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История теорий бухгалтерского баланса в Германии

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Aooaaeoa?neee aaeain a Aa?iaiee

A oeaio?a aieiaiey iaiaoeeeo aaoi?ia auee i?iaeaiu aaeaina. Ec iaai
auaiaeeeenue ana ae?oaea o/aoiua eaoaai?ee. I?e yoii aeey iaiaoeeie
oeieu auea oa?aeoa?ia iaoaienoe/aneay o?aeoiaea aaeaina, iiaeao auoue,
iiyoiio ia neo/aeii a oeaio?a aeeneonnee ieacaeny aii?in i noaoe/aneie
eee aeeiaie/aneie aai i?e?iaea. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi a ia?aii neo/aa
aaeain, io?aaeay ninoiyiea n?aaenoa ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo, aunooiaao
i?e/eiie iineaaeothueo eciaiaiee e i?ecaai ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue oeiainiaia
iieiaeaiea, ai aoi?ii neo/aa aaeain — yoi oieueei eoia i?ioeuo oneeee
i?aaei?eyoey e aeieaeai i?aaenoaaeoue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao aai ?aaiou;
a ia?aii neo/aa aaeain ono?aieai a aoaeouaa, ai aoi?ii — a i?ioeia. Any
iaiaoeeay oeiea aaeainiaaaeaiey ?acaeaeeeanue, oaeei ia?acii, iao?e
a?oiiu: noi?iiieeia noaoe/aneiai, aeeiaie/aneiai aaeainia e
eiii?iienniiai ?aoaiey.

Noaoe/aneee aaeain

A nouiinoe, yoi ?acaeoea aaiaoeeaineiai aa?eaioa aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee.
Iniiaiui au?aceoaeai nia?aiaiiie o?aeoiaee noaoe/aneiai aaeaina aue A.
Ieeeeo. Naiaia?aciia ?acaeoea eaeae noaoe/aneiai iiieiaiey aeaee O.
Oieueoea? e A. Ea Eoo?.

Iaeiei ec y?eeo au?aceoaeae noaoe/aneie oai?ee aaeaina aue Aai?eo Ieeeeo
(1876 — 1946).Niaeanii aai acaeyaeai aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey
io?aaeaaony a aeaoo aaeainao. Ia?aue (naeueaeiaue) aaeain n/eoaaony
aeaaiui. Ii iaiin?aaenoaaiii io?aaeaao ninoiyiea eiouanoaa e eaieoaea,
i?e yoii iiae eiouanoaii iiieiaeenue iieaciua oeaiiinoe, niiniaiua
i?eiineoue aeioiae (iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia aoaeao eniieueciaaii eae a INOI,
oae e a iaoeo IAO), iiae eaieoaeii — noiia aeaiaaeiuo noieiinoae,
iaoiaeyueony

a nianoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e niiniaiay i?eiineoue aio iiaua oeaiiinoe.
Ana n/aoa, eioi?ua aaaeao aooaaeoa?, i?eciathony eiaaioa?iuie: aeoeaiua
oeene?otho aeaeaeaiea oeaiiinoae, ianneaiua — eo neiaieia. Aeoea — yoi
iienue eiie?aoiuo oeaiiinoae, iannea – yoi aano?aeoiay noieiinoiay
aaee/eia, aeoea — i?e/eia, iannea — neaaenoaea. (Iaeioi?ua e?eoeee
auneacuaaee niiiaiea ioiineoaeueii oiai, /oi aeoea ?aaai ianneao, eai
aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aoue oeaiiinoe nianai ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu auoue
?aaiu naiei oeaiiinoyi, oai aieaa /oi Ieeeeo aeiioneae ?aciua iaoiaeu
ioeaiee ?acee/iuo noaoae eae aeoeaa, oae e ianneaa.) Aoi?ie aaeain —
aaeain aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, a nouiinoe, i?aaenoaaeye niaie io/ao i
i?eaueyo e oauoeao, ii a ?acaa?iooie (a?oooi-oi?iao) e naa?iooie
(iaooi-oi?iao) oi?iao. (A?oooi-oi?iao i?aaeiieaaaao io?aaeaiea
aaniethoii anao iinooieaiee e auauoee, a iaooi-oi?iao — oieueei
aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia. Iai?eia?, iiaeii a io/aoa i?aaenoaaeoue anth
au?o/eo e ai /oi iia iaioeanue i?aaei?eyoeth, yoi aoaeao aa?eaio a?oooi,
iiaeii iieacaoue ?aciinoue iaaeaeo i?iaeaaeiuie e iieoiiuie oeaiaie
i?iaeaiiuo iauaeoia, a iioii io?aceoue oieueei ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n eo
i?iaeaaeae, yoi aoaeao iaooi-aa?eaio.) Oaeie aaeain neaaa iieacuaaao ana
?anoiaeu, ni?aaa — aeioiaeu, anee aicieeea i?eaueue (naeueaei n/aoa
i?eaueae e oauoeia), oi iia iieacuaaaony ni?aaa, anee oauoie, oi —
neaaa, oaeei ia?acii, iaa ?acaeaea aaeaine?othony.

I?eaueue, ii Ieeeeoo, aunooiaao ninoaaiie /anoueth «iiaiai eaieoaea» e
i?aaenoaaeaia i?e?inoii eiouanoaa a aeoeaa aeaaiiai aaeaina. I?eaueue
nouanoaoao oieueei aei ?aoi?iaoeee aaeaina, e iinea aa io?aaeaiey
nianoaaiieeii iia ?anoai?yaony a aai eiouanoaa. I?e yoii Ieeeeo oaa?aei
n/eoae, /oi aoi?ie aaeain — yoi oieueei ?anoeo?iaea ianneaa aeaaiiai
aaeaina.

Y?ino Iaia (1876—1945) iieaaae, /oi aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea aunooiaao
i?aaeiaoii aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iii i?ienoiaeeo a /aou?ao oi?iao
(eniieuecoaony aiaeiaey n iaoaieeie):

1. Oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea iai?aaeaii aioo?ue i?aaei?eyoey
(oaaee/aiea aeoeaa e ianneaa aneaaenoaea oaaee/aiey iannu eaieoaea:
aeiaeaiea eaieoaea, iieo/aiea e?aaeeoia, i?eauee);

2. Oeaio?iaaaeiia aeaeaeaiea eae no?aiyuaany aia i?aaei?eyoey
oiaiueoaiea aeoeaa e ianneaa aneaaenoaea oiaiueoaiey iannu eaieoaea:
ecuyoea eaieoaea, iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa, oauoie);

3. Eiioeaio?e/aneia e?oaiaia aeaeaeaiea eae eaeouaa io naay aioo?ue
i?aaei?eyoey (eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u aeoeaa, o.a. eciaiaiea aauanoaaiiie
oi?iu eaieoaea);

4. Ia?eoa?eeiia e?oaiaia aeaeaeaiea eae eaeouaa io naay e a?aieoeai
(ia?eoa?ee) i?aaei?eyoey (eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u ianneaa, o.a. eciaiaiea
enoi/ieea i?ienoiaeaeaiey eaieoaea).

Iaia i?eaea?aeeaaeny yeiiiie/aneie o?aeoiaee aaeaina e aai n/aoia. E ooo
neaaeoao auaeaeeoue /aou?a aaaeiuo ooaa?aeaeaiey:

1) a o/aoa neaaeoao io?aaeaoue ia iauyaeaiiue onoaaiue eaieoae, a
oaeoe/anee aianaiiue. (A i?ioeaiii neo/aa aeoea aic?anoaao ia aaee/eio
eneonnoaaiii ?acaeooie aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe.);

2) n/ao «I?eauee e oauoee» — yoi noan/ao n/aoa «Eaieoae»;

3) iannea — i?e/eia oi?ie?iaaiey aeoeaa, eioi?ue aunooiaao aai
neaaenoaeai;

4) ?aca?au, i?aaeiieaaathuea iooie aeoeaia, aeieaeiu auoue
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiu eae e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue. (Aieueoeinoai
aaoi?ia n iineaaeiei ooaa?aeaeaieai auee ia niaeaniu, oae eae
iaycaoaeuenoaa e naiiio naaa iaaiciiaeiu, eai iie iiaoo auoue oieueei ii
ioiioaieth e o?aoueei eeoeai. Ii Iaia iiae ?aca?aii iiieiae eiaiii
i?aaenoiyuaa eee oaea niaa?oaiiia ecuyoea aeoeaia, a ia oi?iaeueioth
th?eaee/aneoth noi?iio aeaea).

A. Oieueoea? (1936) naia o/aiea i noaoe/aneii aaeaina iacaae
eaaioeoeeauiiiui aaeainii. Ii n/eoae, /oi aaeain – yoi i?oaeea
en/eneaiey noieiinoe. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee nouiinoe aaeaina Oieueoea?
enoiaeee ec aai aiaoiae oi?iu. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea aaeain i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aeaa ioaeaeueiua, ?aaiua ii noiia, a?oiiu n/aoia. Ec yoiai
yanoaoao, /oi ?a/ue eaeao ia i ?ac?iciaiiuo a?oiiao, a i n/aoao,
iaoiaeyueony iaaeaeo niaie a ii?aaeaeaiiie ei??aniiiaeaioneie nayce, ii
iinyueo a aaeaina ?acee/iia iacaaiea. Aianoa n oai aiciiaeiinoue
neiaeaiey naeueaei n/aoia aioo?e a?oii aeoeaa eee ianneaa aaeaina
oeacuaaao ia iaee/ea iaueo /a?o, iicaieythueo auiieiyoue yoi neiaeaiea.
Oae eae iaoa?eaeueiay noi?iia neeaaeuaaaiuo i?aaeiaoia a aaeaina
?acee/ia, iai?eia?, iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai, aeaeaeeiia eiouanoai,
oiaa?u, iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu, eanna, oauoee e
ae?oaea, oi Oieueoea? aeaeae aaeeinoaaiiie iauae /a?oie, iicaieythuae
auiieieoue neiaeaiea, ia?o, iiae eioi?ie a aeaiiii neo/aa ii iiieiae
noieiinoue. Ana n/aoa Oieueoea? aeaeee ia aeaa ?yaea: eiouanoaa e
eaieoaea, ionthaea auoaeaao aeaieiay caienue, nenoaiaoece?othuay
aooaaeoa?neoth ?aaioo. Aeaeaa ii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ?acoeueoao ia eiaao
naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey e n/ao «Oauoee e i?eauee» iiaeao auoue
oieueei noan/aoii e n/aoo «Eaieoae».

Aa?oeiie noaoe/aneie o?aeoiaee aue oioaeueiue aaeain Aaeueoa?a Ea Eoo?a
(1885 — 1965). Nooue aaeaina Ea Eoo? ii?aaeaeye oae: «Aaeain iieacuaaao
aeoea e iannea i?aaei?eyoey a ninoiyiee iiiaioaeueiiai iieiy e iiyoiio
noaoe/ai ii naiae i?e?iaea». Yoi i/aiue iauay oi?ioee?iaea, ii iiaieth
aa aaoi?a, i?aaeiieaaaao aiciiaeiinoue ethaie niaea?aeaoaeueiie
eioa?i?aoaoeee aaeaina, ionthaea e iacaaiea – oioaeueiue, o.a. anaiauee,
iiaeiuathuee ethaua acaeyaeu e auaeaeaathuee ia ia?aia ianoi, a
nouiinoe, o/aoioth i?ioeaaeo?o. I?ioeaaeo?iue oa?aeoa? oioaeueiiai
aaeaina au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi eaaeaeay aai noaouey aeieaeia
niioaaonoaiaaoue naiaio n/aoo a Aeaaiie eieaa. Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi
oioaeueiue aaeain aeieaeai aue i?aneaaeiaaoue ianeieueei oeaeae:

1) ecia?aaeaoue eiouanoai,

2) en/eneyoue i?eaueue,

3) iaaethaeaoue oicyenoaaiiua i?ioeannu,

4) aoiaeeoue a ninoaa io/aoiinoe, eai nai aaeain — oieueei ninoaaiay
/anoue aieaa iauae eaoaai?ee – «io/aoiinoue».

Aeoea a oioaeueiii aaeaina aeaeeony ia iyoue ?acaeaeia:

1) iniiaiua e iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa, iaoiaeyueany a ?aaioa, — iiieiaeueiue
eaieoae (i?e yoii n?aaenoaa aeieaeiu auee ?aniieaaaoueny ii oauaathuae
eeeaeaeiinoe, o.a. io eannu);

2) n?aaenoaa, ia eiathuea i?yiiai ioiioaiey e oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, — no?aoiaie eaieoae;

3) n?aaenoaa, aeiaeaiiua a nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?ioth noa?o, —
nioeeaeueiue eaieoae;

4) n?aaenoaa, aeiaeaiiua a noa?o oi?aaeaiey, — oi?aaeai/aneee eaieoae;

5) n?aaenoaa, ia eniieuecoaiua ia i?aaei?eyoee, — ecauoi/iue eaieoae.

Iannea aeaeeony ia o?e ?acaeaea:

1) nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa,

2) e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue,

3) i?eaueue.

I?e aiaeeca aaeaina iaiaoiaeeii anaaaea iiiieoue, /oi ethaie aaeain
aeeth/aao eiinoeoooeeth e neooaoeeth. Ia?aay i?aaenoaaeaia no?oeoo?ie
aaeaina, niioiioaieai aai /anoae, aoi?ay — io?aaeaao oeiainiaue
?acoeueoao i?aaei?eyoey.

Eco/ay oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, iu, niaeanii Ea
Eoo?o, anaaaea aeieaeiu enoiaeeoue ec aa?oeeaeueiiai e ai?eciioaeueiiai
aiaeeca eiinoeoooeee, a ia ec neo/aeiuo /enae oeiainiaie neooaoeee,
aaeain — yoi iiaeeeiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaei?eyoey, io/ao ia oauoeao e
i?eaueyo anaaaea niaea?aeeo i?aoiaeyuea aeaiiua, o.a. noaoeea aaaeiaa
aeeiaieee iaeiaei noaoeea oicyenoaa ?ane?uaaaony a aaeaina ia ?aaee iaa
naiie, a a oeaeyo niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey oicyenoaii. Iiyoiio ia
iiaeao auoue aaeeiiia?aciie ioeaiee anao iauaeoia, a a caaeneiinoe io
?iee iauaeoa a oicyenoaa aai oeaiiinoue aeey i?aaei?eyoey iaiyaony,
niioaaonoaaiii iaiyaony e aai ioeaiea. Iai?eia?, aeey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
?aeiiaiaeoaony oeaia i?eia?aoaiey, aeey oiaa?ia — oaeouea ?uii/iua
oeaiu, aeey aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee — naaanoieiinoue, a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo
iiaeii i?eaaaaoue e e yenia?oiui ioeaieai.

Iaeiiaoe, iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi, niaeanii Ea Eoo?o, oioaeueiue
aaeain no?ieony ia aeaoo i?eioeeiao: yniinoe (aai iiaeao i?i/anoue e
iiiyoue niaea?aeaiea ethaia caeioa?aniaaiiia eeoei) e i?aaaeeainoe
(ninoaaeai niaeanii o?aaiaaieyi caeiia).

Aeeiaie/aneee aaeain

Nicaeaoaeai o/aiey i aeeiaie/aneii aaeaina aue auaeathueeny iaiaoeeee
aooaaeoa? Yeaai Oiaeaiaao (1873 — 1955). Iniiao yoiai o/aiey ninoaaeyao
?aca?aie/aiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia e iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, e aeaiaaeiuo ?acoeueoaoia (au?o/ea) e aeaiaaeiuo
?anoiaeia (aaeiaua oauoee), n ae?oaie noi?iiu. Anee, ii iiaieth
Oiaeaiaaoa, ?anniao?eaaoue aaeain ca anth enoi?eth nouanoaiaaiey
i?aaei?eyoey io iiiaioa aai aicieeiiaaiey aei iiiaioa eeeaeaeaoeee,
aaee/eiu ?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao auee au eaeaioe/iu. Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea,
ninoaaeyy aaeain ia ioaeaeueiua io?acee a?aiaie nouanoaiaaiey
i?aaei?eyoey, iu noaeeeaaainy n oae iacuaaaiui «i?iiaaeooi/iui
aaeainii», aaea oaeiai niaiaaeaiey iao. Anee o/eouaaoue iaoa?eaeueiua
?acoeueoaou e iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ca ei?ioeee ia?eiae, oi ecauoie
?acoeueoaoia ca yoio ia?eiae ii n?aaiaieth n cao?aoaie ia ?aaai
oeiainiaiio ?acoeueoaoo, oae eae oeiainiaua ?anoiaeu e au?o/ea ia
anaaaea niioaaonoaotho iaoa?eaeueiui ?acoeueoaoai e iiianaiiui cao?aoai.
A oeaeyo aeinoeaeaiey iniiaiie oeaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa — en/eneaiey
oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa — neaaeoao ainiieueciaaoueny oieueei o/aoii
aeaiaaeiuo ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia, a eioi?ua neaaeoao aeeth/eoue noiiu
ia?eiaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia. Ec ?acee/ee iaaeaeo
iaoa?eaeueiuie e aeaiaaeiuie iai?ioaie neaaeoao, /oi ca ia?eiae
ninoaaeaiey aaeaina iiaoo auoue iaoa?eaeueiua iai?iou, ia aeathuea
oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa, e, iaiai?io, oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou, ia
neoaeauea iaoa?eaeueiui iai?ioii. A yoii Oiaeaiaao e aeaeae iniiaioth
?ieue aaeaina, eioi?ue neoaeeo auyaeaieth i?eauee, io?aaeay oeiainiaua
?acoeueoaou. Aianoa n oai a aaeain iaiaoiaeeii, n aai oi/ee c?aiey,
aeeth/eoue oa iaoa?eaeueiua iai?iou, eioi?ua auee niaa?oaiu, ii ia
i?eiyee oi?io aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa. Aeaeaa a aaeain aeeth/athony
iaoa?eaeueiua iai?iou, eioi?ua aua ia inouanoaeaiu, ii a ?acoeueoaoa
oeiainiauo iai?ioia, i?iaaaeaiiuo a yoii ia?eiaea, aicieeioo a aoaeouai.

Oiaeaiaao ii?aaeaeye aeoea, e?iia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eae ?anoiaeu,
eioi?ua aua ia noaee aeioiaeaie. Yoi i?eaiaeeei e auaeaeaieth
neaaeothueo ?acaeaeia:

1) ?anoiaeu, ii aua ia cao?aou (iieoiea iaoa?eaeia e o.i.);

2) ?anoiaeu, ii aua ia iinooieaiey n?aaenoa (aeaaeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue);

3) oeaiiinoe, eioi?ua noaioo cao?aoaie (iieooaa?eeaou e o. i.);

4) oeaiiinoe, eioi?ua noaioo aeioiaeaie (aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey e o. i.);

5) aeaiueae (eanna, ?an/aoiue n/ao e o. i.).

Iannea Oiaeaiaao ii?aaeaeye eae aeioiaeu, eioi?ua aua ia noaee
?anoiaeaie:

1) cao?aou, ii aua ia ?anoiaeu (caaeieaeaiiinoue iinoaaueeai, ii
ca?aaioiie ieaoa e o. i.);

2) iinooieaiey, ii aua ia ?anoiaeu (iieo/aiiua caeiu, nnoaeu e o. i.);

3) cao?aou, eioi?ua noaioo oeaiiinoyie (?aca?au e o. i.);

4) aeioiaeu, eioi?ua noaioo oeaiiinoyie (iieo/aiiua aaainu e o.i.);

5) eaieoae.

A iniiaa eiioeaioeee Oiaeaiaaoa eaaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiay iiaeaeue, i?e
iino?iaiee eioi?ie ii enoiaeee ec i?aaeiinueee, /oi aaeain iieacuaaao ia
ninoiyiea oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e eo enoi/ieeia, a, iaiai?io,
aeaeaeaiea e n?aaenoa, e enoi/ieeia. Ii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi eoia aaeaina a
?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia iiaeao auoue ?aaai noiia aai /anoae.
Eoia eee aieueoa, /oi iaaei i?eciaoue oeie/iui neo/aai, eee iaiueoa.
Iaeii yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai, n aai oi/ee c?aiey, n?aco iieacuaaao
oneiaiinoue eaeae oi/iie ioeaiee n?aaenoa, io?aaeaaiuo a aooaaeoa?neii
o/aoa, e eneonnoaaiiinoue auaiaeeiiai aaeainiaiai ?aaainoaa.

Oiaeaiaao iacuaae aaeain «aeeoioeyoi?ii nee» e a nayce n yoei aeaaae
neaaeothuaa aai ii?aaeaeaiea: «Aeeiaie/aneee aaeain i?aaenoaaeyao
niioiioaiea aeoeaiiai e ianneaiiai ?aca?aa nee, iieacuaay oeiainiaua
?acoeueoaou n o/aoii a?aiaiiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iaoa?eaeueiuie e
oeiainiauie iai?ioaie». Acaeyaeu Oiaeaiaaoa ia ioeaieo iauaeoia ia
ioee/aeenue aeinoaoi/iie ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth. Oae, ii aeiioneae ioeaieo
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ii oeaia i?eia?aoaiey, iaoa?eaeia e aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee- ii iecoae oeaia (anee oeaia i?eia?aoaiey ieaea ?uii/iie, oi
ii ia?aie oeaia, anee iaiai?io, oi ii aoi?ie). Aai niia?aaeaiey a /anoe
ioeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania aieaa i?eaeiaeueiu. Iai?eia?, ia neeaaea
ia ia/aei eaa?oaea eiaeinue 2000 i oeaie, ia eiiaoe — 2500 i. Ii
Oiaeaiaaoo, 2000 i iaaei ioeaieoue ii oeaia i?eia?aoaiey, a 500 – ii
oeaia i?iaeaaee (oaeouae i?iaeaaeiie oeaia). A oneiaeyo eioeyoeee, ii
aai iiaieth, iaiaoiaeeii ei??aeoe?iaaoue ioeaieo aeoeaia e ianneaia ii
eiaeaeno iioiauo oeai, e?iia n/aoia nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa, ioiiny aa
?acoeueoaou ia niaoeeaeueii nicaeaaaaiue n/ao «Ei??aeoe?iaea aeaiaaeiie
ioeaiee». Ii iunee Oiaeaiaaoa, iaiaoiaeeii ia?aioeaieaaoue ia oieueei
iaoa?eaeueiua n/aoa, ii e n/aoa ?an/aoia e aeaaea n/ao «Aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa». Ia n/aoa «Ei??aeoe?iaea aeaiaaeiie ioeaiee» aeieaeii
aicieeiooue e?aaeeoiaia naeueaei, eioi?ia neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae
?aca?a eaieoaea. E?iia oiai, Oiaeaiaao i?aaeeaaae eniieueciaaoue aua
o?aiceoiue n/ao «?aca?a ia eioeyoeeth», ii aeaaaoo eioi?iai
eiioeaio?e?iaaoue caiene n e?aaeeoa n/aoia iaoa?eaeia (?aca?a ia/eneyeny
n iiaie, iieo/aiiie a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aioeaiee, noieiinoe) e iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa (ia/eneyeanue aii?oecaoeey n eo ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie noieiinoe).
Aeaaaoiaue iai?io yoiai n/aoa ?aeiiaiaeiaae nienuaaoue a aeaaao n/aoa
«I?eauee e oauoee»; ia?aioeaiaiiia naeueaei n/aoia ?an/aoia e aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa — eiiiaine?iaaoue ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo eaaeaeiai n/aoa, /oi
aeinoeaaeinue oaaee/aieai naeueaei yoeo n/aoia, a caoai ia
i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noi?iia iieacuaaeanue oa aea noiia a ei??aniiiaeaioeee
ni n/aoii «I?eauee e oauoee».

Oiaeaiaao ia?aoee aieiaiea ia aeeciaiiue oeeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, i?e
yoii ii?iaeueiui oeeeeii ii n/eoae oio, eiaaea a iiiaio nienaiey iauaeoa
noiia iaeiieaiiie aii?oecaoeee iicaieyea i?eia?anoe oaeie aea iauaeo.
Ionthaea eioeyoeey, ii aai iiaieth, ia noieueei eneaaeaea oeiainiaue
?acoeueoao, neieueei nicaeaaaea i?iaeaiu aeey iaiiaeaiey iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa.

Noaay a oeaio? naieo enneaaeiaaiee aaeain, Oiaeaiaao naycuaae
eeanneoeeaoeeth n/aoia n aeaeaeaieai eaieoaea. Yoa eeanneoeeaoeey
iicaieyea noi?ioee?iaaoue iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia iiaeii iacaaoue iinooeaoii
Oiaeaiaaoa.

?aciinoue iaaeaeo naeueaei n/aoia nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa ?aaia ?aciinoe iaaeaeo naeueaei n/aoia iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e
e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Niaeanii yoiio iinooeaoo a iniiaa aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina eaaeeo aaeain
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, a auoaeathuee ec eeanneoeeaoeee ieai n/aoia aeieaeai
n iaeaieueoae iieiioie io?aaeaoue aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea, oacu aai
e?oaiiai?ioa. Ionthaea aeaeaiea n/aoia ii i?eioeeio eo iiaeaeaeiinoe.
E?iia oiai, a iniiao eeanneoeeaoeee e ioia?aoeee n/aoia iieiaeai
aeaoeeiaeueiue (aeanyoe/iue) i?eioeei. Ieai n/aoia, iino?iaiiue
Oiaeaiaaoii, aue aaaaeai a ea/anoaa iaycaoaeueiiai a Aa?iaiee a 1942 a.

Oiaeaiaao i?eaeaaae aieueoia cia/aiea aii?inai iaaeyaeiiai ecia?aaeaiey
aooaaeoa?neeo iia?aoeee. Ii ?ac?aaioae i?eaeiaeueioth nenoaio a?aoeeia,
aaea eaaeaeue n/ao ecia?aaeaeny a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiie aaiiao?e/aneie
oeao?u: i?yiioaieueieee i?aaenoaaeytho n/aoa n aeaaaoiaui naeueaei,
o?aoaieueieee — n/aoa n e?aaeeoiaui naeueaei, iyoeoaieueieee — n/aoa n
ia?aiaiiui naeueaei; e?oaaie iaicia/aiu n/aoa o?aiceoiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Eaeae aeeiaie/aneiai aaeaina auee ?acaeou Y. Eineieai (1899 – 1990),
eioi?ue i?iaae ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aaeainaie i?aaeaeueiuie e
i?iiaaeooi/iuie. Iiae ia?auie (i?aaeaeueiuie) ii iiieiae ia/aeueiue e
caeeth/eoaeueiue aaeainu i?aaei?eyoey, aunooiathuea eae au iao?eeie i
?iaeaeaiee e naeaeaoaeuenoaii, i nia?oe i?aaei?eyoey. Iiae aoi?uie
(i?iiaaeooi/iuie) ii iiieiae aaeainu, ninoaaeyaiua ca eaeie-oi io?acie
a?aiaie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey: ianyoe, aiae e o.ae. Ioi?aaiui ioieoii
oai?ee Eineiey auei ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi i?aaeiaoii aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
aunooiatho oicyenoaaiiua iai?iou, eee, eae ii eiiaaea aiai?ee, aoiiu
noieiinoe, i?e/ai aeey auaaaeaiey oicyenoaaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeeueii ?ani?aaeaeeoue yoe ?acoeueoaou ii niioaaonoaothuei io/aoiui
ia?eiaeai. Aaaeiui iaaei i?eciaoue i?iaaaeaiiia ei ?aca?aie/aiea
?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia e ?aca?aia i?aaenoiyueo
ieaoaaeae. A oai?ee aeeiaie/aneiai aaeaina ooieoeeyi yoeo n/aoia
i?eaeaaony aieueoia cia/aiea. Eineieue iiaeaa?a ?aceie e?eoeea acaeyaeu
noi?iiieeia noaoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey ca oi, /oi iie auaiaeeee aaeain ec
eiaaioa?y, eai oaeie iiaeoiae, ii aai iiaieth, aaaeao e
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieth aeoeaa e ianneaa, a oi a?aiy eae aeoea e iannea
yaeythony i?oaeeai o/aoa aeaeaeaiey noieiinoe, oacaie e?oaiiai?ioa
eaieoaea, a nai aaeain — n?aaenoaii ia?eiaee/aneiai auyaeaiey
?acoeueoaoa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii naiae i?e?iaea aaeain
iaoneiaeai iia?aoeeiiiui ia?eiaeii. Oanii naycaa iiiyoea aaeaina n
ieaoaaeiui i?ioeannii, Eineieue aeae neaaeothuea enoieeiaaiey: a
ieaoaaeiii i?ioeanna (iai?ioa) auaeaeythony aeaa noieiinoe (i?eoiae e
?anoiae), ?aaiua iaaeaeo niaie. Noieiinoue i?eoiaea ii?aaeaeyaony
aeaaaoiauie naeueaei aeoeaiuo n/aoia e yeaeaaeaioaie i?eoiaea,
caienaiiuie a ianneaiuo n/aoao; noieiinoue ?anoiaea — e?aaeeoiauie
naeueaei ianneaiuo n/aoia e yeaeaaeaioaie ?anoiaea aeoeaiuo n/aoia.

A ?aieao aeeiaie/aneiai iai?aaeaiey ianeieueei iniaiyeii noieo aaoi?
iiieiaeueiiai aaeaina— A. ?eaa? (1878 – 1971). Eaeae aeeiaie/aneiai
aaeaina aunooiatho o iaai nei?aa eae oaiaeaioeey, /ai aeiaia. Ii
enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi aaeain iiaeao auoue oieueei oeiainiaui e ieeaeei
ae?oaei. A aooaaeoa?ee, n/eoae ?eaa?, nouanoaoao oieueei aeaiaaeiay
aaeeieoea ecia?aiey e ieeaeie ae?oaie iao e ia iiaeao auoue.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aooaaeoa? aaaeao o/ao oieueei ia aeaiueae, e ia?ea aeey
aooaaeoa?a anaaaea anoue ia?ea. Aooaaeoa?o iao ieeaeiai aeaea aei oiai,
/oi eo?n ia?ee, aa iieoiaoaeueiay neea eieaaeaony; aooaaeoa? o/eouaaao
aeieoiaiou, ia?ae/ioth enoiaeioth eioi?iaoeeth, ii i?inoi oeene?oao
oaeou a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee. I?e yoii aaeain ii aeieoiaioaeueiie
ioeaiea ii e?aeiae ia?a iiieiaeueii i?aaaeea, a oi a?aiy eae anyeay
ia?aioeaiea noaoae aaeaina aiineo noauaeoeaeci e eiaeue. Oaeei ia?acii,
ii ?eaa?o, i?aaeiaoii o/aoa aunooiaao aeaeaeaiea aeaiaa, inouanoaeyaiia
a oiaea oicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Iineaaeiee i?aaeiieaaaao iai?io aeaiaa
(Ae — O-Ae’), oeaeue iai?ioa — iieo/aiea i?eauee. Aneaaenoaea yoiai
caaea/ae aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa yaeyaony iaaethaeaiea ca iai?ioii aeaiaa.
Ii ?eaa?o, o/ao eiouanoaa ia aoiaeeo a caaea/e aooaaeoa?ee, o/eouaathuae
eeoue oa n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua iieoiathony eee aea i?iecaiaeyony
i?aaei?eyoeai, o.a. eioi?ua yaeeenue ?acoeueoaoii aeaiaaeiuo cao?ao e
eioi?ua aeieaeiu i?eianoe i?eaueue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaiaeee oeia
«aeaaao n/aoa o/aoa n?aaenoa e e?aaeeo n/aoa “Eaieoae”» ia ioaeiu, oae
eae eneaaeatho o/ao ia?aaeueiuie iai?ioaie. (Oaeea caiene /anoi aeaeatho
i?e aeiioeaiea eiouanoaa.) Oi/ii oae aea, anee eaeia-oi eiouanoai auei
iieo/aii aacaiciacaeii, oi iii ia aeieaeii i?eieiaoueny ia aaeain e
aii?oece?iaaoueny. Ionthaea e ia?aia i?aaeei ?eaa?a.

Iauaeoii aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iiaeao auoue oieueei eiouanoai, ca eioi?ia
caiea/aii.

Aneaae ca Oiaeaiaaoii ?eaa? n/eoae aiciiaeiui ii?aaeaeeoue iiaeeeiioth
i?eaueue oe?iu oieueei iinea aa eeeaeaeaoeee. Ionthaea aoi?ia i?aaeei
?eaa?a.

I?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey anoue ?aciinoue iaaeaeo n?aaenoaaie, iieo/aiiuie
ca ana a?aiy aai nouanoaiaaiey, e n?aaenoaaie, aeiaeaiiuie a iaai ia
iiiaio ioe?uoey.

A oneiaeyo eioeyoeee, niaeanii ?eaa?o, i?eaueue, inoathuayny iinea
oieaou iaeiaia, aeieaeia auoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaia ia yenieoaoaoeeiiioth
e eioeyoeeiiioth. I?e yoii naia i?eaueue ia oa?yao cia/aiey a oneiaeyo
eioeyoeee, a a aiaeeca oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aiciiaeii aeiaeoueny
niiinoaaeaiey iieoiaoaeueiie neeu aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe a ?acee/iua
io?acee a?aiaie. E?iia oiai, ?eaa? ooaa?aeaeae, /oi o/ao eioeyoeee – yoi
aanueia o?oaeiaieay ?aaioa. Ii iieaaae, /oi anee oaii eioeyoeee
i?aauoaao oaii ?inoa oeai ia nu?uea, oi o i?aaei?eyoey aicieeaao
aeiiieieoaeueiay i?eaueue. ?eaa? anaaaea iiae/a?eeaae, /oi ai anao
aooaaeoa?neeo caienyo ?a/ue eaeao oieueei i aeaiaaeiuo noiiao, a
aooaaeoa?ey anoue oieueei aano?aeoiue aeaiaaeiue n/ao; oaeei ia?acii
aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu, a ia «aoiiu noieiinoe», eae o Eineiey, noaiiayony
i?aaeiaoii o/aoa. Anee a nayce n yoei ?anniao?eaaoue niaea?aeaiea
o/aoiiai i?ioeanna, io?aaeaaiiai ia n/aoao, oi aeaaao eaaeaeiai n/aoa
icia/aao cao?aou, a e?aaeeo — aeioiaeu. E?aaeeoiaue iai?io n/aoa
«Oiaa?u» icia/ae, n yoie oi/ee c?aiey, au?o/eo io i?iaeaaee oeaiiinoae,
a anee oiaa?u nienuaaeenue a oauoie, yoi n oicyenoaaiiie oi/ee c?aiey
i?eciaaaeinue iaoeie/iui.

Iiae cao?aoaie ?eaa? iiieiae oieueei auaeaaaaiua aeaiaaeiua noiiu
oaeoe/aneiai eee aano?aeoiiai ii?yaeea, a iiae aeioiaeaie — iieo/aaiua
noiiu. Iiae iieoieie ca iaee/iua — ia?aaea/o aeaiaa ni n/aoa «Eanna» ia
niioaaonoaothuee n/ao, o/eouaathuee iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe. Ionthaea
o?aouea i?aaeei ?eaa?a — iauee i?eioeei aeaieiie caiene.

Eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey niaea?aeeo aeaa yeaiaioa — i?eaueue e
oauoie.

A ioee/ea io Oiaeaiaaoa e Eineiey, ?eaa? ia i?eaeaaae iniaiai cia/aiey
n/aoo «I?eauee e oauoee», n/eoay aai iau/iui n/aoii oaeouae aooaaeoa?ee,
oeaeue eioi?iai — io?aaeaoue ana oauoee, i?eauee e ia?aiineoue eo
naeueaei ia n/ao «Eaieoae». Iaeiaei n/ao yoio io?aaeaao o ?eaa?a ia ana
oicyenoaaiiua iai?iou, a oieueei naeueaee?iaaiiua, oae eae iiaeeeiioth
noiio i?eauee, eae auei iiae/a?eiooi auoa, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ii
eeeaeaeaoeeiiiiio aaeaino, eiaaea iieiinoueth caaa?oaiu ana
oicyenoaaiiua iai?iou e aooaaeoa?ey iiaeao eiinoaoe?iaaoue naie
ianoiyuee iauaeo – aeaiueae. I?eaueue io/aoiuo ia?eiaeia iineo oneiaiue
oa?aeoa?, oae eae caaeneo io iaoiaeieiae/aneeo o/aoiuo i?eaiia e ia
eiaao aeinoaoi/ii aeinoiaa?iuo yeaeaaeaioia a aeoeaa.

I?aaie/aneee aaeain

Aai nicaeaoaeue O?eoe Oieaeo (1882 — 1950) enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi ethaia
i?aaei?eyoea — yoi aeeaie i?aaieci, e iiyoiio eniieueciaae oaeea
oa?ieiu, eae i?aaie/aneee aaeain e i?aaie/aneay eaeueeoeyoeey. Ii
Oieaeoo, aeeiaieea aeeth/aao ?aaiiia?iue i?ioeann e?oaiiai?ioa
oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa; noaoeea io?aaeaao iiiaioioth ea?oeio
(ioaeaeueiue «eeiieaae?») aeeiaie/aneiai i?ioeanna; i/aiue aaaeia
n?aaieoaeueiay noaoeea, eiaaea ii aeaoi «iiiaioaeueiui noaoe/aneei
eaae?ai» aeaeatho auaiaeu i ?acaeoee oicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. A
niioaaonoaee n yoei aooaaeoa?neee o/ao — yoi aeeiaieea, aooaaeoa?neee
aaeain — noaoeea, a aiaeec aaeaina — n?aaieoaeueiay noaoeea. O aaeaina
aeaa oeaee: io?aaeaiea eiouanoaa (noaoe/aneay oai?ey) e io?aaeaiea
?acoeueoaoa (aeeiaie/aneay oai?ey). Iiyoiio oai?ey Oieaeoa n/eoaeanue
aeoaeenoe/aneie e a naia a?aiy cei auniaeaaeanue Oiaeaiaaoii. Aaee/aeoae
caneoaie Oieaeoa auei oi, /oi ii i?iaae no?iaia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
?acoeueoaoii oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e i?eaueueth (oauoeii). Yoi
?aca?aie/aiea iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi a o/aoa i?enoonoaotho eae au aeaa
neiy: 1) iaoo?aeueiue — ?aaeueiia iaee/ea o/eouaaaiuo oeaiiinoae
(io?aaeaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae a iaoo?aeueiii ecia?eoaea);
2) noieiinoiue – aano?aeoiia iaee/ea o/eouaaaiuo oeaiiinoae (io?aaeaaony
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae a aeaiaaeiii ecia?eoaea). Ionthaea
?acoeueoao oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony i?e?inoii
(oiaiueoaieai) ?aaeueiiai iauaia eiouanoaaiiiai eiiieaena i?aaei?eyoey,
a i?eaueue en/eneyaony a aano?aeoiuo aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao. I?e yoii
i?yiie acaeiinayce iaaeaeo yoeie aaee/eiaie iao, iauai eiouanoaa iiaeao
oiaiueoaoueny, a i?eaueue — ?anoe, e iaiai?io. Iineieueeo, niaeanii
Oieaeoo, oeaeue i?eauee naiaeeony e iiaeaea?aeaieth niiniaiinoe oe?iu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaao
aeinoeaeaiea oaeiai iieiaeaiey, eiaaea ?ino i?eauee niioaaonoaoao ?inoo
oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa. I?eaueue ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa e?oaiiai?ioa
eaieoaea. I?e yoii e aeey aooaaeoa?a, e aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey ?aoathuaa
cia/aiea eiaao aiaeec ?acee/iuo oac e?oaiiai?ioa: Ae— O e O — Ae’, o.a.
auyaeaiea eciaiaiee a iauaia e ninoaaa eiouanoaa. ?aoathuei n?aaenoaii
yoiai aiaeeca, ii Oieaeoo, aunooiaao i?aaie/aneee aaeain. Aai neaaeoao
ninoaaeyoue aaeaaeiaaii. Oaeia o?aaiaaiea auoaeaao ec iaaeinoaoea aeaiaa
eae o/aoiiai ecia?eoaey. Eo iieoiaoaeueiay neea i/aiue auno?i iaiyaony,
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, /ai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiaa io/aoiue ia?eiae, oai
aanniuneaiiaa noieiinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee. Iineaaeiaa iniaaiii caiaoii ii
ioeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. A nayce n yoei i?aaie/aneee aaeain eiaao
oeaeueth ono?aieoue iaonoie/eainoue aeaiaaeiiai ecia?eoaey, iniiaiui
ecia?eoaeai i?eciaaony iaoo?aeueiue, i?eaueueth n/eoaaony oieueei oi,
/oi iaoei oaaee/aiea aneaaenoaea iau/iie iniiaiie oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a aeoeaa, i?eaueue aea, iai?eia? io oaaee/aiey oeai, —
aaee/eia iieiay.

Ec o/aiey ia i?aaie/aneii aaeaina Oieaeo auaiaeee e o/aiea ia
i?aaie/aneie eaeueeoeyoeee. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ae?oaei
enneaaeiaaoaeyi Oieaeo n/eoae, /oi oeaiu aeieaeiu onoaiaaeeaaoueny
enoiaey ec eaeueeoeyoeee, iniiaaiiie ia caaeneiinoe ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa, ioiinyueony e aeaenoaeoaeueii niaa?oaaiiio iai?ioo, ia?ie
eioi?iai aeieaeai auoue iaeei aeaiue. Niaeanii aai acaeyaeai, oeaeue
eaeueeoeyoeee ninoieo a oii, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue aeaenoaeoaeueiue ?anoiae
iaoa?eaeia e oneoa a oaeoueo oeaiao. Eiathony a aeaeo ia oaeoe/anee
i?iecaaaeaiiua cao?aou, a oaeouea oeaiu. Iai?eia?, anee caiea/aii 5
ia?ie, a a aeaiue ?aaeecaoeee noieiinoue yoiai nu?uey — 6 ia?ie, oi a
eaeueeoeyoeeth iaaei aeeth/aoue ii ?eaa?o 5, a ii Oieaeoo 6 ia?ie. Yoi
aeaeaeinue a oeaeyo i?eniiniaeaiey iieeoeee oeai i?aaei?eyoey e
eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea. Oieaeo n/eoae, /oi aai iaoiae eaeueeoeyoeee
i?aaie/anee i?eniiniaeai e o/aoo i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey noieiinoe,
ionthaea e auoaeaao iacaaiea «i?aaie/aneay eaeueeoeyoeey aaeaaeiaaiie
noieiinoe». E oai?aoe/aneei i?eioeeiai i?aaie/aneie eaeueeoeyoeee
Oieaeoa iaaei ioianoe: 1) i?eniiniaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey e o?aaiaaieyi
eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea (yeanoe/iinoue); 2) ?aaiiia?iinoue oiaea
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee; 3) no?iaia
?aca?aie/aiea iaoa?eaeueiiai e eiouanoaaiiiai o/aoa e o/aoa
?acoeueoaoia; 4) iiaeaea?aeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ia
o?iaia ia ieaea n?aaeiaai ii ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao. Iiaeoiae Oieaeoa
ieacae ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea nia?aiaiii o/aoa.

A ?onea eaeae Oieaeoa iaoiaeeony o/aiea oae iacuaaaiie ainoa?aeaineie
oeieu. Aa aeaaa – Oaiaei? Eeiia?a (1879 — 1961) — auaeaeioe a 20—30-o
aiaeao XX a. oai?eth, niaeanii eioi?ie o/ao aeieaeai aanoenue ia ii
naaanoieiinoe e ia ii oaeouei oeaiai. Io/aoiinoue aeieaeia io?aaeaoue
o/eouaaaiua oeaiiinoe ii ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie noieiinoe. Oieueei yoi, ii
iiaieth Eeiia?aa, iicaieeo i?aaei?eyoeyi iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue. Yoi iieiaeaiea eaaei ?acuynieoue ia neaaeothuai
i?eia?a. Eoieai yuee aiaeee ca 100 aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe e i?iaeai ca 120
aaeeieoe. Niaeanii o/aoiui aeaiiui i?eaueue ninoaaeea 20 aae. Iaeiaei
aeey iieoiee aoi?iai yueea aiaeee iiaoo iio?aaiaaoueny (a a oneiaeyo
eioeyoeee yoi oae e auaaao) 130 aae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iioaioeeaeueiui
oauoie — 10 aae. Oaeei ia?acii, anee au ia iiiaio ninoaaeaiey aaeaina
yuee ia aue au i?iaeai, aai neaaeiaaei au ioeaieoue a 130 aae. Eaeae
Oieaeoa e Eeiia?aa ieacaee neeueiia aeeyiea ia oai?eth o/aoa. Ec
nia?aiaiiuo oai?aoeeia auaeaeei Iienoa?a. Ii ia?aoee aieiaiea ia oi, /oi
a iaeieo neo/ayo aeey aooaaeoa?a aaaeii ciaoue oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea, a
ae?oaeo — oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao. Iiyoiio a ia?aii neo/aa iaiaoiaeei
noaoe/aneee aaeain, ai aoi?ii — aeeiaie/aneee. A ia?aii neo/aa aeoea e
iannea no?iyony a ioeaiea ia iiiaio ninoaaeaiey aaeaina, ai aoi?ii- a
ioeaiea ?aaeenoe/aneie, ii ioiinyuaeny e i?ioeiio a?aiaie. Ia neo/aeii
E. O. Oa? iacuaae aooaaeoa?neee o/ao enoi?eia?aoeae oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
i?aaei?eyoey. A noaoe/aneii aaeaina aeoea – yoi oieueei enoi/iee
iiaaoaiey aeieaia. Ioeaiea aea ii naaanoieiinoe a aeeiaie/aneii aaeaina
ia iicaieyao en/eneeoue ?aaeueioth ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue.

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