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Особенности развития аудита в странах с развитой экономикой

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Aeieeaae

ii aoaeeoo

ia oaio:

«Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey aoaeeoa a no?aiao n ?acaeoie yeiiiieeie»

Auiieieea nooaeaioea a?. 447

AEoeiaa Aeaoa?eia

Aaaaeaiea

Aoaeeo – iaeia ec oi?i oeiainiaiai eiio?iey, iio?aaiinoue a eioi?ii
aicieeea iaeiia?aiaiii n ca?iaeaeaieai e ?acaeoeai oiaa?iiaiaiiuo e
aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee. Ia?aie no?aiie, nicaeaaoae nenoaio oeiainiaiai
eiio?iey, aue Eeoae ieiei 700 a. aei i.y.

?acaeoea aoaeeoa auei oanii naycaii n iniaaiiinoyie
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie enoi?ee ioaeaeueiuo no?ai e ii?aaeaeyeinue
i?aaeaea anaai oa?aeoa?ii ?acaeoey ?uiea eaieoaea.

Aoaeeo aue ecaanoai a Aa?iia oaea a N?aaeiaaaeiauea, iaeiaei eae iaoea e
aeae yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony n XIX aaea. A
N?aaeiea aaea ii i?inueaa eiio?aaaioia eoioeia (eae i?aaeei, ae?oaeo
eoioeia eee aaieianeeo einoeoooia) aoaeeoi?u i?iaa?yee aooaaeoa?neea
eieae eoioeia e naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee eo aeinoiaa?iinoue. A XIX aaea
iniiaiuie caeac/eeaie aoaeeoa noaee, iiieii e?aaeeoi?ia, nianoaaiieee
eiiiaiee — /oi naycaii n aeoeaiui ?acaeoeai aeoeeiia?iuo e ia?aie/aiiuo
eiiiaiee, a eioi?uo nianoaaiieee ia caieiaeenue oaeouei oi?aaeaieai e,
niioaaonoaaiii, ioaeaeaeenue a ia?eiaee/aneie i?iaa?ea iaiyouo
oi?aaeythueo.

1. ?acaeoea aoaeeoa a Aaeeeia?eoaiee

Iinea i?eiyoey a 1862 a. caeiia i a?eoaineeo eiiiaieyo, niaeanii
eioi?iio eiiiaiee ii iaiueoae ia?a iaeei ?ac a aiae aeieaeiu auee
i?aaenoaaeoue n/aoa e io/aou aeey i?iaa?ee niaoeeaeenoaie ii
aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo e oeiainiaiio eiio?ieth, ?yaeu aoaeeoi?ia
nouanoaaiii iiiieieeenue. Aaoi?u eieae [17. C. 64], nnueaynue ia
a?eoaineiai aaoi?a ?e/a?aea A?aoia, oeacuaatho /eneaiiinoue aoaeeoi?ia
ai anai ie?a a 1905 a. – 11 ouny/, ec eioi?uo iieiaeia i?eoiaeeeanue ia
Aaeeeia?eoaieth.

A 1880 a. a Aaeeeia?eoaiee ian/eouaaaony oanoue iniiaiuo aooaaeoa?neeo e
aoaeeoi?neeo i?aaiecaoeee

Nia/aea iaycaiiinoe aoaeeoi?a ia auee /aoei ii?aaeaeaiu: ana eiaanoi?u –
e aeoeeiia?u, e e?aaeeoi?u – aeaeaee a iai caueoieea naieo eioa?ania.

Aiaeeeneea niaoeeaeenou na?aaeeiu – eiioea i?ioeiai aaea aianee
nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea aoaeeoa e oaoieee ?aaecee. Niaeanii [29],
o?aaiaiey aaeaina auee nicaeaiu a ia?aie iieiaeia i?ioeiai aaea A.O.
Oinoa?ii e ai aoi?ie iieiaeia – Eio?ainii Aeeene:

A – I = E e A = I + E.

Eio?ain Aeeene – e?oiiaeoee aaoi?eoao oiai a?aiaie aeaeae oeaee ?aaecee
a auyaeaiee [29]:

1) iiaeeiaia;

2) neo/aeiuo ioeaie;

3) iaaeinoaoea a i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa.

?aaecey ia/eiaeanue n eannu. Aiaeec aaeaina ?anniao?eaaeny n oi/ee
c?aiey eioa?ania ?acee/iuo caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe.

N?aaee aiaeeeneeo o/aiuo ia auei aaeeiiai iiaiey ioiineoaeueii
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?iaaaeaiey i?iaa?ie. Anee (eae oaea ioia/aeinue
?aiaa) Eio?ain Aeeene n/eoae, /oi i?iaa?ea aeieaeia ia/eiaoueny n eannu
e aai iiaeaea?aeeaaee ae?oaea aeaeiua o/aiua (Aaonii e *yaeaee), oi
Aiaeaea? ianoaeaae ia i?iaa?ea i?aaeaea anaai Aeaaiie eieae. I?e yoii
nouanoaoao oae iacuaaaiia «i?aaeei Aiaeaea?a», eioi?ia aeaneo: «I?aaeaea
/ai ia?aeoe e neaaeothuaio n/aoo, i?aaeuaeouee aeieaeai auoue aiieia
en/a?iai», a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue n/aoia onoaiaaeeaaao nai
i?iaa?ythuee.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, aiaeeeneea o/aiua aianee aieueoie aeeaae a
?acaeoea oai?ee e iaoiaeia aoaeeoa. Ei aea nia?aiaiiue aoaeeo iaycai
iiyaeaieth aieao, iicaieythueo nouanoaaiii nie?aoeoue o?oaeiaieinoue
i?iaa?ie. A [29. C. 122] iienai i?eia? ?aaiou aeaoo aiaeeeneeo yenia?oia
a Iaoa?ao?aa a 1908 a. Iie ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue aieaoie, niaea?aeauae
ieiei 150 aii?inia, i?inoaaeyee a ea/anoaa ioaaoia /enea e «ea?oeia
ninoiyiey aeae eiiiaiee iieo/aeanue oaeeaeoaeueii yniay e iieiay».

«Aoaeeo i?aaenoaaeyao eiiieaen iaoiaeia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia onoaiiaeaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe e oeaeinoiinoe nenoai oi?aaeaiey, oi/iinoe oeiainiauo
io/aoia» [9].

2. ?acaeoea aoaeeoa a NOA

A NOA aoaeeoi?neia aeaei aicieeei iiae aeeyieai a?eoaineie i?aeoeee
aoaeeoa. iaeiaei oaiiu ?acaeoey aeciana a NOA ?acei ioee/aeenue io
a?eoaineeo, aeey Aia?eee aiaeeeneea iaoiaeu noaee iai?eaieaiuie
aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi a?eoaineee noeeue i?iaa?ee o?aaoao /a?an/o? iiiai
a?aiaie e n?aaenoa. Aia?eeaineee aoaeeo aneaaenoaea niaoeeoeee
naa?oauno?uo oaiiia ?inoa aia?eeaineiai aeciana eiioea XIX aaea – ia/aea
XX aaea ioaeaeaeny a auno?uo oaiiao i?iaaaeaiey i?iaa?ie, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii – a i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiaeyo aoaeeoa. Aia?eeaineea
aoaeeoi?u noaee i?aeoeeiaaoue i?eiaiaiea «oanoiaiai aoaeeoa», nai?a
naeaeaoaeuenoa i aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu o ia?oia?ia ii aeciano n oeaeueth
i?iaa?ee iia?aoeee. Iie ia/aee o/eouaaoue eioa?anu eiaanoi?ia, oaeaeyoue
ana aieueoa aieiaiey ioeaiea aeoeaa e ianneaa e ioioee io aeinoaoi/ii
i?aiaeaaeathuae a aiaeeeneie oeiea aeaoaeueiie i?iaa?ee, eioi?oth
Iiioaiia?e ioa?aeoa?eciaae eae «i?iaa?ea eaioeaey?neie oi/iinoe». Ni?in
e?aaeeoi?ia, a iniiaiii aaieia, i?eaae e ?anoe?aieth caaea/ aoaeeoa e e
?ac?aaioea iiauo iaoiaeia aoaeeoa e iiaeoiaea e noaiaea?oecaoeee.

?. Iiioaiia?e a 1912 a. iaienae eieao «Aoaeeo: oai?ey e i?aeoeea»,
eioi?ay i?e iineaaeothueo ecaeaieyo e ia?aecaeaieyo (aieioue aei iaoeo
aeiae) iieo/eea iacaaiea «Aoaeeo Iiioaiia?e a NOA aoaeeo iaycaoaeai aeey
eiiiaiee, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo Eiienneae ii oeaiiui aoiaaai e ae?aeai
(Securities and Exchange Commision), nicaeaiiie a 1934 a. iinea
ae?aeaaiai e?aoa ia Oiee-no?eo a 1929 a. Caeii i oeaiiuo aoiaaao 1933 a.
e Caeii i ae?aeao 1934 a. o?aaiaaee, /oiau ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua eiiiaiee
ninoaaeyee niioaaonoaothuea oi?iu oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe.

A NOA eiathony aeaa oeia i?ioanneiiaeueiuo e iaainoaea?noaaiiuo
aoaeeoi?neeo i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeei ec ieo i?aaenoaaeai ia
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii, oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia e iacuaaaony Aia?eeaineei
Einoeoooii aeeieiie?iaaiiuo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia (AICPA). Yoio
einoeooo aiciee a 1887 a. e n oao ii? ea?aao aaaeouoth ?ieue a
oi?ie?iaaiee aoaeeoi?neeo eaae?ia. Ii oaeinoiaa?yao eaaeeoeeaoeeth
nieneaoaey, eioi?ue naeaao niioaaonoaothuea yecaiaiu e iieo/aao aeeieii
aooaaeoa?a-aoaeeoi?a. Einoeooo ?oeiaiaeeo iao/iie e iaoiaee/aneie
?aaioie a NOA, ioaeeeoao iiiia?aoee e ecaeaao ?yae aeo?iaeia ii aoaeeoo,
n?aaee eioi?uo iaeaieueooth iiioey?iinoue eiaao «Aeaei?iye io
Yeeaoioaine».

E?iia iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai Einoeoooa nouanoaotho i?ioanneiiaeueiua
aoaeeoi?neea i?aaiecaoeee ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiuo ooaoia, eioi?ua
iacuaathony iauanoaaie aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia. *eaiu
yoeo iauanoa eiatho i?aai ia i?iaaaeaiea aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ie e
ieacaiea eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie iiiiue ia oa??eoi?ee naieo ooaoia.
Aooaaeoa?u-aoaeeoi?u iiaoo caieiaoueny naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth a ?aieao
/anoiie i?aeoeee eee aea auoue nio?oaeieeaie aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i. Iaeaieaa
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua aoaeeoi?u aaaeoo i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneoth ?aaioo a
oieaa?neoaoao e eieeaaeaeao.

Ii aeaiiui [2. C. 7] a NOA a 1917 a. n oeaeueth noaiaea?oecaoeee
i?ioeaaeo? aoaeeoa ?ac?aaaouaathony «Ooaa?aeaeaiiua iaoiaeu ii
iiaeaioiaea aeaiiuo aaeainiaiai io/aoa», ia?aniio?aiiia ecaeaiea auoei a
1929 a. iiae iacaaieai «I?iaa?ea oeiainiauo io/aoia». A yoii ecaeaiee
iiae/a?eeaaeanue aaaeiinoue aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey, a oaeaea aiai?eeinue i
i?aeoeea ninoaaeaiey caeeth/aiee. Niaeanii [2. C. 7] a 1934 a. (a a
«Aoaeeo Iiioaiia?e» yoio aeieoiaio aeaoe?oaony 1936 aiaeii) iioaeeeiaai
aeieoiaio «I?iaa?ea oeiainiauo io/aoia iacaaeneiuie aoaeeoi?aie», a
eioi?ii auee ?aeiiaiaeiaaiu neaaeothuea iicaeiaa iianaianoii i?eiyoua
i?ioeaaeo?u aoaeeoa: eco/aiea eiaaioa?iie aaaeiiinoe e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea
aeaaeoi?ia ii ?an/aoai.

Aeoeaiue i?ioeann noaiaea?oecaoeee ia/aeny n 1939 aiaea, eiaaea AICPA
o/?aaeeea Eiieoao ii aoaeeoi?neei i?ioeaaeo?ai e ii ecaeae ia?aia
Iieiaeaiea ia aoaeeoi?neie i?ioeaaeo?a. N 1939 a. AICPA ia/ae
ioaeeeiaaoue atheeaoaie enneaaeiaaiee e io/aou ii i?ioeaaeo?ai aoaeeoa –
ia?aua i?eaeiaeueiua aeieoiaiou einoeoooa, eanathueany noaiaea?oecaoeee
aoaeeoa. A ia?aii io/aoa ii i?ioeaaeo?ai aoaeeoa auei i?eaaaeaii 7
eeth/aauo iieiaeaiee, eaaeaueo a iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey i?ioannee
aoaeeoi?a. A io/aoa i?eciaiu iaycaoaeueiuie i?ioeaaeo?aie aoaeeoa
eco/aiea eiaaioa?iuo aaaeiiinoae e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ecae?aoue iacaaeneiuo aoaeeoi?ia Niaaoii
aee?aeoi?ia (aeoeeiia?ia eiiiaiee), a eiiiaieyi nicaeaaaoue iacaaeneiua
eiieoaou ii aoaeeoo aeey iaaethaeaiey ca aioo?aiieie i?iaa?eaie e
aooaaeoa?neeie i?ioeaaeo?aie, noi?ioee?iaaiu ia?acoeu caeeth/aiee
aoaeeoi?a ii i?aaenoaaeaiiie oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee.

70-80-aiaeu XX aaea a NOA ioia/aiu iiauoaiiui eioa?anii iauanoaaiiinoe e
e?oao iaycaiiinoae e ?aaioa aoaeeoi?ia. Neaaenoaeai ?yaea iaoaea/iuo
i?iaa?ie, iiaeaeoeo ca niaie noaeaaiua ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, yaeeenue
neooaiey a Eiia?anna, nicaeaiea niaoeeaeueiuo eiiennee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
?iee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe aoaeeoi?a. Eoiaii noae auaiae i ianiioaaonoaee
iaaeaeo oai, a /ai ii i?aaenoaaeaieth iauanoaa (a cia/eo e eeeaioia)
aeieaeai caeeth/aoueny aoaeeo, e aiciiaeiinoyie ?aaeueiiai i?ioeanna
aoaeeoa, eioi?ua ia?aie/aiu ii?aaeaeaiiuie ?aieaie (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
– ia?aie/aieyie ii n?ieai i?iaaaeaiey aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ie) e
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oneeeoue aeoeaiinoue Niaaoa ii aoaeeoi?neei
noaiaea?oai n oeaeueth nie?auaiey e aeaeueiaeoae eeeaeaeaoeee yoiai
?ac?uaa.

Ii?aaeaeaiey aoaeeoa ?aciuie i?aaiecaoeeyie a NOA ?acee/athony. Oae,
iai?eia?, Aia?eeaineee einoeooo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia ii?aaeaeyao
aoaeeo eae «i?ioeann, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai eiiiaoaioiue iacaaeneiue
?aaioiee iaeaieeaaao e ioeaieaaao naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia eioi?iaoeee,
iiaeaeathuaeny eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea e ioiinyuaeny e niaoeeoe/aneie
oicyenoaaiiie nenoaia, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue e au?aceoue a naiai
caeeth/aiee noaiaiue niioaaonoaey yoie eioi?iaoeee onoaiiaeaiiui
e?eoa?eyi» [3], a eiieoao Aia?eeaineie annioeeaoeee aooaaeoa?ia ii
iniiaiui eiioeaioeeyi o/aoa aeae oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea aoaeeoo: «Aoaeeo –
yoi nenoaiiue i?ioeann iieo/aiey e ioeaiee iauaeoeaiuo aeaiiuo ia
yeiiiie/aneeo aeaenoaeyo, onoaiaaeeaathuee o?iaaiue eo niioaaonoaey
ii?aaeaeaiiiio e?eoa?eth e i?aaenoaaeythuee ?acoeueoaou caeioa?aniaaiiui
iieueciaaoaeyi» [9].

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a NOA aieaa 45000 aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i. *enei caiyouo
eieaaeaony io 1 aei ianeieueeeo ouny/ /aeiaae. Eo iiaeii na?oiie?iaaoue
a 4 eaoaai?ee.

«Aieueoay oanoa?ea», eae aa iacuaaee ?aiueoa, – noia?aeaaiou ia ?uiea
aoaeeoi?neeo oneoa, iaeioi?ua ec ieo iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee neeyiey.
(Iueth-Ei?eee ioen eaaeaeie aieaa 1000 /aeiaae), ioenu ai anao e?oiiuo
ai?iaeao NOA e ie?a, aiaeiaie aeioiae aieaa 500 iei. aeieea?ia NOA. A
oie eee eiie oi?ia ana yoe oe?iu i?enoonoaotho oaeaea e ia ?uiea
aoaeeoi?neeo oneoa a ?innee, a iniiaiii ca?aaeno?e?iaaa oae iacuaaaiua
«NI».

Ae?oaea iaoeeiiaeueiua oe?iu (?yae oe?i n/eoathony iaoeeiiaeueiuie, o.e.
eiatho ioenu a aieueoae /anoe e?oiiuo ai?iaeia), eiatho iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
iioaioeeae.

E?oiiua ianoiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua oe?iu (anoue ianeieueei nioai
aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i n i?ioanneiiaeueiui ooaoii aieaa 50 /aeiaae).

Iaeua ianoiua oe?iu – aieaa 95% aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i eiatho /eneaiiinoue
iaiaa 25 /aeiaae e iaei ioen.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i – aaeeiiee/iia aeaaeaiea,
oiaa?euanoai eee i?ioanneiiaeueiay ei?ii?aoeey.

A NOA aoaeeoi?u na?oeoeoee?othony ii o?ai niaoeeaeecaoeeyi:

1) i?enyaeiue aooaaeoa?;

2) i?enyaeiue aioo?aiiee aoaeeoi?;

3) i?enyaeiue aoaeeoi? eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iieo/eoue eeoeaiceth io ooaoa ia aaaeaiea i?aeoeee e
i?aai iacuaaoueny «i?enyaeiue aooaaeoa?», i?aoaiaeaio aeieaeai
auaea?aeaoue yecaiai, «eioi?ue i?iaiaeeony ?ac a iieaiaea, … aioiaeony
Yecaiaiaoeeiiiie eiienneae e i?iaiaeeony iaeiia?aiaiii ia anae
oa??eoi?ee NOA a iaa e iiya?a» [4. C. 48] e ioaa/aoue o?aaiaaieyi
eiiennee ii o?iaith ia?aciaaiey e iiuoa.

Yecaiai ai anao ooaoao i?iaiaeeony ii neaaeothuei /aou?ai i?aaeiaoai.

Oai?ey e i?aeoeea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa – i?iaa?ea ciaiee eaiaeeaeaoia ii
i?eioeeiai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

I?aeoeea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa – i?iaa?ea niiniaiinoe eaiaeeaeaoa
i?eiaiyoue i?eioeeiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, o?aaiaaiey ii?iaoeaiuo
aeieoiaioia, oaoieeo ninoaaeaiey io/aoiinoe, i?eioeeiu e i?ioeaaeo?u
oaaea?aeueiie iaeiaiaie io/aoiinoe.

Aoaeeo – i?iaa?ea ciaiee eaiaeeaeaoii i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae,
aoaeeoi?neeo noaiaea?oia e i?ioeaaeo?, noaiaea?oia iaaoaeeoi?neeo oneoa,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo i?enyaeiuie aooaaeoa?aie.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai – i?iaa?ea ciaiey eaiaeeaeaoii th?eaee/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey ia?ii?eyoee, a iniaaiiinoe ioiinyueony e aooaaeoa?neiio
o/aoo e aoaeeoo, a oaeaea th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aoaeeoi?ia.

Yecaiaiu yoe aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiu. Niaeanii [3. C. 23] «i?eia?ii 10% oao,
eoi aea?aeeo yecaiai, naeatho ana n ia?aiai ?aca». I?e yoii, iaeioi?ua
ooaou o?aaotho oaeaea i?iaa?ee ciaiee eaiaeeaeaoia ii ae?oaei
i?aaeiaoai. A eaaeaeii ooaoa o?aaiaaiey e o?iaith ia?aciaaiey e
i?aeoe/aneiio iiuoo naie.

Aeey oiai /oiau ?aaioaoue a aoaeeoi?neie oe?ia, naeaaaoue noieue
neiaeiua yecaiaiu iaiaycaoaeueii, iaeiaei, aeey oiai /oiau noaoue
ia?oia?ii (a ia i?inoi iaaiiui ?aaioieeii), yoi iaycaoaeueii.

I?enyaeiue aioo?aiiee aoaeeoi? – niaoeeaeeno, naeaaoee yecaiai ia
aioo?aiiaai aoaeeoi?a e iieo/eaoee na?oeoeeao, ii i?aaa iieo/aiey
eeoeaicee ia i?aeoeeo ia eiaao. Aeey i?aoaiaeaioia oaeaea onoaiiaeaiu
o?aaiaaiey ii o?iaith ia?aciaaiey e i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa.

3. ?acaeoea aoaeeoa a Aa?iaiee

Aa?iaiey eiioea XIX aaea yaeyeanue no?aiie, a eioi?ie ao?ii ?acaeaaeny
eaieoaeeci e ia/aei yoiai ao?iiai ?inoa auei iieiaeaii iauaaeeiaieai
aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa a aaeeioth no?aio aeaaiaea?y oneeeyi «aeaeaciiai
eaioeea?a» Iooi oii Aenia?ea.

Niaeanii [17. C. 65] a Aa?iaiee ia?aua oaae ii aaaaeaieth aoaeeoa auee
naeaeaiu a 1870 a., eiaaea aeiiieiaiea e caeiio ia aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoaao iaycaei iaaethaeaoaeueiua niaaou yoeo iauanoa inouanoaeyoue
i?iaa?eo aaeaina, io/aoa i ?ani?ino?aiaiee i?eauee e aeieeaaeuaaoue i
?acoeueoaoao i?iaa?ee ia iaueo nia?aieyo aeoeeiia?ia. Iaeiaei a caeiia
ia auei oeacaii, eaeay yoi aeieaeia auoue i?iaa?ea – nianoaaiiuie
(aioo?aiieie) ?aaeci?aie eee aea i?eaeaoaiiuie ni noi?iiu. A nayce n
oai, /oi a?thiaea?neay eeoi?aaeea iinea 1870 a. i?eaaea e nicaeaieth e
auno?iio e?aoo iiiaeanoaa aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, aa?iaineia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniio?aei i?iaaaeaiea aiaoiaai aoaeeoa.

14 aaaonoa 1884 a. ii i?eia?o aiaeeeneeo aoaeeoi?ia a Aa?iaiee aicieeaao
einoeooo aooaaeoa?ia-?aaeci?ia (iaeiaei, a naiae eieaa «I/a?ee ii
enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa» ss?ineaa Ay/aneaaiae/ Nieieia [29]
ioia/aao, /oi «…iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneay oaiaeaioeey ioiineea aicieeiiaaiea
i?ioannee e XVIII a. e aeaaea ei a?aiaiai Aaicu» (no?. 109 – niinea).
Iiaeiaiua einoeooou ia aac aeeyiey iaiaoeeie o?aaeeoeee auee
i?aaieciaaiu a O?enoeaiee (Inei), Aaia, Aoaeaiaooa, Oeth?eoa, ?eaa,
Aaeueneiaoi?na. Einoeooo nouanoaiaae ia n?aaenoaa aaieia e io?aaeae
eioa?anu e?oiiiai oeiainiaiai eaieoaea. Aooaaeoa?a-?aaeci?a iacuaaee
o?aeaaiaea?. Iaiaoeeea enneaaeiaaoaee ii-?aciiio ioeaieaaee
aeayoaeueiinoue o?aeaaiaea?ia. Iai?eia?, niaeanii [29] Aa?noia? ienae,
/oi «O?aeaaiaea? ia oieueei i?aaenoaaeoaeue a th?eaee/aneii niunea, ii e
aeiaa?aiiia eeoei, ae?oa, niaao/ee, iiiiuiee, ei?i/a – i?aaay ?oea,
aa?iay ?oea, eioi?ay aeey ian ?aaioaao oai, aaea iu naie ii?o/aai eee
aaea oneiaey ianoa, a?aiaie, ee/iua, oicyenoaaiiua, iaoa?eaeueiua iai
iaoatho naiei naeaeaoue ana e aaea iai iaiaoiaeeii o?aouea eeoei, eiaiii
o?aeaaiaea?». Iaeiaei ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee, a /anoiinoe, ?. Ooa?i e ?.
Aaeaaeue ?aciaea/aee aeayoaeueiinoue einoeoooa eae iaeiyooaeoeaioth,
aei?iaoth e e?aeia i?eno?anoioth, auiieiyaioth a eioa?anao e?oiiuo
aaieia. ss.A. Nieieia n/eoaao, /oi iacaaeneii io ioeaiie nia?aiaiieeia
einoeooo ?aaeci?ia niinianoaiaae au?aaioea e niaa?oainoaiaaieth
ii?aaeaeaiiuo niiniaia i?iaaaeaiey aeieoiaioaeueiuo ?aaecee,
oi?ioee?iaaieth o?aaiaaiee e eeoeai iiaie i?ioannee e i?eaiaeeo a
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea yoie iunee oeeoaoo ec eieae E. Ii?oeeaa «Oaoieea
?aaecee eiea e aaeaina», ecaeaiiie a Iineaa a 1925 a.: «?aaeci? aeieaeai
ecaaaaoue anaai oiai, /oi i?iecaiaeeo aia/aoeaiea, eae aoaeoi aai iiaiea
e nenoaia aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiu; ii ia aeieaeai i?aa?auaoue iaeeea
ioeaee a ainoaea?noaaiiua i?anooieaiey, anee a iauai a ?aaioa auea
i?iyaeaia o?aaoaiay ouaoaeueiinoue e aeia?iniaanoiinoue; ii aeieaeai
niieieii auneooaoue acaeyaeu e iiaiey ae?oaeo, aeaaea anee iie
i?ioeai?a/ao aai nianoaaiiiio iiaieth, oae eae ia anaaaea auaaao, /oi
au/eoaiiia e ecia?aoaiiia a eaaeiaoao eee iaeia?aiiia ia ae?oaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo iiaeao n/eoaoueny iaiaoiaeeiui e i?aaeeueiui aeey
aaaaeaiey a nianoaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee. Ia anaaaea aeaaiiieo/ea
i?aaei?eyoey e aa?aioey aai i?aaeeueiiai aaaeaiey caaenyo io ninoaaeaiey
e i?eiaiaiey iiauo oi?ioey?ia». Oiiiyiooua ?. Ooa?i e ?. Aaeaaeue a
/enea ae?oaeo o/aiuo yaeyeenue o/aiuie, aianoeie cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a
?acaeoea aiaeeca oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e aiaeeca aaeaina. A
iaiaoeeie oeiea auaeaeyee o?e iai?aaeaiey eco/aiey aaeaina:

1) yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec;

2) aiaeec th?eaee/aneee, /oi i?eaaei e nicaeaieth aooaaeoa?neie ?aaecee;

3) iiioey?ecaoeey ciaiee i aaeaina n?aaee aeoeeiia?ia.

Eiaiii a Aa?iaiee a eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX aaeia aicieeei i?eaeiaeueiia
iao/iia iai?aaeaiea – aaeainiaaaeaiea. Ii iiaieth ss. Nieieiaa,
aicieeiiaaiea aaeainiaaaeaiey auei iaoneiaeaii o?aiy oaeoi?aie:

1) aeayoaeueiinoueth e?oiiuo th?enoia, nicaeaaoeo niaoeeaeueioth
io?aneue i?aaa – aaeainiaia i?aai;

2) i?iiaaaiaeie aaeaina eae iniiaiiieaaathuae enoiaeiie eiioeaioeee
aooaaeoa?ee;

3) iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iciaeiieoue iannu aeoeeiia?ia n iaoaieciii iniiaiie
io/aoiie oi?iu – aaeainii, i?e enneaaeiaaiee no?oeoo?u iineaaeiaai.

I?e yoii caneoaie eiaiii iaiaoeeeo th?enoia yaeyeinue oi?ioee?iaaiea
iniiaiuo o?aaiaaiee e aaeaino:

1) oi/iinoue;

2) iieiioa;

3) yniinoue;

4) i?aaaeeainoue;

5) i?aainoaaiiinoue;

6) aaeeinoai aaeaina.

N 1908 a. i?e Eaeioeeaneie Aunoae Eiiia?/aneie oeiea auea ia/aoa
niaoeeaeueiay iiaeaioiaea aooaaeoa?ia-?aaeci?ia (n?ie iao/aiey – 1
aiae). Ia ioaeaeaiea i?eieiaeenue oieueei eeoea, eiathuea aunoaa
yeiiiie/aneia ia?aciaaiea e iiuo aooaaeoa?neie ?aaiou.

N 1931 aiaea aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa iaycaiu i?iaiaeeoue aoaeeoi?neea
i?iaa?ee (iaycaiiinoue i?ioiaeaeaiey aiaoiae aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ee auea
noi?ioee?iaaia a i?aaeienaiee ioiineoaeueii aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa). Ii
iiaieth [17. C. 66] yoi auei aucaaii oai, /oi iaaethaeaoaeueiua niaaou
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa ia ni?aaeyeenue n aiceiaeaiiie ia ieo
iaycaiiinoueth ii i?iaaaeaieth i?iaa?ie, oai aieaa, /oi iauaeoaie
i?iaa?ie noaee ia oieueei aiaeiaua io/aou, ii e any i?aaiecaoeey
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. O?oaeiinoue onoaoaeyeanue aua e oai, /oi iiiaea
aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa eiaee iiiai/eneaiiua oeeeaeu, oioy naycaiiua n
aieiaiie i?aaiecaoeeae (iaoa?eineei iauanoaii), ii ai iiiaii
naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeythuea naith i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e eiiia?/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue. Oaeie aieueoie iauai neiaeiie ?aaiou iiaee auiieieoue
oieueei i?eaeaoaiiua ni noi?iiu eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua niaoeeaeenou.

A 1932 a. a Aa?iaiee nicaeai Einoeooo aoaeeoi?ia a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aaea/e
aio ooieoeee ?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoaai Einoeoooa ?aaecee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa,
i?inouanoaiaaaoee aei 1945 a. Iinea ieii/aiey aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu a
Aethnnaeueaei?oa aue ia?aciaai Einoeooo aoaeeoi?ia, eioi?ue a iiya?a
1954 a. aue ia?aeiaiiaai a Einoeooo aoaeeoi?ia a Aa?iaiee. Ca yoi a?aiy
Aethnnaeueaei?oneee einoeooo, i?iaiaey i?ioanneiiaeueioth
aeayoaeueiinoue ia anae oa??eoi?ee Aa?iaiee, caaiaaae aunieee aaoi?eoao,
/oi iicaieeei aio noaoue iauaaa?iaineie i?aaiecaoeeae.

Caaea/e Einoeoooa aoaeeoi?ia caeeth/athony a niaeaenoaee ?acaeoeth
aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee e iaania/aiee no?aiu aoaeeoi?neeie eaae?aie, a
?ac?aaioea aaeeiuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?eioeeiia e ii?i, niaethaeaiee
yoeo ii?i anaie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee. Aeey
ianoaeaeaiey aicieeathueo i?iaeai a ?aaioa Einoeoooa aoaeeoi?ia i?e iai
nicaeathony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua eiieoaou, aeeth/athuea a naie ninoaa
iiuoiuo e caneoaeaiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee.
?acoeueoaou yoeo ianoaeaeaiee ioaeeeothony a niaoeeaeueiii aeo?iaea «Aee
Ae?ooaooni?thooia», ia?eiaee/iinoue eioi?iai iaeei ?ac a 2 ianyoea e a
aaeaiany/iuo auioneao «Oaioiao?eooai». A yoeo aea ecaeaieyo ioaeeeothony
?acee/iua iaoa?eaeu aeey oe?ieiai iciaeiieaiey e ianoaeaeaiey, iai?eia?,
i?iaeou aeieoiaioia, a oaeaea i?eiyoua aeieoiaiou, eanathueany aoaeeoa
aioo?e no?aiu e ca ?oaaaeii.

Niaeanii [17. C. 66] a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Einoeooo aoaeeoi?ia
aeia?iaieueii aoiaeyo ieiei 5600 aoaeeoi?ia e 600 aoaeeoi?neeo
i?aaiecaoeee, o.a. i?eia?ii 80% anao i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeaiiie i?ioannee.
Aeaaiia oneiaea /eainoaa – aeia?iaieueiia, ii no?iaia niaethaeaiea
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?aaee, aeeth/ay niaethaeaiea yoe/aneeo ii?i.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey iaicia/aiey i?ioannee aoaeeoi?a a O?A
eniieuecoaony oa?iei «ae?ooaooni?thoa?», /oi aoeaaeueii icia/aao
«eiio?iea? yeiiiieee». Yoio oa?iei caueuai caeiiiaeaoaeueii, a ana eiua,
i?eiaiyaoeany ?aiaa a oiaea enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey Aa?iaiee (?aaeci?,
oeiainiaue einiaeoi? e i?.) a i?ioanneiiaeueiii iaeoiaea ia
ano?a/athony. Eae ieoao [18], «niaeanii Aa?iaineiio a?aaeaeaineiio
oeiaeaieth, enoiee eioi?iai ainoiaeyo aua e 1896 a. e eioi?ia a
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie nia?aiaiiie yiioe oi?ia
aeaenoaoao e a O?A, aoaeeoi? yaeyaony i?aaenoaaeoaeai naiaiaeiie
i?ioannee, aai caaea/ae yaeyaony «inouanoaeyoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneee eiio?ieue, a iniaaiiinoe aiaeiauo
oeiainiauo io/aoia i?aaei?eyoee, e aeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth i ?acoeueoaoao
oaeiai eiio?iey».

Ainoaea?noaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia aoaeeoi?neoth aeayoaeueiinoue a
Aa?iaiee aeiiieiyaony oai, /oi ana aoaeeoi?u e aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu
aeieaeiu auoue a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea /eaiaie Aoaeeoi?neie iaeaou.
Iaycaiiinoue Aoaeeoi?neie iaeaou caeeth/aaony a caueoa i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
eioa?ania aoaeeoi?ia e niaeaenoaee ?inoo aaoi?eoaoa aoaeeoi?neie
i?ioannee, ieacaiea eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie e i?aaiaie iiiiue /eaiai iaeaou,
iiauoaiee eaaeeoeeaoeee aoaeeoi?ia, eiio?iea ca aoaeeoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoueth e niaeaenoaee a iao/aiee iiauo aoaeeoi?neeo eaae?ia.
*eaiaie Aoaeeoi?neie iaeaou aianoa n aoaeeoi?aie, caieiathueieny
eneeth/eoaeueii naieie i?ioanneiiaeueiuie iaycaiiinoyie, yaeythony
?oeiaiaeeoaee, /eaiu i?aaeaiee e ae?oaea ioaaonoaaiiua ?aaioieee
aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i, aeaaea anee iie ia caiyou iaiin?aaenoaaiii aoaeeoii.

N 1 yiaa?y 1986 a. i?ioanneiiaeueiua aoaeeoi?neea ii?iu i?eaaaeaiu a
niioaaonoaea n 4, 7 e 8 aee?aeoeaaie Niaaoa Aa?iiaeneeo Niiauanoa, eae e
ii?iu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.

I?aai i?iaaaeaiey aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ie cae?aieaii oieueei ca
ioeoeeaeueii oiieiiii/aiiuie aoaeeoi?aie – «eiio?iea?aie yeiiiieee»,
«i?enyaeiuie eiio?iea?aie aooaaeoa?neeo eiea», a oaeaea ioeoeeaeueii
oiieiiii/aiiuie aoaeeoi?neeie oe?iaie.

Aoaeeoi?u aanueia ia?aie/aiu a ioiioaiee niaiauaiey aoaeeoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe n eaeie-eeai eiie. Aeiionoeii eeoue niaiauaiea aoaeeoa ni
neaaeothueie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe [18]:

1) inouanoaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaey naiaiaeiie i?ioannee a
oaoie/aneie iaeanoe e a th?eaee/aneie iaeanoe;

2) iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa a einoeoooao iao/iiai i?ioeey,
i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneay ?aaioa a aocao e oieaa?neoaoao;

3) o/anoea a iia?aoeeyo aeiaa?eoaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey eee a oeaeooeea?iuo
iia?aoeeyo (o?aiaiea e oi?aaeaiea oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, eioi?uie ii
?anii?yaeaaony a eioa?anao naiaai eeeaioa), a oaeaea a iia?aoeeyo ii
naeaanoe?iaaieth (aoaeeoi?neay iaeaoa O?A aeaao ?ac?aoaiea ia oaeoth
aeayoaeueiinoue eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iia yaeyaony a?aiaiiui, a ia
iinoiyiiui yaeaieai);

4) naiaiaeiay i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue a iaeanoe eeoa?aoo?u eee
eneonnoaa.

Ca ia?ooaiey, naycaiiua n i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeeie, i?ioeaii?aaiuie
aeaenoaeyie e i?., aoaeeoi?u iiaoo auoue iiaeaa?aeaiu ?acee/iui ia?ai
aicaeaenoaey, ia/eiay io i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey, caia/aiey ca iacia/eoaeueiua
i?iaeiiinoe. Aeaeaa neaaeotho aieaa nouanoaaiiua ia?u – aeaiaaeiua
oo?aou, cai?auaiea caieiaoueny aeaiiie i?ioanneae. Nouanoaoao
i?ioanneiiaeueiue noae, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaao neiaeiua aeaea, naycaiiua
n ia?ooaieyie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aoaeeoi?aie.

Nenoaia iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia aoaeeoi?ia aanueia neiaeiay, auniee oaeaea
o?aaiaaiey e i?aoaiaeaioai: aeey oiai /oiau auoue aeiiouaiiui e
yecaiaio, eaiaeeaeao aeieaeai eiaoue aunoaa ia?aciaaiea ii iaeiie ec
ianeieueeeo niaoeeaeueiinoae e oanoeeaoithth i?aeoe/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue a yeiiiie/aneie iaeanoe (i?e yoii ia iaiaa /aou?ao eao
i?eieiaoue o/anoea a eniieiaiee oao eee eiuo eiio?ieueiuo ooieoeee). A
aeaea eneeth/aiey aeiioneathony e yecaiaio eaiaeeaeaou, ia eiathuea
caeii/aiiiai aunoaai ia?aciaaiey, ii eiathuea ia iaiaa, /ai 10-eaoiee
noaae a ea/anoaa aoaeeoi?a-annenoaioa eee eiiai ?aaioieea a aoaeeoi?neii
iauanoaa. Nouanoaotho oaeaea eiua ia?aie/aiey, a /anoiinoe, aei
yecaiaiia ia aeiioneathony eeoea, eioi?ua:

a neeo eaeiai-eeai ia?ooaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa O?A ia eiatho i?aaa
caieiaoue iinou a ioeoeeaeueiuo aaaeiinoaao;

iieo/eee ioeac a i?aaa eniieiyoue naie i?ioanneiiaeueiua iaycaiiinoe;

eiatho oece/aneea iaaeinoaoee aeeeoaeueiiai naienoaa, ia aeathuea
aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeeueii eniieiyoue iaycaiiinoe aoaeeoi?a;

eiatho iao?aaoee?iaaiiua aeieaeiui ia?acii oeiainiaua e yeiiiie/aneea
ioiioaiey;

eiatho ia?aie/aiey a ieaia ?anii?yaeaiey naiei eiouanoaii;

ec-ca naiaai iiaaaeaiey aucuaatho niiiaiey a oii, niiaoo ee iie
aeieaeiui ia?acii auiieiyoue iaycaiiinoe aoaeeoi?a.

Aeiiieieoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi nieneaoaeue aeieaeai auoue
iaioeai a niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaieai no. 116 Eiinoeoooeee O?A.
Yecaiaiaoeeiiiua eiiennee oi?ie?othony aeanoyie oaaea?aeueiuo caiaeue,
i?e yoii aii?in i aeiionea e yecaiaio i?aoaiaeaioa ?aoaao eiienney,
eioi?ay oaeaea ai?aaa a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe cai?ineoue o eaiaeeaeaoa
aeiiieieoaeueiua naaaeaiey e ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiua iocuau. Aeiiouaiiua e
yecaiaio i?aaeinoaaeytho ienueiaiioth iao/ioth ?aaioo ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe, auiieiaiioth aeiia, aeaeaa auiieiythony o?e ienueiaiiua
?aaiou a i?enoonoaee yecaiaiaoi?ia e onoiay /anoue yecaiaia. A neo/aa
oniaoiie naea/e yecaiaiia, aeanoe oaaea?aeueiie caiee auaeatho
aeieoiaio, oaeinoiaa?ythuee i?ioanneiiaeueiue noaoon aoaeeoi?a. Iinea
iieo/aiey yoiai aeieoiaioa aoaeeoi?u noaiiayony /eaiaie aoaeeoi?neie
iaeaou, eioi?ay aaaeao i?ioanneiiaeueiue ?aano? aoaeeoi?ia, aoaeeoi?neeo
iauanoa, i?eiyaoeo i?enyao eiio?iea?ia aooaaeoa?neeo eiea, a oaeaea eo
iauanoa. Eaaeaeue aoaeeoi? aeieaeai eiaoue nianoaaiioth ia/aoue, eioi?ay
oaeinoiaa?yao aai i?ioanneiiaeueiue noaoon e iiceoeeth, noi?ie?iaaiioth
ia iniiaa caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaeienaiee.

Aoaeeo a Aa?iaiee eiaao ianeieueei iai?aaeaiee:

aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue i?aaei?eyoey a eiioea oeiainiaiai aiaea (i?iaa?ea
i?aaeeueiinoe aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neeo eiea, i?iaa?ea aiaeiaie
io/aoiinoe);

aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue aeieoiaioia th?eaee/aneiai eeoea a ia?eiae aai
iniiaaiey ia i?aaeiao niioaaonoaey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao no?aiu;

aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue ii ii?o/aieth iauaai nia?aiey aeoeeiia?ia (eae
i?aaeei ioaeaeueiua iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, a ia
ana);

aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue ioaeaeueiuo naaiaioia aeaeiaie e oeiainiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe (a /anoiinoe, aeaiiie?iaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae a e?aaeeoiuo
o/?aaeaeaieyo);

aoaeeoi?neea i?iaa?ee ia i?aaeiao iaia?oaeaiey i?aaiia?ooaiee, aeeth/ay
eiio?ieueiua i?iaa?ee oaeouaai oa?aeoa?a, i?aaaioeaiua i?iaa?ee n
oeaeueth i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey aiciiaeiuo ia?ooaiee;

eiio?ieueiay i?iaa?ea anaai i?aaei?eyoey eee aai /anoe (iai?eia?, a
neo/aa i?iaeaaee).

4. Aoaeeo ai O?aioeee e Eoaeee

Ai O?aioeee ooieoeeiie?otho aeaa iniiaiua i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueany
?oeiaiaenoaii aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth a no?aia, – Iaeaoa
yenia?oia-aooaaeoa?ia e iiaa?aiiuo aooaaeoa?ia e Iauanoai eiienna?ia ii
n/aoai. Iniiaiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo yenia?oaie-aooaaeoa?aie e eiienna?aie
ii n/aoai ninoiyo a oii, /oi yenia?ou-aooaaeoa?u i?eaeaoathony aeey
i?iaaaeaiey i?iaa?ie aaaeaiey o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, a eiienna?u ii n/aoai
iacia/athony a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea a aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa niaeanii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao. A eaaeaeii aeoeeiia?iii
iauanoaa aeieaeai auoue iacia/aiiue eiienna? ii n/aoai, a anee yoi
iauanoai iaycaii ioaeeeiaaoue eiinieeaee?iaaiioth io/aoiinoue, oi
aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa aeaoo eiienna?ia.

Eiienna?u ii n/aoai inouanoaeytho i?iaa?ee oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa e noaayo ia io/aoao na?oeoeeaou, iiaeoaa?aeaeay eo
aeinoiaa?iinoue e iainiiaaiiinoue caienyie ia aooaaeoa?neeo n/aoao.
Iiyoiio aeayoaeueiinoue eiienna?ia ii n/aoai aeiaieueii aeanoei
?aaeaiaioe?oaony i?aeiiainii io 19 naioya?y 1945 a. Aeayoaeueiinoue
yenia?oa-aooaaeoa?a ia noieue no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?oaony ainoaea?noaii. A
iniiaiii iie caiyou oaeoueie eiinoeueoaoeeyie ii o/aoo, iaiaaeaeiaioo e
i?aaiaui aii?inai, e?iia anaai, iie caieiathony iinoaiiaeie
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, iaeaaeeaatho nenoaio aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey.
Ooieoeee eiienna?ia ii n/aoai yenia?ou-aooaaeoa?u iiaoo auiieiyoue
oieueei ia a oie oe?ia, eioi?ie ieacuaaeenue eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae
eee i?iecaiaeeeanue iinoaiiaea eee niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa.

Eae e a ae?oaeo no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie, ?acaeoea aoaeeoa i?eaaei
e auaeaeaieth niaoeeaeecaoeee – ec n?aaeu aoaeeoi?ia, ii o?aaeeoeee
iacuaaaiuo yenia?oaie-aooaaeoa?aie, auaeaeeeenue niaoeeaeenou ii
iaeiaiaiio, i?aaiaiio eiinoeueoe?iaaieth, ii iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Iaeaoa yenia?oia-aooaaeoa?ia e iiaa?aiiuo aooaaeoa?ia iauaaeeiyao
aoaeeoi?neea o/?aaeaeaiey e ioaeaeueiuo aoaeeoi?ia ia iaoeeiiaeueiii e
?aaeiiaeueiuo o?iaiyo. Iia ioeoeeaeueii i?aaenoaaeyao ana aoaeeoi?neea
i?aaiecaoeee, ooieoeeiie?othuea ai O?aioeee, a ioiioaieyo n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie. Iao/ioth, iaoiaeieiae/aneoth e
i?aaiecaoeeiiioth ?aaioo a iaeanoe aoaeeoa aaaeao O?aioeocneee einoeooo
yenia?oia-aooaaeoa?ia n ?aceaeaioeeae a Ia?eaea, ecaeathuee aeo?iae,
inaauathuee i?iaeaiu o/aoa e aoaeeoa. ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia iinoaiiaeo
o/aoa ai O?aioeee ieacuaaao Iaoeeiiaeueiue Niaao ii o/aoo, yaeythueeny
eiinoeueoaoeaiui i?aaiii i?e ieieno?a yeiiiieee e oeiainia. A iai 80
/eaiia, aieueoeinoai n?aaee eioi?uo – yenia?ou-aooaaeoa?u, eiienna?u ii
n/aoai, aeaaiua aooaaeoa?u i?aaei?eyoee.

Ai O?aioeee aeinoaoi/ii neeueii ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aoaeeoa
(yoi iiaeii ioiaoeoue ia i?eia?a iacia/aiey eiienna?ia ii n/aoai a
aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa), ainoaea?noai inouanoaeyao i?yiie eiio?ieue ca
oi?ie?iaaieai aoaeeoi?neeo eaae?ia, eo i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaeie e
oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi eiaiii o?aioeocneiio ycueo iu iaycaiu oa?ieiii
«aaeo?», «ana a aaeo?a» (io o?aioeocneiai – ii nae aeaiue), eioi?ue
icia/aao ninoiyiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, eiaaea ana io/aoiua caiene
aeaeathony a aeaiue niaa?oaiey oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee, a aieaa oe?ieii
niunea – eiaaea o/aoii-au/eneeoaeueiua ?aaiou auiieiythony a
onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee e ana iia?aoeee ?aaeno?e?othony iaiaaeeaiii iinea eo
niaa?oaiey.

Ii iiaieth [17] Eoaeey ioiineony e /eneo no?ai, aaea neeueii ?acaeoi
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aoaeeoa.

A eiioea yiaa?y 1992 a. a Eoaeee i?eiyoi i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiia
iinoaiiaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio caeiiioth aoaeeoi?neoth aeayoaeueiinoue
iiaoo inouanoaeyoue oieueei oa eeoea, eioi?ua aianaiu a eiaiiie ?aano?,
iaoiaeyueeny iiae eiio?ieai ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee.

Nieneaoaee caaiey aoaeeoi?a aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue aeeieiiaie i aunoai
yeiiiie/aneii, th?eaee/aneii, eiiia?/aneii ia?aciaaiee eeai i n?aaeiai
aooaaeoa?neii ia?aciaaiee i?e iaee/ee ia iaiaa o?ao eao i?aeoe/aneiai
noaaea.

Aeey oiai /oiau iieo/eoue i?aai caieiaoueny aoaeeoii, nieneaoaee
aeieaeiu naeaoue yecaiaiu ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, i?aao,
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea e eioi?iaoeea. Naea/o yecaiaiia oaeaea
eiio?iee?oao ieienoa?noai thnoeoeee.

A eiaiiii ?aano?a aeieaeiu /eneeoueny eae aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu, oae e
ioaeaeueiua eeoea. Aieueoeinoai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo
aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i aeieaeiu i?ieoe oaeaea ia?niiaeueioth ?aaeno?aoeeth.

A Eoaeee, eae e ai O?aioeee, aoaeeoi?u aeaeyony ia aeaa eaoaai?ee:
i?iaa?eo e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe inouanoaeytho oae
iacuaaaiua «aeiooi?e eiiia?/eaeenoe», a iinoaiiaeo aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
e oaeouaa eiinoeueoe?iaaiea ii o/aoiui aeaeai inouanoaeytho
«?aaeaeeiiuea?e» (ni. eiienna?u ii n/aoai e yenia?ou-aooaaeoa?u ai
O?aioeee).

Caeeth/aiea

Iu ?anniio?aee e?aoeia eceiaeaiea enoi?ee aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey
aoaeeoa a ?yaea caiaaeiuo no?ai. ?acaeoea aoaeeoa a no?aiao auaoaai
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai eaaa?y, eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua o?aaiaaiey, aii?inu
iiaeaioiaee aoaeeoi?ia a no?aiao Ainoi/iie e Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu
aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii iienaiu a [7]. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a no?aiao AN
i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann oieoeeaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa,
naycaiiue n aeoeaecaoeeae i?ioeanna aa?iiaeneie eioaa?aoeee, aaaaeaieai
aaeeiie aa?iiaeneie aaethou – aa?i. I?iaeaia aa?iiiecaoeee aoaeeoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe a Aaeeiie Aa?iia iinayuaia 8-y aee?aeoeaa Niaaoa
Aa?iiaeneeo Niiauanoa io 10 ai?aey 1984 a. Ana eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua
o?aaiaaiey aeieaeiu auoue aaeeiu e aoaeeoi?u, auaea?aeaaoea yecaiaiu e
iieo/eaoea i?aaa ?aaioaoue a naiae no?aia aeieaeiu aoaeoo eiaoue i?aaa
?aaioaoue e a ae?oaeo no?aiao, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa Aa?iiaeneiai
Niiauanoaa. Iaeiaei yoio i?ioeann ineiaeiyaony oai, /oi ?aeoeia
i?ioannee aoaeeoi?a, oioy e aeinoaoi/ii aunie ai anao no?aiao –
o/anoieeao AN, ii iieaoa aoaeeoi?neeo oneoa aanueia ?acee/aaony a
caaeneiinoe io no?aiu.

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