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1. AAAAeAIEA

Iaeiae – iniiaa oeiainiaie nenoaiu ainoaea?noaa, iniiaiie enoi/iee
oi?ie?iaaiey aeioiaeiie /anoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Ca n/ao
iaeiaia oi?ie?oaony i?aiaeaaeathuay /anoue aeioiaeia eae oaaea?aeueiiai,
oae e eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Oae, a 1997 aiaeo a
eiinieeaee?iaaiiue athaeaeao ?O iinooieei iaeiaia ia noiio 474,7 o?ei
?oaeae.

I?e yoii ec iauae noiiu iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae, iinooieaoeo a oaaea?aeueiue
athaeaeao ?innee, ia aeieth oieueei aeaoo iaeiaia – iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee e iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
i?eoiaeeony ieiei 67%. Iiyoiio iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth eiinoaoe?iaaoue,
/oi a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaeia ia i?eaueue ia?yaeo n iaeiaii ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue yaeyaony noa?aeiai iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee. Ii oa?aeoa?o, niaea?aeaieth e ?aciiia?aceth auiieiyaiuo
ooieoeee, ii naiei aiciiaeiinoyi aicaeaenoaey ia aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, ii noaiaie aeeyiey ia oiae e
?acoeueoaou eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iaeia ia i?eaueue yaeyaony
iniiaiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei iaeiaii.

Iaeia ia i?eaueue – i?yiie iaeia. Ana iaeiae a caaeneiinoe io niiniaa eo
aceiaiey n iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia iiae?acaeaeythony ia i?yiua e einaaiiua.
I?yiuie iaeiaaie iaeaaathony aeioiaeu, a einaaiiuie – ?anoiaeu. I?yiua
iaeiae oiaiueoatho noiio aeioiaeia oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, a
einaaiiua – oaaee/eaatho noiio eo ?anoiaeia. I?yiuo iaeiaia aieueoa
ieaoeo oio, o eiai aeioiaeu aieueoa (i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo), a
einaaiiuo – oio, o eiai ?anoiaeu aieueoa. Yoi eiaao nouanoaaiiia
cia/aiea, iineieueeo aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu aeaaea iaeieo e oao aea
oece/aneeo eee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe ie ai a?aiaie, ie a i?ino?ainoaa ia
niaiaaeatho.

A ioee*ea io iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, aeoeecia, oaiiaeaiiuo
iioeei, yaeythueony einaaiiuie iaeiaaie, iaeia ia i?eaueue – yoi i?yiie
iaeia, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ecuyoea a aeioiae ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa
/anoe aeioiaea ieaoaeueueea.

Iaeia ia i?eaueue – i?iii?oeeiiaeueiue iaeia. Caeanue ei ?a/ue eaeao ia
i niaea?aeaiee, a ii?yaeea aceiaiey iaeiaiaiai ieaoaaea, i noaaeao
iaeiaa (aaeeiuo eee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo), i noaiaie iaeiaeaiey iaeiaii.
Ii yoei i?eciaeai ?acee/atho i?ia?anneaiua, ?aa?anneaiua e
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiua iaeiae.

I?ia?anneaiuie yaeythony iaeiae, ii eioi?ui noaaee iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae
aic?anoatho n ?inoii ?acia?ia aeioiaeia eee ae?oaeo iauaeoia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao, a /anoiinoe a NOA, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea
ei?ii?aoeee, i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae yaeyaony i?ia?anneaiui, oi
anoue aieaa aunieea aeioiaeu iaeaaathony iaeiaaie ii aieaa aunieei
noaaeai. A iaoae no?aia a ecaanoiie ia?a i?ia?anneaiuie iiaeii n/eoaoue
noaaee iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe, oioy noaiaiue
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee yaii iaaeinoaoi/ia.

?aa?anneaiuie yaeythony iaeiae, noaaee eioi?uo ia ?anooo, a nieaeathony
ii ia?a ?inoa aeioiaeia eee eiiai iaeaaaaiiai iaeiaii iauaeoa.

I?iii?oeeiiaeueiuie yaeythony iaeiae, noaaee eioi?uo ia caaenyo io
?acia?ia iaeaaaaiiai iaeiaii iauaeoa. Iie yaeythony i?iii?oeeiiaeueiuie
a oii niunea, /oi noiiu iaeiaia aic?anoatho i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
noiia aeioiaea eee aaee/eia eiiai iaeaaaaiiai iaeiaii iauaeoa. Ii/oe ana
iaeiae a ?innee yaeythony i?iii?oeeiiaeueiuie – iaeia ia eiouanoai
i?aaei?eyoee, iaeia ia eiouanoai oece/aneeo eeoe, o?ainii?oiue iaeia e
ae?. Iaeia ia i?eaueue ioiineony e a?oiia i?iii?oeeiiaeueiuo iaeiaia,
noaaee iaeiaa io noiiu i?eauee ia caaenyo. A caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e eiuo
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao i iaeiaao aeieaeiu auoue ii?aaeaeaiu i?enouea
eaaeaeiio iaeiao /a?ou, yeaiaiou iaeiaeaiey, eee, eia/a aiai?y,
?aeaeceou iaeiaia. E oaeei ?aeaeceoai ioiinyony:

1. Ieaoaeueueee iaeiaa.

2. Iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e (eee) iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay aaca.

3. Enoi/iee iaeiaiaiai ieaoaaea.

4. Iaeiaiaue ia?eiae.

5. Noaaee iaeiaa.

6. Eueaiou ii iaeiao.

7. Ii?yaeie oieaou iaeiaa.

8. Iai?aaeaiea iaeiaiaiai ieaoaaea.

Nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee ii?aaeaeytho caeiiiaeaoaeueiua e eiua
ii?iaoeaiuie aeou, i?aaeaea anaai Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii “I aianaiee
eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee” io 31 aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea ?
227-OC, Eino?oeoeeae Ainiaeianeoaeau ?O ?37 io 10 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea “I
ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou a athaeaeao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee”, iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 1 ethey 1995 aiaea ?
661 “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a Iieiaeaiea i ninoaaa cao?ao ii
i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), aeeth/aaiuo a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), e ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee”, Oaaea?aeueiui
Caeiiii io 10 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea ? 13-OC “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee”.

2. IEAOAEUeUEEE IAEIAA IA I?EAUEUe

2.1. IAUEA IIEIAEAIEss

Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa ia i?eaueue yaeythony ana i?aaei?eyoey e
i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie
oaaea?aoeee yaeythony th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, iacaaeneii io oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey, ‘anee iie
inouanoaeytho i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Ieaoaeueueeaie
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue yaeythony eae eiiia?/aneea, oae e iaeiiia?/aneea
i?aaiecaoeee n oie eeoue ?acieoeae, /oi aeey eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee
iieo/aiea i?eauee yaeyaony oeaeueth eo aeayoaeueiinoe, a oi a?aiy eae
aeey iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee aeaaiui yaeyaony inouanoaeaiea onoaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ii anee ia?yaeo n onoaaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
iaeiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee inouanoaeytho i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue e iieo/atho i?eaueue, oi iie yaeythony ieaoaeueueeaie
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue.

Athaeaeaoiua i?aaiecaoeee, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo iieiinoueth eee
/anoe/ii oeiaine?oaony ca n/ao n?aaenoa athaeaeaoa, oaeaea yaeythony
ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, anee iie inouanoaeytho ia?yaeo ni
naiae iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth oaeaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue e iieo/atho i?eaueue.

Iniaue ii?yaeie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee onoaiiaeai aeey eiino?aiiuo
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, ia?aciaaiiuo a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa, a ia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. *oi aea eanaaony
nicaeaiiuo ia oa??eoi?ee ?O i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie, a
oaeaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iauaaeeiaiee e i?aaiecaoeee, yaeythueony
th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie e inouanoaeythueo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, oi iie yaeythony ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa ia i?eaueue.

Ia?yaeo n i?aaei?eyoeyie – th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa
ia i?eaueue yaeythony oaeaea oeeeaeu e ae?oaea iainiaeaiiua
iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee, ia yaeythueany th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, ii
eiathuea ioaeaeueiue (oioy e ia naiinoiyoaeueiue) aaeain e ?an/aoiue
(oaeouee, ei??aniiiaeaioneee) n/ao a aaiea. Anee aea a ninoaa
i?aaei?eyoee aoiaeyo oa??eoi?eaeueii iainiaeaiiua no?oeoo?iua
iiae?acaeaeaiey, ia eiathuea ioaeaeueiiai aaeaina e ?an/aoiiai (eee
oaeouaai, ei??aniiiaeaioneiai) n/aoa a aaiea, oi iaeia ia i?eaueue a
/anoe, iiaeeaaeauae ca/eneaieth a aeioiae athaeaeaoa niioaaonoaothuaai
noauaeoa ?O (?anioaeeee a ninoaaa ?O, e?ay, iaeanoe e ae?.) ii
ianoiiaoiaeaeaieth oeacaiiuo no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, ii?aaeaeyaony
enoiaey ec aeiee i?eauee, i?eoiaeyuaeny ia yoe iiae?acaeaeaiey,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie n?aaeianieni/iie /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia (oiiaea
iieaou o?oaea) e noieiinoe iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. I?e yoii
noiia iaeiaa ii oeacaiiui no?oeoo?iui iiae?acaeaeaieyi ii?aaeaeyaony ii
noaaeai iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, aeaenoaothuei ia oa??eoi?eyo, aaea
?aniieiaeaiu yoe i?aaei?eyoey e no?oeoo?iua iiae?acaeaeaiey. Aeiey
i?eauee, eioi?ay i?eoiaeeony ia oeeeae, eiia no?oeoo?iia iiae?acaeaeaiea
i?aaei?eyoey, ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec n?aaeiae aaee/eiu oaeaeueiiai
aana n?aaeianieni/iie /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia (eee oiiaea iieaou o?oaea)
e oaeaeueiiai aana noieiinoe iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia oeeeaea.

Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa ia i?eaueue yaeythony oaeaea aaiee. Ia yaeythony
ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey ethauo
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i ii i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie
eie naeueneioicyenoaaiiie e ioioioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea
i?iecaaaeaiiie e ia?a?aaioaiiie ia aeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo nianoaaiiie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ca eneeth/aieai naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia, ii?aaeaeyaiuo ii ia?a/ith,
ooaa?aeaeaaiiio i?aaiaie aeanoe noauaeoia ?O. Ia?a/aiue
ioioioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee i?eaaaeai a I?eeiaeaiee ? 1 e Eino?oeoeee
Ainiaeianeoaeau ?37 io 10 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea “I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e
oieaou a athaeaeao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee”.
Ninoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n
Iauanithciui eeanneoeeaoi?ii “I?iiuoeaiiay e naeueneioicyenoaaiiay
i?iaeoeoeey”, ooaa?aeaeaiiui Aineiieoaoii NNN? ii noaiaea?oai a 1985
aiaeo.

2.2. I?AAA IAEIAIIEAOAEUeUEEA

Iaeiaiieaoaeueuee eiaao i?aai iieueciaaoueny eueaioaie ii iaeiao ia
i?eaueue, onoaiiaeaiiuie aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aac
eaeeo-eeai niaoeeaeueiuo ?ac?aoaiee ii yoiio iiaiaeo: i?aaenoaaeyoue
iaeiaiaui i?aaiai aeieoiaiou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea i?aai ia eueaiou ii
iaeiaai, i?e/ai i?aaenoaaeaiea yoeo aeieoiaioia iineo ia
?ac?aoeoaeueiue, a oaaaeiieoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Iaeiaiieaoaeueuee ai?aaa iciaeiieoueny n aeoaie i?iaa?ie, i?iaaaeaiiuo
iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie: i?aaenoaaeyoue iaeiaiaui i?aaiai iiyniaiey ii
en/eneaieth e oieaoa iaeiaa ia i?eaueue e ii aeoai i?iaaaeaiiuo
i?iaa?ie.

I?e ianiaeanee n caeeth/aieyie, aeoaie e eiuie ?aoaieyie iaeiaiauo
i?aaiia iaeiaiieaoaeueuee ai?aaa iaaeaeiaaoue eo, a oaeaea aeaenoaey
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe iaeiaiauo i?aaiia a auoanoiyuee iaeiaiaue i?aai, a
oaeaea a a?aeo?aaeiue noae. Iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai aaaeii ciaoue, /oi a
niioaaonoaee ni no.4 Oaaea?aeueiiai Caeiia “I ii?yaeea iioaeeeiaaiey e
anooieaiey a neeo oaaea?aeueiuo eiinoeoooeeiiiuo caeiiia, oaaea?aeueiuo
caeiiia, aeoia iaeao Oaaea?aeueiiai Nia?aiey”. Ethaua caeiiu,
oooaeoathuea iieiaeaiea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, iiaeeaaeao aaaaeaieth a
aeaenoaea ia ?aiaa, /ai ii enoa/aiee aeanyoeaeiaaiiai n?iea n iiiaioa eo
ioeoeeaeueiiai iioaeeeiaaiey. Ioeoeeaeueiui iioaeeeiaaieai n/eoaaony
ia?aay ioaeeeaoeey iieiiai oaenoa caeiia a “?inneeneie aacaoa” eee a
“Nia?aiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”.

2.3. IAssCAIIINOE IEAOAEUeUEEA IAEIAA IA I?EAUEUe.

A niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii ?O “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee” eaaeaeue iaeiaiieaoaeueuee (i?aaei?eyoea, o/?aaeaeaiea,
i?aaiecaoeey) iiaeeaaeeo a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea iinoaiiaea ia o/ao a
ainoaea?noaaiiia iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee ii ianoo naiae ?aaeno?aoeee (n
i?enaiaieai aio ii?aaeaeaiiiai eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiiai iiia?a).

Aeey iinoaiiaee ia o/ao iaaei i?aaenoaaeoue a iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth
cayaeaiea onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu, o?e yecaiiey?a ea?ou iinoaiiaee ia o/ao,
eiiee o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia, caaa?aiiua a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea,
oi?io cayaeaiey iiaeii iieo/eoue a iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee ii
ianoiiaoiaeaeaieth iaeiaiieaoaeueueea. Iaeiaiaay einiaeoeey iaycaia
iinoaaeoue iaeiaiieaoaeueueea ia o/ao a oa/aiea ia aieaa 5 aeiae ni aeiy
iiaea/e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii iieiiai iaeaoa oeacaiiuo auoa aeieoiaioia.
I?e yoii i?aaei?eyoeth-iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo i?enaaeaaaony
eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?, auaeaaony ia?aue yecaiiey? ea?ou,
iiaeienaiiie ia/aeueieeii iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee e ne?aieaiiie aa?aiaie
ia/aoueth. Iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo auaeaaony ni?aaea i iinoaiiaea ia o/ao a
iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee, eioi?ay yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey ioe?uoey a aaiea
?an/aoiiai n/aoa. Iaeiaiieaoaeueuee iaycai:

– naiaa?aiaiii e a iieiii iauaia oiea/eaaoue iaeia ia i?eaueue a
onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea (aaainiaua ieaoaaee e ieaoaaee ii oaeoe/anee
iieo/aiiie i?eauee);

– aanoe aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothueie ii?iaoeaiuie
aeieoiaioaie; i?eiaieoaeueii e iaeiao ia i?eaueue iniai aaaeiia cia/aiea
eiaao niaethaeaiea o?aaiaaiee Iieiaeaiey i ninoaaa cao?ao ii
i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), aeeth/aaiuo a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), e i ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, o/eouaaaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee (a
?aaeaeoeee aeiiieiaiee e eciaiaiee, aianaiiuo iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 1 ethey 1995 aiaea ? 661 ):

– ninoaaeyoue io/aou i naiae oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iaania/eaay eo nio?aiiinoue ia iaiaa iyoe eao:

– i?aaenoaaeyoue iaeiaiaui i?aaiai iaiaoiaeeiua aeey en/eneaiey e oieaou
iaeiaia aeieoiaiou e naaaeaiey;

– aiineoue eni?aaeaiey a aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue a ?acia?a noiiu
nie?uoiai eee caieaeaiiiai aeioiaea (i?eauee), auyaeaiiiai i?iaa?eaie
iaeiaiauo i?aaiia;

– a neo/aa ianiaeaney n oaeoaie, eceiaeaiiuie a aeoa i?iaa?ee,
i?iecaaaeaiiii iaeiaiaui i?aaiii, i?aaenoaaeyoue ienueiaiiua iiyniaiey
iioeaia ioeaca io iiaeienaiey yoiai aeoa;

– auiieiyoue o?aaiaaiey iaeiaiaiai i?aaia ia ono?aiaiee

auyaeaiiuo ia?ooaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i iaeiaao;

– a neo/aa eeeaeaeaoeee eee ?ai?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey niiauaoue
iaeiaiaui i?aaiai i i?eiyoii ?aoaiee i eeeaeaeaoeee eee ?ai?aaiecaoeee
i?aaei?eyoey iacaaeneii io oiai, eai i?eiyoi yoi ?aoaiea. A neo/aa
eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaei?eyoey iaycaiiinoue ii oieaoa iaaeieiee yoiai
i?aaei?eyoey (iaoiea/aiiiai eee oiea/aiiiai iaiieiinoueth iaeiaa)
aiceaaaaony ia eeeaeaeaoeeiiioth eiienneth.

A niioaaonoaee n ienueiii Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O ? 298 io 5 ethey 1996
aiaea i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee, inouanoaeythuea
ieaoaaee a athaeaeao e ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, aeieaeiu
naeaaaoue niioaaonoaothuea ieaoaaeiua ii?o/aiey ia iicaeiaa aeiy,
i?aaeoanoaothuaai ianooieaieth n?iea ieaoaaea. Anee n?aaenoa ia n/aoa ia
oaaoaao eee iie ionoonoaotho, ia ieaoaaeiii ii?o/aiee aeaeaaony ioiaoea
ia i/a?aaeiinoe ieaoaaea.

Ia naiaa?aiaiiinoue aianaiey iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae aieueoia aeeyiea
ieacuaaao nenoaia ?an/aoia iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie, ii?yaeie
inouanoaeaiey ieaoaaeae ii iaycaoaeuenoaai ca iinoaaeo oiaa?ia,
auiieiaiea ?aaio eee ieacaiea oneoa. A nayce n yoei Oeacii I?aceaeaioa
?O io 20 aeaeaa?y 1994 aiaea ? 2204 “Ia iaania/aiee i?aaiii?yaeea i?e
inouanoaeaiee ieaoaaeae ii iaycaoaeuenoaai ca iinoaaeo oiaa?ia
(auiieiaiea ?aaio eee ieacaiea oneoa)” onoaiiaeaii, /oi a
niioaaonoaothueo aeiaiai?ao aeieaeiu auoue ii?aaeaeaiu n?iee eniieiaiey
iaycaoaeuenoa iieoiaoaeyie, caeac/eeaie ii ?an/aoai ca iinoaaeaiiua ei
oiaa?u, auiieiaiiua ?aaiou eee ieacaiiua oneoae e /oi i?aaeaeueiue n?ie
eniieiaiey oaeeo iaycaoaeuenoa o?e ianyoea n iiiaioa oaeoe/aneiai
iieo/aiey oiaa?ia (auiieiaiey ?aaio, ieacaiey oneoa). Yoio n?ie ii
niaeaoaieth noi?ii iiaeao auoue iaiueoa o?ao ianyoeaa, ii ia iiaeao
auoue aieueoa.

Ca ia?ooaiea iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eyoey i
ioaaonoaaiiinoue a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea. Oae, ca caieaeaiea noiiu
i?eauee eee nie?uoea /anoe i?eauee io iaeiaa, ca caauoaiea naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee, i?eaaaeoea e caieaeaieth i?eauee n i?aaei?eyoey
acuneeaaaony any noiia nie?uoie eee caieaeaiiie i?eauee e oo?ao a oaeii
aea ?acia?a, a i?e iiaoi?iii aiaeiae/iii ia?ooaiee oo?ao aceiaaony a
aeaoe?aoiii ?acia?a yoie noiiu.

E?iia oiai, ca ionoonoaea o/aoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia eee ca aaaeaiea oaeiai o/aoa n ia?ooaieai onoaiiaeaiiiai
ii?yaeea, /oi i?eaaei e caieaeaieth eee nie?uoeth i?eauee ca i?iaa?yaiue
iaeiaiauie neoaeaaie ia?eiae, i?aaei?eyoea iaeacuaaaony oo?aoii a
?acia?a 10 % aeiia/eneaiiuo noii iaeiaa.

I?eia?. Ia i?aaei?eyoee cao?aou ia no?ieoaeuenoai aa?aaea a noiia 140
iei ?oa. ioeai/ii ioianaiu ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, /oi auei
iaia?oaeaii i?e i?iaa?ea iaeiaiaie einiaeoeeae (cao?aou ia
no?ieoaeuenoai aa?aaea- yoi eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey, inouanoaeyaiua ca
n/ao aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee eee i?eauee, inoathuaeny a
?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey iinea oieaou iaeiaa ia i?eaueue).

A aeaiiii neo/aa eiaao ianoi caieaeaiea i?eauee ia 140 iei ?oa.,
niioaaonoaaiii ia o/oai iaeia n yoie noiiu i?eauee. N i?aaei?eyoey
acuneeaaaony noiia caieaeaiiie i?eauee – 140 iei ?oa. e oo?ao a oaeii
aea ?acia?a, – anaai 280 iei ?oa. Ii oieaoa oo?aoa ia inaiaiaeaeaao io
oieaou iaeiaa a noiia 49 iei ?oa. (140 iei ?oa. o 35%). E?iia oiai, ca
iai?aaeeueiia aaaeaiea o/aoa (a aeaiiii neo/aa – ia?ooaiea
onoaiiaeaiiiai ii?yaeea o/aoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai) acuneeaaaony
oo?ao a ?acia?a 10 % aeiia/eneaiiie noiiu iaeiaa, oi anoue 4,9 iei ?oa.
(49 iei ?oa. o 10%).

I?e onoaiiaeaiee noaeii oaeoa oiuoeaiiiai nie?uoey eee caieaeaiey
i?eauee i?eaiai?ii eee ?aoaieai noaea ii eneo iaeiaiaiai i?aaia eee
i?ieo?i?a iiaeao auoue acuneai a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao oo?ao a
iyoee?aoiii ?acia?a nie?uoie eee caieaeaiiie noiiu i?eauee. I?e yoii
oaeo oiuoeaiiiai nie?uoey i?eauee eee caieaeaiey n oeaeueth iaoieaou
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue eee iaiieiie aai oieaou iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeai
oieueei a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea. Iaeiaiaui i?aaiai oaeia i?aai ia
i?aaeinoaaeaii.

Ca ianaiaa?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea a iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth ?an/aoia ii
iaeiaai n i?aaei?eyoey acuneeaaaony oo?ao a ?acia?a 10% io
i?e/eoathueony ii ?an/aoo noii iaeiaa, a ia niioaaonoaothueo
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe i?aaei?eyoey iaeaaaaony aaeieieno?aoeaiue oo?ao a
?acia?a io 2 aei 5 ieieiaeueiuo iany/iuo ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea; i?e
iiaoi?iii ia?ooaiee aaeieieno?aoeaiue oo?ao iaeaaaaony a ?acia?a io 5
aei 10 ieieiaeueiuo iany/iuo ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea.

Ca caaea?aeeo oieaou iaeiaa a athaeaeao – n i?aaei?eyoey acuneeaaaony
iaiy a ?acia?a 0,3% iaoiea/aiiie noiiu iaeiaa ca eaaeaeue aeaiue
i?in?i/ee ieaoaaea, ia/eiay n onoaiiaeaiiiai n?iea oieaou iaeiaa.
Acuneaiea iaie ia inaiaiaeaeaao iaeiaiieaoaeueueea io ae?oaeo aeaeia
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Iaaeieiee ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue e ae?oaei iaycaoaeueiui ieaoaaeai, a
oaeaea oo?aou, iaie e eiua naieoeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiua
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, acuneeaathony n i?aaei?eyoee a aannii?iii ii?yaeea.

Iaeiaiieaoaeueuee ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaeiaiaua ia?ooaiey, anee
iie yaeeenue neaaenoaeai caaea?aeee oeiaine?iaaiey ec athaeaeaoa eee
iieaou ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeaca, a?eoiaoe/aneie ioeaee a aeieoiaioao,
iai?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaee iaeiaiaiai aaaioa, auiieiaiey ieaoaeueueeii
oeacaiee iaeiaiauo i?aaiia, noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e ae?oaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa
iai?aiaeieeiie neeu (oi?n-iaaei?iuo ianoiyoaeuenoa).

A eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo iaeiaiieaoaeueuee ai?aaa ia?aoeoueny n
i?inueaie ia ion?i/ea eee ?ann?i/ea oieaou oo?aoia ca ia?ooaiea
iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Ii ?aoaieth ?oeiaiaeeoaey iaeiaiaiai
i?aaia oaeay ion?i/ea eee ?ann?i/ea iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaia i?e
neiaeiii oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee ieaoaeueueea, eiaaea acuneaiea oo?aoia
iiaeao i?eaanoe e i?ae?auaieth aai i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ion?i/ea eee ?ann?i/ea i?aaeinoaaeyaony oieueei a i?aaeaeao oaeouaai
athaeaeaoiiai aiaea e ia n?ie ia aieaa oanoe ianyoeaa.

*oi eanaaony ion?i/ae e ?ann?i/ae naieo iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae, oi iie ii
i?inueaa ieaoaeueueeia iiaoo i?aaeinoaaeyoueny niioaaonoaothueie
oeiainiauie i?aaiaie (ii ieaoaaeai a OA Ieioeiii ?O), eioi?ua
oaaaeiieytho iaeiaiaua i?aaiu i i?eiyouo ?aoaieyo.I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
iaeiaiieaoeeueueeia ii?aaeaeaiu caeiiii ?O “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu
a ?O” io 27.12.91a., ae?oaeie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie.

3. IAUAEO IAEIAEAIEss IAEIAII IA I?EAUEUe.

Iauaeoii iaeiaeaiey iaeiaii ia i?eaueue yaeyaony aaeiaay i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoey, oaaee/aiiay eee oiaiueoaiiay a niioaaonoaee n
iieiaeaieyie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuie aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

3.1. AAEIAAss I?EAUEUe I?AAeI?EssOEss.

Aaeiaay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaaa?ae/aneoth noiio
o?ao aaee/ei:

– i?eauee (+) eee oauoea (-) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa;

– i?eauee (+) eee oauoea (-) io ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo oiiaeia (aeeth/ay
caiaeueiua o/anoee) e eiiai eiouanoaa;

– aeioiaeia io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee, oiaiueoaiiuo ia noiio
?anoiaeia ii yoei iia?aoeeyi (naeueaei aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia e
?anoiaeia, iieiaeeoaeueiia (+) eee io?eoeaoaeueiia (-).

Ana o?e yeaiaioa aaeiaie i?eauee ii?aaeaeythony ii aeaiiui
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?aaei?eyoey. Oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa io?aaeaaony ia n/aoa 46 “?aaeecaoeey
i?iaeoeoeee ( ?aaio, oneoa)”. I?aaei?eyoea ii ia?a i?aaeuyaeaiey
iieoiaoaeyi (caeac/eeai) ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia ca ioa?oaeaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, auiieiaiiua ?aaiou e ieacaiiua oneoae io?aaeatho noiio, ia
eioi?oth iieoiaoaeai (caeac/eeii) i?aaeuyaeaiu ?an/aoiua aeieoiaiou, ii
e?aaeeoo n/aoa 46. A aeaaaoa n/aoa 46 io?aaeaaony naaanoieiinoue
ioa?oaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiiuo ?aaio e ieacaiiuo oneoa.
Oi?ie?othueeny ia n/aoa 46 ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio
e oneoa nienuaaaony a e?aaeeo n/aoa 80 (i?eaueue), anee ?acoeueoao
io?eoeaoaeueiue (oauoie), oi ii nienuaaaony a aeaaao n/aoa 80 “I?eauee e
oauoee”. Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa io?aaeaaony ia n/aoa
47 ”?aaeecaoeey e i?i/aa auauoea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa”. A aeaaaoa yoiai
n/aoa io?aaeathony ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue auauaoeo iauaeoia iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa, a oaeaea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n auauoeai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
(niinii e ?acai?eie caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee, aeaiiioaae iai?oaeiaaiey e
o.i.). a a e?aaeeoa n/aoa 47 “?aaeecaoeey e i?i/aa auauoea iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa” io?aaeaaony noiia eciina auauaoeo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ca aanue
ia?eiae eo eniieueciaaiey aei iiiaioa auauoey, a oaeaea noiia,
i?e/eoathuayny i?aaei?eyoeth ca i?iaeaiiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa. I?eaueue
(eee oauoie) io ?aaeecaoeee i?i/aai eiouanoaa (iiieii iniiaiuo n?aaenoa)
iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea ia n/aoa 48 “?aaeecaoeey i?i/eo aeoeaia”: io
?aaeecaoeee iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, eceeoeia nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
oeaiiuo aoiaa (aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee) e i?. A aeaaaoa yoiai n/aoa
oeacuaaaony aaeainiaay noieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiuo oeaiiinoae, a oaeaea
naycaiiua n eo ?aaeecaoeeae ?anoiaeu, a a e?aaeeoa – au?o/ea io
?aaeecaoeee, o.a. i?e/eoathuayny i?aaei?eyoeth noiia ca i?iaeaiiia
eiouanoai; anee a ninoaa ?aaeeciaaiiiai eiouanoaa aoiaeeo IIA, a oaeaea
IAI, oi a e?aaeeo n/aoa 48 ioiineony oaeaea noiia ia/eneaiiiai eciina
(nienuaaaiay n aeaaaoa n/aoia 05 “Eciin IIA” e 13 “Eciin IAI”.

O?aoueei yeaiaioii aaeiaie i?eauee yaeyaony naeueaei (?aciinoue) iaaeaeo
noiiaie aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ii aia?aaeecaoeeiiiui iia?aoeeyi. I?e yoii
e aeioiaeai io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee ioiinyony:

– aeeaeaeaiaeu e i?ioeaiou, iieo/aiiua ii aeoeeyi, iaeeaaoeeyi e ae?oaei
auiouaiiui a ?O oeaiiui aoiaaai, i?eiaaeeaaeauei i?aaei?eyoeth. Iiiaea
i?aaei?eyoey iieo/atho cia/eoaeueiua ii ?acia?ai aeioiaeu a aeaea % ii
ainoaea?noaaiiui aaneoiiiiui e?aoein?i/iui iaeeaaoeeyi (AEI).
I?eia?aoaiea AEI yaeyaony auaiaeiie aeey i?aaei?eyoey oi?iie aeiaeaiey
naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa: yoe oeaiiua aoiaae iaaeaaeiu; iie
aaniethoii eeeaeaeiu, o.a. naiaiaeii iieoiathony e i?iaeathony;
aunieiaeioiaeiu i?e oaeiaiuo aeey i?aaei?eyoee n?ieao iiaaoaiey (3
ianyoea, 6 ianyoeaa, aiae);

– aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua io o/anoey a aeayoaeueiinoe ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee;
ii naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth iie iaei ioee/athony io
aeeaeaeaiaeia ii i?eiaaeeaaeauei i?aaei?eyoeth aeoeeyi;

– i?enoaeaeaiiua eee i?eciaiiua aeieaeieeaie oo?aou, iaie, iaonoieee e
ae?oaea aeaeu naieoeee ca ia?ooaiea oicyenoaaiiuo aeiaiai?ia;

– noiiu, iinooieaoea io ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey a n/ao aiciauaiey
oauoeia e ?anoiaeia i?aaei?eyoey, iiianaiiuo ii eo aeia;

– i?eaueue i?ioeuo eao, auyaeaiiay a io/aoiii aiaeo;

– noiiu, iinooieaoea a n/ao iiaaoaiey aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe,
nienaiiie a i?ioeua aiaeu a oauoie eae aaciaaeaaeiua e iieo/aieth;

– iinooieaiea a?aiaeiie ieaou io naea/e a a?aiaeo ioaeaeueiuo iauaeoia
iniiaiuo oiiaeia;

– aeioiaeu io aeiaeaiee naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia aeaiaceoiua
n/aoa a aaieao.

I?eaueue io ia?ai?iaeaaee oeaiiuo aoiaa e aeioiae io oeaiiuo aoiaa a
aeaea aeeneiioa aeeth/athony a iauoth noiio aeioiaeia ii
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiui iia?aoeeyi e iaeaaathony iaeiaii ia i?eaueue a
ninoaaa aaeiaie i?eauee a iauai ii?yaeea.

E aia?aaeecaoeeiiiui ?anoiaeai, eee eia/a ?anoiaeai ii
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiui iia?aoeeyi, eioi?ua o/eouaathony a aeaaaoa n/aoa 80
“I?eauee e oauoee”, ioiinyony:

– iaeiae e nai?u, ioiineiua ia oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe a
niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii (iaeia ia eiouanoai
i?aaei?eyoee, nai? ia ioaeaeu ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, iaeia ia
?aeeaio, iaeia ia niaea?aeaiea aeeeeuiiai oiiaea e iauaeoia
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?u e ae?.);

– i?enoaeaeaiiua eee i?eciaiiua i?aaei?eyoeai oo?aou, iaie, iaonoieee e
ae?. aeaeu naieoeee ca ia?ooaiea i?aaei?eyoeai oneiaee oicyenoaaiiuo
aeiaiai?ia;

– oauoee io nienaiey aaciaaeaaeiie aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, ii
eioi?ie n?ie eneiaie aeaaiinoe enoae;

– oauoee i?ioeuo eao, auyaeaiiua a io/aoiii aiaeo;

– noaeaaiua ecaea?aeee e a?aeo?aaeiua ?anoiaeu ii aeaeai, naycaiiui n
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey;

– ia/eneaiiay noiia eciina ii naeaiiui a a?aiaeo aac i?aaa aueoia
iauaeoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa: i?aaaea, a ninoaaa aeioiaeia ii
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiui iia?aoeeyi o/eouaaaony iinooieaoay io a?aiaeaoi?ia
a?aiaeiay ieaoa, oae /oi a eiia/iii n/aoa ia/eneaiiay noiia eciina ii
naeaiiui a a?aiaeo iniiaiui n?aaenoaai iie?uaaaony ca n/ao iinooieaiey
a?aiaeiuo ieaoaaeae.

A ninoaa aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia aeeth/athony io?eoeaoaeueiua
eo?niaua ?acieoeu ii aaethoiui n/aoai, a oaeaea eo?niaua ?acieoeu ii
iia?aoeeyi a eiino?aiiie aaethoa. A ioee/ea io ii?yaeea, aeaenoaiaaaoaai
a 1995-1996 a., oaia?ue i?e ii?aaeaeaiee aaeiaie i?eauee aeey oeaeae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iieiaeeoaeueiua eo?niaua ?acieoeu ia au/eoathony, a
io?eoeaoaeueiua eo?niaua ?acieoeu ia i?eaaaeythony. Oaeie ii?yaeie
i?eiyo a niioaaonoaee n Oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii io10.01.97a. N 13-OC “I
aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?O “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee”.

I?aaeaea anaai, anee aiai?eoue i ii?yaeea o/aoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai,
oi i?e inouanoaeaiee ianeieueeeo ?acee/iuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe o/ao
cao?ao aaaeaony ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe ioaeaeueii. Anee
i?aaei?eyoea ni/aoaao i?iiuoeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue n oi?aiaie, oi
cao?aou ii i?iecaiaenoao i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee io?aaeathony ia n/aoa
20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai”, a cao?aou, naycaiiua n oi?aiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, o/eouaathony ia n/aoa 44 “Ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey”.
Iaeiaei yoi aiana ia icia/aao, /oi e eiia/iue ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe
– i?eaueue eee oauoie oaeaea aeieaeai ii?aaeaeyoueny ?acaeaeueii, e
niioaaonoaaiii eaaeaeue aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, aai ?acoeueoao aeieaeai
iaeaaaoueny iaeiaii ioaeaeueii. Yoi ia oae. ?acaeaeueiia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea i?iecaiaeeony oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ii ?acee/iui
aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe onoaiiaeaiu ?aciua noaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue. Anee
au i?aaei?eyoea ia?yaeo n i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
inouanoaeyei, iai?eia?, iin?aaeie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, i?eaueue io
eioi?ie iaeaaaaony iaeiaii ii ae?oaei noaaeai, oi a niioaaonoaee n
Eino?oeoeeae Ainiaeianeoaeau ?O N 37 io 10.08.95a. “I ii?yaeea
en/eneaiey e oieaou a athaeaeao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee” (i.2.10) en/eneaiey e oieaoa iaeiaa ia i?eaueue aeieaeiu
i?iecaiaeeoueny ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe ioaeaeueii, iacaaeneii
io eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth. A
yoii neo/aa iiaeao aiieia iieo/eoueny, /oi oauoi/iia ii ?acoeueoaoai
anao aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe a oeaeii i?aaei?eyoea oai ia iaiaa yaeyaony
ieaoaeueueeii iaeiaa ia i?eaueue.

3.2. I?EAUEUe IO ?AAEECAOeEE I?IAeOEOeEE.

I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa yaeyaony
i?aiaeaaeathuae /anoueth aaeainiaie i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey. Iiiaea
i?aaei?eyoey ieeaeeo ae?oaeo aeioiaeia, e?iia aeioiaeia io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, ia eiatho. I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee – yoi
?aciinoue iaaeaeo au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey (aac
IAeN, aeoeecia e o.i.) e noiiie cao?ao i?aaei?eyoey ia i?iecaiaenoai e
?aaeecaoeeth yoie i?iaeoeoeee.

3.2.1. Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio,
oneoa) ii?aaeaeyaony eeai ii ia?a aa iieaou caeac/eeaie, iieoiaoaeyie (
i?e aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoao – ii ia?a iinooieaiey n?aaenoa ca oiaa?u ia
?an/aoiua n/aoa a aaieao, a i?e ?an/aoa iaee/iuie – ii ia?a iinooieaiey
n?aaenoa a eanno i?aaei?eyoey) eeai ii ia?a ioa?ocee oiaa?ia, auiieiaiey
?aaio e oneoa e i?aaeuyaeaiey iieoiaoaeth (caeac/eeo) ?an/aoiuo
aeieoiaioia aeey iieaou. I?e yoii iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee onoaiaaeeaaaony i?aaei?eyoeai naiinoiyoaeueii ia
aeeeoaeueiue n?ie, ia ?yae eao. Yoi iaeei ec aii?inia o/aoiie iieeoeee
i?aaei?eyoey. Iii ?aoaao aai ii naiaio oniio?aieth enoiaey ec oneiaee
oicyenoaiaaiey e oneiaee aeiaiai?ia. A au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie neaaaaiuie aeeth/aaony au?o/ea io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee naiei ?aaioieeai. A yeiiiie/aneii niunea
?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee naiei ?aaioieeai – yoi anaai eeoue iaeei ec
aa?eaioia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ia noi?iio. Iiyoiio oneiaey
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee, iieo/aiiie io ?aaeecaoeee naiae i?iaeoeoeee
naiei aea ?aai/ei e neoaeauei, ia ioee/athony io oneiaee
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee, iieo/aiiie io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
noi?iiiei iieoiaoaeyi. E anee caeanue aicieeatho aii?inu, oi iie aeaaiui
ia?acii aicieeatho n aeaeaieai i?aaei?eyoey i?iaeaoue i?iaeoeoeeth naiei
?aaioieeai iiaeaoaaea. A yoii neo/aa aeaenoaoao i.2.5 Eino?oeoeee AIN ?O
N 37, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui ii i?aaei?eyoeyi, inouanoaeythuei
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee ii oeaiai ia auoa oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe,
aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, i?eieiaaony ?uii/iay oeaia ia aiaeiae/ioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, neiaeeaoayny ia iiiaio ?aaeecaoeee, ii ia ieaea
oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe.

Anee aea i?aaei?eyoea ?aaeecoao i?iaeoeoeeth naiei ?aaioieeai oioy au
aeaoaaea, /ai noi?iiiei iieoiaoaeyi, ii ii oeaia, i?aauoathuae aa
naaanoieiinoue, oi ieeaeeo i?iaeai i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee ia
aicieeaao. ?aaeecaoeeth i?aaei?eyoeai naiae i?iaeoeoeee ia neaaeoao
ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee noi?iiieo ecaioiaeoaeae,
iinoaaueeia, oi?aiauo oe?i. Eae i?aaeei, a yoeo neo/ayo i?aaei?eyoea ia
inouanoaeyao ie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ie oi?aiaie, a
aunooiaao a ?iee iin?aaeieea eee eiiieneiia?a. O/eouaay, /oi noaaea
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, ca/eneyaiiai a athaeaeaou noauaeoia ?O, iiaeao
ioee/aoueny io noaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ii ae?oaei aeaeai
aeayoaeueiinoe, a Eino?oeoeee AIN ?O N 37 io 10.08.95a. niaea?aeeony
ii?aaeaeaiea iin?aaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Nouanoaaiiuie
iniaaiiinoyie, ii oieueei aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee,
oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?aaeaeaiea au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii oeaia
ia auoa aa oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe e a ii?yaeea oiaa?iiai iaiaia
(aa?oa?a). Anee i?aaei?eyoea ?aaeeciaaei i?iaeoeoeeth ii oeaia ia auoa
aa oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe, oi aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee
i?eieiaaony ?uii/iay oeaia ia aiaeiae/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth, neiaeeaoayny ia
iiiaio ?aaeecaoeee yoie i?iaeoeoeee, ii ia ieaea aa oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe. Anee, iai?eia?, i?aaei?eyoea ?aaeeciaaei 500 ?aaoeyoi?ia
ii 80 oun.?oa. ca oooeo ia iauoth noiio 40 iei.?oa. i?e oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe ?aaoeyoi?a 82 oun.?oa., oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iaeaaaaiie
i?eauee au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiie ia?oee ?aaoeyoi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony
ii ?uii/iie oeaia ?aaoeyoi?ia. Anee ?uii/iay oeaia ?aaoeyoi?a ninoaaeyao
98 oun.?oa., oi aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee
aeaiiie ia?oee i?eieiaaony ?aaiie ia 40 iei. ?oa. , a 49 iei. ?oa.:
eia/a aiai?y iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue aoaeao oaaee/aia ia 9 iei.
?oa.:

98 oun.?oa. – 80 oun.?oa. = 18 oun.?oa.

18 oun. ?oa. o 500 oo. = 9 iei.?oa.

Niioaaonoaaiii aic?anoao e iaeia ia i?eaueue. I?aaei?eyoea iiaei au
ecaaaeaoue ia?an/aoa au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee ii ?uii/iui oeaiai, anee au
?aaeeciaaei naith i?iaeoeoeeth ii oeaia, i?aauoathuae oaeoe/aneoth
naaanoieiinoue ia ieieiaeueioth aaee/eio, aeiionoei 100 ?oa.(o.a. ii
oeaia 82100 ?oa.), iineieueeo noaiaiue i?aauoaiey oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee caeiiii ia ?aaoee?oaony.

E ?anniao?eaaaiiio aii?ino aeecie ii naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth
aii?in i aa?oa?iuo naeaeeao, o.a. ia iaiaia i?iaeoeoeeae, ?aaioaie eee
oneoaaie aac iieaou. I?e inouanoaeaiee i?aaei?eyoeyie iaiaia
i?iaeoeoeeae , eeai i?e aa ia?aaea/a aacaiciacaeii, au?o/ea aeey oeaeae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec n?aaeiae oeaiu ?aaeecaoeee
oaeie aea eee aiaeiae/iie i?iaeoeoeee, ?ann/eoaiiie ca ianyoe, a
eioi?ii inouanoaeyeanue oeacaiiay naeaeea, a anee a yoii ianyoea ia auei
oaeoi?ia ?aaeecaoeee oaeie aea eee aiaeiae/iie i?iaeoeoeee, oi n?aaeiyy
oeaia aa?aony ii oaeoo aa iineaaeiae ii a?aiaie ?aaeecaoeee, ii ia ieaea
oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii?yaeie aein/aoa aaeiaie
i?eauee, aa oaaee/aiea a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii oeaia ia auoa
naaanoieiinoe ioiineony ia oieueei e i?aaei?eyoeyi i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ii e
ei anai ae?oaei io?aneyi e aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe – no?ieoaeueiie,
iin?aaeie/aneie, iao/iie e i?. Anee no?ieoaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey ii
iaeiiio ec no?iyueony iauaeoia iieo/eea oauoie, cao?aou ii aeaiiiio
iauaeoo ieacaeenue aieueoa iieo/aiiie io caeac/eea noiiu iieaou
auiieiaiiuo ?aaio, oi yoi ?anniao?eaaaony eae oaeo ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee ii oeaia, ia i?aauoathuae naaanoieiinoue. A yoii neo/aa aeey
oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony ii ?uii/iie
oeaia, eioi?ay ia iiaeao auoue ieaea oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee. Anee, iai?eia? , aeiaiai?iay oeaia iauaeoa a niioaaonoaee
ni niaoie no?ieoaeuenoaa ninoaaeyao 1340 iei.?oaeae, a oaeoe/aneea
cao?aou no?ieoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ii aeaiiiio iauaeoo ninoaaeee 1390
iei.?oaeae, oi aaeiaay i?eaueue no?ieoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeia
auoue oaaee/aia ia 50 iei.?oaeae (o.a. ia noiio oauoea). Aieaa oiai,
anee eiathony aeaiiua i ?uii/iie noieiinoe aiaeiae/iuo iauaeoia
(aeiionoei 1420 iei.?oaeae) oi iaeiaiaay neoaeaa ai?aaa iio?aaiaaoue
oaaee/aiey aaeiaie e niioaaonoaaiii iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee ia 80
iei.?oaeae (1420-1340). Eoae, aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee iaiaoiaeeii ec iauae noiiu au?o/ee io aa ?aaeecaoeee
au/anoue noiio cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth yoie i?iaeoeoeee.
I?e ?an/aoa neaaeoao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny aeaoiy aeieoiaioaie:

1) Iieiaeaiea i ninoaaa cao?ao ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa), e i ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia,
o/eouaaaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee. Ooaa?aeaeaii iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io05.08.92a. N 552;

2) eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey, aiineiua a Iieiaeaiea i ninoaaa cao?ao ii
i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), aeeth/aaiuo a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), e i ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, o/eouaaaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee.
Ooaa?aeaeaiu iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io01.07.95a.

Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa, eae e
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu, o/eouaathony, anoanoaaiii, a ?oaeyo. Ii
anee i?aaei?eyoeai iieo/aiu aeioiaeu a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, oi iie
ia?an/eouaathony a ?oaee ii oaeouaio eo?no ?oaey, onoaiiaeaiiiio OeA ?O
ia aeaiue ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Cao?aou, ia?acothuea naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
eneeth/aaiua ec au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?eauee, iiaoo
auoue na?oiie?iaaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii:

– iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou;

– cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea;

– io/eneaiey ai aiaathaeaeaoiua e nioeeaeueiua oiiaeu;

– aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia (eciin);

– i?i/ea cao?aou.

3.2.2. Iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai.

Iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou yaeythony e?oiiaeoae a aieueoeinoaa io?aneae
i?aiaeaaeathuae /anoueth cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai. Io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe
nouanoaaiii ?acee/athony ii o?iaith iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee.
Niioaaonoaaiii eieaaeaony aeiey iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao a iauae noiia
cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai: io 50-60% a io?aneyo oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai e
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaena, aei 80 % a eaaeie e 90 % a ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iiyoiio io aeinoiaa?iinoe o/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ai
iiiaii caaeneo i?aaeeueiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee a
oeaeii.

I?e ia?iiiii ?aciiia?acee ninoaaa iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao iie ana aea
iiaoo auoue na?oiie?iaaiu ii nouanoaaiiui i?eciaeai a 8 a?oii:

1) nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu; nthaea ioiineony noieiinoue iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ua
aoiaeyo a ninoaa i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee, ia?acoy aa iniiao (iaoaee,
oeiiie, ieeiiaoa?eaeu e i?.) eee eniieuecothony aeey iaania/aiey
ii?iaeueiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, a oaeaea ?anoiaeoaiua ia eiua
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e oicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu;

2) iieoiiua eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey e iieooaa?eeaou, iiaeaa?aathueany ia
aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee aeaeueiaeoaio iiioaaeo, nai?ea, aeiiieieoaeueiie
ia?aaioea e o.i.;

3) oiieeai e yia?aey anao aeaeia, i?eia?aoaiiua ni noi?iiu e
?anoiaeoaiua ia oaoiieiae/aneea oeaee, ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
oicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu i?aaei?eyoey;

4) caianiua /anoe aeey ?aiiioa iai?oaeiaaiey;

5) eciin eino?oiaioia, i?eniiniaeaiee, eiaaioa?y, i?eai?ia eaai?aoi?iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey e ae?oaeo IAI, ia ioiineiuo e iniiaiui oiiaeai ec-ca
iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe n?iea neoaeau (aei 1 aiaea) eee ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoie noieiinoe aaeeieoeu (aei 100 ieieiaeueiuo ?acia?ia iieaou
o?oaea);

6) ?aaiou e oneoae i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, auiieiyaiua aeey
i?aaei?eyoey noi?iiieie i?aaiecaoeeyie, ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie. E oaeei
?aaioai ioiinyony auiieiaiea ioaeaeueiuo iia?aoeee ii ecaioiaeaieth
i?iaeoeoeee, ia?aaioea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, ?aiiio iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey
e o.i.;

7) noieiinoue i?e?iaeiiai nu?uey, aeeth/ay onoaiiaeaiiua ca aai
eniieueciaaiea iaeiae, io/eneaiey ia aini?iecaiaenoai
ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu, ia ?aeoeueoeaaoeeth caiaeue, ieaoa ca
ae?aaaneio, ioioneaaioth ia ei?ith (eaniie iaeia), ieaoa ca aiaeo,
caae?aaioth i?iiuoeaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie ec aiaeioicyenoaaiiuo nenoai a
i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoii ii?i;

8) iioa?e io iaaeinoa/e iinooieaoeo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a i?aaeaeao
ii?i anoanoaaiiie oauee.

Iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou aeeth/athony a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee a
?acia?a noieiinoe i?eia?aoaiiuo e eniieueciaaiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia
ii oeaiai eo oaeoe/aneiai i?eia?aoaiey, ii aac IAeN. A ea/anoaa iauaai
i?aaeea IAeN, oiea/eaaaiue i?aaei?eyoeai i?e i?eia?aoaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia, a naaanoieiinoue eo i?iaeoeoeee ia aeeth/aaony. Iaoa?eaeueiua
?ano?nu ioiinyony ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee n o/aoii eiienneiiiuo
?anoiaeia, oiea/eaaaiuo iin?aaeie/aneei i?aaiecaoeeyi, niaaaeai/aneei e
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei oe?iai, a?iea?neeo ?anoiaeia e ae?. E iaoa?eaeueiui
cao?aoai ioiinyony oaeaea oiea/aiiua i?aaei?eyoeai oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu,
ieaoa ca o?ainii?oe?iaeo, o?aiaiea e aeinoaaeo i?eia?aoaaiuo iaoa?eaeia,
anee iie inouanoaeythony noi?iiieie i?aaiecaoeeyie. E iaoa?eaeueiui
cao?aoai ioiineony oaeaea noieiinoue oa?u, oiaeiaee, anee iie iiea/aiu
i?aaei?eyoeai naa?o noieiinoe iaoa?eaeia. Anee aea noieiinoue oa?u oaea
aioea a noieiinoue iaoa?eaeia, oi aoi?e/ii o/eouaaoue aa a cao?aoao,
eiia/ii, ia ioaeii. Ii a iaieo neo/ayo au/eoaaony noieiinoue oa?u e
oiaeiaee ii oeaia ec aiciiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey ( iai?eia?, a ea/anoaa
oa?iuo iaoa?eaeia aeey ecaioiaeaiey oa?u aeey naiae i?iaeoeoeee).

3.2.3. Cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea.

Cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea yaeythony a aieueoeinoaa io?aneae aoi?ui ii
cia/eiinoe yeaiaioii cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai. A naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee aeeth/athony cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea ?aaioieeia,
o/anoaothueo a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee – ?aaioieeia aiia?aoa
oi?aaeaiey iniiaiuo, iiai/iuo, aniiiiaaoaeueiuo e iiaeniaiuo oeaoia,
niaaaeai/anei-auoiauo neoaea, io?aiu e o.i.

A ninoaa cao?ao ia iieaoo o?oaea, aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee, aoiaeyo ana auieaou ?aaioieeai iniiaiiai ia?niiaea ii
aeaenoaothuei ia i?aaei?eyoee nenoaiai iieaou o?oaea iacaaeneii io oi?i
yoeo auieao ( aeaiaaeiie eee iaoo?aeueiie), ana i?aiee ii aeaenoaothuei
nenoaiiui iieiaeaieyi ca aeinoeaiooua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou, a
o./. aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ii eoiaai aiaea, aaeeiia?aiaiiua aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
ca auneoao eao, iieaoa ioioneia e o.i.

Aaaeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oa auieaou, eioi?ua ia aeeth/athony a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee:

– i?aiee, auiea/eaaaiua ca n/ao n?aaenoa niaoeeaeueiiai iacia/aiey e
oeaeaauo iinooieaiee;

– iaoa?eaeueiay iiiiuue ?aaioieeai, iiaea?ee, aani?ioeaioiua nnoaeu ia
aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai, iacaaaaeaiea aeiiaoiei oicyenoaii, iaaeaaaee e
iaineyi e aaeeiia?aiaiiua auieaou ooiaeyuei ia iaineth ?aaioieeai;

– eiiiainaoeey noieiinoe ieoaiey a noieiauo, aooaoao, i?ioeeaeoi?eyo, a
oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeaiea aai ii eueaioiui oeaiai eee aanieaoii (e?iia,
eiia/ii, i?aaeoniio?aiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aanieaoiiai ieoaiey
ioaeaeueiie eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia);

– iieaoa iooaaie a aeiia ioaeuoa, yeneo?nee, iooaoanoaey e ae?oaea
auieaou e cao?aou ia ioaeaeu ?aaioieeia, i?iecaiaeeiua ec /enoie i?eauee
i?aaei?eyoey.

Cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea yaeythony ninoaaiie /anoueth cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai. Niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao a ?O ninoaa
cao?ao ia iieaoo o?oaea, aeeth/aaiue a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaeaiaioe?oaony neaaeothueie ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie: iieiaeaieai N
552 “I ninoaaa cao?ao ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio,
oneoa), aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), e i
ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, o/eouaaaiuo i?e
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee” io 05.08.92a. (n eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie
io 01.07.95a. e io 20.11.95a.). eino?oeoeeae “I ninoaaa n?aaenoa,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia iio?aaeaiea”(aei 01.01.96a.), eino?oeoeeae “I ninoaaa
oiiaea ca?aaioiie ieaou e auieao nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a”. A
niioaaonoaee n auoaoeacaiiuie aeieoiaioaie a ninoaa cao?ao ia iieaoo
o?oaea aeeth/aaony niaieoiiinoue n?aaenoa, auiea/aiiuo ?aaioieeai, eae
ninoiyuei, oae e ia ninoiyuei a nieni/iii ninoaaa i?aaei?eyoey, a
aeaiaaeiie e iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia ca io?aaioaiiia a?aiy (auiieiaiioth
?aaioo) e ca iaio?aaioaiiia a?aiy (iaauiieiaiioth ?aaioo) e ca
iaio?aaioaiiia a?aiy, ii iiea/eaaaiia a onoaiiaeaiiii aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ii?yaeea, a oaeaea noeioee?othuea iaaeaaaee e
eiiiainaoeeiiiua auieaou, naycaiiua n ?aaeeiii ?aaiou e oneiaeyie
o?oaea, a oaeaea i?aiee, iiiu?eoaeueiua auieaou e auieaou ia ieoaiea,
aeeeuea, oiieeai, iinyuea ?aaoey?iue oa?aeoa?.

Cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea, aoiaeyuea a oiiae, aeeth/atho a naay
neaaeothuea aeaeu ca?aaioiie ieaou e ae?oaeo aeaeia ia/eneaiee:

1. Iniiaiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa, o.a. ia/eneaiey ca oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia
a?aiy. A caaeneiinoe io i?eiyouo ia i?aaei?eyoee oi?i iieaou ii o?oaeo a
iniiaiii ca?aaioiay ieaoa ia/eneyaony:

a) i?e eiio?aeoiie oi?ia iaeia ia ?aaioo a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie
eiio?aeoa;

a) i?e iia?aiaiiie oi?ia iieaou – ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo oaaaeae o/aoa
?aai/aai a?aiaie;

a) i?e naeaeueiie oi?ia iieaou – ia iniiaaiee oaaaeae o/aoa e ia?yaeia
eee aeoia i?eaia-naea/e auiieiaiiuo ?aaio;

a) ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo – a niioaaonoaee n ieeaaeaie, ooaa?aeaeaiiuie
a ooaoiuo ?anienaieyo ii i?aaiecaoeee e eiee/anoao oaeoe/aneie yaee ia
?aaioo (iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi ?ac?aoaii ia aanoe oaaaeueiiai o/aoa
?aai/aai a?aiaie);

ae) iieaoa o?oaea ?aaioieeia, ia ninoiyueo a ooaoa i?aaei?eyoey – ii
aeiaiai?o iiae?yaea, enoiaey ec niaou ia auiieiaiea ?aaio e ieaoaaeiuo
aeieoiaioia.

2. Aeiiieieoaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa, o.a. ca?aaioiay ieaoa ca
iaio?aaioaiiia, ii iiea/eaaaiia a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O, a?aiy. E aeiiieieoaeueiie ca?ieaoa ioiineony
ca?aaioiay ieaoa, eioi?ay ia/eneyaony ia iniiaaiee aeieoiaioia,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo i?aai ?aaioieea ia iieaoo ca iaio?aaioaiiia a?aiy. E
oaeei auieaoai ioiinyony: iieaoa aaeaaiaeiuo ioioneia (aac aeaiaaeiie
eiiiainaoeee ca iaeniieueciaaiiue ioione; iieaoa eueaioiuo /ania
iiae?inoeia; iieaoa o/aaiuo ioioneia; iieaoa ca ia?eiae iao/aiey
?aaioieeia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee, i?ioanneiiaeueioth
iiaeaioiaeo eee iao/aiea ae?oaie i?ioannee; iieaoa i?inoiaa ia ii aeia
?aaioieea; iieaoa o?oaea ?aaioieeia, i?eaeaeaaiuo e auiieiaieth
ainoaea?noaaiiuo, iauanoaaiiuo iaycaiiinoae, ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua e
ae?oaea ?aaiou, ?aaioieeai-aeiii?ai ca aeie ianeaaeiaaiey e naea/e
e?iae; iieaoa ca a?aiy auioaeaeaiiiai i?iaoea; eiiiainaoeee ca
iaeniieueciaaiiue ioione. Aieueoeinoai aeaeia oaeeo auieao, iai?eia?,
iieaoa aaeaaiaeiuo ioioneia, eiiiainaoeee ca iaeniieueciaaiiue ioione e
ae?. oiea/eaathony enoiaey ec n?aaeiaai ca?aaioea ?aaioathuaai.

3. Aaeeiia?aiaiiua i?aiee e aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, iinyuea ?aaoey?iue
oa?aeoa?. E oaeei auieaoai ioiinyony: aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ii eoiaai ?aaiou
ca aiae, aiaeiaia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca auneoao eao (noaae ?aaiou). A
naaanoieiinoue oaeaea aeeth/athony i?aiee, iinyuea iinoiyiiue oa?aeoa? –
eaa?oaeueiua e ae?oaea. Ii yoei auieaoai aeieaeiu auoue nenoaiiua
iieiaeaiey e niioaaonoaothuea caiene a o/aoiie iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey.

4. Auieaou eiiiaine?othuaai oa?aeoa?a, naycaiiua n ?aaeeiii ?aaiou e
oneiaeyie o?oaea. E oaeei auieaoai ioiinyony: aeiieaou ca ?aaioo a
ii/iia a?aiy; iieaoa ?aaiou a auoiaeiua aeie e i?acaeieee; iieaoa
naa?oo?i/iie ?aaiou; auieaou, iaoneiaeaiiua ?aeiiiui ?aaoee?iaaieai
iieaou o?oaea; aeiieaou ?aaioieeai, iinoiyiii caiyoui ia iiaecaiiuo
?aaioao; iieaoa ?aaioieeai ca aeie ioaoea, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua a nayce n
?aaioie naa?o ii?iaeueiie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aai/aai a?aiaie;
aeiieaou ca niaiauaiea i?ioannee e aeieaeiinoae, aeiione e
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeia e ae?oaea.

5. A cao?aou ii iieaoa ii o?oaeo aeeth/athony noieiinoue e aanieaoii
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ?aaioieeai ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae ieoaiey, i?iaeoeoia,
aeeeuey (eee noiiu aeaiaaeiie eiiiainaoeee ca iai?aaeinoaaeaiea
aanieaoiiai aeeeuey, eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa).

A naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ia aeeth/athony
neaaeothuea auieaou ?aaioieeai i?aaei?eyoey a aeaiaaeiie e iaoo?aeueiie
oi?ia, a oaeaea cao?aou, naycaiiua n eo niaea?aeaieai:

– aaeeiia?aiaiiua i?aiee, auiea/eaaaiua ca n/ao n?aaenoa niaoeeaeueiiai
iacia/aiey e oeaeaauo iinooieaiee;

– iaoa?eaeueiay iiiiuue, i?aaeinoaaeyaiay anai eee aieueoeinoao
?aaioieeia;

– aeioiaeu (aeeaeaeaiaeu, i?ioeaiou), auiea/eaaaiua ii aeoeeyi e
aeeaaeai o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa i?aaei?eyoey;

– iieaoa i?iacaea e ianoo ?aaiou o?ainii?oii iauaai iieueciaaiey,
niaoeeaeueiuie ia?o?ooaie, aaaeiinoaaiiui o?ainii?oii (ca eneeth/aieai
noii, iiaeeaaeaueo ioianaieth ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio,
oneoa), a eiaiii iaeei i?iacaeiie aeeao aeey eeoe, eiathueo ?acuacaeiie
oa?aeoa? ?aaiou;

– ae?oaea aaeeiia?aiaiiua iiiu?aiey, aeeth/ay noieiinoue iiaea?eia .

Ana yoe auieaou inouanoaeythony ca n/ao i?eauee, inoathuaeny a
?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey.

3.2.4. Io/eneaiey (no?aoiaua aciinu) ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

Oa?eou no?aoiauo aciinia ia eaaeaeue i?aaenoiyuee aiae
ii?aaeaeythony Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, iie yaeythony aaeeiuie
ia anae oa??eoi?ee ?O e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ia iiaeeaaeao.

A Iaineiiiue oiiae ?O oa?eou no?aoiauo aciinia onoaiiaeaiu:

– aeey ?aaioiaeaoaeae- i?aaiecaoeee iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey – 28% auieao, ia/eneaiiuo
?aaioieeai a aeaea iieaou o?oaea ii anai iniiaaieyi, aeeth/ay auiieiaiea
?aaio ii aeiaiai?ai iiae?yaea e ii?o/aiey;

– aeey ?aaioiaeaoaeae-i?aaiecaoeee, caiyouo a n/o, a ?acia?a 20,6 %
oeacaiiuo auieao;

– aeey a?aaeaeai, eniieuecothueo o?oae iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia a ee/iii
oicyenoaa – a ?acia?a 28% oeacaiiuo auieao;

– aeey ?aaioathueo a?aaeaeai – a ?acia?a 1% oeacaiiuo auieao, o.a. io
ia/eneaiiie ei i?aaei?eyoeai , i?aaiecaoeeae noiiu iieaou o?oaea.
Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia oaeea a?aaeaeaia oiea/eaatho n noiiu, inoaaoaeny
iinea io/eneaiey 1% naiae ca?aaioiie ieaou a IO ?O (eiia/ii ca au/aoii
noii, inaiaiaeaeaaiuo io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey). Ii?yaeie oieaou no?aoiauo
aciinia a IO ?O ii?aaeaeai “Eino?oeoeeae i ii?yaeea oieaou no?aoiauo
aciinia ?aaioiaeaoaeyie e a?aaeaeaiaie a IO ?O” io 11.11.94a. N 258.

Ia?aaeei aicieeatho aii?inu a ioiioaiee oieaou no?aoiauo aciinia i?e
auieaoa aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ii aeiaiai?ai iiae?yaea, a oaeaea ai
acaeiiioiioaieyo n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie. Iaycaiiinoue
oieaou no?aoiauo aciiniaia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ii aeiaiai?ai iiae?yaea
ii?aaeaeaiu aeey ?aaioiaeaoaeae ai anao neo/ayo aac eneeth/aiey. Anee
i?aaiecaoeey caeeth/eea aeiaiai? iiae?yaea n
a?aaeaeaieiii-i?aaei?eieiaoaeai, aunooiathuei a ea/anoaa
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eniieieoaey ?aaio, oi iia iaycaia aiineoue no?aoiaua
aciinu a ?acia?a 28% n noiiu auiea/aiiuo aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ca auiieiaiiua
?aaiou ii yoiio aeiaiai?o.

Anee aea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aunooiaao a ?iee
?aaioiaeaoaey, eniieuecoy iaaiiue o?oae, oi ii aeieaeai aiineoue
no?aoiaua aciinu a IO a ?acia?a 28% n noiiu aiciaa?aaeaeaiey iaaiiui
?aaioieeai, a oaeaea oaea?aeeaaoue e ia?a/eneyoue a IO 1% eo ca?aaioea.

Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 2.02.96a. ooaa?aeaeai “Ia?a/aiue
auieao, ia eioi?ua ia ia/eneythony no?aoiaua aciinu a Iaineiiiue Oiiae
?O”.

Aoi?ui ii aaee/eia (ec /enea aiaathaeaeaoiuo nioeeaeueiuo oiiaeia)
yaeyaony Oiiae nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey ?O. Oa?eo no?aoiauo aciinia a
Oiiae nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey ?O onoaiiaeai aaeeiue aeey anao
?aaioiaeaoaeae, o.a. eae aeey i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, oae e aeey
a?aaeaeai, eniieuecothueo o?oae iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia a ee/iii oicyenoaa, a
?acia?a 5,4% ii ioiioaieth e ia/eneaiiie noiia iieaou o?oaea ii anai
iniiaaieyi: a ?an/ao i?eieiathony ana noiiu iieaou o?oaea, n eioi?uo
ia/eiaaony iainey. Io oieaou no?aoiauo aciinia inaiaiaeaeaiu
iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee eiaaeeaeia, a oaeaea iaoiaeyueany a
nianoaaiiinoe yoeo i?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey e
iauaaeeiaiey, nicaeaiiua aeey inouanoaeaiey eo onoaaiuo oeaeae, a ia
aeey ecaea/aiey i?eauee e aa ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie .

Io/eneaiey a oiiaeu iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey
onoaiiaeaiu a ?acia?a 3,6% ii ioiioaieth e ia/eneaiiie noiia iieaou
o?oaea ii anai iniiaaieyi: ec ieo 0,2% iai?aaeyaony a Oaaea?aeueiue
Oiiae iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey e 3,4% a
niioaaonoaothuee oa??eoi?eaeueiue oiiae. Ia ia/eneythony aciinu ii
iaycaoaeueiiio iaaeeoeeineiio no?aoiaaieth ia noiiu eiiiainaoeee ca
eniieueciaaiiue ioione, auoiaeiiai iiniaey i?e oaieueiaiee,
eiiiainaoeeiiiua auieaou (nooi/iua e ae?.) ii eiiaiaee?iaeai, noieiinoue
auaeaiiie niaoeiaeaaeaeu, iieiea, ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai ieoaiey,
noieiinoe ?aoeeiia aanieaoiiai ieoaiey, aeioaoeee ia iaaaeu, iooaaie ia
naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiia ea/aiea e a aeiia ioaeuoa, aiciauaiea ?anoiaeia ii
i?iacaeo, ia iiiu?eoaeueiua auieaou a nayce n thaeeaeiuie aeaoaie,
aeeaeaeaiaeu ii aeoeeyi eee i?ioeaiou ii iaeeaaoeeyi AI, ia yaeythueiny
iieaoie o?oaea, ae?oaea auieaou aaeeiia?aiaiiiai eee eiiiainaoeeiiiiai
oa?aeoa?a.

E cao?aoai ii nicaeaieth no?aoiauo oiiaeia, eioi?ua aeeth/athony a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ioiinyony:

– no?aoiaaiea n?aaenoa o?ainii?oa (aiaeiiai, aicaeooiiai, iacaiiiai) ;

– no?aoiaaiea eiouanoaa;

– no?aoiaaiea a?aaeaeaineie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aaic/eeia;

– no?aoiaaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe;

– no?aoiaaiea io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa e aieaciae;

– aeia?iaieueiia iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea.

No?aoiaua aciinu a Ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ?O
i?iecaiaeyo ana ?aaioiaeaoaee- i?aaiecaoeee a ?acia?a 1,5% ii
ioiioaieth e ia/eneaiiie noiia iieaou o?oaea ii anai iniiaaieyi,
aeeth/ay iieaoo auiieiaiey ?aaio ii aeiaiai?ai iiae?yaea e ii?o/aiey.
?anniio?aiiua auoa io/eneaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua
nioeeaeueiua oiiaeu i?iecaiaeyony a onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
?acia?ao ii ioiioaieth e noiiai iieaou o?oaea ?aaioieeia, caiyouo a
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiee ?aaio eee oneoa e niioaaonoaaiii
aeeth/athony a eo naaanoieiinoue.

3.2.5. Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?innee aaaei a aeaenoaea n 01.01.98a.
Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo “O/ao iniiaiuo n?aaenoa”,
ooaa?aeaeaiiia i?eeacii IO ?O io03.09.97a. N 65 i, eioi?ui aeey
i?aaiecaoeee onoaiiaeai iiaue ii?yaeie ia/eneaiey aii?oecaoeee ii
iauaeoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. Aei yoiai Iieiaeaiey ia/eneaiea aii?oecaoeee
i?iecaiaeeeinue a oi?ia eciina (eae yoi auei i?aaeoniio?aii Ieaiii
n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a ?aaeaeoeee I?eeaca Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia
?innee io 28.12.94a. N 173) a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii ainoaea?noaii.

Niaeanii Iieiaeaiey noieiinoue iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iiaaoaaony
iin?aaenoaii ia/eneaiey aii?oecaoeee. ?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiue ii?yaeie
i?aaeoniao?eaae iiae aii?oecaoeeae (eciinii) i?ioeann ia?aiina noieiinoe
iauaeaoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa
eeai ia n/aoa o/aoa ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi ii?yaeie
?ani?aaeaeaiey ia/eneaiiuo noii aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee oaia?ue
iaoiaeeony a aaaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa iiaoo auoue ia aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii aa ia?aciaaiey. A
niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei ii?yaeeii aii?oecaoeey ia/eneyaony ii
iauaeoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, e eioi?ui ioiinyony
iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe, eniieuecoaiua i?e i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa e aeaenoaothuea a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai
ia?eiaea a?aiaie, i?aauoathuaai 12 ianyoeaa eee iau/iue iia?aoeeiiiue
oeeee, anee ii i?aauoaao 12 ianyoeaa. O/ao eciina (aii?oecaoeee),
ia/eneaiiiai ii iauaeoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, aaaeaony ia n/aoa 02 “Eciin
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa”.

3.2.6. Eciin iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia (EIA).

A i?eioeeia a oaeii aea ii?yaeea, eae e ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai (ii n
iaeioi?uie iniaaiiinoyie), a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa
aeeth/aaony eciin iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia. E iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai,
eniieuecoaiui a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea (aieaa 1 aiaea) e i?eiinyuei aeioiae, ioiinyony
i?aaa, aicieeathuea :

– ec aaoi?neeo e eiuo aeiaiai?ia ia i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u,
eneonnoaa e iauaeou i?aa, ia i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI, aacu aeaiiuo e ae?oaea;

– ec iaoaioia ia ecia?aoaiey, i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu, eieeaeoeeiiiua
aeinoeaeaiey, ec naeaeaoaeuenoa ia iieaciua iiaeaee, oiaa?iua ciaee e
ciaee ianeoaeeaaiey eee eeoeaiceiiiuo aeiaiai?ia ia eo eniieueciaaiea;

– ec i?aa ia iio-oao e ae?oaea.

E?iia oiai, e iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai ioiinyony i?aaa
iieueciaaiey caiaeueiuie o/anoeaie, i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu. A ninoaa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia aoiaeyo
oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeauea i?aaei?eyoeth iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea e
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?ac?aaioee, eioi?ua eniieuecothony a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea e yaeythony aeey i?aaei?eyoey enoi/ieeii
aeioiaea. Ai anao neo/ayo iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau aeieaeiu auoue
aeieoiaioaeueii ioi?ieaiu e iiaoo neoaeeoue iauaeoii eoiee-i?iaeaaee.

Aiai?y ia eciina iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, iu eiaai a aeaeo
yeiiiie/aneee niune eciina, eioi?ue ninoieo a oii, /oi iauaeo
aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey iinoaiaiii oo?a/eaaao naith noieiinoue,
ia?aiiny aa ia noieiinoue i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Anee i?aaei?eyoea,
e i?eia?o, i?eia?aei a?iea?neia ianoi ia ae?aea ia 3 aiaea ca 12
iei.?oaeae, oi /a?ac aiae iii oo?a/eaaao o?aoue naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie
noieiinoe – 4 iei.?oaeae, eioi?ua a oi?ia eciina aeeth/athony a
naaanoieiinoue i?iecaaaeaiiie i?aaei?eyoeai i?iaeoeoeee.

Onoaiiaeaiea n?iea iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia
ia aucuaaao cao?oaeiaiee, anee iii iniiaaii ia aeieoiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo.
Anee, iai?eia?, iaoaio i?eia?aoai ia 5 eao e yoio n?ie oeacai a
iaoaioiii aeiaiai?a, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi n?ie iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey
iaoaioa – 5 eao e aiaeiaay ii?ia aii?oecaoeee – 20 % (aaeaiany/ii – 1,67
%). anee aea aeieoiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo aeey onoaiiaeaiey n?iea iieaciiai
eniieueciaaiey iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia iao, oi ii ii?aaeaeyaony
i?aaei?eyoeai naiinoiyoaeueii yenia?oiui iooai (ii ia aieaa n?iea
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey). Anee aea n?ie iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey
oiai eee eiiai iauaeoa, ioiinyuaainy e iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai,
ii?aaeaeeoue iaaiciiaeii, oi ii?iu aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee
onoaiaaeeaathony a ?an/aoa ia 10 eao, oi anoue 10 % a aiae (ii ia aieaa
n?iea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey).

Eciin iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia o/eouaaaony ia n/aoa 05 “Eciin
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia”. Ia/eneaiiay noiia eciina iaiaoa?eaeueiuo
aeoeaia aaeaiany/ii ioiineony a aeaaao n/aoia o/aoa cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai (n/ao 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai”, n/ao 23
“Aniiiiaaoaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai” e ae?.) eee a aeaaao n/aoa 44
“Ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey”.

I?e aeeth/aiee eciina iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia a naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee neaaeoao no?iai neaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau i?e yoii auee
niaethaeaiu ana oi?iaeueiua o?aaiaaiey. Iie eanathony ia oieueei ninoaaa
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, ii e oneiaee eo i?eia?aoaiey, iinoaiiaee ia
o/ao e ?aaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey.

I?e aeeth/aiee eciina iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia a naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee iniaia aieiaiea neaaeoao ia?aoeoue ia aeaa i?enouea ei
/a?ou:

– e iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai ioiinyony cao?aou i?aaei?eyoee a
iaiaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou, eniieuecoaiua a oa/aiea aeieain?i/iiai ia?eiaea
a eo oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– eniieueciaaiea oeacaiiuo iauaeoia a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
aeieaeii i?eiineoue i?aaei?eyoeth aeioiae.

Eniieueciaaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe i?e ionoonoaee o iaa
oeacaiiuo /a?o, iniaaiiinoae ia aeaao iniiaaiee ioiineoue noiio eciina
ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee.

Iiiaea iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny eae ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, oae e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua oeaee. Anee aea
iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau eniieuecothony ia oeaee, ia naycaiiua n
i?iecaiaenoaii e ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee, oi ia/eneaiiay noiia eciina a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee ia aeeth/aaony.

A niioaaonoaee n i.7 ”Iieiaeaiey i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e
io/aoiinoe a ?O”, ooaa?aeaeaiiiai i?eeacii Ieioeia ?O 20 ia?oa 1992
aiaea N 10, o/anoea a i?oeanna i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee iaiaoa?eaeueiuo
iauaeoia aeieaeii iiaeoaa?aeaeaoueny oaoiieiae/aneeie aeieoiaioaie,
niaoaie, eiuie o/aoiuie aeieoiaioaie, oeene?othueie oaeo niaa?oaiey
oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee n yoeie iaiaoa?eaeueiuie iauaeoaie.

3.2.7. Iaeiae, ioiineiua ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee.

Enoi/iee iaeiaiaiai ieaoaaea – aaaeiue ?aeaeceo eaaeaeiai iaeiaa,
aceiaaiiai n th?eaee/aneeo eeoe. Iaeioi?ua iaeiae ioiinyony ia
oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, oi anoue ia n/ao 80
“I?eaueue e oauoee”, oieaoa yoeo iaeiaia oiaiueoaao iaeia ia i?eaueue. E
oaeei iaeiaai ioiinyony, iai?eia?, iaeia ia eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey,
iaeia ia ?aeeaio, iaeia ia niaea?aeaiea aeeeeuiiai oiiaea e iauaeoia
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?u, nai? ia ioaeaeu ia?aciaaoaeueiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee e ae?. Enoi/ieeii ?yaea iaeiaia yaeyaony /enoay i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoey: iaeia ia ia?ai?iaeaaeo aaoiiiaeeae, au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee e ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia, nai? ca i?aai eniieueciaaiey
ianoiie neiaieeee e ae?.

?yae iaeiaia ioiineony ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee. Eo iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu:

– iaeiae, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai i?e?iaeiiai nu?uey. E iei
ioiinyony io/eneaiey ia aini?iecaiaenoai ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu,
ieaoa ca aiaeo e ae?. Iie aeeth/athony a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee a
ninoaaa cao?ao ia nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu;

– ae?oaea iaeiae, ioiineiua e cao?aoai ia i?iecaiaenoai. E oaeei iaeiaai
ioiinyony: iaeia ia iieueciaaoaeae aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia, iaeia n
aeaaeaeueoeaa o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, o?ainii?oiue iaeia, caiaeueiue
iaeia, eaniie aeioiae eee eaniua iiaeaoe. Eiiaaea ia naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee ioeai/ii ioiinyony noiiu iaeiaa ia i?eia?aoaiea o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa (enoiaey ec iauae i?aaeiinueee, /oi aei?iaeiua iaeiae ioiinyony
e cao?aoai ia i?iecaiaenoai, a oi a?aiy eae iaeia ia i?eia?aoaiea
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa aeeth/aaony a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee oieueei
/a?ac aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey), oi anoue ia noiio ia/eneaiiiai
iaeiaa e?aaeeooaony n/ao 68 “?anoiaeu n athaeaeaoii” e aeaaaooaony n/ao
26 “Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu”. A niioaaonoaee n ienueiii
Ainiaianeoaeau ?O io 21 naioya?y 1994 a. N 15-2-06/441 “I ii?yaeea
oieaou iaeiaa ia i?eia?aoaiea aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa” oeacaiiia auoa
caauoaiea naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e, niioaaonoaaiii, caieaeaiea
i?eauee ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae nie?uoea i?eauee io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. A
aeaiiii neo/aa eiaao ianoi ia?ooaiea ii?yaeea aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa, eioi?ia i?eaaei e caieaeaieth i?eauee, iaeaaaaiie iaeiaii. Ca yoi
i?eiaiythony oo?aoiua naieoeee a ?acia?a 10% aeiia/eneaiiuo noii iaeiaa.
Anee ia i?eia?aoaiea aaoiiiaeey i?aaei?eyoea cao?aoeei 140 iei. ?oaeae e
anth noiio ioianei ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, oi aeiia/eneyaony iaeia
ia i?eaueue a ?acia?a 49 iei. ?oaeae (a athaeaeao anao o?iaiae) e, e?iia
oiai, oo?ao a noiia 4,9 iei. ?oaeae, anaai 53,9 iei.?oaeae. oo?aoiua
naieoeee ca caieaeaiea i?eauee a yoii neo/aa ia i?eiaiythony.

3.2.8. I?i/ea cao?aou.

?yae ?anoiaeia, iau/ii ioiineiuo e “I?i/ei cao?aoai” ?anniio?ai
auoa (iaeiae e ae?.). Iiyoiio a aeaiiii iiae?acaeaea eiathony a aeaeo
?anoiaeu, ioiineiua ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, ii niaoeeaeueii ia
auaeaeaiiua auoa. E iei ioiinyony, a /anoiinoe, aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca
ecia?aoaiey e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neea i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii yeiiiie/aneiio
niaea?aeaieth iie aeecee e iieaoa o?oaea, ii ii aeaenoaothuei
ii?iaoeaiui aeieoiaioai a ninoaa oiiaea iieaou o?oaea ia aoiaeyo.

A ninoaa i?i/eo cao?ao aoiaeeo ieaoa noi?iiiei i?aaiecaoeeyi ca
iiaea?ioth e noi?iaeaaoth io?aio, ieaoaaee ca aua?inu (na?inu)
caa?yciythueo aauanoa, ieaoa ca a?aiaeo a neo/aa a?aiaeu ioaeaeueiuo
iauaeoia iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, a oaeaea eeceiaiaua
ieaoaaee ii iia?aoeeyi oeiainiaiai eeceiaa, aii?oecaoeey ii
iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai.

Ieaoaaee ca aua?inu (na?inu) caa?yciythueo aauanoa a i?e?iaeioth
n?aaeo aeeth/athony a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee oieueei ca i?aaeaeueii
aeiionoeiua aua?inu (na?inu). Ieaoaaee ca i?aauoaiea i?aaeaeueii
aeiionoeiuo ii?i inouanoaeythony ca n/ao i?eauee, inoathuaeny a
?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey.

E i?i/ei cao?aoai ioiineony iieaoa oneoa nayce, au/eneeoaeueiuo
oeaio?ia, cao?aou ia iieaoo oneoa ii na?oeoeeaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e ae?. A
oie ia?a, a eaeie i?i/ea cao?aou naycaiu n oaie eee eiuie iniaaiiinoyie
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee, iie auee ?anniio?aiu auoa.

Eneeth/aiea ec au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)
anao cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth yoie i?iaeoeoeee iicaieyao
ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaioth /anoue aaeainiaie i?eauee – i?eaueue io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa).

3.2.9. Aeueoa?iaoeaiua niiniau a?oiie?iaee e nienaiey ?anoiaeia ia
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa).

Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?O a I?eeaca N 31 io 27.03.96 a. (i.20)
iiaeoaa?aeeei, /oi i?aaei?eyoey ia/eiay n 1 yiaa?y 1996 a. iiaoo
i?eiyoue a naiae o/aoiie iieeoeea nienaiea oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia
(n/ao 26 “Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu”) a iieiii iauaia a aeaaao n/aoa 46
“?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)”.

Aaaaeaiea a aeaenoaea iacaaiiiai ii?yaeea nienaiey iauaoicyenoaaiiuo
?anoiaeia iiaeaeei eciaiaiey a ii?yaeea io?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeee i
oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ii
oi?ia N 2 “Io/ao i oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao” aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee. No?iea 040 «Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)» caiaiaia o?aiy ioaeaeueiuie no?ieaie:

020 «Naaanoieiinoue ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa»,

030 «Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu»,

040 «Oi?aaeai/aneea ?anoiaeu».

Iiyaeaoeeny aeueoa?iaoeaiue niinia nienaiey iauaoicyenoaaiiuo
?anoiaeia iicaieyao i?aaei?eyoeyi auae?aoue iaeei ec aeaoo aiciiaeiuo
aa?eaioia a?oiie?iaee e nienaiey ?anoiaeia ia ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa).

Iaeiaei neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi yoio auai? aeooaeai aeey
i?aaei?eyoee noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa e iaaeooaeai aeey niaaaeai/aneeo ,
nauoiauo, oi?aiauo e eiuo iin?aaeie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua
i?eiaiytho yoio niinia.

A?OIIE?IAEA E NIENAIEA ?ANOIAeIA IA
?AAEECAOeETH

OIAA?IA (?AAIO, ONEOA) I?AAeI?EssOEssIE
OI?AIAEE

Aeaiiay eaoaai?ey i?aaei?eyoee o/eouaaao e a?oiie?oao
iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu a ninoaaa ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey ia n/aoa 44
«Ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey» a niioaaonoaee n Iaoiaee/aneeie ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie
ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo cao?ao, aeeth/aaiuo a ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey e
i?iecaiaenoaa, e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oi?aiaee e
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, ooaa?aeaeaiiuie Ienueiii Eiieoaoa ?O ii oi?aiaea
ii niaeaniaaieth n Ieioeiii ?O io 20.04.95 a. ? 1-550/ 32-2 (aeaeaa –
Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee).

A i. 2.1 Iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii?aaeaeaia iiiaieeaoo?a noaoae
ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoee oi?aiaee e
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey. Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey
a?oiie?othony ii neaaeothuei noaoueyi:

1. O?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu.

2. ?anoiaeu ia iieaoo o?oaea.

3. Io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu.

4. ?anoiaeu ia a?aiaeo e niaea?aeaiea caeaiee.

5. Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

6. ?anoiaeu ia ?aiiio iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

7. Eciin naieoa?iie e niaoeeaeueiie iaeaaeaeu, noieiaiai aaeuey,
iinoaeu, i?eai?ia e ae?oaeo iaeioeaiiuo e auno?ieciaoeaathueony
i?aaeiaoia.

8. ?anoiaeu ia oiieeai, aac, yeaeo?iyia?aeth aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioaeae.

9. ?anoiaeu ia o?aiaiea, iiae?aaioeo, iiaeni?oe?iaeo e oiaeiaeo oiaa?ia.

10. ?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio.

11. Cao?aou ii iieaoa i?ioeaioia ca iieueciaaiea caeiii.

12. Iioa?e oiaa?ia e oaoiieiae/aneea iooiaeu.

13. ?anoiaeu ia oa?o.

14. I?i/ea ?anoiaeu, a ninoaaa eioi?uo o/eouaathony iauaoicyenoaaiiua
?anoiaeu.

Noiia ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey, ioiinyueony e inoaoeo oiaa?ia ia eiiaoe
ianyoea, ii?aaeaeyaony ii n?aaeiae noiia i?ioeaioia ii o?ainii?oiui
?anoiaeai e i?ioeaioai ca aaieianeee e?aaeeo ca io/aoiue ia?eiae n
o/aoii ia?aoiaeyuaai inoaoea ia ia/aei io/aoiiai ia?eiaea: aaea

Nienaiea ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey ia ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?ia, ?aaio, oneoa
niaaaeai/aneei, nauoiaui, oi?aiaui e eiui iin?aaeie/aneei i?aaei?eyoeyi
io?aaeaaony aooaaeoa?neie i?iaiaeeie:

Aeo 46 Eo 44

Oaeei ia?acii, iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu a ninoaaa ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey
a iieiii iauaia, ca eneeth/aieai o?ainii?oiuo ?anoiaeia e noii oieaou
i?ioeaioia ca aaieianeee e?aaeeo, aaeaiany/ii nienuaathony a aeaaao
n/aoa 46, iiyoiio i?eiaiaiea a noa?a oi?aiaee aeueoa?iaoeaiiai niiniaa
nienaiey iauaoicyenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia iaaeooaeueii.

A?OIIE?IAEA E NIENAIEA ?ANOIAeIA IA ?AAEECAOeETH

I?IAeOEOeEE (?AAIO ONEOA) I?IECAIAeNOAAIIUIE I?AAeI?EssOEssIE

Ia?aue, o?aaeeoeeiiiue, niinia a?oiie?iaee e nienaiey ?anoiaeia ia
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ninoieo a aaeaiany/iii
ii?aaeaeaiee iieiie naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) iooai nai?a
anao ?anoiaeia ia n/aoa 20 «Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai». Aei 1 yiaa?y 1996
a. ii aue aaeeinoaaiiui, ?ac?aoaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aeey i?eiaiaiey
a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

I?yiua ?anoiaeu naycaiu n i?iecaiaenoaii e ?aaeecaoeeae ioaeaeueiuo
aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) e ioiinyony ia eo naaanoieiinoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii aeaiiui ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia. Iie iau/ii aeeth/atho
ca?ieaoo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aai/eo n ia/eneaieyie, ?anoiaeu ia nu?uea,
iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu, iieooaa?eeaou, iieoiiua ecaeaeey e ae?oaea,
ioiineiua ia n/ao 20:

Aeo 20 Eo 02, 10,
12, 13, 69, 70, 76

E?iia oiai, ia n/ao 20 ioiinyony ?anoiaeu aniiiiaaoaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e iioa?e io a?aea :

Aeo 20 Eo 23, 28

Einaaiiua ?anoiaeu naycaiu n i?iecaiaenoaii e ?aaeecaoeeae ianeieueeeo
aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) e iiyoiio ?an/aoiui iooai aeieaeiu
auoue ?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo niioaaonoaothueie aeaeaie i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa). E iei iau/ii ioiinyony iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua niae?athony ia iaeiieiaiiuo n/aoao
25 e 26 e iinea niioaaonoaothuaai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioiinyony ia
naaanoieiinoue ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
(auiieiaiiuo ?aaio, ieacaiiuo oneoa) /a?ac n/ao 20:

Aeo 20 Eo 25, 26

E iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiui ioiinyony ?anoiaeu ii ianeoaeeaaieth iniiaiiai e
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa: ca?ieaoa n ia/eneaieyie ?aaioieeia,
auiieiythueo iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ooieoeee, ?aiiio e yenieoaoaoeey
iai?oaeiaaiey e o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, a?aiaeiay ieaoa ca iiiauaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, aii?oecaoeey e niaea?aeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee, no?aoiaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiouanoaa,
?anoiaeu ii iaania/aieth io?aiu o?oaea e oaoieee aaciianiinoe e ae?oaea.

Iauaoicyenoaaiiuie yaeythony oi?aaeai/aneea e oicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu,
ia naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?ioeannii: ca?ieaoa oi?aaeai/aneiai
aiia?aoa n ia/eneaieyie, a?aiaeiay ieaoa ca iiiauaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai e
iauaoicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, aii?oecaoeey, ?aiiio e niaea?aeaiea
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa oi?aaeai/aneiai e iauaoicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey,
iieaoa eioi?iaoeeiiiuo, aoaeeoi?neeo e eiinoeueoaoeeiiiuo oneoa,
?anoiaeu ia iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aiiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia e ae?oaea.

E eiiia?/aneei ioiinyony ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ioa?oceie e ?aaeecaoeeae
i?iaeoeoeee: ca?ieaoa i?iaeaaoeia n ia/eneaieyie, ?anoiaeu ia oa?o e
oiaeiaeo aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, aeinoaaea aa e ianoo ioi?aaeaiey e
iia?ocea a aaaiiu, noaea, aaoiiiaeee e ae?oaea o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa,
eiienneiiiua nai?u, oiea/eaaaiua nauoiaui e iin?aaeie/aneei
i?aaiecaoeeyi, ?aeeaiiua ?anoiaeu e ae?oaea.

Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu o/eouaathony ioaeaeueii ia n/aoa 43, aaeaiany/ii
iie aeeth/athony a naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (auiieiaiiuo
?aaio, ieacaiiuo oneoa)

Aeo 46 Eo 43

Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi cao?aou ia i?iaeoeoeeth, ioiouaiioth aioo?e
i?aaei?eyoey ia iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioaeaeu, e eiiia?/aneei ?anoiaeai ia
ioiinyony. Oae, anee oiaeiaea ecaeaeee i?ienoiaeeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaoao, ecaioaaeeaathueo i?iaeoeoeeth, oi noieiinoue
oa?u e oiaeiaee n/eoaaony /anoueth i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio
?anoiaeu ia oiaeiaeo e o?ainii?oe?iaeo i?iaeoeoeee aeeth/athony a aa
naaanoieiinoue ii i?yiiio i?eciaeo ia iniiaa niioaaonoaothueo ia?ae/iuo
aeieoiaioia, a i?e iaaiciiaeiinoe oaeiai ioianaiey aaeaiany/ii
?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie aeaeaie ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
enoiaey ec aa aana, iauaia, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie naaanoieiinoe eee ae?oaeo
iieacaoaeae, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a io?aneaauo eino?oeoeeyo.

Ii?yaeie o/aoa ii?ie?oaiuo ?anoiaeia. N 1 yiaa?y 1995 aiaea
(Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 01.07.95 a. ? 661 ) eciaieeny
ii?yaeie o/aoa a ninoaaa iauaoicyenoaaiiuo e eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia
eaoaai?ee ii?ie?oaiuo ?anoiaeia, a iieiii iauaia o/anoaothueo a
oi?ie?iaaiee naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) e io?aaeaaiuo a
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa, iaeiaei aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eieiaaiuo
oieueei a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i. Iiyoiio ii eaaeaeiio ec n/aoia
o/aoa iauaoicyenoaaiiuo e eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia (26, 43, 44)
iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue noan/ao “?anoiaeu, ia aeeth/aaiua a
naaanoieiinoue aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey”.

E eaoaai?ee ii?ie?oaiuo ioiinyony: ?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio,
i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea, ia iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aiiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia,
eiiiainaoeee ca eniieueciaaiea ee/iuo aaoiiiaeeae e iioioeeeeia a
neoaeaaiuo oeaeyo, eiiaiaee?iai/iua ?anoiaeu, ia iieaoo i?ioeaioia ii
iieo/aiiui ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oeaee e?aaeeoai aaieia.

Ec ?anoiaeia ia iieaoo i?ioeaioia ii iieo/aiiui ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
oeaee e?aaeeoai aaieia eneeth/athony ?oaeaaua nnoaeu ia i?eia?aoaiea
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia e eiuo aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia
(iiaeioieo “n” i. 2 Iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 01.07.95 a. ?661,
a ?aaeaeoeee io 22.11.96 a. ? 1387), a oaeaea i?ioeaiou ii i?in?i/aiiui
e?aaeeoai (Ienueii Ainiaeianeoaeau ?O io 14.04.94 a. ? AI-6-01/135).

Anee nnoaea iieo/aia a ?oaeyo, oi aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ?anoiaeu
ii iieaoa i?ioeaioia ii nnoaea i?eieiathony ii o/aoiie noaaea
Oeaio?iaaiea ?O, oaaee/aiiie ia o?e ioieoa.

?anoiaeu ii nnoaeai, iieo/aiiui a eiino?aiiie aaethoa ia i?eia?aoaiea
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, iaiaoa?eaeueiuo e ae?oaeo aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia, a
niioaaonoaee n Ienueiii Ainiaeianeoaeau ?O io 28.12.95 a. ? II-6-01/670
e Oaeaa?aiiie Ainiaeianeoaeau ?O io 12.04.96 a. ? AA-6-05/249 n 1
yiaa?y 1995 a. aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eieiathony a ?acia?ao, ia
i?aauoathueo 15% aiaeiauo.

Aoi?ie niinia a?oiie?iaee e nienaiey ?anoiaeia ia ?aaeecaoeeth
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a ie?iaie i?aeoeea iiae
iacaaieai ” aee?aeo-einoeia” (direct-costing). A niioaaonoaee n
I?eeacii Ieioeia ?O 1 io 27.03.96 a. N» 31 yoio niinia iiaeao
i?eiaiyoueny a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee n 1 yiaa?y 1996 a. Ii caeeth/aaony
a aaeaiany/iii ii?aaeaeaiee nie?auaiiie (ia?aiaiiie) /anoe naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa).?anoiaeu a?oiie?othony a caaeneiinoe io
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee (auiieiaiey ?aaio, ieacaiey oneoa) e
aeaeyony ia oneiaii-ia?aiaiiua (product costs) e 1 oneiaii-iinoiyiiua
(period costs).

E oneiaii-ia?aiaiiui ioiinyony ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua ii
naiei aaniethoiui ?acia?ai aic?anoatho eee oiaiueoathony a caaeneiinoe
io eciaiaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) e
niae?athony a oa/aiea ianyoea ia n/aoa 120 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai”. Iie
aeeth/atho: ca?ieaoo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aai/eo n ia/eneaieyie, i?yiua
cao?aou nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, iieooaa?eeaoia, iieoiiuo ecaeaeee,
oao-1iieiae/aneiai oiieeaa e yia?aee, a oaeaea iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua
?anoiaeu, iaeaieeaaaiua a oa/aiea ianyoea ia iaeiieiaiiii n/aoa 25 e
nienuaaaiua aaeaiany/ii ia n/ao 20 neaaeothuei i?iaiaeeaie:

E oneiaii-iinoiyiiui ioiinyony ?anoiaeu, aaniethoiay aaee/eia
eioi?uo ia eciaiyaony i?e eieaaaieyo iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa). Iie aeeth/atho iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu, iaeaieeaaaiua
a oa/aiea ianyoea ia iaeiieiaiiii n/aoa e nienuaaaiua n?aco ia
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), ieioy n/ao 20, ia eioi?ii
oi?ie?oaony naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa).

Oaeei ia?acii, ia i?aaei?eyoee aaeaiany/ii ii?aaeaeyaony nie?auaiiay
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ia iniiaa oieueei
oneiaii-ia?aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Nienaiea iauaoicyenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia
inouanoaeyaony neaaeothuae i?iaiaeeie:

Aeo 46 Eo 26

Ii?yaeie nienaiey eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia niioaaonoaoao ii?yaeeo,
i?eiaiyaiiio i?e o?aaeeoeeiiiii iaoiaea.

Niinia “aee?aeo-einoeia” iniiaai ia au/eoaiee ec iieo/aiiie au?o/ee
oneiaii-ia?aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaeaeueiie i?eauee,
eioi?ay ioee/aaony io ?aaeueiie i?eauee ia aaee/eio oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo
?anoiaeia. Oaeei ia?acii i?ienoiaeeo naeeaeaiea oeaeae aooaaeoa?neiai e
iia?aoeaiiai o/aoa. Aeaiiue niinia oe?iei eniieuecoaony a yeiiiie/aneii
aiaeeca oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e eiaao neaaeothuea
i?aeiouanoaa:

– aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ecaaaeaoue neiaeiuo ?an/aoia ii ?ani?aaeaeaieth
oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aeaeaie i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa);

– iicaieyao nienaoue ana iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu a oaeouai io/aoiii ia?eiaea
e, eae neaaenoaea, oiaiueoaao iaeia ia i?eaueue a io/aoiii ia?eiaea ca
n/ao oiaiueoaiey aaee/eiu i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee ia aaee/eio
oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia ii n?aaiaieth n o?aaeeoeeiiiui niiniaii;

– iicaieyao ioeaieoue inoaoee i?iaeoeoeee (iauai iacaaa?oaiiuo ?aaio,
oneoa) ii oneiaii-ia?aiaiiui ?anoiaeai, /oi oiaiueoaao
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?ene io iai?iaeaaee a aoaeouai io/aoiii ia?eiaea
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), a oaeaea nieaeaao iaeia ia eiouanoai.

I?e eniieueciaaiee niiniaa “aee?aeo-einoeia” ii no?iea 020 oi?iu ? 2
“Io/ao i oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao” io?aaeaaony nie?auaiiay naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), eioi?ay oi?ie?oaony ii n/aoo 20 “Iniiaiia
i?iecaiaenoai” aac o/aoa iauaoicyenoaaiiuo (oi?aaeai/aneeo) ?anoiaeia,
niae?aaiuo ia n/aoa 26 e nienuaaaiuo a iieiii iauaia iai?yioth ia
?aaeecaoeeth. Iauaoicyenoaaiiua (oi?aaeai/aneea) ?anoiaeu io?aaeathony
ii no?iea 040. Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu io?aaeathony ii no?iea 030 i?e
ethaii niiniaa a?oiie?iaee e nienaiey ?anoiaeia ia naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa).

N?AAIEOAEUeIUE I?EIA? A?OIIE?IAEE E NIENAIEss ?ANOIAeIA IA ?AAEECAOeETH
I?IAeOEOeEE (PAAIO, ONEOA) AeAOIss AEUeOA?IAOEAIUIE NIINIAAIE

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, i?iecaiaeyuaai
i?iaeoeoeeth, oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie iieacaoaeyie:

1. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (o.a. iaoiae
ia/eneaiey) ii ioa?ocea

2. Inoaoie aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia ia/aei ianyoea (yoi oneiaea
i?eieiaaony aeey oi?iuaiey ?an/aoia) iao

3. I?iecaaaeaii aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee a io/aoiii ia?eiaea (a
iaoo?aeueiuo aaeeieoeao) 16 oiii

4. ?aaeeciaaii aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee a io/aoiii ia?eiaea (a iaoo?aeueiuo
aaeeieoeao) 14 oiii

5. Inoaoie aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea (a
iaoo?aeueiuo aaeeieoeao) 2 oiiiu

6. Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee (aac IAeN) 2 oun.
?oa.

7. ?anoiaeu iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee a io/aoiii
ia?eiaea 980 oun. ?oa.

8. Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu a io/aoiii ia?eiaea 110 oun. ?oa.

9. Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu a io/aoiii ia?eiaea 80 oun. ?oa.

10. Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu io/aoiiai ia?eiaea

a oii /enea ?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio 75 oun. ?oa.

60 oun. ?oa.

11. Aia?aaeecaoeeiiiue ?acoeueoao io/aoiiai ia?eiaea (?acieoea iaaeaeo
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuie aeioiaeaie e aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuie ?anoiaeaie) 4
oun. ?oa.

12. Ii?ia ?anoiaeia ia ?aeeaio 2 % io iauaia

?aaeecaoeee

13. Noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ( 13 % + 22 % ) 35 %

IINEAAeIAAOAEUeIINOUe AeAENOAEE II A?OIIE?IAEA E
NIENAIETH

?ANOIAeIA IA ?AAEECAOeETH I?IAeOEOeEE AeAOIss
NIINIAAIE

O?aaeeoeeiiiue niinia Niinia «aee?aeo-einoeia»

I. A?oiie?iaea
?anoiaeia

1) I?yiua ?anoiaeu: 980 iei ?oa. 1) Oneiaii-ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu: 980+110
= 1090 iei ?oa.

2) Einaaiiua ?anoiaeu: 110+80 = 190 iei ?oa. 2) Oneiaii-iinoiyiiua
?anoiaeu: 80 iei ?oa.

3) Oi?ie?iaaiea iieiie naaanoieiinoe aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea: 980+ 190 = 1170 iei ?oa. 3) Oi?ie?iaaiea nie?auaiiie
naaanoieiinoe aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee io/aoiiai ia?eiaea: 1090 iei ?oa.

4) ?an/ao naaanoieiinoe aaeeieoeu aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea:

1170: 16 -73 iei ?oa. ia 1 oiiio 1090 : 16 = 68 iei ?oa. ia 1 oiiio

II. ?an/ao naaanoieiinoe aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee

a) ioiineiie ia ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee a io/aoiii ia?eiaea:

1170: 16 X 14 = 1024 iei ?oa. 1090: 16 o 14 = 954 iei ?oa.

a) ioiineiie ia inoaoie aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea:

1170-1024= 146 iei ?oa. 1090-954 = 136 iei ?oa.

III. ?an/ao ?anoiaeia ia ?aeeaio naa?o ii?iu, ia
aeeth/aaiuo a

naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey

60 – [(2000 + 400 (IAeN) o 2% : 100%] = 60-48 = 12 iei ?oa.

IV. Aooaaeoa?neea i?iaiaeee i?e a?oiie?iaea e nienaiee
?anoiaeia

Nienaiea einaaiiuo ?anoiaeia:

Aeaaao 20

190 iei ?oa.

E?aaeeo 25,26 Nienaiea oneiaii-ia?aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia:

Aeaaao 20

110 iei ?oa.

E?aaeeo 25]

2) Nienaiea eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia:

Aeaaao 46

75 iei ?oa.

E?aaeeo 43 Aeaaao 46

75 iei ?oa.

E?aaeeo 43

3) Nienaiea iauaoicyenoaaiiuo (oi?aaeai/aneeo) ?anoiaeia:

Aeaaao 46

80 iei ?oa.

E?aaeeo 26

4) Nienaiea naaanoieiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee:

Aeaaao 46

1024 iei. ?oa.

E?aaeeo 20) Aeaaao 46

954 iei ?oa.

E?aaeeo 20

V. Ii?aaeaeaiea oeiainiaiai
?acoeueoaoa

a) io ?aaeecaoeee:

2000 -75-1024 = 901 iei ?oa. 2000-75-80-954=891 iei ?oa.

a) n o/aoii aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo
iia?aoeee:

901+4 = 905 iei ?oa. 891+4= 895 iei ?oa.

VI. ?an/ao noiiu iaeiaa ia i?eaueue

a) ei??aeoe?iaea iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu i?eauee ia aaee/eio
?anoiaeia ia

?aeeaio, i?aauoathueo ii?io:

905+12 = 917 iei ?oa. 895+12 – 907 iei ?oa.

a) ?an/ao noiiu iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue:

917 o 35% : 100% – 321 iei ?oa. 907o35%: 100%-317,4iei ?oa.

Yeiiiiey i?aaei?eyoey ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue i?e eniieueciaaiee niiniaa
a?oiie?iaee e nienaiey ?anoiaeia “aee?aeo-einoeia” a ?anniao?eaaaiii
i?eia?a ninoaaeyao:

321,0-317,4-3,6 iei ?oa.

VII. Caiieiaiea oi?iu N 2 «Io/ao i oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoao»

!1:111;1111^1.eYayaae1e1aie»:::1a(>i11;»^1.»!

Oeo? no?iee Iieo/aii o?aaeeoeeiiiui niiniaii (iei ?oa.) Iieo/aii
niiniaii “aee?aeo-einoeia” (iei ?oa.)

020

030

040

040 1024
954

75
75


80

Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi i?e eniieueciaaiee niiniaa “aee?aeo-einoeia”
a?oiie?iaea ?anoiaeia ia caaenyuea e ia caaenyuea io iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee (auiieiaiey ?aaio, ieacaiey oneoa) yaeyaony
aeinoaoi/ii oneiaiie. Ionthaea e iaeiaiiaaiea a?oii ?anoiaeia:
oneiaii-ia?aiaiiua (caaenyuea) e oneiaii-iinoiyiiua (ia caaenyuea). A
nayce n yoei i?e eniieueciaaiee niiniaa “aee?aeo-einoeia” i?aaei?eyoeyi
?aeiiaiaeoaony cae?aieoue a o/aoiie iieeoeea iainiiaaiiue ?an/aoaie
ia?a/aiue oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia, nienuaaaiuo a iieiii iauaia n
e?aaeeoa n/aoa 26 “Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu” a aeaaao n/aoa 46
“?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)”. I?e iaee/ee o i?aaei?eyoey
iauaoicyenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue i?eciaiu
oneiaii-iinoiyiiuie (iai?eia?, onoaiiaeaiiuo a caaeneiinoe io iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa nai?ia e io/eneaiee; eiiaiaee?iai/iuo ?anoiaeia a neo/aa
eo ?aaoey?iinoe e onoaiiaeaiiie nayce n iauaiii i?iecaiaenoaa e
ae?oaeo), yoo eaoaai?eth iauaoicyenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia neaaeoao o/eouaaoue
ia ioaeaeueiii noan/aoa n/aoa 26 e nienuaaoue ia ?aaeeciaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth (?aaiou, oneoae) /a?ac n/ao 20 n o/aoii eo inoaoea ia
ia?aaeeciaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth.

4. I?EAUEUe, IAEAAAAIAss IAEIAII

4.1. NOIIU, ENEETH*AAIUA EC AAEIAIE I?EAUEE

A oeaeyo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aaeiaay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey oiaiueoaaony ia
noiiu aeioiaeia, iaeaaaaiuo iaeiaii, ii a iniaii ii?yaeea (a oii /enea
ii ?aciui noaaeai) eee nianai ia iaeaaaaiuo iaeiaii ia i?eaueue eee
aeioiaeu.

I?aaeaea anaai ec aaeiaie i?eauee eneeth/athony noiiu iieo/aiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeai aeioiaeia a aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia, iieo/aiiuo ii aeoeeyi,
i?eiaaeeaaeauei i?aaei?eyoeth-aeoeeiia?o e oaeinoiaa?ythuei aai i?aai ia
o/anoea a ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey-yieoaioa (oi anoue
aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, aeoeee eioi?iai i?eiaaeeaaeao aeaaeaeueoeo
aeaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa), a oaeaea a aeaea i?ioeaioia ii i?eiaaeeaaeauei
i?aaei?eyoeth ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ?O, noauaeoia ?O e oeaiiuo
aoiaa i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

A 1996 aiaeo ia iaeaaaeenue iaeiaii aeioiaeu ii ainoaea?noaaiiui e
ioieoeeiaeueiui oeaiiui aoiaaai. Iaeiaei a niioaaonoaee n Oaaea?aeueiui
caeiiii “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee” io 10
yiaa?y 1997 aiaea ? 13-OC iaeiaii iaeaaathony aeioiaeu i?aaei?eyoee a
aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia, iieo/aiiuo ii aeoeeyi, i?eiaaeeaaeauei
i?aaei?eyoeth-aeoeeiia?o, a oaeaea a aeaea i?ioeaioia, iieo/aiiuo
aeaaeaeueoeaie ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee,
noauaeoia ?O e oeaiiuo aoiaa i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey; ia
aceiaaony iaeia n aeioiaeia ii ainoaea?noaaiiui oeaiiui aoiaaai,
yieoe?iaaiiui (auiouaiiui) aei anooieaiey a neeo aeaiiiai caeiia (aei 21
yiaa?y 1997 aiaea).

Aeioiaeu ii i?eiaaeeaaeauei i?aaei?eyoeth ae?oaei oeaiiui aoiaaai
(aaieianeei na?oeoeeaoai, iaeeaaoeeyi, aaenaeyi e ae?. ) aeeth/athony a
iauoth noiio aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia e iaeaaathony iaeiaii ia
i?eaueue a iauai ii?yaeea (ii noaaea aei 35 i?ioeaioia).
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ec aaeiaie i?eauee aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
eneeth/athony oieueei aeioiaeu ii ainoaea?noaaiiui oeaiiui aoiaaai ?O,
noauaeoia ?O e i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

Noaaea iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu a aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia ii. aeoeeyi e i?ioeaioia
ii ainoaea?noaaiiui oeaiiui aoiaaai aeey i?aaei?eyoee – 15%, a aeey
aaieia – 18%. Iaeiae n yoeo aeioiaeia aceiathony o eo enoi/ieea, eioi?ue
ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ii?aaeaeaiea, oaea?aeaiea e ia?a/eneaiea
iaeiaa a {athaeaeao. Oae /oi oioy i?aaei?eyoea – aeaaeaeaoe oeaiiuo
aoiaa yaeyaony ieaoaeueueeii yoeo iaeiaia, ii iaiin?aaenoaai-!0 naii ia
ieaoeo, iii iieo/aao noiio ia/eneaiiuo aio aeeaeaeaiaeia eee i?ioeaioia,
oaea “i/euaiioth” io iaeiaa. Anee, iai?eia?, o i?aaei?eyoey 500 aeoeee
AI “A?aoneee EIE” e ia eaaeaeoth aeoeeth ca 1996 aiae auee ia/eneaiu
aeeaeaeaiaeu a ?aciape 1000 ?oaeae, oi aio aoaeao ia/eneaii anaai 500
oun. 1oaeae, iaeiaei ia aai ?an/aoiue n/ao iinooieo noiia 425 oun.
?oaeae, 75 oun. ?oaeae a aeaea iaeiaa ia aeioiae aoaeoo 1a?aeaiu o
enoi/ieea (oi anoue aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii) e ia?a/eneaiu a athaeaeao.

Iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi noaaea ?anniao?eaaaiiai iaeiaa iineo eueaioiue
oa?aeoa? – anaai 15 i?ioeaioia, a ia 35, eae ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue. Ii
yoi ia oae. Aaaeue naie aeeaeaeaiaeu auiaeaathony yieoaioii (a aeaiiii
neo/aa – a?aoneei EIE) ec naiae /enoie i?eauee, iinea oieaou iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue, a 1oai ec yoie noiiu aoi?e/ii aceiaaony iaeia ii noaaea 15
i?ioeaioia (a anee aeoeeiia? – oece/aneia eeoei, oi ii oieaoeo yoie
noiiu aua e iiaeioiaeiue iaeia a iauai ii?yaeea). Anee aea i?aaei?eyoea
iieo/aao oae iacuaaaiue niaeoeyoeaiue aeioiae io ?aaeecaoeee ethauo
oeaiiuo aoiaa, a oii /enea e ainoaea?noaaiiuo, ii oeaia, i?aauoathuae
oeaio eo i?eia?aoaiey, oi ii aeeth/aaony a noiio aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo
aeioiaeia (ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 80 «I?eauee e oauoee») e iaeaaaaony iaeiaii
ia i?eaueue a iauai ii?yaeea.

*oi eanaaony i?aaei?eyoey – aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, ia/eneythuaai
e auiea/eaathuaai aeeaeaeaiaeu, oi iii iaycaii a aeanyoeaeiaaiue n?ie
iinea iauyaeaiey niaaoii aee?aeoi?ia i?iiaaeooi/iuo aeeaeaeaiaeia eee
iauei nia?aieai aeoeeiia?ia ieii/aoaeueiuo aeeaeaeaiaeia i?aaenoaaeoue a
iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth ii ianoo naiaai iaoiaeaeaiey ?an/ao iaeiaa n
aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi. A iaoai i?eia?a oaeie ?an/ao aeieaeii
naeaeaoue AI «A?aoneee EIE» e i?aaenoaaeoue a naith iaeiaiaoth
einiaeoeeth. Caoai a iyoeaeiaaiue n?ie iinea i?aaenoaaeaiey ?an/aoa
noiia oaea?aeaiiiai iaeiaa aeieaeia auoue ia?a/eneaia a athaeaeao.

I?aaei?eyoea – iieo/aoaeue aeeaeaeaiaeia io?aceo a o/aoa
iieo/aiioth noiio:

Aeo 51

EO 80 «?an/aoiue n/ao»

«I?eauee e oauoee» – 425 oun. ?oa.

I?e i?eia?aoaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aoein?i/iuo aaneoiiiiuo
iaeeaaoeee (AEI) i?aaei?eyoey iieo/atho ia i?ioeaioiue aeioiae (eae ii
ae?oaei iaeeaaoeeyi eee ii inoaoeai ia n/aoao a aaieao), a aeeneiioiue.
I?aaei?eyoey i?eia?aoatho AEI ii oeaia ieaea iiieiaea; iai?eia?,
iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue iaeeaaoeee – 1 iei. ?oaeae, a oeaia i?eia?aoaiey
– 870 oun. ?oaeae; a yoii neo/aa 130 oun. ?oaeae – yoi aeeneiio, neeaeea
– n iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe. I?e ianooieaiee n?iea iiaaoaiey iaeeaaoeee
(iai?eia?, /a?ac 91 aeaiue) i?aaei?eyoea iieo/eo iiieiaeueioth
noieiinoue iaeeaaoeee, e aai aeioiae -130 oun. ?oaeae iaeaaaaony iaeiaii
ii noaaea 15% (anee ?a/ue eaeao i AEI, yieoe?iaaiiuo iinea 21 yiaa?y
1997 aiaea).

Ia iaeaaaaony iaeiaii oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa e iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe
aeoeee, iieo/aiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyie a ?acoeueoaoa io?aaeaiey ia onoaaiii
eaieoaea aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa ?acoeueoaoia ia?aioeaiee iniiaiuo oiiaeia.
Aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie a ?aoaiee yoiai aii?ina ia ianoao aeiioneaeinue
iaiaei iooaieoeu. ?aaioieee iaeiaiauo neoaea ia?aaeei ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi
anee aeiiieieoaeueiia eiee/anoai aeoeee a nayce n ia?aioeaieie iniiaiuo
oiiaeia iieo/aee aeoeeiia?u – oece/aneea eeoea, oi iie iaeiaii ia
iaeaaaeenue, anee a oaeii aea ii?yaeea iieo/aee aeiiieieoaeueiua aeoeee
th?eaee/aneea eeoea, oi iie aeieaeiu ia eo iiieiaeueioth noieiinoue
oaaee/eaaoue iaeaaaaioth iaeiaii i?eaueue. Oaia?ue yoi iaaei?acoiaiea
ono?aiaii.

A niioaaonoaee n Ienueiii Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia ?O e Ainiaeianeoaeau ?O
io 28 iiya?y 1995 aiaea “I iaaeeth/aiee a iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth aaco
noieiinoe aeoeee, iieo/aiiuo aeoeeiia?aie – th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie a
?acoeueoaoa ia?aioeaiee iniiaiuo oiiaeia” i?e oaaee/aiee onoaaiiai
eaieoaea a nayce n ia?aioeaieie iniiaiuo oiiaeia aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa
noieiinoue aeiiieieoaeueii iieo/aiiuo aeoeeiia?aie -th?eaee/aneeie
eeoeaie aeoeee (i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo ei ?aiaa
aeoeee), eeai ?acieoea iaaeaeo iiieiaeueiie noieiinoueth iiauo aeoeee,
iieo/aiiuo acaiai i?aaeieo, ia iiaeeaaeeo aeeth/aieth a
iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth aaco i?e en/eneaiee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoey-aeoeeiia?a.

N 21 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea eciaieeny ii?yaeie o/aoa i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee
eo?niauo ?acieoe, ia?acothueony i?e eciaiaiee eo?na ?oaey e aeieea?o NOA
e ae?oaei eiino?aiiui aaethoai. Oaia?ue aaeiaay i?eaueue aieueoa ia
ei??aeoe?oaony ia noiiu eo?niauo ?acieoe, oi anoue iieiaeeoaeueiua
eo?niaua ?acieoeu oaaee/eaatho, a io?eoeaoaeueiua – oiaiueoatho eae
aaeiaoth, oae e iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth i?eaueue.

Ia oao aea iniiaaieyo, /oi e aeeaeaeaiaeu ii aeoeeyi, ec aaeiaie i?eauee
eneeth/athony aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua i?aaei?eyoeai io aeieaaiai o/anoey a
aeayoaeueiinoe ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee (e?iia aeioiaeia, iiaeo/aiiuo ca
i?aaeaeaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee). Yoe aeioiaeu iaeaaathony iaeiaii a
oaeii aea ii?yaeea, eaeii e aeeaeaeaiaeu ii aeoeeyi:

– noaaea iaeiaa onoaiiaeaia a ?acia?a 15 i?ioeaioia (a n oeacaiiuo
aeioiaeia aaieia – 18 i?ioeaioia);

– iaeia aceiaaony o enoi/ieea aeioiaeia e ca/eneyaony a aeioiae
oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa.

?an/aou iaeiaia n oeacaiiuo aeioiaeia i?aaenoaaeythony iaeiaiaui i?aaiai
a i?iecaieueiie oi?ia a n?iee, onoaiiaeaiiua aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey
aooaaeoa?neeo io/aoia e aaeainia. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?aaeeueiinoue
ia?a/eneaiey a athaeaeao yoeo iaeiaia ianao i?aaei?eyoea, auiea/eaathuaa
aeioiae (aeeaeaeaiaeu, aeioiaeu io aeieaaiai o/anoey). Ec aaeiaie
i?eauee eneeth/aaony oaeaea i?eaueue io iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee e
naeaeie, io no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, io inouanoaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo
aaieianeeo iia?aoeee, ii oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee noaaea iaeiaa i(,>
yoei aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe, ca/eneyaiiai a athaeaeaou noauaeoia ?O,
ioee/aaony io noaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ii ae?oaei aeaeai
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeaei a oii, /oi noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue a /anoe,
ca/eneyaiie a Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao, ii anai aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe
iaeeiaeiaa -13 %, a a /anoiinoe, ca/eneyaiie a athaeaeaou noauaeoia ?O,
iineaaeieie iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu ?acee/iua noaaee ii eaaeaeiio ec
ia?a/eneaiiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, ii ia nauoa 30 %.

Anee i?aaei?eyoea inouanoaeyao ?acee/iua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, ii
eioi?ui onoaiiaeaiu ?aciua noaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, oi iii aeieaeii
niaethaeaoue aeaa iaycaoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiey:

iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua e iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu ?ani?aaeaeythony
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii oaeaeueiiio aano au?o/ee, iieo/aiiie io eaaeaeiai
aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe a iauae noiia au?o/ee; e ?anniao?eaaaiui ?anoiaeai
ioiinyony, a /anoiinoe, aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneea ?anoiaeu,
?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea e ?aiiio iiiauaiee, aeeth/ay cao?aou ia
ioiieaiea e inaauaiea, e ae?.; ii?yaeie ?ani?aaeaeaiey iieacai ieaea
(i?e ?anniio?aiee eueaio ia i?eaueue).

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee aaeiaay i?eaueue
oiaiueoaaony oaeaea ia noiiu aeioiaeia io ?acee/iuo aeaeia
aeaeaiaeayoaeueiinoe: aeaeainaeiiia, aeaeaiiieaca, i?ieao e ?aciiiaeaiea
aeaeai- e aoaeeieannao e ae?. Aeioiae io ieacaiey oaeiai ?iaea oneoa
ii?aaeaeyaony a aeaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee e
naycaiiuie n ieacaieai yoeo oneoa iaoa?eaeueiuie cao?aoaie. Noiia yoiai
aeioiaea oeacuaaaony a no?iea 2-a «?an/aoa iaeiaa io oaeoe/aneie
i?eauee». Eneeth/aiea yoeo aeioiaeia ec aaeiaie i?eauee iauyniyaony oai,
/oi iie iaeaaathony ii aieaa aunieie noaaea – 70 %, ii ioaeaeueiiio
?an/aoo.

Aaeiaay i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony oaeaea ia noiio i?eauee io
?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eee ioioioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie e ia?a?aaioaiiie ia
aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee nianoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ca eneeth/aieai i?eauee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia, ii?aaeaeyaiuo ii ia?a/ith,
ooaa?aeaeaaiiio caeiiiaeaoaeueiui (i?aaenoaaeoaeueiui) i?aaiii noauaeoa
?O (iaeanoe, e?ay e o.ae.).

Anee aea i?aaei?eyoea i?iecaiaeeo naeueneioicyenoaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth (ca?ii, iieiei e o.i.), naii aai ia?a?aaaouaaao (ec ca?ia
iieo/aao ioeo, e?oiu e ae?.), ii i?iaeoeo ia?a?aaioee ia ?aaeecoao, a
eniieuecoao aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eaeeo-eeai i?iaeoeoia, oi iieo/aaony, /oi
a eiia/iii n/aoa iii oaea ia?a?aaaouaaao ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiia
nu?uea, a i?iecaaaeaiioth ec iaai i?iiuoeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. A yoii
neo/aa i?eaueue io i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee iieo/aiiiai i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa iaeaaaaony iaeiaii, ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iia oiaiueoaaony ia
noiio ?an/aoiie i?eauee io i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee e ia?a?aaioee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey. Yoa ?an/aoiay
i?eaueue ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec oaeaeueiiai aana cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai e ia?a?aaioeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey a iaueo
cao?aoao ia i?iecaiaenoai aioiaie i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?eia?

?AN*AO

oiaiueoaiey iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey ia noiio
i?eauee,

iieo/aiiie io i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?a?aaioee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey

1 Eiee/anoai ca?ia, ia?aaeaiiiai a ia?a?aaioeo (iiiie) ia ioeo, o
100

2 Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai ca?ia, ia?aaeaiiiai a ia?a?aaioeo ia
ioeo, iei. ?oa. 87

3 Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai ioee ec ca?ia, ia?aaeaiiiai a ia?a?aaioeo
(aac noieiinoe ca?ia), iei. ?oa. 5

4 Eoiai cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ia?a?aaioeo ca?ia, iei. ?oa.
92

5 Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee, iei. ?oa.
10

6 Anaai cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, iei. ?oa.
102

7 Oaeaeueiue aan cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ia?a?aaioeo ca?ia a
iauae noiia cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, % 90

8 Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee, iei. ?oa. 270

9 I?eaueue io i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee aioiauo ecaeaeee, iei. ?oa.
60

10 ?an/aoiay i?eaueue io i?iecaiaenoaa ca?ia e aai ia?a?aaioee,

iei. ?oa. 54

11 I?eaueue, iiaeeaaeauay iaeiaeaieth iaeiaii 6

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea ia?aaea/a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey a ia?a?aaioeo i?iiuoeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi
ia aeaaaeue/aneeo ia/aeao. A /anoiinoe, naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey, au?aueaathuea naoa?ioth naaeeo, ia?aaeei ia?aaeatho aa a
ia?a?aaioeo naoa?iui caaiaeai ia aeaaaeue/aneeo ia/aeao. A yoii neo/aa
i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay io ?aaeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (iai?eia?,
naoa?a), oiaiueoaaony a oeaeyo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia noiio ?an/aoiie
i?eauee, ii?aaeaeyaiie enoiaey ec oaeaeueiiai aana cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a iaueo cao?aoao ia
i?iecaiaenoai i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oi anoue a iaoai i?eia?a,
oaeaeueiiai aana cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai naoa?iie naaeeu a iaueo
cao?aoao ia i?iecaiaenoai naoa?a.

I?eia?

?AN*AO

oiaiueoaiey iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey ia
noiio i?eauee

io ?aaeecaoeee naeueoici?iaeoeoeee, ia?a?aaioaiiie ia
aeaaaeue/aneeo ia/aeao

1 Eiee/anoai naoa?iie naaeeu, ia?aaeaiiie aeey ia?a?aaioee ia
aeaaaeue/aneeo ia/aeao, o 100

2 Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai naoa?iie naaeeu , ia?aaeaiiie a
ia?a?aaioeo, oun. ?oa. 1840

3 Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai naoa?a, oun. ?oa. 260

4 Eoiai naaanoieiinoue naoa?a, oun. ?oa. 2100

5 Auoiae aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ii aeiaiai?o (naoa?a-ianea ec naaeeu), o
12

6 Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee naoa?a-ianea (oun. ?oa.) aac IAeN
3600

7 I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee naoa?a-ianea, oun. ?oa. 1500

8 Oaeaeueiue aan cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai naoa?iie naaeeu a iauae
noiia cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai naoa?a-ianea, % 87

9 I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee naoa?iie naaeeu, oun. ?oa. 1305

10 I?eaueue, iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii, oun. ?oa. 195

A i?ioeii aaeiaay i?eaueue oiaiueoaeanue oaeaea ia noiio io/eneaiee a
?aca?aiue oiiae e ae?oaea aiaeiae/iua ii niaea?aeaieth oiiaeu,
i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Iaeiaei n anooieaieai a neeo OC io
10 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea N 13-OC «I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a
caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee»» yoio ii?yaeie eciaiai: ie aaeiaay, ie iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii
i?eaueue ia noiio io/eneaiee a ?aca?aiue oiiae ia oiaiueoaaony.

Aei neo ii? iiiaea iauanoaa ia nicaeaaaee ?aca?aiiai oiiaea. Yoi
iauyniyaony oai, /oi oeiiaui onoaaii aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa,
ooaa?aeaeaiiui Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O io 1 ethey 1992 aiaea N 721.
Nicaeaiea ?aca?aiiai oiiaea ia i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue. Oaia?ue iieiaeaiea
eciaieeinue.

Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa, eae ioe?uoua, oae e cae?uoua, a niioaaonoaee
n Oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii «Ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao» nicaeatho ?aca?aiua
oiiaeu. ?aca?aiue oiiae nicaeaaony a ?acia?a, i?aaeoniio?aiiii onoaaii
iauanoaa, ii ia iaiaa 15 % aai onoaaiiai eaieoaea. ?aca?aiue oiiae
iauanoaa oi?ie?oaony iooai iaycaoaeueiuo aaeaaiaeiuo io/eneaiee aei
aeinoeaeaiey ei ?acia?a, i?aaeoniio?aiiiai onoaaii iauanoaa. ?acia?
aaeaaiaeiuo io/eneaiee oaeaea i?aaeoniao?eaaaony a onoaaa, ii ia iiaeao
auoue iaiaa 5 % /enoie i?eauee aei aeinoeaeaiey ?acia?a, oeacaiiiai a
onoaaa. Ii oniio?aieth iauaai nia?aiey aaeaaiaeiua io/eneaiey iiaoo
i?aaeoniao?eaaoueny a onoaaa a aieueoai ?acia?a, iai?eia? 6 %, 8 % e
o.i. ?aca?aiue oiiae ?anoiaeoaony no?iai ii oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth,
oeacaiiiio a Caeiia «Ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao»: ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
iie?uoey oauoeia, a oaeaea aeey iiaaoaiey iaeeaaoeee (anee iie
auioneaeenue aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii) e aueoia aeoeee iauanoaa a neo/aa
ionoonoaey eiuo n?aaenoa. Eniieueciaaiea ?aca?aiiai oiiaea aeey ae?oaeo
oeaeae ia aeiioneaaony. A aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa eioi?iaoeey i oi?ie?iaaiee
e aeaeaeaiee ?aca?aiiai oiiaea io?aaeaiu ia n/aoa 86 «?aca?aiue
eaieoae», noan/ao «?aca?aiue oiiae».

Aaeainiaay , a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aaeiaay i?eaueue
oiaiueoaaony ca n/ao nicaeaiey ?aca?aa ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai,
iineieueeo noiiu yoiai ?aca?aa aoiaeyo a ninoaa ?anoiaeia, o/eouaaaiuo
ia n/aoa 80 «I?eauee e oauoee». Oi?ie?iaaiea ?aca?aa ii niiieoaeueiui
aeieaai io?aaeaaony ia n/aoa 82 «Ioeaii/iua ?aca?au», noan/ao «?aca?au
ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai». ?aca?au niiieoaeueiuo aeieaia nicaeathony
oieueei ii ?an/aoai n ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie ca i?iaeoeoeeth, ?aaiou,
oneoae i?e oneiaee, /oi a niioaaonoaee n i?eiyoie ia i?aaei?eyoee
o/aoiie iieeoeeie i?eiaiyaony iaoiae o/aoa au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee ia ii iiea/aiiui n/aoai, a ii ioa?ocea i?iaeoeoeee caeac/eeo
e i?aaeuyaeaiiui e iieaoa aeieoiaioai. ?aca?a ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai
ia?acoaony i?aaei?eyoeai ca n/ao ?acoeueoaoia oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe (i?eauee) a eiioea io/aoiiai aiaea ia iniiaa
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii i?iaaaeaiiie eiaaioa?ecaoeee aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Niiieoaeueiie n/eoaaony aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoeth,
eioi?ay ia iiaaoaia aeieaeieeaie (caeac/eeaie, iieoiaoaeyie) a
onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie e ia iaania/aia iaiaoiaeeiuie aa?aioeyie. Aaee/eia
?aca?aa ii?aaeaeyaony ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeiio niiieoaeueiiio aeieao a
caaeneiinoe io oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey (ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe) aeieaeieea e
ioeaiee eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiiie eiienneae aa?iyoiinoe iiaaoaiey aeieaa
iieiinoueth eee oioy au /anoe/ii. Iiyoiio aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ii noan/aoo
82-2 “?aca?au ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai” aaaeaony ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeiio
niiieoaeueiiio aeieao, ia eioi?ue nicaeai ?aca?a.

A eiia/iii n/aoa io iaeiaa ia i?eaueue inaiaiaeaeaaony oa /anoue ?aca?aa
ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai, eioi?ay oaeoe/anee eniieueciaaia aeey iie?uoey
oauoeia io nienaiey aaciaaeaaeiuo (niiieoaeueiuo) aeieaia; yoi
ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi anee yoio ?aca?a a eaeie-oi /anoe ia
eniieueciaai, oi iaec?anoiaeiaaiiua noiiu i?eniaaeeiythony e i?eauee
niioaaonoaothuaai aiaea. Iiyoiio eiaaea oi?ie?oaony ?aca?a ii
niiieoaeueiui aeieaai, oi aeaeaaony caienue ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 80 “I?eauee
e oauoee” e e?aaeeoo n/aoa 82 “Ioeaii/iua ?aca?au”, noan/ao “?aca?au ii
niiieoaeueiui aeieaai”. A i?e nienaiee n aaeaina iaaino?aaiaaiiuo,
iaiieo/aiiuo aeieaia, eioi?ua ?aiaa ii aeaiiui eiaaioa?ecaoeee auee
ioianaiu e niiieoaeueiui, caiene i?iaiaeyony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 82
“Ioeaii/iua ?aca?au”, noan/ao “?aca?au ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai” a
ei??aniiiaeaioeee n e?aaeeoii niioaaonoaothueo n/aoia o/aoa ?an/aoia n
aeaaeoi?aie (e?aaeeo n/aoa 62 “?an/aou n iieoiaoaeyie e caeac/eeaie” e
ae?.). Anee aea inoaeenue iaeniieueciaaiiuie n?aaenoaa ?aca?aa, oi
aeaeaaony caienue ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 82 “Ioeaii/iua ?aca?au” e e?aaeeoo
n/aoa 80 “I?eauee e oauoee”, niioaaonoaaiii oaaee/eony eae aaeainiaay,
oae e aaeiaay i?eaueue.

N 1 yiaa?y 1996 a. ana i?aaei?eyoey a ?O i?e ninoaaeaiee oeiainiaie
io/aoiinoe ii?aaeaeytho au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee oieueei ii
ioa?ocea (ii n/aoai-oaeoo?ai). Oaeie ii?yaeie iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeai
Ieienoa?noaii oeiainia ?O, i?aai auai?a i?aaei?eyoeyi ia i?aaeinoaaeaii.
Ii aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey, eae e ?aiueoa, iiaoo a
naiae o/aoiie iieeoeea i?eiyoue iaeei ec aeaoo iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey
au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee ii naiaio oniio?aieth – eeai ii ioa?ocea
i?iaeoeoeee caeac/eeai, iieoiaoaeyi, eeai ii iiea/aiiui eie n/aoai.
Iauai?eiyoui a no?aiao ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea
iauaia i?iaeaae eee au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii ioa?ocea.
Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?O e AIN ?O n/eoatho oeaeaniia?aciui i?eiaiyoue
iaoiae “ii ioa?ocea” e aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Iiea oaeia
i?aaeeiaeaiea ?anniio?aiiia Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie ia i?eiyoi. Ii n
oa/aieai a?aiaie, aeaeeii, ia?aoiae ia ii?aaeaeaiea au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee ii ia?a aa ioa?ocee eee ioionea iieoiaoaeyi e aeey oeaeae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iaecaaaeai. Ii oaea nae/an ana i?aaei?eyoey eiatho
i?aai nicaeaaaoue ?aca?a ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai. Oeaeaniia?aciinoue
aai nicaeaiey aannii?ia.

Eiiaaea ni?aoeaatho, iiaeii ee noiiu ?aca?aa ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai
eniieueciaaoue ia nienaiea aaciaaeaaeiuo aeieaia, iai?eia?, a na?aaeeia
aiaea, a caoai aiiaue iiiieieoue aai ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee. Iao, yoiai aeaeaoue iaeuecy. ?aca?a,
noi?ie?iaaiiue ca n/ao i?eauee 1996 aiaea, iiaeii aoaeao eniieueciaaoue
ia iiaaoaiea aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe oieueei ii eoiaai 1997 aiaea.
E oiio aea ?aca?a ia iineo iaacee/aiiiai oa?aeoa?a, ii oi?ie?oaony iiae
eaaeaeue eiie?aoiue aeiea. Aeaaea anee iaeei aeieaeiee, aeaaeoi?
caaeieaeae ii ianeieueeei n/aoai, oi iie ia noiie?othony, a nicaeaaony
?aca?a ii eaaeaeiio aeieao ioaeaeueii. Iiyoiio nienaiea aeieaa a
na?aaeeia aiaea ana ?aaii ie/aai ia aeaao, aaaeue io yoiai ia?a/aiue
aaciaaeaaeiuo aeieaia ia oaaee/eeny e ieeaeea aeiiieieoaeueiua
io/eneaiey a ?aca?a ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai naa?o ?aiaa
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ia i?iecaiaeyony.

Anee i?aaei?eyoey (aeaa, o?e e o.ae.) inouanoaeytho niaianoioth
aeayoaeueiinoue e a yoeo oeaeyo iauaaeeiytho naie aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa,
inoaaoeany a eo ?anii?yaeaiee iinea oieaou iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, eiia
eiouanoai, a oaeaea n?aaenoaa io aeia?iaieueiuo iiaea?oaiaaiee e aciinia
a?aaeaeai iaeiaii ia i?eaueue ia iaeaaathony.

4.2. EUeAIOU II IAEIAO IA I?EAUEUe

Noeioee?othuea ooieoeee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue iaoiaeyo io?aaeaiea a
nenoaia eueaio, onoaiiaeaiiuo aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Yoe
eueaiou aanueia iiiai/eneaiiu e ?aciiia?aciu, ii n ecaanoiie aeieae
oneiaiinoe eo iiaeii na?oiie?iaaoue a /aou?a ioiineoaeueii
iaeiiii?yaeeiaua a?oiiu:

– inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe;

– inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?oii i?aaei?eyoee;

– nieaeaiea iaeiaiauo noaaie aeey ioaeaeueiuo a?oii i?aaei?eyoee;

– oiaiueoaiea iaeaaaaiie iaeiaii i?eauee ia noiio ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
cao?ao, i?iecaaaeaiiuo ca n/ao i?eauee, inoathuaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue i?e oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeai
cao?aoao ca n/ao i?eauee, inoathuaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoee,
oiaiueoaaony ia noiiu, iai?aaeaiiua:

– i?aaei?eyoeyie io?aneae noa?u iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia
oeiaine?iaaiea eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey (a
oii /enea a ii?yaeea aeieaaiai o/anoey), a oaeaea ia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoia
aaieia, iieo/aiiuo e eniieueciaaiiuo ia yoie oeaee, aeeth/ay i?ioeaiou
ii e?aaeeoai (e noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ioiinyony
i?aaei?eyoey, eiathuea eiae ii eeanneoeeaoi?o IEIIO io 10 000 aei 87
000);

– i?aaei?eyoeyie anao io?aneae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia oeiaine?iaaiea
aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa (a oii /enea a ii?yaeea aeieaaiai o/anoey), a
oaeaea ia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoia aaieia, iieo/aiiuo e eniieueciaaiiuo ia
yoe oeaee, aeeth/ay i?ioeaiou ii e?aaeeoai.

Yoa eueaioa i?aaeinoaaeyaony oeacaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi, inouanoaeythuei
niioaaonoaaiii ?acaeoea nianoaaiiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aacu e aeeeeuiia
no?ieoaeuenoai, aeeth/ay iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoia aaieia, iieo/aiiuo e
eniieueciaaiiuo ia yoe oeaee, i?e oneiaee iieiiai eniieueciaaiey eie
noii ia/eneaiiiai eciina (aii?oecaoeee) ia iineaaeithth io/aoioth aeaoo.

Yoi ia?aie/aiea aiieia iainiiaaiii: ia?aui enoi/ieeii eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaiee yaeyaony noiia aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee. Ia?eiaee/aneay
ia?aioeaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia, i?iaiaeeiay a iaoae no?aia a oneiaeyo
eioeyoeee (ia 1 yiaa?y 1994 aiaea, ia 1 yiaa?y 1995 aiaea e ae?.) aeey
oiai i?aaeaea anaai e i?iaiaeeony, /oiau ?anoe?eoue aiciiaeiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee ii inouanoaeaieth eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee oioy au a ?aieao
i?inoiai aini?iecaiaenoaa iniiaiuo oiiaeia, eo naiaa?aiaiiiai iaiiaeaiey
eee iiaea?iecaoeee.

Iiyoiio i/aaeaeii, /oi anee noiia ia/eneaiiiai eciina iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
ninoaaeea 1500 iei. ?oa., a iauai ?aaeueii inouanoaeaiiuo eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaiee ninoaaee 1200 iei. ?oa., oi eaeie-eeai eueaioie ii iaeiao ia
i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoea a aeaiiii neo/aa ia iieuecoaony, iineieueeo
enoi/ieeii eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee yaeeanue oieueei noiia ia/eneaiiiai
eciina iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo i?aaei?eyoeth, a ia i?eaueue.

I?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee i?aaei?eyoeth eueaiou ii i?eauee, eniieueciaaiiie ia
eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey, i?eieiathony oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiue a
io/aoiii ia?eiaea cao?aou, iacaaeneii io n?iea ieii/aiey no?ieoaeuenoaa
e aaiaea a yenieoaoaoeeth iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

?a/ue eaeao i cao?aoao, o/eouaaaiuo a aeaaaoa n/aoa 08
“Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey” – cao?aou ii aicaaaeaieth caeaiee e
nii?oaeaiee, i?eia?aoaieth iai?oaeiaaiey e ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia,
i?aaeoniio?aiiua niaoaie e oeooeueiuie nieneaie ia eaieoaeueiia
no?ieoaeuenoai, iacaaeneii io oiai, eaeei niiniaii inouanoaeyaony yoi
no?ieoaeuenoai – iiae?yaeiui eee oicyenoaaiiui. *oi eanaaony iaoei,
iai?oaeiaaiey e ae?oaeo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, ia o?aaothueo iiioaaea, oi
cao?aou ia eo i?eia?aoaiea o/eouaathony i?e ii?aaeaeaiee eueaiou ii
iaeiao ia i?eaueue, anee iie io?aaeathony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 01 “Iniiaiua
n?aaenoaa” e e?aaeeoo n/aoa 08 “Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey”.

Eiiaaea aicieeaao aii?in i oii, ca eaeae n?ie au/eoaaony noiia eciina
aeey ?an/aoa aaee/eiu eueaiou – ca aanue ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey
i?aaei?eyoey eee ca io/aoiue aiae. Oaeie aii?in iiaeao aicieeiooue
oieueei o aiiaue nicaeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, nouanoaothueo anaai 2-3 aiaea,
o eioi?uo ?acieoea iaaeaeo iauae noiiie eciina iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e
noiiie aai, ia/eneaiiie ca iineaaeiee aiae, ia oae aaeeea. Ioaao
iaeiicia/ai: aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eueaiou ec iauae noiiu eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaiee au/eoaaony noiia eciina iniiaiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey,
ia/eneaiiay n ia/aea aiaea ia io/aoioth aeaoo e iaoaaeoay io?aaeaiea a
e?aaeeoa n/aoa 02 “Eciin iniiaiuo n?aaenoa”. Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 02 “Eciin iniiaiuo n?aaenoa” io?aaeaaony noiia
ia/eneaiiiai eciina iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, ia oieueei i?eiaaeeaaeaueo
i?aaei?eyoeth, ia i?aaao nianoaaiiinoe, oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey eee
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey, ii e a?aiaeoaiuo ia oneiaeyo aeieain?i/iie
a?aiaeu n i?aaii aueoia. I?e e?aoein?i/iie a?aiaea aac i?aaa aueoia
eciin naeaiiuo a a?aiaeo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia/eneyao a?aiaeiaeaoaeue (n
ioianaieai noiiu eciina a aeaaao n/aoa 80 “I?eauee e oauoee” ia?yaeo n
ae?oaeie ?anoiaeaie ii aia?aaeecaoeeiiiui iia?aoeeyi).

O ?aaioieeia iaeiaiauo neoaea i?e ?anniio?aiee aeaiiie eueaiou /anoi
aicieeaao niiiaiea a nayce n oai, /oi noiia eueaiou ii eaieoaeueiui
aeiaeaieyi (oi anoue noiia, ia eioi?oth oiaiueoaaony iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii
i?eaueue) ieacuaaaony aieueoa oaeoe/anee ec?anoiaeiaaiiie a io/aoiii
ia?eiaea ia eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey noiiu i?eauee. Iiaeao ieacaoueny, /oi
noiia eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, ia eioi?oth oiaiueoaaony iaeaaaaiay
iaeiaii i?eaueue, aieueoa noiiu, ?aaeueii iai?aaeaiiie ia eaieoaeueiua
aeiaeaiey ii n/aoo 81 “Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee”, iineieueeo i?eaueue auea
iai?aaeaia ia ae?oaea oeaee – ia ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, ia niaea?aeaiea
aeeeuey e ae?oaeo nioeeaeueii-auoiauo iauaeoia, ia oieaoo iaie ca
caaea?aeeo ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao e ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu e ae?.

Ii aeaei a oii, /oi a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee”, a oaeaea eino?oeoeeae ? 37 Ainiaeianeoaeau
?O io 10 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea i?e ii?aaeaeaiee aeaiiie eueaiou ii iaeiao
ia i?eaueue e iauae noiiu iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ?anoiaeiaaiea i?eauee,
io?aaeaaiia ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 81 “Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee”, ?iee ia
ea?aao. Aiaeec eniieueciaaiey i?eauee ii n/aoo 81 ia yaeyaony n?aaenoaii
eiio?iey ca i?aaeeueiinoueth en/eneaiey eueaiou ii eaieoaeueiui
aeiaeaieyi. ?anoiaeiaaiea i?eauee ii n/aoo 81 ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia
iauoth noiio eueaio, iineieueeo n yoiai n/aoa iai?aaeythony n?aaenoaa,
iai?eia?, ia niaea?aeaiea aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa
i?aaei?eyoey, ii a oeaeii ii no?oeoo?a ?anoiaeiaaiey i?eauee,
io?aaeaiiie a aeaaaoa n/aoa 81 “Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee”, noaeeoue i
?acia?a eueaiou ii eaieoaeueiui aeiaeaieyi iaeuecy.

Aaeainiaay i?eaueue i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey ca io/aoiue ia?eiae
ninoaaeea 2400 iei. ?oa. Aaeiaay i?eaueue e iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay (aei au/aoa
eueaio) ?aaia aaeainiaie. Ca io/aoiue ia?eiae ia oeiaine?iaaiea
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey auei iai?aaeaii 900
iei. ?oa.; yoa noiia iaoea io?aaeaiea i aeaaaoa n/aoa 08 “Eaieoaeueiua
aeiaeaiey”; ia niaea?aeaiea aeeeeuiiai oiiaea, aeaoneiai eaaa?y ioaeuoa
auei ec?anoiaeiaaii 860 iei. ?oa., a o./. a i?aaeaeao ii?iaoeaia,
onoaiiaeaiuo ianoiuie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, – 700 iei. ?oa.
Ca yoio ia?eiae n ia/aea aiaea ia/eneai eciin iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eyoey, iaoaaeoee io?aaeaiea a e?aaeeoa n/aoa 02 “Eciin iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa”, a noiia 120 iei. ?oa. Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee ia ae?oaea oeaee
(ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, iaie ca iaoieaoo iaeiaia a athaeaeao e io/eneaiee
ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu e ae?.) ninoaaeei 1500 iei. ?oa. Ii?aaeaeei
i?eaueue, iaeaaaaioth iaeiaii: a) noiia eueaio ii eaieoaeueiui
aeiaeaieyi (noiia eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee ca au/aoii noiiu ia/eneaiiiai n
ia/aea aiaea eciina iniiaiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey) 900 – 120 == 780
iei. ?oa.

a) noiia eueaio ii cao?aoai ia niaea?aeaiea aeeeeuiiai oiiaea e
aeaoneiai eaaa?y ioaeuoa (i?eieiaaony a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo
ii?iaoeaia) 700 iei. ?oa.

a) iauay noiia eueaio ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue aac o/aoa ia?aie/aiee,
onoaiiaeaiiuo i. 4.8* eino?oeoeee AIN N 37

780 + 700 = 1480 iei. ?oa.

Oae eae i?eaaaeaiiua a aeaiiii i?eia?a eueaiou ia aeieaeiu oiaiueoaoue
oaeoe/aneoth noiio iaeiaa, en/eneaiioth aac o/aoa eueaio, aieaa /ai ia
50%, oi iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue ia iiaeao auoue iaiueoa 1200 iei. ?oa.
(2400 iei. ?oa. o 50%). Anee au iiaeii auei o/anoue eueaiou iieiinoueth,
oi iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue auea ?aaia 920 iei. ?oa. (2400 – 1480 = 920
iei. ?oa.). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a aeaiiii i?eia?a iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii
i?eaueue i?eieiaaony ?aaiie 1200 iei. ?oa., a i?eieiaaiay e au/aoo noiia
eueaio – ia 1480 iei. ?oa., a oieueei 1200 iei. ?oa.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee eueaiou ii eaieoaeueiui aeiaeaieyi
iaee/ea o i?aaei?eyoey eee ionoonoaea aeinoaoi/iie aeey yoiai i?eauee
?iee ia ea?aao, oaeoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea i?eauee ia eiaao cia/aiey,
niiinoaaeaiea caienae ii n/aoai 80 “I?eauee e oauoee” e 81
“Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee” ia i?iecaiaeeony.

I?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi aaainu, auaeaiiua
i?aaei?eyoeai-cano?ieueeii i?aaei?eyoeth-iiae?yae/eeo, eaieoaeueiuie
aeiaeaieyie aua ia yaeythony e eueaiou ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue ia ieo ia
?ani?ino?aiythony. Eueaioa ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey
ec oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiuo cao?ao ia eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey, iaoaaeoeo
io?aaeaiea ia n/aoa 08 “Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey”. Ii aeaaaoo yoiai n/aoa
io?aaeathony oaeoe/aneea cao?aou cano?ieueea, aeeth/aaiua a
ia?aiia/aeueioth noieiinoue iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. I?e aaiaea a
aeaenoaea iniiaiuo oiiaeia iia o/eouaathony ia n/aoa 01 “Iniiaiua
n?aaenoaa” (e?aaeeo n/.08 – aeaaao n/. 01).

Eiiaaea oaeo i?eia?aoaiey i?aaei?eyoeai iai?oaeiaaiey, eiuo iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa iuoathony oaycaoue n i?iaeaiie eo eniieueciaaiey. Iaeiaei a
niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothueie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie aeey iieo/aiey eueaiou
ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue eiaao cia/aiea oieueei nai oaeo inouanoaeaiey
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, a oii /enea i?eia?aoaiey iai?oaeiaaiey, a
eniieueciaaiea aai ia ?an/ao eueaiou ia aeeyao.

Iai?eia?, i?iiuoeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea ?aoeei i?aaieciaaoue i?iecaiaenoai
iieeyoeeaiiauo iaeaoia, aeey /aai i?eia?aei iaiaoiaeeiia iai?oaeiaaiea,
iaoa?eaeu (iieeyoeeai). Iaeiaei iai?oaeiaaiea, i?eiyoia ia o/ao e
aaaaeaiiia a yenieoaoaoeeth, ieacaeinue ianiaa?oaiiui, ia iaania/eaaao
o?aaoaiiai oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia e iieo/eoue aeia?iea/anoaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth a io/aoiii ia?eiaea ia oaeaeinue. Eiaao ee i?aaei?eyoea a
yoii ia?eiaea i?aai ia eueaioo ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue (a ?acia?a
eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao ia i?eia?aoaiea iai?oaeiaaiey)? Eiia/ii, eiaao. Anee
cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea iai?oaeiaaiey, ia o?aaothuaai iiioaaea,
io?aaeaiu ia n/aoa 08 “Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey”, oi ia eo noiio
oiaiueoaaony iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue.

Eae ioia/aeinue auoa, ?anniao?eaaaiay eueaioa i?aaenoaaeyaony
i?aaei?eyoeyi noa?u iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, inouanoaeythuei
?acaeoea nianoaaiiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aacu e aeeeeuiia
no?ieoaeuenoai. Yoi iieiaeaiea iai?aaeaii i?ioea ceioiio?aaeaiee aeaiiie
eueaioie ioaeaeueiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie. I?aaei?eyoea iiaei au, iai?eia?,
i?eia?anoe iai?oaeiaaiea e o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, aeiionoei, ia 200
iei. ?oa., ainiieueciaaoueny eueaioie ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue, a caoai
i?iaeaoue yoe i?eia?aoaiiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, iieo/ea oaeei ia?acii
i?eaueue oaeoe/anee ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao.

Aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey oaeie i?aeoeee onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e ?aaeecaoeee
eee aacaiciacaeiie ia?aaea/a (a oa/aiea aeaoo eao n iiiaioa iieo/aiey
eueaiou ii i?eauee, iai?aaeaiiie ia oeiaine?iaaiea eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaiee) iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e iauaeoia, ia caaa?oaiiuo no?ieoaeuenoaii,
i?e i?eia?aoaiee e nii?oaeaiee eioi?uo i?aaei?eyoeth auea i?aaeinoaaeaia
eueaioa ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue, iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue oaaee/eaaaony
ia inoaoi/ioth noieiinoue yoeo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e i?iecaaaeaiiua
cao?aou ii iauaeoai, ia caaa?oaiiui no?ieoaeuenoaii, a i?aaeaeao noiiu
i?aaeinoaaeaiiie eueaiou (oi anoue yoa noiia oaaee/aiey iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie
i?eauee iiaeao auoue iaiueoa, ii ia iiaeao auoue aieueoa iieo/aiiie
?aiaa i?aaei?eyoeai eueaiou ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue).

Ianiio?y ia eaaeouothny aeanoeinoue yoie ii?iu, iia a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
ia eiiiaine?oao iioa?ue athaeaeaoa, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ia iaeacuaaao, a
nei?aa iiiu?yao i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua iiae aeaeii eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee
i?eia?aoatho iai?oaeiaaiea, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa aeey iineaaeothuae
i?iaeaaee. Iieo/ea eueaioo ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue, iai?eia?, a 1996 aiaeo
e aa?ioa aa athaeaeaoo a oie aea noiia a 1997 aiaeo, i?aaei?eyoea ana
?aaii auea?aei, oae eae a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee aa?ioei “aeiea” aieaa
aeaoaauie aeaiueaaie. E oiio aea a eino?oeoeee ie/aai ia aiai?eony ia
o/aoa ?acoeueoaoia ia?aioeaiee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, /oi oaeaea n?aaaouaaao
a iieueco i?aaei?eyoey.

?anniao?eaaaiay eueaioa ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia oeiaine?iaaiea ia oieueei
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, ii e cao?ao ii iiaaoaieth e?aaeeoia aaieia,
iieo/aiiuo e eniieueciaaiiuo ia yoe oeaee.

Eueaioa ia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoia aaieia, iieo/aiiuo e eniieueciaaiiuo ia
oeiaine?iaaiea eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, i?aaeinoaaeyaony ii ia?a eo
iiaaoaiey a i?aaeaeao noii, oaeoe/anee iai?aaeaiiuo ia eaieoaeueiua
aeiaeaiey.

Eiiaaea ni?aoeaatho, eiaao ee i?aaei?eyoea i?aai ia eueaioo ii
eaieoaeueiui aeiaeaieyi oaeouaai aiaea, anee oaeoe/anee iie
(eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey) i?iecaaaeaiu ca n/ao ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee
i?ioeuo eao. Aaconeiaii, eiaao, oae eae i?aaeoniio?aiiua eino?oeoeeae
eueaiou ia oaycuaathony n ninoaaii i?eauee, inoathuaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoey e iai?aaeyaiie ia eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey. Aeiionoei,
iai?eia?, ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue i?ioeuo eao ninoaaeea 800 iei.
?oa., . ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue oaeouaai aiaea – 300 iei. ?oa., noiia
eciina iniiaiuo n?aaenoa n ia/aea io/aoiiai aiaea – 240 iei. ?oa., iauai
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a oaeouai aiaeo – 900 iei. ?oa.

ssnii, /oi iniiaiui enoi/ieeii eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a aeaiiii neo/aa
yaeyaony ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue i?ioeuo eao. Ii aeey iieo/aiey
eueaiou ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue yoi ieeaeie ?iee ia ea?aao, eeoue au auee
niaethaeaiu onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii oneiaey:

1) eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey aeieaeiu auoue i?iecaaaeaiu ca n/ao i?eauee,
inoathuaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, i?e oneiaee iieiiai
eniieueciaaiey ia yoe oeaee noiiu ia/eneaiiiai eciina ia iineaaeithth
io/aoioth aeaoo; niaethaeaiea yoiai o?aaiaaiey iaania/eaaaony oai, /oi
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?a eueaiou oaeoe/aneay noiia eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaiee, iacaaeneii io eo enoi/ieeia, oiaiueoaaony ia noiio eciina,
ia/eneaiiiai ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai, i?eiaaeeaaeauei i?aaei?eyoeth, n
ia/aea aiaea ia io/aoioth aeaoo e io?aaeaiioth ia n/aoa 02 “Eciin
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa”;

2) iaeiaiaay .eueaioa (n o/aoii ae?oaeo eueaio) ia aeieaeia oiaiueoaoue
oaeoe/aneoth noiio iaeiaa, ia/eneaiioth aac o/aoa eueaio, aieaa /ai ia
50%.

*oi eanaaony ninoaaa i?eauee, inoathuaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey,
oi iia aeeth/aao:

– i?eaueue oaeouaai ia?eiaea, inoaaoothny iinea oieaou iaeiaia e ae?oaeo
ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao e i?eaiaeeioth a aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey ii no?iea
480 “Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue io/aoiiai aiaea”;

– ia?ani?aaeaeaiioth i?eaueue i?ioeuo eao, eioi?ay io?aaeaaony ii no?iea
470 aaeaina a niioaaonoaee n aeaiiuie noan/aoa 88-2 “Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay
i?eaueue”;

– oiiaeu iaeiieaiey, o/eouaaaiua ia noan/aoa 88-3 (no?iea 440 aaeaina),
oi anoue /anoue ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee, eioi?ay i?aaeiacia/aia aeey
oeiainiaiai iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey, a
oaeaea ae?oaeo aiaeiae/iuo ia?ii?eyoee;

– oiiae nioeeaeueiie noa?u, o/eouaaaiua ia noan/aoa 88-4 (no?iea 450
aaeaina), oi anoue /anoue ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee, i?aaeiacia/aiiay
aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ia?ii?eyoee ii ?acaeoeth nioeeaeueiie noa?u.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee eueaiou ii eaieoaeueiui aeiaeaieyi ioaeii eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi eo aaee/eia oiaiueoaaony ia anth noiio ia/eneaiiiai eciina
iniiaiuo oiiaeia (ia oieueei i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, ii e
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo). Eia/a aiai?y, aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
i?eieiaaony noiia eciina iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, io?aaeaiiay a aooaaeoa?neii
o/aoa ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 02 “Eciin iniiaiuo n?aaenoa” a ei??aniiiaeaioeee
n aeaaaoii n/aoia: a) ii o/aoo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai (n/ao 20
“Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai”, a oaeaea 23,25,26,43, 44) – ii iniiaiui
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui oiiaeai:

a) 80 “I?eauee e oauoee” – ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai, naeaiiui a a?aiaeo;

a) 08 “Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey”, 29 “Ianeoaeeaathuea i?iecaiaenoaa” e 81
“Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee” – ii iniiaiui iai?iecaiaenoaaiiui oiiaeai a
oaeaea ii iniiaiui oiiaeai, eniieuecoaiui a eaieoaeueiii no?ieoaeuenoaa,
oi anoue a iaieo neo/ayo ?a/ue eaeao ia iniiaiuo n?aaenoaao, ia
eniieuecoaiuo a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Ia?auaai aieiaiea ia oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi i?eieiaaiay a ?an/ao
aeaiiie eueaiou noiia eciina ioee/aaony io aeeth/aaiie a naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee (oai aa?aony oieueei eciin iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia).

Iaeioi?ie niaoeeoeeie i?e i?eiaiaiee ?anniao?eaaaiie eueaiou ioee/aaony
ii?aaeaeaiea noiiu cao?ao (eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee) ia i?eia?aoaiea
aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

I?eia?aoay, iai?eia?, a?ociaie aaoiiiaeeue, i?aaei?eyoea iiea/eaaao aai
noieiinoue, aeiionoei, 30 iei. ?oa. Yoa noiia (eae cao?aou ii
i?eia?aoaieth iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, ia o?aaothuaai iiioaaea)
io?aaeaaony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 01 “Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa” e e?aaeeoo n/aoa 08
“Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey”. Ii iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaei?eyoea ieaoeo iaeia ia
i?eia?aoaiea aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa (ii a?ociaui aaoiiiaeeyi ii
ninoaaeyao 20% i?iaeaaeiie oeaiu aac IAeN e aeoeeca), aeiionoei, 6
iei.?oa. A niioaaonoaee n ienueiii AIN ?O io 21.09.94 a. “I ii?yaeea
oieaou iaeiaa ia i?eia?aoaiea aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa” ia/eneaiea
noiiu oeacaiiiai iaeiaa io?aaeaaony ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 67 “?an/aou ii
aiaathaeaeaoiui ieaoaaeai” a ei??aniiiaeaioeee n aeaaaoii n/aoa 08
“Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey” e nienuaathony a aeaeueiaeoai ia naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee /a?ac eciin (aii?oecaoeeth) iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeacaiiue iaeia i?e ca/eneaiee a?ociaiai aaoiiiaeey a
ninoaa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa n io?aaeaieai yoie iia?aoeee ii aeaaaoo n/ao 01
“Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa” e e?aaeeoo n/aoa 08 “Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey”
o/eouaaaony ia?aaia n oeaiie i?eia?aoaiey aaoiiiaeey e aianoa n iae
iiaeeaaeeo eueaioe?iaaieth eae cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa.

Iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony ia noiiu cao?ao i?aaei?eyoee ia
niaea?aeaiea iaoiaeyueony ia aaeaina yoeo i?aaei?eyoee iauaeoia e
o/?aaeaeaiee: cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey, eoeueoo?u e
nii?oa, aeaoneeo aeioeieueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, aeaoneeo eaaa?ae ioaeuoa,
aeiiia i?anoa?aeuo e eiaaeeaeia, aeeeeuiiai oiiaea, a oaeaea cao?ao ia
yoe oeaee i?e aeieaaii o/anoee i?aaei?eyoee a niaea?aeaiee oeacaiiuo
iauaeoia e o/?aaeaeaiee. Ii i?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi
oeacaiiua cao?aou i?eieiathony a ?an/ao oiaiueoaiey iaeaaaaiie i?eauee a
i?aaeaeao ii?i niaea?aeaiey oeacaiiuo iauaeoia, ooaa?aeaeaiiuo ianoiuie
i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Iai?eia?, a Iineaa yoe ii?iu a 1997
aiaeo (iie ia?eiaee/anee ooi/iythony a nayce n eioeyoeeae) ninoaaeytho:

Nioeeaeueii-

auoiaie iauaeo Aaeeieoea

ecia?aiey Ii?ia cao?ao ia aaeeieoeo (?acia?ia ieieiaeueiie iieaou
o?oaea) a aiae

Aieueieoeu eieei-ianoi 200

Naiaoi?ee « – » 200

Iieeeeeieee iaeei i?ee?aieaiiue 12

Eaaa?e ioaeuoa aeey aeaoae iaeei ?aaaiie 60

AEeeie oiiae ea. i 4

Iauaaeeoey eieei-ianoi 18

Yoe ii?iaoeau, ooaa?aeaeaiiua ianoiuie i?aaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, iiaoo auoue aaeeiuie aeey anao i?aaei?eyoee
aeaiiiai ai?iaea, ?aeiia, iiaoo auoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu aeey
ioaeaeueiuo a?oii eee eaoaai?ee i?aaei?eyoee ii io?aneaaiio eee eiiio
i?eciaeo, ii ia iiaoo auoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie ; aeey ioaeaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Iaaeaeo oai a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo ianoiua i?aaiu
onoaiaaeeaatho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ii?iaoeau . i?aaei?eyoeyi a caaeneiinoe
io eo oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey. . A yoii neo/aa i?aaei?eyoea ai?aaa
ia?aoeoueny a a?aeo?aaeiue noae n eneii i i?eciaiee niioaaonoaothuaai
aeoa ianoiie aaeieieno?aoeee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui eae ianiioaaonoaothuei
aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao e ia?ooathuaai i?aaa e caeiiiua
eioa?anu i?aaei?eyoey.

Cao?aou i?aaei?eyoee i?e aeieaaii o/anoee a niaea?aeaiee
niioaaonoaothueo iauaeoia (iai?eia?, niaianoii oeiaine?oaiue
aeaoiy-o?aiy i?aaei?eyoeyie eaaa?ue ioaeuoa aeey aeaoae) i?eieiathony a
i?aaeaeao ii?i, ooaa?aeaeaiiuo ianoiuie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?uo iaoiaeyony oeacaiiua iauaeou e
o/?aaeaeaiey.

Oaeoe/aneea cao?aou i?aaei?eyoee iiaoo auoue aieueoa ?ann/eoaiiuo ii
onoaiiaeaiiui ii?iai, ii iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue aoaeao oiaiueoaia
ia noiio cao?ao a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i.

Anee ii?iaoeau cao?ao ia niaea?aeaiea nioeeaeueii-auoiauo iauaeoia ia
ooaa?aeaeaiu ianoiuie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, oi i?eieiaaony
ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeaiey ?anoiaeia ia niaea?aeaiea aiaeiae/iuo iauaeoia e
o/?aaeaeaiee, iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo oeacaiiui i?aaiai.

Iai?eia?, caaiae “Iaoaeeeno” cao?aoee ia niaea?aeaiea caaiaeneie
iieeeeeieee a ia?aii eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea 1150 iei. ?oa. i?e /eneaiiinoe
i?ee?aieaiiuo e iieeeeeieea ?aaioieeia caaiaea e /eaiia eo naiae 4200
/aeiaae. Oae eae iieeeeeieea iaoiaeeony a Iineaa, oi eaa?oaeueiay ii?ia
cao?ao a ?an/aoa ia iaeiiai i?ee?aieaiiiai ninoaaeo:

12 : 4 = 83490 ?oa. X 3 = 250700 ?oa.

4200 /ae. x 250470 ?oa. = 1051974 oun. ?oa.

Ia yoo noiio (a ia ia 1150 iei. ?oa.) aoaeao oiaiueoaia iaeaaaaiay
iaeiaii i?eaueue ii io/aoo ca eaa?oae.

Iaeiaei neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ?anoiaeu i?aaei?eyoee, naycaiiua n
iieaoie eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa ii ioiieaieth e ai?y/aio aiaeiniaaaeaieth
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ei aeeeuo aeiiia e iauaaeeoee (oeaeaaua ?anoiaeu),
iie?uaathony ca n/ao ieaou (oeaeaauo nai?ia), aceiaaiie n iieueciaaoaeae
yoeo oneoa (aeeeueoeia), e e ?anoiaeai ia niaea?aeaiea aeeeeuiiai oiiaea
e iauaeoia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?u ia ioiinyony. Yoi iieiaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaii “?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie ii ieaie?iaaieth, o/aoo e
eaeueeoee?iaaieth naaanoieiinoe aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa e ii?yaeeo
oi?ie?iaaiey ?acoeueoaoia, o/eouaaaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee”,
ooaa?aeaeaiiuie i?eeacii Eiieoaoa ?O ii ioieoeeiaeueiiio oicyenoao io 20
yiaa?y 1993 a. N 3.

Iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony ia noiiu, iai?aaeaiiua
i?aaei?eyoeyie ia i?iaaaeaiea iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio, a oaeaea a ?inneeneee oiiae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee e ?inneeneee oiiae oaoiieiae/aneiai
?acaeoey, ii ia aieaa 10 i?ioeaioia a iauae neiaeiinoe io noiiu
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee.

Iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony ia noiio aciinia ia
aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee (aeeth/ay naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae i?ia?aii
ia?aeaaeeoeeaoeee ioeoea?ia e nioeeaeueiie caueou
aieiia-eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoia, aiaaaaoeo a Aoaaienoaia, e aiaiiineoaeaueo,
oaieueiyaiuo a caian), a yeieiae/aneea e icaei?iaeoaeueiua oiiaeu, ia
ainnoaiiaeaiea iauaeoia eoeueoo?iiai e i?e?iaeiiai ianeaaeey,
iauanoaaiiui i?aaiecaoeeyi eiaaeeaeia, eo i?aaei?eyoeyi, o/?aaeaeaieyi e
iauaaeeiaieyi, iaua?inneeneei iauanoaaiiui iauaaeeiaieyi,
niaoeeaeece?othueiny ia ?aoaiee i?iaeai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey e
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee, a oiiaeu iiaeaea?aeee ia?aciaaiey e
oai?/anoaa, aeaoneei e iieiaeaaeiui iauanoaaiiui iauaaeeiaieyi,
?aeeaeiciui i?aaiecaoeeyi (iauaaeeiaieyi), ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiui a
onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea.

Iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony oaeaea ia noiio n?aaenoa,
ia?a/eneaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyi, o/?aaeaeaieyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi
cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey, nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey e
nii?oa, i?e?iaeiui caiiaaaeieeai, iaoeeiiaeueiui i?e?iaeiui e
aeaiae?ieiae/aneei ia?eai, aioaie/aneei naaeai – ii ia aieaa 3
i?ioeaioia iaeaaaaiie iaeiaii i?eauee, a ainoaea?noaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieyi
e i?aaiecaoeeyi eoeueoo?u e eneonnoaa, eeiaiaoia?aoee, a?oeaiie neoaeau,
oai?/aneei nithcai e eiui iauaaeeiaieyi oai?/aneeo ?aaioieeia, a
/a?iiaueueneea aeaaioai?eoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee, a oii /enea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua, e eo oiiaeu – ia aieaa iyoe i?ioeaioia iaeaaaaiie
iaeiaii i?eauee. I?e yoii iauay noiia oeacaiiuo aciinia ia iiaeao
i?aauoaoue iyoe i?ioeaioia iaeaaaaiie iaeiaii i?eauee.

Eiaaony a aeaeo, /oi cao?aou i?aaei?eyoee ia ?acee/iua
aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee iiaoo auoue e aieueoa oeacaiiuo iyoe
i?ioeaioia. Yoe cao?aou i?iecaiaeyony ec /enoie i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey,
eioi?oth iie eniieuecotho ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Ii iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii
i?eaueue ia iiaeao auoue oiaiueoaia ia aieueooth noiio aciinia ia
aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee, /ai oeacaiiay a caeiia – aei iyoe i?ioeaioia
iaeaaaaiie iaeiaii i?eauee. Anee, iai?eia?, iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoey a ia?aii eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea ninoaaeea 1860 iei. ?oa. (aei
au/aoa eueaio), a iauay noiia aciinia ia aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee
ninoaaeea 111,6 iei. ?oa., oi iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony
oieueei ia 93 iei. ?oa. (1860O 5%).

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee,
iieo/eaoea n?aaenoaa a ii?yaeea aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoe, iaycaiu
eniieueciaaoue eo ii iacia/aieth, oi anoue ia oeaee inouanoaeaiey
onoaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Anee yoi, iai?eia?, aeii aeaoneiai oai?/anoaa,
oi iieo/aiiua ei a ea/anoaa aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoe n?aaenoaa iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu oieueei ia ?acaeoea aeaoneiai oai?/anoaa. Iiyoiio
i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee, iieo/eaoea n?aaenoaa a
ii?yaeea aeaaioai?eoaeueiie iiiiue, ii ieii/aiee io/aoiiai aiaea
i?aaenoaaeytho a iaeiaiaue i?aai ii ianoo naiaai iaoiaeaeaiey io/ao i
iinooieaoeo noiiao e eo ?anoiaeiaaiey. Io/ao i?aaenoaaeyaony a n?ie,
onoaiiaeaiiue aeey naea/e aiaeiaiai aooaaeoa?neiai io/aoa. A neo/aa
eniieueciaaiey iieo/aiiuo n?aaenoa ia ii iacia/aieth noiia yoeo n?aaenoa
a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea acuneeaaaony a aeioiae oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa.

Ianiio?y ia eaaeouothny i?inoioo yoie eueaiou, ia i?aeoeea aa i?eiaiaiea
aucuaaao iaiaei aii?inia. Iai?eia?, ia n?aaenoaa, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua
i?iiuoeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeai oeiea, i?eia?aoaiu eiiiuethoa?u, eeiaaoiiiay
aiia?aoo?a. Iao niiiaiey, /oi n?aaenoaa a aeaiiii neo/aa eniieueciaaiu
ii iacia/aiee. A oi aea a?aiy anoue neo/ae, eiaaea iieo/aiiua a ii?yaeea
aeaaioai?eoaeueiie iiiiue n?aaenoaa ec?anoiaeiaaiu ia i?eia?aoaiea
eaaeiaiai aaoiiiaeey aeey aee?aeoi?a oeieu; n/eoaoue yoe n?aaenoaa
ec?anoiaeiaaiiuie ii iacia/aieth iaeuecy e iie aeieaeiu auoue acuneaiu a
aeioiae oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa.

Neiaeiui yaeyaony aii?in i oi?ia aeaaioai?eoaeueiiai aciina – aeieaeia
ee iia auoue iaycaoaeueii aeaiaaeiie eee iiaeao auoue iaoo?aeueiie? E
niaeaeaieth, niaea?aeaueany ii aeaiiiio aii?ino oi?ioee?iaee eae a
Caeiia “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee”, oae e a
eino?oeoeee AIN ?O io ^0 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea ? 37 iicaieytho
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aeaaioai?eoaeueiua aciinu i?iecaiaeyony oieueei a
aeaiaaeiie oi?ia. Yoi ii?aaeaeyaony niaea?aeauaeny a ii?iaoeaiuo
aeieoiaioao oi?ioee?iaeie, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie o/?aaeaeaiey e
i?aaiecaoeee, iieo/eaoea aeaaioai?eoaeueioth iiiiuue, “i?aaenoaaeytho
aiaeiaiaue i?aai ii ianoo naiaai iaoiaeaeaiey io/ao i iinooieaoeo noiiao
e eo ?anoiaeiaaiee”. ssnii, /oi yoe noiiu ia iiaoo auoue au?aaeaiu a
eiie oi?ia, e?iia aeaiaaeiie.

Yoi caiaoii noaeaao a?aieoeu aeaaioai?eoaeueiie iiiiue, eioi?oth
i?aaei?eyoey iiaee au ieacuaaoue oeieai, aieueieoeai, nii?oeaiui eeoaai
e o.ae., iniaaiii a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, eiaaea o?oaeiinoe nauoa iiiaeo
aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee ni/aoathony n iaieaoaaeaie. Iaaaeueiay oaa?eea iiaea
au aacaiciacaeii i?aaeinoaaeoue oeiea iaaaeue, ii, oau, naeaeaoue yoiai
iaeuecy: a neo/aa ia?aaea/e eiio au oi ie auei naiae i?iaeoeoeee
aacaiciacaeii iia a oeaeyo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ioeaieaaaony ii n?aaeiei
oeaiai ?aaeecaoeee oaeie aea eee aiaeiae/iie i?iaeoeoeee, e
niioaaonoaaiii oaaee/eaaaony aaeiaay e iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue.
Oaaeiay oaa?eea iiaea au aacaiciacaeii ia?aaeaoue eiiieaeou nii?oeaiie
oi?iu aeey oeieu eee nii?oeaiiai eeoaa, ii naeaeaoue yoiai iaeuecy ii
oie aea i?e/eia, yoi ia aoaeao n/eoaoueny aeaaioai?eoaeueiui aciinii e
i?eaaaeao ia e oiaiueoaieth, a iaiai?io, oaaee/aieth iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie
i?eauee. Ii iaoaio iiaieth, yoi ia aeinoieinoai, a i?in/ao iaoaai
iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Iai?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai n?aaenoa ia aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee, eo
iieo/aiea e eniieueciaaiea oie eee eiie i?aaiecaoeeae aeieaeiu auoue
aeieoiaioaeueii ioi?ieaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oiau auei ynii, /oi ?a/ue
eaeao i aciinao eiaiii ia aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee. Aianoi yoiai eiiaaea
ieooo a aeieoiaioao ia ieacaiee aacaiciacaeiie oeiainiaie iiiiue oeiea
eee aeaoneiio naaeo eee i aacaiciacaeiii i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa e o.i. Oaeia aieueiia ia?auaiea n caienyie a ieaoaaeiuo
ii?o/aieyo, n ioi?ieaieai aeieoiaioia iiaeao i?eaanoe e iaaei?acoiaieyi
e iioa?yi aeey iaaeo noi?ii, eae aeey i?aaeinoaaeythuae iiiiuue, oae e
iieo/athuae aa.

I?aaei?eyoea, i?aaeinoaaeythuaa iiiiuue, iiaeao ieacaoueny a i?iea?uoa,
oae eae ec-ca iaa?aaeiie oi?ioee?iaee iiaeao iioa?youe i?aai ia eueaioo
– oiaiueoaiea iaeaaaaiie i?eauee ia noiio aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo aciinia (a
?acia?a aei 3% eee 5% iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee). O/?aaeaeaiea,
iieo/eaoaa n?aaenoaa ec-ca iaa?aaeiie caiene a aeieoiaioao, iiaeao
iai?aaeiaia?aiii eniieueciaaoue eo ia ii iacia/aieth, /oi a?iceo eo
ecuyoeai a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao. *oiau ecaaaeaoue yoeo iai?eyoiuo
iineaaenoaee, iaaei anaai eeoue aieiaoaeueii ioianoenue e ioi?ieaieth
aeieoiaioia, iacuaay aaue naieie eiaiaie, oi anoue oae, eae iie iacaaiu
a caeiia e eino?oeoeee, e auee iiiyou anaie iaeeiaeiai i?aaeeueii.

Ia?aaea/a n?aaenoa aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoueny ia iniiaa i?eeaca eee
?anii?yaeaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey, a eioi?ii aeieaeii auoue /aoei
oeacaii, /oi n?aaenoaa i?aaeinoaaeythony a ea/anoaa aciina ia
aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee. Eiieth i?eeaca oeaeaniia?acii ia?aaeaoue
i?aaiecaoeee, iieo/athuae n?aaenoaa, /oiau i?aaeoi?aaeeoue aiciiaeiinoue
eo ioeai/iiai eniieueciaaiey ia ii iacia/aieth.

Aeey iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea eiaao eueaioa ii i?eauee,
iai?aaeaiiie ia iiaaoaiea oauoeia. Oioy niaea?aeaiea i. 4.6 ii aeaiiiio
aii?ino eino?oeoeee AIN ?O io 10 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea ii nouanoao ia
ioee/aaony io oaenoa ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoae eino?oeoeee, iaeiaei i?e
iieueciaaiee yoie eueaioie aeiioneathony ioeaee. Ii i?aaei?eyoeyi,
iieo/eaoei a i?aaeoanoaothuai aiaeo oauoie (ii aeaiiui aiaeiaiai
aooaaeoa?neiai io/aoa ca 1992 e iineaaeothuea aiaeu), inaiaiaeaeaaony io
oieaou iaeiaa /anoue i?eauee, iai?aaeaiiay ia aai iie?uoea a oa/aiea
iineaaeothueo 5 eao. Ainiieueciaaoueny yoie eueaioie iiaeii i?e oneiaee
iieiiai eniieueciaaiey ia oeacaiiua oeaee ?aca?aiiai e ae?oaeo
aiaeiae/iuo ii iacia/aieth oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoey, nicaeaiea eioi?uo
i?aaeoniio?aii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O; i?aeoe/anee ?a/ue eaeao i
?aca?aiii oiiaea, oae eae ae?oaeo aiaeiae/iuo ii niaea?aeaieth oiiaeia
ia iaoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo iao, aea e ?aca?aiua oiiaeu eiatho aeaeaei ia
ana. I?aaaea, n auoiaeii Caeiia “Ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao” nicaeaiea a
ieo ?aca?aiuo oiiaeia noaei iaycaoaeueiui.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee aeaiiie eueaiou a ?an/ao i?eieiaaony iieo/aiiue
i?aaei?eyoeai ca aiae oauoie oieueei io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio,
oneoa). Ia o/eouaaaony i?e ?an/aoa aeaiiie eueaiou, a /anoiinoe, oauoie,
aicieeoee ii i?e/eia iaiainiiaaiiiai aeeth/aiey a naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee cao?ao, iiaeaeoeo nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea i?eauee.

Ia o/eouaaaony i?e ii?aaeaeaiee ?anniao?eaaaiie eueaiou oaeaea
i?aauoaiea oaeoe/aneeo ?anoiaeia ia iieaoo o?oaea ii n?aaiaieth n eo
ii?ie?oaiie aaee/eiie. Eacaeinue au, a nayce n. ioiaiie n 1 yiaa?y 1996
aiaea iaeiaa n i?aauoaiey ii?ie?oaiuo cao?ao ia iieaoo o?oaea ia yoii
iineaaeiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa iiaeii auei au oaea ia aiai?eoue. Ii yoi ia
oae. Aaaeue eueaioa i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia iiaaoaiea oauoea
i?aaeoanoaothuaai aiaea a oa/aiea iineaaeothueo 5 eao, cia/eo, oeacaiiia
ia?aie/aiea ii ii?aaeaeaieth noiiu eueaiou iaaei aoaeao o/eouaaoue e a
1997 aiaeo, aieioue aei 2000 aiaea.

Aua iaeii nouanoaaiiia iieiaeaiea: noiia oauoea, ia iie?uoea eioi?iai
iai?aaeyaony i?eaueue, inaiaiaeaeaaiay io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey,
?ani?aaeaeyaony ?aaiuie aeieyie ia iineaaeothuea iyoue eao. Anee,
iai?eia?, ii io/aoo ca 1996 aiae i?aaei?eyoeai iieo/ai oauoie a noiia
1200 iei. ?oa., oi a 1997 aiaeo ia aai iie?uoea iiaeii iai?aaeoue
oieueei 240 iei. ?oa. (1200:5 = 240 iei. ?oa.). Eiia/ii, i?aaei?eyoeth,
eiathuaio ieeeea?aeiue iai?io, o?oaeii iiiyoue, ii/aio iaeuecy n?aco
iie?uoue anth noiio oauoea, a ioaeii ?anoyaeaaoue yoio i?ioeann ia 5
eao. Ii caeii anoue caeii e aai neaaeoao niaethaeaoue.

A oi aea a?aiy auei au oianoii i?eneooaoueny e aieino i?aeoeeia e
onoaiiaeoue, /oi anee oauoie i?aaeoanoaothuaai aiaea ia i?aauoaao,
iai?eia?, 100 ieieiaeueiuo ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea, oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
eueaiou i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao ii naiaio oniio?aieth ?ani?aaeaeyoue aai eee
ia ?ani?aaeaeyoue ia 5 eao.

Neacaiiia aiana ia icia/aao, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaei?eyoea iaycaii
?ani?aaeaeyoue noiio oauoea ia 5 eao. Oaeie iaycaiiinoe o i?aaei?eyoey
iao, iii iiaeao a neaaeothuai aiaeo iieiinoueth iiaaneoue oauoie
i?ioeiai aiaea, iacaaeneii io aai ?acia?a, ii eueaioie i?e
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee aoaeao iieueciaaoueny oieueei a ?acia?a iyoie
/anoe io noiiu oauoea. Iaeuecy aeeeoiaaoue i?aaei?eyoeth, eae aio
?anoiaeiaaoue naith /enooth i?eaueue, ii iiaeii, eiia/ii, ii?aaeaeyoue,
eaeay /anoue yoeo ?anoiaeia e a eaeii ii?yaeea o/eouaaaony i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee eueaiou ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue.

Anee a i?eaaaeaiiii auoa i?eia?a i?aaei?eyoea iai?aaeo a 1997 aiaeo ia
iie?uoea oauoea i?ioeiai aiaea 1 200 iei. ?oaeae, oi iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii
i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony oieueei ia 240 iei. ?oaeae.

I?e iieueciaaiee aeaiiie eueaioie neaaeoao eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi ia
o/eouaathony a iaeiaiaii ?an/aoa oaeea oauoee, iieo/aiiua io i?aauoaiey
eeieoia, ii?i e ii?iaoeaia, onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O ii
o/aoo cao?ao, aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee aeey oeaeae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy – a niioaaonoaee n iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 1 ethey 1995 aiaea ? 661). Eiathony a aeaeo
cao?aou, i?aauoathuea onoaiiaeaiiua ii?iaoeau ?anoiaeia ia ?aeeaio, ia
i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea oeaee, ia oieaoo i?ioeaioia ca e?aaeeou aaieia naa?o
noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O (oaaee/aiiie ia o?e
ioieoa) e o.i.

Iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony oaeaea ia noiio cao?ao ia
iiiieiaiea no?aoiauo ?aca?aia ii no?aoiaaieth aeecie ?aaioieeia a
i?aaeaeao i?ioeaioa, i?aaeoniio?aiiiai a no?oeoo?a oa?eoiie noaaee,
niaeaniaaiiie n Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeaie ?innee ii iaaeci?o ca no?aoiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Ana ia?a/eneaiiua auoa eueaiou, eae ioia/aeinue, ia aeieaeiu oiaiueoaoue
oaeoe/aneoth noiio iaeiaa, en/eneaiioth aac o/aoa eueaio, aieaa /ai ia
50 i?ioeaioia.

Aeiionoei, /oi iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue (aac au/aoa eueaio) ninoaaeea
a ia?aii eaa?oaea 960 iei. ?oa. Cao?aou i?aaei?eyoey ia i?eia?aoaiea
iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey ninoaaeee ca eaa?oae 240 iei. ?oa., ?anoiaeu ia
niaea?aeaiea caaiaeneiai iauaaeeoey – 290 iei. ?oa., a oii /enea a
i?aaeaeao ooaa?aeaeaiiuo ianoiie aaeieieno?aoeeae ii?i – 260 iei. ?oa.
Cao?aou ia i?iaaaeaiea iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio ninoaaeee 120 iei.
?oa. Ia iie?uoea oauoeia i?ioeiai aiaea, ninoaaeaoeo 80 iei. ?oa.,
iai?aaeaii 16 iei. ?oa. Iauay noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ninoaaeea 35%.
Eaeoth noiio iaeiaa aeieaeii oieaoeoue i?aaei?eyoea ca aeaiiue eaa?oae,
anee noiia ia/eneaiiiai n ia/aea aiaea eciina iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia ninoaaeea 42 iei. ?oaeae?

Aeey ioaaoa ia iinoaaeaiiue aii?in ii?aaeaeei nia/aea oaeoe/aneoth noiio
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, en/eneaiioth aac o/aoa eueaio:

960 iei. ?oa. o 35% = 336 iei. ?oa.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, en/eneaiiay n o/aoii eueaio noiia iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ia
iiaeao auoue iaiueoa 168 iei. ?oa. (336 : 2).

Oaia?ue ii?aaeaeei iauoth noiio eueaio, ia eioi?oth eiaao i?aai
i?aaei?eyoea:

ii eaieoaeueiui aeiaeaieyi

240 iei. ?oa. – 42 iei. ?oa. = 198 iei. ?oa.

ii ?anoiaeai ia niaea?aeaiea nioeeaeueii-auoiauo iauaeoia
(caaiaeneiai iauaaeeoey)

260 iei. ?oa.

ii cao?aoai ia IEIE? 960 iei. ?oa. o 10% = 96 iei. ?y6.

(i?e oaeoe/anee cao?a/aiiie ia yoe oeaee noiia 120 iei. ?oa.)

ii cao?aoai ia iie?uoea oauoeia i?ioeiai aiaea

80 iei. ?oa. : 5 = 16 iei. ?oa.,

/oi niioaaonoaoao oaeoe/aneie noiia cao?ao ia yoe oeaee

EOIAI: 198 +260 +96+ 16 = 570 iei. ?oa.

Iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue n o/aoii eueaio ninoaaeea au 390 iei. ?oa.
(960-570), a noiia iaeiaa ia i?eaueue – 136,5 iei. ?oa. (390 o 35%).
Iaeiaei n o/aoii onoaiiaeaiiiai ia?aie/aiey iia ia iiaeao auoue iaiueoa
168 iei. ?oa. Yoa noiia (168 iei. ?oa.)iiaeeaaeeo aianaieth a athaeaeao.

Noaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee iiieaeathony ia 50 i?ioeaioia,
anee io iauaai /enea eo ?aaioieeia eiaaeeaeu ninoaaeytho ia iaiaa 50
i?ioeaioia. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaa ia iieo/aiea aeaiiie eueaiou a
n?aaeianieni/ioth /eneaiiinoue ia aeeth/athony eiaaeeaeu, ?aaioathuea ii
niaianoeoaeuenoao, aeiaiai?ai iiae?yaea e ae?oaei aeiaiai?ai
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a.

Oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee” io 31 aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea ? 227-OC ioiaiaia eueaioa a
/anoe aeeaeaeaiaeia, iai?aaeyaiuo oece/aneeie eeoeaie ia ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa. A 1995 aiaeo aeeaeaeaiaeu, auiea/eaaaiua i?aaei?eyoeyie
oece/aneei eeoeai, a neo/aa eo eiaanoe?iaaiey aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey ia
oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea, ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa e o.i., o
ia/eneeaoaai eo i?aaei?eyoey eneeth/aeenue ec iaeaaaaiie iaeiaii
i?eauee. N 1 yiaa?y 1996 aiaea yoie eueaiou iao.

?anniao?eaaaiay eueaioa ioiaiaia oieueei aeey i?aaei?eyoee –
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe. *oi eanaaony oece/aneeo eeoe, oi anee iie
eiaanoe?otho iieo/aiiua eie aeeaeaeaiaeu ia oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea
i?aaei?eyoee, eo ?aeiino?oeoeeth, ?anoe?aiea, iiiieiaiea iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa, no?ieoaeuenoai e ?aeiino?oeoeeth iauaeoia nioeeaeueiie
eio?ano?oeoo?u e o.i., oi iie iiaeioiaeiui iaeiaii ia iaeaaathony (Caeii
?NON? “I iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe”, no.3, i.10).

Anee i?aaei?eyoea inouanoaeyao ianeieueei ?aciuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe,
ii eioi?ui onoaiiaeaiu ?acee/iua noaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, oi eueaiou,
oiaiueoathuea iaeaaaaioth iaeiaii i?eaueue, oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii
?ani?aaeaeeoue ii oeacaiiui aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi ?ani?aaeaeaiea
i?iecaiaeeony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii au?o/ea, iieo/aiiie ioaeaeueii ii
eaaeaeiio aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe a iauae noiia au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa).

I?eia?

Oeieiiaeiao iai?aaee ca n/ao /enoie i?eauee a ia?aii eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea
136 iei. ?oaeae ia niaea?aeaiea iauaaeeoey e i?ioeeaeoi?ey; ii ii?iai,
onoaiiaeaiiui ianoiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe, cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea yoeo
iauaeoia iiaee ninoaaeoue 120 iei. ?oaeae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaiii ia
yoo noiio oiaiueoaaony iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue.

Aaeiaay i?eaueue eiiaeiaoa ninoaaeea a ia?aii eaa?oaea 2 640 iei.
?oaeae, a oii /enea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee – 2 100 iei.
?oaeae e io auiieiaiey iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee – 540 iei. ?oaeae.

Iauay noiia au?o/ee eiiaeiaoa ca ia?aue eaa?oae ninoaaeea 8 000 iei.
?oaeae, a oii /enea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee – 7 280 iei. ?oaeae e io
auiieiaiey iin?aaeie/aneeo oneoa – 720 iei. ?oaeae.

Noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue io iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe ninoaaeyao 35%, a
io iin?aaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe – 43%.

Oae eae noaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ii aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe ?acee/athony,
oi a iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth aeieaeiu auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu aeaa ?an/aoa
iaeiaa io oaeoe/aneie i?eauee (ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe
ioaeaeueii). I?e yoii eueaioa ii cao?aoai oeieiiaeiaoa ia niaea?aeaiea
aeeeeuiiai oiiaea e iauaeoa cae?aaiio?aiaiey (i?ioeeaeoi?ey)
?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo aeaoiy oeacaiiuie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aeiea eaaeaeiai ec ieo a iauae noiia au?o/ee:

a) aeiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee

7280 o 100 =91%

8000

6) aeiey au?o/ee io auiieiaiey iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee

728 o 100 =9%

8000

a) /anoue eueaiou, i?eoiaeyuayny ia i?eaueue io iniiaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe eiiaeiaoa,

120 iei. ?oaeae o 91% = 109 200 oun. ?oaeae;

a) /anoue eueaiou, i?eoiaeyuayny ia i?eaueue io auiieiaiey
iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee,

120 iei. ?oaeae o 9% = 10 800 oun. ?oaeae;

ae) iaeia ia i?eaueue io iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiiaeiaoa

2100,0 iei. ?oaeae – 109,2 iei. ?oaeae = 1990,8 iei. ?oaeae;

1990,8 iei. ?oaeae o 35% = 696 780 oun. ?oaeae;

a) iaeia ia i?eaueue io auiieiaiey iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee

540,0 iei. ?oaeae – 10,8 iei. ?oaeae = 529,2 iei. ?oaeae;

529,2 iei. ?oaeae o 43% = 227 556 oun. ?oaeae.

Iauay noiia iaeiaa ia i?eaueue oeieiiaeiaoa (i?e ionoonoaee ae?oaeo
eueaio) ninoaaeo 696 780 oun. ?oa. + 227 556 oun. ?oa. = 924 336 oun.
?oa.

A o/aoa yoa iia?aoeey io?aaeaaony i?iaiaeeie (ii ia/eneaieth iaeiaa)

Aeo 81

Eo 68 «Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee»

«?an/aou n athaeaeaoii»

924 336 oun. ?oaeae

A i?e ia?a/eneaiee noiia ia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa a athaeaeao

Aeo 68

Eo 51 «?an/aou n athaeaeaoii»

«?an/aoiue n/ao»

924 336 oun. ?oaeae

I?e ?an/aoa eueaio ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue aiciiaeiu neo/ae eae caauoaiey,
oae e caieaeaiey iaeiaa ia i?eaueue. Iaeiaei iai?aaeeueiia ia/eneaiea
eueaio ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eae nie?uoea
(caieaeaiea) i?eauee n i?eiaiaieai niioaaonoaothueo oo?aoiuo naieoeee.
?an/ao eueaio eaaei iiaeaeaaony i?iaa?ea e eni?aaeaieth. A yoii neo/aa
ooi/iyaony oieueei ?an/ao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue e acuneeaaaony a athaeaeao
i?e/eoathuayny noiia iaeiaa.

Iaeiaei anee iaeiaiieaoaeueuee caaunee noiio eueaio e a ?acoeueoaoa
caiecee noiio iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, oi yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ia
eeanneoeoee?oaony eae nie?uoea i?eauee, ii oae eae ooi/iaiiay noiia
iaeiaa ia auea naiaa?aiaiii aianaia a athaeaeao, oi ia noiio ooi/iaiey
ia/eneythony iaie ca i?in?i/eo oieaou iaeiaa. Anee noiia eueaio auea
caauoaia, iai?eia?, ia 60 iei. ?oaeae e ia yoo aea noiio auea caieaeaia
iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii i?eaueue, oi i?e noaaea 35% noiia iaeiaa,
iiaeeaaeaaoaai oieaoa, oaaee/eaaaony ia 21 iei. ?oaeae e anee ooi/iaiea
i?iecaaaeaii /a?ac 20 aeiae iinea ianooieaiey n?iea ieaoaaea, oi iaie
ninoaayo:

21 iei. ?oaeae o 0,3 i?ioeaioa o 20 aeiae = 1260 oun.
?oaeae.

4.3. EUeAIOU I?AAeI?EssOEssI IAEIAI AECIANA

I?e ?anniio?aiee yoiai aii?ina neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo eciaiaiey a
nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a niioaaonoaee n
Oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii “I ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” io 14 ethiy 1995 aiaea e
Oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii “Ia oi?iuaiiie nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e
io/aoiinoe aeey noauaeoia iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa” io 29 aeaeaa?y
1995 aiaea. Oioy a iaeiaiiaaiee iaieo caeiiia ?a/ue eaeao i iaeii
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ii i?e yoii eiathony a aeaeo ?aciua noauaeou
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

A niioaaonoaee n caeiiii io 14 ethiy 1995 aiaea e noauaeoai iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ioiinyony eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, ioaa/athuea
onoaiiaeaiiui e?eoa?eyi ia oieueei ii /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia, ii e ii
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe onoaaiiai eaieoaea ?aciui nianoaaiieeai. I?e yoii
i?eieiaaony ai aieiaiea no?oeoo?a onoaaiiai eaieoaea ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
?aciui nianoaaiieeai e /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea:
a) ii no?oeoo?a onoaaiiai eaieoaea

– aeiey o/anoey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, noauaeoia ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, a oaeaea iauanoaaiiuo e ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaiecaoeee
(iauaaeeiaiee), aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo e eiuo oiiaeia ia i?aauoaao 25
i?ioeaioia;

– aeiey th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, ia yaeythueony noauaeoaie iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, (iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo) ia i?aauoaao 25
i?ioeaioia.

Eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey, a onoaaiii eaieoaea eioi?ie aeiey oeacaiiuo
o/anoieeia i?aauoaao 25 i?ioeaioia, ia ioiineony a oeaeyo
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi, aeaaea anee iia ioaa/aao
onoaiiaeaiiiio e?eoa?eth ii /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia;

a) ii /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia – n?aaeiyy /eneaiiinoue ia aeieaeia
i?aauoaoue onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaeaeueiuo o?iaiae, aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo ii
io?aneyi e aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea:

– a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e no?ieoaeuenoaa – 100 /aeiaae;

– a naeueneii oicyenoaa e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?a – 60 /ae.;

– a ?icie/iie oi?aiaea e auoiaii ianeoaeeaaiee ianaeaiey -30 /aeiaae;

– a inoaeueiuo io?aneyo e i?e inouanoaeaiee ae?oaeo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe – 50 /aeiaae.

Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey, inouanoaeythuea ianeieueei aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe
(iiiaii?ioeeueiua), ioiinyony e oiio aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe, aeiey eioi?ie
yaeyaony iaeaieueoae a aiaeiaii iauaia iai?ioa eee aiaeiaii iauaia
i?eauee; ia?auaai aieiaiea ia oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ?aiaa
iiiaii?ioeeueiua i?aaei?eyoey ioiineeenue e niioaaonoaothuae io?anee
oieueei ii iaeaieueoaio oaeaeueiiio aano au?o/ee eaaeaeiai aeaea
aeayoaeueiinoe a iauae noiia au?o/ee.

I?eia?

I?aaei?eyoea ni n?aaeianieni/iie /eneaiiinoueth ?aaioieeia 96 /aeiaae
inouanoaeyao o?e aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe :

– a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee caiyoi 45 /aeiaae, i?eaueue
io ?aaeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeea ca io/aoiue ia?eiae
1,2 ie?ae. ?oa.;

– ?icie/ioth oi?aiaeth inouanoaeyao iiae?acaeaeaiea n /eneaiiinoueth
?aaioieeia 28 /aeiaae, i?eaueue io oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ninoaaeea ca
io/aoiue ia?eiae 0,6 ie?ae. ?oa.;

– i?eaueue io ieacaiey oneoa ianaeaieth e inouanoaeaiey
?aiiioii-no?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio ninoaaeea 0,7 ie?ae. ?oa., a /eneaiiinoue
caiyouo yoeie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe – 23 /aeiaaea. Oaeei ia?acii, iauay
noiia i?eauee ninoaaeea:

1,2+0,6+0,7 = 2,5 ie?ae. ?oa.,

a o./. io i?iiuoeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe – 48% (1,2: 2,5),

io oi?aiaie – 2% (0,6 : 2,5), io i?i/eo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe – 28% (0,7
: 2,5).

Ii i?aiaeaaeathuaio aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe (a no?oeoo?a i?eauee)
i?aaei?eyoea ioiineony e i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?e i?i/eo
?aaiuo oneiaeyo (aeiey ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe a onoaaiii
eaieoaea ia aieaa 25%) i?aaei?eyoea a oeaeyo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eciaaony
iaeui (/eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia – iaiaa 100 /aeiaae) e ai?aaa
iieueciaaoueny eueaioaie ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue, onoaiiaeaiiuie aeey
iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee.

N?aaeiyy ca io/aoiue ia?eiae /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey
ii?aaeaeyaony n o/aoii anao aai ?aaioieeia, a oii /enea ?aaioathueo ii
aeiaiai?ai iiae?yaea e ae?oaei aeiaiai?ai a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai
oa?aeoa?a e ii niaianoeoaeuenoao n o/aoii ?aaeueii io?aaioaiiiai
a?aiaie, a oaeaea n o/aoii caiyouo a oeeeaeao e ae?oaeo iainiaeaiiuo
iiae?acaeaeaieyo i?aaei?eyoey.

A neo/aa i?aauoaiey iaeui i?aaei?eyoeai onoaiiaeaiiie caeiiii
i?aaeaeueiie /eneaiiinoe oeacaiiia i?aaei?eyoea eeoaaony eueaio,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, ia ia?eiae, a
oa/aiea eioi?iai aeiiouaii oeacaiiia i?aauoaiea, e ia neaaeothuea o?e
ianyoea.

Neaaeoao oaeaea eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ia ioiinyony e iaeui i?aaei?eyoey, a
onoaaiii eaieoaea eioi?uo aeiey, i?eiaaeeaaeauay iaeiiio eee ianeieueeei
th?eaee/aneei eeoeai, ia yaeythueiny noauaeoaie iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, i?aauoaao 25 i?ioeaioia.

A ia?aua aeaa aiaea ?aaiou ia oiea/eaatho iaeia ia i?eaueue iaeua
i?aaei?eyoey, inouanoaeythuea neaaeothuea aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe;

– i?iecaiaenoai e ia?a?aaioea naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;

– i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia;

– i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey;

– i?iecaiaenoai no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia:

– i?iecaiaenoai iaaeeoeeineie oaoieee, eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa e ecaeaeee
iaaeeoeeineiai iacia/aiey;

– no?ieoaeuenoai iauaeoia aeeeeuiiai, i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, nioeeaeueiiai
e i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai iacia/aiey (aeeth/ay ?aiiioii-no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou).
Yoa eueaioa i?aaeinoaaeyaony iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi i?e oneiaee, /oi
au?o/ea io oeacaiiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aauoaao 70 i?ioeaioia iauae
noiiu au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa. I?e yoii aeiai
ia/aea ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey n/eoaaony aeaiue aai ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee.

A o?aoee e /aoaa?oue aiae ?aaiou oeacaiiua iaeua i?aaei?eyoey
oiea/eaatho iaeia a ?acia?a niioaaonoaaiii 25 e 50 i?ioeaioia
onoaiiaeaiiie noaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, anee au?o/ea io oeacaiiuo
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe ninoaaeyao nauoa 90 i?ioeaioia iauae noiiu au?o/ee
io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa).

Ia?auaai aieiaiea ia oi, /oi i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi eueaiou
ii iaeiao i?eaueue a oi?ia inaiaiaeaeaiey io iaeiaa a ia?aua aiaeu
?aaiou, oaycaii n oaeaeueiui aanii ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe ia
a iieo/aiiie i?eauee, a a au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee.

Iaaieiaiea e yoiio ianoiyoaeuenoao eiiaaea i?eaiaeeo e iaaei?acoiaieyi.
Oae, i?aaei?eyoea yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia?yaeo n ecaeaeeyie
iniiaiie iiiaieeaoo?u aeey yeaeo?inoaioeee (yeaeo?iueoee) a noiia 1200
iei. ?oa. iieo/eei oaeaea au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai
iio?aaeaiey (yeaeo?ioothaia e ae?.) a noiia 870 iei. ?oa.: i?eaueue io
?aaeecaoeee oeacaiiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeea niioaaonoaaiii 110
iei. ?oa. e 360 iei. ?oa. Eiaao ee i?aaei?eyoea i?aai ia eueaioo ii
iaeiao ia i?eaueue, anee iii yaeyaony iaeui (n?aaeianieni/iay
/eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia – 85 /aeiaae)-e ?aaioaao aoi?ie aiae n iiiaioa
?aaeno?aoeee? Anee au i?e ii?aaeaeaiee eueaiou i?eieiaeny a ?an/ao
ninoaa i?eauee, oi i?aaei?eyoea eiaei au ia iaa i?aai, oae eae i?eaueue
io i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey ninoaaeea 76,6% iauae
noiiu i?eauee (1 10 + 360 = 470 iei. ?oa.; 360 : 470 = 0,766). Ii, oau,
e?eoa?eai i?aaeinoaaeaiey ?anniao?eaaaiie eueaiou yaeyaony ninoaa
au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, a ia i?eauee. Iaaeaeo oai a iauae
noiia au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee – 1970 iei. ?oa. aeiey au?o/ee
io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey ninoaaeyao anaai 44% (870
: 1970 = 0,44), aianoi o?aaoaiuo ii eino?oeoeee 70%. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?aaa ia eueaioo aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea ia eiaao.

Auaatho, oioy e i/aiue ?aaeei, neo/ae, eiaaea a oiaea i?iaa?ee,
i?iaiaeeiie niaoeeaeenoaie iaeiaiauo neoaea, auyniyaony, /oi
i?aaei?eyoea eiaei i?aai ia eueaioo ii i?eauee, oioy ia
ainiieueciaaeinue ath. Oae, iaeia i?aaei?eyoea, ?aaioathuaa aoi?ie aiae
e niaoeeaeece?othuaany ia auionea n?aaenoa aeeaaiinoeee (ecaeaeey
iaaeeoeeineiai iacia/aiey), eiaei ii eoiaai ca 1995 aiae au?o/eo io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee 780 iei. ?oa. e i?eaueue 159 iei. ?oa.; e?iia
oiai, i?aaei?eyoea eiaei aeioiae io o?aiaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia
aeaiiceoiii n/aoa a aaiea a ?acia?a 350 iei. ?oa. I?aaei?eyoea ni/ei,
/oi iii ia eiaao i?aa ia eueaioo, oae eae aeiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
ecaeaeee iaaeeoeeineiai iacia/aiey a iauae noiia au?o/ee iaiaa 70% (780
+ 350 = 1130 iei. ?oa.,780 : 1130 = 0,69).

Ii aeaei a oii, /oi oaeie iiaeoiae ioeai/ai. I?ioeaiou ii aeaiiceoiui
aeeaaeai au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee ia yaeythony, iie aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny
o i?aaei?eyoey ia n/aoa 80 “I?eauee e oauoee” eae i?eaueue io
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, any au?o/ea io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey – ia 70%, a ana 100% ioiinyony e
oiio aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey iieo/aiey
eueaiou (au?o/ea io i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee ecaeaeee iaaeeoeeineiai
iacia/aiey).

Ia?auaai aieiaiea oaeaea ia oi, /oi iaeiaiaua neoaeau no?iai
i?eaea?aeeaathony onoaiiaeaiiuo eiee/anoaaiiuo e?eoa?eaa, aeathueo i?aai
ia iieo/aiea eueaiou. Oae, iaeii ec iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee ia?yaeo n
i?iecaiaenoaii i?eai?ia aeey oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ecaioiaeyao
oaeaea ecaeaeey iaaeeoeeineiai iacia/aiey. I?e iauai iauaia au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ninoaaeaoae ii aeieoiaioaeueiui io/aoiui
aeaiiui 4500 iei. ?oa. ca eaa?oae, au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
iaaeeoeeineiai iacia/aiey ninoaaeea 3150 iei. ?oa., eee 70% iauae
au?o/ee (3150 : 4500 = 0,7). I?aaei?eyoea ainiieueciaaeinue eueaioie,
n/eoay, /oi eiaao ia iaa i?aai.

Iaeiaei iaeiaiaay einiaeoeey onoaiiaeea, /oi a io/aoiii eaa?oaea
i?aaei?eyoea ia eiaei i?aaa ainiieueciaaoueny eueaioie ii iaeiao ia
i?eaueue, oae eae ii caeiio iia i?aaeinoaaeyaony eeoue i?e oneiaee, /oi
au?o/ea io ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe (a aeaiiii neo/aa – io
i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeee iaaeeoeeineiai iacia/aiey) i?aauoaao 70%. Caeanue
aea iia yoiai o?iaiy ia i?aauoaea.

?anniao?eaaaiay eueaioa i?aaeinoaaeyaony oieueei aiiaue nicaeaiiui iaeui
i?aaei?eyoeyi, a ia?aciaaiiua ia aaca eeeaeaee?iaaiiuo
(?ai?aaieciaaiiuo) i?aaei?eyoee, eo oeeeaeia e no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaa ia iaa ia eiatho. Yoi neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo
aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaai, eioi?ua a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii “Ia
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao” (no. 19) nicaeatho ianeieueei aei/a?ieo iauanoa
iooai auaeaeaiey ec iauanoaa a ?an/aoa ia eueaioiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea.

Ii auaeaeaiea iauanoaa – yoi iaeei ec aa?eaioia aai ?ai?aaiecaoeee e
nicaeaiiua a ?acoeueoaoa iaeua i?aaei?eyoey ?anniao?eaaaiie eueaioie ia
iieuecothony.

I?aaeinoaaeaiea iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi ?anniao?eaaaiie eueaiou
i?aaeiieaaaao oaeaea, /oi iie aoaeoo ?aaioaoue a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai
a?aiaie ia iaiaa 5 eao. I?e i?ae?auaiee iaeui i?aaei?eyoeai
aeayoaeueiinoe, a nayce n eioi?ie aio auee i?aaeinoaaeaiu iaeiaiaua
eueaiou, aei enoa/aiey iyoeeaoiaai n?iea (ia/eiay ni aeiy aai
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee) noiia iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, en/eneaiiay a
iieiii ?acia?a ca aanue ia?eiae aai aeayoaeueiinoe e oaaee/aiiay ia
noiio aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae, ii?aaeaeaiiuo enoiaey ec noaaee
?aoeiaine?iaaiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O ca iieueciaaiea aaieianeei
e?aaeeoii, aeaenoaiaaaoae a niioaaonoaothueo’ io/aoiuo ia?eiaeao,
iiaeeaaeeo aianaieth a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao. Yoa ii?ia caeiia
iai?aaeaia i?ioea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua a oa/aiea iaeiiai-aeaoo
eao iieuecothony ?anniao?eaaaiie eueaioie, caoai naiieeeaeaee?othony n
oai, /oiau ia/aoue oo aea aeayoaeueiinoue ia iiaii ianoa e iiyoue
ecaaaeaoue iaeiaa ia i?eaueue. I?e/ai aei 1 yiaa?y 1996 aiaea oaeea
i?aaei?eyoey iaiueoa ?eneiaaee, /ai nae/an: anee eo
“naiiaeayoaeueiinoue” auea iaia?oaeaia, oi iie aeieaeiu auee aianoe a
athaeaeao anth noiio iaeiaa ca aanue ia?eiae aeayoaeueiinoe. N 1 yiaa?y
1996 aiaea yoa ii?ia caeiia oaeanoi/aia, oaia?ue i?eaeaony aianoe a
athaeaeao noiio iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, oaaee/aiioth ia noaaeo
?aoeiaine?iaaiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea. Nae/an yoa noaaea ninoaaeyao 42%
, yoi cia/eo, /oi i?e auyaeaiee iiaeiaiuo neo/aaa i?eaeaony oieaoeoue ia
oieueei anth noiio iaeiaa, ii e aianoe aeiiieieoaeueiue ieaoaae,
niioaaonoaothuee 42% io noiiu iaeiaa.

?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoay eueaioa iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ie ec eo iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee eneeth/aeanue i?eaueue,
iai?aaeaiiay ia no?ieoaeuenoai, ?aeiino?oeoeeth e iaiiaeaiea iniiaiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, inaiaiea iiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, n 1
yiaa?y 1996 aiaea ioiaiaia. I?aaaea, iia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
ia?ae?uaaaony iauae aeey anao i?aaei?eyoee noa?u ro i?iecaiaenoaa
eueaioie ii i?eauee, iai?aaeaiiie ia oeiaine?iaaiea eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, iineieueeo cao?aou ia
no?ieoaeuenoai, ?aeiino?oeoeeth, iaiiaeaiea iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia e o.i. ioiinyony e eaieoaeueiui aeiaeaieyi i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iacia/aiey.

Iiieii oeacaiiie auoa eueaiou ii iieiiio eee /anoe/iiio inaiaiaeaeaieth
io iaeiaa ia i?eaueue iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee, inouanoaeythueo ii?aaeaeaiiua
a caeiia aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, aeiiieieoaeueiua eueaiou iaeeei
i?aaei?eyoeyi i?aaeinoaaeaiu Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii “Ia oi?iuaiiie
nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe aeey noauaeoia iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa” io 29 aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea. A niioaaonoaee n yoei
caeiiii ia/eiay n 1996 aiaea ia?yaeo n iauai?eiyoie nenoaiie
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aeaenoaoao oi?iuaiiay nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee. I?aai auai?a iaeiie ec aeaoo nenoai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
i?eiaaeeaaeeo noauaeoai iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, iie naie
aeia?iaieueii ?aoatho, eaeie nenoaiie iieueciaaoueny: iauai?eiyoie aeey
anao i?aaei?eyoee eee oi?iuaiiie, ?ac?aoaiiie oieueei iaeui
i?aaei?eyoeyi. Anoanoaaiii, auai? i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaa ?an/aoa,
i?aaei?eyoea auae?aao nenoaio, iicaieythuoth ieaoeoue iaiueoa,
oiaiueoeoue oyaeanoue iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, a oaeaea ?acei oi?inoeoue
nenoaio o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.

Nouiinoue oi?iuaiiie nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ninoieo a oii, /oi aianoi
niaieoiiinoe onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii (oaaea?aeueiuo,
?aaeiiaeueiuo e ianoiuo iaeiaia e nai?ia iaeia i?aaei?eyoea noaiiaeony
ieaoaeueueeii aaeeiiai iaeiaa, en/eneyaiiai ii ?acoeueoaoai
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. Iie ia ieaoyo iaeia ia
i?eaueue, iaeia ia eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoee, ia iieueciaaoaeae
aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia e iiiaea ae?oaea, ii ia?yaeo n aaeeiui iaeiaii iie
inoathony ieaoaeueueeaie: oaiiaeaiiuo ieaoaaeae; ainoaea?noaaiiuo
iioeei;

iaeiaa ia i?eia?aoaiea aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa; eeoeaiceiiiuo nai?ia;

io/eneaiee a ainoaea?noaaiiua nioeeaeueiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

I?aai ia?aoiaea e oi?iuaiiie nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey eiatho ia ana
iaeua i?aaei?eyoey, a eeoue oa ec ieo, o eioi?uo /eneaiiinoue
?aaioathueo (aeeth/ay ?aaioathueo ii aeiaiai?ai iiae?yaea e eiui
aeiaiai?ai a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a) ia i?aauoaao 15 /aeiaae
iacaaeneii io aeaea inouanoaeyaiie eie aeayoaeueiinoe. A i?aaeaeueioth
/eneaiiinoue ii caeiio aeeth/aaony oaeaea /eneaiiinoue caiyouo a
oeeeaeao e iiae?acaeaeaieyo i?aaei?eyoey, oioy iaei aa?iyoii, /oiau o
i?aaei?eyoey n /eneaiiinoueth ?aaioathueo aei 15 /aeiaae auee oeeeaeu
eee iiae?acaeaeaiey.

Oi?iuaiiie nenoaiie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia iiaoo iieueciaaoueny
i?aaei?eyoey, caiyoiua i?iecaiaenoaii iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia
(aeiii-aiaei/iuo ecaeaeee e ae?.), a oaeaea nicaeaiiua ia aaca
eeeaeaee?iaaiiuo no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee.
Ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony oi?iuaiiay nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia e?aaeeoiua,
no?aoiaua i?aaiecaoeee, eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu, ia i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
o/anoieeia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?aaei?eyoey eai?iiai e
?acaeaeaoaeueiiai aeciana e oicyenoaothuea noauaeou ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee,
aeey eioi?uo onoaiiaeai iniaue ii?yaeie o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.

Ii /eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo – ia aaeeinoaaiiue e?eoa?ee ioianaiey oiai
eee eiiai i?aaei?eyoey e noauaeoai iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Onoaiiaeai e aoi?ie e?eoa?ee – niaieoiiue ?acia? aaeiaie au?o/ee ca
aiae, i?aaeoanoaothuee eaa?oaeo, a eioi?ii auei iiaeaii cayaeaiea ia
i?aai i?eiaiaiey oi?iuaiiie nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey: niaieoiiue ?acia?
aaeiaie, au?o/ee ia aeieaeai i?aauoaoue noiouny/ae?aoiiai ieieiaeueiiai
?acia?a iany/iie iieaou o?oaea. Anee, iai?eia?, cayaeaiea iiaeaii a
ia?aii eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea, oi aaeiaay au?o/ea ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue
8349 iei. ?oa. ca aanue 1996 aiae (83490 ?oa. o 100000).

Ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea aa?aony ii ninoiyieth ia ia?aue aeaiue
eaa?oaea, a eioi?ii i?aaei?eyoea iiaeaei cayaeaiea i aeaeaiee ia?aeoe ia
oi?iuaiioth nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. Anee cayaeaiea
iiaeaii, iai?eia?, a ia?aii eaa?oaea, oi i?eieiaaony ieieiaeueiue ?acia?
ca?aaioiie ieaou, eioi?ue aue onoaiiaeai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O ia 1
yiaa?y: anee cayaeaiea iiaeaii, iai?eia?, 25 iay, oi i?eieiaaony
ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea ia 1 ai?aey e o.ae.

O aiiaue nicaeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, anoanoaaiii, a i?aaeuaeouea 12
ianyoeaa ieeaeie aaeiaie au?o/ee ia auei, iiyoiio i?aaei?eyoea,
iiaeaaoaa niioaaonoaothuaa cayaeaiea, noaiiaeony noauaeoii oi?iuaiiie
nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe n oiai eaa?oaea, a eioi?ii
i?iecioea aai ioeoeeaeueiay ?aaeno?aoeey.

I?e oi?iuaiiie nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iauaeoii iaeiaeaiey aaeeiui
iaeiaii iiaeao auoue eeai niaieoiiue aeioiae, iieo/aiiue ca io/aoiue
ia?eiae (eaa?oae), eeai aaeiaay 1 au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee,
iieo/aiiay ca yoio ia?eiae. Ii i?aai auai?a iaeiiai ec aeaoo aiciiaeiuo
iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia i?aaei?eyoeth, a i?aaio
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe noauaeoa ?O – e?ay, iaeanoe e o.i. Aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey niaieoiiiai aeioiaea ec aaeiaie au?o/ee au/eoathony:

– noieiinoue eniieueciaaiiuo a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa nu?uey,
iaoa?eaeia, eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee, i?eia?aoaiiuo oiaa?ia, oiieeaa;

– yenieoaoaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu;

– cao?aou ia oaeouee ?aiiio;

– cao?aou ia a?aiaeo iiiauaiee, eniieuecoaiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– cao?aou ia a?aiaeo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa;

– ?anoiaeu ia oieaoo i?ioeaioia ca iieueciaaiea e?aaeeoiuie ?ano?naie
aaieia (a i?aaeaeao noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey OeA ?O, oaaee/aiiie ia 3
ioieoa, a ia?oa 1997 aiaea yoi ninoaaeyei 45 i?ioeaioia), ia iieaoo
ieacaiiuo oneoa;

– iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, oiea/aiiue iinoaaueeai
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia e ae?.;

– iaeia ia i?eia?aoaiea aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, io/eneaiey a
ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, oiea/aiiua oaiiaeaiiua
ieaoaaee, ainoaea?noaaiiua iioeeiu e eeoeaiceiiiua nai?u.

Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiiai ia?a/iy cao?ao, eneeth/aaiuo ec aaeiaie
au?o/ee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey niaieoiiiai aeioiaea, ii ii ninoaao e aaee/eia
nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io aaeiaiai aeioiaea, en/eneyaiiai ii
iauai?eiyoie iaoiaeeea (noiia au?o/ee ca au/aoii iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee), oae eae au/eoathony ia
oieueei iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou, ii e i?ioeaiou ca e?aaeeo, iaeiae,
ieaoaeueueeii eioi?uo inoaaony noauaeo iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, e
ae?. ?anoiaeu. Ii ana aea iniiaiui niaea?aeaieai niaieoiiiai aeioiaea
yaeyaony noiia iieaou o?oaea e i?eauee. *oi aea eanaaony aaeiaie
au?o/ee, oi iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa, io?aaeaaiie ia n/aoa 46 “?aaeecaoeey
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)”, a oaeaea io ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e
i?i/aai eiouanoaa, io?aaeaaiie ia n/aoao 47 “?aaeecaoeey e i?i/aa
auauoea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa” e 48 “?aaeecaoeey i?i/eo aeoeaia”, e
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia (n/ao 80 “I?eauee e oauoee”). Oaeei
ia?acii, iiiyoea “aaeiaie au?o/ee”, i?eiaiyaiia i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee
oeacaiiuo a caeiia io 29 aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea noauaeoia iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, oe?a, /ai iau/ii i?eiaiyaiia iiiyoea au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa.

Noaaee aaeeiiai iaeiaa i?e oi?iuaiiie nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e
io/aoiinoe onoaiiaeaiu neaaeothuea:

1) i?e iaeiaa ia niaieoiiue aeioiae

– 10 i?ioeaioia a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao;

– aei 20 i?ioeaioia a athaeaeao noauaeoa ?O e ianoiue athaeaeao (a
oeaeii – aei 30%); 2) i?e iaeiaa ia aaeiaoth au?o/eo

– 3,33 i?ioeaioa a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao;

– aei 6,67 i?ioeaioa noiiu aaeiaie au?o/ee a athaeaeao noauaeoa ?O e
ianoiue athaeaeao (a oeaeii – aei 10 i?ioeaioia noiiu aaeiaie au?o/ee).

Anoanoaaiii, /oi aaeiaay au?o/ea neoaeeo iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, a
enoi/ieeii iaeiaiaiai ieaoaaea yaeyaony i?eaueue iaeiai i?aaei?eyoey; a
ioaeaeueiua ia?eiaeu iiaeao ieacaoueny iaaeinoaoi/ii i?eauee aeey
aianaiey iaeiaiaiai ieaoaaea, a yoii neo/aa o i?aaei?eyoey aicieeaao
caaeieaeaiiinoue ii ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao ni anaie auoaeathueie
iineaaenoaeyie.

Eiie?aoiua noaaee aaeeiiai iaeiaa onoaiaaeeaathony noauaeoaie ?O, iie
ii?aaeaeytho oaeaea i?iii?oeeth ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae
iaaeaeo athaeaeaoii noauaeoa ?O (?anioaeeee, e?ay, iaeanoe e ae?.) e
ianoiui athaeaeaoii. Iie iiaoo i?aaeinoaaeyoue eueaiou ii oieaoa
aaeeiiai iaeiaa ioaeaeueiui eaoaai?eyi ieaoaeueueeia (ii ia ioaeaeueiui
ieaoaeueueeai) a i?aaeaeao noiiu iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee, iiaeeaaeaueo
ca/eneaieth a athaeaeao noauaeoa ?O e ianoiue athaeaeao.

E?iia oiai, i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe noauaeoia ?O iiaoo aianoi
oeacaiiuo auoa iauaeoia e noaaie aaeeiiai iaeiaa aaiaeeoue ?an/aoiue
ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeaiey aaeeiiai iaeiaa ia iniiaa iieacaoaeae ii oeie/iui
i?aaiecaoeeyi-i?aaenoaaeoaeyi, o/eouaaoue eo io?aneaaua iniaaiiinoe
(?aciua a?oiiu i?aaei?eyoee auoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey, oi?aiaee, ?aiiioiua
e eiua ianoa?neea e ae?.). Ii i?e yoii noiiu aaeeiiai iaeiaa,
iiaeeaaeauea oieaoa i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie, ia iiaoo auoue
ieaea ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?an/aoiui iooai, a ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaeiaa iaaeaeo
athaeaeaoaie anao o?iaiae aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue onoaiiaeaiiiio
caeiiii (iaeei e aeaoi, oi anoue iaeia o?aoue – a oaaea?aeueiue
athaeaeao, aeaa o?aoe – a athaeaeao noauaeoa ?O e ianoiue athaeaeao).

Ioeoeeaeueiui aeieoiaioii, oaeinoiaa?ythuei i?aai i?eiaiaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai oi?iuaiiie nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe,
yaeyaony iaoaio, auaeaaaaiue iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie ii ianoo iinoaiiaee ia
o/ao n?ieii ia iaeei aiae. Noieiinoue iaoaioa ii?aaeaeyaony noauaeoaie
?O e iiaeao auoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaia ii aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iieaoa iaoaioa i?iecaiaeeony ia naa?o noii aaeeiiai iaeiaa, a
can/eouaaaony i?aaei?eyoeth a n/ao iaycaoaeuenoaa ii oieaoa aaeeiiai
iaeiaa.

Noiiu, iieo/aiiua io iieaou i?aaei?eyoeyie iaoaioia, ?ani?aaeaeythony
iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie oae aea, eae e aaeeiue iaeia (iaeei e aeaoi).

I?aaei?eyoea, aeaeathuaa ia?aeoe ia oi?iuaiioth nenoaio
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe e, anoanoaaiii, ioaa/athuaa
onoaiiaeaiiui e?eoa?eyi, aeieaeii iiaeaoue niioaaonoaothuaa ienueiaiiia
cayaeaiea a naith iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth ia iicaeiaa /ai caianyoe aei
ia/aea i/a?aaeiiai eaa?oaea. Aio aoaeao auaeai iaoaio i?e oneiaee, /oi:

– iauaa /enei ?aaioieeia ia i?aauneo 15;

– iao i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii oieaoa iaeiaia e eiuo
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae ca i?aaeuaeouee io/aoiue ia?eiae:

– naiaa?aiaiii naeaiu iaiaoiaeeiua ?an/aou ii iaeiaai e aooaaeoa?neay
io/aoiinoue ca i?aaeuaeouee io/aoiue ia?eiae.

Anee i?aaei?eyoea iieo/eei (i?eia?aei) iaoaio, oi oi?iuaiiay nenoaia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia aai oeeeaeu e iiae?acaeaeaiey,
yaeythueany naiinoiyoaeueiuie iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie; iie aeieaeiu a naie
iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee i?aaeinoaaeyoue iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiua eiiee
iaoaioia, iieo/aiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyie, ia iicaeiaa /ai ca 15 aeiae aei
ia/aea i/a?aaeiiai eaa?oaea. Oioy, iiaoi?yai, iaee/ea o i?aaei?eyoey,
eiathuaai anaai 15 ?aaioieeia, ioaeaeueii ?aniieiaeaiiuo oeeeaeia e
iiae?acaeaeaiee iaeiaa?iyoii, ai anyeii neo/aa, eo i/aiue iaei.

I?e oi?iuaiiie nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe i?aaei?eyoea
aaaeao “Eieao o/aoa aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia” ii oi?ia, onoaiaaeeaaaiie
Ieienoa?noaii oeiainia ?O. I?e iieo/aiee iaoaioa ia ia?aie no?aieoea
eieae i?inoaaeyaony ?aaeno?aoeeiiiue iiia? e aeaoa auaea/e iaoaioa. Ii
enoa/aiee n?iea aeaenoaey iaoaioa ii cayaeaieth i?aaei?eyoey aio
auaeaaony iiaue iaoaio ia i/a?aaeiie aiae n ?aaeno?aoeeae iiaie “Eieae
o/aoa aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia”.

Ii eoiaai oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ca eaa?oae
i?aae-i?eyoea-i?aaenoaaeyao a iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth aei 20-ai /enea
ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui, ?an/ao iiaeeaaeauaai oieaoa aaeeiiai
iaeiaa n ca/aoii ?aiaa iiea/aiiie noieiinoe iaoaioa, a oaeaea auieneo ec
“Eieae o/aoa aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia” n oeacaieai niaieoiiiai aeioiaea e
aaeiaie au?o/ee (a caaeneiinoe io i?eiyoiai iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey),
iieo/aiiuo ca io/aoiue ia?eiae.

Anee a oa/aiea aiaea aoaeao i?aauoaia i?aaeaeueiay /eneaiiinoue
?aaioieeia (15 /aeiaae), oi i?aaei?eyoea n ia/aea neaaeothuaai eaa?oaea
ia?aoiaeeo ia i?eiyooth ?aiaa nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e
io/aoiinoe.

A i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee n /eneaiiinoueth ?aaioathueo aei 15
/aeiaae ioiineoaeueii iaiiiai, ii eo i/aiue iiiai a oi?aiaea, a io?aneyo
auoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey ianaeaiey e ae?. Eae i?aaeei, ia?aoiae ia
oi?iuaiioth nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe ei auaiaeai,
oioy ii eaaeaeiio eiie?aoiiio i?aaei?eyoeth oaeie auaiae iioao auoue
naeaeai oieueei ia iniiaa ?an/aoa e n?aaiaiey noii iaeiaa ii
iauai?eiyoie e ii oi?iuaiiie nenoaia. Noaiaoe/ii iineaaeiyy iiaeao auoue
i?aaenoaaeaia neaaeothuei ia?acii.

OI?IUAIIAss NENOAIA IAEIAIIAEIAEAIEss I?AAeI?EssOEE E I?AAIECAOeEE

E?eoa?ee noauaeoia

iaeiai

i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa Iauaeou
oi?iuaiiiai

iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e noaaee aaeeiiai

iaeiaa

Iieacaoaeue Aaee/eia

iieacaoaey Iieacaoaeue Noaaee aaeeiiai iaeiaa, %

a oaaea?aeueiue

athaeaeao a athaeaeao noauaeoa

?O e ianoiue

athaeaeao

*eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia Aei 15

/aeiaae Niaieoiiue

aeioiae 10 Aei 20

Aaeiaay au?o/ea ca i?aaeoanoaothuee aiae Aei 100000 ieieiaeueiuo
?acia?ia iieaou Aaeiaay au?o/ea

3,3

Aei 6,67

Iauaeo oi?iuaiiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaiii
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe noauaeoa ?O, /oi aea eanaaony iiceoeee
i?aaei?eyoee ii aeaiiiio aii?ino, oi iia aeieaeia ii?aaeaeyoueny
no?oeoo?ie aaeiaie au?o/ee.

I?e aunieii oaeaeueiii aana iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao i?aaei?eyoeyi auaiaeiaa
i?eiyoue niaieoiiue aeioiae a ea/anoaa iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Anee
aea aeiey iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao iaaaeeea, oi auaiaeiaa a ea/anoaa iauaeoa
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eiyoue aaeiaoth au?o/eo.

Eueaioie aeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee, e?iia ?anniio?aiiuo auoa, iiaeii
n/eoaoue oaeaea iieiaeaiea caeiia io 14 ethiy 1995 aiaea “I
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?inneeneie
oaaea?aoeee”, ii eioi?iio a neo/aa anee eciaiaiey iaeiaiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa nicaeatho iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey noauaeoia
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ii n?aaiaieth n ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoeie
oneiaeyie, oi a oa/aiea ia?auo /aou?ao eao naiae aeayoaeueiinoe
oeacaiiua noauaeou iiaeeaaeao iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth a oii aea ii?yaeea,
eioi?ue aeaenoaiaae ia iiiaio eo ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee. Eueaioie
aeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony e i?aaeinoaaeaiiay ei aiciiaeiinoue
i?eiaiaiey onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee, i /ai neacaii a iiae?acaeaea 3.2.5.
“Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia”.

4.4.4. AEAeU AeAssOAEUeIINOE, INAIAIAEAeAAIUA IO IAEIAA IA I?EAUEUe

Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee” io 10 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea ooi/iai ia?a/aiue i?aaei?eyoee e
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, iieiinoueth inaiaiaeaeaiiuo io iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue. A yoii ioiioaiee i.4.7 eino?oeoeee AIN ?O io 10 aaaonoa 1995
aiaea “I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou a athaeaeao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee” o?aaoao nouanoaaiiie ei??aeoe?iaee.

Ia iaeaaaaony iaeiaii i?eaueue ?aeeaeiciuo iauaaeeiaiee, i?aaei?eyoee,
iaoiaeyueony a eo nianoaaiiinoe, e oicyenoaaiiuo iauanoa, onoaaiue
eaieoae eioi?uo ninoieo iieiinoueth ec aeeaaea ?aeeaeiciuo iauaaeeiaiee,
io eoeueoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?aaeiaoia
eoeueoa e i?aaeiaoia ?aeeaeiciiai iacia/aiey, a oaeaea eiay i?eaueue
oeacaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e oicyenoaaiiuo iauanoa a /anoe, eniieuecoaiie ia
inouanoaeaiea yoeie iauaaeeiaieyie ?aeeaeiciie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoa
eueaioa ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia i?eaueue, iieo/aiioth io i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey, ae?oaeo
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, a oaeaea eiuo oiaa?ia a niioaaonoaee n ia?a/iai,
ooaa?aeaeaaiui I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Ia iaeaaaaony iaeiaii i?eaueue iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee eiaaeeaeia e
iaoiaeyueony a eo nianoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee e
i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea oicyenoaaiiuo iauanoa, onoaaiue eaieoae eioi?uo
ninoieo iieiinoueth ec aeeaaeia iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee eiaaeeaeia.
Yoa eueaioa, eae e i?aaenoaaeyaiay ?aeeaeiciui i?aaiecaoeeyi, ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia i?eaueue, iieo/aiioth io i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee
iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey, ae?oaeo iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo, a oaeaea eiuo oiaa?ia a niioaaonoaee n ia?a/iai,
ooaa?aeaeaaiui I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O.

Ia iaeaaaaony iaeiaii i?eaueue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
i?ioacii-i?oiiaaee/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee, a oaeaea iieo/aiiay io
i?iecaiaenoaa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa i?ioeeaeoeee eiaaeeaeiinoe e
?aaaeeeoaoeee eiaaeeaeia; ia?a/aiue oaeeo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa i?eaaaeai
a i?eeiaeaiee e eino?oeoeee ANI ?O ?37 io 10 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea. Ia
iaeaaaaony iaeiaii oaeaea i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay io i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ia?iaeiuo i?iiuneia, a oaeaea ia?iaeiuo
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iiuneia.

Iacaaeneii io aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe inaiaiaeaeathony io iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee, a eioi?uo eiaaeeaeu
ninoaaeytho ia iaiaa 50% iauaai /enea ?aaioieeia, i?e oneiaee, /oi ia
iaiaa iieiaeiu iieo/aiiie i?eauee ?anoiaeoaony ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu
eiaaeeaeia. Eiathony a aeaeo, anoanoaaiii, eiaaeeaeu, ?aaioathuea ia
aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee. Ia?a/aiue nioeeaeueiuo ioaeae eiaaeeaeia, ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea eioi?uo aeieaeii auoue eniieueciaaii ia iaiaa iieiaeiu
iieo/aiiie i?eauee, i?eaaaeai a eino?oeoeee AIN ?O ?37 io 10 aaaonoa
1995 aiaea (a Caeiia “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee”
yoiai ia?a/iy iao). A yoio ia?a/aiue, a /anoiinoe, aoiaeyo: ieacaiea
iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue eiaaeeaeai, iaania/aiea eo eaea?noaaie
naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiia ea/aiea, iaania/aiea n?aaenoaaie ia?aaeaeaeaiey,
i?ioacii-i?oiiaaee/aneie iiiiuueth, oaieioaoieeie, no?aeioaoieeie (aeey
eeoe n ineaaeaiiui neooii) e ae?oaeie oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie aeey
o?oaea, auoa, iao/aiey, aeinoaa, oeceoeueoo?u e nii?oa e eiuo noa?
aeecie.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaa i?aaei?eyoey ia ?anniao?eaaaioth eueaioo a
n?aaeianieni/ioth /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia aeeth/athony ia oieueei ana
ninoiyuea a ooaoa ?aaioieee (a oii /enea ?aaioathuea ii
niaianoeoaeuenoao), ii e eeoea, auiieiythuea aeey aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey
?aaiou ii aeiaiai?ai iiae?yaea, ii?o/aiey e eiui aeiaiai?ai
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a.

Inaiaiaeaeaia io iaeiaa i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee, iaoiaeyueony
(ia?aaeeneioee?iaaiiuo) a ?aaeiiao, iino?aaeaaoeo io ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai
caa?yciaiey aneaaenoaea *a?iiaueueneie e ae?oaeo ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo
eaoano?io, iieo/aiiay io auiieiaiey i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo,
no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo, aaoio?ainii?oiuo e ?aiiioiuo ?aaio,
ecaioiaeaiey eiino?oeoeee e aeaoaeae i?e oneiaee, /oi iauai ?aaio ii
eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo eaoano?io ninoaaeyao o yoeo
i?aaei?eyoee ia iaiaa 50 i?ioeaioia iauaai iauaia ?aaio. Anee aea o
i?aaei?eyoee, auiieiythueo yoe ?aaiou, eo iauai ninoaaeyao iaiaa 50
i?ioeaioia io iauaai iauaia, oi io iaeiaa ia i?eaueue inaiaiaeaeaaony
oieueei /anoue i?eauee, iieo/aiiay a ?acoeueoaoa auiieiaiey yoeo ?aaio.

Ia iaeaaaaony iaeiaii /anoue i?eauee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
?anoaa?aoeeiiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiay eie ia ?anoaa?aoeeth, a
oaeaea i?eaueue ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ioieoeeiaeueiuo iocaaa, aeaeeioae,
oeea?iiie/aneeo eieeaeoeaia, oaao?ia, a?oeaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, oee?eia,
ciiia?eia, aioaie/aneeo naaeia, aeaiae?ieiae/aneeo ia?eia e
iaoeeiiaeueiuo caiiaaaeieeia, iieo/aiiay io eo aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia iaeaaaaony iaeiaii i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay io i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia
aeaoneiai ieoaiey.

N 1 yiaa?y 1996 aiaea inaiaiaeaeaia io iaeiaa i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee
Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau eaniiai oicyenoaa ?innee, iieo/aiiay io
ia?a?aaioee e ooeeecaoeee ieceini?oiie e iaeeioiaa?iie ae?aaaneiu, io
?oaie ooiaea ca eanii e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee iiai/iiai iieueciaaiey
eanii, i?e oneiaee eniieueciaaiey yoie i?eauee ia aaaeaiea eaniiai
oicyenoaa.

Oaeaea inaiaiaeaeaia io iaeiaa ia i?eaueue iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee
ioioieeia e ?uaieiaia a oaeaea iaoiaeyueony a eo nianoaaiiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee iieo/aiiay io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia (?aaio oneoa)(
ioioie/uea-?uaieiaiiai nii?oeaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiiai e i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai
iacia/aiey. Aia?aua oaeaea inaiaiaeaeaia io iaeiaa i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee
ethauo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i iieo/aiiay io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iecaaaeaiiie eie iaaeeoeeineie i?iaeoeoeee aoiaeyuae a ia?a/aiue
aeeciaiii-iaiaoiaeeiuo e aaaeiaeoeo eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa ecaeaeee
iaaeeoeeineiai iacia/aiey ii ia?a/ith ooaa?aeaeaiiiio I?aaeoaeuenoaii
?O.

I?aaei?eyoey e aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?ua inaiaiaeaeaiu io iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue oeacaiu a eino?oeoeee N 37 ANI ?O io 10 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea ii
iieueciaaoueny ath iiaeii oieueei n o/aoii aeiiieiaiee e eciaiaiee
aianaiiuo a Caeii ?O «I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee»
Oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii io 31 aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea N 227-OC e

Oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii io 10 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea N 13-OC .

5. II?ssAeIE OIEAOU IAEIAA IA I?EAUEUe

Oaae.5.1.

AeAENOAOTHUEA NOAAEE IAEIAA IA I?EAUEUe ( A
%)

Ieaoaeueueee iaeiaa A /anoe, ca/eneyaiie a

athaeaeao Noiia?iay

oaaea?aeueiue noauaeoia ?O

Aaiee, no?aoiaueee, ae?aee, a?iea?neea eiioi?u, a oaeaea ethaua
i?aaiecaoeee ii i?eauee io iin?aaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe

I?aaei?eyoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe, no?ieoaeuenoaa, oi?aiaee, auoiaiai
ianeoaeeaaiey e ana i?i/ea i?aaiecaoeee

13

13

aei 30

aei 22

aei 43

aei 35

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeaia noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
oieueei a /anoe ca/eneyaiie a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao – 13 %. Noaaee
iaeiaa a /anoe ca/eneyaiie a athaeaeao noauaeoia ?O iiaoo auoue ?aciuie
iie ii?aaeaeythony naiinoiyoaeueii i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe
noauaeoia ?O ii a i?aaeaeao noaaee onoaiiaeaiiie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O.

Eiia/ii, noauaeou ?O iiaee au onoaiaaeeaaoue noaaee iaeiaa ieaea
i?aaeaeueiuo, ii i?e iai?yaeaiiinoe, a ai iiiaeo neo/ayo aeaoeoeeoiinoe
eo athaeaeaoia yoiai ii/oe ia i?ienoiaeeo, ii/oe aacaea noaaee iaeiaa
ninoaaeytho 35% e 43%.

Noauaeou ?O iiaoo aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue noaaee iaeiaa, ii ia ii
ioaeaeueiui ieaoaeueueeai, a eeoue ii eaoaai?eyi ieaoaeueueeia e aeaeai
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaiaycaoaeueii, iai?eia?, aaieai, no?aoiaueeai,
a?iea?neei eiioi?ai, a oaeaea ii i?eauee io iin?aaeie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe onoaiaaeeaaoue aaeeioth noaaeo iaeiaa 30 %, iiaeii iaeiei
onoaiiaeoue 30 %, ae?oaei 25 %, o?aoueei 28 % – yoi aeaei i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe noauaeoia ?O. Oi/ii oae aea iaiaycaoaeueii
i?aaei?eyoeyi i?iiuoeaiiinoe, no?ieoaeuenoaa, oi?aiaee, auoiaiai
ianeoaeeaaiey e ae?. Onoaiaaeeaaoue aaeeioth noaaeo iaeiaa, ca/eneyaiiai
a athaeaeaou noauaeoia ?O a ?acia?a 22 %, iiaeii n o/aoii iauaeoeaiuo
oneiaee a aeaiiii e?aa, iaeanoe o.i. onoaiiaeoue iaeiie eaoaai?ee
ieaoaeueueeia noaaeo 18 %, ae?oaei 20 %, o?aoueei 22 % (ii ia auoa 22
%). Yoie aiciiaeiinoueth noauaeou ?O i?aeoe/anee ia iieuecothony.

Noaaee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aeioiaeia io ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe,
ioee/athueany io i?eaaaeaiiuo a oaae.5.1, ?anniao?eaaeenue auoa, caeanue
oieueei na?oiie?oai eo a iaeiie oaaeeoea:

Oaae.5.2.

N

i/i Aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe Noaaea iaeiaa, % I?eia/aiea

1 Aeioiaeu io aeieaaiai o/anoey a aeayoaeueiinoe ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee
15 Iaeia aceiaaony o

enoi/ieea

2 Aeeaeaeaiaeu ii aeoeeyi, i?ioeaiou e aeeneiioiue aeioiae ii
ainoaea?noaaiiui oeaiiui aoiaaai

15

Iaeia aceiaaony o

enoi/ieea

3 Aeioiaeu eaceii, eai?iuo aeiiia e ae?oaiai eai?iiai aeciana
90

——-

4 Aeioiaeu io aeaeaiaeayoaeueiinoe: aeaeainaeiiia, aeaeaiiieaca,
i?ieaoa aeaeai- e aoaeeieannao e caienae ia ieo

70 A ninoaaa aeioiaeia o/eouaathony aeioiaeu io a?aiaeu e
ae?oaeo aeaeia eniieueciaaiey aeaeainaeiiia e ae?.

Oa?iei “Iaeia aceiaaony o enoi/ieea” icia/aao, /oi ia/eneyao noiio
iaeiaa e ia?a/eneyao a athaeaeao i?aaiecaoeey, auiea/eaathuay aeioiae (a
ia iieo/athuay aai), iia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iieiioo e
naiaa?aiaiiinoue oieaou iaeiaa. Iai?eia?, aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai,
ia/eneyy aeeaeaeaiaeu aeoeeiia?ai, oaea?aeeaaao e ia?a/eneyao a
athaeaeao iaeia: o aeoeeiia?ia – oece/aneeo eeoe – ii noaaea
iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa (12% e ae?.), o aeoeeiia?ia – th?eaee/aneeo eeoe ii
noaaea 15% (e?iia aaieia, eioi?ua ieaoyo iaeia ii noaaea 18%).

Ii i. 3 e 4 oaae. 5.2 iaeiaii iaeaaaaony ia i?eaueue, a aeioiae. Aeioiae
ii?aaeaeyaony a aeaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo au?o/eie e ?anoiaeaie,
aeeth/aaiuie a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), o/eouaaaiuo
i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee, ca eneeth/aieai ?anoiaeia ia iieaoo
o?oaea. Yoi cia/eo, /oi iiae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea ii yoei aeaeai
aeayoaeueiinoe iiiaaeaao ia oieueei i?eaueue, ii e oiiae iieaou o?oaea.

O iiiaeo aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa /anoue aeoeee (eae aiai?yo, iaeaou aeoeee)
iaoiaeyony a ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. Aeeaeaeaiaeu ii yoei
aeoeeyi ia/eneythony a iauai ii?yaeea, ii oai aea noaaeai, /oi e ae?oaei
aeoeeiia?ai, ii iaeiaii ia iaeaaathony; ia/eneaiiua noiiu aeeaeaeaiaeia
ia?a/eneythany a niioaaonoaothuea athaeaeaou a caaeneiinoe io oiai, a
/ueae nianoaaiiinoe iaoiaeeeinue i?aaei?eyoea aei i?eaaoecaoeee:
oaaea?aeueiie, noauaeoa ?O eee ioieoeeiaeueiie, eoi yaeyaony
aea?aeaoaeai iaeaoa aeoeee. En/eneaiea iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu, oeacaiiua a
i. 3 e 4. oaae. 5.2, i?iecaiaeeony aaeaiany/ii ia?anoathuei eoiaii n
ia/aea aiaea. ?an/ao noiiu iaeiaa i?aaenoaaeyaony a iaeiaiaoth
einiaeoeeth ia iicaeiaa 20-ai /enea ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui, a
oieaoa iaeiaa i?iecaiaeeony a iyoeaeiaaiue n?ie ni aeiy i?aaenoaaeaiey
?an/aoa (o.a. ia iicaeiaa 25-ai /enea ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca
io/aoiui).

I?e en/eneaiee noiiu iaeiaa ii i. 4 oaae. 5.2 neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi i?eaueue io i?ieaoa (iieaca) eeii- e aeaeaii?iaeoeoeee aeey aeaoae,
i?iecaaaeaiiie ?inneeneeie eeiinooaeeyie, iaeiaii ia iaeaaaaony
(anoanoaaiii, aeieaeai auoue iaania/ai ?acaeaeueiue o/ao oaeie i?eauee).

A oa/aiea eaa?oaea ieaoaeueueee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?iecaiaeyo aaainiaua
ieaoaaee iaeiaa, enoiaey ec i?aaeiieaaaaiie noiiu i?eauee ca
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiue ia?eiae (eaa?oae) e onoaiiaeaiiie noaaee iaeiaa.

A niioaaonoaee n .Oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee” io 31 aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea ?227-OC io oieaou
aaainiauo aciinia iaeiaa ia i?eaueue inaiaiaeaeaiu:

– i?aaei?eyoey, aeiauaathuea ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu e ae?aaioeaiiua
eaiie;

– iaeua i?aaei?eyoey;

– athaeaeaoiua i?aaiecaoeee.

A 1995 aiaeo e a?oiia ieaoaeueueeia iaeiaa, inaiaiaeaeaiiuo io aaainiauo
aciinia, ioiineeenue oaeaea eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu, ii n 1 yiaa?y 1996
aiaea iie ec iaa eneeth/aiu.

I?e eciaiaiee a oa/aiea eaa?oaea noiiu i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?eauee
i?aaei?eyoea-iaeiaiieaoaeueuee ii niaeaniaaieth n oeiainiauie i?aaiaie
iiaeao ia?aniio?aoue noiio i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?eauee e aaainiauo aciinia
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue e i?aaenoaaeoue ni?aaeo ia yoeo eciaiaieyo ia
iicaeiaa /ai ca 20 aeiae aei ieii/aiey io/aoiiai eaa?oaea.

Aaainiaua, aciinu iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?iecaiaeyony ia iicaeiaa 15-ai
/enea eaaeaeiai ianyoea ?aaiuie aeieyie a ?acia?a iaeiie o?aoe
i?aaeiieaaaaiie eaa?oaeueiie noiiu iaeiaa.

Aei ia/aea eaaeaeiai eaa?oaea i?aaei?eyoey i?aaenoaaeytho iaeiaiaiio
i?aaio ii ianoo naiaai iaoiaeaeaiey ni?aaeo i i?aaeiieaaaaiie noiia
i?eauee a i?aaenoiyuai eaa?oaea ii neaaeothuae oi?ia (oaae. 5.3).

Oaae. 5.3.

NI?AAEA

ia aaainiauo aciinao iaeiaa a athaeaeao, enoiaey

ec i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?eauee ia 2 eaa?oae 1996 aiaea

AI “Iaoaeeeno” (oun. ?oa.)

N

i/i Iieacaoaee Ii aeaiiui

ieaoaeueueea

1 Noiia i?eauee, en/eneaiiay enoiaey ec ieaiiaiai (i?aaeiieaaaaiiai)
iauaia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia

240000

2 Onoaiiaeaiiay noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue (anaai %) a oii /enea:

a) a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao

a) a athaeaeao iaeanoe (eee e?ay e o.ae.)

a) a ianoiue athaeaeao 35

13

15

7

3 Noiia iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, en/eneaiiiai enoiaey ec i?aaeiieaaaaiie
i?eauee e onoaiiaeaiiie noaaee iaeiaa a oii /enea:

a) a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao

a) a athaeaeao iaeanoe

a) a ianoiue athaeaeao

84000

31200

36000

16800

I?iecaaaey ?an/ao noiiu iaeiaa, aooaaeoa? aeieaeai i?iaa?eoue aai, a oii
/enea iooai ii?aaeaeaiey eiio?ieueiie noiiu:

eiio?ieue: 31200 + 36000 + 6800 = 84000 oun. ?oaeae.

Ii ieii/aiee ia?aiai eaa?oaea, iieoaiaeey, aeaayoe ianyoeaa e aiaea
ieaoaeueueee en/eneytho noiio iaeiaa ia?anoathuei eoiaii n ia/aea aiaea,
enoiaey ec oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiie eie i?eauee, iiaeeaaeauae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth, n o/aoii i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo eueaio e noaaee iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue. Noiia iaeiaa, iiaeeaaeauay oieaoa a athaeaeao, ii?aaeaeyaony n
o/aoii (oi anoue ca au/aoii) ?aiaa ia/eneaiiuo ieaoaaeae.

I?e yoii ?an/ao noiiu iaeiaa ii oaeoe/aneie i?eauee iiaeao ioee/aoueny
io en/eneaiiiai, enoiaey ec i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?eauee. ?acieoea iaaeaeo
noiiie, iiaeeaaeauae aianaieth a athaeaeao ii oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiie
i?aaei?eyoeai i?eauee e noiiie aaainiauo aciinia iaeiaa (enoiaey ec
i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?eauee) ca enoaeoee eaa?oae ooi/iyaony (oaaee/eaaaony
eee oiaiueoaaony) ia noiio, ?ann/eoaiioth enoiaey ec i?ioeaioiie noaaee
ca iieueciaaiea aaieianeei e?aaeeoii, onoaiiaeaiiie a enoaeoai eaa?oaea
Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii ?O: a oa/aiea eaa?oaea noaaea Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea
iiaea iaiyoueny, iiyoiio aa?aony noaaea ia na?aaeeio eaa?oaea: ia 15
oaa?aey, ia 15 iay, ia 15 aaaonoa, ia 15 iiya?y. Anee. iai?eia?, ca
ia?aue eaa?oae 1997 aiaea noiia iaeiaa, en/eneaiiiai ii oaeoe/aneie
i?eauee, i?aauoaao en/eneaiioth, enoiaey ec i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?eauee, ia
20 iei. ?oaeae, oi ooi/iaiea noiiu iaeiaa i?iecaiaeeony neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

– noaaea Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O ia 13 oaa?aey 1997 aiaea (aiaeiaay)
42%;

– noaaea OeA ?O a ?an/aoa ia eaa?oae 42:4 = 10,5%;

– noiia, iiaeeaaeauay aciino a athaeaeao 20 + (20 o 10.5%) = 20+2,1
=2,1iei.?oa.

Ei??aeoe?iaea aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao ia i?ioeaioioth
noaaeo Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O iniiaaia ia oii, /oi i?e caieaeaiee
aaainiauo aciinia noii iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoea eniieueciaaei a
naiai iai?ioa n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee i?eiaaeeaaeaoue
athaeaeaoo, oi anoue eae au eniieueciaaei athaeaeaoiue e?aaeeo. A ca
e?aaeeo iaaei ieaoeoue (anoanoaaiii, ii noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey OeA ?O).

I?aaaea, ei??aeoe?iaea i?iecaiaeeony a iaa noi?iiu: eae a noi?iio
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao (i?e caieaeaiee aaainiauo
aciinia, eiaaea ?an/ao noiiu iaeiaa ii oaeoe/aneie i?eauee ieacaeny
aieueoa noiiu aaainiauo ieaoaaeae ca enoaeoee eaa?oae), oae e a noi?iio
aica?aoa i?aaei?eyoeth eceeoia aianaiiuo n?aaenoa a athaeaeao (i?e
caauoaiee aaainiauo aciinia, eiaaea ?an/ao noiiu iaeiaa ii oaeoe/aneie
i?eauee ieacaeny iaiueoa noiiu aaainiauo ieaoaaeae iaeiaa ca enoaeoee
eaa?oae). Ii i?e ii?aaeaeaiee aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao
ieeaeeo ia?aie/aiee ia onoaiiaeaii, a i?e ii?aaeaeaiee noii,
iiaeeaaeaueo aica?aoo ec athaeaeaoa (eee ca/eneaieth i?aaei?eyoeth a
n/ao i?aaenoiyueo ieaoaaeae) onoaiiaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?aie/aiey:
aica?ao ec athaeaeaoa eceeoia aianaiiuo noii i?iecaiaeeony a i?aaeaeao
oaeoe/anee aianaiiuo a athaeaeao aaainiauo ieaoaaeae iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
ca io/aoiue eaa?oae, ii ia aieaa noiiu, inoaaoaeny iinea aica?aoa iaeiaa
ii ?acoeueoaoai ia?a?an/aoa ii oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiie i?eauee ca io/aoiue
ia?eiae n ia/aea aiaea.

Anee n i?aaei?eyoey, enoiaey eo ?an/aoa iaeiaa ii oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiie
noiia i?eauee ca eaa?oae, i?e/eoathony aeiiieieoaeueiua ieaoaaee a
athaeaeao, oi iie ?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie ?aciuo o?iaiae
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ?ani?aaeaeaieth iaaeaeo ieie iaeiaa ia i?eaueue.

I?eia?

Ii aeaiiui ?an/aoa iaeiaa io oaeoe/aneie i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey – AI
“Iaoaeeeno” ca aoi?ie eaa?oae 1997 aiaea, n iaai i?e/eoathony
aeiiieieoaeueiua ieaoaaee a athaeaeao a noiia 14 iei. ?oaeae.
?ani?aaeaeeoue oeacaiioth noiio iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie ?acee/iuo o?iaiae.

Eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu 4.5.3, noiia?iay noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue AI
“Iaoaeeeno” ninoaaeyao 35%, a ii athaeaeaoai ?acee/iuo o?iaiae
niioaaonoaaiii 13, 15, e 7 i?ioeaioia. Enoiaey eo yoeo aeaiiuo noiia
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae ?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie
neaaeothuea, ia?acii:

a) a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao

14 iei. ?oaeae o 13 = 5,2 iei. ?oa.;

35

a) a athaeaeao iaeanoe

14 iei. ?oaeae o 15 = 6 iei. ?oa.;

35

a) a ianoiue athaeaeao

14 iei. ?oaeae o 7 = 2,8 iei. ?oa.;

35

Eiio?ieue: 5,2 +6,0+2.8 = 14 iei. ?oa.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, nei??aeoe?iaaiiua ia i?ioeaioioth
noaaeo Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O ca iieueciaaiea aaieianeei e?aaeeoii,
ioiinyony ia oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey (aeaaao
n/. 80 “I?eauee e oauoee”).

Ia/eneaiea eae aaainiauo aciinia iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, oae e noiiu iaeiaa
ii oaeoe/aneie i?eauee (ca au/aoii ?aiaa i?iecaaaeaiiuo ieaoaaeae,
iineieueeo ana ?an/aou aaaeoony ia?anoathuei eoiaii) io?aaeaaony a o/aoa
ii aeaaaoo n/. 81 “Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee” e e?aaeeoo n/. 68 “?an/aou n
athaeaeaoii” (aicieeiiaaiea caaeieaeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey –
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea athaeaeaoo). Oieaoa iaeiaa, oi anoue iiaaoaiea
caaeieaeaiiinoe athaeaeaoo ii iaeiaiaui ieaoaaeai, i?iecaiaeeony
nienaieai ia/eneaiiie noiiu iaeiaa n e?aaeeoa n/. 51 “?an/aoiue n/ao” a
ei??aniiiaeaioeee n aeaaaoii n/. 68 “?an/aou n athaeaeaoii” (iiaaoaiea
caaeieaeaiiinoe).

Aaainiaua ieaoaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?eieiathony a ?an/ao a i?aaeaeao
noii, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a, ni?aaeao ia aaainiauo aciinao iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue a athaeaeao (n o/aoii eciaiaiee, aianaiiuo a onoaiiaeaiiii
ii?yaeea) enoiaey ec noii i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?eauee. Iai?eia?, a ni?aaea i
noiiao aaainiauo ieaoaaeae iaeiaa ia i?eaueue auee i?aaeoniio?aiu ia
ia?aue eaa?oae 1997 aiaea ieaoaaee a ?acia?a 400 iei. ?oaeae, oaeoe/anee
ieaoaeueueeii ia?a/eneaii a athaeaeao 500 iei. ?oaeae, a noiia iaeiaa,
i?e/eoathuayny a athaeaeao enoiaey ec oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiie i?eauee ca
ia?aue eaa?oae, ninoaaeea 600 iei. ?oaeae. Ii yoei aeaiiui noiia iaeiaa,
iiaeeaaeauay e iieaoa ii ?acoeueoaoai aeayoaeueiinoe ca ia?aue eaa?oae
1997 aiaea, ninoaaeyao 200 iei. ?oaeae (600-400). Io yoie noiiu
ii?aaeaeythony aeiiieieoaeueiua ieaoaaee ii noaaea Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea
?O. Iineieueeo 15 oaa?aey 1997 aiaea yoa noaaea ninoaaeyea 42 %, oi
aeiiieieoaeueiua ieaoaaee ninoaayo:

42 : 4 = 10.5%; 200 iei. ?oa. o 10,5% = 21 iei.?oaeae.

Anaai i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii aianoe a athaeaeao:

600 + 21 = 621 iei. ?oaeae.

Ca au/aoii ?aiaa i?iecaaaeaiiuo ieaoaaeae i?aaenoieo aianoe:

621 – 500 = 121 iei. ?oaeae.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, ?ann/eoaiiua a oeacaiiii auoa
ii?yaeea, ioiinyony ia oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe (aeaaao
n/.80 «I?eauee e oauoee»).

Anee aea, iai?ioea, i?aaei?eyoeth aica?auaiu eceeoia aianaiiua noiiu
iaeiaa, nei??aeoe?iaaiiua ia noaaeo Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O, oi
ia/eneaiiua aio aeiiieieoaeueiua noiiu ioiinyony a e?aaeeo n/.80
«I?eauee e oauoee» eae aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu e iaeaaathony iaeiaii
ia i?eaueue a iauai ii?yaeea.

Anee ?an/ao iaeiaa ii oaeoe/aneie i?eauee ieacaeny iaiueoa noiiu
aaainiauo ieaoaaeae iaeiaa, oaeoe/anee aianaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeai a
athaeaeao, oi oeacaiiay ?acieoea, nei??aeoe?iaaiiay ia i?ioeaioioth
noaaeo OeA ?O, can/eouaathony i?aaei?eyoeth a n/ao i/a?aaeiuo ieaoaaeae
eee aica?auaaony aio iaeiaiaie einiaeoeeae ii aai ienueiaiiiio
cayaeaieth, ii ia aieaa noii aaainiauo aciinia, aianaiiuo a aeaiiii
eaa?oaea i?aaei?eyoeai. Aeiionoei, noiia aaainiauo aciinia i?aaei?eyoey
a athaeaeao ca ia?aue eaa?oae 1997 aiaea – 400 iei. ?oaeae, noiia iaeiaa
ii oaeoe/aneie i?eauee ca eaa?oae – 300 iei. ?oaeae. A yoii neo/aa
aica?aoo eee ca/aoo i?aaei?eyoeth iiaeeaaeeo noiia:

100 + ( 100 o 10,5 %) = 110,5 iei. ?oaeae,

aaea 10,5 % – i?ioeaioiay noaaea Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea ?O ia 15
oaa?aey 1997 aiaea, aeaeaiiay ia 4 (42 % : 4).

Ii i?aaei?eyoeyi, iieo/eaoei a io/aoiii eaa?oaea oauoie, aica?ao noii,
?ann/eoaiiuo oeacaiiui auoa niiniaii, ia i?iecaiaeeony.

Ia/eiay n 1 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea ana i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua aei yoiai
a?aiaie i?iecaiaeeee aaainiaua ieaoaaee, eiatho i?aai ioeacaoueny io ieo
e ia?aeoe ia aaeaiany/ioth (aianoi eaa?oaeueiie) oieaoo a athaeaeao
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, enoiaey ec oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiie i?eauee ca
i?aaeoanoaothuee ianyoe e noaaee iaeiaa. ?an/aou iaeiaa ii oaeoe/anee
iieo/aiiie i?eauee i?iecaiaeyony aaeaiany/ii ia?anoathuei eoiaii. Noiia
iaeiaa, iiaeeaaeauay oieaoa a athaeaeao, ii?aaeaeyaony ca au/aoii ?aiaa
ia/eneaiiuo noii ieaoaaeae, ?an/aou i?aaenoaaeythony a iaeiaiaua i?aaiu
ia iicaeiaa 20 /enea ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui, a oieaoa iaeiaa
i?iecaiaeeony ia iicaeiaa 25 /enea ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui,
ii eaa?oaeueiui ?an/aoai – a iyoeaeiaaiue n?ie ni aeiy, onoaiiaeaiiiai
aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai io/aoa ca eaa?oae, a ii aiaeiaui
?an/aoai – a aeanyoeaeiaaiue n?ie ni aeiy, onoaiiaeaiiiai aeey
i?aaenoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai io/aoa ca enoaeoee aiae.

I?e ionoonoaee aeiaiai?a i niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe n?aaenoaa,
iinooieaoea io ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, aeeth/athony a
ninoaa aeioiaeia io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee e a o/aoa io?aaeathony
ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 80 “I?eauee e oauoee”.

Enoiaeiie aacie aeey ?an/aoa noiiu iaeiaa ii oaeoe/aneie i?eauee
yaeyaony e?aaeeoiaia naeueaei n/aoa 80 “I?eauee e oauoee”, yoi e anoue
aaeainiaay i?eaueue. A “Io/aoa i oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao” (o ? 2) iia
iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea ii no?iea 140 “I?eaueue (oauoie) io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea”; a aooaaeoa?neii aaeaina ii no?iea 480 iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea
oieueei /anoue aaeainiaie i?eauee (“Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue io/aoiiai
aiaea”).

Ia aaca aaeainiaie i?eauee, eae auei iieacaii auoa, ii?aaeaeyaony
aaeiaay i?eaueue, a ia aa iniiaa i?eaueue, iaeaaaaiay iaeiaii ii oi?ia
i?eeiaeaiey ? 8 e eino?oeoeee AIN ?O ? 37 io 10 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea. Ie
yoii ioaeii eiaoue aaeaeo eciaiaiey, aianaiiua oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii ?
227-OC io 31 aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea e Oaaea?aeueiui Caeiiii ? 13-OC io 10
yiaa?y 1997 aiaea. Yoe eciaiaiey auee ioia/aiu auoa.

E?iia oiai, neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi i?eaueue, i?eieiaaiay a ?an/ao
aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ioee/aaony io aaeainiaie i?eauee ia noiiu
?anniio?aiiuo auoa ii?ie?oaiuo cao?ao, i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu e
ae?.), oi anoue aaeiaay i?eaueue aieueoa aaeainiaie ia noiio i?aauoaiey
onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?iaoeaia.

I?e aicieeiiaaiee o i?aaei?eyoee caaeieaeaiiinoe ii ieaoaaeai a
athaeaeao e iei iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny ia?u aannii?iiai acuneaiey iaaeieiee
a aeaea ia?auaiey acuneaiey ia noiiu, i?e/eoathueany iaaeieiueeo io aai
aeaaeoi?ia. Yoa ia?a inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiui
Ainiaeianeoaeaie ?O, Ieioeiii ?O OeA ?O “Ii?yaeeii aannii?iiai acuneaiey
iaaeieiee ii ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao a aeaea ia?auaiey acuneaiey ia noiiu,
i?e/eoathueany iaaeieiueeo io aai aeaaeoi?ia” (AIN ?O 28 oaa?aey 1994
a., IO ?O e OeA ?O 1 ia?oa 1994 a.).

TH?eaee/aneea eeoea, iacaaeneii io oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu oicyenoaiaaiey, a oaeaea eo oeeeaeu e
eiua iainiaeaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey, eiathuea ioaeaeueiue aaeain e
?an/aoiue (oaeouee) n/ao, ia eioi?ua a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aiceiaeaia iaycaiiinoue oiea/eaaoue iaeiae, aeieaeiu
aanoe o/ao aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe e aaeaeaa?oaeueii ninoaaeyoue
ia?a/aiue i?aaiecaoeee e i?aaei?eyoee aeaaeoi?ia n oeacaieai noiiu
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, a oii /enea i?in?i/aiiie.

A neo/aa nienaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe eae aaciaaeaaeiie ia oauoee
aneaaenoaea iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe aeieaeieea iia ia n/eoaaony
aiioee?iaaiiie e aeieaeia io?aaeaoueny ca aaeainii a oa/aiea iyoe eao n
iiiaioa nienaiey aeey iaaethaeaiey ca aiciiaeiinoueth aa acuneaiey a
neo/aa eciaiaiey (oeo/oaiey) eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey aeieaeieea.

6. CAEETH*AIEA

Oyaeanoue iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie a ?innee i/aaeaeia, aeieacuaaoue aa ia
ioaeii. Iaycaiiinoue ieaoeoue iaeiae oaeaea ia aucuaaao niiiaiee. Ii ia
aii?in i oii, eae ieaoeoue iaiueoa iaeiaia, iiaoo auoue aeaiu ?aciua
.ioaaou. Iao ioaao ninoieo a oii, /oiau neaaeiaaoue i?aaeeo: anee, ia
ia?ooay caeiiia, iiaeii ieaoeoue iaeiaia ia ?oaeue iaiueoa, oi yoi
neaaeoao aeaeaoue.

Oioy iniiaiua eiioo?u iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O neiaeeeenue aeiaieueii /aoei,
ian aeaeoo aua iiiaea aa eciaiaiey e ooi/iaiey:

– nie?auaiea eiee/anoaa iaeiaia, ii aac nouanoaaiiiai nieaeaiey iauaai
o?iaiy iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, yoi i?e iuiaoiai oeiainiaii ninoiyiee
ainoaea?noaa iaaiciiaeii, o.e. anee naaiaeiy ?acei nieceoue o?iaaiue
iaeiaia, oi iaoaaoea n?aaenoa a athaeaeaoa, e aac oiai aanueia ino?ay,
i?eiao i?inoi eaoano?ioe/aneea ?acia?u. A ?acoeueoaoa ainoaea?noai
aoaeao auioaeaeaii oeiaine?iaaoue iaecaaaeiua ?anoiaeu ca n/ao
e?aaeeoiie yiennee, /oi iiaea/ao ca niaie aeia?eioeyoeeth, eioi?ay naia
ii naaa yaeyaony iaeiaii aieaa oyaeaeui e aeano?oeoeaiui aeey yeiiiieee,
/ai ana inoaeueiua, aianoa acyoua. E oiio aea aeia?eioeyoeey ai?acaei
aieueoa ioieiaao o ianaeaiey e ainoaea?noaa, /ai ainoaea?noai iieo/aao
io e?aaeeoiie yiennee, aa ii?iaeeaoae.

– oneeaiea eiio?iey ca niaethaeaieai iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa n
oeaeueth iiauoaiey noaiaie “niae?aaiinoe” iaeiaia, ai?ueau n oae
iacuaaaiie /a?iie iaee/iinoueth, iaiaa?e?iaaieai ?an/aoiuie e nnoaeiuie
n/aoaie e o.i. Iiyoiio aiciiaeiinoe iaeaa/aiey iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie ioaeii
eneaoue ia ii iooe ia?ooaiee iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, a ia iooe
aai ?acoiiiai i?eiaiaiey;

– i?aaiecaoeey eiio?iey ca eniieueciaaieai aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee
ii iacia/aieth, oi anoue oieueei eae enoi/ieea eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee;
iiiaie?aoiia oaaee/aiea noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia a ?acoeueoaoa
i?iaaaeaiiuo ia?aioeaiie, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e noii ia/eneyaiiai eciina
aeaeaao yoo i?iaeaio aanueia aeooaeueiie, e a aeeaeaeoae ia?niaeoeaa
iiaeii iaeeaeaoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia? ii aa ?aoaieth, e /aio
i?aaei?eyoeyi neaaeoao caaeaaia?aiaiii aioiaeoueny;

– aanueia aa?iyoiue ia?aoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee ii iiiaioo aa ioa?ocee, ii iaoiaeo n/aoia-oaeoo?, a ia ii
iiiaioo iinooieaiee n?aaenoa ca ioa?oaeaiiue oiaa?.

I?iaeo Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao iiauoaiey noaaie
iniiaiuo iaeiaia, ii iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay aaca aoaeao cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?aia
ca n/ao ioiaiu iiiaeo eueaio. Eaeaieiaey Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena –
ineaaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie a iaiai ia eeeaeaeaoeeth eueaio. Anee
oaeanony aeiaeoueny eo ioiaiu oioy au ia 70 o?ei. ?oaeae , Ieioei
aoaeao n/eoaoue naith ienneth oniaoiie. Iauee aea iauai aeaenoaothueo
nae/an eueaio ?aaai 175 o?ei. ?oaeae, i?e/ai onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeueii, /oi nicaeaao aeaaiua o?oaeiinoe i?e i?eiyoee
Iaeiaiaie eiinoeoooeee. Noiiu auiaaeathueo aeioiaeia ec-ca eueaio
aiai?yo naie ca naay. Iioa?e IAeN a oaaea?aeueiii athaeaeaoa – 48,3
o?ei. ?oaeae, a ianoiii – 16,1 o?ei. ?oaeae. Iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
oaaea?aeueiay eacia ia aein/eoaeanue ia 14,6 o?ei. ?oaeae, ?aaeiiaeueiay
– 24,7 o?ei. ?oaeae.

I/aaeaeii, /oi iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiiieaeniiai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, e aieueoay ?ieue i?e yoii
ioaiaeeony Iaeiaiaiio Eiaeaeno. N aai aaaaeaieai aoaeoo iieii/aii n
iannie ianiaa?oaiiuo aeoia, ieaie?oaony nie?auaiea eiee/anoaa iaeiaia,
nai?ia e ieaoaaeae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Iaeiaiaue Eiaeaen a ia?aii /oaiee
i?eiyo Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie ?O 16 ai?aey 1998 aiaea. Iuiaoiaa
ninoiyiea iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa oaeiai, /oi aeaaea i?ioanneiiaeu
oa?ytho eiiaaea iaaeaaeaeo iaeaaeaoue oeaeinoiie ea?oeiie i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. E niaeaeaieth, iiea iaeuecy
iaeiicia/ii neacaoue, /oi i?e iiaeaioiaea caeiiii?iaeoia o/eouaaaony
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia/aoeea oi?ioee?iaee,
aeaeouea ca niaie iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaeueiaeoeo ooi/iaiee,
i?ioeai?a/eainoue aeieoiaioia. A neiaeeaoaeny ianoaiiaea oeaeaniia?acii
i?eieiaoue ioaeaeueiua caeiiu; eo i/a?aaeiinoue aeieaeia auoue ca?aiaa
i?iaeoiaia, /oiau iie noaee au ninoaaiuie /anoyie Iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena.

Iaeiaiaay iieeoeea – eino?oiaio ?aaeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee no?aiu, e oieueei o/ao nenoaiu i?ei?eoaoia, ia?niaeoeau
iaania/ao iaeiaiaui ?aoi?iai oniao.

Ii iauae no?oeoo?a, i?eioeeiai iino?iaiey e ia?a/ith iaycaoaeueiuo
iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae ?inneeneay iaeiaiaay nenoaia niioaaonoaoao
iaua?ani?ino?aiaiiui a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea nenoaiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e a?aaeaeai.

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