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История бухгалтерского учета и аудита

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Oaaea?aeueiia aaaionoai ii ia?aciaaieth

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ia?aciaaoaeueiia o/?aaeaeaiea

aunoaai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

«Naaa?i – Eaaeacneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao»

Oeeeae a a. Iyoeai?nea

Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa

Yeaeo?iiiue eo?n eaeoeee

Aeey niaoeeaeueiinoe

080109

Iyoeai?ne, 2007

?aoeaicaiou:

OEI

Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa: Yeaeo?iiiue eo?n eaeoeee./

C.O. Iaeeiiaa. Iyoeai?ne: AIO AII «NaaEaaAOO» oeeeae a a. Iyoeai?nea,
2007.

Eieeaeoea aaoi?ia:

A.A. E?aa/aiei, annenoaio eaoaae?u «Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e aoaeeo»
oeeeaea NaaEaaAOO a a. Iyoeai?nea

C.O. Iaeeiiaa, e.y.i., caa. eaoaae?ie «Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e aoaeeo»
oeeeaea NaaEaaAOO a a. Iyoeai?nea

Yeaeo?iiiue eo?n eaeoeee iiaeaioiaeai a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai noaiaea?oa aunoaai
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ii aeenoeeieeia «Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa e aoaeeoa». Niaea?aeeo yeaeo?iiiue eo?n eaeoeee n aeiiieieoaeueiie
eioi?iaoeeae, niinianoaothuae onaiaieth iniiaiiai iaoa?eaea, aeinna?eai
e aii?inaie aeey iiaoi?aiey oai.

Eo?n ?ann/eoai ia nooaeaioia anao oi?i iao/aiey, aai eioi?iaoeeiiiia
niaea?aeaiea aeinoaoi/ii aeey eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu a iauaia,
i?aaeoniio?aiiii noaiaea?oaie AII.

AIO AII oeeeae NaaEaaAOO

a a. Iyoeai?nea, 2007

Eieeaeoea aaoi?ia, 2007

Eco/aiea enoi?ee aooaaeoa?ee iicaieyao oaeoaeoue ciaiey ii oai?ee
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa eae a ?innee, oae e ca ?oaaaeii, ia/eiay n
Ae?aaiaai ie?a. Enoi?ey iaoee ia?ac?uaii naycaia n enoi?eae iauanoaa, n
?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa e iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey. O/aoiay iuneue
ca?iaeeeanue a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe. Ia?aiauoiua ethaee oaea iaeaaeaee
ca/aoeaie oicyenoaaiiuo ciaiee. Iinoaiaiii aicieeaee ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia ioiioaieyo, neeaaeuaathueony ii iiaiaeo i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiyaeyeanue
e iaiaoiaeeiinoue eo ?aaeno?aoeee (o/aoa), iniiaiie oeaeueth eioi?ie aue
eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth eeoe, o/anoaothueo a oicyenoaaiiii
i?ioeanna. Ia?aiia/aeueii yoe i?aaenoaaeaiey ia auaeaeyeenue a
niaoeeaeueioth iaeanoue ciaiee, oai aieaa a naiinoiyoaeueioth aaoaue
iaoee. Iie auee ae?aieaiu a ia?an/eaiaiiia (neie?aoe/aneia) niciaiea,
iniiao eioi?iai ninoaaeyee aa?iaaiey, ieou, eaaaiaeu, neacaiey. A ieo
ethaee iuoaeenue iienaoue iiuo, aeaoue niaaou eee onoaiiaeoue i?aaeea
aaaeaiey o/aoa, i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea. Caoai noaee iiyaeyoueny yeaiaiou
yeiiiie/aneiai iuoeaiey n iiiuoeaie aiaeeca e iaiauaiey oicyenoaaiiuo
yaeaiee. Yoi auee oaea i?aaeaanoieee oi?ie?iaaiey iao/iiai ciaiey,
eioi?ia aeaei ia/aea ?acaeoeth aooaaeoa?neie iaoee.

?acaeoea aooaaeoa?neie iunee iinoaiaiii oi?ie?iaaei iaoeo i aa
nianoaaiiie enoi?ee. Enoi?ey iaoee — yoi enoi?ey ethaeae, eioi?ua aa
nicaeaaaee e niaa?oainoaiaaee. E niaeaeaieth iaeioi?ua i?aeoeeothuea
aooaaeoa?u ia?aie/eaathony a naiae ?aaioa eeoue nethieiooiuie
oaoie/aneeie iia?aoeeyie: ninoaaeaieai i?iaiaeie, caiieiaieai
aeieoiaioia e o.ae. Eco/aiea aea caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?ee
iicaieyao niaoeeaeenoai oai?/anee iiaeoiaeeoue e ecaanoiui eaoaai?eyi,
iiauoaao i?anoeae aooaaeoa?neie i?ioannee e noaoon aooaaeoa?a a
iauanoaa.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei iiaeoiaeia e eco/aieth enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo Nieieiaui ss.A.:

— oeeinioneee — aaoi?u iuoathony iniuneeoue oiae enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey
e auynieoue, eaeea caeiiu ei oi?aaeytho (O.A. Aca?neee, ss.I.
Aaeueia?ei, A. Oaa?);

— aeieoiaioaeueiue — aianoi auaiaeia e oai?ee aaoi?u eceaaatho oaeou
(I.I. Aaoy?, A.O. Oe?ieee, A. Iaiiaei?o, O. Meeen, Y. Noaaaeeie);

— neioaoe/aneee — iaiauaiea oaeoia n iiiiuueth eaeie-eeai oeeinioneie
eiioeaioeee (A.M. Aaeaaai, I.N. Iiiaceia A.E. Eiceineee, E.I. Eaeeue,
A.Ae. Ye?eaeae e ae?.);

— aiaeeoe/aneee — aaoi?u eceaaatho enoi?eth ia anaai o/aoa, a
ioaeaeueiuo aai eaoaai?ee (A.E. Eeooeoii, B.C. ssiaI.?. Aaeoeiai e
ae?.);

— yaiethoeeiiiue — ?ao?iniaeoeaiue (enoi?e/aneee) aiaeec n nia?aiaiiuo
iiceoeee, o.a. n eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiiai iiiyoeeii-eaoaai?eaeueiiai
e oa?ieiieiae/aneiai aiia?aoa (ss.A. Nieieia, O.I. Iaeueeiaa).

Oae eee eia/a, i?e eco/aiee enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/ao; aicieeaao
aii?in ia enoi/ieeao. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue o/ao eae. i?aeoe/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, oi ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiatho iiaeeeiiua o/aoiua
aeieoiaiou. Iiiaea ec ieo iiaeaee, a iiiaea ae?aaiea aeieoiaiou aua ia
?anoeo?iaaiu. Aeaaea a nia?aiaiiii ie?a noa?ua aeieoiaiou naeatho a
ooeeue, eieae — a iaeoeaoo?o, ec iaiyoe en/acatho aaaeiua oaeou, eee aea
iie niciaoaeueii ne?uaathony. Iiyoiio eiathueany aeieoiaiou ca/anooth
iinyo neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue o/ao eae iaoeo, oi aa
iiaeii eco/aoue ii iioaeeeiaaiiui ?aaioai, iaeiaei aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeii
noaeeoue, /oi eiaao cia/aiea, a /oi yaeyaony eeethceae. ?acia?aoueny aea
a oii, eoi ec nia?aiaiieeia aue ia?aui a ?aoaiee oie eee eiie i?iaeaiu,
auaaao ii/oe iaaiciiaeii.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eco/aiey enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neie
iaoee ia aucuaaao niiiaiee. I?ioeannu ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ?inneeneiai o/aoa e
aai aa?iiiecaoeee n ie?iaui iiuoii i?eaiaeyo e iniciaieth ianouiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiaoue onoie/eaua enoi?e/aneea i?eaioe?u i?e auai?a
aa?eaioia ?acaeoey. Iaoea i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa iiiaia?aiia e ia
ia?aie/eaaaony iaai?ii i?aaee, eceiaeaiiuo a eino?oeoeeyo e noaiaea?oao.
I?aaenoaaeaiey i oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa nouanoaaiii ?anoe?ythony
i?e eco/aiee ?acee/iuo acaeyaeia ia nouiinoue nia?aiaiiuo aooaaeoa?neeo
eaoaai?ee.

Oeaeueth i?aiiaeaaaiey aeenoeeieeiu «Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa»
yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea:

– ciaiee i caeiiiia?iinoyo ?acaeoey o/aoa;

– no?aieaiey eniieueciaaoue enoi?e/aneee iiuo aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey
nia?aiaiiie oai?ee e i?aeoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;

– oai?/aneiai aini?eyoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa eae iinoiyiii
?acaeaathuaeny yaiethoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu nooaeaiou aeieaeiu ciaoue:

– iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey o/aoiuo nenoai a ie?a;

– aicieeiiaaiea e yaiethoeeth aeaieiie caiene a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa;

– caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey oi?i aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;

– iniiaiua iaoeeiiaeueiua oeieu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e eo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae;

– enoi?eth e i?iaeaiu noaiiaeaiey nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa a ?innee e ca ?oaaaeii.

Nooaeaiou aeieaeiu oiaoue:

– naiinoiyoaeueii iieueciaaoueny eeoa?aoo?ie ii enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa;

– i?eiaiyoue enoi?e/aneee iiuo ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a iao/ii –
i?aeoe/aneie ?aaioa.

Aeey eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue ciaiey ii
neaaeothuei aeenoeeieeiai: «Oai?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa», «Oeiainiaue e
oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao», «Oeeinioey», «Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee»,
«Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey».

Aeenoeeieeia eco/aaony a niioaaonoaee n Ainoaea?noaaiiui
ia?aciaaoaeueiui noaiaea?oii e o/aaiui ieaiii.

1. Ca?iaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea o/aoa a Ae?aaiai ie?a

1.1 Ca?iaeaeaiea o/aoa

Enoi?ey nia?aiaiiie aooaaeoa?ee, eae e enoi?ey iiiaeo ae?oaeo iaoe,
ooiaeeo naieie ei?iyie a aeoaue aaeia. Iia aicieeea a yiioo iaeaieeoa,
eiaaea ethaee ia/aee iniciaaaoue naay a iauanoaa. Ciaiey ia ie?oaeathuai
ie?a iaeaieeaaeenue iin?aaenoaii o/aoa: ieaiao (caacae), a?aiaie,
iiaaaeaiey aeeaioiuo, yaeaiee i?e?iaeu e o.i. Ia/aa ?aaioaoue, /aeiaae
ecia?ae i?oaeey o?oaea, e iiyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue aanoe o/ao aeiau/e
(?acoeueoaoia o?oaea), o.a. «neeaaeneeo caiania». O/ao iiiiaae
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ii?yaeie, aeaeaoue i?iaiicu (eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii
iea?e?iaaoue, iiiieiyoue caianu e o.i.). Oae iiyaeeny n/ao, eioi?ue
ia/eiaeny n ea/anoaaiiiai ?acee/ey iauaeoia. ?acaeoeth n/aoa
niinianoaiaaei ia?aciaaiea eceeoeia e ia/aei iaiaia. N oa/aieai a?aiaie
a i?ioeann n/aoa noaee aiaeaeaoueny iiae?o/iua n?aaenoaa — eaiaoee,
iaei/ee e ae?. «Eaeueeoeyoeey» a aoeaaeueiii ia?aaiaea n eaoeineiai
icia/aao «n/ao eaiaoeaie» (calcul — eaiaiue). Ia ia?aii yoaia ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa any eioi?iaoeey oiauaeanue a aieiaa, oae eae
iaiyoe /aeiaaea auei aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau caiiiieoue aaaeiua niauoey. N
oneiaeiaieai oicyenoaaiiie aeecie iiyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue caiene
iiaen/eoaiiiai. Ia?aua o/aoiua aeieoiaiou, iaia?oaeaiiua a?oaieiaaie,
ioiinyony e 30 a. aei i.y. Yoi ca?oaee ia einoyo e aeaiyo iaiiioa,
ianeaeueiua ?enoiee e o.i. Ia naiuo ae?aaieo aeieoiaioao eiathony
oii?yaei/aiiia /a?aaeiaaiea eeiee, eiiaeiaoeee iaeiioeiiuo ciaeia
(oi/ee, aeoae, i?yiua e aieienoua eeiee), ii ionoonoaotho ea/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee o/aoiuo iauaeoia (iaeiaiiaaiea, aeaoa eee n?ie o?aiaiey e
o.i.). Oaeea aeieoiaiou iieo/eee iacaaiea n/aoiuo ae?ie (1). Aiciiaeii,
?aniieiaeaiea ciaeia niioaaonoaiaaei ?aniieiaeaieth o/aoiuo iauaeoia a
o?aieeeuao, a ea/anoaaiiia ioee/ea iauaeoia ae?oa io ae?oaa eee
nianoaaiiinoue ?aciuo eeoe — aeaaeaeueoeaa i?iaeoeoia eee i?oaeee
iaicia/aeinue i?e iiiiue iaiaeeiaeiaie eiioeao?aoeee ciaeia-/enae. E
niaeaeaieth, a naiuo ae?aaieo aeieoiaioao ia auaaaeaiu eoiae — neiaieu
eoiaia e iiaeiaaiue o/ao iiyaeeenue iaiiiai iicaea (Ae?aaiee Aaeiao).

Ecaanoiu ?acee/iua iineoaee o/aoiie eioi?iaoeee. Oae, ia oa??eoi?ee
Iaaeaeo?a/uey (Ia?aaeiyy Acey) iaeaeaiu iaeeea aeeiyiua e eaiaiiua
i?aaeiaou, ioiinyueany e VIII—V aa. aei i.y. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi oaeea
«oeoee» eniieueciaaeenue aeey iiaen/aoa: eiion — eoaoei ianea,
oeeeeiae?ee — iaoea e o.i. Iiaeiaiay nenoaia n/aoa eiaea ianoi a Eiaeee:
eaiaoee ?acee/iiai oeaaoa ?aneeaaeuaaee a e?oaeee (i?iia?ac ea?oioaee).
Eiee (Naaa?iay Aia?eea) eniieueciaaee ?aciioeaaoiua oio?u (eaeion) —
iaeei neoaeee iniiaaieai, ae?oaea e?aieeenue ia iai. Eaaeaeue ocae —
«caienue» ia o/aoiii iauaeoa. I?inoua oceu niaaeeiyeenue a neiaeiua.
Oceiaie o/ao i?eiaiyeny a Ao?eea, ssiiiee, Eeoaa, Aaiaaeee aei ia/aea XX
a.

Nenoaia ienueia oaeaea eiaea aa?eaiou — ?enoiee, ea?iaeeou, eeeiiienue.
Iineoaeyie ienueiaiiie eioi?iaoeee auee eaiaiiua ieeou (Ooia?), iaie?on
(Ae?aaiee Aaeiao), ea?aie/aneea e aea?aayiiua (iaaiuaiiua eee
auaaeaiiua) oaaee/ee (Ae?aaiyy A?aoeey, Ooia?) e ae?.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeinoeaeaiey ia?aiauoiuo ethaeae a iaeanoe o/aoa
caeeth/athony a oii, /oi iiyaeeenue nenoaiu en/eneaiey e caiene,
iicaieythuea ?aaeno?e?iaaoue o/aoiua iauaeou a ia iaoo?aeueiuo
ecia?eoaeyo. Yoi i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth ia?auo aeieoiaioia —
iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee. Ii iaoiaeieiaee nai?a, ia?aaioee e
aiaeeca /eneiaie eioi?iaoeee aua ia auei.

1.2 O/ao a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa

O/aoiay nenoaia Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa auea /anoueth nenoaiu
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie. Aanue o?iaeae, neio e i?i/ea
?acoeueoaou o?oaea naeaaaeenue a oeaio?aeeciaaiiua o?aieeeua, a caoai
?ani?aaeaeyeenue ii oicyenoaai; eaaeaeua yoai eiio?iee?iaaeny. Iiyoiio
ia?yaeo n eieaeueiui o/aoii (o/aoii a aeiiaoieo oicyenoaao) aiciee
iauaainoaea?noaaiiue o/ao.

*oiau oiaoue o/eouaaoue, o?aaiaaeinue iaeaaeaoue ienueiii e n/aoii,
caiiiieoue ia?iiiia /enei ciaeia (ea?iaeeoia), a caoai oiaei i?eiaiyoue
eo. Ciaieai iaeaaeaee ienoeu — /eiiaieee, iie?iaeoaeuenoaoaiua aiaii
ienueiaiiinoe, n/aoa e ioae?inoe Oioii e aai aeaiie aiaeiae enoeiu Iaao.
Ienoeu niaiauaee a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey, o/aoa,
ae?a/anoaa e ninoaaeyee i?ioanneiiaeueioth eanoo. Ienoeai iaiaoiaeeii
auei iiiaeanoai ciaiee — eiaeaia?iuo (/oiau naeaeaoue ?an/ao aeey
no?ieoaeuenoaa, o?ainii?oe?iaee a?oci- e eiuo iiaeiaiuo ?aaio),
iaoaiaoe/anee yeiiiie/aneeo. Ooieoeee ae?aaieo aooaaeoa?ia auee aieaa
oe?ieeie e cia/eiuie, /ai ooieoeee nia?aiaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia, E?iia
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ciaiee, oeaieeenue e i?aanoaaiiua aeinoieinoaa o/aoa
?aaioieeia. Ienoeu, caiiaeic?aiiua a iaoeiaoeeyo, ia?aaiaeeeenue a
?ac?yae caieaaeaeueoeaa eee nai?ueeia iaeiaia.

I?ioanneiiaeueiay ea?a?oey aue neiaeiie: io i?inouo aei aunoeo ienoeia.
Nouanoaiaaea aeeooa?aioeeaoeey o/aoiiai o?oaea: oea?neee ienaoe; ienoeu
ceaeia, caiee, ethaeae, aienea, iiaeaoae; iaaece?aoaeue ienoeia; ienoeu
(ia?aien/eee) aeieoiaioia e o.ae. Auea aaaaeaia iniaay aeieaeiinoue
aaaioia oenea (nai?ueeia iaeiaia) ieceiai ?aiaa. Nai?ueee iaeiaia
iieo/aee i?aaeienaiea i?eaacoe ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai ca?ia, neioa e
o.i. Aeieaeiinoue auea iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiie. Iaaiciiaeiinoue
iaania/eoue ii?io nai?a iiaea i?eaanoe e aeanoieiio iaeacaieth aaaioa.

Aeieoiaiou ienaeenue ia iaie?ona, aeeiyiuo /a?aieao, aea?aaa, o?aieeenue
a iia/aoaiiie oa?a — ninoaeao, ea?oeao, yueeao, iaoeao e oeene?iaaee
iiaeeeiiinoue iia?aoeee e ioaaonoaaiiinoue eniieieoaeae. Aeieoiaiou
auaea?aeaiu a th?eaee/aneii ioiioaiee, aeaoe?iaaiu aiaeaie i?aaeaiey
oa?aiiia e niaaaeaiu ia/aoyie. Oae eae i?aaiecaoeey o/aoa a Ae?aaiai
Aaeioa th?eaee/anee ia ?aaoee?iaaeanue, aeieoiaiou ia auee aeinoaoi/iui
aeieacaoaeuenoaii niaa?oaiey iia?aoeee. Ia?yaeo n ieie i?eiaiyeenue
onoiua iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae.

Aeey onei?aiey e oi/iinoe a?eoiaoe/aneeo ?an/aoia eniieueciaaee
niaoeeaeueiue i?eai? — aaae (2) (aeeiyiay aeinea n iacaie, a eioi?ua
caeeaaeuaaeenue eaiaoee), a oaeaea au/eneeoaeueiua oaaeeoeu.
Iniaaiiinoueth ae?aaiaaaeiaoneie yeiiiieee auei eniieueciaaiea ii?i
?anoiaea i?iaeoeoia aeey niaea?aeaiey ?aaioieeia (a caaeneiinoe io eo
eaoaai?ee), iaeiaia, caiee, eiee/anoaa nu?uey aeey iieo/aiey aioiaiai
i?iaeoeoa e o.i. Ii?ie?iaaiea ioaaouaaei ana iniiaiua ?ano?nu iauanoaa,
i iaauiieiaiee ii?iu oeacuaaee a aeieoiaioao.

Aia/aea i?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie o/aoa a ioaeaeueiuo oicyenoaao auee iiene
n ia?a/iai ?acee/iuo iauaeoia — eiaaioa?e. Eo iiaeii n/eoaoue ia?aui
i?eciaeii nenoaiiinoe. Caoai aeaiiua noaee a?oiie?iaaoue: nienee
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ii i?ioanneiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo, iiene eiouanoaa e
ae?. Ninoaaeaiea eiaaioa?ae iinoaiaiii noaei iineoue ?aaoey?iue
oa?aeoa?. N ?acaeoeai yeiiiieee iie aeiiieiyeenue iiauie iieacaoaeyie,
Oneiaeiyeenue ii niaea?aeaieth e noaee ioi?aaiui iiiaioii yaiethoeee
oi?i o/aoa. Ia?aay — eiaaioa?iay (3) — iiaeeyea ia o/ao anao aeaeia
?ano?nia. E iae ia?aoee io ca?oaie iaeaieeoa.

Iauaeoii o/aoa i?aaeaea anaai auea caiey e aa eniieueciaaiea.
Oaoiieiaeth o/aoa caiee iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ii aeaiiui iaie?ona
Aeeueao?, aaea niaethaeaaony eeanneoeeaoeey caiaeue ii oaeei eaoaai?eyi,
eae aacaiaeiay, aa?aaiaay, aicaeaeuaaaiay, eoaiaay, iiaay, i?ioaiiay, a
aeaaiia, ii aeaaeaeueoeai ?aciie noaiaie caieaaeaaeaiey
(ioaaonoaaiiinoe). Aaeaaiaeii ninoaaeyeenue eaaeano?u — iiene caiaeue
aei eee iinea ?aceeaa Ieea, a eioi?uo oeacuaaeenue ieiuaaee o/anoeia ii
eaoaai?eyi caiee e a /ueai iieueciaaiee iie iaoiaeeeenue.

Aeaaiui aiaaonoaii Aaeioa auei ca?ii, eioi?ia ia?auaeinue eae aeaiueae
ia?yaeo n aaniauie aeaiueaaie-yeaeaaeaioaie (iaoaeeii ?acee/iie
oeaiiinoe). Iiiao eee aaeeiiai yeaeaaeaioa a Aaeioa ia ciaee. Iiyoiio
iinea ninoaaeaiey eiaaioa?y nia?aiiia ca?ii ia?an/eouaaee a oneiaiue
auoiae, niioaaonoaothuee nuaio n caiee i?e naiie aunieie ii?ia
o?iaeaeiinoe, /oi iicaieyei aeaiiua ?aciuo oicyenoa aeaeaoue
niiinoaaeiuie e naiaeeoue aeaiiua ii anae no?aia. Ia?eiaee/anee
i?iaiaeeeenue ia?aiene (eiaaioa?ecaoeey) ethaeae, eiouanoaa, neioa.

?acaeoea eiaaioa?iiai o/aoa oei a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo:

— aeaoaeecaoeey n?aaenoa, eo iienaiea e o/ao eaaeaeiai aeaean?aaenoa a
ioaeaeueiinoe. Oaeie o/ao ia?ac?uaii naycai n i?aaiecaoeeae neeaaeneiai
o?aiaiey e ioaaonoaaiiinoueth aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe;

— eeanneoeeaoeey iauaeoia a oie aea iiene eae a o/aoiii ?aaeno?a ii
a?oiiai n?aaenoa n eoiaaie. Yoio o/ao icia/ae iaiauaiea a ?aieao
iaoo?aeueiuo aaeeieoe o/aoiuo iauaeoia, ii noieiinoiiai o/aoa aua ia
auei.

E?iia oiai, a eiaaioa?iii o/aoa ia io?aaeaeenue iia?aoeee.
Eaaeaeiaeiaaiua eiaaioa?ecaoeee o?aaiaaee cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao a?aiaie e
nee. Eiaaioa?iue o/ao cao?oaeiye iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea oicyenoaii,
iiyoiio a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa iiyaeeny i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiue o/ao. Eae
ecaanoii ec iaie?ona Aoeae 18 (Iaie?on Eae?neiai iocay) ca eaaeaeue
aeaiue i?eaiaeeeenue ?aeaeceou, iicaieythuea n/eoaoue aeieoiaio oaeouei
n/aoii, eiathuei i?eoiae, ?anoiae e inoaoie. Inoaoie e eoiae eiaee
niaoeeaeueiua iaicia/aiey, ii ionoonoaea noieiinoiiai ecia?eoaey ia
iicaieyei aaeaine?iaaoue oaeouee n/ao i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiie aooaaeoa?ee,
/oi aucuaaei ioeaee a iiaen/aoao.

O/ao caaa?oaeny io/aoiinoueth ii oe?ieiio e?oao iieacaoaeae a
iaoo?aeueiuo ecia?eoaeyo. Iniiaiia iacia/aiea — ii?aaeaeeoue
ainoaea?noaaiiua ?ano?nu e ?ani?aaeaeeoue eo. Nouanoaiaae
eiio?ieueii-?aaeceiiiue aiia?ao aeey i?iaa?ee niioaaonoaey o/aoiuo e
io/aoiuo aeaiiuo. O/ao aaeny iiaeiaaii, a io/aoiinoue aeaeeeanue ia
aiaeiaoth, aioo?eaiaeiaoth e ca ianeieueei eao. Aeaiiua iaiauaeenue ii
iaeanoyi (iiiai). Niaoeeaeueiie iaoiaeieiaee oi?ie?iaaiey iieacaoaeae
io/aoiinoe ia auei, oae eae io/aoiinoue iiaoi?yea oi?ioey?u oaeouaai
o/aoa. Yoi aeaeii ii iaie?ono Aa??ena a?aiai ?ainana III. Iacaaiiue
iaie?on i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiae o?aiiaiai eiouanoaa ii aeaeai,
eiee/anoao e o?aiai. Io/aou aeeooa?aioee?iaaeenue ii iacia/aieth, auee e
io/aou oeaeaaiai oa?aeoa?a. Io/aoiinoue iineea ioaee/iue oa?aeoa?. Oae,
Aa?iaeio ienae, /oi ia noaiao ie?aieaeu Oaiina auei au?acaii, neieueei
/aniiea, ?aaeenee, eoea e ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia iio?aaeee ethaee, caiyoua
aa no?ieoaeuenoaii. Iauay noieiinoue i?iaeoeoia (oieueei i?iaeoeoia)
ninoaaeea 1500 oaeaioia na?aa?a (40 o eee 2 iei aeie.).

Ia io/aoiinoe auea iniiaaia any nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey,
eioi?ue inouanoaeyeny /a?ac oeiainiaia oi?aaeaiea e niaoeeaeueiuo
/eiiaieeia. Ai aeaaa oi?aaeaiey noiye aa?oiaiue eacia/ae, auoa eioi?iai
auee oieueei oaeiue niaaoiee (ianoa? aeai?oeiauo oaei) e aa?oiaiue
ae?aoe (ianoa? iaaaniuo oaei). Oieueei aa?oiaiue ae?aoe iia oeaeiaaoue
oa?aiio eieaii, aa?oiaiue eacia/ae — nooiith, inoaeueiua — eeoue i?ao o
iia oea?y-oa?aiia.

Oaeay nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai o/aoa auea neaaenoaeai
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa n aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie
yeiiiieeie.

1.3. Aooaaeoa?ey Iaaeaeo?a/uey (Ianiiioaiee).

Ooia?neay, a iicaeiaa aaaeeiineay oeeaeeecaoeey ?aniieaaaeenue iaaeaeo
?aeaie Oea? e Aao?ao o aa?aaia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. Enoi?ey Aaaeeiia
ciaea e aceaou, e iaaeaiey. Aai iiaaaeaeaee e Anne?ey, e Ia?ney, ii ii
iiyoue aic?iaeaeaeny. N?aaee iiiaeo aeinoeaeaiee ooia?ia (iicaeiaa
aaaeeiiyi) iiaeii iacaaoue e o/ao.

Caiene aaee ia aeeiyiuo oaaee/eao eeeiiienueth. Oaaee/ee ecaioaaeeaaee
?aciuo ?acia?ia ec aeaaeiie aeeiu. Ienaee iaei/eie (o?inoieeiaie,
aea?aayiiie eee iaoaeee/aneie) n iaaeo noi?ii. Iinea yoiai oaaee/eo
aunooeaaee ia nieioea eee naeeaaee. E?iia aeeiu a ea/anoaa ien/aai
iaoa?eaea eniieueciaaee aea?aayiiua aeiua/ee, eaiaiue, iaoaee, neiiiaoth
einoue.

Iniiaiie nenoaiie en/eneaiey auea ia aeanyoe/iay, a oanoeaeanyoe?e/iay.
A o/aoa oe?iei eniieueciaaeenue neiaeiua iaoaiaoe/aneea au/eneaiey:
i?iii?oeee, ae?iae, o?aaiaiey, i?ia?annee. Aeey oi?iuaiey i?eiaiyeenue
au/eneeoaeueiua oaaeeoeu, a eioi?uo i?eaiaeeeenue niioiioaiey ?acee/iuo
ia?, iaiaoiaeeiuo a o/aoa.

Ii?yaeie ioi?ieaiey e niaea?aeaiey aeieoiaioia oi?ie?iaaeny iinoaiaiii.
Naiuie ?aiieie oneiaiuie ecia?aaeaieyie o/aoiuo iauaeoia noaee oeoee
?aciie eiioeao?aoeee. N ?acaeoeai yeiiiieee aeieoiaiou noaiiaeeenue
iaoe?iaa ii niaea?aeaieth e i?eia?aoaee aieaa caeii/aiiue aeae.
Ianiiioaineea aeieoiaiou eiatho noiaenoai n nia?aiaiiuie ca n/ao
a?aoeaiey (auaeaeaiey no?ie e noieaoeia ieoeie ia aua iyaeie aeeia) .
Aiaoiaa ioi?ieaiea auaea?aeaii a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea: ia/aoe, aeaou,
eiaia ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe e ienoeia (aooaaeoa?ia), a a naeaeeao —
naeaeaoaeae. A eiio?aeoao oeacuaaeinue, /oi ii ieii/aiee n?iea naeaeee
aeieoiaio ?acaeaaaony. Aeieoiaiou, auaea?aeaiiua a th?eaee/aneii
ioiioaiee, iiiauaeenue a eiiaa?ou, eioi?ua oaeaea ecaioaaeeaaee ec
aeeiu, e caia/aouaaeenue. Aeieoiaiou iiaee eiaoue iina?aaeeia ioaa?noea
aeey iaiecuaaiey ia oio?ie eee iaeeo. O?aieeenue aeieoiaiou a ei?ceiao
eee ninoaeao. E eaaeaeie aieinoe i?ee?aieyee y?eue n oeacaieai
iacia/aiey aeieoiaioia e a?aiaie eo ninoaaeaiey.

A ioee/ea io Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa ia aa?aaao Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa eneonnoaii
ienueia aeaaeaei aieueoaa /enei ethaeae. I/aaeaeii, yoi auei iaoneiaeaii
iaiaa «nayuaiiui» oa?aeoa?ii o/aoa, e aai aeinoiaa?iinoue
iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue a?aaeaeaineei, caeiiiaeaoaeueiui iooai.

Oeaio?aie ienueiaiiinoe auee o?aiu, niaiauaaoea a naaa eoeueoiaua,
iao/iua e eiiia?/aneea o/?aaeaeaiey. Ienoeia iao/aee a oeieao i?e
o?aiao. E?iia oiaiey ienaoue o/aoiua ?aaioieee aeieaeiu auee
?acae?aoueny a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e iaoaiaoeea, aeaaeaoue iaa/aneei e
iocueaeueiui eneonnoaii, ciaoue ?eooaeu e, eiia/ii, o/ao. Iieiaeaiea
o/aoiuo ?aaioieeia auei i?anoeaeii e aieaa naiaiaeii, /ai a Aaeioa.
Caeanue oaeaea nouanoaiaaee ?aiae o/aoiuo aeieaeiinoae.

A oicyenoaao Ae?aaiaai Aaaeeiia, eae e a oicyenoaa Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa,
auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu eiaaioa?iay e i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay oi?iu o/aoa (4).
Aeaaiay ?ieue ioaiaeeeanue o/aoo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio.
Ninoaaeyeenue iiene iieae n oeacaieai ?acia?ia, o?iaeaeiinoe,
i?eaiaeiinoe e ia?aaioea, ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe. A iienyo ?aai/aai neioa
niaethaeaeanue aai eeanneoeeaoeey (iieiaeiye, ac?ineua, noa?ua, iaaoea),
a oaeaea o/eouaaeanue aai o?oaeiniiniaiinoue e ia?aaea/a ia niaea?aeaiea
ioaaonoaaiiui eeoeai. Iniaaiii /aoei auee ?aoaiu aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee
o/aoa o?oaea. O/ao inouanoaeyeny ii o?ai iai?aaeaieyi: o/ao ia?niiaea
(ii aic?anoo, eaoaai?eyi, ?aai/ei ia?oeyi), ?aai/aai a?aiaie e
niaea?aeaiey ?aai/ae neeu. Iaai ioi?ieyeny aeiaiai?ii n oeacaieai n?iea
eniieueciaaiey, oa?aeoa?a ?aaio e ?acia?a iieaou. Ec aeieoiaioia
ecaanoii, /oi onoaiaaeeaaeanue iaoa?eaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ca iieo/aiiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ay auea aeinoaoi/ii
aunieie e aeanoeie. A o/aoa neeaaeneeo iia?aoeee ?acaeoea iieo/eee
iinooieaiey e auaea/a n?aaenoa a i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiuo n/aoao e iienyo i?e
i?iaa?ea inoaoeia eee ?aaeno?aoeee i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea ?acaeaeueii.

Aaaeiie ninoaaiie /anoueth o/aoa noaei ii?aaeaeaiea cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai. I?iecaiaenoai caeai/eaaeinue naea/ae ecaioiaeaiiiai ia
oeaio?aeueiua neeaaeu, a ?an/aou n ainoaea?noaii naiaeeeenue e
?ani?aaeaeaieth n?aaenoa a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee.

Iniaia ianoi caieiae o/ao ?an/aoia. Oae eae ?an/aou inouanoaeyeenue a
?aieao iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa, iie ia ioaaouaaee anth yeiiiieeo.
?an/aou aaeenue a aaniauo aaeeieoeao, iineieueeo iiiao aua ia ciaee. Oai
ia iaiaa ecaanoiu aeaeiaua oi?aiai-?inoiaue/aneea aeiia (iai?eia?,
«Nuiiauey e aioee Yaeae», «Aeaeiaie aeii Io?aoo»), eioi?ua iiaeii
n/eoaoue i?iia?acaie aaieia. Yoe aeiia i?iecaiaeeee acaeiiue ca/ao
aeieaia iooai nienaiey n ea?oi/ee iaeiiai e caienueth ia ea?oi/eo
ae?oaiai aeeaae/eea, ii a aaciaee/iua ?an/aou oaeea iia?aoeee ia
ia?a?inee ii ?yaeo i?e/ei. Ai-ia?auo, ?an/aou aaeenue a aaniauo
aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao, a ai-aoi?uo, ien/ee iaoa?eae ia iicaieye
iia?aoeaii io?aaeaoue iia?aoeee ia oaeoueo n/aoao.

Iiuioth iiiuoeo oii?yaei/eoue nenoaio ?an/aoia naeaeae naiue ciaiaieoue
ec aaaeeiineeo oea?ae — Oaiio?aie. A iniiao naiaea caeiiia Oaiio?aie aue
iieiaeai i?eioeei ?aaiie iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe — iei ca iei, coa
ca coa. Noaouee, iinayuaiiua th?eaee/aneiio ?aaoee?iaaieth eiouanoaaiiuo
e ?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee, niaea?aeaee aieaa aoiaiiua ii?iu. E?iia
th?eaee/aneeo ii?i, caeiiu niaea?aeaee e yeiiiie/aneea ii?iu: ?acia?u
iieaou o?oaea n aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae ii aeaeai ?aaio, aa?aioee i?aaiaie
caueou eiouanoaa, iaycaoaeueiia ecaauaiea i naeaeeao n iaaeaeaeeiui
eiouanoaii ai?iaeneeo e noaeaaiuo aeanoae, caiene a n/aoao oieueei ia
iniiaaiee oaaee/ae (ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia), caaa?aiiuo ia/aoueth, e o.i.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou iiaeii auei ioaeaeeoue io
aeieoiaioia oaeouaai o/aoa, ii ioee/eoue iineaaeiea io io/aoiinoe ii/oe
iaaiciiaeii. I?eoiaei-?anoiaeiue n/ao ca ianyoe e aue, ii nooe, io/aoii.
No?aieaiea e oieoeeaoeee i?iyaeyaony a i?aaenoaaeaiee iaeioi?uo
aeieoiaioia a oaaee/iie oi?ia, aaea i?eoiae e ?anoiae ?aciauaee
iineaaeiaaoaeueii. Oeaio?aeecaoeey yeiiiieee iaoneiaeea e nenoaio
eiio?iey, eioi?ay aace?iaaeanue ia io/aoiinoe e i?iaa?eao. Eiio?ieueiua
ooieoeee auee aiceiaeaiu ia niaoeeaeueiuo /eiiaieeia. I?aaenoaaeaiea
io/aoia io ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?aaio auei iaycaoaeueiui.

1.4. O/ao a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee

Ae?aaiaeoay a?a/aneay eoeueoo?a (a?iiciaue aae) — e?eoi-ieiieneay.
Nenoaia o/aoa iioiaea ia aaaeeiineoth, oae eae caiene ia aeeiyiuo
oaaee/eao eiatho eeiaeiia ?aniieiaeaiea, ii aeaeaiea ii a?aoai, eae a
aaaeeiineeo aeieoiaioao, ionoonoaoao. Aiineaaenoaee a?aee caeinoaiaaee
iiiaea aeinoeaeaiey e?eoyi — ienueiaiiinoue, nenoaio /enae e ia? e
ae?oaea eoeueoo?iua aeinoeaeaiey. Ii auea ee caeinoaiaaia nenoaia o/aoa,
iaecaanoii. Ia niaio e?eoiieeaineie eoeueoo?a i?eoee e noaee
?acaeaaoueny a?a/aneea ai?iaea-iieenu, eaaeaeue ni naiae caieiooie
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiie. A ioee/ea io no?ai ae?aaiaai Ainoiea n
oeaio?aeeciaaiiui oi?aaeaieai yeiiiieeie o a?aeia ia auei aaeeiiai
ia?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia. Iieenu oi aiaaaee iaaeaeo niaie, oi
caeeth/aee nithcu, ii oi?aiaua, a caoai e aeaiaaeiua nayce nio?aiyeenue.

Enoi/ieeaie ciaiee ia i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa a e?eoi-ieeaineie A?aoeee
yaeythony iaeaeaiiua i?e ?aneiieao ouny/e aeeiyiuo oaaee/ae, ae?ae,
aeaiueae, neeaaeneea o?aieeeua e o.i. E?iia oiai, aei iao eo aeiae
aeioee eeoa?aoo?iua enoi/ieee, a eioi?uo niaea?aeeony iienaiea o/aoiie
i?aeoeee (i?iecaaaeaiey A?enoioaey, Aeaiinoaia, Aa?iaeioa e ae?.).

Aeieoiaiou a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee ienaeenue ia ethaie aeaaeeie iiaa?oiinoe,
yoi auee oeo?u iaaoe, eic, caoai aeinee, iie?uoua ecaanoueth eee aineii.
Aeiua/ee iiaee ne?aieyoueny ii e?ath ?aiaoeaie eee eieueoeaie (ia?aue
oi?ioey? eieae). Ienaee e ia iaie?ona, ii ie iaeei ec ieo ia nio?aieeny.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieoiaiou — iinoaiiaeaiey, ioaee/iua nienee —
iaiaoiaeeii auei nio?aiyoue ia aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, iiyoiio eo aunaeaee
ia i?aii?iuo eee eaiaiiuo ieeoao. Ii iaeaieaa aeaoaaui iaoa?eaeii auee
aeeiyiua /a?aiee — ino?aee.

Au/eneaiey aaee ia n/aoiii eino?oiaioa — aaaea (a ioee/ea io Ae?aaiaai
Aaeioa eaiaoee ii aea?aayiiie aeinea ia?aaeaeaaee ia ni?aaa iaeaai, a
naa?oo aiec). Nenoaia en/eneaiey auea aeanyoe/iie. N/aoo iao/aee a
iau/iuo oeieao, niaoeeaeueiua «aooaaeoa?neea» eaae?u ia aioiaeee,
i?aeoe/aneiio oi?aaeaieth o/eeenue a i?ioeanna eiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iie?iaeoaeai eiiia?naioia n/eoaeny aia Aa?ian.

A?aee ia i?iyaeyee eioa?ana e i?aeoe/aneie noi?iia oi?aaeaiey, e, eae
neaaenoaea, i?anoeaeiinoue o/aoiie i?ioannee oiaea (i?anoeaeiui
n/eoaeenue caiyoey oeeinioeae, eneonnoaii, nii?oii e o.ae.). Iiyoiio
oai?aoe/aneay noi?iia yeiiiie/aneie iaoee ioi?aaeanue io i?eeeaaeiie
(aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa) e ieacaeanue Aeaeaei aia?aaee.

Ia yeiiiieea (ieein — aeii, oicyenoai; iiiin — caeii) ienaee A?enoioaeue
e Oeeiaeai. Iie oaeaeyee aieiaiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie niaoa cao?ao.
Niaeanii eeanneoeeaoeee n?aaea eiouanoai ?acaeaeyeinue ia aeaeeiia
(caiey, ?aau, neio, aeiia) iaaeaeeiia (aeaiueae iaee/iua e ioaeaiiua a
caeiu, aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue), i?e/ai no?iaiey o a?aeia
o/eouaaeenue ii aa noaaeythuei yeaiaioai — aeaa?e, e?iaey e o.i. Ienaee
e i ea/anoaao oi?aaeythuaai — oiaiee i?eia?aoaoue, nio?aiyoue,
niaea?aeaoue a ii?yaeea, eniieueciaaoue eiouanoai.

N eiioea V a. aei i.y. iiuiia aeeyiea ia yeiiiieeo iieenia ieacuaaao
aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea. Iiiaou noaee auaeathueiny ecia?aoaieai ae?aaieo
a?aeia (Ia?aua iiiaou iiyaeeenue a Eeaeee, /aeaieoue iaoaee noae
eaaaiaea?iue oea?ue E?ac a eiioea VII a. Aei i.y.). Aei yoiai a ea/anoaa
yeaeaaeaioa eniieueciaaeenue naiua ?aciua i?aaeiaou — oeo?u, nieue, iaoa
a neeoeao e ae?. Ii oieueei iiiaou noaee anaiauei oieaa?naeueiui
yeaeaaeaioii e noieiinoiui ecia?eoaeai a aooaaeoa?ee. Aeaiaaeiia
ecia?aiea iicaieyei iaiauaoue ?acii?iaeiua oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie,
a?oiie?iaaoue o/aoiua iauaeou e iia?aoeee, iieo/aoue nenoaiioth
eioi?iaoeeth. Oae ia/aeny iiai?io io iaoo?aeueiiai o/aoa e noieiinoiiio.

N aicieeiiaaieai aeaiaa auaoaa ?aiaa iaoo?aeueiui oicyenoai iinoaiaiii
i?eia?aoaao /a?ou oiaa?iiai. ?acaeaaaony oi?aiaey iaaeaeo
ai?iaeaie-iieenaie. Oae eae eaaeaeue ai?iae /aeaiee naith iiiaoo,
aicieeea i?iaeaia iaiaia iaeieo iiiao ia ae?oaea. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii
auei ciaoue niaea?aeaiea iaoaeea a iiiaoao, noaiaiue eo eciina, eo?n
iaiaia, i?aaeaeaeaoue aiciiaeiinoue iiyaeaiey oaeueoeauo iiiao e ae?.
Iiyaeeenue iaiyeu — o?aiaceou (o?aiaca — noie, o?aiaceo — /aeiaae ca
noieii), eioi?ua, iaeiiea n?aaenoaa, noaee aeaaaoue eo iiae i?ioeaiou.
Oae ii naiei ooieoeeyi o?aiacu noaee aaieaie, a o?aiaceou i?aa?aoeeenue
a aaiee?ia. Ia?yaeo n iaiaiii i?iaa?eie iiiao e e?aaeeoiaaieai o?aiaceou
o/anoaiaaee a naeaeeao eae iin?aaeieee, naeaeaoaee, ii?o/eoaee,
o?aieoaee aeieoiaioia e oeaiiinoae.

Ia?aua a enoi?ee aaiee?u auee ?aaaie, oae eae a?enoie?aou n/eoaee yoi
caiyoea iai?anoeaeiui. Iaeiiea aeaiaa, ?aau aueoiaee naiaiaeo e
noaiiaeeenue aieueiiioiouaiieeaie — iaoaeaie, ii iieo/eoue iiaeeeiiiai
a?aaeaeainoaa iie ia iiaee. Iicaeiaa, a III a. aei i.y., aeayoaeueiinoue
o?aiaceoia noaiiaeony ii/aoiui caiyoeai. E yoiio a?aiaie onoiyeanue
o/aoii-yeiiiie/aneay noi?iia aaieianeeo ?an/aoia, aicieeee oeiainiaua
o?aaeeoeee, ii noaeeoue ia yoii iiaeii oieueei ii eeoa?aoo?iui
enoi/ieeai (?a/e Aeaiinoaia, Enieoaoa e ae?.), oae eae ie iaeia o/aoiay
eieaa ia nio?aieeanue.

I?aaiecaoeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a aaieao oea ii aeaoi iai?aaeaieyi:

1) o/ao i?eaia e auaea/e aeeaaeia;

2) o/ao acaeiiuo ?an/aoia iaaeaeo eeeaioaie.

Nia/aea caeeth/aeny aeiaiai? aaiee?a n eeeaioii a i?enoonoaee naeaeaoaey
e, aiciiaeii, iopy/eoaey. Aeiaiai? iia caeeth/aoueny onoii n
iineaaeothuae i?iaa?eie /a?ac iieacaiey iuoeie ?aaa eae naeaeaoaey
naeaeee. Aciin e ia?aaiae ioi?ieyeenue «ieaoaaeiui ii?o/aieai» —
aeeaa?aoa (5), eee neiaiea (6) (eiiaaea caiaiye aeeaa?aoa). Yoi iiaee
auoue eieueoei-ia/aoea, oaeinoiaa?ythuay ee/iinoue aeeaae/eea, eie
?aceiiaiiay iiiieai iiiaoa, eee aeaaea aeeiyiay oaaee/ea. I?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aucuaaee naeaeaoaeae. A aeieoiaioa oeacuaaee: eiy
aeeaae/eea, noiio aeeaaea, eiaia iieo/aoaey, ii?o/eoaee, naeaeaoaey.

Oaeouee o/ao ?an/aoia aaeny a nieneao, eoaea caienuaaee noiiu, a iioii
au/a?eeaaee eo. Au/a?eeaaiea icia/aei ieii/aiea ?an/aoia. Oieoeeaoeee
o/aoiuo aeieoiaioia ia auei (A?enoioaeue iienuaaao oieueei oi, /oi auee
oaaee/ee e nienee, ii i?aaeea eo caiieiaiey ia iaiaa?eaaao). Oaeay
nenoaia o/aoa ?an/aoia oeeaaeuaaaony a noaio i?eoiaeii-?anoiaeiie
aooaaeoa?ee.

O?aiaiea aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe i?aaenoaaeyei ia?iiioth i?iaeaio. Oai ia
iaiaa a enoi/ieeao ia yoii ia oiiieiaaony. Enoi?eee i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi
iniiaiay /anoue aeaiaa auea a iai?ioa — auaeaia a ea/anoaa e?aaeeoia,
ioaea/aia a iaaeaeaeeiinoue eee ?aaia, a ae?oaoth /anoue aaiee?u
naeaaaee ia o?aiaiea a o?aiu. O?aiu auee iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueie ianoaie
aeey o?aiaiey caiania (oienoua noaiu, iinaeaiey aie?oa, caueoa aiaia).
Aeaaiaea?y ?aneiieai Aeaeinneiai o?aia naaiaeiy noaea ecaanoia nenoaia
o?aiaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Caianu auee oeiaeaiu a ai?oee ?yaeaie,
eaaeaeue ?yae iaicia/aeny naiae aoeaie (yoe iaicia/aiey iiaeii n/eoaoue
eiaaioa?iuie iiia?aie). Aaeenue eae ieieioi o?e ?aaeno?a: nienie
aeieaeieeia e aciinia, eiaaioa?iay iienue aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e
ia?a/aiue o?eooia iano o?aiaiey n aeiaeaieyie.

O/eouaay ?ene o?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey iaee/iuo aeaiaa, i?iua e
aaciianiaa auei «ia?aa?ineoue» aeeaaeu iin?aaenoaii caienae ni n/aoa
iaeiiai eeeaioa ia n/ao ae?oaiai, a iaee/iinoue i?e yoii iiaea
inoaaaoueny a aaiea (o?aia) eee eniieueciaaoueny a iai?ioa. Oae
iiyaeeanue i?aaeiinueea ?acaeoey aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia.

O/aoiua eieae aae nai aaiee?, caiene aeaeaeenue niaa?oaiii nae?aoii e
ieeiio ia aeiaa?yeenue. Ie eeeaiou, ie neoae ia iiaee oaeaeaoue o/aoiuo
caienae eee iio?aaiaaoue eo /a?ac noae a ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa.
Ecaanoii iiiaeanoai noaeaaiuo ?acae?aoaeuenoa ii iiaiaeo aeeaaeia,
i?aaeeueiinoe ?an/aoia iaaeaeo eeoeaie, eioi?ua e canoaaeee iiaeoiaoue i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee o/aoa. A aeieoiaioao, eanathueony
aieaa iicaeiae aeayoaeueiinoe aaieia, i?yii aiai?eony i ienueiaiiii
ioi?ieaiee aeeaaeia e ?an/aoia n eeeaioaie.

Iniaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa Ae?aaiae A?aoeee (aeaiie?aoey)
caeeth/aeenue a oii, /oi aieueoeinoai aeieaeiinoae auee auai?iuie (ii
ae?aaeth). Iiiaea ec /eiiaieeia (ii ia ana) iieo/aee aeaeiaaiuea ec
iauanoaaiiie eannu Aoei. Ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea ecae?aeenue ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie, ii enoa/aiee eioi?iai aeieaeiu auee io/eouaaoueny.
Oaenoiaay /anoue io/aoia auea iaoe?iie e aeaaaea i?aaenoaaeaiea i
niaea?aeaiee iia?aoeee e eniieieoaeyo. Io/aou aunoaaeyeenue ia anaiauaa
iaic?aiea e ianoaeaeaeenue. Eiio?ieue inouanoaeyee niaoeeaeueiua
/eiiaieee — iieaou (ioaaonoaaiiua ca a?aiaeo e ioeoi), ea?iiie
(ioaaonoaaiiua ca nio?aiiinoue eaciu), aiiaeaeou (i?iaa?yee iiaaoaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia e aciinia), eiaenou (i?iaa?yee io/aoiinoue
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe). Ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe auea aunieie,
oeuaiey aiciauaeenue a aeanyoee?aoiii ?acia?a. Iaaeinoiaa?iay
io/aoiinoue ?anniao?eaaeanue a noaea e ea?aeanue eiioeneaoeeae
eiouanoaa, ino?aeeciii (ecaiaieai).

Aeaaiaea?y caaiaaaieyi A. Iaeaaeiineiai oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey
?ani?ino?aieeenue a Aaeiao. Ii ia aaeiaoneie ii/aa yoe aeinoeaeaiey
iiaeeoeoee?iaaeenue, a oi?aiaey e /anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai aiiaua
ia i?eaeeeenue. Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey a yeeeienoe/aneii Aaeioa
no?ieeenue ia iiaeiaaieueiii o?oaea naiaiaeiuo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e
?aaia, iiiiiieeyo (oeaeay nenoaia iiiiiieee) e iaeiaao (aaeeeia
iiiaeanoai). ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey noeioee?iaaeinue
aiayeiiiie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie (i?eioaeaeaieai, no?aoii iaeacaiey).
I?ei?eoao ioaeaaaeny iaeiaiaie io/aoiinoe (iiene caiee, ianaeaiey,
o?iaeay, neioa e o.i.).

Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iiae?iaiuo eino?oeoeee ?aaeaiaioe?iaaei nenoaio
o/aoa (ecaanoiu iaie?onu Oaaothiena, a?oea Caiiia). Eino?oeoeee
ninoaaeyeenue a aiia?aoa ieieno?a oeiainia — aaneeeeiia. Ieieno?
oeiainia (aeeieeao) eiae i?aai eiioeneiaaoue eiouanoai /eiiaieea, anee
oio ia?ooee oeiainiaoth aeenoeeieeio eee ia auiieiee naie neoaeaaiua
iaycaiiinoe, iia i?eaiai?eoue aai e iici?iiio noieao e aeaaea nia?oiie
eacie. Auiieiaiea anao eino?oeoeee o?aaiaaei ia?iiiiai ooaoa
eniieieoaeae, eioi?uo ioaeii auei niaea?aeaoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue.
Iaeeiaeiaua o/aoiua ooieoeee iiaee auiieiyoue ianeieueei /eiiaieeia.
Nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaea acaeiiue eiio?ieue aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
iiiaeanoaaiioth ia?aaea/o o/aoii-yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee, aa i?iaa?eo
e ia?ai?iaa?eo. Oaeay nenoaia aiiaua oa?aeoa?ia aeey
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieee.

Iaaeaeo ia?ae/iui o/aoii e io/aoiinoueth noiye (eae e a iaoa a?aiy)
oaeouee o/ao. A yeeeienoe/aneii Aaeioa aicieeaao iiaue oei o/aoiiai
?aaeno?a (oaeouaai aooaaeoa?neiai n/aoa) yoaia?eaea (7). A ioee/ea io
iaie?ona Aoeae 18 iauaeou o/eouaaeenue ia iauei eoiaii, a ?aaiiia?ii a
oa/aiea aeiy. Ecaanoiu iaie?onu ? 701 io 235 a. aei i.y., ? 116 io II a.
aei i.y. e ae?. Aiaeec oaenoia i?eaiaeeo e neaaeothuei auaiaeai:

— o/ao aaeny ii aeiyi;

— eiaea ianoi o/aoiay neiaieeea (anoue iaicia/aiey eoiaa, ciae au/eoaiey
e ae?.);

— i?eiaiyeanue niaoeeaeueiay o/aoiay oa?ieiieiaey, iai?eia?: inoaoie —
eieia, ?anoiae — aiyeiiaoa, ii iaicia/aiey aeaiaaeiuo eee iaoo?aeueiuo
aaeeieoe ionoonoaotho, iiyoiio o?oaeii iiiyoue, aaea eiee/anoai, oeaia e
noiia;

— iaoo?aeueii-noieiinoiue o/ao niaoai n yeaiaioaie i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiiai,
ii o?iiieiae/aneay ?aaeno?aoeey iia?aoeee i?enoonoaoao;

— niaoeeaeueiuo niiniaia eni?aaeaiey ioeaie ia ioia/aii;

— no?oeoo?a aeieoiaioa caaeneo, ianiiiaiii, io oi?iu iaie?oniiai naeoea,
a eioi?ii aaee caiene, iiyoiio yoaia?eaea ia eiaao oaaee/iiai
?aniieiaeaiey i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea ii a?aoai. A /anoiuo oicyenoaao
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, a iicaeiaa e Ae?aaiaai ?eia eniieueciaaeanue nenoaia
o/aoa iaycaoaeuenoa, i?eiaiyaoayny Caiiiii (oi?aaeythuee iiianoueai
ieieno?a oeiainia Ne?ee e Iaeanoeiu Aiieeiiey n 260 a. aei i.y.). A?oea
Caiiia oeaiai naiae ioiineoaeueiie oeaeinoiinoueth (aue iaia?oaeai a
1915 a. aeeoaeyie ianoa/ea Aea?a Yeue Aa?ca ia ianoa iiianouey Aiiieiiey
a Oeeaaeaeueoee. Aeieoiaiou auee i?iaeaiu a ?icieoeo, aeaaea
ioaeaeueiuie o?aaiaioaie, iiyoiio oeaeueiue iaeiaaea a?oea ieacaeny
?ac?iciaiiui. Iioaeeeiaaii 1750 iaie?onia). A iai i?eaaaeaiu ia?ae/iua
aeieoiaiou, yoaia?eaeu, auai?i/iua n/aoa e aeaeiaay ei??aniiiaeaioeey,
auiieiythuay iaeiia?aiaiii ?ieue enoiaeiie ia?ae/iie aeieoiaioaoeee.
Enneaaeiaaoaee, aiaeece?oy aeieoiaiou, naeaeaee auaiae, /oi a /anoiii
o/aoa eiie?iaaee o/ao ainoaea?noaaiiue: ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaycaiiinoae
o/aoiuo ?aaioieeia, i?eciaee ii?ie?iaaiey o?oaea e iia?aoeee, nieioiia
oeene?iaaiea oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie a ?ac?aca iaoa?eaeueii –
ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe, aini?iecaaaeaiea niaea?aeaiey ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia
a yoaia?eaea (aaea eioi?iaoeey ia iaeaieeaaeanue a nayce n ionoonoaeai
a?oiie?iaee aeaiiuo ia?ae/iiai o/aoa, a ?aaeno?e?iaaeanue a
o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea), aaaeaiea i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiiai o/aoa. Ia?yaeo
n yoaia?eaeaie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa aaeenue yoaia?eaeu a iaoo?aeueiii
ecia?aiee, /oi ?aca?aie/eaaei noieiinoiue e iaoo?aeueiue o/ao. Naa?youe
iai?iou a oaeeo oneiaeyo auei aanueia iai?inoi.

Aaieianeee o/ao yeeeienoe/aneiai Aaeioa ?aeiino?oe?iaai neaaeothuei
ia?acii. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a aaieao ia/eiaeny n ienueiaiiiai
?anii?yaeaiey aeeaae/eea. Iia?aoeee aciina aeeaaeia (auieao) caiineeenue
a yoaia?eaeo a eaeaiaea?iie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Ia?yaeo n yoei
caiieiyeanue i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay eieaa (iaie?on ? 890). Naycue iaaeaeo
ieie onoaiaaeeaaeanue iin?aaenoaii i?iaa?ee aeao e eiai eeeaioia
(iaie?on ? 63). A aaieianeie eieaa oaea anoue oi?ioee?iaea «io eiai —
eiio» (i?aaeoanoaoao aeaieiie caiene), oa?iei «eiaoue» (i?iia?ac oa?ieia
«e?aaeeo»), eioi?ua ieacaee aeeyiea ia yaiethoeeth o/aoa.

1.5. O/ao a Ae?aaiai ?eia

?ei I—II aa. aei i.y. aue a oi a?aiy naiui iiaouanoaaiiui ainoaea?noaii.
Aai ?acaeoay yeiiiieea — neaaenoaea oniaoiuo aiei — aace?iaaeanue ia
?ano?nao caaiaaaiiuo no?ai. Oi?aaeaiea auei oeaio?aeeciaaiiui. Ca a?aiy
naiaai nouanoaiaaiey ?ei i?ioae noaaeee oea?neie aeanoe (VII—VI aa. aei
i.y.), ?anioaeeee (VI a. aei i.y. — I a. i.y.), eiia?ee (I a. i.y. — 476
a. i.y.).

O enoieia ?eineie noieo yo?onneay oeeaeeecaoeey (aei VIII a. aei i.y.);
iicaeiaa ?ei iiiaia caeinoaiaae o a?a/aneie e ainoi/iie eoeueoo?u,
i?e/ai aano?aeoiua iaoee ?eieyi ia i?eaeaeaee: iie ia?aie/eaaeenue
i?aeoe/anee iieaciuie aauaie. Iiyoiio oeiainiaie noa?ie e aa
th?eaee/aneei ?aaoee?iaaieai ?eieyia caieiaeenue aeinoaoi/ii na?ueacii.
Iaeii ec aaee/aeoeo aeinoeaeaiee ae?aaiinoe — ?eineia i?aai (aeaeea,
ocaeiiaiiua e oeeaeeeciaaiiua ii?iu i?aaiioiioaiee — /anoiuo e
ioaee/iuo). E?iia anaai i?i/aai, aeaaiaea?y caeiiai yeiiiie/aneea
naeaeee i?eia?aee iainiiaaiea e caueoo, a aooaaeoa?neea eieae a ea/anoaa
aeieacaoaeuenoa i?aaenoaaeyeenue a noae, /oi iienaii, iai?eia?,
Oeeoea?iiii. ?eineia i?aai eiaei ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia aooaaeoa?neee o/ao.
Oae, aeaaeaeueoeu aaieia aeieaeiu auee a ii?aaeaeaiiue aeaiue
iaia?iaeiaaoue naie n/aoa. TH?eaee/aneeie ii?iaie ?aaoee?iaaeanue e
oaoieea o/aoa. Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaa e o/aoa ieacaeinue ianoieueei
ieiaeioai?iui, /oi i?iaeieaeaaony aei neo ii?.

?eieyia ianoiyoaeueii e n iiieiaieai ioiineeenue e oi?aaeaieth e
i?aaeaea anaai /anoiui iiianoueai (Eaoii Noa?oee, Naca?ia, Eieoiaeea,
Aa??ii). Yoi iiiiaaei iaiauaoue oicyenoaaiioth i?aeoeeo e auaiaeeoue
i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey, ii?ie?iaaiey cao?ao e ?aaeaiaioaoeee o/aoa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue e aaieianeee o/ao oaeaea ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue. Aaoi?u
eanaeenue oieueei caieaaeaeey, oioy oi?aiaey e aaieianeia aeaei
i?ioeaaoaee.

A ea/anoaa iniiau aeey ienueia auee eni?iaiaaiu iiiaea iaoa?eaeu —
oieno, eaiaiue, aea?aayiiua aeinee, ae?aaaniua eenouey e aioo?aiiyy
noi?iia ei?u aea?aaueaa. Ioeoeeaeueiay io/aoiinoue iaiineeanue ia
aeinee: i?aii?iua, a?iiciaua, iaaeiua, naeioeiaua e iiaaeaiiua
aea?aayiiua. Oaeouea caiene aaeenue ia aea?aayiiuo oaaee/eao,
ne?aieaiiuo aianoa n iaeiiai e?ay ii aeaa, o?e e aieueoa – eiaeaenu (8)
(eao. code—aea?aai). Iinea caaiaaaiey Aaeioa iiyaeeny iaie?on. Ieiei 180
a. aei i.y. aue ecia?aoai ia?aaiaio (ecaioiaeyeny ec oaey/ueae eiaee,
aue aei?ia, ii i?i/ai). Ia ?acaeoea o/aoa aeeyee oaoieea ienueia e
nenoaia n/aoa. Aeey au/eneaiee eniieueciaaeny aaae, caeinoaiaaiiue
a?aeaie ec Aaeioa.

Aaaeiaeoae ooieoeeae o/aoa noaiiaeeinue oiaiea i?aaeaeaeaoue ?acoeueoao
oicyenoaiaaiey (Eieoiaeea). Iaeia ec eeanneoeeaoeee eiouanoaa (ii
Aa??iio): iaeaaeathuea /eaii?acaeaeueiie ?a/ueth — ?aau, ecaeathuea
ia/eaii?acaeaeueiua caoee — neio, iaiua — o?ainii?o, caeaiey e ae?.

I?aaiecaoeey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iniiauaaeanue ia oeaica eae ia iiene
ianaeaiey e aai eiouanoaa (ia?aienue aaaaeaia Na?aeai Ooeeeai a 550 a.
aei i.y. a oeaeyo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey). A ioeaieo aoiaeeei eiouanoai ii
aeaeai: iaaeaeaeeiinoue, caiey, eiaaioa?ue, ae?aaioeaiiinoe, iaeaaeaea.
Iii ii?aaeaeyeinue ii aeiiaoiei o/aoiui eieaai. Nia/aea ?acoeueoaou
oeaica ecia?yeenue a iaoo?aeueiuo aaeeieoeao, ii n 312 a. aei i.y. noaee
noieiinoiuie ii eieoeeaoeaa oeaici?a Aiiey Eeaaaeey. Iinea ia?aiene
ninoaaeyeenue iniaua nienee iaeioueo aeey aanieaoiie ?acaea/e
i?iaeoeoia. Yoei caieiaeny oeaeue ooao /eiiaieeia, aaaioia, aaniaueeia.
Iieo/athuei auaeaaaeanue oeaaiay oanna?a — aea?aayiiay aeiua/ea n
iaicia/aieai aeaou e ianoa auaea/e oeaaa. Eiio?aia?ee io ieo naeaaaeenue
/eiiaieeai neeaaea. Nia?aiiua ia?ee naa?yeenue ni nieneaie niiniaii
au/a?eeaaiey.

Eae a A?aoeee, a ?eia oe?ieia ?acaeoea iieo/eee aaiee (a?aaioa?ee),
eioi?ua noaee ea?aoue a enoi?ee ?eineie aooaaeoa?ee aaaeouoth ?ieue.
Iaiai iiiao, a oai aieaa i?eai aeeaaeia o?aaiaaee aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee
e iiuoa. Iinea i?iaa?ee iiiao eo neeaaeuaaee a aieinoe e iia/aouaaee a
i?enoonoaee naeaeaoaeae. Naeaeaoaee oaeaea iaeeaaeuaaee naie ia/aoe.
Iia/aoaiiue eioaeue iia o?ainii?oe?iaaoueny e eniieueciaaoueny eae
n?aaenoai ieaoaaea.

Eaoeineee o/aoii-yeiiiie/aneee neiaa?ue aaieianeeo ?an/aoia iaoe?ai e
i?aaie/ii neeo n th?eaee/aneei eaeneeiiii. Yoa oa?ieiieiaey aioea a
eoaeueyineee ycue e /a?ac iaai a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneoth aooaaeoa?eth.
Ecaanoiu ?eineea aaieianeea oa?ieiu accept (i?eiyoea) — i?eoiae aiiaua,
habet (eiaoue) — e?aaeeo aaiee?a eeeaioo, creditum — aa?eoue, debitum —
aeiea eeeaioa aaiee?o, depositum — aeeaae, rationum — n/ao.

?ieue ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia auiieiyee ?anienee. Naeaeee iiaee auoue
onoiuie (ii i?e naeaeaoaeyo) e ienueiaiiuie. Ienueiaiiua aeiaiai?u
onoie/eaie oi?iu ia eiaee.

I?eoiae (acceptum) e ?anoiae (expensum) aeaiaa o/eouaaeenue a
i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiie eieaa (codex accepti et expensi). Ca iaa aaiee? ian
th?eaee/aneoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue, iia auea ?aaeno?ii oaeouaai o/aoa.
E?iia oiai, iia?aoeee o/eouaaeenue a aaeaa?na?ee (adversaria), eioi?ay
aeieai eiaea a?a/aneia iacaaiea yoaia?eaeu. A aaeaa?na?ee ?aaeno?e?iaaee
oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee. A ecaanoiie noaiaie aaeaa?na?ey (9) caiaiyea
ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou, ii ia iieiinoueth. Aaeaa?na?ey e
i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay eieaa auee acaeiinaycaiu eae ?aaeno?u
o?iiieiae/aneiai e nenoaiaoe/aneiai o/aoa. Caiene a eieao aeaeaeenue ii
noaoueyi a niioaaonoaee n iiaeiaaiuie caienyie a aaeaa?na?ee. Eieae
eiaee iiiaeanoai eni?aaeaiee. Ec iaaeieoaeueiie ?a/e Oeeoea?iia ia noaea
ecaanoii, /oi eni?aaeaiey a o/aoiuo eieaao iiaee ?anniao?eaaoue eae
aeieacaoaeuenoai ia/anoiinoe aaiee?a a ioiioaieyo n eeeaioaie.

E?iia oiai, o aaiee?a auea aua iaeia eieaa — eieaa n/aoia (codex
rationum). Caeanue iia?aoeee o/eouaaeenue ii ioaeaeueiui eeeaioai e oai
naiui ioaeaeyeenue io i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiuo n/aoia. N/aoa ioe?uaaeenue ia
eaaeaeiai eeeaioa. N/ao eiae eaoaai?ee aeieaa (debitorum), e?aaeeoa
eeeaioo (habet) e inoaoea (reliqua). Iai?iou e inoaoee eeoeaauo n/aoia
naa?yeenue. Naa?ea i?iaiaeeeanue iooai ioieooaoeee, o.a. ioiaoie a
aeieoiaioa (iau/ii ia iai?ioa).

I?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay eieaa e eieaa n/aoia oaeaea auee naycaiu, /oi
i?iyaeyeinue a i?eaia e auaea/a aeaiiceoia, e?aaeeoia, naa?ea iai?ioia e
inoaoeia. Aeey yoiai o?aaiaaeinue, /oiau a i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiie eieaa
iiiauaeenue n/aoa. Ioieooaoeey (naa?ea) naycuaaea aeaa ?yaea
ia?aeeaeueiuo n/aoia: iaeei i?aaeiacia/aeny aeey aaiee?a, aoi?ie
i?iaiaeeeny ii nnoaeai e aeieaai aeaaeoi?ia, iia?aoeeyi ii aeaiiceoai.
Aiaeec eiathueony aeaiiuo iicaieyao iiaeoaa?aeeoue i?aaeeueiinoue
oacena: «Caienaoue a aeaaao — i?iecaanoe ?anoiae, caienaoue a e?aaeeo —
i?iecaanoe iieo/aiea». N oi/ee c?aiey aaieianeie aooaaeoa?ee
i?eaaaeaiiay oi?ioea aaniethoii aa?ia. Eiia/ii, oaeia iienaiea
i?ioeaaeo?u o/aoa ioee/aaony io oiai, eioi?ia aeae E. Ia/iee, ii
i?aainoaaiiinoue i?ineaaeeaaaony.

A III a. i.y. ianooiee e?ecen ?eineie eiia?ee, a a 395 a. eiia?ey
?aniaeanue ia Ainoi/ioth e Caiaaeioth. Iinea ieceiaeaiey iineaaeiaai
?eineiai eiia?aoi?a a 476 a. Caiaaeiay eiia?ey i?ae?aoeea naia
nouanoaiaaiea, ia?aaeaa iiiaea o?aaeeoeee no?aiai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.
Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aooaaeoa?ee naycaii n o?enoeaineeie iiianou?yie a
Eoaeee e Aecaioeae e ia?aoiaeeo a n?aaeiaaaeiaue ia?eiae.

Oaeei ia?acii, ae?aaiea nenoaiu o/aoa iaeaaeaee ?yaeii iaueo /a?o.
Iniiaiie oeaeueth o/aoa aue eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth iaoa?eaeueii
ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe, /aio niinianoaiaaei iiaeio/aoiia oi?aaeaiea.
Aii?inai yooaeoeaiinoe e i?eaueueiinoe ia oaeaeyeinue aeieaeiiai
aieiaiey, iineieueeo oeaee iieo/aiey i?eauee ia/aee noaaeoue oieueei a
eaieoaeenoe/aneii oicyenoaa. O/ao i?aaeiacia/aeny nei?aa aeey
?aaeno?aoeee oaeoia, /ai aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, ia noieueei aeey
oi?aaeaiey eiouanoaii, neieueei aeey iaania/aiey aai nio?aiiinoe.
Iiyoiio i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi o/ao ?anniao?eaaaiiai ia?eiaea ioaa/ae
iauanoaaiiui iio?aaiinoyi e iaeeaeaieyi. Iai?iou ?aaeno?e?iaaeenue a
iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee, ianiio?y ia iiyaeaiea aeaiaa. Aeaiueae aieioue
aei na?aaeeiu XIII a. i.y. auee oaeei aea oiaa?ii, eae i?iaeoeou eee
i?oaeey o?oaea; a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa ia ?anniao?eaaeanue aiciiaeiinoue
noieiinoiiai ecia?aiey anao iauaeoia o/aoa.

2. O/ao a yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey

2.1. Oicyenoaaiiue o/ao N?aaeiaaaeiauey

Iinea ?aniaaea ?eineie eiia?ee ia/aeinue Aaeeeia ia?anaeaiea ia?iaeia.
Aa?aa?neea aa?iaineea e iaaa?iaineea ieaiaia oeuioee a Aaeeeth, ieaiaia
aaiaeaeia ?aci?yee ai?iaea ainoi/iiai iiaa?aaeuey Ie?aiaeneiai ii?y. IA
oa??eoi?ee auaoae Caiaaeiie ?eineie eiia?ee iaeii ca ae?oaei
ia?aciauaaeenue aa?aa?neea ei?ieaanoaa, ii yoi ia aeaeaei ianoaiiaeo
noaaeeueiie, oae eae ana iie iai?a?uaii aiaaaee ae?oa n ae?oaii. E?iia
oiai, ii Aa?iia iai?a?uaii ia?aiauaeenue aa?iaineea, oth?eneea, e?aineea
e neaayineea ieaiaia, aua ia nicaeaaoea nianoaaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.
I?e noieeiiaaiee e acaeiiaeaenoaee aa?aa?neiai e neaayineiai ie?ia
ia/eiaeinue noaiiaeaiea oaiaeaeecia.

Yeiiiieea auea ?ac?ooaia, o?iaaiue oeeaeeeciaaiiinoe ?acei oiae, noa?ay
oeaio?aeeciaaiiay ainoaea?noaaiiinoue auea oie/oiaeaia. A oaeeo oneiaeyo
auei ia aei o/aoa. Ii iaeioi?ua o?aaeeoeee Ae?aaiaai ?eia oaieeeenue a
iiianou?yo. Aaeeinoaaiiay iniaaiiinoue aeieoiaioia oiai a?aiaie – yoi
aieueoia eiee/anoai ioeaie a o/aoiuo caienyo. A iniiaa o/aoa eaaeaea
i?eaeeceoaeueiinoue, oae eae i?ioeaaoaea anaiauay iaa?aiioiinoue. Ciaiey
ia?aaeaaaeenue io iooea e nuio, niaoeeaeueiay o/aoiay iiaeaioiaea ia
aaeanue.

A oaiaeaeueiii iauanoaa eiaeeaeae i?aaenoaao /eaiii a?oiiu n
niioaaonoaothueie aai ea?a?oe/aneiio iieiaeaieth iaycaiiinoyie e
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. A noa?a nianoaaiiinoe nouanoaiaaee oa aea
ioiioaiey, /oi e iaaeaeo ethaeueie: oae oaiaeaeueiua iiianouey auee
/anoyie aieaa e?oiiuo eiaiee, a caaa?oaee ea?a?oe/aneoth eanoieoeo
ei?ieaaneea aeaaeaiey. Iiianoueyie /anoi oi?aaeyee yeiiiiu
(oi?aaeythuea), iiyoiio iaii?eaeueiay eee iiianoiay o/aoiay nenoaia
(ecaanoiay iiae iacaaieai i?eoiaeii – ?anoiaeiie) i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
nenoaio io/aoiinoe yeiiiia ia oi?aaeaiee iiianoueai eee yeiiiie/aneei
iauaeoii. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii io/eouaaeenue ia?aae ei?ieai.

A N?aaeiea aaea iiyaeeanue i?ioanney no?ainoaothueo ienoeia, ca ieaoo
ninoaaeythueo io/aou aeey nianoaaiieeia oaiaeaeueiuo oicyenoa, a eioi?uo
ia auei oi?aaeythueo.

Ia/eiay n VI a. A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia noaee aicieeaoue iiianou?e.
Yeiiiie/aneay iiuue oea?eaae aic?anoaea, a iiyaeaiea iainoaa nieioeei
oea?eiaue. A iiianou?neeo oicyenoaao ieacuaaee oneoae eae ianaeaieth,
oae e oaiaeaeueiui iiianoueyi: e?auaiea, ioiaaaiea, ioiouaiea a?aoia
(i?iaeaaea eiaeoeueaaioeee (1)) e o.ae. Yoi i?eaiaeeei e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aanoe o/ao i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea ?acee/iuo oeaiiinoae. Oea?eae oaeaea
eiaee ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey, e ieaeanoiyuea iiianou?e
io/eouaaeenue ia?aae auoanoiyueie oea?eiaiuie oi?aaeythueie.

Iiianou?e auee aaeeinoaaiiuie oeaio?aie i?inaauaiey. A iiianou?neeo
oeieao o/eee /eoaoue e ienaoue. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue
ia?aienuaaieth ?oeiienae, iiyoiio nenoaia o/aoa auea a iniiaiii
neiie?iaaia n a?a/aneie e ?eineie. E?iia oiai, ninoaaeyeenue eiaaioa?e e
aaeenue i?eoiaeii – ?anoiaeiua n/aoa (eieae). I?iaa?ea (io/aoiinoue),
eae i?aaeei, i?iaiaeeeanue iooai caneooeaaiey iaoa?eaeueii –
ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe, ioeoaea e i?iecioae oa?iei aoaeeo (audition (aiae.)
– neooaiea, auneooeaaiea).

Ii nooe, oaiaeaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaea nicaeaiea
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa. Iaeiaei, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia auei ie iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ecia?youe yooaeoeaiinoue, n eioi?ie i?iecaiaeeeny i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo,
ie iiiyoey i?eauee e (eee) aeioiaea ia eniieuecoaiue eaieoae. I?eoiaeii
– ?anoiaeiay aooaaeoa?ey auea n?aaenoaii eiio?iey /anoiinoe /eiiaieeia
?acee/iuo o?iaiae a ?aaoee?oaiii iauanoaa. Iaeiaei aeaiiay nenoaia
i?inouanoaiaaea aeiaieueii aeieai — aieioue aei na?aaeeiu XIX a.,
ianiio?y ia iiyaeaiea iaoiaea aeaieiie caiene.

Ai a?aiaia ?anoeaaoa N?aaeiaaaeiauey iiyaeeenue niaoeeaeueiua o?aeoaou.
Aaoi? iaeiiai eo ieo, aeiieieeaineee iiiao Aaeueoa? Oaiee, o?aaiaae:

— ouaoaeueiie i?iaa?ee io/aoa;

— aaeaaiaeiie eiaaioa?ecaoeee aeey naa?ee o/aoiuo aeaiiuo e iaoo?aeueiuo
inoaoeia;

— no?iaeaeoae eiaaioa?ecaoeee aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

— naeaeaoaeueneeo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee i?aaeeueiinoe oeacaiiuo a io/aoa
oeai.

E XIII a. a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia neiaeeeanue nenoaia o/aoa eanniauo
iia?aoeee, neeaaeneiai o/aoa, oi?aiauo iia?aoeee. I?e yoii
ainiiaenoaothuae auea i?inoay aooaaeoa?ey, eioi?ay nouanoaiaaea a aeaea
o?iiieiae/aneie caiene oaeoueo iai?ioia a caieniuo eieaeeao.

?acaeoea oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe o?aaiaaei e ?acaeoey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oi?i eiio?iey ca ea/anoaii o/aoiie eioi?iaoeee. Oae, a 1299 a. a Aiaeee
iiyaeyaony eieoeeaoeaa nicaeaiey iiaie aeieaeiinoe i?e ei?ieaaneii
aeai?a — eiio?iea?a (aoaeeoi?a).

A XV a. a iaeoiae aioee a?aaneea oeeo?u — eciaieeny e o/ao. Eaeay
eniieueciaaiey a?aaneeo oeeo? aianoi eaoeineeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo
eoaeueyineiio iaoaiaoeeo Oeaiia//e. Eniieueciaaiea a?aaneeo oeeo? aeey
aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neeo n/aoia nouanoaaiii iaeaa/eei o/aoioth ?aaioo.

A iicaeiaa N?aaeiaaaeiauea ao?iuie oaiiaie ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny
oi?aiaey. Yoiio niinianoaotho naycaiiua n e?anoiauie iioiaeaie ianniaua
ia?aiauaiey ia?iaeia /a?ac ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa naaa?iie Eoaeee. Oeaio?
oi?aiaee iaaeaeo Aa?iiie e Aceae aue nin?aaeioi/ai a ?aeiia
N?aaeecaiiiii?uey, a ai?iaeao Naaa?iie Eoaeee (Aaiaoeey, Oei?aioeey e
ae?.). N ?acaeoeai oi?aiaee ie?ii ia/eiaao iaeaaeaaaoue eaeay
nianoaaiiinoe. Oe?aieaieth yoie eaeae niinianoaiaaei iiyaeaiea oi?aiaiai
i?aaa. A XII—XIII aa. eoioeu noaee nicaeaaaoue iin?aaeie/aneea noaeu e
au?aaaouaaoue aaeeiua o?aaiaaiey e o/aoiui caienyi. Yoi a?aiy iaiaauaiey
eoaeueyineeo ai?iaeia e ia/aea ai?ueau ca eo iiaouanoai.

Iiuiui oie/eii ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee noaee aaeeeea
aaia?aoe/aneea ioe?uoey: auee iaeaeaiu iiaua ?uiee (Aia?eea, Eiaeey,
Eeoae, Ao?eea, Aano?aeey), i?ieiaeaiu ii?neea iooe e o.i. Ana yoi
i?eaaei e eciaiaieth oeaeae eniieueciaaiey eaieoaea e e?aaeeoa. Oaeea
yeaiaiou, eae oi?aiaey, eaieoae e e?aaeeo, aia?aua niiaee noaoue
ieiaeioai?iie ii/aie aeey ?acaeoey n/aoiaiaenoaa.

A N?aaeiaaaeiauea oi?ie?othony aeaa iniiaiuo aeaea aooaaeoa?ee:

1) eaia?aeueiay (athaeaeaoiay), eioi?ay enoiaeeea ec oiai, /oiiniiaiui
iauaeoii yaeyaony eanna, o.a. o/ao aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, a ninoiyiea e
aeaeaeaiea eiouanoaa ?anniao?eaathony eae neaaenoaea auiieiaiey
athaeaeaoa;

2) i?inoay (eiiia?/aneay), eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaea o/ao ninoiyiey e
aeaeaeaiey eiouanoaa, a aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu i?eciaaaeenue neaaenoaeai
yoiai aeaeaeaiey.

1.2. Aicieeiiaaiea aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee

Aei XIII a. o/ao aaeny n iiiiuueth oiea?aoe/aneie (i?inoie) caiene,
iniiaaiiie ia eaeaa o/aoiiai iaoo?aeecia. Oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
io?aaeaeenue a oao ecia?eoaeyo, eioi?ua nouanoaotho a ?aaeueiie aeecie
(iaoo?aeueiua ecia?eoaee). Aano?aeoiua aaee/eiu, oaeea, eae i?eaueue, a
nenoaia o/aoa ia oeene?iaaeenue, a en/eneyeenue ii ?acoeueoaoai
eiaaioa?ecaoeee.

Aeeaa?aoe/aneay (aeaieiay) aooaaeoa?ey naiaeeony e oiio, /oi a ia?a/aiue
n/aoia i?inoie aooaaeoa?ee aaiaeyony n/aoa nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Ana
oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie io?aaeathony aeaaaeaeu (eaeay o/aoiiai
?aaeecia), /oi i?eaeaao aeaieiie caiene neiaiee/aneee oa?aeoa?. Yoi
aiciiaeii oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ana o/aoiua iauaeou oeene?othony a
iaeiii o/aoiii ecia?eoaea, a ea/anoaa eioi?iai aunooiatho aeaiueae.

Iiyaeaiea aeaieiie caiene — yoi ?aaiethoeey a iuoeaiee aeaeiauo ethaeae,
/anoue iee?iie?a ethaie i?aaiecaoeee. I?ienoiaeaeaiea aeaieiie caiene
aei neo ii? aeinoiaa?ii ia onoaiiaeaii, oioy i?eaiaeyony ?acee/iua
aa?nee. Iaiaeiie?aoii aeaeaeenue iiiuoee naycaoue aicieeiiaaiea aeaieiie
caiene n eiaiai eaeiai-eeai ecia?aoaoaey, ii a ?acoeueoaoa i?eoee e
iiaieth, /oi o aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee aaoi?a iao, oae aea eae iaecaanoiu
ecia?aoaoaee aeoaaeoa, eieana, aeaiaa e i?. I?ioanni? ?. aea ?oaa?
naeaeae auaiae, /oi aeaieiay aooaaeoa?ey ca?iaeeeanue iaeiia?aiaiii a
ianeieueeeo ai?iaeao naaa?iie Eoaeee iaaeaeo 1250—1350 aa., ioeoaea
oaiiiai aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee ?ani?ino?aieeny ia no?aiu Aa?iiu, a iioii e
anaai ie?a. Enneaaeiaaoaee enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iacuaatho ?aciua
i?e/eiu oaeiai aieiaiey e iiaie iaoiaeieiaee:

— yeiiiie/aneee ?ino Aa?iiu e aicieeiiaaiea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee
(A. Ciiaa?o);

— ?acaeoea e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?ia i?eaiaeeei e o?aeoiaea ethaiai
n/aoa eae n/aoa ?an/aoia(AE.I?oaeii, A.I. ?oaeaiianeee);

— aicieeiiaaiea eiiiaiee, /oi i?eaaei e ioaeaeaieth oece/aneiai eeoea
(aeaaeaeueoea eiiiaiee) io th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, o.a. oicyenoaa, e e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aanoe o/ao eaieoaea, aeiaeaiiiai a aeaei, e aai eciaiaiee
(?. aea ?oaa?);

— yaiethoeey aeaonoi?iiiae oi?iu aaaeaiey n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae,
neaaenoaeai /aai noaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiae/aneiai «o?aaiiaaoeaaiey»
eoiaia aeaaaoiauo e e?aaeeoiauo iai?ioia (O. Oea?ae).

Aiciiaeii, ana yoe i?e/eiu a niaieoiiinoe e i?eaaee e oiio, /oi
aneaaenoaea i?ia e ioeaie, eae au «neo/aeii», iaeei ec o/aoiuo
?aaioieeia i?eoae e eaeaa ?aniieiaeeoue /enea a aeaa a?aou — i?eoiae e
?anoiae; e oieueei iicaeiaa aicieeea eaeay oaeiai oneiaiiai n/aoa, eae
n/ao eaieoaea, iicaieythuaai ii?aaeaeeoue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao oieueei
o/aoiuie n?aaenoaaie.

A. Eeooeoii ia oieueei ia?a/eneee i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey aeaieiie caiene,
ii e auaeaeee enoi?e/aneea oneiaey, eioi?ua i?eaaee e iiyaeaieth iiaie
oaoieee ?aaeno?aoeee oi?aiauo iia?aoeee:

iauaeo:

— /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue (i?aai ia?aaea/e nianoaaiiinoe),

— eaieoae (i?iecaiaeeoaeueii eniieuecoaiia aiaaonoai),

— oi?aiaey (iaiai oiaa?aie),

— e?aaeeo (eniieueciaaiea aoaeoueo aeaa a ianoiyuai);

n?aaenoai:

— ienueiaiiinoue (n?aaenoai aaaeaiey iinoiyiiuo caienae),

— aeaiueae («iauee ciaiaiaoaeue» i?e iaiaia),

— a?eoiaoeea (n?aaenoai au/eneaiee).

I?e aeaaii?eyoiuo yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao yoe
oneiaey i?eaiaeyo e nicaeaieth iaoiaeieiaee (ieaia nenoaiaoe/aneiai
ioia?aaeaiey iauaeoa niioaaonoaothueie n?aaenoaaie).

Eeooeoii ioia/aao, /oi eaaeaeay ec iacaaiiuo i?aaeiinueie i?enoonoaiaaea
a ?aciuo ianoao a ?aciia a?aiy, ii iaeiia?aiaiii iie ia iaaethaeaeenue.
Eeoue ?acaeoea a N?aaeiea aaea oi?aiaee, eaieoaea e e?aaeeoa i?eaaei e
ea/anoaaiiiio nea/eo a iaoiaeieiaee n/aoiaiaenoaa.

A naiai ?acaeoee aeaieiay caienue i?ioea ianeieueei yoaiia:

1) ?iaeeeanue eae oi?iaeueiue i?eai a ?acoeueoaoa yaiethoeeeiaoiaeia
?aaeno?aoeee oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie;

2) ?acaeaaaony eae oaoie/aneee i?eai, iicaieythuee i?ieiio?iee?iaaoue
i?aaeeueiinoue caienae oicyenoaaiiuo iai?ioia;

3) n aaaaeaieai aeaiaaeiiai ecia?eoaey o/ao noaiiaeony aaeeiie,
caieiooie nenoaiie;

4) n ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee oi?aaeythuee ioaeaeyaony io
nianoaaiieea e iiyaeyaony ia oieueei n/ao nianoaaiieea (eaieoaea), ii e
n/aoa oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia (n/aoa aaeieieno?aoi?a);

5) aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea /enea iauaeoia o/aoa
(iai?eia?, a eiioea 70-o aiaeia XX a. Iiyaeeny iauaeo «iaiaoa?eaeueiua
aeoeau», /ooue iicaea — «oneiaiua oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe»,
«niauoey iinea io/aoiie aeaou.

Cia/aiea aeaieiie caiene aeey nia?aiaiiie aooaaeoa?ee o?oaeii
ia?aioeaieoue. Ia?aui aaoi?ii, enneaaeiaaaoei i?e?iaeo aeaieiie caiene,
noae Aaiaaeaooi Eio?oeuee — eoiaoe ec ?aaocu. Ii ecaeae eieao «I
oi?aiaea e niaa?oaiiii eoioea», niaea?aeaaooth aieueooth aeaao i
aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee. Eieaa iaienaia a 1458 a., ii auoea oieueei a 1573,
o.a. /a?ac 115 eao iinea iaienaiey. Iiyoiio n/eoaaony, /oi Eio?oeuee
iia?aaeee eoaeueyineee iaoaiaoee n ie?iaui eiaiai, /aeiaae
oieaa?naeueiuo ciaiee Eoea Ia/iee.

Eoea Ia/iee — eoaeueyineee iaoaiaoee (1445—1515), ?iaeeeny a iaeaiueeii
ai?iaea Ai?ai Nai Naiieuee?i. Caeanue aeee ooaeiaeiee Iuea?i aeaeea
O?ai/anei, eioi?iio ioaeaee a o/aieee iaeaiueeiai Eoeo. A ianoa?neie
ooaeiaeieea Eoea onaiee iaoaiaoeeo, e eioi?ie ieacaeny aieaa niiniaai,
/ai e aeeaiiene. A 19 eao ii iieeioe ianoa?neoth e ia?aaoae a Aaiaoeeth,
aaea ainieouaae aeaoae eoioea Aioiiei aee ?iiieace. Oai aea ii
iiciaeiieeny e n aooaaeoa?neei o/aoii, iiiiaay aanoe eoioeo o/aoiua
eieae.

A 1470 a. Eoea Ia/iee ia?aacaeaao a ?ei, aaea caieiaaony
naiiia?aciaaieai, a /a?ac aeaa aiaea noaiiaeony iiiaoii-o?aioeeneaioeai.
Iiianou?ue aeaaae a?aiy aeey iao/iie ?aaiou, niaaaeae aeinoaoi/iuie
iaoa?eaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie. Anei?a E. Ia/iee noaiiaeony i?ioanni?ii a
Oieaa?neoaoa Ia?oaeaee. A 1493 a. ii caaa?oaao naie o?oae «Noiia
a?eoiaoeee, aaiiao?ee, o/aiey i i?iii?oeeyo e ioiioaieyo», a a 1494 a.
eieaa auoiaeeo a naao. O?aeoao XI «I n/aoao e caienyo» niaea?aeeo ia?aia
iienaiea aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee. A 1496 a. Eoea ia?aacaeaao a Ieeai, aaea
ciaeiieony n Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e e noaiiaeony aai ae?oaii ia aeieaea
aiaeu. A 1499 a. a Eoaeee ia/eiaaony aieia n O?aioeeae, e Eoea Ia/iee
aaaeeo io ieeoiaoeee ai Oei?aioeeth, aaea aiciaiiaeyao iaaeaaiae/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue. A 1509 a. ii auionoee aoi?oth eieao — «Aiaeanoaaiiua
i?iii?oeee», eioi?ay eiaao einaaiiia ioiioaiea e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo. A
1510 a. E. Ia/iee caieiaao ianoi i?ei?a iiianou?y a naiai ?iaeiii
ai?iaea, aaea e oie?aao a 1517 a.

Oai?/aneia ianeaaeea E. Ia/iee iinoeaea ian/anoeeaay o/anoue.
Niaea?aeaiea O?aeoaoa i n/aoao e caienyo ia?aienuaaee ec eieae a eieao,
a ia aaoi?a caauee. Oieueei a eiioea XIX a. auei ainnoaiiaeaii eiy
aaoi?a. Oae eae ae?oaeo eiai ecaanoii ia auei, eiaiii E. Ia/iee noaee
n/eoaoue iooeii aooaaeoa?neie iaoee, oioy ii nai ienae, /oi ia i?eaeoiae
ie/aai iiaiai, a eeoue iienae aeaenoaothuoth i?aeoeeo. Oai ia iaiaa
cia/aiea o?oaea E. Ia/iee aeey ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa,
ianiiiaiii, aaeeei.

Iniiaiua eaeae, iienaiiua E. Ia/iee, naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio.

1. Aia?aua noi?ioee?iaaiu aeaa oeaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa:

— iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee aeae, «eai o/ao neaaeoao aanoe oae,
/oiau iiaeii auei aac caaea?aeee iieo/aoue anyeea naaaeaiey, eae
ioiineoaeueii aeieaia, oae e ioiineoaeueii o?aaiaaiee»;

— en/eneaiea oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa, «eai oeaeue anyeiaieoioea ninoieo
a oii, /oiau iieo/eoue aeicaieaiioth e niioaaonoaaiioth auaiaeo aeey
naiaai niaea?aeaiey».

2. Iaa oeaee, noiyuea ia?aae o/aoii, aeinoeaathony n iiiiuueth n/aoia e
aeaieiie caiene. N/aoa — yeaiaiou nenoaiu — iieacuaatho a?oiie?iaeo
yeiiiie/anee iaeii?iaeiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey eee enoi/ieeia eo
ia?aciaaiey. Ia?a/aiue n/aoia eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii auae?aoue
naaa naiinoiyoaeueii. Aaeieieno?aoi? aeieaeai i?eniiniaeoue
aooaaeoa?neea n/aoa aeey oeaeae oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo n/aoaie ?ane?uaaaony n iiiiuueth aeaieiie caiene.
Anoue ianeieueei iauyniaiee oaeiai iacaaiey. Aa?iyoii, yoi naycaii n
oai, /oi caeanue:

— eniieuecothony aeaa aeaea caiene (nenoaiaoe/aneay e o?iiieiae/aneay);

— i?eiaiythony aeaa aeaea ?aaeno?aoeee (neioaoe/aneee e aiaeeoe/aneee
o/ao);

— nouanoaoao aeaa ?yaea n/aoia: n/aoa aeey o/aoa eiouanoaa e n/aoa
eaieoaea;

— o eaaeaeiai n/aoa aeaa ?aaiii?aaiuo ?ac?aca (aeaaao e e?aaeeo);

— ethaie oaeo oicyenoaaiiie aeecie ?aaeno?e?oaony aeaaaeaeu — ii aeaaaoo
iaeiiai e e?aaeeoo ae?oaiai n/aoa;

— eiaaony aeaa ia?aeeaeueiuo o/aoiuo oeeeea, eioi?ua io?aaeathony
o?aaiaieai

A – I = E,

aaea A — aeoea (aeaeu eiouanoaa); I — iannea (iaycaoaeuenoaa); E —
eaieoae nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee n?aaenoa);

— a ethaie iia?aoeee o/anoaotho aeaa eeoea: iaeii ioaeaao, ae?oaia
iieo/aao;

— aooaaeoa?neay ?aaioa auiieiyaony aeaaaeaeu — nia/aeaiia?aoeee
?aaeno?e?othony, a caoai i?iaa?ythony.

Eaaeaeay eo iacaaiiuo i?e/ei iiaeao n/eoaoueny iauyniaieai iacaaiey
«aeaieiay caienue».

3. E. Ia/iee auaae aeaa iinooeaoa, eioi?ua iinyo aai eiy:

— noiia aeaaaoiauo e e?aaeeoiauo iai?ioia anaaaea oiaeaeanoaaiia a
iaeiie e oie aea nenoaia n/aoia;

— noiia aeaaaoiauo naeueaei (inoaoeia ii n/aoai) anaaaea oiaeaeanoaaiia
noiia e?aaeeoiauo naeueaei a iaeiie e oie aea nenoaia n/aoia.

4. E. Ia/iee oaeaeee aieiaiea aaeaino, eioi?ue o?aeoiaae eae
«aooaaeoa?neia ?aaiiaanea, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey eiio?iey ca
i?aaeeueiinoueth ?aciinee ii n/aoai», ii ia ?anniao?eaae eae io/aoiue
aeieoiaio.

5. E. Ia/iee iienae iaeio ec ia?auo oi?i n/aoiaiaenoaa —
noa?ieoaeueyineoth (aaiaoeeaineoth). Noa?ieoaeueyineay oi?ia eiaao o?e
o?iaiy ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee:

— oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie oeene?othony a iaii?eaeueiie eieaa (io eao.
Memorial – iaiyoue, o.a. caienuaaoue ia iaiyoue a eieao)— iia caiaiyea
nia?aiaiiua ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou;

— ii aeaiiui iaii?eaea aooaaeoa? ninoaaeyao caiene ii n/aoai (i?iaiaeee)
a aeo?iaea — nae/an aai iacuaatho aeo?iaeii ?aaeno?aoeee
(o?iiieiae/aneie caiene);

— caiene i oaeoao a?oiie?othony ii yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth a
Aeaaiie eieaa (nenoaiaoe/aneay caienue).

Aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie noa?ieoaeueyineie oi?iu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ninoiye
a oii, /oi n/aoa ia iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia neioaoe/aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea.
Ana n/aoa, ii nooe, auee aiaeeoe/aneeie, iiyoiio nenoaia o/aoa auea
a?iiicaeeie e o?oaeiaieie.

6. E. Ia/iee ?anniao?eaae i?iaeaiu ioeaiee eiouanoaa e ionoaeaae
i?eioeeiu ioeaiee ii naaanoieiinoe (oaeoe/aneie noieiinoe i?eia?aoaiey
eee nicaeaiey). Ii aiai?ee: «Ioeaiea ia iiaeao auoue ieaea naaanoieiinoe
oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao, oae eae iia aeieaeia noeioee?iaaoue i?iaeaaeo
oiaa?ia ii aunieei oeaiai». Oaeei ia?acii, Ia/iee ia aeiioneae
aiciiaeiinoe ioeaiee ii aeaenoaothuei ?uii/iui oeaiai.

7. E. Ia/iee iienuaae i?iaeaiu o/aoa aaethoiuo iia?aoeee. A nayce n
eciaiaieai eo?na aaethou ii noaaee caaea/e: eae ia?aaanoe iaeio
aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo a ae?oaoth e eae io?aceoue i?eaueue io iia?aoeee
iaiaia aaethou. Ii ?aoee yoe i?iaeaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii: iioaeeeiaae
ia?aaiaeioth oaaeeoeo ?acee/iuo aaetho. Ia?a?an/ao eo?niauo ?acieoe, eae
n/eoae Ia/iee, io?aaeaoue a o/aoa ia ioaeii.

8. E. Ia/iee n/eoae, /oi ie iaeiiai, eae oaia?ue neacaee au,
oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa iaeuecy naeaeaoue aeieaeieeii aac aai niaeaney.
Oaeei ia?acii, ii n/eoae, /oi ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeth iiaeii n/eoaoue
oieueei iinea iieaou.

9. A eieaa «Aiaeanoaaiiua i?iii?oeee» ii i?aaenoaaee oaeea iioeiaeueiua
eiyooeoeeaiou, eae niioiioaiea iaeiaia e i?eauee, i?eauee e eaieoaea,
iai?ioia e caiania, eioi?ua i?eaeatho o/aoo caeii/aiiue aeae.

10. O/aiea Ia/iee i /aeiaa/aneii oaeoi?a a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
aiiaua e aooaaeoa?neii aeaea a /anoiinoe caeiaeeei iniiao aeaeiaie yoeee
oiai a?aiaie. Aaoi? n/eoae, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao — aeaei /anoiuo e
a?aiioiuo ethaeae.

1.3. Yiioa n?aaeiaaaeiaiai canoiy

Iinea aicieeiiaaiey a eoaeueyineeo ai?iaeao-ainoaea?noaao nenoaiu
aeaieiie caiene oi?ia n/aoia aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy i?aoa?iaaaea eeoue
iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey. Ia?eiae ioiineoaeueiie eia?oeee, eiaaea
oaoieea o/aoiie caiene ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ii Aa?iia onoii eee a nieneao
(eiieyo o?oaea E. Ia/iee), oae caoyioeny, /oi iieo/ee iacaaiea yiioe
canoiy. Nioeeaeueiua, iieeoe/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey iaiyeenue
iaaeeaiii, iiyoiio aeey ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia auei
aeinoaoi/iuo noeioeia. Eciaiaiey, eiaaoea ianoi, auee neaaenoaeai iiauo
oneiaee iauanoaaiiie aeecie e eiiia?oeee, a oii /enea oiaaeea naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, ?inoa oi?aiaie aeoeaiinoe e no?aieaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
?anniao?eaaoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue a aieaa aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa,
/ai i?aaeaea. Aeiaaeueiua eciaiaiey auee oaeaea iaoneiaeaiu eciaiaieyie
oeeinioneeo acaeyaeia e nenoai oeaiiinoae aaaeoueo eeannia, i?e/eiaie
/aai iineoaeeee ?aoi?iaoeey, eaeueaeieci e ineaaeaiea aeeyiey
eaoiee/aneie oea?eae.

A eiioea yoiai ioiineoaeueii aacaeayoaeueiiai ia?eiaea, a i?aaeaeaa?ee
i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee (ieiei 1750 a.) a Aa?iia i?eiaiyeinue
ianeieueei nenoai o/aoa. A naeueneii oicyenoaa, a eiaieyo
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai oeia e noa?aeoeo i?aaiecaoeeyo eniieueciaaeanue
i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay aooaaeoa?ey, nio?aieaoayny aua io ioia?oae
iiianoiie, eee iaii?eaeueiie, nenoaiu. Oi?aiaoeu iieueciaaeenue
nenoaiaie iaeeia?iie (oiea?aoe/aneie) eee aeaieiie (aeeaa?aoe/aneie)
caiene, /anoi ia auaiaey inoaoee ii n/aoai e ia eiay aiciiaeiinoe
ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio i?eauee.

N ia/aeii oe?ieiianooaaiie i?iiuoeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a XIX a. ie iaeia
ec yoeo nenoai ia iiaea aieaa n/eoaoueny oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie, oae eae
ia niioaaonoaiaaea iiyaeaoaeny i?aeoeea i?eaea/aiey eaieoaea e
?acaeaeaiey ooieoeee nianoaaiiinoe e oi?aaeaiey.

I?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay nenoaia iayooaeoeaia a oneiaeyo e?oiiiianooaaiiai
oaa?e/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
naycaiiie n eniieueciaaieai eaieoaeueiuo aeoeaia (aiaiai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa). Iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?eiaiaiee oai?ee ia/eneaiey eciina
e ?acaeaeaiey noaoae eaieoaea e au?o/ee.

Iiaeaiaey eoia n?aaeiaaaeiaiio ia?eiaeo, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
eeoue n aic?iaeaeaieai yeiiiie/aneie aeecie aiiaue aicieeea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee aeae, /oi e noaei
i?aaeiinueeie ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?ee. Iiuiui oie/eii e yoiio iineoaeeea
ia?aay eieaa, iinayuaiiay aii?inai i?aaiecaoeee e aaaeaiey
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iiiaea aaoi?u niaeaoaeenue n E. Ia/iee eee
aic?aaeaee aio oaeaea ia no?aieoeao eiea. Yoi auee ia?aua oai?aoe/aneea
nii?u, eioi?ua noaee iniiaie ?acaeoey iaoee.

3. ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a XVI – XIX
aa.

3.1. ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeaieiie caiene

Aicieeioa a oi?aiaea a Eoaeee iinea auoiaea eieae E. Ia/iee, aeaieiay
aooaaeoa?ey ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia ae?oaea io?anee, caaiaauaaao iaeio
no?aio ca ae?oaie. Aeueaeca Eacaiiaa a 1553 a. iienae i?eiaiaiea
aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee a noaeino?iaiee. A 1586 a. Aiaeaei aea Ieao?i
aeieacae aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aeaieiie caiene a aaieao.
Ethaeiaeei Oei?e (1636) iienae aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey aeaieiie caiene
a ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiao. Aanoeaii Aaioo?e a 1655 a. iieacae
eniieueciaaiea aeaieiie caiene a naeueneii oicyenoaa. Oae aeaieiay
caienue ?acaeaaaony aaeoaue, ioaaouaay iaeio io?aneue ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa ca ae?oaie. ?anoe?yaony e aaia?aoey i?eiaiaiey aeaieiie
caiene: ec Eoaeee aeaieiay aooaaeoa?ey iiiaaeaao a Aa?iaieth, ioooaea ai
O?aioeeth, iioii a Aiaeeth, caoai a Eniaieth, a iioii e a Aia?eeo. Ia
ainoie iia oea /a?ac Aa?iaieth a ?inneth, a caoai a Eeoae e ssiiieth. A
?acoeueoaoa aanue aeaeiaie ie? caaiai?ee ia ycuea aeaaaoa e e?aaeeoa.
Ia?aoiaey ec no?aiu a no?aio, aeaieiay caienue niaa?oainoaiaaeanue,
i?eieiaea iaoeeiiaeueiua /a?ou e caeeaaeuaaea iniiao iaoee i
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa.

Eoaeey. Iniiaiie oeaeueth o/aoa aeieaia a?aiy n/eoaee iia?aoeaiia
auyaeaiea aeieaia e o?aaiaaiee — oeaeue, caaeaiioth E. Ia/iee
(th?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea o/aoa). Aoi?ay oeaeue, iinoaaeaiiay ei,—
«iaaeeaaeauaa ono?ienoai aeae n oeaeueth auyaeaiey ?acoeueoaoa
aeayoaeueiinoe»,— eiaao yeiiiie/aneoth i?e?iaeo e auaeaeiaony ia ia?aia
ianoi cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeacaiiuo oeaeae iaiaoiaeeii aaaeaiea eiea. A 1688 a.
O. Aa?aooe oniaa?oainoaiaae noa?ieoaeueyineoth oi?io aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa, ?acaeaeea n/aoa ia neioaoe/aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea. Aiaeeoe/aneea
n/aoa auee auaaaeaiu ec ninoaaa ?aaeno?ia. Yoio aa?eaio oi?iu iieo/ee
iacaaiea iiaie eoaeueyineie.

Eoaeueyineea aaoi?u oaeaeyee aieueoia aieiaiea i?e?iaea n/aoia e
iuoaeenue eo eeanneoeoee?iaaoue. Oae, Aeiieieei Iai/eie ?acaeaeee ana
n/aoa ia aeeaua (n/aoa ?an/aoia n oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie)
e ia?oaua (n/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeaiaaeiuo oeaiiinoae). Aai
eeanneoeeaoeey nio?aieony aei XX a., a n/aoa iieo/ao iacaaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo e ia?niiaeueiuo. A na?aaeeia XVIII a. (1755) Ieao?i Iaiei
Neaee iauaaeeiee n/aoa a o?e a?oiiu: nianoaaiiua (eaieoaea, i?eaueae e
oauoeia, ?acoeueoaoia), eiouanoaaiiua e ei??aniiiaeaioia (aeaaeoi?ia e
e?aaeeoi?ia). Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie aii?in i eeanneoeeaoeee n/aoia
inoaaony aeeneonneiiiui.

Aaeain eae i?oaeea eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey oicyenoaii eniieueciaaee aua a
N?aaeiea aaea (ecaanoii, /oi a eiiiaiee Iaaee/e (eiiaoe XIVa.) eaaeaeia
ioaeaeaiea aaeaaiaeii ninoaaeyei aaeain e iauynieoaeueioth caieneo
oi?aaeythuaai; a eiiiaiee Aeueaa?oe (1302 – 1329) io/aou ninoaaeyeenue
,ii ia ?aaoey?ii), ii eae aooaaeoa?neay eaoaai?ey ii aua ia ninoiyeny.
Oae, E. Ia/iee iiae aaeainii iiieiae i?ioeaaeo?o, naycaiioth n
onoaiiaeaieai oiaeaeanoaa iai?ioia ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo n/aoia Aeaaiie
eieae. Ethaeiaeei Oei?e auaeaeye aeaa aeaea aaeaina: i?iaiue (eae noiio
oaeoueo naeueaei anao n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae) e caeeth/eoaeueiue
(ninoaaeyaony ii enoa/aiee aiaea e io?aaeaao oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao yoiai
aiaea). Aiaeaeaei aee Ieao?i o?aeoiaae aaeain eae oi?io io/aoiinoe e
aia?aua ?ane?ue niaea?aeaiea io/aoiinoe e ii?yaeie aa i?aaenoaaeaiey.

A oa a?aiaia o/ao aue iaioaeaeei io /aeiaaea (aooaaeoa?a), iiyoiio
aaoi?u ii?aaeaeyee o?aaiaaiey, auiieiaiea eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii aeey
oniaoiie ?aaiou. Oae, Aiaeaei ee Ieao?i ienae, /oi aooaaeoa? aeieaeai:

— oiaoue auoue oiiui (a ia auoue oiiui ia naiii aeaea);

— eiaoue oi?ioee oa?aeoa? (aeia?ue, ii i?eioeeieaeueiue);

— eiaoue oi?ioee ii/a?e (oae eae ienaee io ?oee);

— eiaoue i?ioanneiiaeueiua ciaiey;

— auoue aeanoiethaeaui e /anoiethaeaui;

— auoue /anoiui.

Aiineaaenoaee aioo?e eoaeueyineie oeieu ia auei aaeeinoaa acaeyaeia.
Enneaaeiaaoaee iacuaatho o?e iniiaiuo oa/aiey, noi?ie?iaaaoeony ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a.

1. Eiiaa?aeneia oa/aiea (th?eaee/aneia), iniiaaoaeue O?ai/anei Aeeea. Ii
n/eoae, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ia iiaeao auoue naaaeai e oaoie/aneie
i?ioeaaeo?a, eai ii anoue ia /oi eiia, eae eiiieaen
yeiiiieei-aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iiiyoee. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao iiaeao auoue
i?aaieciaai iooai aaaeaiey eiea ia iniiaa yoeo iiiyoee. O/ao iaiaoiaeei
aaeieieno?aoi?o aeey eiio?iey eeoe, caiyouo a oicyenoaaiiii i?ioeanna.

2. Oineaineia oa/aiea (th?eaee/aneia), iniiaaoaeue Aeaeocaiia *a?aiie.
Ii n/eoae, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao — yoi ia eiiieaen aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
aeaenoaee, a /anoue th?eni?oaeaioeee. Ii ecia?ae eiaeniia?aoeth —
o/aiea, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo iiiyoea i oicyenoaa eae niaieoiiinoe
eioa?ania, ii?iaeaeaaiuo /ueae-eeai nianoaaiiinoueth. Eiaeniia?aoey
?acee/aao /aou?a a?oiiu eeoe, eiathueo ioiioaiea e i?aaei?eyoeth:
nianoaaiiee, aaeieieno?aoi?, aaaiou, ei??aniiiaeaiou. Yoei eeoeai
ioe?uaathony niioaaonoaothuea n/aoa, eioi?ua iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa
/anoe: aeaaaoiaoth, ia eioi?ie ioia/aaony ana oi, /oi nianoaaiiee, aaaio
eee ei??aniiiaeaio aeieaeai (iaycaoaeuenoaa), e e?aaeeoiaoth, ia eioi?ie
caienuaaaony ana oi, /oi nianoaaiiee, aaaio eee ei??aniiiaeaio eiaao
iieo/eoue (i?aaa). Eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey nicaeaao i?aai aeey
iaeiie noi?iiu e iaycaoaeuenoai aeey ae?oaie, /oi e aeieaeii auoue
iniiaie aeaieiie caiene.

O/aieeii Aeae. *a?aiie aue Aei/aioei Aeaeeooe, eioi?ue aeae naiia
?iiaioe/iia ii?aaeaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa: n/aoiaiaenoai — yoi
ca?eaei i?ioaaeoaai, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aoaeouaai, yoi ii?yaeie ai anao
noa?ao oicyenoaa, noaoenoeea e enoi?ey i?aaei?eyoey.

Aaeeeie ienae, /oi oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa oi?aaeaiey — yoi aeaenoaiaaoue, a
n/aoiaiaenoaa — inaauaoue e iai?aaeyoue, /oiau aeaenoaiaaoue iaeaieaa
i?aaeeueii e ?aoeeiiaeueii.

Ae. Ianna, iineaaeiaaoaeue eiaeniia?aoee, neacae, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao
— iaoea ia oi?aaeaiee ethaeueie. Ii auneacuaaeny ca iieioth
iacaaeneiinoue aooaaeoa?ee io aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey, a iniiaiui
iaoiaeii n/aoiaaaeaiey n/eoae ?aaeno?aoeeth, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue aeey
aaeieieno?aoi?a eae eiiian aeey ii?aieaaaoaey. A 1874 a. Ae. Ianna ia/ae
ecaeaaaoue ia?aue aooaaeoa?neee aeo?iae, eioi?ue auoiaeee 30 eao.

3. Aaiaoeeaineia oa/aiea (yeiiiie/aneia iai?aaeaiea), iniiaaoaeue Oaaei
Aanoa. Ii n/eoae, /oi oeaeue o/aoa — ioeaiea, oeaiiinoe — aai i?aaeiao.
Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao — iaoea i eiio?iea, anee aooaaeoa? iaania/eaaao
eiio?ieue, oi ia c?y iieo/aao ca?aaioioth ieaoo. Eaaeaeia oicyenoai
eiaao ooieoeee o?ao aeaeia: ?anii?yaeeoaeueioth, eniieieoaeueioth,
eiio?ieueioth (o/aoioth). Oicyenoaaiiue eiio?ieue aeieaeai i?eioaeeoue
eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea auoue /anoiui, aeaaea i?ioea aai aeaeaiey.

Iineaaeiaaoaee Aanoa oaeaea aeaeaee yeiiiie/aneoth i?e?iaeo o/aoa. Oae,
Aeueoea?e iiiai aieiaiey oaeaeye niaoa, iacuaay aa i?aaeaeaeaieai
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. A. Noaaeeeie ii?aaeaeye
oicyenoai eae niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee n oeaeueth i?iecaiaenoaa e
iio?aaeaiey aiaaonoa e n/eoae, /oi oi/iinoue aooaaeoa?neeo aeaiiuo
aeieaeia auoue ioiineoaeueiie, o.a. aeinoaoi/iie aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

Yiiaioyeue Iecaie inouanoaee iiiuoeo neioaca oineaineie e aaiaoeeaineie
oeie: io oineaineie acye oai?eth n/aoia, io aaiaoeeaineie — eo oa?aeoa?.

Oaeei ia?acii, aaiaoeeaineia oa/aiea noaei iinoii a aieaa c?aeoth
yeiiiie/aneoth oai?eth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Aa?iaiey. Eaeay iaiaoeeiai o/aoa naiaeeeanue ia e auyaeaieth oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia, eae o eoaeueyioeaa, a e ?ane?uoeth aioo?aiieo ?an/aoia n
iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiuie eeoeaie — oaeoi?aie. A 1531 a. Eiaaii Aioeea
naeaeae iiiuoeo i?eiaieoue eoaeueyineoth aeaieioth aooaaeoa?eth a ?aieao
iaiaoeeie oaeoi?iie. Oeaeue o/aoa iaioeu aeaeaee a aieaa oe?ieii ieaia —
i?aa?auaiea aanii?yaeea a ii?yaeie (Aieueoaaia Oaaeea?).

Eioa?aniue iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth iaoiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
ano?a/aaony o oeeinioa e iaoaiaoeea A.A. Eaeaieoea. Ii aia?aua
ia?a/eneee yeaiaiou iaoiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a o?iiieiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:

1) onoaiiaeaiea aeaaiinoe oaeoa oicyenoaaiiie aeecie e i?aaeeueiinoe
aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey;

2) caienue yoiai oaeoa a aooaaeoa?neea ?aaeno?u;

3) auiieiaiea n/aoiuo iia?aoeee.

A aii?ina ioeaiee oiaa?ia aeey iaioeaa aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiie auea
?uii/iay noieiinoue. A.A. Eaeaieoe ?ac?aaioae i?aaeea yenia?oiie
ioeaiee, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia i?iaeaaeioth ?uii/ioth noieiinoue.

Aoaeo/e /?acau/aeii aeeo?aoiuie, iaiaoeeea aaoi?u o?aaiaaee iniiaaiee
caienae a aeo?iae. Oieueei iaee/ea aeieoiaioia yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
iniiaaieai aooaaeoa?neeo caienae. A. Oaaeea? ienae: iao aooaaeoa?neeo
caienae aac aeieoiaioia, iao caienae a nenoaiaoe/aneeo ?aaeno?ao, ia
ii?aaaeaiiuo a aeo?iaea (o?iiieiae/aneii ?aaeno?a). Aieueoei
aeinoeaeaieai A. Oaaeea?a auei oi, /oi ii na?oiie?iaae ana oaeou
oicyenoaaiiie aeecie oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey e naae eo e 250 noaiaea?oiui
aooaaeoa?neei i?iaiaeeai, eniieuecoy nenoaio eiaee?iaaiey n/aoia. Oaeei
ia?acii, Oaaeea?a iiaeii i?eciaoue aaoi?ii ia?aiai ieaia n/aoia. A.
Oaaeea? i?eaeaaae aieueoia cia/aiea naa?ea aooaaeoa?neeo caienae,
i?eaiaeee niiniau e onoaiaaeeaae n?iee. ?ac?aaioaiiua ei i?aaeea
i?iaa?ee aooaaeoa?neeo eiea iicaieytho n/eoaoue aai ?iaeiia/aeueieeii
?aaecee.

Aa?iaiey — ?iaeeia iaiaoeeie oi?iu n/aoiaiaenoaa. Aia?aua aa iienae O.
Aaeueaea a 1774 a. A Aa?iaiee ainiiaenoaiaaea eaia?aeueiay aooaaeoa?ey,
eioi?oth iaioeu aeiiieieee eoaeueyineie oi?iie n/aoiaiaenoaa. A
?acoeueoaoa neioaca eoaeueyineie e iaiaoeeie aooaaeoa?ee auaeaeeeanue e
noaea naiinoiyoaeueiui ?aaeno?ii eanniaay eieaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
o?iiieiae/aneoth caienue noaee aanoe a aeaoo ?aaeno?ao — iaii?eaea e
eanniaie eieaa, a caiene ii n/aoai Aeaaiie eieae — eoiaaie iaeei ?ac a
ianyoe.

Aaeeeia?eoaiey. Ia?aay eieaa iaienaia o/eoaeai iaoaiaoeee Oueth
Ieaeeanoeai a 1543 a. (ia?aua aeaau iieiinoueth niaiaaeatho n O?aeoaoii
i n/aoao e caienyo E. Ia/iee). A eaaeaeii n/aoa ii auaeaeye aeaaeoi?a e
e?aaeeoi?a (ia?niiaeenoe/aneay o?aeoiaea anao n/aoia). Aeaieaeue Aeaoi,
i?aaeaea /ai caiyoueny ni/eiaieai ?iiaiia, auionoee o?oae ii
aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, aaea ?anniao?eaae aai eae n?aaenoai oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai.

Aeaeii Iaeeen aia?aua aeae ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa eae i?yiiai ?anoiaea iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, a oaeaea
i?aaeeaaae io?aaeaoue aeaiioth iia?aoeeth ii aeaaaoo n/aoa «I?eauee e
oauoee» e e?aaeeoo n/aoa «Eiaaioa?ue», o.a. /oiau noieiinoue eiaaioa?y
?aaiuie /anoyie nienuaaeanue ia oauoie.

Nicaeaoaeai aiaeeeneie oi?iu n/aoiaiaenoaa yaeyaony Yaeaa?ae Aeaeiin. Ii
n/eoae, /oi aeaieiay caienue caioouaaao o/ao, iiyoiio iuoaeny,
ai-ia?auo, iaania/eoue aaoiiaoe/aneia iaia?oaeaiea ioeaie e iienie e,
ai-aoi?uo, iiauneoue iia?aoeaiinoue auyaeaiey oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa.
Oeaio?aeueiue ?aaeno? aiaeeeneie oi?iu — aeo?iae, a eioi?ii o?e a?aou. A
n?aaeiae a?aoa caienuaatho niaea?aeaiea iia?aoeee, cao?aaeaathueo eanno,
n oeacaieai noiiu, neaaa (aeaaeoi?) — noiio, iinooieaooth a eanno, a
ni?aaa (e?aaeeoi?) — noiio ?anoiaea ec eannu. Noiia e?aeieo a?ao
aeieaeia auoue ?aaia eoiao n?aaeiae a?aou. O/ao ia/eiaaony n iiae?iaiuo
caienae a aeo?iaea ninoaaa e noiiu eaieoaea. Ana oaeouea iia?aoeee
io?aaeathony a aeo?iaea, ioeoaea ?ac a o?e ianyoea aeaeatho eoiaiaua
caiene a Aeaaioth eieao, e eoiae Aeaaiie eieae aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiu
eoiaai a aeo?iaea.

Yoa oi?ia o/aoa ioiineony e i?inoie aooaaeoa?ee. Ionthaea iai?iou ii
aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo ia ?aaiu iaaeaeo niaie, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, au/oy ec
eoiaa a?aou aeaaao eae eoia e?aaeeo, oae e noiio e?aaeeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe, iieo/ei noiio eaieoaea, eiathuaainy a aeaea. N?aaiea aa
n ia?aiia/aeueiie noiiie, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio i?eauee eee
oauoea. ?aaioa Aeaeiina canoaaeea caaeoiaoueny i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaieiie
caiene.

O?aioeey. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a. O?aioeey noaea naiie
iiaouanoaaiiie aea?aeaaie ie?a. Aa niiniau o/aoa oaeaea aeiieie?iaaee a
oicyenoaao Aa?iiu.

Ai O?aioeee o/ao ?anniao?eaaeny eae ninoaaeythuay /anoue iaoee ia
oi?aaeaiee aaeeie/iui i?aaei?eyoeai. Ia?aui, eoi aeae oaeoth o?aeoiaeo
aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, aue AEae Naaa?e, oi aea ienae e iniiaaoaeue oeieu
oeceie?aoia O?ainoa Eaia. Ii ii niiiaaaeny a iao/iuo aeinoieinoaao
aooaaeoa?ee e aiai?ee, /oi «oi?iu e i?aaeea naiaeyony e oaoieea, eioi?ay
i?eii?aaeeaaaony e ianoiyoaeuenoaai e ia aicaaaeaia a ?aia ciaiee,
iiaoueo i?inaaoeoue iaoeeth».

Aaee/aeoei oaaii aia?aae iinea ?aaio Ia/iee auei i?aaeeiaeaiea Naaa?e
?acaeaeeoue ana n/aoa e ?aaeno?u ia neioaoe/aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea. Oaeei
ia?acii, ii nicaeae aeaoonooiai/aooth nenoaio ?aaeno?aoeee o/aoiuo
aeaiiuo, eioi?ay auea eniieueciaaia i?e iiaeeoeeaoeee noa?ie
eoaeueyineie oi?iu n/aoiaiaenoaa a iiaoth eoaeueyineoth. A enoi?eth
aioee iinooeaou Naaa?e, niaethaeaiea eioi?uo yaeyaony iai?aiaiiui
oneiaeai i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa:

1) noiia naeueaei anao aiaeeoe/aneeo n/aoia aeieaeia auoue ?aaia
naeueaei oiai neioaoe/aneiai n/aoa, e eioi?iio iie ioe?uou;

2) noiia iai?ioia ii aeaaaoo e noiia iai?ioia ii e?aaeeoo anao
aiaeeoe/aneeo n/aoia ?aaia iai?ioai ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo oiai
neioaoe/aneiai n/aoa, e eioi?iio iie ioe?uou.

Eeanneoeeaoeey n/aoia ?acaeaaeanue Iaouea aea ea Ii?oii, eioi?ue
auaeaeye o?e a?oiiu n/aoia:

1) n/aoa nianoaaiieea (n/ao eaieoaea, i?eaueae e oauoeia) —
yeiiiie/aneia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea;

2) n/aoa eiouanoaa — auiieiytho oicyenoaaiioth ooieoeeth;

3) n/aoa ei??aniiiaeaioia (n/aoa ?an/aoia) — auiieiytho th?eaee/aneoth
ooieoeeth, oae eae iieacuaatho i?aaa e iaycaoaeuenoaa o?aoueeo eeoe.

Aeaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey iicaieeea noi?ioee?iaaoue iinooeao aea ea Ii?oa:
naeueaei n/aoia nianoaaiieea e eiouanoaa anaaaea ?aaii naeueaei n/aoia
ei??aniiiaeaioia (?an/aoia).

Aaeain aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia o?aeoiaaee eeai eae neiaie aeaieiie caiene
ia n/aoao, eeai eae i?ioeaaeo?o, naycaiioth n iiaeaaaeaieai eoiaia
iai?ioia a Aeaaiie eieaa. AE. Aiae?a auaeaeye aeaa aeaea aaeainia:
i?iaiua e caeeth/eoaeueiua. N?aaee iineaaeieo AE. Naaa?e ?acee/ae
eiaaioa?iue (ioeaiea ii naaanoieiinoe) e eiieo?niue (ioeaiea ii
i?iaeaaeiui oeaiai ia aeaiue ninoaaeaiey) aaeainu. Oaea a 1835 a. I.
Oa?a iinoaaee aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oieoeoee?iaaiiuo oi?i io/aoiinoe,
i?aaeaea anaai aaeainia, e ieaiia n/aoia.

O?aioeocneea aaoi?u ?ac?aaioaee ninoaa e no?oeoo?o o/aoiuo ?aaeno?ia, eo
eioi?iaoeeiiiua nayce, oaoie/aneea i?eaiu, eioi?ua i?eaaee e nicaeaieth
o?ao oi?i n/aoiaiaenoaa: o?aioeocneie (aea ea Ii?o), aia?eeaineie
(Aeaa?aiae), aaeueaeeneie (Aaooaeeue).

Nooue o?aioeocneie oi?iu n/aoiaiaenoaa caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aaeeiue
aeo?iae (o?iiieiae/aneay caienue) ?aniaaeaaony ia ianeieueei. A ioee/ea
io iaiaoeeie oi?iu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa o?aioeocneay i?aaeiieaaaao
aaaeaiea ia oieueei iaii?eaea e eanniaie eieae, ii e ae?oaeo aeo?iaeia,
?ann/eoaiiuo ia eaaeaeue aeae iniiaiuo iia?aoeee. Ia?eiaee/anee (iau/ii
?ac a ianyoe) ia iniiaa caienae a aeo?iaeao ninoaaeyeenue i?iaiaeee a
nai?iii aeo?iaea (Aeaaiie eieaa).

Aaeueaeeneay oi?ia n/aoiaiaenoaa yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth
o?aioeocneie. Yoa oi?ia i?aaeiieaaaea aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth aeo?iaea ia
/aou?a naiinoiyoaeueiuo ?aaeno?a: iieoiee, i?iaeaaee, eannu e oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia. Eo iai?iou ii ieii/aiee ianyoea ia?aiineeenue a Aeaaioth
eieao.

Aia?eeaineay oi?ia n/aoiaiaenoaa iniiaaia ia iiaii ?aaeno?a —
AEo?iae-Aeaaiay, aaea o?iiieiae/aneay caienue auea iauaaeeiaia n
nenoaiaoe/aneie. Aeey yoiai, ii iiaieth Aeaa?aiaea, aeinoaoi/ii aanoe
iyoue n/aoia: eannu, oiaa?ia, aeieoiaioia e iieo/aieth, aeieoiaioia e
iieaoa, oauoeia e i?eaueae. I?aaeoniao?eaaeinue oaeaea aaaeaiea aua o?ao
n/aoia: eaieoaea, aaeaina anooieoaeueiiai e aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai.
Ana n/aoa naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie aeaieiie caienueth ii i?aaeeo «oio, eoi
iieo/aao,— aeaaaooaony, a oio, eoi auaeaao,— e?aaeeooaony».

3.2. I?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey e aa iineaaenoaey aeey aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa

Ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea o/aoa caea i?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey. N
iiyaeaieai oaa?ee, aeaeaciuo aei?ia, n eiioeaio?aoeeae ?aai/ae neeu e
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, n iiauie eiioeaioeeyie i?iecaiaenoaa,
nianoaaiiinoe, eaieoaea e oi?aaeaiey, eciina e aii?oecaoeee
niaa?oainoaiaaeanue e nenoaia ?aaeno?aoeee oaeoia, ioeaiee iauaeoia e
?ane?uoey eioi?iaoeee a io/aoiinoe.

I?iecaiaenoai iiiaeanoaa ioiineoaeueii noaiaea?oiuo oiaa?ia ia oaa?eeao
iicaieyei cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi i?eaaei
e auoaniaieth ?o/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiianoiay i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay
aooaaeoa?ey ia?anoaea oaeiaeaoai?youe eioi?iaoeeiiiua iio?aaiinoe a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue nianoaaiieeia.

Eiioeaio?aoeey eaieoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey a oneiaeyo oaoiieiae/aneiai
?acaeoey ii?iaeeea caaea/e ?an/aoa aii?oecaoeee aeey aeeth/aiey a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee n?aaenoa o?oaea, o/aoa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, ioeaiee noieiinoe iai?ioiuo aeoeaia e en/eneaiey
i?eauee.

Eiioeaio?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu ia oaa?eeao i?eaaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nicaeaiey nenoai iieaou o?oaea, naa?oo?i/iuo, i?aiee, a oaeaea
oi?ie?iaaiey iieacaoaeae aeey ioaeae oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii. *aoeea
eiioeaioeee ca?aaioiie ieaou e oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii ieii/aoaeueii
ioi?ieeenue oieueei a XIX a.

Iio?aaiinoue a cia/eoaeueiuo n?aaenoaao aeey ?acaeoey aeciana i?eaaea e
nicaeaieth aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee. Iaaiiay aaeieieno?aoeey aeieaeia auea
ia?eiaee/anee io/eouaaoueny ia?aae nianoaaiieeaie, iaei ciaeiiuie n
aeayoaeueiinoueth eiiiaiee. A nayce n yoei ia/eiatho oi?ie?iaaoueny
eiioeaioeee aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. E?iia oiai, auyaeaiiay ca io/aoiue
ia?eiae i?eaueue auea aacie aeey ia/eneaiey aeeaeaeaiaeia, iiyoiio
ii?aaeaeaiea i?eauee noaei ia?ainoaiaiiie caaea/ae aooaaeoa?a.

Aiia?aoo oi?aaeaiey oaeaea o?aaiaaeinue aieueoa eioi?iaoeee aeey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e eiio?iey io eiaie nianoaaiieeia, eioi?ua ia i?eieiaee
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey a oi?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoeai. Ni a?aiaiai yoi
i?eaaei e nicaeaieth ?acee/iuo nenoai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e o/aoa
cao?ao, i?ecaaiiuo iiii/ue iaiaaeaea?ai a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

Eciaiaiey a yeiiiieea i?eaaee e eciaiaieyi a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
eiiiaieyo. Aeey i?eaea/aiey eaieoaea ioaeii auei eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue
i?eaaaiooue e naa?aaeaieyi iiiaeo ethaeae, oae eae n?aaenoa iaeiiai
aeaaea ninoiyoaeueiiai eeoea auei iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaa?ee e caaiaeia. Iaeei ec ia?auo caeiiia a Aa?iia,
i?eciaaaaoee aeayoaeueiinoue iaca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo eiiiaiee ia?ooaieai
iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, aue i?eiyo a Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 1719 a.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeiai caeiia auea aucaaia oai, /oi /aeiaae, anooieaoee
a aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey n iiaeiaiie i?aaiecaoeeae, ia iia i?aaeuyaeoue
eiio-eeai ene a neo/aa nii?a, iineieueeo eiiiaiey eiaea cia/eoaeueiia
/enei nianoaaiieeia (aeoeeiia?ia). Iaeiaei eaaaeueiinoue aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoa, a ia?yaeo n iae e o?aaiaaiey e aaaeaieth o/aoa e
i?aaenoaaeaieth io/aoiinoe, aoaeoo aaaaeaiu a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai oieueei a XIX a.

Aoi?ie aaaeiie iaeanoueth caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau, aeeyaoae ia
?acaeoea i?aeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, auei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i aaie?ionoaa. Iaeei ec ia?auo a Aa?iia caeiiia i
noaeao ii aeaeai i ianinoiyoaeueiinoe aeieaeieea aue i?eiyo a 1813 a.
Auee o/?aaeaeaiu noae e nenoaia ioeoeeaeueiuo oiieiiii/aiiuo, eioi?ua
caieiaeenue eeeaeaeaoeeae eiouanoaa aaie?ioa niaianoii n oiieiiii/aiiuie
e?aaeeoi?ia. Eiaiii ?ac?aaioea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii aeaeai i
ianinoiyoaeueiinoe aeieaeieeia i?eaaea e oi?ie?iaaieth i?eioeeia
eiouanoaaiiie iainiaeaiiinoe (icia/aao, /oi eioua/noai eiiiaiee aeieaeii
auoue iainiaeaiii io eiouanoaa ae?oaeo th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe)
a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa, oae eae aeaaeaeaoe (aeoeeiia?) ioaa/ae ii
iaycaoaeuenoaai eiiiaiee oieueei a i?aaeaeao noii, aeiaeaiiuo a eaieoae
eiiiaiee. Aeey caueou eioa?ania aeoeeiia?ia, ioi?aaiiuo io oi?aaeaiey
eiiiaieae, iiyaeythony i?aaeiinueee aeey oi?ie?iaaiey aua iaeiiai
i?eioeeia aooaaeoa?ee — i?eioeeia iai?a?uaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue
iicaieyao naiaa?aiaiii iaania/eoue eioi?iaoeeae, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, nianoaaiieeia e e?aaeeoi?ia.

A XVI—XIX aa. aeaaiaea?y niaa?oainoaiaaieth nianoaaiiie iaoiaeieiaee
o/ao ec iaai?a aeiai e yiie?e/aneeo i?aaee iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaaony a
i?oaeea enneaaeiaaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiiaea aaoi?u
iuoathony ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua o/aoiua eaoaai?ee iao/iui ycueii. A
oeacaiiue ia?eiae auee caeiaeaiu iniiau th?eaee/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie
o?aeoiaie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, auee aeaiu ia?aua eeanneoeeaoeee
aooaaeoa?neeo n/aoia, aeoeaii oi?ie?oaony aooaaeoa?neee ycue
(oa?ieiieiaey). ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, o?aaothuaai
cia/eoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee e
aeaei iiuiue noeioe aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e
?ac?aaioee iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.

4. Iao/iia ?acaeoea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a XIX – XX aa.

4.1. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao eiaao aeaa noi?iiu: i?aeoe/aneoth (n/aoiaiaenoai) e
oai?aoe/aneoth (n/aoiaaaeaiea). Ia?aay i/aaeaeia, aoi?ay iaiaoiaeeia
aeey iauyniaiey ia?aie e auyaeaiey aiciiaeiinoae eniieueciaaiey i?aeoeee
aeey aeinoeaeaiey eaaeaeui i?aaei?eyoeai iaeeo/oeo oicyenoaaiiuo
?acoeueoaoia. Enoi?e/anee i?ioanney aooaaeoa?a neiaeeeanue eae
i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, iiyoiio iao/iay iniiaa aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa inoaaony iayniie e iiiaei nia?aiaiiui aooaaeoa?ai. Iiiuoee
iniuneeoue eiae/aneea ia?aaeienu a oicyenoaaiiie aeecie i?aaei?eyoee
aeaee ia/aei iaoea i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa.

Oai?ey, ?iaeaeaynue ia iniiaa i?aeoeee, iaiauaao e iauyniyao oaeou
oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Iia ioaeia ia oai, eoi i?inoi ?aaioaao, a oai, eoi
aeoiaao e ?aaioaao. Ia?aui oai?ey nei?aa a?aaeeo, /ai iiiiaaao, aoi?ui —
oai, eoi enneaaeoao aeoaeiiua i?iaeaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, ninoaaeyao
ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou e auae?aao oa eee eiua iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eaiu
aeey aeinoeaeaiey aieueoae yooaeoeaiinoe a ?aaioa i?aaei?eyoey,— oai?ey
iaiaoiaeeia eae aicaeoo.

Aua a 1884 a. eoaeueyineee o/aiue Aei/aioei Aeaeeooe, aunooiay n
aeieeaaeii ia oaio «I?ioeia e aoaeouaa n/aoiaiaenoaa», auneacae
neaaeothuoth iuneue i caaea/ao, noiyaoeo ia?aae n/aoiaaaeaieai a oi
a?aiy: iaoaio aaeo auiaee ia aeieth aeaa aaaeiua caaea/e: iaeia
i?aeoe/aneay — onoaiiaeaiea a e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo n/aoiaiaenoaa,
niiniaiiai oaeiaeaoai?eoue iiaua iio?aaiinoe, ae?oaay — oai?aoe/aneay —
onoaiiaeaiea iao/iuo i?eioeeiia, auaiaeyueo n/aoiaiaenoai ec
yiie?e/aneie iaeanoe e ieii/aoaeueii iai?aaeythueo aai ia iooue
i?ia?anna. N oao ii? i?ioei aieaa aaea, iaeiaei e nae/an aicieeatho
nii?u i oii, /oi aooaaeoa?ey iiaeaa?aeaia aeeyieth yiie?ecia e
o?aaeeoeee.

Oai?ey — yoi iaai? eaeae a oie eee eiie iaeanoe ciaiee. A aooaaeoa?neii
o/aoa, eae e a ae?oaeo iaoeao, nouanoaotho ?acee/iua acaeyaeu ia
enneaaeoaiua eaoaai?ee (a aeaiiii neo/aa ia nouiinoue e i?e?iaeo n/aoia,
aaeaina e o.i.). A caaeneiinoe io yoiai oi?ie?othony ?acee/iua iao/iua
oeieu, oa/aiey, iai?aaeaiey. A caaeneiinoe io iauyniaiey i?aaee
?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ia n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
oai?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey ?acee/iuo aaoi?ia ?acaeaeytho ia th?eaee/aneea,
yeiiiie/aneea e aaeainiaua oai?ee.

4.2. TH?eaee/aneea oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

Nooue th?eaee/aneie o?aeoiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa naiaeeeanue e niaia
i?aa e iaycaoaeuenoa eeoe, o/anoaothueo a oicyenoaaiiii i?ioeanna. N
th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey oeaeueth o/aoa noaiiaeony eiio?ieue
aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia: nianoaaiieea, aaeieieno?aoi?a,
aaaioia (eeoe, caiyouo ia i?aaei?eyoee), ei??aniiiaeaioia (eeoe, n
eioi?uie i?aaei?eyoea aaaeao ?an/aou). Iineieueeo eiio?iee?iaaoue i?aaa
e iaycaoaeuenoaa iiaeii oieueei ii aeieoiaioai, i?aaeiao o/aoa
ninoaaeytho ia naie oeaiiinoe, a naaaeaiey i ieo. Oae eae ioaaonoaaiiua
eeoea aeieaeiu auee ioaa/aoue ca aaa?aiiua ei oeaiiinoe a i?iaeaaeiuo
oeaiao, oi eiaiii oaeay ioeaiea i?eciaaony i?aaeeueiie. Nouiinoue
aeaieiie caiene auoaeaea ec iai?a?uaiiai aicieeiiaaiey i?aaa
(iaycaoaeuenoaa) o iaeieo eeoe e iiaaoaiey o ae?oaeo. Ionthaea e aaeain
ii?aaeaeyeny eae oaaeeoea, a aeoeaa eioi?ie oeacaiu aeaaeaeueoeu
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae (iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea), a a ianneaa
ia?a/eneaiu nianoaaiieee (e?aaeeoi?u e aeaaeaeaoe i?aaei?eyoey).

A ?acaeoea th?eaee/aneeo oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia?iiiue aeeaae
aianee Y. Aeaa?aiae, E. Aaiuea, A. Oeaa e E. Iaea?iai, E. Aeeene, E.
Oeueiai, Y. Eaioa e A. Aeeueai, A.I. ?oaeaiianeee, Ae. *a?aiie e ae?.

I?ioanni? I.N. Iiiaceia ?acaeaeyao oai?ee th?eaee/aneiai, iai?aaeaiey ia
oai?ee iaeiiai ?yaea n/aoia e oai?ee aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia.

Aaoi?u oai?ee iaeiiai ?yaea n/aoia (Aeaa?aiae, Aaiuea, Oeaa e Iaea?iai,
Aeeene, Oeueiai) i?eciatho, /oi ana n/aoa iaeeiaeiau ii naiae i?e?iaea e
iiae/eiythony iauei i?aaeeai ?aaeno?aoeee: eoi iieo/aao — aeaaaooaony,
eoi aeaao — e?aaeeooaony. Ii iaeie aaoi?u, iai?eia? Aeaa?aiae, enoiaeyo
ec oiai, /oi ana n/aoa ii nooe yaeythony n/aoaie aeaaeaeueoea
(nianoaaiieea). Oaeea oai?ee iacaaiu I.N. Iiiaceiaui noauaeoeaiuie.
Ae?oaea aaoi?u aiai?yo, /oi n/aoa aaaeoony io eiaie oicyenoaa eae
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, a nianoaaiiee n/eoaaony e?aaeeoi?ii aeaiiiai
oicyenoaa. TH?eaee/aneea oai?ee aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia iniiaaiu ia
i?aaenoaaeaiee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey eae
niaieoiiinoe ioiioaiee oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia. Aooaaeoa?neee aaeain
iino?iai ec aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia, eioi?ua i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony ae?oa
ae?oao. I?aaeea caiene ia n/aoao caaenyo io niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
eaaeaeie a?oiiu n/aoia. Iiiaceia oaeaea ?acaeaeyao aeaiioth a?oiio
oai?ee ia noauaeoeaiua (n/aoa aaaeoony io eiaie nianoaaiieea) e
oicyenoaaiiua (n/aoa aaaeoony io eiaie th?eaee/aneiai eeoea). E
noauaeoeaiui oai?eyi iiaeii ioianoe oai?ee Eaioa e Aeeueai, *a?aiie, e
oicyenoaaiiui oai?eyi — oai?eth ?oaeaiianeiai.

A XX a. th?eaee/aneea oai?ee iiaeaa?aaeenue aeanoeie e?eoeea. I?ioanni?
E.O. O?io oeacuaae, /oi iniiaiia i?aaeei oai?ee iaeiiai ?yaea n/aoia ia
yaeyaony aeinoaoi/iui aeey i?eiaiaiey ei anai oicyenoaaiiui iia?aoeeyi.
Anoue oeaeue ?yae iia?aoeee, nouiinoue eioi?uo ia iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue
eeoe aeathueo e eeoe iieo/athueo (iai?eia?, nienaiea aeieaa
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiiai aeaaeoi?a, oie/oiaeaiea oiaa?ia iiaea?ii).
Ano?a/athony oaeaea iia?aoeee, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo aeathuee ia
iieo/aao i?aaa o?aaiaaiey e iieo/athuaio, a iieo/athuee ia ianao
iaycaoaeuenoa, eae iai?eia?, i?e oieaoa iaeiaia, ia/eneaiee ca?aaioiie
ieaou. Oa? io?eoeaao iao/ioth cia/eiinoue th?eaee/aneeo oai?ee, oae eae
iie /enoi iaoaie/aneei iooai iauyniytho i?aaeea aeaieiie caiene e
niaa?oaiii ia iinoeaatho iao/iuo iniia n/aoiaaaeaiey. Iaeiaei neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue ianiiiaiiua caneoae aaoi?ia yoeo oai?ee ia?aae aooaaeoa?neie
iaoeie. Ai-ia?auo, iioiio /oi eiaiii iie naeaeaee ia?aua iiiuoee
auyaeoue e i?eioeeieaeueii iainiiaaoue caeii aeaienoaaiiinoe
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee e iaoiae aeaieiie caiene. Ai-aoi?uo, ca
th?eaee/aneeie oai?eyie iaeiiai ?yaea n/aoia aei neo ii? inoathony
i?aeiouanoaa iaaeaaiae/aneiai iaoiaea, iicaieythuaai iaeaieaa eaaei e
i?inoi iciaeiieoue ia/eiathueo aooaaeoa?ia n oaoieeie ?aaeno?aoeee ia
n/aoao.

Oai?ey Aeaa?aiaea («La tenue des livres rendue facile», 1795). Yaeiii
Aeaa?aiae oeacuaae, /oi n/aoiaiaenoai eiaao aeaiyeoth caaea/o:
ai-ia?auo, aeaaaoue naaaeaiey i ninoiyiee n/aoa eaaeaeiai
ei??aniiiaeaioa, ai-aoi?uo, inaauaoue iieiaeaiea aeae ia ethaie iiiaio,
o.a. aeaaaoue naaaeaiey i aeaeaeaiee oeaiiinoae, i?eaueyo e oauoeao e
o.i. Aeey ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ aooaaeoa? iieuecoaony n/aoaie
aeaoo a?oii: n/aoa aeey eeoe, n eioi?uie ninoiyo a oicyenoaaiiuo
ioiioaieyo (niaoeeaeueiua n/aoa), e n/aoa oeaiiinoae (iauea n/aoa).
Aeaa?aiae ioia/ae, /oi a eaaeaeie aac eneeth/aiey iia?aoeee o/anoaotho
aeaa eeoea: iaeii ec ieo iieo/aao eaeoth-eeai oeaiiinoue, ae?oaia eeoei
yoo aea oeaiiinoue ioaeaao. Ia?aia eeoei yaeyaony aeieaeieeii, eee
aeaaeoi?ii, aoi?ia eeoei — aa?eoaeai, eee e?aaeeoi?ii. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai e iiaeeaaeeo ?aaeno?aoeee iooai ninoaaeaiey
niaoeeaeueiuo noaoae, a eioi?uo oeacuaaeenue au iaeiia?aiaiii aeaa
eeoea: aeaaeoi? e e e?aaeeoi?. Oaeei ia?acii, oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee
io?aaeathony ia n/aoao a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeii: aeaaaoiaaoue oiai, eoi
iieo/aao, e?aaeeoiaaoue oiai, eoi aeaao.

Aeey aieaa yniiai iiieiaiey aeaiiiai i?aaeea ninoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neeo
caienae Aeaa?aiae i?eaiaeeo neaaeothuea i?eia?u.

1. Oicyei i?iaeae Aeeueiio iyoue ai/ae aeia ca 600 o?aieia.

Aeeueii iieo/ee iyoue ai/ae aeia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aai n/ao ioaeii
aeaaaoiaaoue. Oicyei aeae iyoue ai/ae aeia, cia/eo, ii yaeyaony
e?aaeeoi?ii e aai n/ao ioaeii e?aaeeoiaaoue.

2. Oicyei iieo/ee iaee/iuie io Aeeueiia 600 o?aieia.

Oicyei iieo/ee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii a yoie iia?aoeee yaeyaony
aeaaeoi?ii, aai n/ao ioaeii aeaaaoiaaoue. Aeeueii ioaeae 600 o?aieia,
aai n/ao ioaeii e?aaeeoiaaoue.

I?e ninoaaeaiee caienae caaeathony aii?inu: «eoi iieo/ee?» e «eoi aeae?»
— aeey auyniaiey, eoi aea ec o/anoieeia yaeyaony aeaaeoi?ii, a eoi
e?aaeeoi?ii a eaaeaeie iia?aoeee.

Iao?oaeii caiaoeoue, /oi a eaaeaeie iia?aoeee n/ao oicyeia aoaeao
iiaoi?youeny eee a ea/anoaa aeaaeoi?a, eee a ea/anoaa e?aaeeoi?a. Yoi
aiieia anoanoaaiii, oae eae oicyei iaeciaiii yaeyaony iaeiie ec noi?ii a
ethaie naeaeea, niaa?oaaiie oicyenoaii (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aianoi iiiyoey
«oicyenoai» eniieuecotho iiiyoey «i?aaiecaoeey»). Aeaiiue n/ao,
ai-ia?auo, aue au iaoe?ai, ioee/aynue io aeo?iaea oicyenoaaiiuo
iia?aoeee oieueei ?aniieiaeaieai caienae, e, ai-aoi?uo, aaniieacai,
iineieueeo ia?yaeo n aeoaee?iaaieai aeo?iaeueiuo caienae ii ia aeaaae au
aiciiaeiinoe iaaiaeeoue auno?ua, yniua e oi/iua ni?aaee (i iieo/aiee,
auaea/a e inoaoeao oiaa?ia, aeaiaa e o.ae.) ec-ca ionoonoaey a iai
?acaeaeueiiai o/aoa.

Aeaa?aiae i?aaeeiaeee ?acaeaeeoue n/ao oicyeia ia iyoue n/aoia: n/ao
oiaa?ia, n/ao eannu, n/ao aeieoiaioia e iieo/aieth, n/ao aeieoiaioia e
iieaoa e n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia. Oaeei ia?acii, iauea n/aoa ii
eeanneoeeaoeee Aeaa?aiaea yaeythony iiae?acaeaeaieyie aaeeiiai n/aoa
oicyeia.

Oaia?ue aeey eiino?oe?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neeo caienae aii?inia: «Eoi
iieo/ee?» e «Eoi auaeae?» iaaeinoaoi/ii, eo i?eoiaeeony aeiiieiyoue
aii?inaie: «*oi iieo/ee?» eee «*oi auaeae oicyei?».

I?ioeann ninoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neeo caienae aoaeao i?ioaeaoue neaaeothuei
ia?acii.

1. Oicyei i?iaeae Aeeueiio iyoue ai/ae aeia ca 600 o?aieia.

Eoi iieo/ee? Aeeueii iieo/ee iyoue ai/ae aeia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aai n/ao
ioaeii aeaaaoiaaoue.

Eoi e /oi aeae? Oicyei aeae iyoue ai/ae aeia, o.a. oiaa?, cia/eo, n/ao
oiaa?ia ioaeii e?aaeeoiaaoue.

2. Oicyei iieo/ee iaee/iuie io Aeeueiia 600 o?aieia.

Eoi e /oi iieo/ee? Oicyei iieo/ee aeaiueae, neaaeiaaoaeueii, n/ao aeaiaa
ioaeii aeaaaoiaaoue.

Eoi ioaeae? Aeeueii ioaeae 600 o?aieia, aai n/ao ioaeii e?aaeeoiaaoue.

Iiieii niaoeeaeueiuo e iaueo n/aoia Aeaa?aiae o?aaiaae ioe?uoey aua e
o?ao aanueia aaaeiuo n/aoia iniaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a: n/aoa eaieoaea, n/aoa
aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai e n/aoa aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai.

Iacia/aieai n/aoa eaieoaea yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea /enoiai eiouanoaa
oicyeia, eee aai eaieoaea. Eaieoae oicyeia ii?aaeaeyaony iooai au/eoaiey
ec iauae noiiu anaai oiai, /oi ii eiaao, iauaai eoiaa aai aea
iaycaoaeuenoa. N/ao eaieoaea e?aaeeooaony ca ia?aiia/aeueiue eaieoae
oicyeia i?e ia/aea ei oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee e ca anyeiai ?iaea
oaaee/aiey yoiai eaieoaea iiae aeeyieai ee neo/aeiuo i?e/ei eee aea a
?acoeueoaoa i?eaueae, auyaeaoeony a eoiaa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
N/ao eaieoaea aeaaaooaony ca ana oi, /oi oiaiueoaao ?acia?u yoiai
eaieoaea iiae aeeyieai neo/aeiuo i?e/ei eee aea a ?acoeueoaoa oauoeia,
iieo/eaoeony a eoiaa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. N/ao eaieoaea
cae?uaaaony n/aoii aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai.

N/ao aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai neoaeeo aeey cae?uoey anao n/aoia, eae
niaoeeaeueiuo, oae e iaueo, ioe?uouo a Aeaaiie eieaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
caeeth/aiey e caaaeaine?iaaiey n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae n/aoii aaeaina
caeeth/eoaeueiiai iineaaeiee iauaaeeiyao a naaa e io?aaeaao naeueaei
anao cae?uouo ei n/aoia. N/ao aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai aeaaaooaony ca
aanue aeoea oicyeia ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey n/aoia e e?aaeeooaony ca aanue
aai iannea e io?aaeaao oaeei ia?acii oi/iia eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea
oicyeia ia oeacaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue i?aaeuaeouaio n/aoo n/ao aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai
neoaeeo aeey ioe?uoey aiiaue anao oao n/aoia, eioi?ua auee cae?uou
n/aoii aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai.

Iaa iineaaeieo n/aoa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aiia?aaeaaiuo eeoe,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey caeeth/aiey (n/ao aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai) e
ioe?uoey (n/ao aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai) n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae.

?anniio?aiiay oai?ey iaeaaeaao ?yaeii oycaeiuo iano: ionoonoaea
caeii/aiiie eeanneoeeaoeee n/aoia, iaoaaaeeoaeueiay o?aeoiaea i?aaee
caiene ii n/aoo i?eaueae e oauoeia, iaeaiia iauyniaiea cae?uoey e
ioe?uoey n/aoia e o.ae. Aianoa n oai neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue e
iieiaeeoaeueiua noi?iiu oai?ee Aeaa?aiaea e i?aaeaea anaai no?aieaiea
auaanoe iaoiae aeaieiie caiene enoiaey ec oiai iniiaiiai iieiaeaiey,
eioi?ia n ecaanoiui aeiiouaieai iiaeii iacaaoue caeiiii aeaienoaaiiinoe.
A i?aaenoaaeaiee Aeaa?aiaea eaaeaeay iia?aoeey aeaienoaaiia ii naiae
i?e?iaea, oae eae ninoieo ec aeaoo iniiaiuo yeaiaioia: iieo/aiey e
auaea/e. Iieo/aiea /aai-eeai naycaii o Aeaa?aiaea n i?aaenoaaeaieai i
aicieeiiaaiee aeieaeieea, a auaea/a /aai-eeai n i?aaenoaaeaieai i
e?aaeeoi?a. Eaaeaeue n/ao, eae niaoeeaeueiue, oae e iauee, iiaeao
iieo/aoue e auaeaaaoue iieo/aaiue iauaeo, niioaaonoaaiii /aio
iaycaoaeueii ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa /anoe: aeaaao — aeey ?aaeno?aoeee
iieo/aiee e e?aaeeo — aeey caiene auaea/. Ii eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay
iia?aoeey anaaaea ninoieo ec aeaoo i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ii naiae
i?e?iaea yeaiaioia — iieo/aiey e auaea/e, ionthaea eaaeaeay iia?aoeey
o?aaoao iaeiia?aiaiiie caiene ii aeaaaoo iaeiiai e e?aaeeoo ae?oaiai
n/aoa. Aeey naiaai a?aiaie (eiiaoe XVIII — ia/aei XIX a.) oai?ey
Aeaa?aiaea, aaconeiaii, auea e?oiiui aeinoeaeaieai a iaeanoe iainiiaaiey
aaaeiaeoeo n/aoiuo iieiaeaiee.

Oai?ey Aaiuea (1840). Eiiieeo Aaiuea ?acaeaae iuneue, /oi n/aoa aaaeoony
ia io eiaie nianoaaiieea, a io eiaie oicyenoaa eae th?eaee/aneiai eeoea.
Ana yoe n/aoa iauaaeeiythony a o?e a?oiiu: n/aoa eiiia?naioa (a yoo
a?oiio aoiaeyo n/ao eaieoaea e n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia), n/aoa
oeaiiinoae, iaoiaeyueony a oicyenoaa e yaeythueony iauaeoaie iia?aoeee,
n/aoa ei??aniiiaeaioia. N/aoa ia?aie e o?aoueae a?oii eeanneoeeaoeee
Aaiuea, i/aaeaeii, yaeythony n/aoaie ee/iuie. Oaeeie aea ee/iuie
yaeythony e n/aoa aoi?ie a?oiiu, iineieueeo oeaiiinoe, ii iiaieth
Aaiuea, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie n/aoa aaaioia, eioi?ui ii?o/aii iieo/aiea e
auaea/a oeaiiinoae. Iai?eia?, n/ao eannu neaaeoao iiieiaoue eae n/ao
eanne?a. Iaeiiia?acea i?eciaeia n/aoia (ana ee/iua) i?eaiaeeo e
onoaiiaeaieth iauaai aeey anao ieo i?aaeea n/aoiuo caienae: n/ao
yaeyaony aeaaeoi?ii, anee ii iieo/aao oiaa?u, iaee/iua aeaiueae,
aaenaey, eaeea-eeai oeaiiinoe eee i?eieiaao ia naay eioa?anu, ?anoiaeu,
ecaea?aeee e ae?oaea oauoee ?aciiai ?iaea; n/ao yaeyaony e?aaeeoi?ii,
anee ii auaeaao eee aeinoaaeyao oiaa?u, iaee/iua aeaiueae, aaenaey,
eaeea-eeai oeaiiinoe eee i?eiineo eioa?anu, aeioiaeu e ae?oaea i?eauee
?aciiai ?iaea.

E. Aaiuea auaeaeaaao ia ia?aue ieai ?acaeaeaiea iiiyoee oicyenoaa e
nianoaaiieea, iaeiaei a eiia/iii eoiaa aeaao oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea
aeaieiie caiene a aeooa oai?ee Aeaa?aiaea. A iaieo neo/ayo ana n/aoa
ieeoeaoai?ythony, a i?e ninoaaeaiee aooaaeoa?neeo caienae neaaeoao
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny iauei i?aaeeii: iieo/athuee aeaaaooaony, aeathuee
e?aaeeooaony.

Oai?ey Oeaa e Iaea?iaia (1891). A. Oeaa e E. Iaea?iai inoaiiaeeenue ia
auyniaiee iaeioi?uo iiiyoee. Iiae aeoeaii iie iiieiatho niaieoiiinoue
oiai, /ai aeaaeatho ia i?aaao nianoaaiiinoe; iiae ianneaii — i?aaa
o?aoueeo eeoe eee e?aaeeoi?ia, a iiae /enoui eaieoaeii, eee /enoui
eiouanoaii,— ?aciinoue io au/eoaiey noiiu ianneaa ec noiiu aeoeaa. Iiae
aeeyieai iia?aoeee a aeoeaa, ianneaa e /enoii eaieoaea i?ienoiaeyo
eciaiaiey, aeey o/aoa eioi?uo ioe?uaathony n/aoa.

Enneaaeoy oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe ninoaaiuo /anoae aeoeaa e ianneaa,
Oeaa e Iaea?iai i?eoee e onoaiiaeaieth neaaeothuae eeanneoeeaoeee:

— iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa, iai?eia?, aeaiueae, aeaeaeeiia e iaaeaeaeeiia
eiouanoai (aeoea);

— o?aaiaaiey e ae?oaei eeoeai, n?aaee eioi?uo a naith i/a?aaeue
auaeaeythony o?aaiaaiey, iniiaaiiua:

a) ia ?an/aoiuo ioiioaieyo, eee ee/iua o?aaiaaiey,

a) ia aeieaiauo aeieoiaioao: aaenaeyo e aeieoiaioao e iieo/aieth,
aoiaaeiuo aeaiueaao, iineieueeo iineaaeiea ia?aaiicia/iu caiieie iiiaoa
(aeoea e iannea).

Enoiaey ec i?eaaaeaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee aeoeaa e ianneaa Oeaa e Iaea?iai
i?aaeeiaeeee oaeoth eeanneoeeaoeeth n/aoia:

— n/ao eaieoaea n niioaaonoaothueie aniiiiaaoaeueiuie n/aoaie (n/ao
i?eaueae e oauoeia e o.i.);

— n/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa;

— n/aoa aeieaiauo aeieoiaioia;

— ee/iua n/aoa.

Iin?aaenoaii oeacaiiuo a?oii n/aoia o/eouaathony eciaiaiey,
i?ienoiaeyuea a aeoeaa e ianneaa. Eiino?oe?iaaiea aooaaeoa?neeo caienae
iiae/eiyaony iniiaiiio i?eioeeio aooaaeoa?ee, niaeanii eioi?iio
eaaeaeiio aeaaeoi?o aeieaeai i?ioeainoiyoue e?aaeeoi?. Ai ecaaaeaiea
aiciiaeiuo ioeaie Oeaa e Iaea?iai onoaiiaeee oaa?aeia i?aaeei,
iicaieythuaa ii?aaeaeeoue n/ao, eioi?ue iiaeeaaeeo aeaaaoiaaieth, e
n/ao, iiaeeaaeauee e?aaeeoiaaieth:

— aeaaeoi?ii aoaeao eaaeaeue n/ao eeoea, iieo/athuaai /oi-eeai io ian,—
eaaeaeue n/ao, eioi?ue iu ioe?uaaai aeey o/aoa eaeiai-eeai i?aaeiaoa, ca
ana oi, /oi ninoaaeyao eee oaaee/eaaao oeaiiinoue iineaaeiaai, ca
eaaeaeia oaaee/aiea eee i?e?auaiea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeaea ca oi, /oi
iu i?e iia?aoeeyo n yoei eeoeii eee n yoei i?aaeiaoii iieo/aai a aeaea
i?eauee;

— e?aaeeoi?ii aoaeao eaaeaeue n/ao eeoea, /oi-eeai iai aeathuaai eee
i?eeacuaathuaai aeaoue, — eaaeaeue n/ao i?aaeiaoa ca oi, /oi ec ninoaaa
yoiai i?aaeiaoa aoaeao caa?aii, o.a. ca eaaeaeia oiaiueoaiea,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeaea ca oi, /oi iu i?e iia?aoeeyo n yoei eeoeii
oa?yai.

Aeaiiia i?aaeei ninoieo ec o?ao i?aaeienaiee, ioiinyueony:

— e caienyi ii ee/iui n/aoai;

— e caienyi ii iaoa?eaeueiui n/aoai;

— e caienyi ii n/aoai i?eaueae e oauoeia.

I?e?iaea oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ii ee/iui n/aoai aeaienoaaiia, oae eae
ninoieo ec aeaoo yeaiaioia: iieo/aiey e auaea/e. A yoie /anoe
i?ineaaeeaaaony aiaeiaey n oai?eyie Aeaa?aiaea, Aaiuea e ae?.

I?aaeei, ioiinyuaany e caienyi ii iaoa?eaeueiui n/aoai, oaea yaeyaony
iiaui. Ei onoaiaaeeaaaony, /oi iaoa?eaeueiua n/aoa aeaaaoothony ca
anyeia oaaee/aiea oeaiiinoe o/eouaaaiuo iauaeoia e e?aaeeoothony ca
anyeia aa oiaiueoaiea. Iaeiaei aaoi?u oeacuaatho, /oi aeaaeoi?ii
iaoa?eaeueiue n/ao aoaeao ca ana auaea/e, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyony ec-ca
iauaeoa, o/eouaaaiiai ia yoii n/aoa, a oaeaea ca ana o?aaiaaiey ae?oaeo
eeoe, aicieeoeo ec-ca yoiai iauaeoa; e?aaeeoi?ii iaoa?eaeueiue n/ao
aoaeao ca oa o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ua n/ao yoio eiaao ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei
eeoeai. Oaeei ia?acii, iaoa?eaeueiua n/aoa o Oeaa e Iaea?iaia yaeythony
n/aoaie ieeoeaoai?aiiuie, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eioeeieaeueiua ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo iaoa?eaeueiuie e ee/iuie n/aoaie ionoonoaotho.

I?aaeei, eioi?ui ?aaoee?oaony ii?yaeie caienae i?eaueae e oauoeia,
o?aaoao, /oiau ca i?eauee niioaaonoaothuea iaoa?eaeueiua e ee/iua n/aoa
aeaaaoiaaeenue, a ca oauoee e?aaeeoiaaeenue. Yoi ianeieueei no?aiiia ia
ia?aue acaeyae o?aaiaaiea eiaao aeinoaoi/iia iainiiaaiea. I?aaeiieiaeei,
/oi a oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea i?aaei?eyoea i?eia?aei 1000 aaeeieoe
oiaa?a ii oeaia 1,5 ?oa. ca oooeo e i?iaeaei 1000 aaeeieoe oiaa?a ii
oeaia 2 ?oa. ca oooeo. Ia n/aoa oiaa?ia aoaeoo naeaeaiu neaaeothuea
caiene (?en. 1).

Aeaaao N/ao oiaa?ia
E?aaeeo

Eoieaii1500 ?oa.I?iaeaii 2000 ?oa.I?eaueue500 ?oa.?en. 4.1 – Caiene
ia n/aoa oiaa?ia

Ii i?aaeeai Oeaa e Iaea?iaia n/ao oiaa?ia iieo/ee, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?iecioei oaaee/aiea oeaiiinoae ia 1500 ?oa., iiyoiio aeaaaooaony. Caoai
n/ao oiaa?ia auaeae, i?iecioei oiaiueoaiea oeaiiinoae, iiyoiio n/ao
e?aaeeooaony ia 2000 ?oa. Ii oiaa?u auee i?iaeaiu ii oeaia aieaa
aunieie, /ai oeaia naaanoieiinoe, /oi a eoiaa aeaei ?acieoeo a 500 ?oa.,
/oi oa?aeoa?ecoao, ii iiaieth Oeaa e Iaea?iaia, eciaiaiea oeaiiinoe
i?iaeaiiie ia?oee oiaa?a a iiiaio aa i?iaeaaee. Oae eae yoi eciaiaiea
aeaei oaaee/aiea oeaiiinoe oiaa?a, o.a. a aeaiiii neo/aa n/ao iieo/ee
?acieoeo a 500 ?oa., ca yoo ?acieoeo n/ao oiaa?ia e aeieaeai auoue
aeaaaoiaai a iiiaio onoaiiaeaiey ?acia?ia oeacaiiie ?acieoeu. Ia noiio
?acieoeu, io?aaeaiiie ii aeaaaoo n/aoa oiaa?ia, aeieaeai auoue
e?aaeeoiaai n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia.

Anee au io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia aue iieo/ai oauoie, oi aai iiaeii auei au
iauynieoue eae oiaiueoaiea ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe i?iaeaiiie ia?oee
oiaa?ia a iiiaio aa i?iaeaaee. A yoii neo/aa i?iecioei au oiaiueoaiea
iauaeoa o/aoa, o.a. auaea/a n/aoii oiaa?ia, iiyoiio iineaaeiee e
iiaeeaaeae au e?aaeeoiaaieth n iaeiia?aiaiiui aeaaaoiaaieai n/aoa
i?eaueae e oauoeia ia ?aaioth noiio.

Oaeei ia?acii, n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia a naieo caienyo, oiaea
iiae/eiyaony iauaio i?aaeeo: i?e iieo/aiee aeaaaooaony i?e auaea/a
e?aaeeooaony. Yoi naienoai iauyniyaony oai, /oi n/ao, i?eaueae e oauoeia
iiieiaaony eae aniiiiaaoaeueiue n/ao e n/aoo eaieoaea. A iiieiaiee Oeaa
e Iaea?iaia oauoie ?anniao?eaaaony eae oiaiueoaiea oeaiiinoe, o.a.
auaea/a n/aoa, ia auaea/a yoa i?iaaaeaia ca n/ao nianoaaiieea,
iineieueeo ia eiiiaine?oaony i?eoieii eaeeo-eeai eiuo oeaiiinoae.
I?eaueue aea iiieiaaony eae oeaiiinoue, iieo/aiiay io aeaaeaeueoea
oicyenoaa e oaaee/eaathuay iauoth aaee/eio eiouanoaa nianoaaiieea.

N/ao eaieoaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianoaaiieea oicyenoaa, iiyoiio i?e
auaea/a oeaiiinoae oicyenoao e?aaeeooaony (a ei??aniiiaeaioeee n
iaoa?eaeueiuie n/aoaie iieo/aiiiai eiouanoaa) , a i?e iieo/aiee
i?aaeiaoia e aeieaia io oicyenoaa aeaaaooaony (a ei??aniiiaeaioeee n
iaoa?eaeueiuie n/aoaie auaeaiiuo oeaiiinoae). Ionthaea iiaeii naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi n/ao eaieoaea oaeaea ioiineony e ee/iui n/aoai nianoaaiieea
oicyenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey, i?aaeeiaeaiiay Oeaa e Iaea?iaiii, ianeieueei
ioee/aaony io ?aiaa ?anniio?aiiuo oai?ee. Caeanue aeaaony eiay
eeanneoeeaoeey n/aoia, a i?aaeeao aeaieiie caiene ia?yaeo n iiiyoeyie
iieo/aiey e auaea/e aaiaeeony iiiyoea oaaee/aiey e oiaiueoaiey, aeaaony
aieaa /aoeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?e?iaea i?eaueae e oauoeia. Ii ana
ia?a/eneaiiua iniaaiiinoe yaeythony eeoue aeaoaeyie, a iniiaiui
iieiaeaieai ana – oaee inoaaony aeaienoaaiiinoue oicyenoaaiiuo
iia?aoeee, caeeth/athuayny a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe aeaoo yeaiaioia:
iieo/aiee e auaea/a. A aeaiiii neo/aa ana aac eneeth/aiey n/aoa
ieeoeaoai?ythony e iiae/eiythony iauaio i?aaeeo: n/ao iieo/athuee
aeaaaooaony, n/ao aeathuee e?aaeeooaony.

Oai?ey Aeeene (1921). Eio?ain Aeeene aeieacuaaao, /oi a iniiaa caeiia
aeaienoaaiiinoe eaaeeo iiiyoea o?ainoa?oa, o.a. ia?aaea/e /aai-eeai io
iaeiiai eeoea eee ianoa ae?oaiio eeoeo eee ianoo. E?iia oiai, neaaeoao
ioee/aoue oicyenoai io aai nianoaaiieea. Oicyenoai aeeth/aao a naay, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, oeaiiinoe e i?aaa o?aaiaaiey e o?aoueei eeoeai, o.a. oi,
/oi ecaanoii iiae iauei iacaaieai aeoeaa, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
iaycaoaeuenoaa ii ioiioaieth e o?aoueei eeoeai, eee iannea. ?aciinoue
iaaeaeo aeoeaii e ianneaii eee eaieoae oaeaea aeieaeia auoue ioianaia e
ianneao, iineieueeo noiia iaycaoaeuenoa oiaea oa?aeoa?ecoao aaee/eio
iaycaoaeuenoa oicyenoaa ia?aae aai nianoaaiieeii. I?ienoiaeyuea iiae
aeeyieai oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee eciaiaiey a aeoeaa, ianneaa e eaieoaea
oicyenoai o/eouaaao, iieuecoynue n/aoaie. Aeeene i?aaeeaaaao
neaaeothuoth eeanneoeeaoeeth n/aoia, ioe?uaaaiuo oicyenoaii:

— ?aaeueiua n/aoa, eiathuea aeaei n iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie;

— ee/iua n/aoa, io?aaeathuea naeaeee n ?aciuie eeoeaie, n eioi?uie
eiathony aeaeiaua acaeiiioiioaiey;

— iiieiaeueiua eee aacee/iua n/aoa, eiathuea aeaei n ?acee/iuie
aeioiaeaie e ?anoiaeaie.

Ianiio?y ia i?aaeeiaeaiioth eeanneoeeaoeeth, Aeeene cayaeyao, /oi
eaeie-eeai nouanoaaiiie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo ?aaeueiuie e ee/iuie n/aoaie ia
nouanoaoao, oae eae ca anaie oeaiiinoyie noiyo eeoea, ioaaonoaaiiua ca
ieo ia?aae oicyeiii. A nouiinoe, ?aaeueiua n/aoa oaeaea yaeythony
ee/iuie.

I?e?iaea iiieiaeueiuo n/aoia iauyniyaony i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth i?eauee,
auyaeaiiie ca iia?aoeeiiiue ia?eiae. Ii iiaieth Aeeene, /enoay i?eaueue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia oicyenoao, a aai nianoaaiieeai, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
nianoaaiiee yaeyaony e?aaeeoi?ii oicyenoaa ia anth noiio /enoie i?eauee.
I?e cae?uoee io/aoiiai ia?eiaea naeueaei anao iiieiaeueiuo eee aacee/iuo
n/aoia aeeaathony a eoiaa a ee/iue n/ao nianoaaiieea, n/ao eaieoaea,
iiyoiio e o?aoueth a?oiio n/aoia iiaeii n iieiui i?aaii ioianoe e ee/iui
n/aoai.

E. Aeeene iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi i?aaei?eyoea ia iiaeao ie iieo/aoue
i?eaueue, ie oaea?aeeaaoue eaieoae aeey naiiai naay; e oi e ae?oaia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo nianoaaiieeo, iiea e oi e ae?oaia ia aoaeao ecuyoi O
i?aaei?eyoey nianoaaiieeii, iineaaeiee yaeyaony e?aaeeoi?ii i?aaei?eyoey
ia noiio yoiai eaieoaea e yoeo i?eaueae.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey Aeeene, ianiio?y ia i?aaeeiaeaiioth
eeanneoeeaoeeth n/aoia, oaeaea ieeoeaoai?yao ana n/aoa n aaaaeaieai
a?oiiu iiieiaeueiuo n/aoia. O?oae Aeeene auoae a 1921 a., eiaaea oaea
auee iioaeeeiaaiu aeinoaoi/ii niaea?aeaoaeueiua e aieaa i?ia?anneaiua
oai?ee yeiiiie/aneiai iai?aaeaiey, ii ianao a naaa y?ei ie?aoaiiua
eaoaai?ee th?eaee/aneie oai?ee.

Oai?ey Oeueiaia (1904). Eicao oii Oeueiai, i?eieiay ca enoiaeioth oi/eo
naieo iino?iaiee oieaa?naeueiia i?aaeei n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee — aeathuee
e?aaeeooaony, iieo/athuee aeaaaooaony,— i?aaeaea anaai onoaiaaeeaaao,
/oi iniiaaieai aeey aeaaaoiaaiey e e?aaeeoiaaiey yaeythony ia naie oaeou
iieo/aiey eee auaea/e /aai-eeai, a aicieeathuea ec yoeo oaeoia
th?eaee/aneea acaeiiioiioaiey, o.a. i?aai o?aaiaaiey i?e auaea/a e
iaycaoaeuenoai i?e iieo/aiee. Yoi ?annoaeaeaiea i?eaiaeeo e oi?ioee?iaea
neaaeothuaai i?aaeea: anee aeey n/aoa aicieeaao i?aai o?aaiaaiey, ii
e?aaeeooaony, anee aeey n/aoa aicieeaao iaycaoaeuenoai, ii aeaaaooaony.
Oaeay oi?ioee?iaea iiaeao auoue aeaia eeoue ia iniiaaiee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ia?niieoeeaoeee n/aoia, o.a. a ?acoeueoaoa
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iaaeaeaiey naienoaaie noauaeoia — iineoaeae i?aa
o?aaiaaiee e iaycaoaeuenoa.

Iniaaiiinoueth oai?ee Oeueiaia neaaeoao n/eoaoue oi, /oi n/ao aaeaina
yaeyaony n/aoii oi?aaeythuaai oicyenoaii. Oi?aaeythuee iieo/aao a ia/aea
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea io nianoaaiieea oicyenoaa ana eiouanoai, iieo/aiea
eioi?iai io?aaeaao ii aeaaaoo n/aoa aaeaina e e?aaeeoo n/aoa eaieoaea.
Nianoaaiiee noaiiaeony e?aaeeoi?ii oicyenoaa. Aica?auay nianoaaiieeo a
eiioea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea eiouanoai, i?eoiiiaeaiiia ia aaee/eio i?eauee
eee oiaiueoaiiia ia aaee/eio oauoea, oi?aaeythuee io?aaeaao yoi
eiouanoai ia e?aaeeoiaie noi?iia n/aoa aaeaina e aeaaaoiaie noi?iia
n/aoa eaieoaea. A ?acoeueoaoa yoie iineaaeiae caiene e?oa n/aoiie
?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iai?ioia caaeaiiue io/aoiue ia?eiae
caiueaaony, i?e/ai a neo/aa i?aaeeueii i?iaaaeaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee
aeaaaoiaay e e?aaeeoiaay noi?iiu eaaeaeiai n/aoa iieacuaatho iaeeiaeiaua
eoiae.

Eoae, ii oai?ee Oeueiaia ana n/aoa yaeythony ieeoeaoai?aiiuie. Eaaeaeay
iia?aoeey i?e ?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao iiae/eiyaony iauaio i?aaeeo: i?e
aicieeiiaaiee i?aaa o?aaiaaiey n/ao e?aaeeooaony, i?e aicieeiiaaiee
iaycaoaeuenoaa — aeaaaooaony.

Oaeei ia?acii, yoa oai?ey iaei /ai ioee/aaony io i?aaeuaeoueo, ii aeaao
iauyniaiea i?aaee ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ia n/aoao
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa n oi/ee c?aiey th?eaee/aneeo iiiyoee «i?aaa» e
«iaycaiiinoe».

Oai?ey Eaioa e Aeeueai. Yaeai Iuea? Eaioa e Aaeieueo Aeeueai iieaaaee,
/oi eeoei, i?iaiaeyuaa oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee n o?aoueeie eeoeaie ca
naie n/ao, iaycaii aanoe o/ao anao naieo iia?aoeee aeey onoaiiaeaiey
aeeyiey iineaaeieo ia oi eiouanoai, eioi?ui iii aeaaeaao e
?anii?yaeaaony. Iaycaiiinoue aaaeaiey o/aoa auoaeaao ec oiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue oaeiai eeoea eiaao ia oieueei
th?eaee/aneia, ii e nioeeaeueiia cia/aiea. Eeoei, eioi?ia iaycaii aanoe
o/ao naiaai eiouanoaa e aai eciaiaiee, iacuaaee ia/aeueiui n/aoiaiaeii.
Ia/aeueiue n/aoiaiae yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii e eaieoaeenoii, e
nianoaaiieeii, e eiiia?naioii, e aaeieieno?aoi?ii. Oicyenoaaiiua
iia?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey o/eouaathony i?e iiiiue aeaoo i?ioeainoiyueo
ae?oa ae?oao n/aoia: ?yae n/aoia ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea e ?yae n/aoia
o?aoueeo eeoe (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoea 4.1 – A?oiiu n/aoia a oai?ee Eaioa e Aeeueai

N/ao ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaeaN/aoa o?aoueeo eeoe1. N/aoa eaieoaea

2. N/aoa aeey o/aoa iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, iaoa?eaeia, eiaaioa?y,
eannu, aaenaeae e iieo/aieth, oiaa?ia, oeaiiuo aoiaa e o.ae.

3. N/aoa ?acoeueoaoiua 1. Aeaaeoi?u ?aciua

2. E?aaeeoi?u ?aciua

3. Aaenaey e ieaoaaeo

Aeaa ?yaea n/aoia, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a oaae.4.1, ioaaouaatho ana aac
eneeth/aiey oicyenoaaiiua iai?iou i?aaei?eyoey. Yoe iai?iou iiaoo auoue
aeaiyeiai ?iaea: iai?iou aioo?aiiea e iai?iou aiaoiea. Aiaoieie
yaeythony oaeea iai?iou, i?e eioi?uo aicieeatho acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie eae aneaaenoaea iaiiauo aeoia, oae e aneaaenoaea
?acee/iiai ?iaea ia?a/eneaiee n iaeiiai n/aoa ia n/ao ae?oaiai eeoea.
Eaaeaeue aiaoiee iai?io cao?aaeaaao n/aoa ii e?aeiae ia?a aeaoo eeoe,
iaeii ec eioi?uo e?aaeeooao aeathuaai, aeaaaooy iaeiia?aiaiii naiiai
naay ca iieo/aiioth oeaiiinoue, a ae?oaia aeaaaooao iieo/aoaey,
iaeiia?aiaiii e?aaeeooy naay ca auaeaaaaioth oeaiiinoue.

Aioo?aiieie iai?ioaie n/eoathony ana oa iia?aoeee yeiiiie/aneiai eee
/enoi n/aoiiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua niaa?oathony eeoeaie, iai?eia?
ia/aeueiui n/aoiaiaeii, eeoue o naay iaiin?aaenoaaiii, e eioi?ua ia
cao?aaeaatho o?aoueeo eeoe.

Niaieoiiinoueth aeaaaoiauo naeueaei n/aoia aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
aeoeaiie ianna, eiathuaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea.
Naaaeaiey ia aeoeaiie ianna aeathony n/aoaie o/aoa oeaiiinoae e n/aoaie
aeaaeoi?ia (?aaeueiue aeoea), n/aoaie oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia a /anoe
oauoea (oeeoeaiue aeoea). Niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoiauo naeueaei aeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea i ianneaiie ianna e aeeth/aao a naay inoaoee ii n/aoai
e?aaeeoi?ia, ee/iiai eaieoaea ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea (?aaeueiue iannea),
n/aoia i?eaueae e n/aoia, ?aaoee?othueo aeaaaoiaia naeueaei a noi?iio
oiaiueoaiey, eae, iai?eia?, oi?aiaay iaoeaiea, aii?oecaoeeiiiue eaieoae
(oeeoeaiua ianneau). Ionthaea iiaeii onoaiiaeoue no?oeoo?o
aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina. ?acoeueoaoiua n/aoa iinyo ia?aoiaeiue oa?aeoa? e
aeieaeiu cae?uaaoueny n/aoii eaieoaea. Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou iino?iaiey
aeoeaa e ianneaa ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaenoaaeoue iaa ?yaea n/aoia a aeaea oaaeeoeu (oaae.4.2).

Oaaeeoea 4.2 – Niaea?aeaiea n/aoia

N/ao ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaeaN/aoa o?aoueeo eeoeIannea oeeoeaiue

Eaieoae, i?eaueue

Aeoea ?aaeueiue

Iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai, eiaaioa?ue, iaoa?eaeu, eanna, aaenaey e
iieo/aieth, oiaa?u, oeaiiua aoiaae e i?i/ea oeaiiinoe

Aeoea ?aaeueiue

OauoeeAeoea ?aaeueiue

Aeaaeoi?u ?aciua

Iannea ?aaeueiue

E?aaeeoi?u ?aciua e aaenaey e ieaoaaeo

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii onoaiiaeoue e oa?aeoa?enoeeo ii?iaeueiiai no?iaiee
aaeaina (oaae. 4.3).

Oaaeeoea 4.3 – Aaeain

AeoeaIannea1. Oeaiiinoe

2. Aeaaeoi?u

3. Oauoee1. Eaieoae

2. E?aaeeoi?u

3. I?eaueue

?acoeueoaoiua n/aoa caieiatho iniaia ianoi: iie yaeythony iaeiia?aiaiii
e n/aoaie aaeieieno?aoi?a, e n/aoaie nianoaaiieea. Yoi ii?aaeaeyaony eo
niaoeeoe/aneei oa?aeoa?ii eae n/aoia, o/eouaathueo ni/aoaiea o?oaea
aaeieieno?aoi?a (ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea) e eaieoaea, i?e/ai yoi
ni/aoaiea o?oaea e eaieoaea i?iyaeyaony a oao ?acieoeao, eioi?ua
ieacuaathony a eoiaa aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo iai?ioia oeaiiinoae.
Aeaaaoiaia naeueaei ii n/aoo i?eaueae e oauoeia iieacuaaao noiio
ec?anoiaeiaaiiiai eaieoaea a nayce n iayooaeoeaiie ?aaioie
oi?aaeythuaai, e?aaeeoiaia naeueaei ia aeaiiii n/aoa iieacuaaao i?e?ino
eaieoaea a ?acoeueoaoa a?aiioiiai oi?aaeaiey aaeieieno?aoi?a. Ionthaea
iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia yaeythony n/aoaie,
aniiiiaaoaeueiuie e n/aoo eaieoaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie iieiaeaieyie oai?ee Eaioa e Aeeueai yaeythony
neaaeothuea:

— ia?niieoeeaoeey anao aac eneeth/aiey n/aoia;

— aaaaeaiea iiiyoey ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea eae eeoea, iaycaiiiai aanoe
o/ao iia?aoeee, i?iaiaeeiuo ei ca naie n/ao n o?aoueeie eeoeaie;

— ?acaeaeaiea n/aoia ia n/aoa ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea e n/aoa o?aoueeo
eeoe;

— i?aaenoaaeaiea ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea a aeaea aeaoo noauaeoia
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe: aaeieieno?aoi?a (oi?aaeythuaai) e
eaieoaeenoa (nianoaaiieea);

— ?aceiaeaiea ?yaea n/aoia ia n/aoa aaeieieno?aoi?a (n/aoa oeaiiinoae),
n/aoa eaieoaeenoa (n/ao eaieoaea) e n/aoa ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea eae
aaeieieno?aoi?a e eae eaieoaeenoa (n/aoa oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia);

— oacen i caeeth/aiee n/aoia ?acoeueoaoiuo n/aoii eaieoaea.

Oai?ey ?oaeaiianeiai. Ii iiaieth Aeaenaiae?a Iaaeiae/a ?oaeaiianeiai
(1863—1934), caaea/a n/aoiaiaenoaa — yoi o/ao e en/eneaiea iauaia,
naienoa e ninoiyiey oicyenoaaiiuo iann i?aaei?eyoey, ecia?aiiuo
aeaiueaaie. Yoa niaieoiiinoue anaai en/eneeiiai ninoaaeyao aaeain
i?aaei?eyoey eae iauaeo o/aoa. Niioaaonoaaiii i?eioeeio aeaienoaaiiinoe,
ninoiyuaio a «naycaiiii i?ioeaiiieiaeaiee», aaeain ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa
iaeanoe: iaeanoue aioo?aiithth e iaeanoue aiaoithth. Yoe iaeanoe
naycuaathony eee aea ?aca?aie/eaathony ii?aaeaeaiiuie niioiioaieyie,
niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo ia?acoao o?aoueth iaeanoue: i?iiaaeooi/ioth eee
iia?aie/ioth. Oaeei ia?acii, any oicyenoaaiiay ianna aeaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey, ninoiyiea, iauai e naienoaa eioi?ie en/eneaiu a aeaiueaao,
?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo aeaoiy oeacaiiuie iaeanoyie — aioo?aiiae e
aiaoiae, i?e/ai ianna, eioi?ay ia?acoao aioo?aiithth iaeanoue,
iacuaaaony aeoeaiie, eee aeoeaii, a ianna, aoiaeyuay ai aiaoithth
iaeanoue,— ianneaiie eee ianneaii. Niaieoiiinoue ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
aeoeaiie e ianneaiie iannie ninoaaeyao athaeaeaoioth ianno, eee iai?io
aeaiiiai oicyenoaa.

Aeoea oicyenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiouanoai — niaieoiiinoue aauae
aeaiiiai oicyenoaa e aiiaua niaieoiiinoue /enoi yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee,
a iannea oeacuaaao ia i?ienoiaeaeaiea yoiai eiouanoaa eee
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aai e ioiioaiea e ioaeaeueiui eeoeai, o.a. iannea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue th?eaee/aneeo ioiioaiee — i?aa,
eiathueo yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea, eaeiaua yeiiiie/aneea i?aaa anoue nooue
eaieoaea.

Oeacaiiua o?e niaieoiiinoe — aeoea, iannea e athaeaeao — neaaatho aaeain
eee, eae auei neacaii, niaieoiiinoue anaai en/eneeiiai a oicyenoaa.
Oaeei ia?acii, aaeain ?aniaaeaaony ia o?e iniiaiuo n/aoa: n/ao aeoeaa,
n/ao ianneaa e n/ao athaeaeaoa. Iiae aeeyieai oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a
n/aoao aeoeaa, ianneaa e athaeaeaoa i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey a aeaoo
acaeiii eneeth/athueo iai?aaeaieyo — iieiaeeoaeueiii e io?eoeaoaeueiii.
Iiyoiio eaaeaeue n/ao iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa noi?iiu — eaaoth, eee
aeaaao, e i?aaoth, eee e?aaeeo, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?acaeaeueiiai
io?aaeaiey oaaee/aiee e oiaiueoaiee oicyenoaaiiuo iann. I?aaeea o/aoa
yoeo eciaiaiee ?oaeaiianeee au?aaeaao oi?ioeie «oio, n eiai i?e/eoaaony
/oi-ieaoaeue eee eoi iieo/ee /oi-ieaoaeue, aeaaaooaony, a oio, eiio
i?e/eoaaony eee eoi oieaoee /oi-ieaoaeue, e?aaeeooaony».

Eaaeaeue ec iniiaiuo n/aoia ?aceaaaaony ia ?yae yeaiaioa?iuo n/aoia:

— n/ao aeoeaa — ia ?yae iaoa?eaeueiuo n/aoia;

— n/ao ianneaa — ia ?yae ee/iuo n/aoia, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue
?aniaaeathony ia n/aoa aaaioia, n/aoa oiiaeia (n/aoa eaieoaeia
nianoaaiieea), n/aoa ei??aniiiaeaioia (n/aoa aeaaeoi?ia e n/aoa
e?aaeeoi?ia);

— n/ao athaeaeaoa — ia ?yae n/aoia aeioiaeia e n/aoia ?anoiaeia.

Aiaeece?oy i?e?iaeo n/aoia, ?oaeaiianeee i?eoiaeeo e caeeth/aieth, /oi
iaoa?eaeueiua n/aoa ia?acotho aaconeiaiue aeoea, oae eae anaaaea aeatho
aeaaaoiaia naeueaei. N/aoa aeaaeoi?ia oaeaea aeatho aeaaaoiaia naeueaei,
iiyoiio oiaea aeieaeiu io?aaeaoueny a aeoeaa aaeaina, iaeiaei aeaaeoi?ia
neaaeoao ioianoe e oneiaiiio aeoeao. N/aoa ?anoiaeia oiaea aeatho
aeaaaoiaia naeueaei, ?anoai?yynue a aeoeaa aaeaina, anee iai?io aeaiiiai
oicyenoaa ia iiiaio aai ninoaaeaiey ieacaeny iacaaa?oaiiui. N/aoa
?anoiaeia ioiinyony e oneiaiiio aeoeao.

Aiaeiae/iua ?annoaeaeaiey iiaeii i?eaanoe aeey ianneaa aaeaina, eioi?ue
ninoieo ec aaconeiaiiai ianneaa, ia?aciaaiiiai n/aoaie oiiaeia
(eaieoaea) e e?aaeeoi?ia, e oneiaiiai ianneaa, ninoiyuaai ec n/aoia
aeioiaeia (oaae. 4.4).

Oaaeeoea 4. 4 – Aaeain

AeoeaIanneaAeoea aaconeiaiue

N/aoa iaoa?eaeueiua

Aeoea oneiaiue

N/aoa aeaaeoi?ia

N/aoa ?anoiaeiaIannea aaconeiaiue

N/aoa eaieoaea

N/aoa e?aaeeoi?ia

Iannea oneiaiue

N/aoa aeioiaeia

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee ?oaeaiianeiai naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio:

— o/ao aaaeaony io eeoea oicyenoaa, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?iai i?eaiaeeo
ai acaeiiioiioaiea aai aeoeaioth e ianneaioth oicyenoaaiiua iannu;

— n/aoa aeoeaa ioaaouaatho n/aoa aauae oicyenoaa, a n/aoa ianneaa —
niaieoiiinoue i?aa oiai aea oicyenoaa;

— i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee aeoeaiie e ianneaiie iannu aicieeaao athaeaeao
oicyenoaa, ninoiyuee ec aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia e iicaieythuee a aeeiaieea
i?ineaaeeoue eciaiaiea eiouanoaaiiie iannu;

— i?aaeei ?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao «eoi iieo/ee — aeaaaooaony, eoi ioaeae
— e?aaeeooaony» iicaieyao ioianoe yoo oai?eth e th?eaee/aneiio
iai?aaeaieth.

Oai?ey *a?aiie. Aeaeocaiia *a?aiie (1827—1917) ecaanoai eae nicaeaoaeue
eiaeniia?aoee. A aa iniiaa eaaeeo iiiyoea i oicyenoaa eae i niaieoiiinoe
eioa?ania, ii?iaeaeaaiuo eaeie-eeai nianoaaiiinoueth. Yoe eioa?anu
naycuaatho ii?aaeaeaiiuie th?eaee/aneeie acaeiiioiioaieyie ?yae eeoe,
eiathueo oi eee eiia ioiioaiea e i?aaei?eyoeth. ?acee/atho /aou?a a?oiiu
oaeeo eeoe: nianoaaiieee, aaeieieno?aoi?u, aaaiou e ei??aniiiaeaiou.
Yoei eeoeai ioe?uaathony niioaaonoaothuea n/aoa, eioi?ua i?aaeiacia/aiu
aeey o/aoa i?aa e iaycaiiinoae aeaaeaeueoea oicyenoaa e ninoaaeytho
aeoea e iannea aaeaina. N/aoaie aaaioia iacuaatho oa n/aoa, ia eioi?uo
o/eouaatho eiie?aoiia eiouanoai (oiaa?u, aeaiueae, oeaiiua aoiaae e
o.ae.), eiathuaany aioo?e aeaiiiai oicyenoaa o niaoeeaeueii iacia/aiiuo
aeey yoiai eeoe — aaaioia. N/aoaie ei??aniiiaeaioia iacuaatho oa n/aoa,
eioi?ua ioe?uaathony aeey o/aoa oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee n eeoeaie,
noiyueie aia ?aiie aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey (aeaaeoi?u e e?aaeeoi?u). N/ao
aaeieieno?aoi?a yaeyaony iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo n/aoii nianoaaiieea e
n/aoaie aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia e oa?aeoa?ecoao eeoei, ianouaa
iaycaiiinoe ii oi?aaeaieth aeaeaie i?aaei?eyoey.

A ia/aea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, i?e ioe?uoee n/aoia, aaeieieno?aoi?
n/eoaaony e?aaeeoi?ii aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia ia anth noiio
oeaiiinoae, ia?aaeaiiuo ia o?aiaiea aaaioai, e i?aa o?aaiaaiey e
ei??aniiiaeaioai (aeaaeoi?ai). A oi aea a?aiy aaeieieno?aoi? — aeaaeoi?
nianoaaiieea e ei??aniiiaeaioia ia anth noiio naieo ia?aae ieie
iaycaoaeuenoa.

A eiioea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, i?e caeeth/aiee n/aoia, i?aaeiieaaaaony,
/oi aaeieieno?aoi?, ai-ia?auo, iieo/aao niioaaonoaothuea noiiu io
aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia (aeaaeoi?ia) a iieiia iiaaoaiea eo
caaeieaeaiiinoe aio, e, ai-aoi?uo, a naith i/a?aaeue eeeaeaee?oao naie
iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae nianoaaiieeii e ei??aniiiaeaioaie (e?aaeeoi?aie).

Oaeei ia?acii, eaaei onoaiiaeoue, /oi i?e ioe?uoee n/aoia n/aoii
aaeieieno?aoi?a aoaeao n/ao aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai, a i?e caeeth/aiee
n/aoia n/aoii aaeieieno?aoi?a aoaeao n/ao aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai. I?e
oaeouae ?aaeno?aoeee n/ao aaeieieno?aoi?a auiaaeaao, e inoathony eeoue
o?e n/aoa: n/ao nianoaaiieea, n/ao aaaioia e n/ao ei??aniiiaeaioia. I?e
iauaaeeiaiee n/aoa aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia a iaeei n/ao inoathony
eeoue aeaa n/aoa: n/ao nianoaaiieea e n/ao aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia.

Oaeia naaaeaiea /aou?ao a?oii n/aoia e aeaoi a?oiiai *a?aiie iioeae?oao
oai, /oi noauaeoaie th?eaee/aneeo ioiioaiee iiaoo auoue eeoue
nianoaaiieee, aaaiou e ei??aniiiaeaiou. Oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee,
inouanoaeyaiua yoeie eeoeaie, eaaeaeue ?ac nii?iaiaeaeathony
aicieeiiaaieai i?aa o iaeieo e aicieeiiaaieai iaycaoaeuenoa o ae?oaeo
o/anoieeia oicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Aaeieieno?aoi? ai anao
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeeyo iiaeao aunooiaoue eeoue i?aaenoaaeoaeai
nianoaaiieea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaenoaiaaoue io eiaie nianoaaiieea.
I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, aicieeathuea o aaeieieno?aoi?a i?e niaa?oaiee
eaeeo-eeai oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee, yaeythony, ii nooe, i?aaaie e
iaycaoaeuenoaaie nianoaaiieea, a ia aaeieieno?aoi?a, iiyoiio aai iaeuecy
n/eoaoue noauaeoii th?eaee/aneeo ioiioaiee. Eneeth/ea n/ao
aaeieieno?aoi?a ec ninoaaa iniiaiuo a?oii n/aoia, *a?aiie iauaaeeiyao
n/aoa aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia a aaeeiue n/ao, iineieueeo i?aao
nianoaaiieea iaeciaiii i?ioeainoieo iaycaoaeuenoai eeoea, aoiaeyuaai a
eaeoth-eeai ec aeaoo oeacaiiuo a?oii eeoe, a eaaeaeiio i?aao aaaioia eee
ei??aniiiaeaioia iai?aiaiii i?ioeainoieo iaycaoaeuenoai nianoaaiieea.
Eaaeaeue n/ao iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa noi?iiu:

1) aeaaaoiaoth, ia eioi?ie caienuaaaony ana oi, /oi nianoaaiiee, aaaio
eee ei??aniiiaeaio aeieaeai ioaeaoue (iaycaoaeuenoaa);

2) e?aaeeoiaoth, ia eioi?ie caienuaaaony ana oi, /oi nianoaaiiee, aaaio
eee ei??aniiiaeaio eiaao iieo/eoue (i?aaa).

Enoiaey ec yoiai oicyenoaaiiue aaeain iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea
oaaeeoeu (oaae. 4.5).

Oaaeeoea 4.5 – Oicyenoaaiiue aaeain

N/ao nianoaaiieeaN/ao aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioiaAeieaeai ioaeaoue

(Aeaaao)Aeieaeai iieo/eoue (E?aaeeo)Aeieaeai ioaeaoue

(Aeaaao)Aeieaeai iieo/eoue (E?aaeeo)1234

I?eaaaeaiiay noaia oicyenoaaiiiai aaeaina ninoieo ec /aou?ao a?ao,
eioi?ua a i?ioeanna n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee eae au iauaaeeiythony a aeaa
ia?u a?ao: iaeia ec yoeo ia? ia?acoaony ec ia?aie e /aoaa?oie a?ao, a
aoi?ay — ec aoi?ie e o?aoueae a?ao. A?aou eaaeaeie ia?u eiatho i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia cia/aiea: anee nianoaaiiee aeieaeai /oi-eeai ioaeaoue
(a?aoa 1), oi eoi-eeai ec aaaioia aeieaeai /oi-eeai iieo/eoue (a?aoa 4),
a anee nianoaaiiee aeieaeai /oi-eeai iieo/eoue (a?aoa 2), oi eoi-eeai ec
aaaioia eee ei??aniiiaeaioia aeieaeai /oi-eeai ioaeaoue (a?aoa 3). I?e
oaeie nenoaia caiene ioeaee a ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee
iaia?oaeeaathony aaoiiaoe/anee.

Oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee ieacuaatho ?aciia aeeyiea ia aaee/eio
nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea. Iia?aoeee, eioi?ua aucuaatho i?inoia i?aa?auaiea
iaeiiai eiouanoaa a ae?oaia eee ia?a/eneaiea n iaeiiai n/aoa ia ae?oaie,
eae, iai?eia?, iieo/aiea e oieaoa aeieaia, i?iaeaaea e iieoiea
eiouanoaa, e ia io?aaeathony ia iauae aaee/eia eaieoaea, aeiaeaiiiai
nianoaaiieeii a aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea, iacuaathony ia?aiauathueie
iia?aoeeyie — ia?iooaoeeyie. Ae?oaea iia?aoeee, eioi?ua io?aaeathony ia
iauae aaee/eia eaieoaea, oaaee/eaay eee oiaiueoay aai ?acia?u,
iacuaathony iiaeeoeeaoeee. I?eia?u oaeeo iia?aoeee i?eaaaeaiu a oaae.
4.6.

Oaaeeoea 4.6 – Oicyenoaaiiue aaeain

? iiIia?aoeeyN/ao nianoaaiieeaN/ao aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioiaAeae
iia?aoeeeAeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeo1Eoieai oiaa? e iiea/ai iaee/iuie*400

400

400400Ia?iooaoeee2Ia/eneaiu i?ioeaiou ii
e?aaeeoo**200200Iiaeeoeeaoeey3I?iaeai oiaa? noieiinoueth 300 ?oa. ca 350
?oa 300

350300

350Ia?iooaoeey e iiaeeoeeaoeee

*Aaaio, i?eiyaoee oiaa?, aa?ao ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai ia?aae
nianoaaiieeii; auaea/a eanne?ii aeaiaa ca n/ao nianoaaiieea oiaiueoaao
iaycaoaeuenoai eanne?a ia?aae nianoaaiieeii.

**Aicieeee iaycaoaeuenoaa ei??aniiiaeaioa ii ioiioaieth e nianoaaiieeo,
i?e yoii ia onoaiaaeeaathony ieeaeea iaycaoaeuenoaa nianoaaiieea ii
ioiioaieth e eaeiio-eeai aaaioo eee ei??aniiiaeaioo.

***Iaycaiiinoe ei??aniiiaeaioa ia?aae nianoaaiieeii ia i?iaeaaeioth
noieiinoue iiaaoathony iaycaoaeuenoaii aaaioa-o?aieoaey oiaa?ia ia?aae
nianoaaiieeii ca i?iaeaiiue oiaa? ii oaeoe/aneie noieiinoe oiaa?a.

Eco/ay iniaaiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo iia?aoeee ii oicyenoaaiiiio aaeaino,
*a?aiie i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi ia?iooaoeee aucuaatho eceeoithth
n/aoioth ?aaioo, oae neacaoue, oaeaaeaatho aa. A oeaeyo nie?auaiey yoie
?aaiou eiaeniia?aoeae aaiaeeony ca/ao iaycaoaeuenoa, iineieueeo
aicieeathuea aeey nianoaaiieea i?aaa e iaycaoaeuenoaa au?aaeathony a
iaeeiaeiaie noiia. Anee au ia?iooaoeee ia ioia/aeenue ia n/aoao
nianoaaiieea, aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia, oi eiia/iue ?acoeueoao
(naeueaei) ii yoei n/aoai eiae au oi/ii oaeia aea cia/aiea, eae e a
neo/aa, anee au niioaaonoaothuea caiene eiaee ianoi.

Enoiaey ec yoiai eiaeniia?aoey i?aaeeaaaao aianoi iaeiia?aiaiiie caiene
ia?iooaoeee a aeaaao e e?aaeeo i?iaiaeeoue ca/ao,

oeacuaay noiio ca/aoa e oio n/ao, e eioi?iio yoio ca/ao ioiineony. A
yoeo oeaeyo a noaio oicyenoaaiiiai aaeaina aaiaeeony niaoeeaeueiay a?aoa
«Ca/aou e ia?aiauaiey», a eioi?ie ioia/athony noiia ca/aoa e
niioaaonoaothuee n/ao (oaae. 4.7).

Ec eiaeniia?aoe/aneiai aeo?iaea iiaeii onoaiiaeoue iauaa ninoiyiea
eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey e a oi aea a?aiy ii?aaeaeeoue ninoiyiea
ioaeaeueiuo /anoae eiouanoaa. Yoa i?iaeaia ?aoaaony iooai aeiiieiaiey
eiaeniia?aoe/aneiai aeo?iaea nenoaiie aiaeeoe/aneeo caienae a eieaa
?aceiaeaiee. A iniiaa eieae aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa eaaeeo ?aceiaeaiea
eieeaeoeaiuo n/aoia nianoaaiieea, aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia.
?aceiaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo a ii?aaeaeaiiii ii?yaeea: nia/aea
onoaiaaeeaaaony ianeieueei a?oii n/aoia, iaeaaeathueo iaiaa iaueie
i?eciaeaie, /ai iniiaiua n/aoa oicyenoaaiiiai aaeaina; oaeea n/aoa
aoaeoo i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie ia?aue ii?yaeie, eee ia?aoth nooiaiue,
?aceiaeaiey iniiaiiai n/aoa. Eaaeaeue n/ao ia?aiai ii?yaeea ?aceiaeaiey
?aniaaeaaony ia ?yae n/aoia aoi?iai ii?yaeea ?aceiaeaiey e o.ae. (oaae.
4.8).

Anee i?e o/aoa oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee iieueciaaoueny ?aceiaeaieyie
n/aoia nianoaaiieea e n/aoia aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia, oi iieo/ei
/aoaa?ioth oi?io eiaeniia?aoee; anee iieueciaaoueny oieueei
?aceiaeaieyie n/aoia nianoaaiieea, oi iieo/ei o?ieioth oi?io
eiaeniia?aoee.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey *a?aiie aeaao ia oieueei oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea
i?aaee ?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao, ii e i?aaeeaaaao /aoeea aa?eaiou eo
i?aeoe/aneiai inouanoaeaiey.

Oaaeeoea 4.7. – Eiaeniia?aoe/aneee aeo?iae

? iiAeaoaIia?aoeey*enei noaoae e eo eoiaOicyenoaaiiue aaeainCa/aou e
ia?aiauaiey/eneieoiaN/aoa nianoaaiieea (A)N/aoa aaaioia e
ei??aniii-aeaioia (A)noiiaIaeia-iiaaiea
n/aoaAeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeo1.10.

1927a.1Eoieai oiaa? ca iaee/iua2800—-800AA2Ia/eneaiu
i?ioeaiou1200-200200—3I?iaeai oiaa? noieiinoueth 300 ?oa. ca 350
?oa.2650-5050-600AA

Oaaeeoea 4.8. – I?eia? ?aceiaeaiey n/aoia

Oicyenoaaiiue aaeainA «Nianoaaiiee»A «Aaaiou e ei??aniiiaeaiou»A1

«Eanna»A2 «Oiaa?u»A3 «Aeaeaee-iia eioua-noai»A4 «Aeaae-oi?u»A5
«E?aaee-oi?u»A2a «Noeii»A2b «Aa?oao»Ni?o1Ni?o 2

4.3 – Yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

A yeiiiie/aneeo oai?eyo aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aooaaeoa?neee o/ao
?anniao?eaaaony eae /anoue iieeoyeiiiiee. ?anoeaao yeiiiie/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey a oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?eoiaeeony ia eiiaoe XIX —
ia/aei XX a. Oeaeueth n/aoiaaaeaiey noaiiaeony auyaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia. Iiae yooaeoeaiinoueth iiieiatho niioiioaiea
auaiaeu e cao?ao, o.a. ?acoeueoao io oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a
aeaea i?eauee eee oauoea. Iniiaiia i?aaeei ?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao
aace?oaony ia iiiyoeyo i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea: oi, /oi i?eoei, caienuaaaony
ia aeaaao, oi, /oi ooei — ia e?aaeeo n/aoa. Caeii aeaienoaaiiinoe
iniiaai ia iiiyoee iaiu (iaiaia oeaiiinoyie).

Yoi i?eaaei e eeanneoeeaoeee oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa aac nayce ni
noiyueie ca ieie eeoeaie. A ioee/ea io i?aaenoaaeoaeae th?eaee/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey noi?iiieee yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee n/eoaee, /oi i?eaueue iiaeao
auoue iieo/aia oieueei iinea iieaou oeaiiinoae (niaeanii th?eaee/aneie:
oeiea i?aai ia iieo/aiea i?eauee aicieeaei iinea ia?aaea/e oeaiiinoae,
o.a. ioa?ocee). Eniieueciaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai eino?oiaioa?ey iicaieeei
auaanoe aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ia iae?io?iaaiue (o?iaaiue ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa no?aiu), ii a oi aea a?aiy ioi?aaoue aai io iianaaeiaaiuo
i?iaeai aooaaeoa?a.

E?eoeee yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee (a iniiaiii i?aaenoaaeoaee aaeainiaiai
iai?aaeaiey) ioia/aee aa nouanoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee. Iai?eia?, ia ana
iia?aoeee iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e iaia (iioa?y oiaa?ia i?e iiaea?a eee
oiaiueoaiea (oaaee/aiea) noieiinoe oiaa?ia a ?acoeueoaoa iaoeaiee eeai
ooeaiee). Iiyoiio iauyniaiea aeaieiie caiene n oi/ee c?aiey caeiia iaiu
ia yaeyaony aacoi?a/iui. Iaeiaei aeey naiaai a?aiaie yeiiiie/aneea
oai?ee auee aieaa niaa?oaiiuie, /ai th?eaee/aneea, e a iniiaiii ia
i?ioeai?a/eee ei. Aaaeue a iniiaa a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
eaaeao iaiiaua aeou, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ana oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
iiaoo auoue iauyniaiu eo aeiaiai?iie i?e?iaeie, auoaeathuae ec iaiaia
oeaiiinoyie.

Auaeathueieny i?aaenoaaeoaeyie yoie oeieu auee A.A. Neaa?n, E. Aiiaa?a,
I.A. Aeaoia, *. Aa??enii, O. ?ae e ae?. Iaeaieaa y?eea oai?aoe/aneea
iino?iaiey ?anniio?aiu ieaea.

Oai?ey Neaa?na. N iainiiaaieai iaiiaie oai?ee Aanoaoee Aaa?aoueaae/
Neaa?a aunooiee a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa 6 oaa?aey 1892 a. a aeieeaaea
«N/aoiaaaeaiea e n/aoiaiaenoai. Iiuo iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey». ?aoathuaa
cia/aiea o?e iino?iaiee oai?ee Neaa?na eiaao» eeanneoeeaoeey oeaiiinoae.
E ia?aie eaoaai?ee Neaa?a ioiineo aeaenoaeoaeueiua, eee aaniethoiua,
oeaiiinoe, o.a. oeaiiinoe, eioi?uie oicyenoai a neeo i?ioeuo niauoee
iaeaaeaao. Aeaenoaeoaeueiua oeaiiinoe iauaaeeiaiu a aeaa a?oiiu:

1) aauanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe, e eioi?ui i?e/eneythony ana iaoa?eaeueiua
oeaiiinoe (i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey) e aeaiueae;

2) iaaauanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe — onaiaiiua /aeiaaeii oiaiey /oi-eeai
aeaeaoue, a oaeaea i?eia?aoaiiua ciaiey.

Ei aoi?ie a?oiia oeaiiinoae ioiinyony oeaiiinoe oneiaiua, eee
ioiineoaeueiua. Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea oeaiiinoyie neaaeoao n/eoaoue oaeea,
iaeaaeaiea eioi?uie aeaao i?aai o?aaiaaiey eee i?aai ia?aaea/e
oeaiiinoae io ae?oaiai oicyenoaa, eee auiieiaiey ?aaio (ieacaiey oneoa).
Iaauaiey ieaoaaea iiaoo auoue iieiaeeoaeueiuie (/oaeea iaycaoaeuenoaa,
eioi?ua iaaeaeytho oicyenoai i?aaii o?aaiaaiey e ae?oaei oicyenoaai) eee
io?eoeaoaeueiuie (nianoaaiiua iaycaoaeuenoaa oicyenoaa).

Iauay noiia oeaiiinoae, iaoiaeyueony a oicyenoaa, ia?acoao aai eaieoae,
eioi?ue iiaeao auoue aeaiyeiai ?iaea: i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei, o.a.
i?eiaaeeaaeauei oicyeio, e nnoaeiui, o.a. i?eiaaeeaaeauei ae?oaei
eeoeai. Niiinoaaeyy aeaeu eaieoaea n onoaiiaeaiiie eeanneoeeaoeeae
oeaiiinoae, Neaa?a iainiiauaaao no?oeoo?o aaeaina (oaae. 9).

Oaaeeoea 4. 9 – No?oeoo?a aaeaina Neaa?na

1. Aauanoaaiiua Oeaiiinoe (I?aaeiaou Iio?aaeaiey E Aeaiueae)
C

2. I?aaa (*oaeea Iaauaiey Ieaoaaea)…..D

Eoiai X3.
I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae (nianoaaiiue)….K

4. Nnoaeiue eaieoae (nianoaaiiua iaauaiey ieaoaaea)
S

Eoiai
X

Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiie oaaeeoeu iiaeii iino?ieoue aaeainiaia o?aaiaiea

N + D = E + S.

Any oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ninoieo ec oao eee eiuo
iia?aoeee n oeaiiinoyie, eioi?ua iacuaathony oicyenoaaiiuie iai?ioaie.
Ana iai?iou Neaa?a ?acaeaeyao ia ainaiue a?oii:

1) iaoo?aeueiue iaiai, o.a. iaiai iaeiiai i?aaeiaoa iio?aaeaiey ia
ae?oaie;

2) iieoiea, o.a. iaiai aeaiaa ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey;

3) i?iaeaaea, o.a. iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey ia aeaiueae;

4) e?aaeeoiua naeaeee, o.a.:

— iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey eee aeaiaa ia iaauaiea ieaoaaea, iaiai
iaauaiee ieaoaaea ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaieyeee aeaiueae,

— iaiai iaeiiai iaauaiey ieaoaaea ia ae?oaia;

5) aeaiiceoiua naeaeee, o.a.:

— iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey eee aeaiaa ia iaauaiea iinoaaee,

— iaiai iaauaiey iinoaaee ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey eee aeaiueae;

6) eiienneiiiua naeaeee:

— aei i?iaeaaee eiienneiiiie oeaiiinoe,

— iinea i?iaeaaee eiienneiiiie oeaiiinoe;

7) ia?aiauaiea oeaiiinoae, o.a. iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey eee aeaiaa
a iaeiii ianoa ia oa aea oeaiiinoe a ae?oaii ianoa;

8) aeaeieciaiaiea oeaiiinoae, o.a. iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey a iaeiii
eo aeaea ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey a i?aia?aciaaiiii aeaea (a oii /enea
iieaoa o?oaea).

Eoae, a iniiaa oicyenoaaiiuo iai?ioia eaaeeo iaiiaie aeo. Iineieueeo aeo
iaiaia ninoieo ec aeaoo aeaenoaee — iieo/aiey e ioaea/e, eaaeaeia
oicyenoai ?ani?aaeaeyao niaa?oaaiua ei iai?iou ii iauaeoai (aeaeai
oeaiiinoae) e ii noauaeoai (eeoeai, o/anoaothuei a aeoa iaiu) ia
ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu iai?ioia. Eeanneoeoee?iaaiiua oaeei ia?acii
oicyenoaaiiua iai?iou caienuaathony a niaoeeaeueiuo oaaeeoeao, eioi?ua
iacuaathony n/aoaie. Eaaeaeue n/ao ?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa /anoe: ia eaaie
?aaeno?e?othony iieo/aiiua oeaiiinoe (i?eoiae), ia i?aaie — ioaeaaaaiua
oeaiiinoe (?anoiae). Caeii aeaieiie caiene oicyenoaaiiuo iai?ioia
auoaeaao ec i?eioeeia aeaienoaaiiinoe oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee. Anee
i?eoiae oeaiiinoae ia iaeiii n/aoa i?aauoaao ?anoiae, iieo/aai
aeaaaoiaia naeueaei ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, anee iaiai?io —
e?aaeeoiaia. Niaieoiiinoue aeaaaoiauo naeueaei aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i
oeaiiinoyo, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aeaiiiio oicyenoao, niaieoiiinoue
e?aaeeoiauo naeueaei ioia?aaeaao aaee/eio i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai e
nnoaeiiai eaieoaeia, aeiaeaiiuo a aeaei.

Iaiiaay oai?ey Neaa?na a naia a?aiy aucaaea iaeeaeaiioth iieaieeo e
ai?y/ea aeeneonnee. Iniiaiuie aeiaiaeaie e?eoeeia oai?ee Neaa?na auea
o?oaeiinoue iauyniaiey aooaaeoa?neie i?e?iaeu oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa,
iia?aoeee iaaeinoa/ e iioa?ue io noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e o.i. Oai ia iaiaa
yoi auea iaeia ec naiuo niaa?oaiiuo n/aoiuo oai?ee.

Oai?ey Aiiaa?aa. A 1897 a. Eaa Aiiaa?a i?aaeeiaeee oai?eth, eioi?ay
iieo/eea iacaaiea oeeinioneie1. Ii oeacae, /oi a oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey iaiaoiaeeii aanueia no?iai ?acee/aoue
oicyenoaaiiua aeaenoaey e oicyenoaaiiua yaeaiey. Iiae oicyenoaaiiuie
aeaenoaeyie E. Aiiaa?a iiieiae, iai?eia?, iieo/aiea eee auaea/o oiaa?a,
auaea/o ca?aaioiie ieaou; i?iecioaaeoea aea eciaiaiey oiaa?iie iannu a
?acoeueoaoa ioia/aiiuo aeaenoaee, a oaeaea oaaee/aiea oiaa?iie iannu a
?acoeueoaoa ia/eneaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou Aiiaa?a n/eoae anoanoaaiiuie
yaeaieyie. Yoe anoanoaaiiua yaeaiey aucaaiu aeaenoaeyie oicyenoaothuaai
noauaeoa, iie yaeythony neaaenoaeyie oaeeo aeaenoaee, ii eciaieoue
aeaiiua neaaenoaey a ?acoeueoaoa ae?oaeo aeaenoaee oicyenoaothuee
noauaeo ia iiaeao. Eoae, aeaenoaea (iai?eia?, iieo/aiea oiaa?a) —
i?e/eia, a yaeaiea (oaaee/aiea oiaa?iie iannu) — neaaenoaea.
Enneaaeiaaiea iiaeiaiuo yaeaiee au?aaeaaony eae a ii?aaeaeaiiie eo
ioeaiea, oae e a n?aaiaiee ?yaea yaeaiee ae?oa n ae?oaii. Aaeeiui
ecia?eoaeai anao aac eneeth/aiey yaeaiee neoaeeo aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea.
Ionthaea iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi oicyenoaaiiua yaeaiey iiaeii
eco/aoue, iacaaeneii io i?e?iaeu oao eee eiuo oeaiiinoae, cao?aaeaaaiuo
yoeie yaeaieyie. Oaeay aiciiaeiinoue ioe?uaaaony n/aoiaaaeaieth
aeaaiaea?y aaeeiiia?aciiio ioeaii/iiio iniiaaieth yaeaiee, eioi?ua
i?eia?aoatho oa?aeoa? iaoaiaoe/aneeo aaee/ei.

Eaaeaeie iaeii?iaeiie a?oiia yaeaiee niioaaonoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiue n/ao,
eioi?ue ?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa noi?iiu — aeaaaoiaoth e e?aaeeoiaoth. Ia
eaaie (aeaaaoiaie) noi?iia ?aaeno?e?oaony oicyenoaaiiia yaeaiea, eioi?ia
?anniao?eaaaony eae neaaenoaea; ia i?aaie (e?aaeeoiaie) — oicyenoaaiiia
aeaenoaea, eioi?ia i?eciaaony i?e/eiie. Cia/eo, eaaeaeia yaeaiea
aeieaeii auoue caienaii aeaaaeaeu: a aeaaao iaeiiai n/aoa e e?aaeeo
ae?oaiai n/aoa. Oae E. Aiiaa?a iauyniye i?eioeei aeaienoaaiiinoe,
eioi?ue auoaeaao ec i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae e oa?aeoa?ecoao iaoiae
aeaieiie caiene. Aaeain ?anniao?eaaaony eae oaaeeoea, a aeoeaa eioi?ie
ia?a/eneythony neaaenoaey i?e/ei, oeacaiiuo a ianneaa.

Oai?ey Aeaoiaa. Ieeieae Aeaenaiae?iae/ Aeaoia (1875-1942) — ?onneee e
niaaoneee aooaaeoa?, noi?iiiee iauaeoeaiie o?aeoiaee aeaieiie caiene ia
iniiaa caeiia iaiu. Ii neiino?oe?iaae iiaeaeue anao aiciiaeiuo aeaeia
iaiaia a oicyenoaa, io?aaeaaiuo aeaieiie caienueth,— «eaaae?ao
i?ioanni?a Aeaoiaa» (?en. 4.2). Oae, iaiiaay oai?ey auaeaeyao o?e a?oiiu
oeaiiinoae: aauanoaaiiua (A), aeaiaaeiua (Ae) e oneiaiua, o.a.
iaycaoaeuenoaa e iieaoa (O).
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?en. 2. Eaaae?ao i?ioanni?a IA. Aeaoiaa

Iiaeaeue i?aaeii?aaeaeyao e eeanneoeeaoeeth n/aoia, e ei??aniiiaeaioeeth
iaaeaeo ieie. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi aooaaeoa?neee aaeain anoue
neaaenoaea aeaieiie caiene.

Eaaae?ao i?ioanni?a Aeaoiaa eeethno?e?oao ana iioiee oeaiiinoae:

1 — iaiai aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae ia aeaiueae (iai?eia?, i?iaeaaea
oiaa?ia ca iaee/iue ?an/ao);

2 — iaiai aeaiaa ia aauanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe (iai?eia?, iieoiea oiaa?ia ca
iaee/iua aeaiueae);

3 — iaiai aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae ia oneiaiua oeaiiinoe, o.a. ia
iaauaiea ieaoaaea (iai?eia?, i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe) ;

4 — iaiai oneiaiuo oeaiiinoae ia aauanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe (iai?eia?,
iieoiea oiaa?ia n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea, eioi?ay i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth
e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe);

5 — iaiai aeaiaa ia oneiaiua oeaiiinoe (iai?eia?, auaea/a aeaiaa iiae
io/ao);

6 — iaiai oneiaiuo oeaiiinoae ia aeaiueae (iai?eia?, iieaoa n/aoia
iieoiaoaeyie);

7 — iaiai iaeieo aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae ia ae?oaea aauanoaaiiua
oeaiiinoe (iai?eia?, ?acai?ea caeaiey ia ae?iaa);

8 — iaiai iaeieo oneiaiuo oeaiiinoae ia ae?oaea oneiaiua oeaiiinoe
(iai?eia?, ia?aaiae aeieaa e ca/ao acaeiiuo o?aaiaaiee).

E?eoeee ioia/aee iaaeinoaoie iiaeaee IA. Aeaoiaa — eaii?e?iaaiea
iia?aoeeiiiuo, ?acoeueoaoiuo, niae?aoaeueii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo e
?aaoee?othueo n/aoia, /oi oiaiueoaao aa iiciaaaoaeueioth oeaiiinoue.

Aaeainiaoth oai?eth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ?ac?aaaouaaee a iniiaiii
i?aaenoaaeoaee aa?iaiiycu/iuo no?ai Aa?iiu, a oaeaea ?inneeneeo aaoi?ia.

?anoeaao aaeainiaie oai?ee i?eoiaeeony ia ia?aoth iieiaeio XX a. Anee
th?eaee/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay oeieu iauyniyee aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ia
iniiaa th?eni?oaeaioeee e iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee niioaaonoaaiii, oi
i?aaenoaaeoaee aaeainiaie oai?ee enoiaeeee ec naiie aooaaeoa?ee.
Nouiinoue aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iie aeaeaee a oao aeieoiaioao e
?aaeno?ao, eioi?ua iinooiatho aooaaeoa?o. O/aoiay i?ioeaaeo?a — yoi
oeaeue, iaoiae e i?aaeiao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iao/iay noi?iia
aooaaeoa?ee naiaeeony e iaeneiaeueii oi/iie oi?iaeecaoeee o/aoiie
i?ioeaaeo?u, /oi i?aa?auaao aa a naiaia?aciue iaoaiaoe/aneee ycue
oicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Aieueoea caneoae aaeainiaay oeiea eiaao a
/anoe ?acaeoey au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, a nicaeaiee ea?oi/iuo oi?i
n/aoiaiaenoaa, ono?aiaiee ec o/aoa o?iiieiae/aneie caiene (aeo?iaea),
?ani?ino?aiaiee iaoaiaoe/aneeo e noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia,

oieoeeaoeee ieaia n/aoia.

A iaiaoeeie oeiea /aoei ?aca?aie/aiu aeaa oeeeea o/aoa:

1) oi?aiaay aooaaeoa?ey — o/ao aiaoieo ioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoey, auyaeaiea
ninoaaa n?aaenoa e ii?aaeaeaiea oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa (oi/iua oeeo?u);

2) i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aooaaeoa?ey — i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iia?aoeee aioo?e
i?aaei?eyoey (i?eaeeceoaeueiua oeeo?u).

Yoe iai?aaeaiey acaeiii aeiiieiyee e ?acaeaaee ae?oa ae?oaa a ioee/ea io
oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa a aia?eeaineie i?aeoeea, eioi?ua
iacaaeneiu ae?oa io ae?oaa. Oi?aiaay aooaaeoa?ey iaoea oai?aoe/aneia
iainiiaaiea a aaeainiaaaeaiee, a i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aooaaeoa?ey — a
eaeueeoeyoeee.

I?aaenoaaeoaee aaeainiaie oai?ee oaeaeyee ia?iiiia aieiaiea eco/aieth
aaeaina e oi?iuaieth aai no?oeoo?u. Iie n/eoaee, /oi aaeain aeieaeai
auoue iiiyoai ethaiio a?aiioiiio /aeiaaeo, /oiau ii iia i?eiyoue aa?iia
?aoaiea. Aeaeaaynue io iauaai e /anoiiio, iie n/eoaee, /oi n/aoa
eiae/anee auoiaeyo ec aaeaina (niioaaonoaotho aai noaoueyi), a ia
iaiai?io. N/aoa iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oi/iiai e iieiiai auyaeaiey eciaiaiee a
ioaeaeueiuo noaoueyo aaeaina. N/aoa a iaeaieaa iauai aeaea nio?aiytho
no?oeoo?o aaeaina, o.a. aeaeyony ia aeaa /anoe, e eiatho i?aaie/aneoth
naycue n aaeainii. Ana oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a
aeaea noai, iicaieythueo onoaiiaeoue eo aeeyiea ia noaouee aaeaina,
i?eieiay ciae « + » aeey iaicia/aiey oaaee/aiee e ciae « — » aeey
iaicia/aiey oiaiueoaiee (?en. 4.3).

Aaeain 1Aaeain 2Aaeain 3Aaeain 4+

_++__+

_?en. 4.3. – Noaiu oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee

Ionthaea auaiaeeony caeii aeaienoaaiiinoe: eaaeaeay iia?aoeey
aeaienoaaiia ii naiae i?e?iaea, iineieueeo eiaao naiei ?acoeueoaoii
aeaieiia eciaiaiea a aaeaina, i?e/ai oaeia, /oi iniiaiie i?eciae aaeaina
— ?aaainoai eoiaia aai aeoeaa e ianneaa — inoaaony iaeciaiiui. I?aaeei
?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao aoaeao auoaeaoue ec ?aaainoaa aaeaina. Eae e a
aaeaina, ia eaaie noi?iia n/aoa (a aeaaaoa) io?aaeaaony oaaee/aiea
aeoeaiuo e oiaiueoaiea ianneaiuo noaoae aaeaina, ia i?aaie noi?iia n/aoa
(a e?aaeeoa) io?aaeaaony oaaee/aiea ianneaiuo e oiaiueoaiea aeoeaiuo
noaoae.

Iaeiaei e?eoeee auyaeyee oycaeiua ianoa e a aaeainiauo oai?eyo. I?aaeaea
anaai iie ioia/aee niiieoaeueiinoue a i?aaeeueiinoe ioiaeaeanoaeaiey
ianneaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa n io?eoeaoaeueiui eiouanoaii (I. Aa?eeia?, E.
Ioe, E.O. Oa?, O.A. Aca?neee e ae?.). I/aaeaeii, /oi oaeia iiieiaiea
i?e?iaeu ianneaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa auei aucaaii no?aieaieai
iauaaeeieoue aeoeaiua e ianneaiua n/aoa a aaeeiue ?yae n/aoia
eiouanoaaiiuo, /oi e i?eaiaeeei e ?aaiicia/iinoe:

— oaaee/aiey aeoeaiie e oiaiueoaiey ianneaiie /anoae eiouanoaa;

— oiaiueoaiey aeoeaiie e oaaee/aiey ianneaiie /anoae eiouanoaa.

Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ia?aua ec oeacaiiuo eciaiaiee iiaeeaaeaee ?aaeno?aoeee
ia aeaaaoiaie noi?iia n/aoa, a aoi?ua — ia e?aaeeoiaie. Oaeei ia?acii,
/oiau iieo/eoue ea/anoaaiii iaeeiaeiaua ?acoeueoaou, aianoi oaaee/aiey
aeoeaa aeinoaoi/ii oiaiueoeoue iannea, e iaiai?io. Iiaeiaiia o?aaieaaiea
niaa?oaiii ?aciuo ii niaea?aeaieth eciaiaiee, oioy e i?eaiaeyueo e
iaeeiaeiaiio a?eoiaoe/aneiio ?acoeueoaoo, ianiiiaiii, iiae?uaaao
aaoi?eoao iaeioi?uo aaeainiauo oai?ee. Aua aieaa niiieoaeueiui yaeyaony
ioianaiea n/aoa eaieoaea e noaoe/aneei n/aoai. Aeaaiaea?y iauaaeeiaieth
n/aoa eaieoaea n aeoeaiuie e ianneaiuie n/aoaie nicaeaaony neooaoeey,
i?e eioi?ie n/ao eaieoaea ieacuaaaony ?an/eaiaiiui ia aeaa a?oiiu
n/aoia: n/ao ia?aiia/aeueiiai eaieoaea, ioiinyueeny e ?yaeo n/aoia
noaoe/aneeo e i?eia?aoathuee oai naiui io?eoeaoaeueiia n/aoiia cia/aiea,
e n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia, nio?aiythuee iieiaeeoaeueiia cia/aiea, /oi
aano?aeii n oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey iiiyoey «eaieoae».

Ii iiaieth E. Aiiaa?aa, o?aaiaiey, eioi?ua iieiaeaiu a iniiao aaeainiaie
oai?ee, iino?iaiu ia aoi?inoaiaiiuo iiiaioao i?iecaieueiuo niiinoaaeaiee
?acee/iuo a?oii n/aoia, eioi?ua aneaaenoaea eo «acaeiiinoe» aeieaeiu
acaeiii aeiiieiyoue ae?oa ae?oaa, oae eae yaeythony ninoaaiuie /anoyie
iaeiie noiiu. Eiaiii iiyoiio Aiiaa?a ioia/aao, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea
n/aoiaaaeaiey eae io?anee iaoaiaoeee iai?aaeeueii, oae eae iii eiaao
aeaei ia n iaoaiaoe/aneeie, aano?aeoiuie ioiioaieyie, a n
yeiiiie/aneeie, eiie?aoiuie, oaeoe/anee nouanoaothueie yaeaieyie,
auoaeathueie ec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; /enea a n/aoiaaaeaiee
yaeythony eeoue oi?iie au?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo oeaiiinoae.

Iaeaieaa y?eea oai?ee aaeainiaie oeieu i?aaenoaaeaiu neaaeothueie
o/aiuie:

Oai?ey E?aeieoa. Ii iunee A. E?aeieoa (?aaioa iioaeeeiaaia a 1896 a.),
eaaeaeia oicyenoai — yoi naiinoiyoaeueiia oeaeia, eioi?ia iiaeao eiaoue
iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe, i?aaa o?aaiaaiey e aeieae. Noaouey aaeaina
«Eaieoae» i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio caaeieaeaiiinoe nianoaaiieeo
i?aaei?eyoey. Ionthaea aaeain — yoi niioiioaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae
e i?aa o?aaiaaiey (aeoea) e aeieae i?aaei?eyoey (iannea). Oicyenoaaiiua
iia?aoeee aicaeaenoaotho ia ioaeaeueiua /anoe aeoeaa e ianneaa
aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina, eioi?ua ii ioiioaieth e oicyenoao iiaoo
aicieeaoue, ninoiyoue eee en/acaoue. ?aaeno?aoeee iiaeeaaeao oieueei
ioiioaiey aicieeiiaaiey e en/aciiaaiey ioaeaeueiuo /anoae aeoeaa e
ianneaa, oae eae ninoiyiea ia ioaeaeaaony a aeiiieieoaeueiie
?aaeno?aoeee (anee oeaiiinoe eee aeiea aicieeee e ia en/acee, oi iie,
ianiiiaiii, aua iaoiaeyony ia aaeaina). Iiyoiio eaaeaeue n/ao
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa /anoe, iaeia ec eioi?uo neoaeeo aeey
?aaeno?aoeee aicieeiiaaiee, a ae?oaay — aeey ?aaeno?aoeee en/aciiaaiee.
Iineieueeo oaeou aicieeiiaaiey e en/aciiaaiey yaeythony i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie ae?oa ae?oao, eae e ninoiyiea eiouanoaa a aeoeaa eee
ianneaa, i/aaeaeii, /oi aicieeiiaaiea aeoeaa aeieaeii ioia/aoueny ia
eaaie noi?iia n/aoa, a aicieeiiaaiea ianneaa — ia i?aaie, en/aciiaaiea
aeoeaa — ia i?aaie noi?iia n/aoa, a en/aciiaaiea ianneaa — ia eaaie.
Oaeei ia?acii, oeaeueth aeaieiiai n/aoiaiaenoaa yaeyaony ieaiiia?iay
?aaeno?aoeey aicieeiiaaiee e en/aciiaaiee, eiathueo ianoi a ioiioaiee
ioaeaeueiuo /anoae aeoeaa e ianneaa.

I?eauee e oauoee oaeaea aeieaeiu caienuaaoueny n?aco iinea eo
aicieeiiaaiey. I?eaueue — yoi aeiea oicyenoaa ii ioiioaieth e oiio, eoi
i?eieiaao ia naay ?ene, o.a. ii ioiioaieth e oiio, eoi eiaao i?aai ia
i?eaueue. Anee eiaaony /enoue eaieoae, oi yoei eeoeii aoaeao aeaaeaeaoe
i?aaei?eyoey, i?eiyaoee ia naay ?ene. Anee aea eiouanoaa ieacuaaaony
iaiueoa aeieaia, oi oaeeie eeoeaie aoaeoo e?aaeeoi?u oicyenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, oa?aeoa?iuie iniaaiiinoyie oai?ee E?aeieoa yaeythony
neaaeothuea:

— oicyenoai neaaeoao n/eoaoue naiinoiyoaeueiui i?aaieciii, iaeaaeathuei
iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie, i?aaaie o?aaiaaiey e aeieaaie;

— eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaie/aneoth /anoue ianneaa,
e?aaeeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue nianoaaiieeo;

— n/aoa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aaeno?aoeee aicieeiiaaiee e en/aciiaaiee
ioaeaeueiuo /anoae aeoeaa e ianneaa aaeainaa ?aaiiaaeeeie noiia.

Oai?ey Aa?eeia?a. A iniiaa n/aoiie oai?ee, i?aaeeiaeaiiie iaiaoeeei
aaoi?ii Iaio?aaeii Aa?eeia?ii a 1924 a., eaaeeo iiiyoea i oicyenoaa,
iainiaeaiiii io naiaai aeaaeaeueoea. Eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa
io?aaeaaony aai aaeainii, ninoiyuei ec aeaoo /anoae — aeoeaa e ianneaa.
Aeoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue iieiaeeoaeueiiai eiouanoaa, a
iannea — io?eoeaoaeueiiai (aeieae), eioi?ia iiaeao oie/oiaeaoue /anoe/ii
eee iieiinoueth iieiaeeoaeueiia eiouanoai (iiaaoaiea aeieaia naycaii n
auauoeai eiouanoaa eee oiaiueoaieai eaieoaea). Eciaiaiey aeoeaiuo (+) e
ianneaiuo (—) noaoae iiaoo auoue eeoue aeaiyeiai ?iaea: oaaee/aiea
(i?eoiae, +) e oiaiueoaiea (?anoiae, —). I?aaenoaaea aaeain eae
iaiauathuee n/ao i?aaei?eyoey, eaaay /anoue eioi?iai (aeoea) niaiaaeaao
ii cia/aieth n aeaaaoii n/aoia (+), a i?aaay /anoue (iannea) — n
e?aaeeoii n/aoia (—), iainiiaaiea aeaieiie caiene iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
iaoaiaoe/anee (ia iniiaaiee i?aaee neiaeaiey iieiaeeoaeueiuo e
io?eoeaoaeueiuo /enae):

1) + (+ Eiouanoai) = +,

o.a. oaaee/aiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai eiouanoaa caienuaaaony a aeaaao;

2) – (+ Eiouanoai) = -,

o.a. oiaiueoaiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai eiouanoaa caienuaaaony a e?aaeeo;

3) + (— Eiouanoai) = – ,

o.a. oaaee/aiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai eiouanoaa caienuaaaony a e?aaeeo;

4) – (— Eiouanoai) = +,

o.a. oiaiueoaiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai eiouanoaa caienuaaaony a aeaaao.

Ana eciaiaiey aeoeaa e ianneaa Aa?eeia? iacuaaao oicyenoaaiiuie
iai?ioaie, eioi?ua aeaeeo ia aiaoiea (acaeiiioiioaiey n o?aoueeie
eeoeaie) e aioo?aiiea (ana inoaeueiua). A iniiaa anao aac eneeth/aiey
iai?ioia eaaeeo aeo iaiu, i?aaeiieaaathuee iaeiia?aiaiiia e ?aaiiaaeeeia
oaaee/aiea iaeiie noaouee aaeaina e oiaiueoaiea ae?oaie noaouee aaeaina.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaaeaeue oicyenoaaiiue iai?io yaeyaony aeaienoaaiiui ii
naiae i?e?iaea.

N/aoiay caienue anaaaea cao?aaeaaao aeaa n/aoa oaeei ia?acii, /oi iaeei
ec ieo aeaaaooaony, a ae?oaie e?aaeeooaony, i?e/ai ia?aay caienue iineo
iieiaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, a aoi?ay — io?eoeaoaeueiue.

Oai?ey Aaeaaaia. Aeaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/ Aaeaaai (1879 – 1938) oeacuaae,
/oi n/aoiaiaenoai eiaao naie ii?aaeaeaiiue iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey —
aaeeie/iia oicyenoai e ?aaioa yoiai oicyenoaa. Aaeeie/iia oicyenoai ia
iiaeao ioiaeaeanoaeyoueny n ee/iinoueth aai aeaaeaeueoea, iiyoiio a
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa aeieaeii i?iaiaeeoueny /aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo
yoeie aeaoiy oaeoi?aie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy
iaaeaeo oicyenoaii e aai aeaaeaeueoeai nouanoaotho iinoiyiiua e
ii?aaeaeaiiua acaeiiioiioaiey, o/ao eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeyao iaeio ec
aeaaiaeoeo caaea/ n/aoiaiaenoaa.

Oicyenoai, auiieiyy a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe aieth aeaaeaeueoea, aeey
inouanoaeaiey yoie aeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeii iaeaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui
eiouanoaii. Ninoiyiea yoiai eiouanoaa, a ?aaii e ana eciaiaiey, eioi?ua
a iai i?ienoiaeyo, iieacuaathony a iniaie oaaeeoea, eiaioaiie aaeainii.
Aaeain oicyenoaa ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa /anoe — aeoea e iannea. Aeoea
oicyenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue aauiuo e ee/iuo i?aa yoiai
oicyenoaa, iannea — niaieoiiinoue iaycaoaeuenoa oicyenoaa ia?aae
ioaeaeueiuie th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie, a oaeaea ia?aae
aeaaeaeueoeai oicyenoaa. Iineaaeiee aeae iaycaoaeuenoa anaaaea ?aaai
?aciinoe iaaeaeo aeoeaii e eoiaii iaycaoaeuenoa oicyenoaa ia?aae
o?aoueeie eeoeaie. ?aciinoue yoa iineo iacaaiea n/aoiiai (/enoiai)
eaieoaea e yaeyaony au?aaeaieai iauae noiiu oeaiiinoae, aeiaeaiiuo a
aeaei aai aeaaeaeueoeai, ca eioi?ua oicyenoai ianao ii?aaeaeaiiua
iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae naiei aeaaeaeueoeai. Oaeei ia?acii, eae aeieae
oicyenoaa, oae e n/aoiue eaieoae a ?aaiie noaiaie yaeythony
iaycaoaeuenoaaie oicyenoaa. Ii iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy aeaeaie
iaycaoaeuenoa nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiia ?acee/ea, ei?aiyuaany a ?aciie
th?eaee/aneie i?e?iaea yoeo iaycaoaeuenoa. Oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue
iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae o?aoueeie eeoeaie ninoieo a oii, /oi oaeea
iaycaoaeuenoaa anaaaea au?aaeathony a oaa?aeie aeaiaaeiie noiia, a oi
a?aiy eae iaycaoaeuenoaa oicyenoaa ia?aae nianoaaiieeii ie a eiae ia?a
ia iiaoo au?aaeaoueny a oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiie aeaiaaeiie noiia.

Ioia/aiiua iniaaiiinoe th?eaee/aneie i?e?iaeu n/aoiiai eaieoaea
iicaieytho ?aoeoue aii?in i i?eaueyo e oauoeao oicyenoaa. Auyaeythueany
a ?acoeueoaoa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey i?eauee
i?eiaaeeaaeao ia oicyenoao, a aai aeaaeaeueoeo, e iiyoiio niioaaonoaaiii
eciaiytho ?acia?u n/aoiiai eaieoaea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ieacuaathony
aeiiieieoaeueiui iaycaoaeuenoaii oicyenoaa ia?aae naiei aeaaeaeueoeai, a
oauoee oiaiueoatho noiio n/aoiiai eaieoaea e iiyoiio ?aaiicia/iu
oiaiueoaieth oeacaiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa oicyenoaa.

Ana yoe iaycaoaeuenoaa oicyenoaa aicieeatho ia?aeeaeueii n iieo/aieai
eaeeo-eeai n?aaenoa io o?aoueeo eeoe eee aea aeaaeaeueoea oicyenoaa;
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeea iaycaoaeuenoaa, ae?oaeie neiaaie iannea,
yaeythony enoi/ieeaie iieo/aiey anao iaoiaeyueony a ?anii?yaeaiee
oicyenoaa oeaiiinoae.

Aeey eeethno?aoeee naiae iunee Aaeaaai i?eaiaeeo aanueia iaaeyaeiue
i?eia?. ?anniao?eaay eiion a aai ai?eciioaeueiie e aa?oeeaeueiie
i?iaeoeeyo, iu iieo/ei a ia?aii neo/aa e?oa, a ai aoi?ii neo/aa
o?aoaieueiee. Niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi i?aaeeueiue e?oa e ?aaiiaaae?aiiue
o?aoaieueiee ie/aai iauaai ii naiaio aiaoiaio aeaeo ia eiatho, e ia
iaiaa ynii, /oi yoio e?oo e yoio o?aoaieueiee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
ecia?aaeaiea iaeiiai oaea a aai i?iaeoeeyo ia ?aciua ieineinoe. Oaeei
ia?acii, iai?aeeia?iinoue e ?aciua ecia?aaeaiey iaeiiai e oiai aea
iauaeoa ia yaeythony iniiaaieai n/eoaoue iieo/aiiua ecia?aaeaiey
ecia?aaeaieyie ?aciuo i?aaeiaoia. Aeoea e iannea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
?aciua ecia?aaeaiey eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey eae iniiaiiai
iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey i?e ninoaaeaiee eiaaioa?y, eae i?aaeeueiue e?oa e
?aaiiaaae?aiiue o?aoaieueiee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ecia?aaeaiey eiiona.

Aaeeiay nouiinoue aeoeaa e ianneaa iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue aaeeiia i?aaeei
aeey caiene anao oao eciaiaiee, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a oa/aiea io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea a ninoaaiuo /anoyo aeoeaa e ianneaa. Yoi i?aaeei auoaeaao ec
aiaeeca oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee n oi/ee c?aiey aeeyiey eo ia n/aoa,
ioe?uoua aeey o/aoa ioaeaeueiuo noaoae aeoeaa e ianneaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
oaeiai aiaeeca Aaeaaai ioia/aao neaaeothuea oeie/iua neo/ae n/aoiie
?aaeno?aoeee:

— a n/aoao, ioe?uaaaiuo aeey caiene iia?aoeee n iaoa?eaeueiuie
oeaiiinoyie, iia?aoeee ii oaaee/aieth eiee/anoaa e noieiinoe yoeo
oeaiiinoae caienuaathony a aeaaao, iia?aoeee ii oiaiueoaieth eiee/anoaa
e noieiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ioia/athony a e?aaeeoa;

— a n/aoao, ioe?uaaaiuo aeey caiene ?an/aoia n aeaaeoi?aie, iia?aoeee,
oaaee/eaathuea i?aaa oicyenoaa e aai aeaaeoi?ai, caienuaathony a aeaaao;
iia?aoeee, oiaiueoathuea i?aaa oicyenoaa e aai aeaaeoi?ai, ioia/athony a
e?aaeeoa;

— a n/aoao, ioe?uouo aeey caiene ?an/aoia n e?aaeeoi?aie, iia?aoeee,
oiaiueoathuea iaycaoaeuenoaa oicyenoaa ia?aae aai e?aaeeoi?aie,
ioia/athony a aeaaaoa, iia?aoeee, oaaee/eaathuea yoe iaycaoaeuenoaa,
ioia/athony a e?aaeeoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, eaaeaeay iia?aoeey ieacuaaao iaeiia?aiaiii
iieiaeeoaeueiia e io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaienoaaiia ii naiae i?e?iaea. I?aaeei caiene ia
n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, noi?ioee?iaaiiia Aaeaaaiii, aeaneo, /oi «ia
aeaaao eaeiai-eeai n/aoa caienuaathony iia?aoeee, ieacuaathuea
iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia oo eee eioth /anoue aeoeaa eee ianneaa
oicyenoaa, eioi?ay iieacaia a caaieiaea n/aoa; ia e?aaeeo eaeiai-eeai
n/aoa caienuaathony iia?aoeee, ieacuaathuea io?eoeaoaeueiia aeeyiea ia
oo /anoue aeoeaa eee ianneaa oicyenoaa, eioi?ay iieacaia a caaieiaea
yoiai n/aoa».

Eoae, iniiaiuie iniaaiiinoyie oai?ee Aaeaaaia yaeythony neaaeothuea:

— a iniiaa n/aoiaaaeaiey eaaeeo iiiyoea i oicyenoaa eae i
naiinoiyoaeueiii oeaeii, iaeaaeathuai iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie,
i?aaaie o?aaiaaiey e iaycaoaeuenoaaie ia?aae o?aoueeie eeoeaie e
aeaaeaeueoeai oicyenoaa;

— ana n/aoa, ioe?uoua a i?aaeaeao oicyenoaa, iaeii?iaeiu ii naiae
i?e?iaea e i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aaeno?aoeee iieiaeeoaeueiuo (ia aeaaaoa)
e io?eoeaoaeueiuo (ia e?aaeeoa) aeeyiee oicye noaaiiuo iia?aoeee ia
eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa.

Oai?ey ?inne. Aeaeocaiia ?inne (1845—1921) ?acaeaae iaoaiaoe/aneoth
oai?eth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, a iniiao eioi?ie iieiaeaii o?aaiaiea,
au?aaeathuaa eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa:

A – I – E = I,

aaea A — aeoea;

I — iannea (iaycaoaeuenoaa); E — /enoue eaieoae.

Yoi o?aaiaiea iieacuaaao, /oi eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa
oi?ie?oaony ec iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia, ?aaiuo a
niaieoiiinoe ae?oa ae?oao. O?aaiaiea iiaeao auoue i?aia?aciaaii a
ae?oaia o?aaiaiea:

A = I + E.

Iiae aeeyieai aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaa a ninoaaa yoeo yeaiaioia
i?ienoiaeyo iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua eciaiaiey:

— iieiaeeoaeueiuie yaeythony ninoiyiea noaoae aeoeaa e oaaee/aiea yoiai
ninoiyiey, a oaeaea oiaiueoaiea ninoiyiey

noaoae ianneaa;

— io?eoeaoaeueiuie n/eoathony ninoiyiea noaoae ianneaa e oaaee/aiea
yoiai ninoiyiey, a oaeaea oiaiueoaiea ninoiyiey noaoae aeoeaa.

Caaea/a n/aoiaaaeaiey caeeth/aaony a oaeouae ?aaeno?aoeee anao yoeo
iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee e ii?aaeaeaiee
yeiiiie/aneiai cia/aiey anao yeaiaioia, auyaeythueony a ?acoeueoaoa
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea oeacaiiuo yeaiaioia onoaiaaeeaaaony n iiiiuueth
oaaeeoe, iacuaaaiuo n/aoaie. Yoe oaaeeoeu, eee n/aoa, i?aaeiacia/aiu:

— aeey eeanneoeeaoeee iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia
oicyenoaa ii eo yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth, o.a. i?enaiaiey eaaeaeiio
n/aoo iaeiaiiaaiey;

— aeey neiaiee/aneiai iaicia/aiey, yaeyaony aeaiiue yeaiaio
iieiaeeoaeueiui eee io?eoeaoaeueiui, o.a. oi?iie n/aoa, neiaieii
eioi?iai yaeyaony ciae O.

Neiaieu eiatho a iaoaiaoeea aieueoia cia/aiea, oae eae n eo iiiiuueth
i?e?iaea oiai eee eiiai yeaiaioa ii?aaeaeyaony aai ianoii ii ioiioaieth
e aeaiiiio neiaieo. Aeey eeethno?aoeee aeaiiiai iieiaeaiey ?inne
i?eaiaeeo i?eia?, eiaaea au?aaeaiea (a:b) iaicia/aao, /oi «a» yaeyaony
aeaeeiui, a «b» aeaeeoaeai, a au?aaeaiea (b : a) iieacuaaao, /oi oaea
«b» yaeyaony aeaeeiui, a «a» aeaeeoaeai.

Oi/ii oaeia aea cia/aiea eiaao e ciae n/aoa (O), eniieueciaaiea eioi?iai
iaeaa/aao auno?ia ii?aaeaeaiea enoeiiiai cia/aiey yeaiaioa i?e iaeiii
eeoue acaeyaea ia aeaiiue n/ao: anee yeaiaio iiiauai ia eaaoth noi?iio
yoiai ciaea, oi yoi aoaeao icia/aoue iieiaeeoaeueiia eciaiaiea;
iiiauaiea yeaiaioa ia i?aaoth noi?iio aoaeao icia/aoue io?eoeaoaeueiia
eciaiaiea eiouanoaaiiiai ninoiyiey oicyenoaa.

I?e ?aaeno?aoeee eciaiaiee a aeoeaa iniiaiia o?aaiaiea i?eiao
neaaeothuee aeae:

(A + a – a) = I + E, eee A + a = I + E + a.

I?e ?aaeno?aoeee eciaiaiee a ianneaa iniiaiia o?aaiaiea aoaeao
i?eieiaoue oaeie aeae:

A = (I – i + i) + E, eee A + i = I + i + E.

Eciaiaiey a eaieoaea oiaea iiaeaa?aathony n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee,
iiae/eiythuaeny i?aaeeai, onoaiiaeaiiui aeey ia?auo aeaoo neo/aaa
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?inne ia iuoaaony enneaaeiaaoue yeiiiie/aneoth eee
th?eaee/aneoth i?e?iaeo oeaiiinoae eeai ioaeaeueiuo /anoae oicyenoaa.
Ana i?aaeea caienae ii n/aoai naiaeyony eeoue e iaania/aieth
i?aaeeueiinoe iaoaiaoe/aneeo o?aaiaiee, ioaeaeueiua /anoe eioi?iai
aaoiiaoe/anee iieacuaatho ii?yaeie caiene ii n/aoai oao eee eiuo noii.
Iaeiaei i?eaea/aiea iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa aeaei ?inne aiciiaeiinoue
nicaeaoue oaoiaoioth oi?io n/aoiaiaenoaa, iicaieythuoth oeene?iaaoue
oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie a iao?eoeao, /oi nicaeaei oe?ieea
aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?eiaiaiey a oeaeyo aiaeeca eeiaeiie aeaaa?u.

Oai?ey Eieueiaiia. ?aaioa E. Eieueiaiia auea iioaeeeiaaia a 1904—1906
aa. Aaoi? iacaae naith oai?eth /enoi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oicyenoaaiiie
oai?eae. Ii ?anniao?eaaao oicyenoai eae niaieoiiinoue eiaaioa?iuo
oeaiiinoae e eiaaioa?iuo aeieaia, eiuie neiaaie, eae eiouanoaaiioth
ianno, ninoiyuoth ec «eiaaioa?iuo aeoeaia» e «eiaaioa?iuo ianneaia».
Aianoi «ieeoeaoai?aiey oicyeia» Eieueiaii noaiiaeony ia ianoi
aaeieieno?aoi?a oicyenoaa. N oi/ee c?aiey aaeieieno?aoi?a, eaieoae
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoaiaoe/aneia ioiioaiea, nouanoaothuaa iaaeaeo
aaeieieno?aoi?ii e aeaaeaeueoeai oicyenoaa e yaeyaony io?eoeaoaeueiie
aaee/eiie (-). Ioee/ea /enoi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oai?ee io ?aiaa
?anniio?aiiuo oicyenoaaiiuo oai?ee (I. Aa?eeia? e ae?. ) ninoieo a
?aciii iiieiaiee i?e?iaeu i?eaueae e oauoeia (oaae. 4.10)

Oaaeeoea 4.10 – Ioee/ey /enoi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oai?ee io oicyenoaaiiuo
oai?ee

Oicyenoaaiiay oai?ey*enoi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oai?eyI?eaueue – oneoae
oicyenoaa (aeaaeaeueoea)Aicieeiiaaiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai
ioiioaiey aaeieieno?aoi?a e aeaaeaeueoeo oicyenoaaOauoie – oneoae
o?aoueeo eeoe. *anoe aeoeaiiai eiouanoaa (aei nienaiey ca n/ao
aeaaeaeueoea oicyenoaa)En/aciiaaiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai
ioiioaiey aaeieieno?aoi?a e aeaaeaeueoeo oicyenoaa

Iiaeaiaey eoia, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi, ianiio?y ia ana iiiuoee
ioiaaeaaaoueny io i?aaenoaaeoaeae oicyenoaaiiie oai?ee, ana aea /enoi
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oai?ey iaoiaeeony n ieie a oaniii ninaaenoaa: aianoi
oeeoeaiiai iaeooioai?aiey oicyenoaa i?aaenoaaeyaony ia iaiaa oeeoeaiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia aaeieieno?aoi?a, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaiii aeaaeaeueoeo
oicyenoaa.

Oai?ey Athaee. Oaaeoea?neee aaoi? iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oai?ee O?el?eo
Athaee (1833 – 1902) ooaa?aeaeae /oi aeaieiay aooaaeoa?ey ioee/aaony io
i?inoie ia i?eiaiaieai niiniaa aeaieiie caiene (oae eae iauaeou o/aoa
nenoaiaoece?othony e a i?inoie aooaaeoa?ee), a auyaeaieai eciaiaiee
eaieoaea n/aoiui iooai. *enoue eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo
iaaeaeo noiiie eiouanoaa e iaycaoaeuenoaaie oicyenoaa. Aeey io?aaeaiey
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee aeieaeii auoue aeaa ?yaea
n/aoia: ?yae n/aoia eiouanoaaiiuo e ?yae n/aoia /enoiai eaieoaea. ?yae
n/aoia eiouanoaaiiuo ninoieo ec n/aoia aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo, a ?yae
n/aoia /enoiai eaieoaea io?aaeaao ?acieoeo iaaeaeo aeoeaii e ianneaii.
Iaaeaeo yoeie n/aoaie nouanoaoao ?acee/ea a iniaaiiinoyo iino?iaiey.

A aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo n/aoao aeaaaoiaay noi?iia eiaao iieiaeeoaeueiia
cia/aiea e i?aaeiacia/aaony aeey caiene aeoeaiuo noaoae, o.a.
oaaee/eaathueo eee oeo/oathueo aeaaininoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey, a
e?aaeeoiaay noi?iia eiaao cia/aiea io?eoeaoaeueiia e neoaeeo aeey
?aaeno?aoeee ianneaiuo noaoae, o.a. oiaiueoathueo eee oooaeoathueo
aeaaininoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio a n/aoa /enoiai
eaieoaea aeaaaoiaay noi?iia eiaao io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea e niae?aao
caiene ianneaiuo noaoae, oiaiueoathueo aaee/eio /enoiai eaieoaea, a
e?aaeeoiaay noi?iia eiaao cia/aiea iieiaeeoaeueiia e i?aaeiacia/aaony
aeey ?aaeno?aoeee aeoeaiuo noaoae, oaaee/eaathueo noiio /enoiai
eaieoaea.

Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey i?e oaaee/aiee
/anoe aeoeaa aeieaeia aucuaaoue iaeiia?aiaiiia oiaiueoaiea ae?oaie /anoe
aeoeaa eee oaaee/aiea /enoiai eaieoaea, e iaiai?io, i?e oiaiueoaiee
/anoe aeoeaa iaeiia?aiaiii aeieaeii eiaoue ianoi eee oaaee/aiea ae?oaie
/anoe aeoeaa, eee aea oiaiueoaiea /enoiai eaieoaea. Oaeei ia?acii,
eaaeaeay iia?aoeey iaeiia?aiaiii aucuaaao aeaa caiene ia
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noi?iiao aeaoo ?aciuo n/aoia: ii aeaaaoo iaeiiai e
e?aaeeoo ae?oaiai. Yoo caeiiiia?iinoue Athaee iiyniyao aeaaa?ae/aneeie
o?aaiaieyie:

— aeoeaiua e ianneaiua n/aoa: Aeaaao — E?aaeeo = Naeueaei

(a +b) – (a + n) = s;

— n/aoa /enoiai eaieoaea: E?aaeeo — Aeaaao = Naeueaei

b — n = s,

aaea a — iia?aoeee, ia aeeythuea ia aaee/eio /enoiai eaieoaea;

b — iia?aoeee, oaaee/eaathuea /enoue eaieoae;

n — iia?aoeee, oiaiueoathuea /enoue eaieoae;

s — ?acoeueoao iia?aoeee, eee /enoue eaieoae. Ionthaea noaiiaeony yniui,
/oi ?aaainoai noii aeaaaoiauo e e?aaeeoiauo iai?ioia ii n/aoai yaeyaony
neaaenoaeai iauaaeeiaiey aeaoo i?eaaaeaiiuo o?aaiaiee a iaeii iauaa:

E?aaeeo = Aeaaao

(a + b) + n = (a + n) + b.

?aaainoai eoiaia aeaaaoiauo e e?aaeeoiauo noii auoaeaao, ii iiaieth
Athaee, ec neaaeothueo iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee:

— /enoue eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo iaaeaeo eoiaii aeoeaa e
eoiaii ianneaa;

— aeey ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee iaiaoiaeeii aeaa ?yaea
n/aoia: iaeei ?yae aeey ?aaeno?aoeee eiouanoaa (aeoeaiua e ianneaiua
n/aoa), aoi?ie ?yae aeey o/aoa eciaiaiee /enoiai eaieoaea;

— a ?yaeo eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia (iieiaeeoaeueiia eiouanoai, eee
oeaiiinoe,— aeoeaiua n/aoa, io?eoeaoaeueiia eiouanoai, eee aeieae,—
ianneaiua n/aoa) aeoeaiua noiiu caiinyony a aeaaao, io?eoeaoaeueiua
noiiu — a e?aaeeo;

— ia n/aoa /enoiai eaieoaea aeoeaiua noiiu io?aaeathony ia e?aaeeoa,
ianneaiua — ia aeaaaoa;

— /enoue eaieoae e i?eaueue i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iieiaeeoaeueiua
aaee/eiu, a oauoee — aaee/eiu io?eoeaoaeueiua.

Oai?ey ?aeoa e E?aeaeaa. Aano?eeneea niaoeeaeenou ?aeo e E?aeaea, eae e
Athaee, oeacuaaee, /oi caaea/aie e i?aaeiaoii aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee
yaeythony:

— o/ao ioaeaeueiuo /anoae eiouanoaa, eo oaaee/aiee e oiaiueoaiee;

— o/ao /enoiai eaieoaea e aai eciaiaiee a ?acoeueoaoa i?eaueae e
oauoeia.

Yoe caaea/e ?aoathony n iiiiuueth aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia: n/aoia
eiouanoaaiiuo e n/aoia /enoiai eaieoaea. Aeey eaaeaeiai ?yaea n/aoia
nouanoaotho i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiua i?aaeea ?aaeno?aoeee o/eouaaaiuo
eciaiaiee.

?aeo e E?aeaea i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi yoa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yaeyaony
nouanoaaiiui i?eciaeii aeaieiie nenoaiu n/aoiaiaenoaa e auoaeaao ec
iaiaoiaeeiinoe oae acaeiii naycaoue oeacaiiua aeaa ?yaea n/aoia, /oiau
?acoeueoaou, auyaeyaiua aeaiiuie ?yaeaie, acaeiii eiiiaine?iaaeenue, a
ia i?inoi oaeaaeaaeenue, neaaaeenue ae?oa n ae?oaii.

I?eaaaeaiiia iieiaeaiea aaoi?u iiyniytho neaaeothueie ae aeaaa?ae/aneeie
o?aaiaieyie (oaae. 11).

Oaaeeoea 4.11. – O?aaiaiey ?aeoa e E?aeaeaa

?yae eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia?yae n/aoia /enoiai eaieoaeaIa/aeueiua
o?aaiaieyA – I = E

A oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea aeoea eciaiyaony ia aaee/eio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,
iannea – ia aaee/eio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 io/aoiiai ia?eiaea /enoue eaieoae eciaiyaony ia aaee/eio
i?eaueae + i e oauoeia – oCaeeth/eoaeueiua
o?aaiaiey(Apicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c00000000000500000009020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) –
(Ipicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c00000000000500000009020000000005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) =
E1

eee oi?iuaiiay: A1-I1 = E1E + (i-o) = E1I?eieiay ai aieiaiea ?aaainoai
aaee/eiu E1 a iaieo ?yaeao, i?eaaaeaiiua o?aaiaiey neeaathony a iniiaiia
o?aaiaiea aeaieiie nenoaiu n/aoiaiaenoaa:

A1 – I1 = E + (i-o)Aaeaeo oiai, /oi ia n/aoao Aeaaiie eieae ia iaeieo e
oao aea noi?iiao iiaoo noiyoue eeoue neaaaaiua aaee/eiu (n iaeeiaeiaui
iaoaiaoe/aneei ciaeii), iniiaiia o?aaiaiea iiaeii i?aia?aciaaoue oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau ia iaaeo aai noi?iiao ieacaeenue eneeth/eoaeueii aaee/eiu
ni ciaeii «+». Oaoie/aneia o?aaiaiea i?aeoe/aneiai n/aoiaaaeaiey
auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

A+o=I1 + E + iIaicia/aiey:

A – ia/aeueiue aeoea;

A1 – caeeth/eoaeueiue aeoea (ia?acothueeny a ?acoeueoaoa i?e?auaiee e
oiaiueoaiee ia/aeueiiai aeoeaa ia aaee/eio
picscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
e6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000020001c00
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c007740000000bf05
0a72bdacf477c6acf4770100000000003000040000002d01000008000000320a40013a00
01000000b1790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb0210000700
00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d000000000a000000040000000000ffff
ffff0100000000003000040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000a
aneaaenoaea oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a io/aoiii ia?eiaea);

I – ia/aeueiue iannea;

I1 – caeeth/eoaeueiue iannea (ia?acothueeny a ?acoeueoaoa i?e?auaiee
ia/aeueiiai ianneaa ia aaee/eio i?eaueae «+i» e oiaiueoaiiue ia oauoee
«-o»).

Iineaaeiaa o?aaiaiea iieacuaaao, /oi ia eaaoth noi?iio (aeaaao) n/aoia
ioiinyony ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea aeoeaiiai eiouanoaa e oauoeia, a ia
i?aaoth noi?iio (e?aaeeo) — ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea ianneaiiai eiouanoaa,
/enoiai eaieoaea e i?eaueae, i?e/ai eoia aeaaaoiauo caienae anaaaea
?aaai eoiao e?aaeeoiauo caienae ai anae niaieoiiinoe n/aoia.

Oai?ey Ioe. O?aioeocneee aaoi? Eaii Ioe, ?aaioa eioi?iai auea
iioaeeeiaaia a 1927 a., ioia/aao oa?aeoa?ioth iniaaiiinoue aaeaina,
ninoiyuoth a oii, /oi caeanue eaieoae oicyenoaa iiiauaaony, a nouiinoe,
aeaaaeaeu: ai-ia?auo, a ianneaa — a iauae aai noiia e, ai-aoi?uo, a
aeoeaa — ?an/eaiaiiui ii ioaeaeueiui eaoaai?eyi oeaiiinoae. Ionthaea, ii
iiaieth E. Ioe, neaaeoao, /oi a /enea o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e
?aoeeiiaeueiie n/aoiie oai?ee, aeieaeii oeao?e?iaaoue ia oieueei
o?aaiaaiea ia onoaiiaeaiee iauaai i?aaeea, i?eiaieiiai ai anao neo/ayo
n/aoiuo caienae e niiniaiiai iiyoiio neoaeeoue iaaeaaeiui i?iaiaeieeii
/a?ac aanueia neiaeiue eo eaae?eio, ii e o?aaiaaiea i aeieacaoaeuenoaa
i?aaeeueiinoe iiiauaiey noaouee eaieoaea a ianneaa aaeaina.

Iiaeaa?aay ouaoaeueiiio aiaeeco iniiaiua iieiaeaiey, ano?a/athueany a
n/aoiuo oai?eyo ?acee/iuo aaoi?ia, Ioe i?eoiaeeo e iiaieth, /oi aac
eniieueciaaiey oeeoeaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ie iaeia ec ieo ia a ninoiyiee
oaeiaeaoai?eoue aoi?iio ec o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeaiiuo e ?aoeeiiaeueiie
n/aoiie oai?ee. I?eoiaey a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai iaci?a e ecaanoiie oi?ioea
A — I = E e ioia/ay, /oi /enoue eaieoae yaeyaony ia oeaiiinoueth, a
eeoue ?aciinoueth iaaeaeo aeoeaii e ianneaii, Ioe inoaiaaeeaaaony ia
n/aoiii i?aaeea, i?aaeeiaeaiiii o?aioeocii E.Iooi a neaaeothuae
oi?ioee?iaea: iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aciinoue caiineony a e?aaeeo n/aoa,
io?eoeaoaeueiay — a aeaaao n/aoa, i?e/ai iiaeaa?aaao yoi oeacaiea i
caianaiee iieiaeeoaeueiiai /enoiai eaieoaea a e?aaeeo n/aoa i?iaa?ea
iooai ouaoaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey eae i?e?iaeu aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo
eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia, oae e ii?yaeea eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

N/aoiua aaee/eiu eae aeoeaiiai, oae e ianneaiiai eiouanoaa
eiino?oe?othony ec oeaeiai ?yaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee oieueei
neaaaaiuo e au/eoaaiuo. Oaeei ia?acii, eciaiaiey, ec eioi?uo
neeaaeuaaaony oa eee eiay n/aoiay aaee/eia, iiaoo auoue eeoue aeaiyeiai
?iaea: eee neaaaaiua, o.a. iieiaeeoaeueiua, oa?aeoa?ecoaiua ciaeii « +
», eee au/eoaaiua, o.a. io?eoeaoaeueiua, oa?aeoa?ecoaiua ciaeii « — ».
Anee aeey ioiaoie anao yoeo eciaiaiee aoaeao ioaaaeaia iniaay oaaeeoea,
oi iia, anoanoaaiii, aeieaeia auoue ?acaeaeaia ia aeaa noi?iiu, ia
eioi?uo eciaiaiey iieiaeeoaeueiua eee io?eoeaoaeueiua aoaeoo
caienuaaoueny ioaeaeueii ae?oa io ae?oaa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, auaiaey
?aciinoue iaaeaeo eoiaaie iaaeo yoeo noi?ii, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
n/aoioth aaee/eio aeoeaiiai eee aea ianneaiiai eiouanoaa ia ethaie
aeaeaaiue iiiaio a?aiaie.

Oaeay oaaeeoea ecaanoia a n/aoiaiaenoaa iiae iacaaieai n/aoa. Niinia
eniieueciaaiey n/aoa aeey caienae iiaeii onoaiiaeoue a i?eiyoeai
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oneiaey, iai?eia?, oaeiai: anyeia iieiaeeoaeueiia
eciaiaiea aoaeao caienuaaoueny ia eaaoth noi?iio, eee a aeaaao, anyeia
io?eoeaoaeueiia eciaiaiea aoaeao caienuaaoueny ia i?aaoth noi?iio, eee a
e?aaeeo.

Enneaaeoy ii?yaeie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo n/aoia, iiaeii
iaia?oaeeoue, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie (aeaaao n/aoa) aoaeoo
iinooieaiey aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae, i?aa o?aaiaaiey, oiaiueoaiea
aeieaia i?aaei?eyoey; a io?eoeaoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie (e?aaeeo n/aoa)
aoaeoo auaea/e aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae, oiaiueoaiea i?aa o?aaiaaiey,
oaaee/aiea aeieaia i?aaei?eyoey.

Ionthaea iiaeii auaanoe caeeth/aiea, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie
aoaeoo oa, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth /enoiai eaieoaea, a
io?eoeaoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie aoaeoo ana oa, eioi?ua aeaeoo ca niaie aai
oiaiueoaiea, niioaaonoaaiii i?eaaaeaiiie ?aiaa oi?ioea: A — I = E. Oaeei
ia?acii, n/aoiay ?aaeno?aoeey eciaiaiee a aeoeaiii e ianneaiii eiouanoaa
inouanoaeyaony niaeanii oeacaiiiio i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiio oneiaeth caiene ia
n/aoao.

Ia?aoiaeei oaia?ue e ?aaeno?aoeee oi?aiauo ?anoiaeia e anyeiai ?iaea
i?eaueae e oauoeia. Neaaeoy onoaiiaeaiiiio i?aaeeo, oauoee, eae
oaeoe/anee oiaiueoathuea aaee/eio /enoiai eaieoaea e eiathuea iiyoiio
ii?aaeaeaiii io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea, i?eoeinue au caienuaaoue a
e?aaeeo niioaaonoaothuaai n/aoa, iai?eia? n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia. Ii
oiio aea i?aaeeo i?eauee, eae aeaenoaeoaeueii oaaee/eaathuea /enoue
eaieoae e eiathuea iiyoiio, ianiiiaiii, iieiaeeoaeueiia cia/aiea,
iaiaoiaeeii auei au ioia/aoue a aeaaaoa niioaaonoaothuaai n/aoa,
iai?eia? oiai aea n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia. Iaaeaeo oai ecaanoii, /oi
ii?iaeueiue ii?yaeie ?aaeno?aoeee o?aaoao ioianaiey oauoeia a aeaaao, a
i?eaueae — a e?aaeeo n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia. Cia/eo, ii?aaeaeaiiia
?aiaa i?aaeei n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee ia iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaii aeey
io?aaeaiey ia n/aoao i?eaueae «oauoeia. Ionthaea iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi
n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia a oaeaea n/ao eaieoaea iaeaaeatho oa?aeoa?ii,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiui oa?aeoa?o eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia, /oi aiieia
niioaaonoaoao n/aoiiio i?aaeeo, i?aaeeiaeaiiiio E. Iooi e aeanyuaio, /oi
iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aciinoue, eee /enoue eaieoae, caienuaaaony r e?aaeeo
niioaaonoaothuaai n/aoa.

Anee io ?annoaeaeaiee ia?aeoe e aaeaino (oaae. 4.12) e aeiionoeoue
aiciiaeiinoue ?aceiaeaiey aai ia aeaa i?inoaeoeo aaeaina, oi iieo/ei
no?oeoo?o, i?eaaaeaiioth a oaae. 4.13.

Oaaeeoea 4.12. – Aaeain

AeoeaIanneaOiaa?u, aeaiueae, aeaaeoi?u e i?i/ea 500000

Oauoee 20000

Aaeain
520000E?aaeeoi?u 200000

*enoue eaieoae 250000

I?eauee 700000

Aaeain 520000

Oaaeeoea 4.13. – Aaeain n ?aceiaeaieyie

Aaeain AIieiaeeoaeueiue /enoue eaieoaeAeoea

Oiaa?u, iaee/iua aeaiueae, aeaaeoi?u e i?i/ea 500000Iannea

E?aaeeoi?u 200000

I?aauoaiea aeoeaa iaae ianneaii 300000

-Aaeain AOauoee 20000*enoue eaieoae 250000

I?eauee 70000Ia/aeueiue /enoue eaieoae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 20000Eoiai 320000300000

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aaeain oicyenoaa, a nouiinoe,
?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa /anoe:

1) aaeain A, iieacuaathuee ninoiyiea aeoeaiiai e ianneaiiai eiouanoaa ia
aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie; yoa /anoue aaeaina i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
noaoe/aneee ?ac?ac aaeaina oicyenoaa;

2) aaeain A, oa?aeoa?ecothuee eae iai?aaeaiea, oae e aaee/eio eciaiaiee
ia/aeueiiai /enoiai eaieoaea. Anee aaeain A i?aaenoaaeoue a aieaa
aeaoaeueiii aeaea, o.a. n oeacaieai ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?eaueae e
oauoeia, oi oaeie aaeain aeano naaaeaiey i i?e/eiao eciaiaiee a /enoii
eaieoaea, ?aaii eae e ia ioiineoaeueiie cia/eiinoe, oaeaeueiii aana
eaaeaeie ec yoeo i?e/ei. Oaeay /anoue iauaai aaeaina i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeeiaie/aneee ?ac?ac aaeaina oicyenoaa.

Ec anaai neacaiiiai Ioe caeeth/aao, /oi:

— oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee yaeyaony aeaieiie o/ao
/enoiai eaieoaea, aeey /aai eniieuecothony aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ae?oa
ae?oao ?yaea n/aoia, ?aaeno?e?othueo eciaiaiey a /enoii eaieoaea
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie niiniaaie;

— oeaeueth oaeiai o/aoa yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue iieacaoue ninoiyiea
i?aaei?eyoey a aeaoo ?ac?acao (aeeiaie/aneii e noaoe/aneii), ii a
aaeeiie e iieiie n/aoiie oaaeeoea, ioia?aaeathuae oaeei ia?acii
iaeiia?aiaiii eae ninoiyiea, oae e ?acaeoea aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Eaaeaeoth ec i?eaaaeaiiuo /anoae iauaai aaeaina iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
neaaeothueie o?aaiaieyie:

1) aaeain A: A1 – I1 = E1;

2) aaeain A: E + (i – o) = E1.

Iooai niaaeeiaiey iaieo o?aaiaiee iieo/aai iniiaiia o?aaiaiea oai?ee
aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia:

A1 – I1 = E + (i – o).

Iooai i?aia?aciaaiey iineaaeiaai o?aaiaiey iieo/aai oaea ecaanoiia
oaoie/aneia o?aaiaiea i?aeoe/aneiai n/aoiaiaenoaa: A1 + o = E + I1 + i.

Oaeei ia?acii, caienue /enoiai eaieoaea, aeieaia e i?eaueae ia iaeiie
noi?iia, a oauoeia e aeoeaia ia ae?oaie noi?iia aaeaina yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii niaa?oaiii i?aaiia?iuo aeaaa?ae/aneeo aeaenoaee neeyiey a
aaeeiue aaeain aeaoo aaeainia, niaa?oaiii ?acee/iuo iaaeaeo niaie ii
naiae i?e?iaea.

N oi/ee c?aiey i?aaee n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee ana n/aoa iauaaeeiythony a
aeaa a?oiiu: a?oiia A, eee a?oiia i?yiuo n/aoia, e a?oiia A, eee a?oiia
ia?aoiuo n/aoia. Aeaiiua a?oiiu n/aoia eiino?oe?othony ii neaaeothuei
noaiai (?en. 4.4).

I?yiua n/aoa (a?oiia A) Ia?aoiua n/aoa (a?oiia A)

Aeaaao (+)E?aaeeo (-)Aeaaao (-)E?aaeeo (+) ?en.4.4. – Noaiu
eiino?oe?iaaiey n/aoia

E a?oiia A ioiinyony n/aoa aeey o/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae,
aeaaeoi?ia e e?aaeeoi?ia, a naiae niaieoiiinoe ninoaaeythuea aeoea e
iannea aaeaina; a yoie a?oiia aoaeao /eneeoueny noieueei n/aoia, ia
neieueei aeaeia iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, aeaaeoi?ia e e?aaeeoi?ia
aoaeao ?aniaaeaoueny /enoue eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey. A?oiia A ninoaaeyaony
ec n/aoia ia/aeueiiai eaieoaea e i?eaueae e oauoeia, ioe?uaaaiuo a
eiee/anoaa, iaiaoiaeeiii aeey o/aoa anao oao i?e/ei eciaiaiee /enoiai
eaieoaea, noaoenoeea eioi?uo iai eaaeaony ioaeiie.

O/eouaaaiua anaie yoeie n/aoaie eciaiaiey /enoiai eaieoaea iiaoo auoue
naaaeaiu e neaaeothuei o?ai aeaeai:

1) oeaiiinoiua eciaiaiey;

2) eciaiaiey oi?iu;

3) niaoaiiua eciaiaiey.

Oeaiiinoiua eciaiaiey ?aaeno?e?othony iooai aeaieiie caiene ia aeaoo
n/aoao, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e ?aciui a?oiiai (A e A), neaaeothuaai oeia:

1) n/ao a?oiiu A (+) n/aoo a?oiiu A (+) — a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee i?eauee;

2) n/ao a?oiiu A (—) n/aoo a?oiiu A (—) — a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee oauoeia.

Eciaiaiey oi?iu io?aaeathony ia ia aaee/eia /enoiai eaieoaea, a eeoue ia
oi?ia aaeaina noaoe/aneiai eee aeeiaie/aneiai. Ana oaeea eciaiaiey a
noaoe/aneii aaeaina aoaeoo aucuaaoueny anyeiai ?iaea iia?aoeeyie
iaiiaiai oa?aeoa?a, iai?eia?:

n/ao a?oiiu A (+) n/aoo a?oiiu A (—).

A aeeiaie/aneii aaeaina eciaiaiey oi?iu aoaeoo naiaeeoueny ei anyeiai
?iaea ia?a/eneaieyi n iaeiiai ?acoeueoaoiiai n/aoa] ia ae?oaie,
iai?eia?:

n/ao a?oiiu A (—) n/aoo a?oiiu A (+).

Niaoaiiua eciaiaiey /enoiai eaieoaea ii oi?ia neeaaeuaathony, a
nouiinoe, ec ia?auo aeaoo aeaeia eciaiaiee. Aeinoaoi/ii oeie/iui
i?eia?ii niaoaiiuo iia?aoeee iiaeao neoaeeoue i?iaeaaea oiaa?a
noieiinoueth 100 ?oa. ca 120 ?oa. Oaeia eciaiaiea, ii iiaieth E. Ioe,
aoaeao ?aaeno?e?iaaoueny neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1) n/ao eannu (+ n/aoo oiaa?ia (—) ia 100 ?oa.;

2) n/ao eannu (+) n/aoo i?eaueae e oauoeia (+) ia 20 ?oa.

?acthie?oy eceiaeaiiua ?annoaeaeaiey E. Ioe, ioiaoei iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
aai oai?ee:

— iniiaiui i?eioeeiii yaeyaony aeaieiay ?aaeno?aoeey /enoiai eaieoaea
i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aciinoue iaaeaeo aeoeaii e
ianneaii, iin?aaenoaii aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia;

— aeaa ?yaea n/aoia aeeth/atho a naay n/aoa a?oiiu A (aeoeaiua e
ianneaiua), i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?aaeno?aoeee noaoeee, e n/aoa a?oiiu A
(n/aoa eaieoaea e ?acoeueoaoiua), iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?aaeno?aoeee
aeeiaieee /enoiai eaieoaea;

— eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey aucuaaao eciaiaiey a aeaoo n/aoao,
naiaeyueany e o?ai oeiai: ii niaea?aeaieth (oeaiiinoiua), ii oi?ia e
niaoaiiua;

— no?iaiea e niaea?aeaiea aaeaina iauyniyaony neeyieai a iaeei iauee
aaeain aeaoo ?aciuo aaeainia: noaoe/aneiai e aeeiaie/aneiai.

Oai?ey Oa?a (1922). Oaaeoea?neee aooaaeoa? Eiaaii O?eae?eo Oa?
(1846—1924) ioia/ae, /oi aeaieiay, eee nenoaiaoe/aneay aooaaeoa?ey
yaeyaony niaa?oaiiaeoae ec o?ao aeaeia aooaaeoa?ee1, iineieueeo
en/a?iuaathuei ia?acii io?aaeaao ia oieueei e?oaiiai?io oeaiiinoae
aeaiiiai oicyenoaa, ii e ?anoiaeu e aeioiaeu ioaeaeueiiai oicyenoaa; a
yoeo oeaeyo n/aoo ninoiyiey, oaaee/aiey eee oiaiueoaiey ?acee/iuo
yeiiiie/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo aeaeia oeaiiinoae i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony
n/ao /enoiai eaieoaea (n/ao eaieoaea) e n/ao aai oiaiueoaiee e
oaaee/aiee (n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia), aucaaiiuo aeioiaeaie e ?anoiaeaie.
Oaeei i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieai aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea iia?aoeee th?eaee/aneiai
e yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, iiaeeaaeauea n/aoiie caiene, i?eaiaeyony a
no?iaoth nenoaio (ionthaea iacaaiea «nenoaiaoe/aneay aooaaeoa?ey»).

Aeiionoei, /oi o oicyenoaa ia ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie eiaaony ?yae
oeaiiinoae, eioi?ua niioaaonoaaiii eo iniaaiiinoyi iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu
a iaeioi?ia /enei a?oii, noieiinoue eioi?uo oneiaii iaicia/ei al, a2, a3
e o.ae. Noiio noieiinoe anao a?oii oeaiiinoae iaicia/ei eae A; a
?acoeueoaoa iieo/ei neaaeothuaa o?aaiaiea:

al + a2 + a3 + … = A (aeoea). (1)

Yoi o?aaiaiea aoaeao iieacuaaoue, /oi aeoea yaeyaony noiiie noieiinoae
?acee/iuo oeaiiinoae eee, ae?oaeie neiaaie, /oi noiia /anoae ?aaia
oeaeiio.

Eiouanoai oicyenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eaieoae (E), iiyoiioal + a2 + a3
+ … = A = E. (2)

Oaeei ia?acii, eaieoae oicyenoaa — yoi noiia noieiinoe anao oeaiiinoae,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo oicyenoao.

Aeiionoei aeaeaa, /oi ?yae oeaiiinoae, iaoiaeyueony a oicyenoaa,
iinooiee io o?aoueeo eeoe eee aea io ae?oaeo aaeeie/iuo oicyenoa, i?e/ai
yeaeaaeaio yoeo oeaiiinoae aeieaeai auoue aiciauai /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy
yoei aea eeoeai eee oicyenoaai. Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeiioneaai
nouanoaiaaiea aeieaia o aeaiiiai oicyenoaa. Yoe aeieae aeieaeiu auoue
iiaaoaiu, i?e/ai iiaaoaiea iiaeao i?iecieoe eneeth/eoaeueii iooai
ecuyoey iaeioi?uo ec eiathueony o oicyenoaa oeaiiinoae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?e iaee/ee o oicyenoaa aeieaia i?aaeiaa o?aaiaiea A = E oaea ia aoaeao
io?aaeaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiia iieiaeaiea aauae, eai E, ianiiiaiii,
aeieaeii auoue iaiueoa A ia anth noiio aeieaia oicyenoaa. Iaicia/ei
ioaeaeueiua aeieae /a?ac il, i2, i3 e o.ae., a noiio yoeo aeieaia /a?ac
I (iannea) e aaaaeai eo a iaoa o?aaiaiea a oeaeyo io?aaeaiey
oaeoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey aauae:

(al + a2 + a3 + …) – (il + i2 + i3 + …) = A – I = E.

Oaeei ia?acii, ec o?aaiaiey neaaeoao, /oi eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeaaa?ae/aneoth noiio A + (— I). Eco/ay yoi o?aaiaiea, i?eoiaeei e
auaiaeo, /oi iauay eiouanoaaiiay ianna i?aaei?eyoey ninoieo, a nouiinoe,
ec aeaoo acaeiii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ii naiaio cia/aieth aeaeia eiouanoaa:
aeoeaa e ianneaa. A oi a?aiy eae aeoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue
iieiaeeoaeueiuo /anoae eiouanoaa, iannea iauaaeeiyao io?eoeaoaeueiua
/anoe eiouanoaa.

A oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea iiae aeeyieai e?oaiiai?ioa eaieoaea,
au?aaeathuaainy a ?yaea oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee, i?ienoiaeyo oa eee eiua
eciaiaiey eae a iauae noiia eaieoaea, oae e a ninoaaeythueo yoo noiio
aeoeaa e ianneaa. Ana oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu a o?e
a?oiiu: iaiiaua (aianoi ioaeaiiie oeaiiinoe i?eoiaeeo ae?oaay
oeaiiinoue, ?aaiay ae ii noieiinoe), ?acoeueoaoiua (aeeytho ia oieueei
ia ninoaa eiouanoaa, ii e ia aaee/eio eaieoaea), niaoaiiua (ni/aoaiea
iaiiauo iia?aoeee n ?acoeueoaoiuie). Eiia/ii, iia?aoeee iiaeeytho ia
iniiaiia o?aaiaiea, eioi?ia aoaeao eciaiyoueny neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1) i?e iaiaia iaeiie oeaiiinoe (a) ia ae?oaoth oeaiiinoue (a), ?aaioth
ae ii noieiinoe:

A + an – an = E; (4)

2) i?e iieaoa aeieaa oicyenoaa i iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie a noiia n:

(A – in)- (I – in) = E; (5)

3) i?e iieoiea oiaa?ia ia noiio (a) i?ioea auaea/e niei-aaenaey ia noiio
(a):

(A + am)- (I + am) = E; (6)

4) iieaoa aeieaa e?aaeeoi?o ii ioe?uoiio n/aoo o niei-aaenaeai ia noiio
m:

A – (I + im – im) = E. (7)

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ana iiaeiaiiai ?iaea iia?aoeee ia iauae aaee/eia
eaieoaea ia io?aaeathony, ?aaeno?e?iaaoue eo ioaeii, iineieueeo eaaeaeay
oaeay iia?aoeey aeaeieciaiyao ninoaa ioaeaeueiuo /anoae eiouanoaa.

?acoeueoaoiua iia?aoeee ioee/athony io ae?oaeo oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee
oai, /oi iie aeeytho ia oieueei ia ninoaa eiouanoaa, ii e ia aaee/eio
/enoiai eaieoaea. Iiaeiaiua iia?aoeee iaaethaeathony, eiaaea:

— aneaaenoaea oo?aou eiouanoaa acaiai ia iinooiaao eaeiai-eeai
yeaeaaeaioa;

— a oicyenoai iinooiaao oeaiiinoue aac auaea/e eaeiai-eeai yeaeaaeaioa;

— a nayce n ii?aaeaeaiiuie th?eaee/aneeie ioiioaieyie aeey oicyenoaa
aicieeatho iaycaoaeuenoaa eee i?aaa aac niioaaonoaothueo eiiiainaoeee.
Iiaeiaiua iia?aoeee eciaiytho iniiaiia aaeainiaia o?aaiaiea neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

1) i?e auauoee eaeie-eeai oeaiiinoe (ae) aac iieo/aiey yeaeaaeaioa:

. (A – ae) – I = E – ae; (8)

2) i?e iinooieaiee eaeie-eeai oeaiiinoe (a) aac auaea/e-yeaeaaeaioa:

A + a – I = E + a; (9)

3) i?e aicieeiiaaiee iaycaoaeuenoaa (c) aac iieo/aiey eaeie-eeai
eiiiainaoeee:

A – (I + c) = E – c; (10)

4) i?e en/aciiaaiee iaycaoaeuenoaa (c) aac auaea/e eaeie -eeai
eiiiainaoeee:

A- (I – c) = E + c. (11)

Niaoaiiua iia?aoeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ni/aoaiea iaiiauo iia?aoeee n
iia?aoeeyie ?acoeueoaoiuie. Aeaaiaeoeie aeaeaie iiaeiaiiai ?iaea
iia?aoeee yaeythony i?iaeaaea oiaa?a n i?eaueueth e i?iaeaaea oiaa?a n
oauoeii. Niaoaiiua iia?aoeee io?aaeathony e ia iniiaiii o?aaiaiee:

1) i?e i?iaeaaea oiaa?a noieiinoueth (a) ca (a + a):

A – a + (a + a) – I = E + a;
(12)

2) i?e i?iaeaaea oiaa?a noieiinoueth (a) ca (a — ae):

A-a+(a-ae)-I = E-ae.
(13)

Ec i?eaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae anao a?oii
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee neaaeoao, /oi eaaeaeay iia?aoeey aac eneeth/aiey
yaeyaony aeaienoaaiiie ii naiae i?e?iaea, i?e/ai aeaienoaaiiinoue yoa
i?iyaeyaony a aeaieiii aeeyiee, ai-ia?auo, ia ninoaaiua /anoe eiouanoaa
e, ai-aoi?uo, ia /enoue eaieoae. Yoo iniaaiiinoue oicyenoaaiiuo
iia?aoeee Oa? iiyniyao noaiaoe/anee (?en. 4.5).

Oaaee/aieth eaeie – eeai iaeiie /anoe eiouanoaai?ioeainoieoeee
oiaiueoaiea eaeie – eeai ae?oaie /anoe eiouanoaa, eee oaaee/aiea /enoiai
eaieoaeaOiaiueoaieth eaeie – eeai iaeiie /anoe eiouanoaai?ioeainoieoEee
oaaee/aiea eaeie – eeai ae?oaie /anoe eiouanoaa, eee oiaiueoaiea /enoiai
eaieoaea?en. 4.5. – Noaia aeaienoaaiiinoe oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee

O/ao anae oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe n iiiiuueth oeaeiai ?yaea oaeeo
o?aaiaiee aue au aeaeii iai?aeoe/iui, iiyoiio aianoi o?aaiaiee
eniieuecotho iniaua aeaonoi?iiiea oaaeeoeu, eee n/aoa. Naiaia?aciia
no?iaiea n/aoia n eo iiae?acaeaeaieai ia i?aaoth (e?aaeeoiaoth) e eaaoth
(aeaaaoiaoth) /anoe iicaieeei au eniieueciaaoue yoe n/aoa aeey
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey a ieo oaaee/aiee e oiaiueoaiee eae ninoaaiuo /anoae
eiouanoaa, oae e /enoiai eaieoaea. Oaeei ia?acii, o?aaiaiea (1) iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuei ia?acii (?en. 4.6).

N/aoa
eiouanoaa N/ao eaieoaea

AeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeo

Noiia ninoaaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa = /enoiio eaieoaeo, eee o.e. A
oiaeaeanoaaiii E, oia1+a2+

a3+…=AAE?en. 4.6. – Noaia o?aaiaiey (1)

Yoa noaia iieacuaaao, /oi i?e ia/aea caienae ii n/aoai ioaeaeueiua /anoe
eiouanoaa caiinyony a aeaaao n/aoia eiouanoaa, a iauay noiia yoeo /anoae
— a e?aaeeo n/aoa eaieoaea.

O?aaiaiea (2) aoaeao i?aaenoaaeaii neaaeothuae noaiie (?en. 4.7)

N/aoa
eiouanoaa N/ao eaieoaea

AeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeoEaieoae (A-I) ecia?aaeaaony eae ?aciinoue
iaaeaeo oiaiueoaaiui e au/eoaaiui. Oae eae a1+a2+a3+… oiaeaeanoaaiii I e
?aciinoue A-I oiaeaeanoaaiia /enoiio eaieoaeo, iieo/aai nie?auaiiia
ecia?aaeaieaa1+a2+

a3+…

=(A)n1+n2+

n3+…

(=I)=IAAI=E

?en. 4.7. – Noaia o?aaiaiey (2)

Ia iniiaaiee yoie noaiu onoaiiaei, /oi ianneaiua /anoe eiouanoaa
caiinyony a e?aaeeo n/aoia eiouanoaa, a /enoue eaieoae — a e?aaeeo n/aoa
eaieoaea. Niaeanii yoie aea noaia aeoeaiua (iieiaeeoaeueiua) /anoe
eiouanoaa aeieaeiu auoue caienaiu a aeaaao, a ianneaiua
(io?eoeaoaeueiua) /anoe eiouanoaa — a e?aaeeo eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaaao iineaaeieo oa?aeoa?ecoaony ciaeii « + », a
e?aaeeo — ciaeii « — ».

Noaiaoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea iaiiauo iia?aoeee ecia?aaeaii ia ?en. 4.8.

A oi?ia o?aaiaiee
A oi?ia n/aoia

N/aoa eiouanoaa N/ao eaieoaea

AeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeoA + an – an – I = E;A

+anI

-an=

=…

-E

-(A – in)- (I – in) = E;A

-inI

+in=

=…

-E

-(A + am)- (I + am) = E;A

AmI

Am=

=…

-E

-A – (I + im – im) = E.A

ImI

Im=

=…

-E

-?en. 4.8. – Noaia iaiiauo iia?aoeee

Aiaeiae/ii ia noaia i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaoiua iia?aoeee (?en. 4.9).

A oi?ia o?aaiaiee
A oi?ia n/aoia

N/aoa eiouanoaa N/ao eaieoaea

AeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeo(A – ae) – I = E – ae;A

-I

ae=

=…

aeE

-A + a – I = E + a;A

aI

-=

=…

-E

aA – (I + c) = E – c;A

-I

c=

=…

cE

-A- (I – c) = E + c.A

cI

-=

=…

-E

c?en. 4.9. – Noaia ?acoeueoaoiuo iia?aoeee

Oaeei ia?acii, ec noaiu ?acoeueoaoiuo iia?aoeee iiaeii eaaei
onoaiiaeoue, /oi yoe iia?aoeee io?aaeathony eae ia eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoao,
oae e ia n/aoao eaieoaea, i?e/ai oaaee/aieth aeoeaiuo e oiaiueoaieth
ianneaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa, o.a. aeaaaoiaaieth n/aoia eiouanoaa, anaaaea
niioaaonoaoao oaaee/aiea /enoiai eaieoaea eee, ae?oaeie neiaaie,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony e?aaeeoiaaiea n/aoa eaieoaea. Oiaiueoaieth aea
aeoeaiuo e oaaee/aieth ianneaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa niioaaonoaotho
oiaiueoaiey /enoiai eaieoaea eee, ae?oaeie neiaaie, e?aaeeoiaaieth
n/aoia eiouanoaa i?ioeainoieo aeaaaoiaaiea n/aoa eaieoaea. Ionthaea Oa?
aeaeaao neaaeothuaa caeeth/aiea: aeey ii?aaeaeaiey /enoiai eaieoaea e
aai oaaee/aiee e oiaiueoaiee oaeoe/anee aac?acee/ii oaaee/eaaoue
aeoeaiua oeaiiinoe eee oiaiueoaoue aeieae: anee A — (I — n1) = E, oi e
(A + i1) — I = E. Oaaee/aiea aeieaia ieacuaaao oaeie aea yooaeo, eae e
oiaiueoaiea aeoeaia: anee (A — a1) — I = E, oi e A — (I + a1) = E.

Auaiaeu, auoaeathuea ec i?iaaaeaiiiai oaeei ia?acii aiaeeca oeie/iuo
iia?aoeee n oi/ee c?aiey aeeyiey eo ia niioaaonoaothuea n/aoa, iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea naiaeee (oaae. 14).

Caneoaie Oa?a neaaeoao n/eoaoue ia oieueei ianoiyoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea
e aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi oi?ioea A = I, a nouiinoe, ?acai?a/eaaaony
a oi?ioeu

A+O=I+E+I? (14),
aaea

O – oauoee;

I? – i?eauee;

A-I=E+I?-O
(15)

Ii e onoaiiaeaiea aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey oaoie/aneei i?aia?aciaaieai aua
e ae?oaiai iniiaiiai o?aaiaiey, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey aoi?ie oi?iu aai
oai?ee

A – I –E = I? – O
(16)

Oaaeeoea 4.14 – Aeeyiea iia?aoeee ia n/aoa eiouanoaa e eaieoaea

Oeie/iua iia?aoeee i?aaei?eyoeyN/aoa eiouanoaaN/aoa eaieoaeaAeaaao
(oaaee/aiea)E?aaeeo (oiaiueoaiea)Aeaaao (oiaiueoaiea)E?aaeeo
(oaaee/aiea)O/?aaeaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeyIa/aeueiay noieiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo
e th?eaee/aneeo oeaiiinoae–Ia/aeueiue /enoue eaieoaeIaiiaua
iia?aoeeeOaaee/aiea noieiinoe iaeiie eaoaai?ee oeaiiinoaeOiaiueoaiea
noieiinoe ae?oaie eaoaai?ee oeaiiinoaeI?eaueeOaaee/aiea noieiinoe
eaeie-eeai eaoaai?ee oeaiiinoaeOaaee/aiea /enoiai
eaieoaeaOauoeeOiaiueoaiea noieiinoe eaeie-eeai eaoaai?ee
oeaiiinoaeOiaiueoaiea /enoiai eaieoaeaEeeaeaeaoeey (caaa?oaiea
ia?eiaea)Aeaaao – E?aaeeo (naeueaei aeaaaoa) eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia (iiaua
ninoaaiua /anoe eiouanoaa) E?aaeeo – Aeaaao (naeueaei e?aaeeoa) n/aoia
eaieoaea (iiaue /enoue eaieoae)

Eaaay /anoue o?aaiaiey (16) iieacuaaao ninoiyiea eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey
ia ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie (aooaaeoa?neee aaeain), i?aaay /anoue
o?aaiaiey (16) iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue eciaiaiey eaieoaea a aeeiaieea
(aaeain i?eaueae e oauoeia). Aeey o/aoa eciaiaiee a ninoaaa eiouanoaa e
/enoiai eaieoaea iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue aeaa ?yaea acaeiii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo n/aoia: n/aoa noaoe/aneea (aeey o/aoa eiouanoaa,
aeieaia e eaieoaea) e n/aoa aeeiaie/aneea (aeey o/aoa aeioiaeia,
?anoiaeia e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia).

E.O. Oa? oi?ioee?oao i?aaeei (iinooeao Oa?a): naeueaei n/aoia
noaoe/aneeo ?aaii e acaeiii i?ioeaiiieiaeii naeueaei n/aoia
aeeiaie/aneeo.

Nouanoaoao aua e o?aouey oi?ia oai?ee aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia Oa?a, eioi?ie
niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaiea A = I. Ii e yoiio o?aaiaieth Oa? ioiineony
aanueia e?eoe/anee. I?eciaaay, /oi yoi o?aaiaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
o?aaiaiea aaeaina, Oa? iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi yoi i?iaiue aaeain, eioi?ue a
nouiinoe yaeyaony eiio?ieueiui n?aaenoaii i?aaeeueiinoe n/aoiuo caienae.
I?iaiue aaeain niaea?aeeo ia eaaie noi?iia naeueaei aeoeaiuo n/aoia, a
oaeaea n/aoia oauoeia (A + O), e ia i?aaie noi?iia — naeueaei n/aoia
ianneaiuo, eaieoaea e i?eaueae (I + E + I?), /oi iicaieyao naeaeaoue
auaiae i niioaaonoaee i?iaiiai aaeaina oaoie/aneiio o?aaiaieth (14).
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, aeaaaoiaia naeueaei ?aaii e?aaeeoiaui naeueaei anao
n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae. Ii iiaieth Oa?a, neiaieii aeoeaa (A) iai?aaeeueii
iaicia/aaony niaieoiiinoue naeueaei eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia e n/aoia
oauoeia e neiaieii ianneaa (I) — niaieoiiinoue naeueaei n/aoia ianneaiuo
(iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie), eaieoaea e i?eauee.

Oai ia iaiaa iaeioi?ua aeinoieinoaa anoue e o oi?ioeu A = I, ii i?e
iai?aiaiiii oneiaee, /oi e ianneao ioiineony ia aaeiaay, a /enoay
i?eaueue eee ?aciinoue iaaeaeo i?eaueyie e oauoeaie (I? — O). A oaeii
aeaea oi?ioea iiaeao auoue iieacia eae oai?aoeeai, oae e i?aeoeeai. N
iao/iie oi/ee c?aiey iiiyoea ianneaa, iauaaeeiyy aiaaeeii nianoaaiiue e
/oaeie (caaiiue) eaieoae, i?aia?aciauaaaony a iiiyoea enoi/ieea
i?ienoiaeaeaiey eiouanoaa. Aeey i?aeoeea aeaiiia o?aaiaiea eiaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa, iineieueeo ia eaaie aai noi?iia iaoiaeeony
eneeth/eoaeueii eiouanoai, a ia i?aaie noi?iia yoiio eiouanoao
i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony iaa enoi/ieea aai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii,
nianoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny n aeaoo oi/ae
c?aiey:

— n th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey eiouanoai ?anniao?eaaaony a ioiioaiee aai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ii?aaeaeythony iaa enoi/ieea eaieoaea (nianoaaiiiai e
caaiiiai);

— n yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey eiouanoai ?anniao?eaaaony a ioiioaiee aai
ninoaaa, a aai ?aaeueiuo oi?iao.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie iieiaeaieyie nenoaiaoe/aneie oai?ee Oa?a iiaeii
iacaaoue neaaeothuea:

— i?eaaaeaiu a no?iaoth nenoaio iiaeeaaeauea n/aoiie caiene aiaoiea e
aioo?aiiea iia?aoeee th?eaee/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua
naaaeaiu a o?e a?oiiu: iaiiaua (aianoi ioaeaiiie oeaiiinoe i?eoiaeeo
ae?oaay oeaiiinoue, ?aaiay ae ii noieiinoe), ?acoeueoaoiua (aeeytho ia
oieueei ia ninoaa eiouanoaa, ii e ia aaee/eio eaieoaea), niaoaiiua
(ni/aoaiea iaiiauo e ?acoeueoaoiuo iia?aoeee);

— aeaienoaaiiinoue oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee iauyniyaony n iiiiuueth
aeaaa?ae/aneeo o?aaiaiee, auaiaeeiuo ec oi?ioeu A – I = E;

— i?aaeei (iinooeao Oa?a), eioi?ia iicaieeei a aoaeouai aeiiieieoue
aooaaeoa?neee aaeain (?ane?uaathuee noaoeeo /anoae eiouanoaa e /enoiai
eaieoaea) io/aoii i i?eaueyo e oauoeao (iieacuaathuei aeeiaieeo
oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia n iiiiuueth aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia);

— o?aaiaiea Oa?a iaaeyaeii iieacuaaao, /oi oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee aoaeao iaeeiaeiaui eae a noaoeea (?acieoea
iaaeaeo aeoeaii, iaycaoaeuenoaaie (ianneaii) e eaieoaeii ia ?aciua
aeaou), oae e a aeeiaieea (?acieoea iaaeaeo aeioiaeaie e ?anoiaeaie
(i?eaueueth e oauoeii) ca i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoaie: A —
I — E = I? — O);

— iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey eiouanoaa (aeoeaa)
enoi/ieeai aai ia?aciaaiey (ianneao e eaieoaeo), /oi ?ane?uaaao
yeiiiie/aneoth oi?io (/anoe eiouanoaa a aeoeaa) e th?eaee/aneia
niaea?aeaiea (i?aaa ?acee/iuo eeoe ia aeaiiia eiouanoai).

Oai?ey Aca?neiai. Oaaei? Aaiaaeeeoiae/ Aca?neee (1836— 1916) — ?onneee
aooaaeoa?, nicaeaoaeue o?ieiie oi?iu o/aoa (ecaanoiie oaeaea iiae
iacaaieai «?onneay o?ieiay nenoaia n/aoiaiaenoaa»), eioi?ay, ii iiaieth
Aca?neiai, ono?aiyao iaaeinoaoee aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee, iineieueeo
iicaieyao ia ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie i?aaenoaaeoue nianoaaiieeo oeiainiaue
?acoeueoao i?aaei?eyoey e onoaiiaeoue aeaoo, n eioi?ie iii
(i?aaei?eyoea) ia/iao iie?uaaoue naie ?anoiaeu e i?eiineoue i?eaueue.

O.A. Aca?neee onoaiaaeeaaao o?e iniiaiua caaea/e, eioi?ua n/aoiaiaenoai
aeieaeii ?aoaoue a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa:

– n/aoiaiaenoai aeieaeii aeaaaoue iai?a?uaioth ea?oeio aeoeaa e ianneaa
i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. aai iai?a?uaiue eiaaioa?ue;

– n/aoiaiaenoai aeieaeii iieacuaaoue ioaeaeueii aeey eaaeaeie io?anee
eee niaoeeaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey aaeiaua i?eauee e oauoee;

– n/aoiaiaenoai aeieaeii eiaoue aeinoaoi/ii i?inoua oi?ioeu i?iaa?ie,
eioi?ua iiaoo aa?aioe?iaaoue aac anyeeo ioeaie oi/iinoue
niioaaonoaothueo auaiaeia.

Ana yoe caaea/e n/aoiaiaenoai ?aoaao iooai ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo
iai?ioia i?aaei?eyoey, i?e/ai ?aaeno?aoeey yoa neeaaeuaaaony ec
neaaeothueo caienae: o?iiieiae/aneie, nenoaiaoe/aneie e naiaeiie.
Eaaeaeiio aeaeo caienae aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue naie eieae, eee, eae
aiai?eo Aca?neee, ia?aeeaee.

Ia?aay ia?aeeaeue, eee eaieoaeueiay eieaa, i?aaeiacia/aaony aeey
o?iiieiae/aneie caiene e caiaiyao niaith eanniaue aeo?iae e iaii?eae
(oaae. 4.15).

Oaaeeoea 4.15 – Eaieoaeueiay eieaa (ia?aeeaeue)

Iacaaiea n/aoaAeaoa e nouiinoue iai?ioiaEiio?ieue eoiaiaEanna
OeaiiinoeInoaoeei?eoiae-iue?anoiae-iuei?eoiae?anoiaei?eoiae?anoiaei?eoia
e?anoiae

Ia?aay a?aoa eaieoaeueiie eieae neoaeeo aeey ioiaoee acaeiii
ei??aniiiaee?othueo n/aoia, cao?aaeaaaiuo ?aaeno?e?oaiie iia?aoeeae;
aoi?ay a?aoa i?aaeiacia/aia aeey eceiaeaiey a iae aeaou e nouiinoe
iia?aoeee; a o?aoueth a?aoo auienuaaaony noiia eaaeaeie iia?aoeee
(aeaiiua yoie a?aou niaea?aeao aaaeiaeooth /anoue i?eciaeia aa?iinoe
caienae a eaieoaeueiie eieaa); /aoaa?oay e iyoay a?aou ioaeiu aeey
caiene i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea aeaiaa, aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo oeaiiinoae;
oanoay a?aoa niaea?aeeo aeaa iiaea?aou: «oiaiueoaiea inoaoeia»,
i?aaeiacia/aiioth aeey caiene a iae oi?aiauo ?anoiaeia, oauoeia e o.i.,
e «oaaee/aiea inoaoeia» — aeey caiene, ai-ia?auo, anao aiciauaiee
i?iecaaaeaiiuo oi?aiauo ?anoiaeia e, ai-aoi?uo, anao oaea
ii?aaeaeeaoeony i?eaueae. Iaaeaeo noiiiauie a?aoaie eaieoaeueiie eieae
nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay caaeneiinoue, aiaoiei ia?acii i?iyaeythuayny a
caiene eaaeaeie oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee 3 ?aca:

1) a a?aoo «eiio?ieue eoiaia»;

2) a a?aoo «eanna» eee «oeaiiinoe» (ii i?eoiaeo) e a a?aoo «inoaoee»
(iiaea?aoa «oiaiueoaiea») a neo/aa auyaeaiey oauoeia;

3) a a?aoo «eanna» eee «oeaiiinoe» (ii ?anoiaeo) e a a?aoo «inoaoee»
(iiaea?aoa «oaaee/aiea») a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee i?eaueae.

Oaeei ia?acii, a?aou 4 e 5 eaieoaeueiie eieae iiaoo auoue iauaaeeiaiu a
aeaa iauea a?aou neaaeothuei ia?acii (oaae. 4.16).

Oaaeeoea 16 Iauaaeeiaiea a?ao 4 e 5 eaieoaeueiie eieae

I?eoiae

?anoiae

Inoaoie (auaiae)oiaiueoaiea (oauoie)oaaee/aiea (i?eaueue)

Ianiio?y ia oi?iaeueioth caaeneiinoue yoeo a?ao, iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaoao
ii?aaeaeaiiia i?eioeeieaeueiia ?acee/ea. Iiae i?eoiaeii Aca?neee
iiieiaao aeaenoaeoaeueiia iinooieaiea i?aaeiaoia, eiathueo ?aaeueioth
oeaiiinoue, iiae ?anoiaeii — ioione yoeo aea oeaiiinoae ii oeaia naiae
i?eoiaeiie, aeaenoaeoaeueiie; a?aoa «inoaoie (auaiae)» a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ia?aui aeaoi iieacuaaao ia aeaeaeaiea ioia/aiiuo a
oao a?aoao oeaiiinoae, a ?acoeueoaou yoiai aeaeaeaiey, o.a. oauoee e
i?eauee eee oiaiueoaiea e oaaee/aiea iauae aaee/eiu nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eyoey. Aeey yniiai iiieiaiey oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae oao
caienae, eioi?ua eiatho ianoi a eaieoaeueiie eieaa, i?eaaaeai iaeei ec
i?eia?ia, i?aaeeaaaaiuo Aca?neei (oaae.4.17).

Ec yoiai i?eia?a auoaeaao, /oi a?aoa «eanna» niaea?aeeo aeaiiua ia
iaeiie /anoe aeoeaa i?aaei?eyoey, a?aoa «oeaiiinoe»—1 i ae?oaie /anoe
aeoeaa e anaai ianneaa, a?aoa «inoaoie (auaiae)» — aeaiiua i
ia?aiia/aeueiii /enoii eaieoaea e iineaaeothueo aai eciaiaieyo ia noiio
auyaeaiiuo i?eaueae e oau eia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oa caiene, eioi?ua
eiatho ianoi a ooiaeaiaioaeueiii o?oaea Aca?neiai, iieiinoueth
ioia?aaeatho oaea ecaanoiia o?aaiaiea oai?ee Oa?a:

A – I = E + (I? – O).

Iao?oaeii oaeaea caiaoeoue, /oi aeieae o?aoueei eeoeai i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie io?eoeaoaeueiua oeaiiinoe, noiia eioi?uo iiaeeaaeeo au/aoo ec
iauae noiiu aeoeaa a neo/aa ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea
i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaaeeoea 4.17 – I?eia? caienae eaieoaeueiie eieae

Aeaoa e nouiinoue iai?ioiaEiio?ieue
eoiaiaEannaOeaiiinoeInoaoeei?eoiae?anoiaei?eoiae?anoiaei?eoiae?anoiaeNae
ueaei ia 1 yiaa?y 1870a.

N?aaenoaa (aeoea):

iaee/iuo aeaiaa

na?aa?a

iaaaee

ieaouey

aeiea ca I.

Iiaaoaiea (iannea):

aeieaeai I.I.

400

420

300

500

200

100

400

420

300

500

200

100

100

400

420

300

500

200

Eoiai192040014201001001820I?iaa?ea:

Eanna + Oeaiiinoe = Inoaoee

400+1320=1720picscalex250100090000032a0200000200a20100000000a20100002606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I?eoiae – ?anoiae =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I?eoiae – ?anoiae = 400

Oaaee/aiea – Oiaiueoaiea = 1720Iia?aoeee ca yiaa?ue 1870a.

Iieo/aii aeaeiaaiey

Iieo/aii aeieaia

Oiea/aii aeieaia

Eoieaii na?aa?a

Eoieaii oeaiiuo aoiaa

I?iaeaiu oeaiiua aoiaae:

n i?eaueueth

n oauoeii

250

200

100

50

200

105

100

250

200

105

98

100

50

200

100

50

200

200

100

100

2

250

5

-Eoiai2925105335017705001022075I?iaa?ea:

Eanna + Oeaiiinoe = Inoaoee

703+1270 =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I?eoiae – ?anoiae =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I?eoiae – ?anoiae = 1270

Oaaee/aiea – Oiaiueoaiea = 1973

Aoi?ay ia?aeeaeue, eee eieaa nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia, caiaiyao niaie ana
aniiiiaaoaeueiua eieae (?aaeno?u aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa) (oaae. 4.18).

Oaaeeoea 4.18 – Eieaa o/aoa a?aceeueneiai eioa

Ni n/aoa …

ia n/ao …Aeaoa

Oiae

aeae

OeaiaEiee/anoaiNoiiaAuaiae?oa.

eii.

?aaoeyoi?

i?eoiae

?anoiae

i?eoiae

?anoiae

oauoie

i?eaueue

Iacaa-iea?

I?e iciaeiieaiee n oa?aeoa?iuie iniaaiiinoyie noiiiauo a?ao eieae
nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia iiaeii onoaiiaeoue i?eioeeieaeueiia ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo aeaiiuie, niaea?aeaueieny a a?aoao «noiia» e «auaiae». A a?aoa
«noiia» i?inoaaeythony naaaeaiey i aeaeaeaiee oeaiiinoae ii eo
ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe, a a a?aoa «auaiae» — ?acoeueoaou yoiai
aeaeaeaiey. Ec inoaeueiuo a?ao yoie eieae iaeaieueoee eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeyao a?aoa «?aaoeyoi?». Yoa a?aoa, ii iiaieth Aca?neiai,
iaiaoiaeeia aeey i?iaa?ee i?eciaeia aa?iinoe, iaaeaeo oai, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iaeuecy aeiionoeoue oeai n iaeeeie ae?iayie (iie ia?aiaiyee au
e cao?oaeiyee ?aaioo n/aoiaiaea), n ae?oaie — ia neaaeoao aiineoue a
n/aoiaiaenoai iaoi/iinoae, oioy au ?aaee ie?oaeaiey ae?iaae. Aeey yoiai
onoaiaaeeaaaony i?aaeei: caienuaaoue ioa?anuaaaiua eee i?eaaaeyaiua i?e
ie?oaeaiee oeai noiiu a iniaoth a?aoo «?aaoeyoi?». Eiaaea ie?oaeaiea
oeai au?aaeaaony i?eaaaeaieai eaeie-eeai noiiu, yoa iineaaeiyy
aunoaaeyaony a a?aoa «?aaoeyoi?» n ieionii ( —), icia/athuei, /oi
i?eaaaeaiiia neaaeoao ioiyoue i?e auaiaea i?eciaeia aa?iinoe. Eiaaea aea
i?e ie?oaeaiee oeeo? ioa?anuaaaony oeeo?a ae?iae, aa neaaeoao caienaoue
n iethnii ( + ), icia/athuei, /oi ioa?ioaiioth oeeo?o i?e auaiaea
i?eciaeia aa?iinoe ioaeii i?eaaaeoue. Iaeiiaoe, a neo/ayo e?oaeie oeaiu
?aaoeyoi?ii aunoaaeyaony iieue. Noiiu ?aaoeyoi?a neeaaeuaathony iethn n
iethnii, ieion n ieionii, iaiueoay aaee/eia au/eoaaony ec aieueoae, e
?acieoea aunoaaeyaony eae iineaaeiee ?aaoeyoi? aeaiiiai n/aoa.

I?aaeeueiinoue caienae a eieaa nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia oaeinoiaa?yaony
neaaeothueie o?aiy i?eciaeaie aa?iinoe.

Ai-ia?auo, aeieaeiu iieo/aoueny iaeeiaeiaua ?acoeueoaou:

— au/eoaiey eoiaia i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea, iaiueoaai ec aieueoaai;

— oiiiaeaiey eiee/anoaa inoaoea ia oeaio iethn eee ieion ?aaoeyoi?.

Yoei i?eciaeii aa?iinoe aeieacuaaaony i?aaeeueiinoue aeaiiuo i
eiee/anoaa, oeaia e noiia.

Ai-aoi?uo, iauee eoia inoaoeia ii eieaa nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia aeieaeai
auoue ?aaai iauaio eoiao inoaoeia eaieoaeueiie eieae.

A-o?aoueeo, i?e eiaaioa?ecaoeee aeaiiua i eiee/anoaa aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue inoaoeo, oeacaiiiio a nenoaiaoe/aneie eieaa.

O?aouey ia?aeeaeue, eee naiaeii-io/aoiay eieaa (oaae. 4.19), neoaeeo
aeey iauaaeeiaiey a iae caienae iai anao oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeeyo, aeey
n?aaiaiey yoeo caienae iaaeaeo niaie e, iaeiiaoe, aeey ninoaaeaiey
iieiiai io/aoa i oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Caiene a yoo
eieao i?iecaiaeyony ia iniiaa aeaiiuo eieae nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia,
iieo/aiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa iiaen/aoa ioaeaeueiuo n/aoia. Naiaeii-io/aoiay
eieaa caiaiyao Aeaaioth e eiaaioa?ioth eieae e a iniaaiiinoe oaeea n/aoa
Aeaaiie eieae, eae n/aoa aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai e caeeth/eoaeueiiai,
eaieoaea, i?eaueae e oauoeia.

Oaaeeoea 4.19. – Naiaeii – io/aoiay eieaa

? n/aoaIacaaiea n/aoaI?eoiae?anoiaeAuaiaeInoaaonyInoaoie
(aeoea)iinooieeiInoaoie (iannea)auaueioaueii?eaueiN?aaenoa
(aeoea)Iaycaoaeuenoa

(iannea)Iaiueea12000–12000-2000–Eioa1004725-4725-284100-I?i/ea37000038
9635600003120003498498335579635192000Eoiai382100394360600003287253498410
0619579635192000Iiaeaioiaea e i?iaa?eaAnaai n inoaoeii: 382100+394360 =
776460Anaai n inoaoeii:

60000+328725 = 388725I?eauei–oauei: 100619 – 34984 = 65635Aeoea –
iannea:

579735 – 192000 = 387735I?iaa?ea:

1) anaai i?eoiae – anaai ?anoiae = aeoea eii. = 776460 – 388725 =
387735;

2) (aeoea ia/. – iannea ia/.)+(i?eauei – oauei) = aeoea eii. – iannea
eii. = (382100 – 60000)+65635 = 387735;

3) Aeaiiua a?aou «inoaaony» aeieaeiu niaiaaeaoue n aeaiiuie
eiaaioa?ecaoeee a eiioea io/aoiiai aiaea.

Iciaeiieaiea n iniaaiiinoyie caienae a naiaeii – io/aoiie eieaa
i?eaiaeeo e neaaeothuei caeeth/aieyi: anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea eeoue
a?aou «i?eoiae», «?anoiae» e «inoaaony», oi aeaiiua yoeo a?ao
oeeaaeuaathony a o?aaiaiea, auaaaeaiiia Oa?ii: A – I = E + (I? – O).

Anee ca iniiao acyoue a?aou «i?eoiae», «?anoiae» e «auaiae», oi
i?eieiaai ai aieiaiea, /oi ia?aua aeaa a?aou niaea?aeao aeaiiua
ioiineoaeueii:

– ia?aiia/aeueiiai aeoeaa e iineaaeothueo eciaiaiee a iai (o.a.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 =
A1);

– ia?aiia/aeueiiai ianneaa iineaaeothueo eciaiaiee a iai (o.a.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 =
I1);

– ia?aiia/aeueiiai eaieoaea aac iineaaeothueo eciaiaiee a iai (o.a.
A-I=E).

A?aoa auaiae niaea?aeeo aeaiiua ioiineoaeueii eiaaoeo ianoi a oa/aiea
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea eciaiaiee a ia/aeueiii eaieoaea (o.a. eciaiaiee ia
aaee/eio i?eaueae eee oauoeia). Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiiua yoeo a?ao
iieiinoueth oeeaaeuaathony a ae?oaia o?aaiaiea Oa?a: A1 – I1 – E = I? –
O.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae, ioiaoei iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee Aca?neiai:

-o/ao oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey inouanoaeyaony i?e
iiiiue o?ao ia?aeeaeae (eiea): o?iiieiae/aneie, eee eaieoaeueiie eieae,
nenoaiaoe/aneie eieae e naiaeii – io/aoiie eieae;

– caiene a eaaeaeie eieaa naiaeyony e ?aaeno?aoeee o?ao aaaeiaeoeo
iiiaioia eaaeaeie oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee: i?eoiae, ?anoiae e ?acoeueoao
i?eoiaeii – ?anoiaeiie iia?aoeee;

– i?aaeeueiinoue caienae a eaaeaeie eieaa oaeinoiaa?yaony o?aiy
i?eciaeaie aa?iinoe, i?enoueie eaaeaeie ia?aeeaee;

– eaaeaeay iia?aoeey eiaao aeaa aaaeiaeoeo neaaenoaey: aeeyao ia
iniiaiua /anoe eiouanoaa (neaaenoaey yoeo iia?aoeee – i?eoiae e ?anoiae
oeaiiinoae), aeeyao ia iauoth aaee/eio ia?aiia/aeueiiai eaieoaea
(?acoeueoao eae neaaenoaea i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea);

– aeey ia?aie a?oiiu neaaenoaee i?aaeiacia/athony a?aou «eanna» e
«oeaiiinoe» a eaieoaeueiie eieaa, «i?eoiae e ?anoiae» a naiaeii –
io/aoiie eieaa, oaeei ia?acii, yoe a?aou niioaaonoaotho eiouanoaaiiui
n/aoai;

– aeey o/aoa aoi?ie a?oiiu neaaenoaee neoaeao a?aou «inoaoie (auaiae)» a
eaieoaeueiie eieaa e «auaiae» a naiaeii-io/aoiie eieaa, niioaaonoaaiii
yoe a?aou iiaeii n/eoaoue ?yaeii n/aoia eaieoaea.

Oai?ey Eoineiai. I?ioanni? I.N. Eoineee a ?aaioao, iaienaiiuo a ia?eiae
1900—1928 aa., e?eoeeoao iaeioi?ua iieiaeaiey oai?ee Oa?a e aianoa n oai
aieaa aeaoaeueii e /aoei iainiiauaaao aeaaiaeoea aa iieiaeaiey.

Iooaeeeaaynue io oi?ioeu A — I = E, Eoineee iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi /enoue
eaieoae — yoi n/aoiay aaee/eia, iieo/aiiay iooai au/eoaiey ec iauae
noiiu aeoeaa iauae noiiu aeieaia, eiathueony ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee.
Eaieoae aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i oie noiia eiouanoaa, eioi?ay ia
ia?aiaiaia aeieaaie e ia iiaeeaaeeo niaoaieth n ?acee/iuie n/aoiuie
eaoaai?eyie eee aea neeyieth a aaeeiia oeaeia. Iiyoiio iienuaaoue
aaeainiaia o?aaiaiea oi?ioeie A == I, aaea iannea i?aaenoaaeyao
enoi/ieee ia?aciaaiey eiouanoaa, o.a. iauaaeeiyao a aaeeiia oeaeia
eaieoae e aeieae, iai?aaiia?ii. Iaeiaei anee a ianneaa aaeaina
auaeaeeoue aeaa ninoaaiua /anoe — eaieoae e iaycaoaeuenoaa, oi iiiauaiea
eo ia iaeio noi?iio iiaeao auoue iainiiaaii. A yoii neo/aa iiaeii
aiai?eoue ia oceii (aeieae) e oe?ieii (niaieoiiinoue nianoaaiiuo e
caaiiuo enoi/ieeia) niunea iiiyoey «iannea».

I.N. Iiiaceia, e?eoeeoy iiaue oa?iei «iannea a oe?ieii niunea»,
ioia/aao, /oi oiaaea aiciiaeii e aaaaeaiea iiiyoey «aeoea a oe?ieii
niunea». Oae, anee eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey i?aauoaao aai aeieae, ?acieoea
ia?acoao /enoue eaieoae, anee eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey ?aaii aai aeieaai,
/enoue eaieoae ?aaai ioeth, anee aea aeieae i?aauoatho noieiinoue
eiouanoaa, oi eiaai aeaei n ianinoiyoaeueiinoueth. I/aaeaeii, /oi
eaaeaeue ec oeacaiiuo neo/aaa iiaeao auoue iienai o?aaiaieyie: a ia?aii
neo/aa A = I + E, ai aoi?ii neo/aa A = I, a a o?aoueai neo/aa A + + E =
I; e anee aeey ia?aiai o?aaiaiey iiiaaeiaeeinue aaaaeaiea iiiyoey
«iannea a oe?ieii niunea», oi aeey o?aoueaai o?aaiaiey i?eoeinue au
aaanoe iiiyoea «aeoea a oe?ieii niunea». Oieueei aeaaiaea?y yoei
eneonnoaaiiui iiiyoeyi e oaeaaony nio?aieoue cia/eiinoue o?aaiaiey A = I
aeey anao aac eneeth/aiey /anoiuo neo/aaa iniiaiiai o?aaiaiey.

Oai?ey Iaiaeioiioei. A?a/aneee niaoeeaeeno Iaiaeioiioei i?aaenoaaee naie
oai?aoe/aneea acaeyaeu a aeieeaaea ia 5-i Iaaeaeoia?iaeiii n/aoiii
eiia?anna (A?thnnaeue, 1926 a.), aaea oeacae, /oi n/aoiaaaeaiea eiaao
naiei i?aaeiaoii i?eioeeiu e i?aaeea, ioiinyueany aeaaiui ia?acii:

— e i?aaiecaoeee n/aoiaiaenoaa a aaeeie/iii oicyenoaa;

— e nenoaiaoe/aneie ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey;

— e auyaeaieth e aiaeeco yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey.

Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea iaeaaeaao iaeioi?ui eiouanoaii eee aeoeaii,
ninoiyuei ec ?yaea aauanoaaiiuo e iaaauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae. Noieiinoue
anao yoeo oeaiiinoae aeieaeia auoue au?aaeaia a aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao.
Iaee/ea oaeiai eiouanoaa nii?yaeaii n ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?aaaie
nianoaaiiinoe ia iaai. I?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ?aniaaeathony ia i?aaa
o?aoueeo eeoe, eee iannea, e i?aaa aeaaeaeueoea i?aaei?eyoey, eee
eaieoae. Yoe iaa aeaea i?aa eiie?aoece?othony iooai ioeaiee eo a oao aea
aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao, eioi?ua auee i?eiyou aeey ioeaiee aeoeaa.
Ianiiiaiii, iaaeaeo eiouanoaii i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaaie nianoaaiiinoe ia
yoi eiouanoai aeieaeii auoue iieiia niioaaonoaea, aiaoiei ia?acii
i?iyaeythuaany a oiaeaeanoaa eo noiiiauo au?aaeaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, a
iniiaa n/aoiaaaeaiey eaaeeo oi ?aaainoai, eioi?ia iaeciaiii nouanoaoao a
ethaii oicyenoaa iaaeaeo eiouanoaaiiie iannie yoiai oicyenoaa (A) e oaie
i?aaaie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, o?aoueeo eeoe (I), a n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
aeaaeaeueoea aeaiiiai oicyenoaa (E), eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiythony ia
aeaiioth ianno. Oeacaiiia ?aaainoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?aaiaieai A = I +
E, yaeythueiny a oi aea a?aiy au?aaeaieai aaeaina oicyenoaa.

Aeey o/aoa anao aac eneeth/aiey eciaiaiee a aeoeaa, ianneaa e eaieoaea,
aucuaaaiuo oicyenoaaiiuie iia?aoeeyie i?aaei?eyoey, ioe?uaathony iniaua
aeaonoi?iiiea oaaeeoeu, eee n/aoa, a eioi?uo ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea
aeoeaa caienuaathony ia oie aea noi?iia, ia eioi?ie iie iaoiaeyony a
o?aaiaiee aaeaina, a oiaiueoaiey ioia/athony ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
noi?iiao n/a oia. Oaeei ia?acii, noaiu n/aoia aeoeaa, ianneaa e eaieoaea
i?eioo neaaeothuee aeae (?en. 4.10).

+Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo – – Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo + –
Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo +

Aeoeaa ianneaa
eaieoaea

Ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea aeoeaaOiaiueoaiea aeoeaaOiaiueoaiea
ianneaaNinoiyiea e oaaee/aiea ianneaaOiaiueoaiea eaieoaeaNinoiyiea e
oaaee/aiea eaieoaea?en. 4.10 – Noaiu iino?iaiey n/aoia aeoeaa, ianneaa e
eaieoaea

Eae aeaeei, i?eiaiyaiua a n/aoiaaaeaiee oa?ieiu «aeaaao» e «e?aaeeo»
iiaoo oa?aeoa?eciaaoue: «aeaaao» — eae ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea aeoeaa,
oae e oiaiueoaiea ianneaa e eaieoaea, a «e?aaeeo» — eae oiaiueoaiea
aeoeaa, oae e ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea ianneaa e eaieoaea. Yoi
aeaienoaaiiia cia/aiea e aeaaaoa e e?aaeeoa ii?aaeaeyaony enoi?e/anee
neiaeeaoeiny iau/aa» iaicia/aoue iaeiaiiaaieai «aeaaao» eaaua noi?iiu
anao aac eneeth/aiey n/aoia, a iaeiaiiaaieai «e?aaeeo» —
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua, eee i?aaua noi?iiu oao aea n/aoia.

Onoaiaaeeaay yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai, Iaiaeioiioei iieaiece?oao n aaoi?aie,
eioi?ua iniiauaatho naie oai?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey ia o?aaiaiee A — I — E
= 0, e, eae neaaenoaea, ioiinyo ana n/aoa e iaeiiio ?yaeo (o.a. n/aoa
iaeeiaeiau ii niaea?aeaieth e no?iaieth). Iineaaeiaa o?aaiaiea, ii
iiaieth Iaiaeioiioei, eca?auaao enoeiioth i?e?iaeo n/aoia ianneaa e
eaieoaea, oae eae i?aaenoaaeyao ana n/aoa a neaaeothuai aeaea (?en.
11).

+Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo – – Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo + –
Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo +

Aeoeaa ianneaa
eaieoaea

?en. 4.11 – Noaiu iino?iaiey n/aoia a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaieai A-I-E =
0

Oaeia no?iaiea oeacaiiuo n/aoia yaii ia niioaaonoaoao | enoeiiiio
iieiaeaieth aauae, iineieueeo i?eaiaeeo e neaaeothuei iai?aaeeueiui
ooaa?aeaeaieyi:

— oiaiueoaiey ianneaa e eaieoaea iiaeeaaeao ioianaieth; a e?aaeeo, a eo
oaaee/aiey — a aeaaao;

— ciae neiaeaiey, eee oaaee/aiey ( + ), a ?aaiie noaiaie iiaeao
oa?aeoa?eciaaoue e oaaee/aiea aeoeaa, e oiaiueoaiea ianneaa e eaieoaea,
a ciae oiaiueoaiey, eee au/eoaiey (—), a iaeeiaeiaie ia?a neiaieece?oao
e oiaiueoaiea aeoeaa, e oaaee/aiea ianneaa e eaieoaea.

Iaiaeioiioei ioia/ae, /oi a iaoaiaoeea, eiia/ii, iiaeii ia?aiineoue
/eneiaia cia/aiea eaaeaeiai ec /eaiia o?aaiaiey ec iaeiie /anoe
o?aaiaiey a ae?oaoth, iaiyy ciae ia?aae yoei ni/eaiii, ii a
n/aoiaaaeaiee ie a eiai neo/aa iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi oaaee/aiea aeoeaa
iaoiaeeo naia ianoi a ianneaa, /oi aianoi oiaiueoaiey aeoeaa iiaeii
oaaee/eoue iannea eee eaieoae.

Oaeei ia?acii, no?iaiea n/aoia aaeaina neeaaeuaaaony iiae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aeeyieai iniiaiiai aaeainiaiai o?aaiaiey A = I + E,
eioi?ia aeaao ?aaeueiia ioia?aaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aauae.

Iacuaeaiinoue ?aaainoaa yaeyaony neaaenoaeai iaiaia ?aaiiaaeeeeo
oeaiiinoae, oa?aeoa?ecothuaai eaaeaeoth oicyenoaaiioth iia?aoeeth. A
yeiiiie/aneii ninoiyiee i?aaei?eyoey oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee aucuaatho
aeaiyeia eciaiaiea:

— eee oaaee/eaay e oiaiueoay aeoea: A + (a — a) = I + E;

— eee oaaee/eaay aeoea e iannea: A + a = (I + a) + E;

— eee oaaee/eaay aeoea e eaieoae: A + a = I + (E + a);

— eee oiaiueoay aeoea e iannea: A — a = (I — a) + E;

— eee oiaiueoay aeoea e eaieoae: A — a = I + (E — a);

— eee oaaee/eaay e oiaiueoay iannea: A = (I + a — a) + E;

— eee oaaee/eaay iannea e oiaiueoay eaieoae: A = (I + a) + (E – a);

— eee oiaiueoay e oaaee/eaay eaieoae: A = I+(E + a — a).

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey, yaeyynue neaaenoaeai
iaiaia oeaiiinoyie, aucuaaao aeaieiia eciaiaiea a ninoaaiuo /anoyo
aaeaina, ii/aio e o?aaoao aeaieiie ?aaeno?aoeee ia aeaoo n/aoao
iaiaieaaaiuo oeaiiinoae: ia eaaie noi?iia iaeiiai (ii aeaaaoo) e ia
i?aaie noi?iia ae?oaiai (ii e?aaeeoo).

Eaaeaeue ni/eai oeacaiiiai o?aaiaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony ciaeii « + », ii
anee ninoaaeoue iai?ioioth aaaeiiinoue ii anai n/aoai, oi ie iaae iaeiie
a?aoie oaeie aaaeiiinoe iaeuecy aoaeao iinoaaeoue aaeeiiai ciaea (o.a. «
+ » eee « — »), iineieueeo, iai?eia?, a eaaie iai?ioiie a?aoa aaaeiiinoe
aoaeoo noiyoue noiiu eaauo noi?ii eae n/aoia aeoeaa, oae e n/aoia
ianneaa e eaieoaea, a a i?aaie a?aoa — noiiu i?aauo noi?ii yoeo aea
n/aoia, eioi?ua, eae ecaanoii ec i?eaaaeaiiuo noai n/aoia, iaeaaeatho
oa?aeoa?ii, i?ioeaiiieiaeiui ae?oa ae?oao.

Eaaeaeue ni/eai o?aaiaiey A = I + E i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiaiie n/ao
aaeaina, iauaaeeiythuee niioaaonoaothuee ?yae n/aoia aeoeaiuo, ianneaiuo
eee eaieoaeueiuo. Iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho ?yae n/aoia
eaieoaea, a eioi?ue aoiaeyo n/aoa eaieoaea, i?eaueae, oauoeia, i?eaueae
e oauoeia. Eco/ay no?iaiea e no?oeoo?o aeaiiuo n/aoia, iiaeii i?eeoe e
caeeth/aieth, /oi no?oeoo?a n/aoia oauoeia eiaao niaa?oaiii eiie
oa?aeoa?, /ai no?oeoo?a eiuo n/aoia aeaiiiai ?yaea. Iaaeyaeii yoi
?acee/ea auyaeyaony ia noaiao (?en. 4.12)

Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo
Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo +

oi?aiauo oauoeia
eaieoaea

?anoiaeia

+-+–+

Aeaaao N/ao E?aaeeo Aeaaao N/ao
E?aaeeo

i?eaueae i?eaueae

e oauoeia

-+-+?en. 4.12. – Noaia ?yaea n/aoia eaieoaea

Iniaaiiinoue n/aoa oauoeia Iaiaeioiioei iauyniyao oai, /oi iie yaeythony
io?eoeaoaeueiuie ii ioiioaieth e n/aoai i?eaueae e eaieoaea. Ia oaeii
n/aoa oauoee iai?a?uaii neeaaeuaathony aeey oiai, /oiau ii ieii/aiee
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea aeaaaoiaia naeueaei yoiai n/aoa auei iiaaoaii
i?eaueyie. N/aoa iaeiiai ?yaea, eiathuea io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea ii
ioiioaieth e inoaeueiui n/aoai, aaoi? iacuaaao eiio?a?iuie.

Ii aiaeiaee n io?eoeaoaeueiuie n/aoaie a ?yaeo n/aoia eaieoaea
nouanoaotho eiio?a?iua n/aoa e a ?yaeao aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo n/aoia.
Oaeie iaoiae n/aoiie caiene neiaieece?oao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
niioaaonoaothueo au/aoia ec aaee/ei, ioia?aaeaaiuo iniiaiuie n/aoaie.
Iiyoiio i?e auyaeaiee enoeiiie noieiinoe iauaeoia, o/eouaaaiuo ia
iniiaiuo n/aoao, ec naeueaei iineaaeieo iaiaoiaeeii au/anoue naeueaei
n/aoia io?eoeaoaeueiuo (eiio?a?iuo).

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea ioia/aiiua eiio?a?iua n/aoa,
iiaeii iieaaaoue, /oi iieiay nenoaia n/aoia aeieaeia neeaaeuaaoueny
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1) n/aoa aeoeaa;

2) eiio?a?iua n/aoa aeoeaa;

3) n/aoa ianneaa;

4) eiio?a?iua n/aoa ianneaa;

5) n/aoa eaieoaea e ?aca?aia;

6) n/aoa i?eaueae (a?aiaiiua);

7) eiio?a?iua n/aoa eaieoaea e i?eaueae:

— n/aoa ecaea?aeae (a?aiaiiua),

— n/aoa oauoeia (a?aiaiiua).

Ionthaea auoaeaao, /oi neaaeothuea ?aaainoaa, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
ii?aaeaeaiiua oi?iu yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey:

1) Aeoea = Iannea;

2) Aeoea = Eaieoae;

3) Aeoea + Oauoee = Iannea + Eaieoae (ia?aiia/aeueiue);

4) Aeoea + Aeaoeoeeo = Iannea;

5) Aeaoeoeeo = Iannea;

6) Aeoea = Iannea + Eaieoae (ia?aiia/aeueiue) + I?eauee, yaeythony
/anoiuie neo/ayie iniiaiiai ?aaainoaa A = I + E.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey Iaiaeioiioei aeieacuaaao, /oi aaeeinoaaiii
enoeiiie n/aoiie oai?eae yaeyaony oai?ey o?ao ?yaeia n/aoia, a iniiaa
eioi?ie eaaeeo oi?ioea A = I + E.

Oai?ey Aethia?oa. AEai Aaoeno Aethia?oa, aaoi? iiceoeaiie oai?ee, a
?aaioao, ecaeaiiuo a 1914—1927 aa., inoaiaaeeaaeny i?aaeaea anaai ia
ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoey «n/ao». Iainii?eiui yaeyaony oi ianoiyoaeuenoai,
/oi n/aoiay iaoea iiaeao eiaoue ioiioaiea eneeth/eoaeueii e aii?inai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey oeaiiinoae. Oaeei ia?acii,
aeieaeia nouanoaiaaoue aeinoaoi/ii oaniay naycue iaaeaeo n/aoiaaaeaieai
e iieeoe/aneie yeiiiieae. Iaaeaeo oai eeoue iaiiiaea yeiiiienou inaauaee
n/aoiua aii?inu, i?e/ai aeaaea yoe iaiiiaea yeiiiienou ia iiaee
i?iieeiooue a nouiinoue n/aoiaaaeaiey e aeaoue oi/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
n/aoa. A ?acoeueoaoa nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey aauae eco/aieai e
?ac?aaioeie n/aoiuo i?iaeai aeieaeiu auee caiyoueny n/aoiua ?aaioieee, a
naieo enneaaeiaaieyo ieacaaoeany ia aieaa oaea/eeauie, /ai yeiiiienou.

?acae?ay niioaaonoaothuea o?oaeu i?aaenoaaeoaeae th?eaee/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey (Aeae. *a?aiie, Y.I. Eaioa e A. Aeeueai), Aethia?oa i?eoae e
auaiaeo, /oi ie iaeei ec ieo ia aeae iaaeeaaeauaai ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey
«n/ao».

I?enooiay e ?ac?aoaieth yoie aaaeiaeoae n/aoiie i?iaeaiu, Aethia?oa
enoiaey ec iauiinoe eioa?ania n/aoiaaaeaiey e iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee
onoaiiaee, /oi iaueie eioa?anaie yoeo iaoe yaeyaony oeaiiinoue.

Anee ianeieueei aaeeieoe oeaiiinoe oa?aeoa?ecothony iaueie aeey ieo anao
i?eciaeaie, oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ana yoe oeaiiinoe aoiaeyo a ninoaa
iaeiiai e oiai aea eeanna aaeeieoe oeaiiinoe. Eaaeaeue eeann aaeeieoe
oeaiiinoe, i/aaeaeii, aeieaeai auoue, ai-ia?auo, iaeii?iaeiui, o.a. ana
aoiaeyuea a iaai aaeeieoeu oeaiiinoe aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue iaueie
i?eciaeaie, e, ai-aoi?uo, eioaa?aeueiui, o.a. a iaai aeieaeiu aoiaeeoue
ana aaeeieoeu oeaiiinoe, iaeaaeathuea iaueie i?eciaeaie.

Niaieoiiinoue i?eciaeia, ii?aaeaeythueo aaeeiue eeann, yaeyaony
oneiaiinoueth aieaa eee iaiaa neiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a. Iai?eia?, a, b, n e d
yaeythony oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie, naienoaaiiuie aaeeieoeai oeaiiinoe.
Anee iu onoaiiaei, /oi aeaiiue eeann iaeaaeaao anaie /aou?ueiy
i?eciaeaie (a + b + n + d), oi eeannu oeaiiinoae, eiathueo oieueei o?e
i?eciaea (iai?eia?, a + b + n), eee oieueei aeaa ec ieo, eee aea oieueei
iaeei i?eciae ec /aou?ao, aoaeoo yaeyoueny iiaeeeannaie, eee
noaeeannaie. Anee eeannu ii?iaeaeatho ae?oa ae?oaa a ii?yaeea ia?aoiaea
io iaiaa neiaeiuo e aieaa neiaeiui, oi ia?acothuayny na?ey, eee oeaiue
eeannia, aoaeao eiaiiaaoueny ?yaeii eeannia, iai?eia?: a, a + b, a + b +
n, a + b + n + d. Iaaeaeo ?aciuie eeannaie oeaiiinoae nouanoaoao
ii?aaeaeaiiay acaeiinaycue.

Eaaeaeue iauaeo iiciaaony iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iai oaeaaony aeeth/eoue
aai a oio eee eiie ?yae iauaeoia. Oaeei ia?acii, ciaiea iiyaeyaony e
nouanoaoao aeaaiaea?y eeanneoeeaoeee, eee ?ani?aaeaeaieth ii eeannai e
?yaeai eeannia.

Ia iniiaaiee eceiaeaiiiai Aethia?oa i?eoae e auaiaeo i nouanoaiaaiee
oaeie iaoee, eioi?ay eiaea au i?aaeiaoii eeanneoeeaoeeth aaeeieoe
oeaiiinoae e eco/aiea eeannia yoeo aaeeieoe. Caeanue iaaieueii
iai?aoeaaaony aiaeiaey n ae?oaeie iaoeaie. Iai?eia?, eaaeaeoth oeao?o
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae eeann oi/ae, niioaaonoaaiii anoue e iniaay
iaoea i eeannao oi/ae, iacuaaaiay aaiiao?eae. Oi/ii oaeaea, anee
oneiaeoueny iacuaaoue eeann aaeeieoe oeaiiinoe n/aoii, oi iiaeii i?eeoe
e caeeth/aieth i nouanoaiaaiee iniaie iaoee i eeannao aaeeieoe
oeaiiinoae, eioi?ay e aoaeao eiaiiaaoueny n/aoiaaaeaieai.

Oaeei ia?acii, Aethia?oa aeaao neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea n/aoa: n/aoii
iacuaaaony anyeee eeann aaeeieoe oeaiiinoae.

Eaaeaeue n/ao iiaeao auoue ?anniio?ai n aeaoo oi/ae c?aiey: ai-ia?auo, n
oi/ee c?aiey aai eiae/aneiai iauaia e, ai-aoi?uo, n oi/ee c?aiey aai
iai?yaeaiey. Iauai oiai eee eiiai n/aoa ii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?iuie
i?eciaeaie, naienoaaiiuie na?oiie?iaaiiui aaeeieoeai oeaiiinoe, a
iai?yaeaiea n/aoa ii?aaeaeyaony /eneii oaeeo aaeeieoe. I?eciaee n/aoa
yaeythony iinoiyiiuie e iaeciaiyaiuie. Eciaiyoue i?eciaee n/aoa — cia/eo
i?aia?aciauaaoue aai a eiie n/ao aieaa iauaai iacia/aiey, anee eciaiaiea
oi?iuaao yoe i?eciaee, e iaiaa iauaai iacia/aiey, anee i?eciaee
oneiaeiythony. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio iai?yaeaiea n/aoa eciaiyaony
ai a?aiaie e iiae aeeyieai niioaaonoaothueo i?e/ei. Anee iu aoaeai
eco/aoue iai?yaeaiea eee ninoiyiea n/aoa ia eaeie-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiue
iiiaio a?aiaie, oi aoaeai eiaoue aeaei ni noaoeeie n/aoa, anee aea
aoaeai enneaaeiaaoue ninoiyiea n/aoa ca iaeioi?ue aieaa eee iaiaa
aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae a?aiaie, oi aoaeai eiaoue aeaei n aeeiaieeie n/aoa.

Aaeeieoeu oeaiiinoe, iaoiaeyueany a ?anii?yaeaiee eiie?aoiiai oicyenoaa
e aiieiuathueany a oaeeo oi?iao, eae aeaiueae, oiaa?u, i?aaa o?aaiaaiey,
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae aaeeiue eeann aaeeieoe oeaiiinoe e eiaiiaaoue
aai n/aoii aeoeaa aeaiiiai oicyenoaa (A). Oi/ii oaeaea a iniaue eeann
iiaeii iauaaeeieoue oa aaeeieoeu oeaiiinoe, eioi?ua aeaiiia oicyenoai
aeieaeii ae?oaei oicyenoaai e iacaaoue yoio eeann n/aoii ianneaa (I).
Eaaeaeie aaeeieoea oeaiiinoe ianneaa aoaeai i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue aaeeieoeo
oeaiiinoe aeoeaa aieioue aei en/a?iaiey oiai ec yoeo aeaoo n/aoia,
eioi?ue eiaao iaiueooth iai?yaeaiiinoue: inoathuayny a?oiia aaeeieoe
oeaiiinoe ia?acoao n/ao, eioi?ue iaicia/ei eae /enoia ninoiyiea.

Aiieia i/aaeaeii, /oi i?e oaeii i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee aeoeaa ianneao iiaoo
auoue o?e neo/ay: A > I, A I(1)o.a. a aeoeaa iieacuaaaony aieueoa, /ai anoue ia naiii
aeaea;

E > I(2)o.a. noiia eaieoaea caauoaia;

E

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