia?an/eoaiiiio ia oaeoe/aneee auione i?iaeoeoeee-

14382.5 iei. ?oa.;

ii ieaiiaui ii?iai e ieaiiaui oeaiai ia oaeoe/aneee auione
i?iaeoeoeee- 14947.5 iei. ?oa.;

oaeoe/anee ii ieaiiaui oeaiai- 15192.5 iei. ?oa.;

oaeoe/anee – 15873 iei. ?oa.

2. Noieiinoue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee:

ii ieaio- 48000 iei. ?oa.;

oaeoe/anee i?e ieaiiaie no?oeoo?a e ieaiiauo oeaiao – 49250 iei.
?oa.;

oaeoe/anee i?e oaeoe/aneie no?oeoo?a e ii ieaiiaui oeaiai- 50400
iei. ?oa.;

oaeoe/anee- 52150 iei. ?oa.

Ia iniiaaiee i?eaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo i iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?aoao e noieiinoe
oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee ?ann/eoaai iieacaoaee iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee,
eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aeeyiey oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea aa
o?iaiy (oaae. ? 3.12).

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi iaoa?eaeiaieinoue a oeaeii aic?inea ia 1.1 eii.,
a oii /enea ca n/ao eciaiaiey:

iauaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee 29.20-29.34= -0.14 eii.;

no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa 29.66-29.20= +0.46 eii.;

oaeaeueiiai ?anoiaea nu?uey 30.14-29.66= +0.48 eii.;

oeai ia nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu 31.49-30.14= +1.35 eii.;

ioioneiuo oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth 30.44-31.49= -1.05 eii.

Eoiai- +1.10 eii.

Oaaeeoea 3.12.

Oaeoi?iue aiaeec iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee

Iaeaca-oaeueOneiaey ?an/aoaIi?yaeie ?an/aoa iaoa?eaei-aieinoeO?iaaiue
iaoa?e-

aeiai-einoeIauai

i?iec-

aiaenoaaNo?oeoo-

?a i?i-

aeoeoeeeOae. ?ano.

nu?ueyOeaia ia

iaoa-

?eaeuIoione.

Oeaia ia

i?iae-thIeaiIeaiIeaiIeaiIeaiIeai14084: 48000o100=
29.34One.1OaeoIeaiIeaiIeaiIeai14382.5: 49250o100=
29.20One.2OaeoOaeoIeaiIeaiIeai14947.5:50400o100=
29.66One.3OaeoOaeoOaeoIeaiIeai15192.5: 50400o100=
30.14One.4OaeoOaeoOaeoOaeoIeai15873: 50400o100=
31.49Oaeo.OaeoOaeoOaeoOaeoOaeo15873: 52150o100= 30.44

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi ia i?aaei?eyoee a
io/aoiii aiaeo oaaee/eeny oaeaeueiue aan i?iaeoeoeee n aieaa aunieei
o?iaiai iaoa?eaeiaieinoe. Eiae ianoi ia?a?anoiae iaoa?eaeia ii
n?aaiaieth n ooaa?aeaeaiiuie ii?iaoeaaie, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
iaoa?eaeiaieinoue aic?inea ia 0.48 eii., eee ia 1.64 %. Iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia iiauoaiea iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee ieacae
?ino oeai ia nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu a nayce n eioeyoeeae. Ca n/ao yoiai
oaeoi?a o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeiaieinoe iiauneeny ia 1.35 eii., eee 4.6 %.
I?e/ai oaiiu ?inoa oeai ia iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu auee auoa oaiiia ?inoa
oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth i?aaei?eyoey. A nayce n ?inoii ioioneiuo oeai
iaoa?eaeiaieinoue nieceeanue, ii ia a oaeie noaiaie, eae iia aic?inea ca
n/ao i?aaeuaeouaai oaeoi?a.

Caeeth/aiea

I?e iaienaiee aeeieiiiie ?aaiou ii oaia “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa e
aiaeeca eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa ia i?eia?a
aeayoaeueiinoe AIIO “Oaa?ueoeaai?ii” Oeeeae Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao
auee enneaaeiaaiu aii?inu ninoaaa e ioeaiee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
?anniio?aia i?aeoeea aaaeaiey o/aoa iinooieaiey e ?anoiaeiaaiey nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa e eo aeeth/aiea a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee,
i?eaaaeai aiaeec eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e naeaeaiu
neaaeothuea auaiaeu.

AIIO “Oaa?ueoeaai?ii” Oeeeae Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao ioiineony e
i?iiuoeaiiinoe oeaaiiaea?iie io?anee. I?aaei?eyoea caieiaaony
i?iecaiaenoaii ia oieueei oeaaiaoei/iuo, ii e io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo
ecaeaeee. Yoiio niinianoaoao oeaeue ?yae ?aaio naycaiiue n
i?eia?aoaieai, o?aiaieai, ia?a?aaioeie nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e ?aaeecaoeee
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee iio?aaeoaeyi. I?aaei?eyoea naiinoiyoaeueii ieaie?oao
naith aeayoaeueiinoue e ii?aaeaeyao ia?niaeoeau enoiaey ec ni?ina ia
i?iecaiaeeioth i?iaeoeoeeth.

Ia i?aaei?eyoee nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu i?aaenoaaeaiu oe?ieei aeeaiaciiii
iaeiaiiaaiee, eioi?ua na?oiie?iaaiu a niioaaonoaee n iauai?eiyoie
a?oiiiaie eeanneoeeaoeeae.

O/aoiie iieeoeeie AIIO Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao iaoiaeii ioeaiee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania i?eiyo iaoiae n?aaeiae naaanoieiinoe. A
i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey aii?ina ioeaiee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia eco/aiu ana
nouanoaothuea ia i?aeoeea iaoiaeu ioeaiee, eioi?ua oaeaea auee
?anniio?aiu n oi/ee c?aiey i?eiaiaiey eo ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee.

Ii eoiaai ?an/aoia iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui aeey AIIO Eiiaeianeee
oeaaieiiaeiao ieacaeny niinia ioeaiee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia iaoiaeii OEOI,
i?e eioi?ii aeinoeaaaony nieaeaiea oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe
iio?aaeyaiiai a i?iecaiaenoaa nu?uey. Yoi a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
iaoneiaeaii neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeeae ia ?uiea nu?uey. ?uii/iua oeaiu
eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e aeaeueiaeoaio ?inoo aaeaeo iauae eioeyoeee. Ii ana
aea, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, eniieueciaaiea aeaiiiai niiniaa ioeaiee ia
i?eaieaii aeey i?aaei?eyoey ii ?yaeo i?e/ei.

Noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi a oneiaeyo aunieie eioeyoeee i?eiaiaiea iaoiaea
OEOI aaaeao e caauoaieth noieiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo inoaoeia e caieaeaieth
naaanoieiinoe aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, a eae neaaenoaea – caauoaieth
?acoeueoaoia io ?aaeecaoeee. Eiuie neiaaie, OEOI nicaeaao aieueoea
?aca?au a aaeaina e iiaeeece?othuea yoiai ?aca?aa iniaaiii aaaeiu aeey
i?aaei?eyoee, iieo/athueo aieueooth i?eaueue e no?aiyueony nieceoue
o?iaaiue iaeiaia, /oiau oai naiui oeo/oeoue naia oeiainiaia ninoiyiea.

Eae i?aaeei, i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa nienuaaoue a i?iecaiaenoai iaoa?eae ii
aieaa aunieie o/aoiie oeaia. A ?acoeueoaoa ?an/aoia, i?iaaaeaiiuo
niiniaii EEOI, iu iieo/eee iaeaieaa ?aaeueiia cia/aiea noieiinoe
ec?anoiaeiaaiiiai a i?iecaiaenoai nu?uey, oae eae aai nienaiea
i?ienoiaeeei iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii oaeouei ?uii/iui oeaiai. E a yoii
niunea, i?eiaiaiea iaoiaea EEOI ii?aaaeaii a oneiaeyo aunieie eioeyoeee.
N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aai eniieueciaaiea i?eaiaeeo e caauoaieth
naaanoieiinoe, /oi iiaea/ao, ai-ia?auo, nieaeaiea i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey,
a, ai-aoi?uo, e ?inoo ioioneiuo oeai. ?ino ioioneiuo oeai ia
i?iaeoeoeeth iaaeaeaoaeai, oae eae i?iaeoeoeey eiieo?aioia, a oeaiu ia
iaeioi?ua aeaeu ecaeaeee ?aaoee?othony ainoaea?noaii, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
i?iecaiaenoai yoeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee iiaeao noaoue ia?aioaaaeueiui.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu i?eoiaeei e auaiaeo, /oi iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueii a
aeaiiuo oneiaeyo aeey AIIO Eiiaeianeee oeaaieiiaeiao i?e ioeaiea nu?uey
e iaoa?eaeia iieueciaaoueny iaoiaeii n?aaeiae naaanoieiinoe, oai naiui
i?aaei?eyoea cano?aoiauaaao naay io ?aceeo eieaaaiee oeai ia nu?uea.
I?eiaiaiea yoiai iaoiaea iaania/eaaao on?aaeiaiea naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee e iieo/aaiie i?eauee a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee. Iiieii
yoiai,

iaoiae n?aaeiae noieiinoe iaeaieaa i?eau/ai aooaaeoa?neiio ia?niiaeo n
aieueoei iiuoii ?aaiou. Ia iniiaaiee auoaia?a/eneaiiuo aeinoieinoa,
aaoi? aeaiiie ?aaiou ?aeiiaiaeoao i?aaei?eyoeth inoaaaoueny aa?iui
aua?aiiie iaoiaeeea. Oi anoue aua?aiiue i?aaei?eyoeai iaoiae ioeaiee
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ii n?aaeiae naaanoieiinoe yaeyaony iaeaieaa
?aoeeiiaeueiui aeey aeaiiiai oeia i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?e iaienaiee aeeieiiiie ?aaiou aaoi?ii aieueoia aieiaiea auei oaeaeaii
aeieoiaioaeueiiio ioi?ieaieth aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeia, o/aoo iinooieaiey e
ioionea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e eo aeeth/aieth a naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee.

Ia AIIO “Oaa?ueoeaai?ii” aeey ioi?ieaiey iia?aoeee ii aeaeaeaieth
iaoa?eaeia i?eiaiytho ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou, ?ac?aaioaiiua a niioaaonoaee
n oeiiauie noaiaea?oiuie oi?iaie. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue aeinoaoi/ii
iieiaeeoaeueiue iiiaio. Ia ianoiyuee iiiaio a ea/anoaa ia?ae/iuo
i?eoiaeiuo aeieoiaioia eniieuecothony aeieoiaiou iinoaaueeia, yoi a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iicaieeei nieceoue aeieoiaioiiai?io ia neeaaeao e
a aooaaeoa?ee. Ii iiaieth aaoi?a, eniieueciaaiea i?aaei?eyoeyie i?eaiiuo
aeoia n oeaeueth ioi?ieaiey iinooieaiey iaoa?eaeia iaoeaeaniia?acii, oae
eae ii nooe i?eaiiue aeo – yoi neaiaeueiue aeieoiaio, oeene?othuee
eaeea-eeai ?anoiaeaeaiey.

Ioione nu?uey a i?iecaiaenoai ia oeaaieiiaeiaoa, eiaao ?yae
iniaaiiinoae, naycaiiuo ni niaoeeoe/iinoueth eniieuecoaiiai nu?uey e
iniaaiiinoyie oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea. A i?ioeanna eco/aiey aii?ina
eniieueciaaiey nu?uey auei auyaeaii, /oi ia oeaaieiiaeiaoa eiathony
neo/ae iiae?aaioee enoiaeiiai nu?uey n oeaeueth aeiaaaeaiey aai aei
ninoiyiey i?eaiaeiinoe e eniieueciaaieth. Oae, iai?eia?, aeey
i?eaioiaeaiey eiiaeeoa?neeo naeiaiuo ecaeaeee, ioeo i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
iaiaoiaeeii i?inayoue, iaiaaoea oaeei ia?acii aa eenei?iaeii e ecaaaea
io anaaiciiaeiuo a?oauo /anoeoe, /oiau ecaeaeey auee aicaeooiuie e
o?onoyueie. Oaoiieiaeae i?iecaiaenoaa oaeaea i?aaeoniio?aii
eniieueciaaiea niee ia a e?enoaeee/aneie oi?ia, a a aeaea i?ioeaaeaiiiai
nieaaiai ?anoai?a. Oaeei ia?acii, aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiae?aaioee.
Ii iiaieth aaoi?a, yoe iia?aoeee aeieaeiu oeene?iaaoueny niaoeeaeueiui
aeieoiaioii – aeoii ia iiae?aaioeo, a cao?aou, naycaiiua n i?ioeannii
iiae?aaioee aeieaeiu aaoiiaoe/anee oaaee/eaaoue noieiinoue enoiaeiiai
nu?uey. Yoi na?ueaciia oiouaiea ni noi?iiu ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey, ia
eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea.

A iauai, aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea aeaeaeaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia
yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeiaieei o/anoeii o/aoa, cao?aaeaathuei
i?aeoe/anee ana i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey. Eiaiii iiyoiio
i?aaei?eyoeth iaiaoiaeeii /aoei iaeaaeaiiay nenoaia aeieoiaioiiai?ioa,
oi?ioi eiio?iee?oaiay ia eaaeaeii yoaia. Ia oeaaieiiaeiaoa ai iiiaii
oi?inoeoue ?aaioo aooaaeoa?ia iiiiaaao eniieueciaaiea YAI i?e
niaeaenoaee ioaeaea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee o/aoiie eioi?iaoeee,
/oi iicaieeei iieiinoueth eiiiuethoa?ece?iaaoue ?aaioo aooaaeoa?ia
iaoa?eaeueiiai noiea.

I?e iaienaiee aeeieiiiie ?aaiou enneaaeiaai aii?in eiio?iey ca
eniieueciaaieai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea
ii?ie?iaaiey ?anoiaea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia neoaeeo iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo
i?aaeiinueie ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia a
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ninoiyiea ii?iaoeaiie aacu ia i?aaei?eyoee ia aei eiioea
ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieyi iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, oae eae
iaeioi?ua ec ii?i onoaiaaeeaathony ia iniiaa oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao ca
iioaaeoee ia?eiae. Ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee ouaoaeueiiio ii?ie?iaaieth
iiaeeaaeao ana aeaeu iniiaiiai e aniiiiaaoaeueiiai nu?uey ia iniiaa
ninoaaeaiiuo ?aoeaioo?. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaeaaony oii? ia ?ac?aaioeo
i?ia?anneaiuo ii?i ?anoiaea. Ii?ie?iaaiea ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia iicaieyao
inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieueioth ooieoeeth, iiauoaao noaiaiue oi?aaeyaiinoe
cao?aoaie, neoaeeo iniiaie ninoaaeaiey ieaiiauo eaeueeoeyoeee, /oi
yaeyaony aacie aeey i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee aiaeeca cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue aii?ino
aiaeeca yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, o.a.
aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii eco/aia nenoaia iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe eo
eniieueciaaiey.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?an/aoia auee naeaeaiu neaaeothuea auaiaeu: ii n?aaiaieth
n i?ioeui aiaeii iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia
oooaeoeeenue, ii ia cia/eoaeueii – i?iecioei oaaee/aiea iauae
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe ii n?aaiaieth n iioeui aiaeii e ieaiii e niioaaonoaaiii
nieaeaiea iaoa?eaeiioaea/e.

A i?ioeanna aeaeueiaeoaai aiaeeca iaoa?eaeiaieinoe auei auyniaii
neaaeothuea. Ia i?aaei?eyoee no?oeoo?iia eciaiaiea auionea i?iaeoeoeee
iaoneiaeei oaaee/aiea iaoa?eaeiaieinoe. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi a
auionea i?iaeoeoeee oiaiueoeeanue aeiey ecaeaeee iaiaa iaoa?eaeiaieeo e
niioaaonoaaiii oaaee/eeanue aeiey aieaa iaoa?eaeiaieeo ecaeaeee.

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeui aiaeii i?aaei?eyoea
cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eei anni?oeiaio auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, yoe
eciaiaiey a iniiaiii einioeenue naeiaiuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee,
i?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo o?aaoao cao?ao aunieiea/anoaaiiiai nu?uey, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii yoi i?eaaei e ?inoo iaoa?eaeiaieinoe.

Aeeyiea oaeaeueiie iaoa?eaeiaieinoe ia iauoth iaoa?eaeiaieinoue
i?iaeoeoeee iaania/eei ?ino aa ia eaaeaeue ?oaeue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee.
Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao eeoue i iacia/eoaeueiii oaaee/aiee o?iaiy
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai ioaeaeueiuo ecaeaeee.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?inoa oeai ia nu?uea iauaa, iaoa?eaeiaieinoue
oaaee/eeanue, a aneaaenoaea ?inoa ioioneiuo oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth
iaoa?eaeiaieinoue nieceeanue. Aeeyiea oeaiiauo oaeoi?ia naycaii ni
neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeeae ia ?uiea nu?uey e iaoneiaeaii eioeyoeeae.

A caeeth/aiee oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaei?eyoeyi oeaaiiaea?iie
io?anee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaeeaaaaony oe?ieee auai? naiiai
nia?aiaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Ii nieaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao iiaeao
iaoneiaeaii i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeie ia?ii?eyoeyie:

Nia?aiaiiia e eiiieaeniia iaania/aiea i?aaei?eyoey iaiaoiaeeiui nu?ueai
e iaoa?eaeaie;

?ac?aaioeo e aiaae?aiea i?ia?anneaiuo ii?i ?anoiaea e niaethaeaiea
?aaeeia yeiiiiee;

?anoe?aiea anni?oeiaioa;

oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa iaoa?eaeia (eniieueciaaiea oa?iaioiuo aeiaaaie);

eniieueciaaiea iaeaieaa nia?aiaiiuo aeaeia iaoa?eaeia (ae?iaeaeaaia
iieiei, caeaanea);

niaa?oainoaiaaiea ieaie?iaaiey, o/aoa e aiaeeca eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaiaeeiuo ia?ii?eyoee oaeiai ?iaea ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
aicieeaao yeiiiiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, a eae neaaenoaea – nieaeaiea
aaee/eiu iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao a naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee.

Aaoi? ?aeiiaiaeoao oaeaeeoue ?ac?aaioea iiaeiaiuo ia?ii?eyoee iniaia
aieiaiea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “Iaooaaeoa?neii o/aoa” io 21.11.96a. ?129-O3.

2. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
caiania. IAO ?5/98, Ooaa?aeaeaii i?eeacii IO ?O io 15.06.98a. ?25i (a
?aae. i?eeaca IO ?O io 24.03.2000a. ?31i).

3. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii eiaaioa?ecaoeee eiouanoaa e oeiainiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa. Ooaa?aeaeaiu i?eeacii IO ?O io 13.06.95a. ?49.

4. Iieiaeaiea i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?O: I?eeac IO ?O io
26.12.94a. ?170 // Ii?iaoeaiua aeou aeey aooaaeoa?a 1995a.-?3-n.5-8.

5. Iieiaeaiea i ninoaaa cao?ao ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa), e i ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia,
o/eouaaaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee: Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa
?O io 05.08.92a. ?552 (a ?aae. Iinoaiiaeaiee I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io
26.06.95a. ?627 io 01.07.95a. ?661, io 20.11.95a. ?113 // Aeinuea
aooaaeoa?a – 1996.- ?2).

6. Iiaue Ieai n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Ooaa?aeaeai i?eeacii IO ?O io
31.10.2000a. ?94i.

7. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao: O/aaiee // I.N. Aac?oeeo, I.I. Eiiae?aeia, A.O.
Iieee e ae?. Iiae ?aae. I.N. Aac?oeeo – I.: Aoo. O/ao, 1994a.

8. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao. Eiceiaa A.I. e ae?. I.: 1996 – 432 n.

9. Aaeiaaaeaoeeee E.A. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao iaoa?eaeia e IAI. 1995a. ?8 –
n.21-25.

10. Aaeiaaaeaoeeee E.A. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu i?aaei?eyoey: o/ao,
ioeaiea, eiio?ieue // Oeiainu- 1996a. ?12- n.44-51.

11. Aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. No?aniaa A.E.-
Ecae. 2-a.- Ieine. “Aanoay oeiea”, 1997a.- 363 n.

12. Aioeaa A.E. Iaoiaeu ioeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania a o/aoiie
iieeoeea // Eiinoeueoaio.- 1996a.- ?3 n.23-30.

13. A?eai?ueaa TH.A. O/ao iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania //
Eiinoeueoaio – 1996a. – n.32-58.

14. Aeaieeianeee TH.A. ?aaecey nio?aiiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae.-
I.: 1995a.- 128n.

15. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe.-
I.: 2000a. Aauoiiaa I.E.

16. Nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu oeaaiiaea?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa // Aeaeaaaa N.E.-
I.: Eaaeay e ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 1982a.

17. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e aiaeec oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ia iaeii i?aaei?eyoee. *a?ieeia E.N. – I.: 1998a.- 254n.

18. ?onae I.A. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca e o/aoa a
eiiaeeoa?neie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.- I.: 1986a.- 247n.

19. Aeieoiaiou neeaaeneiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia: ?aaioa n ia?ae/iuie
aeieoiaioaie // Aooaaeoa?neee aanoiee – 1996a.- ?6- n.3-17.

20. Naaeoeeay A.A. Aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey: 4-a
ecae.- Ieine: III “Iiaia ciaiea”, 2000a.- 688n.

21. Oai?ey yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca. Aaeaiia I.E., Oa?aiao A.Ae. – I.:
1999a.- 416n.

22. Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e iauaaeeiaiee.
Aa?iaieueoe N.A. –2-a ecae. 1981a.

23. *a/aoa A.I. O/ao e aiaeec iieacaoaeae iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao.- I.:
1980a.

24. *a/aoa A.I. Yeiiiieea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia. Iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey
o/aoa e aiaeeca.- I.: 1993a.

25. Ino?eineay E.Ae., Iinoieeiaa A.A. Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee. Ii.: Ecaeaoaeueneia iauaaeeiaiea “Aeua
oeiea”, 1975a.

26. Eoaiaie A.A. O/ao ioionea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania // Aooaaeoa?neee
o/ao – 1996a. ?4.

27. Eoaiaie A.A. O/ao ioionea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania // Aooaaeoa?neee
o/ao 1996a.- ?5.

28. Eaiuoaiia I.E. I?aeoe/aneia iiniaea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo.- I.:
Yeiiiieea, 1996a.- 349n.

29. E.N. *a?ieeia. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e aiaeec.- I.: TH?aeo, 1999a.-
352n.

30. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ieaie?iaaieth, o/aoo e
eaeueeoee?iaaieth naaanoieiinoe ia oeaaiiaea?iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.- I.:
Ainoaea?noaaiiue iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo oeaaiiaea?iie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.- 2000a.

31. AEo?iae “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao” ?5, 2000a. n.40-42, ?24, 2000a.n.21-24,
69-70.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019