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История бухгалтерского учета и аудита

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Oaaea?aeueiia aaaionoai ii ia?aciaaieth

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ia?aciaaoaeueiia o/?aaeaeaiea

aunoaai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

«Naaa?i – Eaaeacneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao»

Oeeeae a a. Iyoeai?nea

Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa

Yeaeo?iiiue eo?n eaeoeee

Aeey niaoeeaeueiinoe

080109

Iyoeai?ne, 2007

?aoeaicaiou:

OEI

Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa: Yeaeo?iiiue eo?n eaeoeee./

C.O. Iaeeiiaa. Iyoeai?ne: AIO AII «NaaEaaAOO» oeeeae a a. Iyoeai?nea,
2007.

Eieeaeoea aaoi?ia:

A.A. E?aa/aiei, annenoaio eaoaae?u «Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e aoaeeo»
oeeeaea NaaEaaAOO a a. Iyoeai?nea

C.O. Iaeeiiaa, e.y.i., caa. eaoaae?ie «Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e aoaeeo»
oeeeaea NaaEaaAOO a a. Iyoeai?nea

Yeaeo?iiiue eo?n eaeoeee iiaeaioiaeai a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai noaiaea?oa aunoaai
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ii aeenoeeieeia «Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa e aoaeeoa». Niaea?aeeo yeaeo?iiiue eo?n eaeoeee n aeiiieieoaeueiie
eioi?iaoeeae, niinianoaothuae onaiaieth iniiaiiai iaoa?eaea, aeinna?eai
e aii?inaie aeey iiaoi?aiey oai.

Eo?n ?ann/eoai ia nooaeaioia anao oi?i iao/aiey, aai eioi?iaoeeiiiia
niaea?aeaiea aeinoaoi/ii aeey eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu a iauaia,
i?aaeoniio?aiiii noaiaea?oaie AII.

AIO AII oeeeae NaaEaaAOO

a a. Iyoeai?nea, 2007

Eieeaeoea aaoi?ia, 2007

Eco/aiea enoi?ee aooaaeoa?ee iicaieyao oaeoaeoue ciaiey ii oai?ee
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa eae a ?innee, oae e ca ?oaaaeii, ia/eiay n
Ae?aaiaai ie?a. Enoi?ey iaoee ia?ac?uaii naycaia n enoi?eae iauanoaa, n
?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa e iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey. O/aoiay iuneue
ca?iaeeeanue a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe. Ia?aiauoiua ethaee oaea iaeaaeaee
ca/aoeaie oicyenoaaiiuo ciaiee. Iinoaiaiii aicieeaee ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia ioiioaieyo, neeaaeuaathueony ii iiaiaeo i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiyaeyeanue
e iaiaoiaeeiinoue eo ?aaeno?aoeee (o/aoa), iniiaiie oeaeueth eioi?ie aue
eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth eeoe, o/anoaothueo a oicyenoaaiiii
i?ioeanna. Ia?aiia/aeueii yoe i?aaenoaaeaiey ia auaeaeyeenue a
niaoeeaeueioth iaeanoue ciaiee, oai aieaa a naiinoiyoaeueioth aaoaue
iaoee. Iie auee ae?aieaiu a ia?an/eaiaiiia (neie?aoe/aneia) niciaiea,
iniiao eioi?iai ninoaaeyee aa?iaaiey, ieou, eaaaiaeu, neacaiey. A ieo
ethaee iuoaeenue iienaoue iiuo, aeaoue niaaou eee onoaiiaeoue i?aaeea
aaaeaiey o/aoa, i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea. Caoai noaee iiyaeyoueny yeaiaiou
yeiiiie/aneiai iuoeaiey n iiiuoeaie aiaeeca e iaiauaiey oicyenoaaiiuo
yaeaiee. Yoi auee oaea i?aaeaanoieee oi?ie?iaaiey iao/iiai ciaiey,
eioi?ia aeaei ia/aea ?acaeoeth aooaaeoa?neie iaoee.

?acaeoea aooaaeoa?neie iunee iinoaiaiii oi?ie?iaaei iaoeo i aa
nianoaaiiie enoi?ee. Enoi?ey iaoee — yoi enoi?ey ethaeae, eioi?ua aa
nicaeaaaee e niaa?oainoaiaaee. E niaeaeaieth iaeioi?ua i?aeoeeothuea
aooaaeoa?u ia?aie/eaathony a naiae ?aaioa eeoue nethieiooiuie
oaoie/aneeie iia?aoeeyie: ninoaaeaieai i?iaiaeie, caiieiaieai
aeieoiaioia e o.ae. Eco/aiea aea caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?ee
iicaieyao niaoeeaeenoai oai?/anee iiaeoiaeeoue e ecaanoiui eaoaai?eyi,
iiauoaao i?anoeae aooaaeoa?neie i?ioannee e noaoon aooaaeoa?a a
iauanoaa.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei iiaeoiaeia e eco/aieth enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo Nieieiaui ss.A.:

— oeeinioneee — aaoi?u iuoathony iniuneeoue oiae enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey
e auynieoue, eaeea caeiiu ei oi?aaeytho (O.A. Aca?neee, ss.I.
Aaeueia?ei, A. Oaa?);

— aeieoiaioaeueiue — aianoi auaiaeia e oai?ee aaoi?u eceaaatho oaeou
(I.I. Aaoy?, A.O. Oe?ieee, A. Iaiiaei?o, O. Meeen, Y. Noaaaeeie);

— neioaoe/aneee — iaiauaiea oaeoia n iiiiuueth eaeie-eeai oeeinioneie
eiioeaioeee (A.M. Aaeaaai, I.N. Iiiaceia A.E. Eiceineee, E.I. Eaeeue,
A.Ae. Ye?eaeae e ae?.);

— aiaeeoe/aneee — aaoi?u eceaaatho enoi?eth ia anaai o/aoa, a
ioaeaeueiuo aai eaoaai?ee (A.E. Eeooeoii, B.C. ssiaI.?. Aaeoeiai e
ae?.);

— yaiethoeeiiiue — ?ao?iniaeoeaiue (enoi?e/aneee) aiaeec n nia?aiaiiuo
iiceoeee, o.a. n eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiiai iiiyoeeii-eaoaai?eaeueiiai
e oa?ieiieiae/aneiai aiia?aoa (ss.A. Nieieia, O.I. Iaeueeiaa).

Oae eee eia/a, i?e eco/aiee enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/ao; aicieeaao
aii?in ia enoi/ieeao. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue o/ao eae. i?aeoe/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, oi ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiatho iiaeeeiiua o/aoiua
aeieoiaiou. Iiiaea ec ieo iiaeaee, a iiiaea ae?aaiea aeieoiaiou aua ia
?anoeo?iaaiu. Aeaaea a nia?aiaiiii ie?a noa?ua aeieoiaiou naeatho a
ooeeue, eieae — a iaeoeaoo?o, ec iaiyoe en/acatho aaaeiua oaeou, eee aea
iie niciaoaeueii ne?uaathony. Iiyoiio eiathueany aeieoiaiou ca/anooth
iinyo neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue o/ao eae iaoeo, oi aa
iiaeii eco/aoue ii iioaeeeiaaiiui ?aaioai, iaeiaei aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeii
noaeeoue, /oi eiaao cia/aiea, a /oi yaeyaony eeethceae. ?acia?aoueny aea
a oii, eoi ec nia?aiaiieeia aue ia?aui a ?aoaiee oie eee eiie i?iaeaiu,
auaaao ii/oe iaaiciiaeii.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eco/aiey enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neie
iaoee ia aucuaaao niiiaiee. I?ioeannu ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ?inneeneiai o/aoa e
aai aa?iiiecaoeee n ie?iaui iiuoii i?eaiaeyo e iniciaieth ianouiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiaoue onoie/eaua enoi?e/aneea i?eaioe?u i?e auai?a
aa?eaioia ?acaeoey. Iaoea i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa iiiaia?aiia e ia
ia?aie/eaaaony iaai?ii i?aaee, eceiaeaiiuo a eino?oeoeeyo e noaiaea?oao.
I?aaenoaaeaiey i oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa nouanoaaiii ?anoe?ythony
i?e eco/aiee ?acee/iuo acaeyaeia ia nouiinoue nia?aiaiiuo aooaaeoa?neeo
eaoaai?ee.

Oeaeueth i?aiiaeaaaiey aeenoeeieeiu «Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa»
yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea:

– ciaiee i caeiiiia?iinoyo ?acaeoey o/aoa;

– no?aieaiey eniieueciaaoue enoi?e/aneee iiuo aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey
nia?aiaiiie oai?ee e i?aeoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;

– oai?/aneiai aini?eyoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa eae iinoiyiii
?acaeaathuaeny yaiethoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu nooaeaiou aeieaeiu ciaoue:

– iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey o/aoiuo nenoai a ie?a;

– aicieeiiaaiea e yaiethoeeth aeaieiie caiene a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa;

– caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey oi?i aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;

– iniiaiua iaoeeiiaeueiua oeieu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e eo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae;

– enoi?eth e i?iaeaiu noaiiaeaiey nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa a ?innee e ca ?oaaaeii.

Nooaeaiou aeieaeiu oiaoue:

– naiinoiyoaeueii iieueciaaoueny eeoa?aoo?ie ii enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa;

– i?eiaiyoue enoi?e/aneee iiuo ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a iao/ii –
i?aeoe/aneie ?aaioa.

Aeey eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue ciaiey ii
neaaeothuei aeenoeeieeiai: «Oai?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa», «Oeiainiaue e
oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao», «Oeeinioey», «Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee»,
«Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey».

Aeenoeeieeia eco/aaony a niioaaonoaee n Ainoaea?noaaiiui
ia?aciaaoaeueiui noaiaea?oii e o/aaiui ieaiii.

1. Ca?iaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea o/aoa a Ae?aaiai ie?a

1.1 Ca?iaeaeaiea o/aoa

Enoi?ey nia?aiaiiie aooaaeoa?ee, eae e enoi?ey iiiaeo ae?oaeo iaoe,
ooiaeeo naieie ei?iyie a aeoaue aaeia. Iia aicieeea a yiioo iaeaieeoa,
eiaaea ethaee ia/aee iniciaaaoue naay a iauanoaa. Ciaiey ia ie?oaeathuai
ie?a iaeaieeaaeenue iin?aaenoaii o/aoa: ieaiao (caacae), a?aiaie,
iiaaaeaiey aeeaioiuo, yaeaiee i?e?iaeu e o.i. Ia/aa ?aaioaoue, /aeiaae
ecia?ae i?oaeey o?oaea, e iiyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue aanoe o/ao aeiau/e
(?acoeueoaoia o?oaea), o.a. «neeaaeneeo caiania». O/ao iiiiaae
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ii?yaeie, aeaeaoue i?iaiicu (eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii
iea?e?iaaoue, iiiieiyoue caianu e o.i.). Oae iiyaeeny n/ao, eioi?ue
ia/eiaeny n ea/anoaaiiiai ?acee/ey iauaeoia. ?acaeoeth n/aoa
niinianoaiaaei ia?aciaaiea eceeoeia e ia/aei iaiaia. N oa/aieai a?aiaie
a i?ioeann n/aoa noaee aiaeaeaoueny iiae?o/iua n?aaenoaa — eaiaoee,
iaei/ee e ae?. «Eaeueeoeyoeey» a aoeaaeueiii ia?aaiaea n eaoeineiai
icia/aao «n/ao eaiaoeaie» (calcul — eaiaiue). Ia ia?aii yoaia ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa any eioi?iaoeey oiauaeanue a aieiaa, oae eae
iaiyoe /aeiaaea auei aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau caiiiieoue aaaeiua niauoey. N
oneiaeiaieai oicyenoaaiiie aeecie iiyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue caiene
iiaen/eoaiiiai. Ia?aua o/aoiua aeieoiaiou, iaia?oaeaiiua a?oaieiaaie,
ioiinyony e 30 a. aei i.y. Yoi ca?oaee ia einoyo e aeaiyo iaiiioa,
ianeaeueiua ?enoiee e o.i. Ia naiuo ae?aaieo aeieoiaioao eiathony
oii?yaei/aiiia /a?aaeiaaiea eeiee, eiiaeiaoeee iaeiioeiiuo ciaeia
(oi/ee, aeoae, i?yiua e aieienoua eeiee), ii ionoonoaotho ea/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee o/aoiuo iauaeoia (iaeiaiiaaiea, aeaoa eee n?ie o?aiaiey e
o.i.). Oaeea aeieoiaiou iieo/eee iacaaiea n/aoiuo ae?ie (1). Aiciiaeii,
?aniieiaeaiea ciaeia niioaaonoaiaaei ?aniieiaeaieth o/aoiuo iauaeoia a
o?aieeeuao, a ea/anoaaiiia ioee/ea iauaeoia ae?oa io ae?oaa eee
nianoaaiiinoue ?aciuo eeoe — aeaaeaeueoeaa i?iaeoeoia eee i?oaeee
iaicia/aeinue i?e iiiiue iaiaeeiaeiaie eiioeao?aoeee ciaeia-/enae. E
niaeaeaieth, a naiuo ae?aaieo aeieoiaioao ia auaaaeaiu eoiae — neiaieu
eoiaia e iiaeiaaiue o/ao iiyaeeenue iaiiiai iicaea (Ae?aaiee Aaeiao).

Ecaanoiu ?acee/iua iineoaee o/aoiie eioi?iaoeee. Oae, ia oa??eoi?ee
Iaaeaeo?a/uey (Ia?aaeiyy Acey) iaeaeaiu iaeeea aeeiyiua e eaiaiiua
i?aaeiaou, ioiinyueany e VIII—V aa. aei i.y. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi oaeea
«oeoee» eniieueciaaeenue aeey iiaen/aoa: eiion — eoaoei ianea,
oeeeeiae?ee — iaoea e o.i. Iiaeiaiay nenoaia n/aoa eiaea ianoi a Eiaeee:
eaiaoee ?acee/iiai oeaaoa ?aneeaaeuaaee a e?oaeee (i?iia?ac ea?oioaee).
Eiee (Naaa?iay Aia?eea) eniieueciaaee ?aciioeaaoiua oio?u (eaeion) —
iaeei neoaeee iniiaaieai, ae?oaea e?aieeenue ia iai. Eaaeaeue ocae —
«caienue» ia o/aoiii iauaeoa. I?inoua oceu niaaeeiyeenue a neiaeiua.
Oceiaie o/ao i?eiaiyeny a Ao?eea, ssiiiee, Eeoaa, Aaiaaeee aei ia/aea XX
a.

Nenoaia ienueia oaeaea eiaea aa?eaiou — ?enoiee, ea?iaeeou, eeeiiienue.
Iineoaeyie ienueiaiiie eioi?iaoeee auee eaiaiiua ieeou (Ooia?), iaie?on
(Ae?aaiee Aaeiao), ea?aie/aneea e aea?aayiiua (iaaiuaiiua eee
auaaeaiiua) oaaee/ee (Ae?aaiyy A?aoeey, Ooia?) e ae?.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeinoeaeaiey ia?aiauoiuo ethaeae a iaeanoe o/aoa
caeeth/athony a oii, /oi iiyaeeenue nenoaiu en/eneaiey e caiene,
iicaieythuea ?aaeno?e?iaaoue o/aoiua iauaeou a ia iaoo?aeueiuo
ecia?eoaeyo. Yoi i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth ia?auo aeieoiaioia —
iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee. Ii iaoiaeieiaee nai?a, ia?aaioee e
aiaeeca /eneiaie eioi?iaoeee aua ia auei.

1.2 O/ao a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa

O/aoiay nenoaia Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa auea /anoueth nenoaiu
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie. Aanue o?iaeae, neio e i?i/ea
?acoeueoaou o?oaea naeaaaeenue a oeaio?aeeciaaiiua o?aieeeua, a caoai
?ani?aaeaeyeenue ii oicyenoaai; eaaeaeua yoai eiio?iee?iaaeny. Iiyoiio
ia?yaeo n eieaeueiui o/aoii (o/aoii a aeiiaoieo oicyenoaao) aiciee
iauaainoaea?noaaiiue o/ao.

*oiau oiaoue o/eouaaoue, o?aaiaaeinue iaeaaeaoue ienueiii e n/aoii,
caiiiieoue ia?iiiia /enei ciaeia (ea?iaeeoia), a caoai oiaei i?eiaiyoue
eo. Ciaieai iaeaaeaee ienoeu — /eiiaieee, iie?iaeoaeuenoaoaiua aiaii
ienueiaiiinoe, n/aoa e ioae?inoe Oioii e aai aeaiie aiaeiae enoeiu Iaao.
Ienoeu niaiauaee a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey, o/aoa,
ae?a/anoaa e ninoaaeyee i?ioanneiiaeueioth eanoo. Ienoeai iaiaoiaeeii
auei iiiaeanoai ciaiee — eiaeaia?iuo (/oiau naeaeaoue ?an/ao aeey
no?ieoaeuenoaa, o?ainii?oe?iaee a?oci- e eiuo iiaeiaiuo ?aaio),
iaoaiaoe/anee yeiiiie/aneeo. Ooieoeee ae?aaieo aooaaeoa?ia auee aieaa
oe?ieeie e cia/eiuie, /ai ooieoeee nia?aiaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia, E?iia
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ciaiee, oeaieeenue e i?aanoaaiiua aeinoieinoaa o/aoa
?aaioieeia. Ienoeu, caiiaeic?aiiua a iaoeiaoeeyo, ia?aaiaeeeenue a
?ac?yae caieaaeaeueoeaa eee nai?ueeia iaeiaia.

I?ioanneiiaeueiay ea?a?oey aue neiaeiie: io i?inouo aei aunoeo ienoeia.
Nouanoaiaaea aeeooa?aioeeaoeey o/aoiiai o?oaea: oea?neee ienaoe; ienoeu
ceaeia, caiee, ethaeae, aienea, iiaeaoae; iaaece?aoaeue ienoeia; ienoeu
(ia?aien/eee) aeieoiaioia e o.ae. Auea aaaaeaia iniaay aeieaeiinoue
aaaioia oenea (nai?ueeia iaeiaia) ieceiai ?aiaa. Nai?ueee iaeiaia
iieo/aee i?aaeienaiea i?eaacoe ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai ca?ia, neioa e
o.i. Aeieaeiinoue auea iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiie. Iaaiciiaeiinoue
iaania/eoue ii?io nai?a iiaea i?eaanoe e aeanoieiio iaeacaieth aaaioa.

Aeieoiaiou ienaeenue ia iaie?ona, aeeiyiuo /a?aieao, aea?aaa, o?aieeenue
a iia/aoaiiie oa?a — ninoaeao, ea?oeao, yueeao, iaoeao e oeene?iaaee
iiaeeeiiinoue iia?aoeee e ioaaonoaaiiinoue eniieieoaeae. Aeieoiaiou
auaea?aeaiu a th?eaee/aneii ioiioaiee, aeaoe?iaaiu aiaeaie i?aaeaiey
oa?aiiia e niaaaeaiu ia/aoyie. Oae eae i?aaiecaoeey o/aoa a Ae?aaiai
Aaeioa th?eaee/anee ia ?aaoee?iaaeanue, aeieoiaiou ia auee aeinoaoi/iui
aeieacaoaeuenoaii niaa?oaiey iia?aoeee. Ia?yaeo n ieie i?eiaiyeenue
onoiua iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae.

Aeey onei?aiey e oi/iinoe a?eoiaoe/aneeo ?an/aoia eniieueciaaee
niaoeeaeueiue i?eai? — aaae (2) (aeeiyiay aeinea n iacaie, a eioi?ua
caeeaaeuaaeenue eaiaoee), a oaeaea au/eneeoaeueiua oaaeeoeu.
Iniaaiiinoueth ae?aaiaaaeiaoneie yeiiiieee auei eniieueciaaiea ii?i
?anoiaea i?iaeoeoia aeey niaea?aeaiey ?aaioieeia (a caaeneiinoe io eo
eaoaai?ee), iaeiaia, caiee, eiee/anoaa nu?uey aeey iieo/aiey aioiaiai
i?iaeoeoa e o.i. Ii?ie?iaaiea ioaaouaaei ana iniiaiua ?ano?nu iauanoaa,
i iaauiieiaiee ii?iu oeacuaaee a aeieoiaioao.

Aia/aea i?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie o/aoa a ioaeaeueiuo oicyenoaao auee iiene
n ia?a/iai ?acee/iuo iauaeoia — eiaaioa?e. Eo iiaeii n/eoaoue ia?aui
i?eciaeii nenoaiiinoe. Caoai aeaiiua noaee a?oiie?iaaoue: nienee
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ii i?ioanneiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo, iiene eiouanoaa e
ae?. Ninoaaeaiea eiaaioa?ae iinoaiaiii noaei iineoue ?aaoey?iue
oa?aeoa?. N ?acaeoeai yeiiiieee iie aeiiieiyeenue iiauie iieacaoaeyie,
Oneiaeiyeenue ii niaea?aeaieth e noaee ioi?aaiui iiiaioii yaiethoeee
oi?i o/aoa. Ia?aay — eiaaioa?iay (3) — iiaeeyea ia o/ao anao aeaeia
?ano?nia. E iae ia?aoee io ca?oaie iaeaieeoa.

Iauaeoii o/aoa i?aaeaea anaai auea caiey e aa eniieueciaaiea.
Oaoiieiaeth o/aoa caiee iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ii aeaiiui iaie?ona
Aeeueao?, aaea niaethaeaaony eeanneoeeaoeey caiaeue ii oaeei eaoaai?eyi,
eae aacaiaeiay, aa?aaiaay, aicaeaeuaaaiay, eoaiaay, iiaay, i?ioaiiay, a
aeaaiia, ii aeaaeaeueoeai ?aciie noaiaie caieaaeaaeaiey
(ioaaonoaaiiinoe). Aaeaaiaeii ninoaaeyeenue eaaeano?u — iiene caiaeue
aei eee iinea ?aceeaa Ieea, a eioi?uo oeacuaaeenue ieiuaaee o/anoeia ii
eaoaai?eyi caiee e a /ueai iieueciaaiee iie iaoiaeeeenue.

Aeaaiui aiaaonoaii Aaeioa auei ca?ii, eioi?ia ia?auaeinue eae aeaiueae
ia?yaeo n aaniauie aeaiueaaie-yeaeaaeaioaie (iaoaeeii ?acee/iie
oeaiiinoe). Iiiao eee aaeeiiai yeaeaaeaioa a Aaeioa ia ciaee. Iiyoiio
iinea ninoaaeaiey eiaaioa?y nia?aiiia ca?ii ia?an/eouaaee a oneiaiue
auoiae, niioaaonoaothuee nuaio n caiee i?e naiie aunieie ii?ia
o?iaeaeiinoe, /oi iicaieyei aeaiiua ?aciuo oicyenoa aeaeaoue
niiinoaaeiuie e naiaeeoue aeaiiua ii anae no?aia. Ia?eiaee/anee
i?iaiaeeeenue ia?aiene (eiaaioa?ecaoeey) ethaeae, eiouanoaa, neioa.

?acaeoea eiaaioa?iiai o/aoa oei a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo:

— aeaoaeecaoeey n?aaenoa, eo iienaiea e o/ao eaaeaeiai aeaean?aaenoa a
ioaeaeueiinoe. Oaeie o/ao ia?ac?uaii naycai n i?aaiecaoeeae neeaaeneiai
o?aiaiey e ioaaonoaaiiinoueth aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe;

— eeanneoeeaoeey iauaeoia a oie aea iiene eae a o/aoiii ?aaeno?a ii
a?oiiai n?aaenoa n eoiaaie. Yoio o/ao icia/ae iaiauaiea a ?aieao
iaoo?aeueiuo aaeeieoe o/aoiuo iauaeoia, ii noieiinoiiai o/aoa aua ia
auei.

E?iia oiai, a eiaaioa?iii o/aoa ia io?aaeaeenue iia?aoeee.
Eaaeaeiaeiaaiua eiaaioa?ecaoeee o?aaiaaee cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao a?aiaie e
nee. Eiaaioa?iue o/ao cao?oaeiye iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea oicyenoaii,
iiyoiio a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa iiyaeeny i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiue o/ao. Eae
ecaanoii ec iaie?ona Aoeae 18 (Iaie?on Eae?neiai iocay) ca eaaeaeue
aeaiue i?eaiaeeeenue ?aeaeceou, iicaieythuea n/eoaoue aeieoiaio oaeouei
n/aoii, eiathuei i?eoiae, ?anoiae e inoaoie. Inoaoie e eoiae eiaee
niaoeeaeueiua iaicia/aiey, ii ionoonoaea noieiinoiiai ecia?eoaey ia
iicaieyei aaeaine?iaaoue oaeouee n/ao i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiie aooaaeoa?ee,
/oi aucuaaei ioeaee a iiaen/aoao.

O/ao caaa?oaeny io/aoiinoueth ii oe?ieiio e?oao iieacaoaeae a
iaoo?aeueiuo ecia?eoaeyo. Iniiaiia iacia/aiea — ii?aaeaeeoue
ainoaea?noaaiiua ?ano?nu e ?ani?aaeaeeoue eo. Nouanoaiaae
eiio?ieueii-?aaeceiiiue aiia?ao aeey i?iaa?ee niioaaonoaey o/aoiuo e
io/aoiuo aeaiiuo. O/ao aaeny iiaeiaaii, a io/aoiinoue aeaeeeanue ia
aiaeiaoth, aioo?eaiaeiaoth e ca ianeieueei eao. Aeaiiua iaiauaeenue ii
iaeanoyi (iiiai). Niaoeeaeueiie iaoiaeieiaee oi?ie?iaaiey iieacaoaeae
io/aoiinoe ia auei, oae eae io/aoiinoue iiaoi?yea oi?ioey?u oaeouaai
o/aoa. Yoi aeaeii ii iaie?ono Aa??ena a?aiai ?ainana III. Iacaaiiue
iaie?on i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiae o?aiiaiai eiouanoaa ii aeaeai,
eiee/anoao e o?aiai. Io/aou aeeooa?aioee?iaaeenue ii iacia/aieth, auee e
io/aou oeaeaaiai oa?aeoa?a. Io/aoiinoue iineea ioaee/iue oa?aeoa?. Oae,
Aa?iaeio ienae, /oi ia noaiao ie?aieaeu Oaiina auei au?acaii, neieueei
/aniiea, ?aaeenee, eoea e ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia iio?aaeee ethaee, caiyoua
aa no?ieoaeuenoaii. Iauay noieiinoue i?iaeoeoia (oieueei i?iaeoeoia)
ninoaaeea 1500 oaeaioia na?aa?a (40 o eee 2 iei aeie.).

Ia io/aoiinoe auea iniiaaia any nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey,
eioi?ue inouanoaeyeny /a?ac oeiainiaia oi?aaeaiea e niaoeeaeueiuo
/eiiaieeia. Ai aeaaa oi?aaeaiey noiye aa?oiaiue eacia/ae, auoa eioi?iai
auee oieueei oaeiue niaaoiee (ianoa? aeai?oeiauo oaei) e aa?oiaiue
ae?aoe (ianoa? iaaaniuo oaei). Oieueei aa?oiaiue ae?aoe iia oeaeiaaoue
oa?aiio eieaii, aa?oiaiue eacia/ae — nooiith, inoaeueiua — eeoue i?ao o
iia oea?y-oa?aiia.

Oaeay nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai o/aoa auea neaaenoaeai
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa n aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie
yeiiiieeie.

1.3. Aooaaeoa?ey Iaaeaeo?a/uey (Ianiiioaiee).

Ooia?neay, a iicaeiaa aaaeeiineay oeeaeeecaoeey ?aniieaaaeenue iaaeaeo
?aeaie Oea? e Aao?ao o aa?aaia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. Enoi?ey Aaaeeiia
ciaea e aceaou, e iaaeaiey. Aai iiaaaeaeaee e Anne?ey, e Ia?ney, ii ii
iiyoue aic?iaeaeaeny. N?aaee iiiaeo aeinoeaeaiee ooia?ia (iicaeiaa
aaaeeiiyi) iiaeii iacaaoue e o/ao.

Caiene aaee ia aeeiyiuo oaaee/eao eeeiiienueth. Oaaee/ee ecaioaaeeaaee
?aciuo ?acia?ia ec aeaaeiie aeeiu. Ienaee iaei/eie (o?inoieeiaie,
aea?aayiiie eee iaoaeee/aneie) n iaaeo noi?ii. Iinea yoiai oaaee/eo
aunooeaaee ia nieioea eee naeeaaee. E?iia aeeiu a ea/anoaa ien/aai
iaoa?eaea eniieueciaaee aea?aayiiua aeiua/ee, eaiaiue, iaoaee, neiiiaoth
einoue.

Iniiaiie nenoaiie en/eneaiey auea ia aeanyoe/iay, a oanoeaeanyoe?e/iay.
A o/aoa oe?iei eniieueciaaeenue neiaeiua iaoaiaoe/aneea au/eneaiey:
i?iii?oeee, ae?iae, o?aaiaiey, i?ia?annee. Aeey oi?iuaiey i?eiaiyeenue
au/eneeoaeueiua oaaeeoeu, a eioi?uo i?eaiaeeeenue niioiioaiey ?acee/iuo
ia?, iaiaoiaeeiuo a o/aoa.

Ii?yaeie ioi?ieaiey e niaea?aeaiey aeieoiaioia oi?ie?iaaeny iinoaiaiii.
Naiuie ?aiieie oneiaiuie ecia?aaeaieyie o/aoiuo iauaeoia noaee oeoee
?aciie eiioeao?aoeee. N ?acaeoeai yeiiiieee aeieoiaiou noaiiaeeenue
iaoe?iaa ii niaea?aeaieth e i?eia?aoaee aieaa caeii/aiiue aeae.
Ianiiioaineea aeieoiaiou eiatho noiaenoai n nia?aiaiiuie ca n/ao
a?aoeaiey (auaeaeaiey no?ie e noieaoeia ieoeie ia aua iyaeie aeeia) .
Aiaoiaa ioi?ieaiea auaea?aeaii a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea: ia/aoe, aeaou,
eiaia ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe e ienoeia (aooaaeoa?ia), a a naeaeeao —
naeaeaoaeae. A eiio?aeoao oeacuaaeinue, /oi ii ieii/aiee n?iea naeaeee
aeieoiaio ?acaeaaaony. Aeieoiaiou, auaea?aeaiiua a th?eaee/aneii
ioiioaiee, iiiauaeenue a eiiaa?ou, eioi?ua oaeaea ecaioaaeeaaee ec
aeeiu, e caia/aouaaeenue. Aeieoiaiou iiaee eiaoue iina?aaeeia ioaa?noea
aeey iaiecuaaiey ia oio?ie eee iaeeo. O?aieeenue aeieoiaiou a ei?ceiao
eee ninoaeao. E eaaeaeie aieinoe i?ee?aieyee y?eue n oeacaieai
iacia/aiey aeieoiaioia e a?aiaie eo ninoaaeaiey.

A ioee/ea io Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa ia aa?aaao Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa eneonnoaii
ienueia aeaaeaei aieueoaa /enei ethaeae. I/aaeaeii, yoi auei iaoneiaeaii
iaiaa «nayuaiiui» oa?aeoa?ii o/aoa, e aai aeinoiaa?iinoue
iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue a?aaeaeaineei, caeiiiaeaoaeueiui iooai.

Oeaio?aie ienueiaiiinoe auee o?aiu, niaiauaaoea a naaa eoeueoiaua,
iao/iua e eiiia?/aneea o/?aaeaeaiey. Ienoeia iao/aee a oeieao i?e
o?aiao. E?iia oiaiey ienaoue o/aoiua ?aaioieee aeieaeiu auee
?acae?aoueny a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e iaoaiaoeea, aeaaeaoue iaa/aneei e
iocueaeueiui eneonnoaii, ciaoue ?eooaeu e, eiia/ii, o/ao. Iieiaeaiea
o/aoiuo ?aaioieeia auei i?anoeaeii e aieaa naiaiaeii, /ai a Aaeioa.
Caeanue oaeaea nouanoaiaaee ?aiae o/aoiuo aeieaeiinoae.

A oicyenoaao Ae?aaiaai Aaaeeiia, eae e a oicyenoaa Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa,
auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu eiaaioa?iay e i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay oi?iu o/aoa (4).
Aeaaiay ?ieue ioaiaeeeanue o/aoo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio.
Ninoaaeyeenue iiene iieae n oeacaieai ?acia?ia, o?iaeaeiinoe,
i?eaiaeiinoe e ia?aaioea, ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe. A iienyo ?aai/aai neioa
niaethaeaeanue aai eeanneoeeaoeey (iieiaeiye, ac?ineua, noa?ua, iaaoea),
a oaeaea o/eouaaeanue aai o?oaeiniiniaiinoue e ia?aaea/a ia niaea?aeaiea
ioaaonoaaiiui eeoeai. Iniaaiii /aoei auee ?aoaiu aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee
o/aoa o?oaea. O/ao inouanoaeyeny ii o?ai iai?aaeaieyi: o/ao ia?niiaea
(ii aic?anoo, eaoaai?eyi, ?aai/ei ia?oeyi), ?aai/aai a?aiaie e
niaea?aeaiey ?aai/ae neeu. Iaai ioi?ieyeny aeiaiai?ii n oeacaieai n?iea
eniieueciaaiey, oa?aeoa?a ?aaio e ?acia?a iieaou. Ec aeieoiaioia
ecaanoii, /oi onoaiaaeeaaeanue iaoa?eaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ca iieo/aiiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ay auea aeinoaoi/ii
aunieie e aeanoeie. A o/aoa neeaaeneeo iia?aoeee ?acaeoea iieo/eee
iinooieaiey e auaea/a n?aaenoa a i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiuo n/aoao e iienyo i?e
i?iaa?ea inoaoeia eee ?aaeno?aoeee i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea ?acaeaeueii.

Aaaeiie ninoaaiie /anoueth o/aoa noaei ii?aaeaeaiea cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai. I?iecaiaenoai caeai/eaaeinue naea/ae ecaioiaeaiiiai ia
oeaio?aeueiua neeaaeu, a ?an/aou n ainoaea?noaii naiaeeeenue e
?ani?aaeaeaieth n?aaenoa a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee.

Iniaia ianoi caieiae o/ao ?an/aoia. Oae eae ?an/aou inouanoaeyeenue a
?aieao iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa, iie ia ioaaouaaee anth yeiiiieeo.
?an/aou aaeenue a aaniauo aaeeieoeao, iineieueeo iiiao aua ia ciaee. Oai
ia iaiaa ecaanoiu aeaeiaua oi?aiai-?inoiaue/aneea aeiia (iai?eia?,
«Nuiiauey e aioee Yaeae», «Aeaeiaie aeii Io?aoo»), eioi?ua iiaeii
n/eoaoue i?iia?acaie aaieia. Yoe aeiia i?iecaiaeeee acaeiiue ca/ao
aeieaia iooai nienaiey n ea?oi/ee iaeiiai e caienueth ia ea?oi/eo
ae?oaiai aeeaae/eea, ii a aaciaee/iua ?an/aou oaeea iia?aoeee ia
ia?a?inee ii ?yaeo i?e/ei. Ai-ia?auo, ?an/aou aaeenue a aaniauo
aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao, a ai-aoi?uo, ien/ee iaoa?eae ia iicaieye
iia?aoeaii io?aaeaoue iia?aoeee ia oaeoueo n/aoao.

Iiuioth iiiuoeo oii?yaei/eoue nenoaio ?an/aoia naeaeae naiue ciaiaieoue
ec aaaeeiineeo oea?ae — Oaiio?aie. A iniiao naiaea caeiiia Oaiio?aie aue
iieiaeai i?eioeei ?aaiie iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe — iei ca iei, coa
ca coa. Noaouee, iinayuaiiua th?eaee/aneiio ?aaoee?iaaieth eiouanoaaiiuo
e ?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee, niaea?aeaee aieaa aoiaiiua ii?iu. E?iia
th?eaee/aneeo ii?i, caeiiu niaea?aeaee e yeiiiie/aneea ii?iu: ?acia?u
iieaou o?oaea n aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae ii aeaeai ?aaio, aa?aioee i?aaiaie
caueou eiouanoaa, iaycaoaeueiia ecaauaiea i naeaeeao n iaaeaeaeeiui
eiouanoaii ai?iaeneeo e noaeaaiuo aeanoae, caiene a n/aoao oieueei ia
iniiaaiee oaaee/ae (ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia), caaa?aiiuo ia/aoueth, e o.i.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou iiaeii auei ioaeaeeoue io
aeieoiaioia oaeouaai o/aoa, ii ioee/eoue iineaaeiea io io/aoiinoe ii/oe
iaaiciiaeii. I?eoiaei-?anoiaeiue n/ao ca ianyoe e aue, ii nooe, io/aoii.
No?aieaiea e oieoeeaoeee i?iyaeyaony a i?aaenoaaeaiee iaeioi?uo
aeieoiaioia a oaaee/iie oi?ia, aaea i?eoiae e ?anoiae ?aciauaee
iineaaeiaaoaeueii. Oeaio?aeecaoeey yeiiiieee iaoneiaeea e nenoaio
eiio?iey, eioi?ay aace?iaaeanue ia io/aoiinoe e i?iaa?eao. Eiio?ieueiua
ooieoeee auee aiceiaeaiu ia niaoeeaeueiuo /eiiaieeia. I?aaenoaaeaiea
io/aoia io ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?aaio auei iaycaoaeueiui.

1.4. O/ao a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee

Ae?aaiaeoay a?a/aneay eoeueoo?a (a?iiciaue aae) — e?eoi-ieiieneay.
Nenoaia o/aoa iioiaea ia aaaeeiineoth, oae eae caiene ia aeeiyiuo
oaaee/eao eiatho eeiaeiia ?aniieiaeaiea, ii aeaeaiea ii a?aoai, eae a
aaaeeiineeo aeieoiaioao, ionoonoaoao. Aiineaaenoaee a?aee caeinoaiaaee
iiiaea aeinoeaeaiey e?eoyi — ienueiaiiinoue, nenoaio /enae e ia? e
ae?oaea eoeueoo?iua aeinoeaeaiey. Ii auea ee caeinoaiaaia nenoaia o/aoa,
iaecaanoii. Ia niaio e?eoiieeaineie eoeueoo?a i?eoee e noaee
?acaeaaoueny a?a/aneea ai?iaea-iieenu, eaaeaeue ni naiae caieiooie
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiie. A ioee/ea io no?ai ae?aaiaai Ainoiea n
oeaio?aeeciaaiiui oi?aaeaieai yeiiiieeie o a?aeia ia auei aaeeiiai
ia?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia. Iieenu oi aiaaaee iaaeaeo niaie, oi
caeeth/aee nithcu, ii oi?aiaua, a caoai e aeaiaaeiua nayce nio?aiyeenue.

Enoi/ieeaie ciaiee ia i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa a e?eoi-ieeaineie A?aoeee
yaeythony iaeaeaiiua i?e ?aneiieao ouny/e aeeiyiuo oaaee/ae, ae?ae,
aeaiueae, neeaaeneea o?aieeeua e o.i. E?iia oiai, aei iao eo aeiae
aeioee eeoa?aoo?iua enoi/ieee, a eioi?uo niaea?aeeony iienaiea o/aoiie
i?aeoeee (i?iecaaaeaiey A?enoioaey, Aeaiinoaia, Aa?iaeioa e ae?.).

Aeieoiaiou a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee ienaeenue ia ethaie aeaaeeie iiaa?oiinoe,
yoi auee oeo?u iaaoe, eic, caoai aeinee, iie?uoua ecaanoueth eee aineii.
Aeiua/ee iiaee ne?aieyoueny ii e?ath ?aiaoeaie eee eieueoeaie (ia?aue
oi?ioey? eieae). Ienaee e ia iaie?ona, ii ie iaeei ec ieo ia nio?aieeny.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieoiaiou — iinoaiiaeaiey, ioaee/iua nienee —
iaiaoiaeeii auei nio?aiyoue ia aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, iiyoiio eo aunaeaee
ia i?aii?iuo eee eaiaiiuo ieeoao. Ii iaeaieaa aeaoaaui iaoa?eaeii auee
aeeiyiua /a?aiee — ino?aee.

Au/eneaiey aaee ia n/aoiii eino?oiaioa — aaaea (a ioee/ea io Ae?aaiaai
Aaeioa eaiaoee ii aea?aayiiie aeinea ia?aaeaeaaee ia ni?aaa iaeaai, a
naa?oo aiec). Nenoaia en/eneaiey auea aeanyoe/iie. N/aoo iao/aee a
iau/iuo oeieao, niaoeeaeueiua «aooaaeoa?neea» eaae?u ia aioiaeee,
i?aeoe/aneiio oi?aaeaieth o/eeenue a i?ioeanna eiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iie?iaeoaeai eiiia?naioia n/eoaeny aia Aa?ian.

A?aee ia i?iyaeyee eioa?ana e i?aeoe/aneie noi?iia oi?aaeaiey, e, eae
neaaenoaea, i?anoeaeiinoue o/aoiie i?ioannee oiaea (i?anoeaeiui
n/eoaeenue caiyoey oeeinioeae, eneonnoaii, nii?oii e o.ae.). Iiyoiio
oai?aoe/aneay noi?iia yeiiiie/aneie iaoee ioi?aaeanue io i?eeeaaeiie
(aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa) e ieacaeanue Aeaeaei aia?aaee.

Ia yeiiiieea (ieein — aeii, oicyenoai; iiiin — caeii) ienaee A?enoioaeue
e Oeeiaeai. Iie oaeaeyee aieiaiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie niaoa cao?ao.
Niaeanii eeanneoeeaoeee n?aaea eiouanoai ?acaeaeyeinue ia aeaeeiia
(caiey, ?aau, neio, aeiia) iaaeaeeiia (aeaiueae iaee/iua e ioaeaiiua a
caeiu, aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue), i?e/ai no?iaiey o a?aeia
o/eouaaeenue ii aa noaaeythuei yeaiaioai — aeaa?e, e?iaey e o.i. Ienaee
e i ea/anoaao oi?aaeythuaai — oiaiee i?eia?aoaoue, nio?aiyoue,
niaea?aeaoue a ii?yaeea, eniieueciaaoue eiouanoai.

N eiioea V a. aei i.y. iiuiia aeeyiea ia yeiiiieeo iieenia ieacuaaao
aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea. Iiiaou noaee auaeathueiny ecia?aoaieai ae?aaieo
a?aeia (Ia?aua iiiaou iiyaeeenue a Eeaeee, /aeaieoue iaoaee noae
eaaaiaea?iue oea?ue E?ac a eiioea VII a. Aei i.y.). Aei yoiai a ea/anoaa
yeaeaaeaioa eniieueciaaeenue naiua ?aciua i?aaeiaou — oeo?u, nieue, iaoa
a neeoeao e ae?. Ii oieueei iiiaou noaee anaiauei oieaa?naeueiui
yeaeaaeaioii e noieiinoiui ecia?eoaeai a aooaaeoa?ee. Aeaiaaeiia
ecia?aiea iicaieyei iaiauaoue ?acii?iaeiua oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie,
a?oiie?iaaoue o/aoiua iauaeou e iia?aoeee, iieo/aoue nenoaiioth
eioi?iaoeeth. Oae ia/aeny iiai?io io iaoo?aeueiiai o/aoa e noieiinoiiio.

N aicieeiiaaieai aeaiaa auaoaa ?aiaa iaoo?aeueiui oicyenoai iinoaiaiii
i?eia?aoaao /a?ou oiaa?iiai. ?acaeaaaony oi?aiaey iaaeaeo
ai?iaeaie-iieenaie. Oae eae eaaeaeue ai?iae /aeaiee naith iiiaoo,
aicieeea i?iaeaia iaiaia iaeieo iiiao ia ae?oaea. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii
auei ciaoue niaea?aeaiea iaoaeea a iiiaoao, noaiaiue eo eciina, eo?n
iaiaia, i?aaeaeaeaoue aiciiaeiinoue iiyaeaiey oaeueoeauo iiiao e ae?.
Iiyaeeenue iaiyeu — o?aiaceou (o?aiaca — noie, o?aiaceo — /aeiaae ca
noieii), eioi?ua, iaeiiea n?aaenoaa, noaee aeaaaoue eo iiae i?ioeaiou.
Oae ii naiei ooieoeeyi o?aiacu noaee aaieaie, a o?aiaceou i?aa?aoeeenue
a aaiee?ia. Ia?yaeo n iaiaiii i?iaa?eie iiiao e e?aaeeoiaaieai o?aiaceou
o/anoaiaaee a naeaeeao eae iin?aaeieee, naeaeaoaee, ii?o/eoaee,
o?aieoaee aeieoiaioia e oeaiiinoae.

Ia?aua a enoi?ee aaiee?u auee ?aaaie, oae eae a?enoie?aou n/eoaee yoi
caiyoea iai?anoeaeiui. Iaeiiea aeaiaa, ?aau aueoiaee naiaiaeo e
noaiiaeeenue aieueiiioiouaiieeaie — iaoaeaie, ii iieo/eoue iiaeeeiiiai
a?aaeaeainoaa iie ia iiaee. Iicaeiaa, a III a. aei i.y., aeayoaeueiinoue
o?aiaceoia noaiiaeony ii/aoiui caiyoeai. E yoiio a?aiaie onoiyeanue
o/aoii-yeiiiie/aneay noi?iia aaieianeeo ?an/aoia, aicieeee oeiainiaua
o?aaeeoeee, ii noaeeoue ia yoii iiaeii oieueei ii eeoa?aoo?iui
enoi/ieeai (?a/e Aeaiinoaia, Enieoaoa e ae?.), oae eae ie iaeia o/aoiay
eieaa ia nio?aieeanue.

I?aaiecaoeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a aaieao oea ii aeaoi iai?aaeaieyi:

1) o/ao i?eaia e auaea/e aeeaaeia;

2) o/ao acaeiiuo ?an/aoia iaaeaeo eeeaioaie.

Nia/aea caeeth/aeny aeiaiai? aaiee?a n eeeaioii a i?enoonoaee naeaeaoaey
e, aiciiaeii, iopy/eoaey. Aeiaiai? iia caeeth/aoueny onoii n
iineaaeothuae i?iaa?eie /a?ac iieacaiey iuoeie ?aaa eae naeaeaoaey
naeaeee. Aciin e ia?aaiae ioi?ieyeenue «ieaoaaeiui ii?o/aieai» —
aeeaa?aoa (5), eee neiaiea (6) (eiiaaea caiaiye aeeaa?aoa). Yoi iiaee
auoue eieueoei-ia/aoea, oaeinoiaa?ythuay ee/iinoue aeeaae/eea, eie
?aceiiaiiay iiiieai iiiaoa, eee aeaaea aeeiyiay oaaee/ea. I?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aucuaaee naeaeaoaeae. A aeieoiaioa oeacuaaee: eiy
aeeaae/eea, noiio aeeaaea, eiaia iieo/aoaey, ii?o/eoaee, naeaeaoaey.

Oaeouee o/ao ?an/aoia aaeny a nieneao, eoaea caienuaaee noiiu, a iioii
au/a?eeaaee eo. Au/a?eeaaiea icia/aei ieii/aiea ?an/aoia. Oieoeeaoeee
o/aoiuo aeieoiaioia ia auei (A?enoioaeue iienuaaao oieueei oi, /oi auee
oaaee/ee e nienee, ii i?aaeea eo caiieiaiey ia iaiaa?eaaao). Oaeay
nenoaia o/aoa ?an/aoia oeeaaeuaaaony a noaio i?eoiaeii-?anoiaeiie
aooaaeoa?ee.

O?aiaiea aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe i?aaenoaaeyei ia?iiioth i?iaeaio. Oai ia
iaiaa a enoi/ieeao ia yoii ia oiiieiaaony. Enoi?eee i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi
iniiaiay /anoue aeaiaa auea a iai?ioa — auaeaia a ea/anoaa e?aaeeoia,
ioaea/aia a iaaeaeaeeiinoue eee ?aaia, a ae?oaoth /anoue aaiee?u
naeaaaee ia o?aiaiea a o?aiu. O?aiu auee iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueie ianoaie
aeey o?aiaiey caiania (oienoua noaiu, iinaeaiey aie?oa, caueoa aiaia).
Aeaaiaea?y ?aneiieai Aeaeinneiai o?aia naaiaeiy noaea ecaanoia nenoaia
o?aiaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Caianu auee oeiaeaiu a ai?oee ?yaeaie,
eaaeaeue ?yae iaicia/aeny naiae aoeaie (yoe iaicia/aiey iiaeii n/eoaoue
eiaaioa?iuie iiia?aie). Aaeenue eae ieieioi o?e ?aaeno?a: nienie
aeieaeieeia e aciinia, eiaaioa?iay iienue aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e
ia?a/aiue o?eooia iano o?aiaiey n aeiaeaieyie.

O/eouaay ?ene o?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey iaee/iuo aeaiaa, i?iua e
aaciianiaa auei «ia?aa?ineoue» aeeaaeu iin?aaenoaii caienae ni n/aoa
iaeiiai eeeaioa ia n/ao ae?oaiai, a iaee/iinoue i?e yoii iiaea
inoaaaoueny a aaiea (o?aia) eee eniieueciaaoueny a iai?ioa. Oae
iiyaeeanue i?aaeiinueea ?acaeoey aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia.

O/aoiua eieae aae nai aaiee?, caiene aeaeaeenue niaa?oaiii nae?aoii e
ieeiio ia aeiaa?yeenue. Ie eeeaiou, ie neoae ia iiaee oaeaeaoue o/aoiuo
caienae eee iio?aaiaaoue eo /a?ac noae a ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa.
Ecaanoii iiiaeanoai noaeaaiuo ?acae?aoaeuenoa ii iiaiaeo aeeaaeia,
i?aaeeueiinoe ?an/aoia iaaeaeo eeoeaie, eioi?ua e canoaaeee iiaeoiaoue i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee o/aoa. A aeieoiaioao, eanathueony
aieaa iicaeiae aeayoaeueiinoe aaieia, i?yii aiai?eony i ienueiaiiii
ioi?ieaiee aeeaaeia e ?an/aoia n eeeaioaie.

Iniaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa Ae?aaiae A?aoeee (aeaiie?aoey)
caeeth/aeenue a oii, /oi aieueoeinoai aeieaeiinoae auee auai?iuie (ii
ae?aaeth). Iiiaea ec /eiiaieeia (ii ia ana) iieo/aee aeaeiaaiuea ec
iauanoaaiiie eannu Aoei. Ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea ecae?aeenue ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie, ii enoa/aiee eioi?iai aeieaeiu auee io/eouaaoueny.
Oaenoiaay /anoue io/aoia auea iaoe?iie e aeaaaea i?aaenoaaeaiea i
niaea?aeaiee iia?aoeee e eniieieoaeyo. Io/aou aunoaaeyeenue ia anaiauaa
iaic?aiea e ianoaeaeaeenue. Eiio?ieue inouanoaeyee niaoeeaeueiua
/eiiaieee — iieaou (ioaaonoaaiiua ca a?aiaeo e ioeoi), ea?iiie
(ioaaonoaaiiua ca nio?aiiinoue eaciu), aiiaeaeou (i?iaa?yee iiaaoaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia e aciinia), eiaenou (i?iaa?yee io/aoiinoue
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe). Ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe auea aunieie,
oeuaiey aiciauaeenue a aeanyoee?aoiii ?acia?a. Iaaeinoiaa?iay
io/aoiinoue ?anniao?eaaeanue a noaea e ea?aeanue eiioeneaoeeae
eiouanoaa, ino?aeeciii (ecaiaieai).

Aeaaiaea?y caaiaaaieyi A. Iaeaaeiineiai oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey
?ani?ino?aieeenue a Aaeiao. Ii ia aaeiaoneie ii/aa yoe aeinoeaeaiey
iiaeeoeoee?iaaeenue, a oi?aiaey e /anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai aiiaua
ia i?eaeeeenue. Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey a yeeeienoe/aneii Aaeioa
no?ieeenue ia iiaeiaaieueiii o?oaea naiaiaeiuo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e
?aaia, iiiiiieeyo (oeaeay nenoaia iiiiiieee) e iaeiaao (aaeeeia
iiiaeanoai). ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey noeioee?iaaeinue
aiayeiiiie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie (i?eioaeaeaieai, no?aoii iaeacaiey).
I?ei?eoao ioaeaaaeny iaeiaiaie io/aoiinoe (iiene caiee, ianaeaiey,
o?iaeay, neioa e o.i.).

Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iiae?iaiuo eino?oeoeee ?aaeaiaioe?iaaei nenoaio
o/aoa (ecaanoiu iaie?onu Oaaothiena, a?oea Caiiia). Eino?oeoeee
ninoaaeyeenue a aiia?aoa ieieno?a oeiainia — aaneeeeiia. Ieieno?
oeiainia (aeeieeao) eiae i?aai eiioeneiaaoue eiouanoai /eiiaieea, anee
oio ia?ooee oeiainiaoth aeenoeeieeio eee ia auiieiee naie neoaeaaiua
iaycaiiinoe, iia i?eaiai?eoue aai e iici?iiio noieao e aeaaea nia?oiie
eacie. Auiieiaiea anao eino?oeoeee o?aaiaaei ia?iiiiai ooaoa
eniieieoaeae, eioi?uo ioaeii auei niaea?aeaoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue.
Iaeeiaeiaua o/aoiua ooieoeee iiaee auiieiyoue ianeieueei /eiiaieeia.
Nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaea acaeiiue eiio?ieue aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
iiiaeanoaaiioth ia?aaea/o o/aoii-yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee, aa i?iaa?eo
e ia?ai?iaa?eo. Oaeay nenoaia aiiaua oa?aeoa?ia aeey
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieee.

Iaaeaeo ia?ae/iui o/aoii e io/aoiinoueth noiye (eae e a iaoa a?aiy)
oaeouee o/ao. A yeeeienoe/aneii Aaeioa aicieeaao iiaue oei o/aoiiai
?aaeno?a (oaeouaai aooaaeoa?neiai n/aoa) yoaia?eaea (7). A ioee/ea io
iaie?ona Aoeae 18 iauaeou o/eouaaeenue ia iauei eoiaii, a ?aaiiia?ii a
oa/aiea aeiy. Ecaanoiu iaie?onu ? 701 io 235 a. aei i.y., ? 116 io II a.
aei i.y. e ae?. Aiaeec oaenoia i?eaiaeeo e neaaeothuei auaiaeai:

— o/ao aaeny ii aeiyi;

— eiaea ianoi o/aoiay neiaieeea (anoue iaicia/aiey eoiaa, ciae au/eoaiey
e ae?.);

— i?eiaiyeanue niaoeeaeueiay o/aoiay oa?ieiieiaey, iai?eia?: inoaoie —
eieia, ?anoiae — aiyeiiaoa, ii iaicia/aiey aeaiaaeiuo eee iaoo?aeueiuo
aaeeieoe ionoonoaotho, iiyoiio o?oaeii iiiyoue, aaea eiee/anoai, oeaia e
noiia;

— iaoo?aeueii-noieiinoiue o/ao niaoai n yeaiaioaie i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiiai,
ii o?iiieiae/aneay ?aaeno?aoeey iia?aoeee i?enoonoaoao;

— niaoeeaeueiuo niiniaia eni?aaeaiey ioeaie ia ioia/aii;

— no?oeoo?a aeieoiaioa caaeneo, ianiiiaiii, io oi?iu iaie?oniiai naeoea,
a eioi?ii aaee caiene, iiyoiio yoaia?eaea ia eiaao oaaee/iiai
?aniieiaeaiey i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea ii a?aoai. A /anoiuo oicyenoaao
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, a iicaeiaa e Ae?aaiaai ?eia eniieueciaaeanue nenoaia
o/aoa iaycaoaeuenoa, i?eiaiyaoayny Caiiiii (oi?aaeythuee iiianoueai
ieieno?a oeiainia Ne?ee e Iaeanoeiu Aiieeiiey n 260 a. aei i.y.). A?oea
Caiiia oeaiai naiae ioiineoaeueiie oeaeinoiinoueth (aue iaia?oaeai a
1915 a. aeeoaeyie ianoa/ea Aea?a Yeue Aa?ca ia ianoa iiianouey Aiiieiiey
a Oeeaaeaeueoee. Aeieoiaiou auee i?iaeaiu a ?icieoeo, aeaaea
ioaeaeueiuie o?aaiaioaie, iiyoiio oeaeueiue iaeiaaea a?oea ieacaeny
?ac?iciaiiui. Iioaeeeiaaii 1750 iaie?onia). A iai i?eaaaeaiu ia?ae/iua
aeieoiaiou, yoaia?eaeu, auai?i/iua n/aoa e aeaeiaay ei??aniiiaeaioeey,
auiieiythuay iaeiia?aiaiii ?ieue enoiaeiie ia?ae/iie aeieoiaioaoeee.
Enneaaeiaaoaee, aiaeece?oy aeieoiaiou, naeaeaee auaiae, /oi a /anoiii
o/aoa eiie?iaaee o/ao ainoaea?noaaiiue: ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaycaiiinoae
o/aoiuo ?aaioieeia, i?eciaee ii?ie?iaaiey o?oaea e iia?aoeee, nieioiia
oeene?iaaiea oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie a ?ac?aca iaoa?eaeueii –
ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe, aini?iecaaaeaiea niaea?aeaiey ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia
a yoaia?eaea (aaea eioi?iaoeey ia iaeaieeaaeanue a nayce n ionoonoaeai
a?oiie?iaee aeaiiuo ia?ae/iiai o/aoa, a ?aaeno?e?iaaeanue a
o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea), aaaeaiea i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiiai o/aoa. Ia?yaeo
n yoaia?eaeaie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa aaeenue yoaia?eaeu a iaoo?aeueiii
ecia?aiee, /oi ?aca?aie/eaaei noieiinoiue e iaoo?aeueiue o/ao. Naa?youe
iai?iou a oaeeo oneiaeyo auei aanueia iai?inoi.

Aaieianeee o/ao yeeeienoe/aneiai Aaeioa ?aeiino?oe?iaai neaaeothuei
ia?acii. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a aaieao ia/eiaeny n ienueiaiiiai
?anii?yaeaiey aeeaae/eea. Iia?aoeee aciina aeeaaeia (auieao) caiineeenue
a yoaia?eaeo a eaeaiaea?iie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Ia?yaeo n yoei
caiieiyeanue i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay eieaa (iaie?on ? 890). Naycue iaaeaeo
ieie onoaiaaeeaaeanue iin?aaenoaii i?iaa?ee aeao e eiai eeeaioia
(iaie?on ? 63). A aaieianeie eieaa oaea anoue oi?ioee?iaea «io eiai —
eiio» (i?aaeoanoaoao aeaieiie caiene), oa?iei «eiaoue» (i?iia?ac oa?ieia
«e?aaeeo»), eioi?ua ieacaee aeeyiea ia yaiethoeeth o/aoa.

1.5. O/ao a Ae?aaiai ?eia

?ei I—II aa. aei i.y. aue a oi a?aiy naiui iiaouanoaaiiui ainoaea?noaii.
Aai ?acaeoay yeiiiieea — neaaenoaea oniaoiuo aiei — aace?iaaeanue ia
?ano?nao caaiaaaiiuo no?ai. Oi?aaeaiea auei oeaio?aeeciaaiiui. Ca a?aiy
naiaai nouanoaiaaiey ?ei i?ioae noaaeee oea?neie aeanoe (VII—VI aa. aei
i.y.), ?anioaeeee (VI a. aei i.y. — I a. i.y.), eiia?ee (I a. i.y. — 476
a. i.y.).

O enoieia ?eineie noieo yo?onneay oeeaeeecaoeey (aei VIII a. aei i.y.);
iicaeiaa ?ei iiiaia caeinoaiaae o a?a/aneie e ainoi/iie eoeueoo?u,
i?e/ai aano?aeoiua iaoee ?eieyi ia i?eaeaeaee: iie ia?aie/eaaeenue
i?aeoe/anee iieaciuie aauaie. Iiyoiio oeiainiaie noa?ie e aa
th?eaee/aneei ?aaoee?iaaieai ?eieyia caieiaeenue aeinoaoi/ii na?ueacii.
Iaeii ec aaee/aeoeo aeinoeaeaiee ae?aaiinoe — ?eineia i?aai (aeaeea,
ocaeiiaiiua e oeeaeeeciaaiiua ii?iu i?aaiioiioaiee — /anoiuo e
ioaee/iuo). E?iia anaai i?i/aai, aeaaiaea?y caeiiai yeiiiie/aneea
naeaeee i?eia?aee iainiiaaiea e caueoo, a aooaaeoa?neea eieae a ea/anoaa
aeieacaoaeuenoa i?aaenoaaeyeenue a noae, /oi iienaii, iai?eia?,
Oeeoea?iiii. ?eineia i?aai eiaei ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia aooaaeoa?neee o/ao.
Oae, aeaaeaeueoeu aaieia aeieaeiu auee a ii?aaeaeaiiue aeaiue
iaia?iaeiaaoue naie n/aoa. TH?eaee/aneeie ii?iaie ?aaoee?iaaeanue e
oaoieea o/aoa. Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaa e o/aoa ieacaeinue ianoieueei
ieiaeioai?iui, /oi i?iaeieaeaaony aei neo ii?.

?eieyia ianoiyoaeueii e n iiieiaieai ioiineeenue e oi?aaeaieth e
i?aaeaea anaai /anoiui iiianoueai (Eaoii Noa?oee, Naca?ia, Eieoiaeea,
Aa??ii). Yoi iiiiaaei iaiauaoue oicyenoaaiioth i?aeoeeo e auaiaeeoue
i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey, ii?ie?iaaiey cao?ao e ?aaeaiaioaoeee o/aoa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue e aaieianeee o/ao oaeaea ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue. Aaoi?u
eanaeenue oieueei caieaaeaeey, oioy oi?aiaey e aaieianeia aeaei
i?ioeaaoaee.

A ea/anoaa iniiau aeey ienueia auee eni?iaiaaiu iiiaea iaoa?eaeu —
oieno, eaiaiue, aea?aayiiua aeinee, ae?aaaniua eenouey e aioo?aiiyy
noi?iia ei?u aea?aaueaa. Ioeoeeaeueiay io/aoiinoue iaiineeanue ia
aeinee: i?aii?iua, a?iiciaua, iaaeiua, naeioeiaua e iiaaeaiiua
aea?aayiiua. Oaeouea caiene aaeenue ia aea?aayiiuo oaaee/eao,
ne?aieaiiuo aianoa n iaeiiai e?ay ii aeaa, o?e e aieueoa – eiaeaenu (8)
(eao. code—aea?aai). Iinea caaiaaaiey Aaeioa iiyaeeny iaie?on. Ieiei 180
a. aei i.y. aue ecia?aoai ia?aaiaio (ecaioiaeyeny ec oaey/ueae eiaee,
aue aei?ia, ii i?i/ai). Ia ?acaeoea o/aoa aeeyee oaoieea ienueia e
nenoaia n/aoa. Aeey au/eneaiee eniieueciaaeny aaae, caeinoaiaaiiue
a?aeaie ec Aaeioa.

Aaaeiaeoae ooieoeeae o/aoa noaiiaeeinue oiaiea i?aaeaeaeaoue ?acoeueoao
oicyenoaiaaiey (Eieoiaeea). Iaeia ec eeanneoeeaoeee eiouanoaa (ii
Aa??iio): iaeaaeathuea /eaii?acaeaeueiie ?a/ueth — ?aau, ecaeathuea
ia/eaii?acaeaeueiua caoee — neio, iaiua — o?ainii?o, caeaiey e ae?.

I?aaiecaoeey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iniiauaaeanue ia oeaica eae ia iiene
ianaeaiey e aai eiouanoaa (ia?aienue aaaaeaia Na?aeai Ooeeeai a 550 a.
aei i.y. a oeaeyo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey). A ioeaieo aoiaeeei eiouanoai ii
aeaeai: iaaeaeaeeiinoue, caiey, eiaaioa?ue, ae?aaioeaiiinoe, iaeaaeaea.
Iii ii?aaeaeyeinue ii aeiiaoiei o/aoiui eieaai. Nia/aea ?acoeueoaou
oeaica ecia?yeenue a iaoo?aeueiuo aaeeieoeao, ii n 312 a. aei i.y. noaee
noieiinoiuie ii eieoeeaoeaa oeaici?a Aiiey Eeaaaeey. Iinea ia?aiene
ninoaaeyeenue iniaua nienee iaeioueo aeey aanieaoiie ?acaea/e
i?iaeoeoia. Yoei caieiaeny oeaeue ooao /eiiaieeia, aaaioia, aaniaueeia.
Iieo/athuei auaeaaaeanue oeaaiay oanna?a — aea?aayiiay aeiua/ea n
iaicia/aieai aeaou e ianoa auaea/e oeaaa. Eiio?aia?ee io ieo naeaaaeenue
/eiiaieeai neeaaea. Nia?aiiua ia?ee naa?yeenue ni nieneaie niiniaii
au/a?eeaaiey.

Eae a A?aoeee, a ?eia oe?ieia ?acaeoea iieo/eee aaiee (a?aaioa?ee),
eioi?ua noaee ea?aoue a enoi?ee ?eineie aooaaeoa?ee aaaeouoth ?ieue.
Iaiai iiiao, a oai aieaa i?eai aeeaaeia o?aaiaaee aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee
e iiuoa. Iinea i?iaa?ee iiiao eo neeaaeuaaee a aieinoe e iia/aouaaee a
i?enoonoaee naeaeaoaeae. Naeaeaoaee oaeaea iaeeaaeuaaee naie ia/aoe.
Iia/aoaiiue eioaeue iia o?ainii?oe?iaaoueny e eniieueciaaoueny eae
n?aaenoai ieaoaaea.

Eaoeineee o/aoii-yeiiiie/aneee neiaa?ue aaieianeeo ?an/aoia iaoe?ai e
i?aaie/ii neeo n th?eaee/aneei eaeneeiiii. Yoa oa?ieiieiaey aioea a
eoaeueyineee ycue e /a?ac iaai a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneoth aooaaeoa?eth.
Ecaanoiu ?eineea aaieianeea oa?ieiu accept (i?eiyoea) — i?eoiae aiiaua,
habet (eiaoue) — e?aaeeo aaiee?a eeeaioo, creditum — aa?eoue, debitum —
aeiea eeeaioa aaiee?o, depositum — aeeaae, rationum — n/ao.

?ieue ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia auiieiyee ?anienee. Naeaeee iiaee auoue
onoiuie (ii i?e naeaeaoaeyo) e ienueiaiiuie. Ienueiaiiua aeiaiai?u
onoie/eaie oi?iu ia eiaee.

I?eoiae (acceptum) e ?anoiae (expensum) aeaiaa o/eouaaeenue a
i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiie eieaa (codex accepti et expensi). Ca iaa aaiee? ian
th?eaee/aneoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue, iia auea ?aaeno?ii oaeouaai o/aoa.
E?iia oiai, iia?aoeee o/eouaaeenue a aaeaa?na?ee (adversaria), eioi?ay
aeieai eiaea a?a/aneia iacaaiea yoaia?eaeu. A aaeaa?na?ee ?aaeno?e?iaaee
oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee. A ecaanoiie noaiaie aaeaa?na?ey (9) caiaiyea
ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou, ii ia iieiinoueth. Aaeaa?na?ey e
i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay eieaa auee acaeiinaycaiu eae ?aaeno?u
o?iiieiae/aneiai e nenoaiaoe/aneiai o/aoa. Caiene a eieao aeaeaeenue ii
noaoueyi a niioaaonoaee n iiaeiaaiuie caienyie a aaeaa?na?ee. Eieae
eiaee iiiaeanoai eni?aaeaiee. Ec iaaeieoaeueiie ?a/e Oeeoea?iia ia noaea
ecaanoii, /oi eni?aaeaiey a o/aoiuo eieaao iiaee ?anniao?eaaoue eae
aeieacaoaeuenoai ia/anoiinoe aaiee?a a ioiioaieyo n eeeaioaie.

E?iia oiai, o aaiee?a auea aua iaeia eieaa — eieaa n/aoia (codex
rationum). Caeanue iia?aoeee o/eouaaeenue ii ioaeaeueiui eeeaioai e oai
naiui ioaeaeyeenue io i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiuo n/aoia. N/aoa ioe?uaaeenue ia
eaaeaeiai eeeaioa. N/ao eiae eaoaai?ee aeieaa (debitorum), e?aaeeoa
eeeaioo (habet) e inoaoea (reliqua). Iai?iou e inoaoee eeoeaauo n/aoia
naa?yeenue. Naa?ea i?iaiaeeeanue iooai ioieooaoeee, o.a. ioiaoie a
aeieoiaioa (iau/ii ia iai?ioa).

I?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay eieaa e eieaa n/aoia oaeaea auee naycaiu, /oi
i?iyaeyeinue a i?eaia e auaea/a aeaiiceoia, e?aaeeoia, naa?ea iai?ioia e
inoaoeia. Aeey yoiai o?aaiaaeinue, /oiau a i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiie eieaa
iiiauaeenue n/aoa. Ioieooaoeey (naa?ea) naycuaaea aeaa ?yaea
ia?aeeaeueiuo n/aoia: iaeei i?aaeiacia/aeny aeey aaiee?a, aoi?ie
i?iaiaeeeny ii nnoaeai e aeieaai aeaaeoi?ia, iia?aoeeyi ii aeaiiceoai.
Aiaeec eiathueony aeaiiuo iicaieyao iiaeoaa?aeeoue i?aaeeueiinoue
oacena: «Caienaoue a aeaaao — i?iecaanoe ?anoiae, caienaoue a e?aaeeo —
i?iecaanoe iieo/aiea». N oi/ee c?aiey aaieianeie aooaaeoa?ee
i?eaaaeaiiay oi?ioea aaniethoii aa?ia. Eiia/ii, oaeia iienaiea
i?ioeaaeo?u o/aoa ioee/aaony io oiai, eioi?ia aeae E. Ia/iee, ii
i?aainoaaiiinoue i?ineaaeeaaaony.

A III a. i.y. ianooiee e?ecen ?eineie eiia?ee, a a 395 a. eiia?ey
?aniaeanue ia Ainoi/ioth e Caiaaeioth. Iinea ieceiaeaiey iineaaeiaai
?eineiai eiia?aoi?a a 476 a. Caiaaeiay eiia?ey i?ae?aoeea naia
nouanoaiaaiea, ia?aaeaa iiiaea o?aaeeoeee no?aiai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.
Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aooaaeoa?ee naycaii n o?enoeaineeie iiianou?yie a
Eoaeee e Aecaioeae e ia?aoiaeeo a n?aaeiaaaeiaue ia?eiae.

Oaeei ia?acii, ae?aaiea nenoaiu o/aoa iaeaaeaee ?yaeii iaueo /a?o.
Iniiaiie oeaeueth o/aoa aue eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth iaoa?eaeueii
ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe, /aio niinianoaiaaei iiaeio/aoiia oi?aaeaiea.
Aii?inai yooaeoeaiinoe e i?eaueueiinoe ia oaeaeyeinue aeieaeiiai
aieiaiey, iineieueeo oeaee iieo/aiey i?eauee ia/aee noaaeoue oieueei a
eaieoaeenoe/aneii oicyenoaa. O/ao i?aaeiacia/aeny nei?aa aeey
?aaeno?aoeee oaeoia, /ai aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, ia noieueei aeey
oi?aaeaiey eiouanoaii, neieueei aeey iaania/aiey aai nio?aiiinoe.
Iiyoiio i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi o/ao ?anniao?eaaaiiai ia?eiaea ioaa/ae
iauanoaaiiui iio?aaiinoyi e iaeeaeaieyi. Iai?iou ?aaeno?e?iaaeenue a
iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee, ianiio?y ia iiyaeaiea aeaiaa. Aeaiueae aieioue
aei na?aaeeiu XIII a. i.y. auee oaeei aea oiaa?ii, eae i?iaeoeou eee
i?oaeey o?oaea; a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa ia ?anniao?eaaeanue aiciiaeiinoue
noieiinoiiai ecia?aiey anao iauaeoia o/aoa.

2. O/ao a yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey

2.1. Oicyenoaaiiue o/ao N?aaeiaaaeiauey

Iinea ?aniaaea ?eineie eiia?ee ia/aeinue Aaeeeia ia?anaeaiea ia?iaeia.
Aa?aa?neea aa?iaineea e iaaa?iaineea ieaiaia oeuioee a Aaeeeth, ieaiaia
aaiaeaeia ?aci?yee ai?iaea ainoi/iiai iiaa?aaeuey Ie?aiaeneiai ii?y. IA
oa??eoi?ee auaoae Caiaaeiie ?eineie eiia?ee iaeii ca ae?oaei
ia?aciauaaeenue aa?aa?neea ei?ieaanoaa, ii yoi ia aeaeaei ianoaiiaeo
noaaeeueiie, oae eae ana iie iai?a?uaii aiaaaee ae?oa n ae?oaii. E?iia
oiai, ii Aa?iia iai?a?uaii ia?aiauaeenue aa?iaineea, oth?eneea, e?aineea
e neaayineea ieaiaia, aua ia nicaeaaoea nianoaaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.
I?e noieeiiaaiee e acaeiiaeaenoaee aa?aa?neiai e neaayineiai ie?ia
ia/eiaeinue noaiiaeaiea oaiaeaeecia.

Yeiiiieea auea ?ac?ooaia, o?iaaiue oeeaeeeciaaiiinoe ?acei oiae, noa?ay
oeaio?aeeciaaiiay ainoaea?noaaiiinoue auea oie/oiaeaia. A oaeeo oneiaeyo
auei ia aei o/aoa. Ii iaeioi?ua o?aaeeoeee Ae?aaiaai ?eia oaieeeenue a
iiianou?yo. Aaeeinoaaiiay iniaaiiinoue aeieoiaioia oiai a?aiaie – yoi
aieueoia eiee/anoai ioeaie a o/aoiuo caienyo. A iniiaa o/aoa eaaeaea
i?eaeeceoaeueiinoue, oae eae i?ioeaaoaea anaiauay iaa?aiioiinoue. Ciaiey
ia?aaeaaaeenue io iooea e nuio, niaoeeaeueiay o/aoiay iiaeaioiaea ia
aaeanue.

A oaiaeaeueiii iauanoaa eiaeeaeae i?aaenoaao /eaiii a?oiiu n
niioaaonoaothueie aai ea?a?oe/aneiio iieiaeaieth iaycaiiinoyie e
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. A noa?a nianoaaiiinoe nouanoaiaaee oa aea
ioiioaiey, /oi e iaaeaeo ethaeueie: oae oaiaeaeueiua iiianouey auee
/anoyie aieaa e?oiiuo eiaiee, a caaa?oaee ea?a?oe/aneoth eanoieoeo
ei?ieaaneea aeaaeaiey. Iiianoueyie /anoi oi?aaeyee yeiiiiu
(oi?aaeythuea), iiyoiio iaii?eaeueiay eee iiianoiay o/aoiay nenoaia
(ecaanoiay iiae iacaaieai i?eoiaeii – ?anoiaeiie) i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
nenoaio io/aoiinoe yeiiiia ia oi?aaeaiee iiianoueai eee yeiiiie/aneei
iauaeoii. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii io/eouaaeenue ia?aae ei?ieai.

A N?aaeiea aaea iiyaeeanue i?ioanney no?ainoaothueo ienoeia, ca ieaoo
ninoaaeythueo io/aou aeey nianoaaiieeia oaiaeaeueiuo oicyenoa, a eioi?uo
ia auei oi?aaeythueo.

Ia/eiay n VI a. A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia noaee aicieeaoue iiianou?e.
Yeiiiie/aneay iiuue oea?eaae aic?anoaea, a iiyaeaiea iainoaa nieioeei
oea?eiaue. A iiianou?neeo oicyenoaao ieacuaaee oneoae eae ianaeaieth,
oae e oaiaeaeueiui iiianoueyi: e?auaiea, ioiaaaiea, ioiouaiea a?aoia
(i?iaeaaea eiaeoeueaaioeee (1)) e o.ae. Yoi i?eaiaeeei e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aanoe o/ao i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea ?acee/iuo oeaiiinoae. Oea?eae oaeaea
eiaee ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey, e ieaeanoiyuea iiianou?e
io/eouaaeenue ia?aae auoanoiyueie oea?eiaiuie oi?aaeythueie.

Iiianou?e auee aaeeinoaaiiuie oeaio?aie i?inaauaiey. A iiianou?neeo
oeieao o/eee /eoaoue e ienaoue. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue
ia?aienuaaieth ?oeiienae, iiyoiio nenoaia o/aoa auea a iniiaiii
neiie?iaaia n a?a/aneie e ?eineie. E?iia oiai, ninoaaeyeenue eiaaioa?e e
aaeenue i?eoiaeii – ?anoiaeiua n/aoa (eieae). I?iaa?ea (io/aoiinoue),
eae i?aaeei, i?iaiaeeeanue iooai caneooeaaiey iaoa?eaeueii –
ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe, ioeoaea e i?iecioae oa?iei aoaeeo (audition (aiae.)
– neooaiea, auneooeaaiea).

Ii nooe, oaiaeaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaea nicaeaiea
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa. Iaeiaei, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia auei ie iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ecia?youe yooaeoeaiinoue, n eioi?ie i?iecaiaeeeny i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo,
ie iiiyoey i?eauee e (eee) aeioiaea ia eniieuecoaiue eaieoae. I?eoiaeii
– ?anoiaeiay aooaaeoa?ey auea n?aaenoaii eiio?iey /anoiinoe /eiiaieeia
?acee/iuo o?iaiae a ?aaoee?oaiii iauanoaa. Iaeiaei aeaiiay nenoaia
i?inouanoaiaaea aeiaieueii aeieai — aieioue aei na?aaeeiu XIX a.,
ianiio?y ia iiyaeaiea iaoiaea aeaieiie caiene.

Ai a?aiaia ?anoeaaoa N?aaeiaaaeiauey iiyaeeenue niaoeeaeueiua o?aeoaou.
Aaoi? iaeiiai eo ieo, aeiieieeaineee iiiao Aaeueoa? Oaiee, o?aaiaae:

— ouaoaeueiie i?iaa?ee io/aoa;

— aaeaaiaeiie eiaaioa?ecaoeee aeey naa?ee o/aoiuo aeaiiuo e iaoo?aeueiuo
inoaoeia;

— no?iaeaeoae eiaaioa?ecaoeee aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

— naeaeaoaeueneeo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee i?aaeeueiinoe oeacaiiuo a io/aoa
oeai.

E XIII a. a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia neiaeeeanue nenoaia o/aoa eanniauo
iia?aoeee, neeaaeneiai o/aoa, oi?aiauo iia?aoeee. I?e yoii
ainiiaenoaothuae auea i?inoay aooaaeoa?ey, eioi?ay nouanoaiaaea a aeaea
o?iiieiae/aneie caiene oaeoueo iai?ioia a caieniuo eieaeeao.

?acaeoea oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe o?aaiaaei e ?acaeoey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oi?i eiio?iey ca ea/anoaii o/aoiie eioi?iaoeee. Oae, a 1299 a. a Aiaeee
iiyaeyaony eieoeeaoeaa nicaeaiey iiaie aeieaeiinoe i?e ei?ieaaneii
aeai?a — eiio?iea?a (aoaeeoi?a).

A XV a. a iaeoiae aioee a?aaneea oeeo?u — eciaieeny e o/ao. Eaeay
eniieueciaaiey a?aaneeo oeeo? aianoi eaoeineeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo
eoaeueyineiio iaoaiaoeeo Oeaiia//e. Eniieueciaaiea a?aaneeo oeeo? aeey
aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neeo n/aoia nouanoaaiii iaeaa/eei o/aoioth ?aaioo.

A iicaeiaa N?aaeiaaaeiauea ao?iuie oaiiaie ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny
oi?aiaey. Yoiio niinianoaotho naycaiiua n e?anoiauie iioiaeaie ianniaua
ia?aiauaiey ia?iaeia /a?ac ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa naaa?iie Eoaeee. Oeaio?
oi?aiaee iaaeaeo Aa?iiie e Aceae aue nin?aaeioi/ai a ?aeiia
N?aaeecaiiiii?uey, a ai?iaeao Naaa?iie Eoaeee (Aaiaoeey, Oei?aioeey e
ae?.). N ?acaeoeai oi?aiaee ie?ii ia/eiaao iaeaaeaaaoue eaeay
nianoaaiiinoe. Oe?aieaieth yoie eaeae niinianoaiaaei iiyaeaiea oi?aiaiai
i?aaa. A XII—XIII aa. eoioeu noaee nicaeaaaoue iin?aaeie/aneea noaeu e
au?aaaouaaoue aaeeiua o?aaiaaiey e o/aoiui caienyi. Yoi a?aiy iaiaauaiey
eoaeueyineeo ai?iaeia e ia/aea ai?ueau ca eo iiaouanoai.

Iiuiui oie/eii ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee noaee aaeeeea
aaia?aoe/aneea ioe?uoey: auee iaeaeaiu iiaua ?uiee (Aia?eea, Eiaeey,
Eeoae, Ao?eea, Aano?aeey), i?ieiaeaiu ii?neea iooe e o.i. Ana yoi
i?eaaei e eciaiaieth oeaeae eniieueciaaiey eaieoaea e e?aaeeoa. Oaeea
yeaiaiou, eae oi?aiaey, eaieoae e e?aaeeo, aia?aua niiaee noaoue
ieiaeioai?iie ii/aie aeey ?acaeoey n/aoiaiaenoaa.

A N?aaeiaaaeiauea oi?ie?othony aeaa iniiaiuo aeaea aooaaeoa?ee:

1) eaia?aeueiay (athaeaeaoiay), eioi?ay enoiaeeea ec oiai, /oiiniiaiui
iauaeoii yaeyaony eanna, o.a. o/ao aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, a ninoiyiea e
aeaeaeaiea eiouanoaa ?anniao?eaathony eae neaaenoaea auiieiaiey
athaeaeaoa;

2) i?inoay (eiiia?/aneay), eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaea o/ao ninoiyiey e
aeaeaeaiey eiouanoaa, a aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu i?eciaaaeenue neaaenoaeai
yoiai aeaeaeaiey.

1.2. Aicieeiiaaiea aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee

Aei XIII a. o/ao aaeny n iiiiuueth oiea?aoe/aneie (i?inoie) caiene,
iniiaaiiie ia eaeaa o/aoiiai iaoo?aeecia. Oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
io?aaeaeenue a oao ecia?eoaeyo, eioi?ua nouanoaotho a ?aaeueiie aeecie
(iaoo?aeueiua ecia?eoaee). Aano?aeoiua aaee/eiu, oaeea, eae i?eaueue, a
nenoaia o/aoa ia oeene?iaaeenue, a en/eneyeenue ii ?acoeueoaoai
eiaaioa?ecaoeee.

Aeeaa?aoe/aneay (aeaieiay) aooaaeoa?ey naiaeeony e oiio, /oi a ia?a/aiue
n/aoia i?inoie aooaaeoa?ee aaiaeyony n/aoa nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Ana
oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie io?aaeathony aeaaaeaeu (eaeay o/aoiiai
?aaeecia), /oi i?eaeaao aeaieiie caiene neiaiee/aneee oa?aeoa?. Yoi
aiciiaeii oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ana o/aoiua iauaeou oeene?othony a
iaeiii o/aoiii ecia?eoaea, a ea/anoaa eioi?iai aunooiatho aeaiueae.

Iiyaeaiea aeaieiie caiene — yoi ?aaiethoeey a iuoeaiee aeaeiauo ethaeae,
/anoue iee?iie?a ethaie i?aaiecaoeee. I?ienoiaeaeaiea aeaieiie caiene
aei neo ii? aeinoiaa?ii ia onoaiiaeaii, oioy i?eaiaeyony ?acee/iua
aa?nee. Iaiaeiie?aoii aeaeaeenue iiiuoee naycaoue aicieeiiaaiea aeaieiie
caiene n eiaiai eaeiai-eeai ecia?aoaoaey, ii a ?acoeueoaoa i?eoee e
iiaieth, /oi o aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee aaoi?a iao, oae aea eae iaecaanoiu
ecia?aoaoaee aeoaaeoa, eieana, aeaiaa e i?. I?ioanni? ?. aea ?oaa?
naeaeae auaiae, /oi aeaieiay aooaaeoa?ey ca?iaeeeanue iaeiia?aiaiii a
ianeieueeeo ai?iaeao naaa?iie Eoaeee iaaeaeo 1250—1350 aa., ioeoaea
oaiiiai aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee ?ani?ino?aieeny ia no?aiu Aa?iiu, a iioii e
anaai ie?a. Enneaaeiaaoaee enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iacuaatho ?aciua
i?e/eiu oaeiai aieiaiey e iiaie iaoiaeieiaee:

— yeiiiie/aneee ?ino Aa?iiu e aicieeiiaaiea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee
(A. Ciiaa?o);

— ?acaeoea e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?ia i?eaiaeeei e o?aeoiaea ethaiai
n/aoa eae n/aoa ?an/aoia(AE.I?oaeii, A.I. ?oaeaiianeee);

— aicieeiiaaiea eiiiaiee, /oi i?eaaei e ioaeaeaieth oece/aneiai eeoea
(aeaaeaeueoea eiiiaiee) io th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, o.a. oicyenoaa, e e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aanoe o/ao eaieoaea, aeiaeaiiiai a aeaei, e aai eciaiaiee
(?. aea ?oaa?);

— yaiethoeey aeaonoi?iiiae oi?iu aaaeaiey n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae,
neaaenoaeai /aai noaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiae/aneiai «o?aaiiaaoeaaiey»
eoiaia aeaaaoiauo e e?aaeeoiauo iai?ioia (O. Oea?ae).

Aiciiaeii, ana yoe i?e/eiu a niaieoiiinoe e i?eaaee e oiio, /oi
aneaaenoaea i?ia e ioeaie, eae au «neo/aeii», iaeei ec o/aoiuo
?aaioieeia i?eoae e eaeaa ?aniieiaeeoue /enea a aeaa a?aou — i?eoiae e
?anoiae; e oieueei iicaeiaa aicieeea eaeay oaeiai oneiaiiai n/aoa, eae
n/ao eaieoaea, iicaieythuaai ii?aaeaeeoue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao oieueei
o/aoiuie n?aaenoaaie.

A. Eeooeoii ia oieueei ia?a/eneee i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey aeaieiie caiene,
ii e auaeaeee enoi?e/aneea oneiaey, eioi?ua i?eaaee e iiyaeaieth iiaie
oaoieee ?aaeno?aoeee oi?aiauo iia?aoeee:

iauaeo:

— /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue (i?aai ia?aaea/e nianoaaiiinoe),

— eaieoae (i?iecaiaeeoaeueii eniieuecoaiia aiaaonoai),

— oi?aiaey (iaiai oiaa?aie),

— e?aaeeo (eniieueciaaiea aoaeoueo aeaa a ianoiyuai);

n?aaenoai:

— ienueiaiiinoue (n?aaenoai aaaeaiey iinoiyiiuo caienae),

— aeaiueae («iauee ciaiaiaoaeue» i?e iaiaia),

— a?eoiaoeea (n?aaenoai au/eneaiee).

I?e aeaaii?eyoiuo yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao yoe
oneiaey i?eaiaeyo e nicaeaieth iaoiaeieiaee (ieaia nenoaiaoe/aneiai
ioia?aaeaiey iauaeoa niioaaonoaothueie n?aaenoaaie).

Eeooeoii ioia/aao, /oi eaaeaeay ec iacaaiiuo i?aaeiinueie i?enoonoaiaaea
a ?aciuo ianoao a ?aciia a?aiy, ii iaeiia?aiaiii iie ia iaaethaeaeenue.
Eeoue ?acaeoea a N?aaeiea aaea oi?aiaee, eaieoaea e e?aaeeoa i?eaaei e
ea/anoaaiiiio nea/eo a iaoiaeieiaee n/aoiaiaenoaa.

A naiai ?acaeoee aeaieiay caienue i?ioea ianeieueei yoaiia:

1) ?iaeeeanue eae oi?iaeueiue i?eai a ?acoeueoaoa yaiethoeeeiaoiaeia
?aaeno?aoeee oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie;

2) ?acaeaaaony eae oaoie/aneee i?eai, iicaieythuee i?ieiio?iee?iaaoue
i?aaeeueiinoue caienae oicyenoaaiiuo iai?ioia;

3) n aaaaeaieai aeaiaaeiiai ecia?eoaey o/ao noaiiaeony aaeeiie,
caieiooie nenoaiie;

4) n ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee oi?aaeythuee ioaeaeyaony io
nianoaaiieea e iiyaeyaony ia oieueei n/ao nianoaaiieea (eaieoaea), ii e
n/aoa oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia (n/aoa aaeieieno?aoi?a);

5) aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea /enea iauaeoia o/aoa
(iai?eia?, a eiioea 70-o aiaeia XX a. Iiyaeeny iauaeo «iaiaoa?eaeueiua
aeoeau», /ooue iicaea — «oneiaiua oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe»,
«niauoey iinea io/aoiie aeaou.

Cia/aiea aeaieiie caiene aeey nia?aiaiiie aooaaeoa?ee o?oaeii
ia?aioeaieoue. Ia?aui aaoi?ii, enneaaeiaaaoei i?e?iaeo aeaieiie caiene,
noae Aaiaaeaooi Eio?oeuee — eoiaoe ec ?aaocu. Ii ecaeae eieao «I
oi?aiaea e niaa?oaiiii eoioea», niaea?aeaaooth aieueooth aeaao i
aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee. Eieaa iaienaia a 1458 a., ii auoea oieueei a 1573,
o.a. /a?ac 115 eao iinea iaienaiey. Iiyoiio n/eoaaony, /oi Eio?oeuee
iia?aaeee eoaeueyineee iaoaiaoee n ie?iaui eiaiai, /aeiaae
oieaa?naeueiuo ciaiee Eoea Ia/iee.

Eoea Ia/iee — eoaeueyineee iaoaiaoee (1445—1515), ?iaeeeny a iaeaiueeii
ai?iaea Ai?ai Nai Naiieuee?i. Caeanue aeee ooaeiaeiee Iuea?i aeaeea
O?ai/anei, eioi?iio ioaeaee a o/aieee iaeaiueeiai Eoeo. A ianoa?neie
ooaeiaeieea Eoea onaiee iaoaiaoeeo, e eioi?ie ieacaeny aieaa niiniaai,
/ai e aeeaiiene. A 19 eao ii iieeioe ianoa?neoth e ia?aaoae a Aaiaoeeth,
aaea ainieouaae aeaoae eoioea Aioiiei aee ?iiieace. Oai aea ii
iiciaeiieeny e n aooaaeoa?neei o/aoii, iiiiaay aanoe eoioeo o/aoiua
eieae.

A 1470 a. Eoea Ia/iee ia?aacaeaao a ?ei, aaea caieiaaony
naiiia?aciaaieai, a /a?ac aeaa aiaea noaiiaeony iiiaoii-o?aioeeneaioeai.
Iiianou?ue aeaaae a?aiy aeey iao/iie ?aaiou, niaaaeae aeinoaoi/iuie
iaoa?eaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie. Anei?a E. Ia/iee noaiiaeony i?ioanni?ii a
Oieaa?neoaoa Ia?oaeaee. A 1493 a. ii caaa?oaao naie o?oae «Noiia
a?eoiaoeee, aaiiao?ee, o/aiey i i?iii?oeeyo e ioiioaieyo», a a 1494 a.
eieaa auoiaeeo a naao. O?aeoao XI «I n/aoao e caienyo» niaea?aeeo ia?aia
iienaiea aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee. A 1496 a. Eoea ia?aacaeaao a Ieeai, aaea
ciaeiieony n Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e e noaiiaeony aai ae?oaii ia aeieaea
aiaeu. A 1499 a. a Eoaeee ia/eiaaony aieia n O?aioeeae, e Eoea Ia/iee
aaaeeo io ieeoiaoeee ai Oei?aioeeth, aaea aiciaiiaeyao iaaeaaiae/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue. A 1509 a. ii auionoee aoi?oth eieao — «Aiaeanoaaiiua
i?iii?oeee», eioi?ay eiaao einaaiiia ioiioaiea e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo. A
1510 a. E. Ia/iee caieiaao ianoi i?ei?a iiianou?y a naiai ?iaeiii
ai?iaea, aaea e oie?aao a 1517 a.

Oai?/aneia ianeaaeea E. Ia/iee iinoeaea ian/anoeeaay o/anoue.
Niaea?aeaiea O?aeoaoa i n/aoao e caienyo ia?aienuaaee ec eieae a eieao,
a ia aaoi?a caauee. Oieueei a eiioea XIX a. auei ainnoaiiaeaii eiy
aaoi?a. Oae eae ae?oaeo eiai ecaanoii ia auei, eiaiii E. Ia/iee noaee
n/eoaoue iooeii aooaaeoa?neie iaoee, oioy ii nai ienae, /oi ia i?eaeoiae
ie/aai iiaiai, a eeoue iienae aeaenoaothuoth i?aeoeeo. Oai ia iaiaa
cia/aiea o?oaea E. Ia/iee aeey ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa,
ianiiiaiii, aaeeei.

Iniiaiua eaeae, iienaiiua E. Ia/iee, naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio.

1. Aia?aua noi?ioee?iaaiu aeaa oeaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa:

— iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee aeae, «eai o/ao neaaeoao aanoe oae,
/oiau iiaeii auei aac caaea?aeee iieo/aoue anyeea naaaeaiey, eae
ioiineoaeueii aeieaia, oae e ioiineoaeueii o?aaiaaiee»;

— en/eneaiea oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa, «eai oeaeue anyeiaieoioea ninoieo
a oii, /oiau iieo/eoue aeicaieaiioth e niioaaonoaaiioth auaiaeo aeey
naiaai niaea?aeaiey».

2. Iaa oeaee, noiyuea ia?aae o/aoii, aeinoeaathony n iiiiuueth n/aoia e
aeaieiie caiene. N/aoa — yeaiaiou nenoaiu — iieacuaatho a?oiie?iaeo
yeiiiie/anee iaeii?iaeiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey eee enoi/ieeia eo
ia?aciaaiey. Ia?a/aiue n/aoia eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii auae?aoue
naaa naiinoiyoaeueii. Aaeieieno?aoi? aeieaeai i?eniiniaeoue
aooaaeoa?neea n/aoa aeey oeaeae oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo n/aoaie ?ane?uaaaony n iiiiuueth aeaieiie caiene.
Anoue ianeieueei iauyniaiee oaeiai iacaaiey. Aa?iyoii, yoi naycaii n
oai, /oi caeanue:

— eniieuecothony aeaa aeaea caiene (nenoaiaoe/aneay e o?iiieiae/aneay);

— i?eiaiythony aeaa aeaea ?aaeno?aoeee (neioaoe/aneee e aiaeeoe/aneee
o/ao);

— nouanoaoao aeaa ?yaea n/aoia: n/aoa aeey o/aoa eiouanoaa e n/aoa
eaieoaea;

— o eaaeaeiai n/aoa aeaa ?aaiii?aaiuo ?ac?aca (aeaaao e e?aaeeo);

— ethaie oaeo oicyenoaaiiie aeecie ?aaeno?e?oaony aeaaaeaeu — ii aeaaaoo
iaeiiai e e?aaeeoo ae?oaiai n/aoa;

— eiaaony aeaa ia?aeeaeueiuo o/aoiuo oeeeea, eioi?ua io?aaeathony
o?aaiaieai

A – I = E,

aaea A — aeoea (aeaeu eiouanoaa); I — iannea (iaycaoaeuenoaa); E —
eaieoae nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee n?aaenoa);

— a ethaie iia?aoeee o/anoaotho aeaa eeoea: iaeii ioaeaao, ae?oaia
iieo/aao;

— aooaaeoa?neay ?aaioa auiieiyaony aeaaaeaeu — nia/aeaiia?aoeee
?aaeno?e?othony, a caoai i?iaa?ythony.

Eaaeaeay eo iacaaiiuo i?e/ei iiaeao n/eoaoueny iauyniaieai iacaaiey
«aeaieiay caienue».

3. E. Ia/iee auaae aeaa iinooeaoa, eioi?ua iinyo aai eiy:

— noiia aeaaaoiauo e e?aaeeoiauo iai?ioia anaaaea oiaeaeanoaaiia a
iaeiie e oie aea nenoaia n/aoia;

— noiia aeaaaoiauo naeueaei (inoaoeia ii n/aoai) anaaaea oiaeaeanoaaiia
noiia e?aaeeoiauo naeueaei a iaeiie e oie aea nenoaia n/aoia.

4. E. Ia/iee oaeaeee aieiaiea aaeaino, eioi?ue o?aeoiaae eae
«aooaaeoa?neia ?aaiiaanea, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey eiio?iey ca
i?aaeeueiinoueth ?aciinee ii n/aoai», ii ia ?anniao?eaae eae io/aoiue
aeieoiaio.

5. E. Ia/iee iienae iaeio ec ia?auo oi?i n/aoiaiaenoaa —
noa?ieoaeueyineoth (aaiaoeeaineoth). Noa?ieoaeueyineay oi?ia eiaao o?e
o?iaiy ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee:

— oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie oeene?othony a iaii?eaeueiie eieaa (io eao.
Memorial – iaiyoue, o.a. caienuaaoue ia iaiyoue a eieao)— iia caiaiyea
nia?aiaiiua ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou;

— ii aeaiiui iaii?eaea aooaaeoa? ninoaaeyao caiene ii n/aoai (i?iaiaeee)
a aeo?iaea — nae/an aai iacuaatho aeo?iaeii ?aaeno?aoeee
(o?iiieiae/aneie caiene);

— caiene i oaeoao a?oiie?othony ii yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth a
Aeaaiie eieaa (nenoaiaoe/aneay caienue).

Aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie noa?ieoaeueyineie oi?iu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ninoiye
a oii, /oi n/aoa ia iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia neioaoe/aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea.
Ana n/aoa, ii nooe, auee aiaeeoe/aneeie, iiyoiio nenoaia o/aoa auea
a?iiicaeeie e o?oaeiaieie.

6. E. Ia/iee ?anniao?eaae i?iaeaiu ioeaiee eiouanoaa e ionoaeaae
i?eioeeiu ioeaiee ii naaanoieiinoe (oaeoe/aneie noieiinoe i?eia?aoaiey
eee nicaeaiey). Ii aiai?ee: «Ioeaiea ia iiaeao auoue ieaea naaanoieiinoe
oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao, oae eae iia aeieaeia noeioee?iaaoue i?iaeaaeo
oiaa?ia ii aunieei oeaiai». Oaeei ia?acii, Ia/iee ia aeiioneae
aiciiaeiinoe ioeaiee ii aeaenoaothuei ?uii/iui oeaiai.

7. E. Ia/iee iienuaae i?iaeaiu o/aoa aaethoiuo iia?aoeee. A nayce n
eciaiaieai eo?na aaethou ii noaaee caaea/e: eae ia?aaanoe iaeio
aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo a ae?oaoth e eae io?aceoue i?eaueue io iia?aoeee
iaiaia aaethou. Ii ?aoee yoe i?iaeaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii: iioaeeeiaae
ia?aaiaeioth oaaeeoeo ?acee/iuo aaetho. Ia?a?an/ao eo?niauo ?acieoe, eae
n/eoae Ia/iee, io?aaeaoue a o/aoa ia ioaeii.

8. E. Ia/iee n/eoae, /oi ie iaeiiai, eae oaia?ue neacaee au,
oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa iaeuecy naeaeaoue aeieaeieeii aac aai niaeaney.
Oaeei ia?acii, ii n/eoae, /oi ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeth iiaeii n/eoaoue
oieueei iinea iieaou.

9. A eieaa «Aiaeanoaaiiua i?iii?oeee» ii i?aaenoaaee oaeea iioeiaeueiua
eiyooeoeeaiou, eae niioiioaiea iaeiaia e i?eauee, i?eauee e eaieoaea,
iai?ioia e caiania, eioi?ua i?eaeatho o/aoo caeii/aiiue aeae.

10. O/aiea Ia/iee i /aeiaa/aneii oaeoi?a a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
aiiaua e aooaaeoa?neii aeaea a /anoiinoe caeiaeeei iniiao aeaeiaie yoeee
oiai a?aiaie. Aaoi? n/eoae, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao — aeaei /anoiuo e
a?aiioiuo ethaeae.

1.3. Yiioa n?aaeiaaaeiaiai canoiy

Iinea aicieeiiaaiey a eoaeueyineeo ai?iaeao-ainoaea?noaao nenoaiu
aeaieiie caiene oi?ia n/aoia aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy i?aoa?iaaaea eeoue
iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey. Ia?eiae ioiineoaeueiie eia?oeee, eiaaea
oaoieea o/aoiie caiene ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ii Aa?iia onoii eee a nieneao
(eiieyo o?oaea E. Ia/iee), oae caoyioeny, /oi iieo/ee iacaaiea yiioe
canoiy. Nioeeaeueiua, iieeoe/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey iaiyeenue
iaaeeaiii, iiyoiio aeey ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia auei
aeinoaoi/iuo noeioeia. Eciaiaiey, eiaaoea ianoi, auee neaaenoaeai iiauo
oneiaee iauanoaaiiie aeecie e eiiia?oeee, a oii /enea oiaaeea naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, ?inoa oi?aiaie aeoeaiinoe e no?aieaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
?anniao?eaaoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue a aieaa aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa,
/ai i?aaeaea. Aeiaaeueiua eciaiaiey auee oaeaea iaoneiaeaiu eciaiaieyie
oeeinioneeo acaeyaeia e nenoai oeaiiinoae aaaeoueo eeannia, i?e/eiaie
/aai iineoaeeee ?aoi?iaoeey, eaeueaeieci e ineaaeaiea aeeyiey
eaoiee/aneie oea?eae.

A eiioea yoiai ioiineoaeueii aacaeayoaeueiiai ia?eiaea, a i?aaeaeaa?ee
i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee (ieiei 1750 a.) a Aa?iia i?eiaiyeinue
ianeieueei nenoai o/aoa. A naeueneii oicyenoaa, a eiaieyo
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai oeia e noa?aeoeo i?aaiecaoeeyo eniieueciaaeanue
i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay aooaaeoa?ey, nio?aieaoayny aua io ioia?oae
iiianoiie, eee iaii?eaeueiie, nenoaiu. Oi?aiaoeu iieueciaaeenue
nenoaiaie iaeeia?iie (oiea?aoe/aneie) eee aeaieiie (aeeaa?aoe/aneie)
caiene, /anoi ia auaiaey inoaoee ii n/aoai e ia eiay aiciiaeiinoe
ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio i?eauee.

N ia/aeii oe?ieiianooaaiie i?iiuoeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a XIX a. ie iaeia
ec yoeo nenoai ia iiaea aieaa n/eoaoueny oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie, oae eae
ia niioaaonoaiaaea iiyaeaoaeny i?aeoeea i?eaea/aiey eaieoaea e
?acaeaeaiey ooieoeee nianoaaiiinoe e oi?aaeaiey.

I?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay nenoaia iayooaeoeaia a oneiaeyo e?oiiiianooaaiiai
oaa?e/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
naycaiiie n eniieueciaaieai eaieoaeueiuo aeoeaia (aiaiai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa). Iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?eiaiaiee oai?ee ia/eneaiey eciina
e ?acaeaeaiey noaoae eaieoaea e au?o/ee.

Iiaeaiaey eoia n?aaeiaaaeiaiio ia?eiaeo, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
eeoue n aic?iaeaeaieai yeiiiie/aneie aeecie aiiaue aicieeea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee aeae, /oi e noaei
i?aaeiinueeie ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?ee. Iiuiui oie/eii e yoiio iineoaeeea
ia?aay eieaa, iinayuaiiay aii?inai i?aaiecaoeee e aaaeaiey
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iiiaea aaoi?u niaeaoaeenue n E. Ia/iee eee
aic?aaeaee aio oaeaea ia no?aieoeao eiea. Yoi auee ia?aua oai?aoe/aneea
nii?u, eioi?ua noaee iniiaie ?acaeoey iaoee.

3. ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a XVI – XIX
aa.

3.1. ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeaieiie caiene

Aicieeioa a oi?aiaea a Eoaeee iinea auoiaea eieae E. Ia/iee, aeaieiay
aooaaeoa?ey ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia ae?oaea io?anee, caaiaauaaao iaeio
no?aio ca ae?oaie. Aeueaeca Eacaiiaa a 1553 a. iienae i?eiaiaiea
aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee a noaeino?iaiee. A 1586 a. Aiaeaei aea Ieao?i
aeieacae aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aeaieiie caiene a aaieao.
Ethaeiaeei Oei?e (1636) iienae aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey aeaieiie caiene
a ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiao. Aanoeaii Aaioo?e a 1655 a. iieacae
eniieueciaaiea aeaieiie caiene a naeueneii oicyenoaa. Oae aeaieiay
caienue ?acaeaaaony aaeoaue, ioaaouaay iaeio io?aneue ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa ca ae?oaie. ?anoe?yaony e aaia?aoey i?eiaiaiey aeaieiie
caiene: ec Eoaeee aeaieiay aooaaeoa?ey iiiaaeaao a Aa?iaieth, ioooaea ai
O?aioeeth, iioii a Aiaeeth, caoai a Eniaieth, a iioii e a Aia?eeo. Ia
ainoie iia oea /a?ac Aa?iaieth a ?inneth, a caoai a Eeoae e ssiiieth. A
?acoeueoaoa aanue aeaeiaie ie? caaiai?ee ia ycuea aeaaaoa e e?aaeeoa.
Ia?aoiaey ec no?aiu a no?aio, aeaieiay caienue niaa?oainoaiaaeanue,
i?eieiaea iaoeeiiaeueiua /a?ou e caeeaaeuaaea iniiao iaoee i
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa.

Eoaeey. Iniiaiie oeaeueth o/aoa aeieaia a?aiy n/eoaee iia?aoeaiia
auyaeaiea aeieaia e o?aaiaaiee — oeaeue, caaeaiioth E. Ia/iee
(th?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea o/aoa). Aoi?ay oeaeue, iinoaaeaiiay ei,—
«iaaeeaaeauaa ono?ienoai aeae n oeaeueth auyaeaiey ?acoeueoaoa
aeayoaeueiinoe»,— eiaao yeiiiie/aneoth i?e?iaeo e auaeaeiaony ia ia?aia
ianoi cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeacaiiuo oeaeae iaiaoiaeeii aaaeaiea eiea. A 1688 a.
O. Aa?aooe oniaa?oainoaiaae noa?ieoaeueyineoth oi?io aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa, ?acaeaeea n/aoa ia neioaoe/aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea. Aiaeeoe/aneea
n/aoa auee auaaaeaiu ec ninoaaa ?aaeno?ia. Yoio aa?eaio oi?iu iieo/ee
iacaaiea iiaie eoaeueyineie.

Eoaeueyineea aaoi?u oaeaeyee aieueoia aieiaiea i?e?iaea n/aoia e
iuoaeenue eo eeanneoeoee?iaaoue. Oae, Aeiieieei Iai/eie ?acaeaeee ana
n/aoa ia aeeaua (n/aoa ?an/aoia n oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie)
e ia?oaua (n/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeaiaaeiuo oeaiiinoae). Aai
eeanneoeeaoeey nio?aieony aei XX a., a n/aoa iieo/ao iacaaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo e ia?niiaeueiuo. A na?aaeeia XVIII a. (1755) Ieao?i Iaiei
Neaee iauaaeeiee n/aoa a o?e a?oiiu: nianoaaiiua (eaieoaea, i?eaueae e
oauoeia, ?acoeueoaoia), eiouanoaaiiua e ei??aniiiaeaioia (aeaaeoi?ia e
e?aaeeoi?ia). Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie aii?in i eeanneoeeaoeee n/aoia
inoaaony aeeneonneiiiui.

Aaeain eae i?oaeea eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey oicyenoaii eniieueciaaee aua a
N?aaeiea aaea (ecaanoii, /oi a eiiiaiee Iaaee/e (eiiaoe XIVa.) eaaeaeia
ioaeaeaiea aaeaaiaeii ninoaaeyei aaeain e iauynieoaeueioth caieneo
oi?aaeythuaai; a eiiiaiee Aeueaa?oe (1302 – 1329) io/aou ninoaaeyeenue
,ii ia ?aaoey?ii), ii eae aooaaeoa?neay eaoaai?ey ii aua ia ninoiyeny.
Oae, E. Ia/iee iiae aaeainii iiieiae i?ioeaaeo?o, naycaiioth n
onoaiiaeaieai oiaeaeanoaa iai?ioia ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo n/aoia Aeaaiie
eieae. Ethaeiaeei Oei?e auaeaeye aeaa aeaea aaeaina: i?iaiue (eae noiio
oaeoueo naeueaei anao n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae) e caeeth/eoaeueiue
(ninoaaeyaony ii enoa/aiee aiaea e io?aaeaao oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao yoiai
aiaea). Aiaeaeaei aee Ieao?i o?aeoiaae aaeain eae oi?io io/aoiinoe e
aia?aua ?ane?ue niaea?aeaiea io/aoiinoe e ii?yaeie aa i?aaenoaaeaiey.

A oa a?aiaia o/ao aue iaioaeaeei io /aeiaaea (aooaaeoa?a), iiyoiio
aaoi?u ii?aaeaeyee o?aaiaaiey, auiieiaiea eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii aeey
oniaoiie ?aaiou. Oae, Aiaeaei ee Ieao?i ienae, /oi aooaaeoa? aeieaeai:

— oiaoue auoue oiiui (a ia auoue oiiui ia naiii aeaea);

— eiaoue oi?ioee oa?aeoa? (aeia?ue, ii i?eioeeieaeueiue);

— eiaoue oi?ioee ii/a?e (oae eae ienaee io ?oee);

— eiaoue i?ioanneiiaeueiua ciaiey;

— auoue aeanoiethaeaui e /anoiethaeaui;

— auoue /anoiui.

Aiineaaenoaee aioo?e eoaeueyineie oeieu ia auei aaeeinoaa acaeyaeia.
Enneaaeiaaoaee iacuaatho o?e iniiaiuo oa/aiey, noi?ie?iaaaoeony ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a.

1. Eiiaa?aeneia oa/aiea (th?eaee/aneia), iniiaaoaeue O?ai/anei Aeeea. Ii
n/eoae, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ia iiaeao auoue naaaeai e oaoie/aneie
i?ioeaaeo?a, eai ii anoue ia /oi eiia, eae eiiieaen
yeiiiieei-aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iiiyoee. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao iiaeao auoue
i?aaieciaai iooai aaaeaiey eiea ia iniiaa yoeo iiiyoee. O/ao iaiaoiaeei
aaeieieno?aoi?o aeey eiio?iey eeoe, caiyouo a oicyenoaaiiii i?ioeanna.

2. Oineaineia oa/aiea (th?eaee/aneia), iniiaaoaeue Aeaeocaiia *a?aiie.
Ii n/eoae, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao — yoi ia eiiieaen aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
aeaenoaee, a /anoue th?eni?oaeaioeee. Ii ecia?ae eiaeniia?aoeth —
o/aiea, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo iiiyoea i oicyenoaa eae niaieoiiinoe
eioa?ania, ii?iaeaeaaiuo /ueae-eeai nianoaaiiinoueth. Eiaeniia?aoey
?acee/aao /aou?a a?oiiu eeoe, eiathueo ioiioaiea e i?aaei?eyoeth:
nianoaaiiee, aaeieieno?aoi?, aaaiou, ei??aniiiaeaiou. Yoei eeoeai
ioe?uaathony niioaaonoaothuea n/aoa, eioi?ua iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa
/anoe: aeaaaoiaoth, ia eioi?ie ioia/aaony ana oi, /oi nianoaaiiee, aaaio
eee ei??aniiiaeaio aeieaeai (iaycaoaeuenoaa), e e?aaeeoiaoth, ia eioi?ie
caienuaaaony ana oi, /oi nianoaaiiee, aaaio eee ei??aniiiaeaio eiaao
iieo/eoue (i?aaa). Eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey nicaeaao i?aai aeey
iaeiie noi?iiu e iaycaoaeuenoai aeey ae?oaie, /oi e aeieaeii auoue
iniiaie aeaieiie caiene.

O/aieeii Aeae. *a?aiie aue Aei/aioei Aeaeeooe, eioi?ue aeae naiia
?iiaioe/iia ii?aaeaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa: n/aoiaiaenoai — yoi
ca?eaei i?ioaaeoaai, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aoaeouaai, yoi ii?yaeie ai anao
noa?ao oicyenoaa, noaoenoeea e enoi?ey i?aaei?eyoey.

Aaeeeie ienae, /oi oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa oi?aaeaiey — yoi aeaenoaiaaoue, a
n/aoiaiaenoaa — inaauaoue e iai?aaeyoue, /oiau aeaenoaiaaoue iaeaieaa
i?aaeeueii e ?aoeeiiaeueii.

Ae. Ianna, iineaaeiaaoaeue eiaeniia?aoee, neacae, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao
— iaoea ia oi?aaeaiee ethaeueie. Ii auneacuaaeny ca iieioth
iacaaeneiinoue aooaaeoa?ee io aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey, a iniiaiui
iaoiaeii n/aoiaaaeaiey n/eoae ?aaeno?aoeeth, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue aeey
aaeieieno?aoi?a eae eiiian aeey ii?aieaaaoaey. A 1874 a. Ae. Ianna ia/ae
ecaeaaaoue ia?aue aooaaeoa?neee aeo?iae, eioi?ue auoiaeee 30 eao.

3. Aaiaoeeaineia oa/aiea (yeiiiie/aneia iai?aaeaiea), iniiaaoaeue Oaaei
Aanoa. Ii n/eoae, /oi oeaeue o/aoa — ioeaiea, oeaiiinoe — aai i?aaeiao.
Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao — iaoea i eiio?iea, anee aooaaeoa? iaania/eaaao
eiio?ieue, oi ia c?y iieo/aao ca?aaioioth ieaoo. Eaaeaeia oicyenoai
eiaao ooieoeee o?ao aeaeia: ?anii?yaeeoaeueioth, eniieieoaeueioth,
eiio?ieueioth (o/aoioth). Oicyenoaaiiue eiio?ieue aeieaeai i?eioaeeoue
eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea auoue /anoiui, aeaaea i?ioea aai aeaeaiey.

Iineaaeiaaoaee Aanoa oaeaea aeaeaee yeiiiie/aneoth i?e?iaeo o/aoa. Oae,
Aeueoea?e iiiai aieiaiey oaeaeye niaoa, iacuaay aa i?aaeaeaeaieai
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. A. Noaaeeeie ii?aaeaeye
oicyenoai eae niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee n oeaeueth i?iecaiaenoaa e
iio?aaeaiey aiaaonoa e n/eoae, /oi oi/iinoue aooaaeoa?neeo aeaiiuo
aeieaeia auoue ioiineoaeueiie, o.a. aeinoaoi/iie aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

Yiiaioyeue Iecaie inouanoaee iiiuoeo neioaca oineaineie e aaiaoeeaineie
oeie: io oineaineie acye oai?eth n/aoia, io aaiaoeeaineie — eo oa?aeoa?.

Oaeei ia?acii, aaiaoeeaineia oa/aiea noaei iinoii a aieaa c?aeoth
yeiiiie/aneoth oai?eth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Aa?iaiey. Eaeay iaiaoeeiai o/aoa naiaeeeanue ia e auyaeaieth oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia, eae o eoaeueyioeaa, a e ?ane?uoeth aioo?aiieo ?an/aoia n
iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiuie eeoeaie — oaeoi?aie. A 1531 a. Eiaaii Aioeea
naeaeae iiiuoeo i?eiaieoue eoaeueyineoth aeaieioth aooaaeoa?eth a ?aieao
iaiaoeeie oaeoi?iie. Oeaeue o/aoa iaioeu aeaeaee a aieaa oe?ieii ieaia —
i?aa?auaiea aanii?yaeea a ii?yaeie (Aieueoaaia Oaaeea?).

Eioa?aniue iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth iaoiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
ano?a/aaony o oeeinioa e iaoaiaoeea A.A. Eaeaieoea. Ii aia?aua
ia?a/eneee yeaiaiou iaoiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a o?iiieiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:

1) onoaiiaeaiea aeaaiinoe oaeoa oicyenoaaiiie aeecie e i?aaeeueiinoe
aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey;

2) caienue yoiai oaeoa a aooaaeoa?neea ?aaeno?u;

3) auiieiaiea n/aoiuo iia?aoeee.

A aii?ina ioeaiee oiaa?ia aeey iaioeaa aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiie auea
?uii/iay noieiinoue. A.A. Eaeaieoe ?ac?aaioae i?aaeea yenia?oiie
ioeaiee, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia i?iaeaaeioth ?uii/ioth noieiinoue.

Aoaeo/e /?acau/aeii aeeo?aoiuie, iaiaoeeea aaoi?u o?aaiaaee iniiaaiee
caienae a aeo?iae. Oieueei iaee/ea aeieoiaioia yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
iniiaaieai aooaaeoa?neeo caienae. A. Oaaeea? ienae: iao aooaaeoa?neeo
caienae aac aeieoiaioia, iao caienae a nenoaiaoe/aneeo ?aaeno?ao, ia
ii?aaaeaiiuo a aeo?iaea (o?iiieiae/aneii ?aaeno?a). Aieueoei
aeinoeaeaieai A. Oaaeea?a auei oi, /oi ii na?oiie?iaae ana oaeou
oicyenoaaiiie aeecie oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey e naae eo e 250 noaiaea?oiui
aooaaeoa?neei i?iaiaeeai, eniieuecoy nenoaio eiaee?iaaiey n/aoia. Oaeei
ia?acii, Oaaeea?a iiaeii i?eciaoue aaoi?ii ia?aiai ieaia n/aoia. A.
Oaaeea? i?eaeaaae aieueoia cia/aiea naa?ea aooaaeoa?neeo caienae,
i?eaiaeee niiniau e onoaiaaeeaae n?iee. ?ac?aaioaiiua ei i?aaeea
i?iaa?ee aooaaeoa?neeo eiea iicaieytho n/eoaoue aai ?iaeiia/aeueieeii
?aaecee.

Aa?iaiey — ?iaeeia iaiaoeeie oi?iu n/aoiaiaenoaa. Aia?aua aa iienae O.
Aaeueaea a 1774 a. A Aa?iaiee ainiiaenoaiaaea eaia?aeueiay aooaaeoa?ey,
eioi?oth iaioeu aeiiieieee eoaeueyineie oi?iie n/aoiaiaenoaa. A
?acoeueoaoa neioaca eoaeueyineie e iaiaoeeie aooaaeoa?ee auaeaeeeanue e
noaea naiinoiyoaeueiui ?aaeno?ii eanniaay eieaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
o?iiieiae/aneoth caienue noaee aanoe a aeaoo ?aaeno?ao — iaii?eaea e
eanniaie eieaa, a caiene ii n/aoai Aeaaiie eieae — eoiaaie iaeei ?ac a
ianyoe.

Aaeeeia?eoaiey. Ia?aay eieaa iaienaia o/eoaeai iaoaiaoeee Oueth
Ieaeeanoeai a 1543 a. (ia?aua aeaau iieiinoueth niaiaaeatho n O?aeoaoii
i n/aoao e caienyo E. Ia/iee). A eaaeaeii n/aoa ii auaeaeye aeaaeoi?a e
e?aaeeoi?a (ia?niiaeenoe/aneay o?aeoiaea anao n/aoia). Aeaieaeue Aeaoi,
i?aaeaea /ai caiyoueny ni/eiaieai ?iiaiia, auionoee o?oae ii
aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, aaea ?anniao?eaae aai eae n?aaenoai oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai.

Aeaeii Iaeeen aia?aua aeae ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa eae i?yiiai ?anoiaea iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, a oaeaea
i?aaeeaaae io?aaeaoue aeaiioth iia?aoeeth ii aeaaaoo n/aoa «I?eauee e
oauoee» e e?aaeeoo n/aoa «Eiaaioa?ue», o.a. /oiau noieiinoue eiaaioa?y
?aaiuie /anoyie nienuaaeanue ia oauoie.

Nicaeaoaeai aiaeeeneie oi?iu n/aoiaiaenoaa yaeyaony Yaeaa?ae Aeaeiin. Ii
n/eoae, /oi aeaieiay caienue caioouaaao o/ao, iiyoiio iuoaeny,
ai-ia?auo, iaania/eoue aaoiiaoe/aneia iaia?oaeaiea ioeaie e iienie e,
ai-aoi?uo, iiauneoue iia?aoeaiinoue auyaeaiey oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa.
Oeaio?aeueiue ?aaeno? aiaeeeneie oi?iu — aeo?iae, a eioi?ii o?e a?aou. A
n?aaeiae a?aoa caienuaatho niaea?aeaiea iia?aoeee, cao?aaeaathueo eanno,
n oeacaieai noiiu, neaaa (aeaaeoi?) — noiio, iinooieaooth a eanno, a
ni?aaa (e?aaeeoi?) — noiio ?anoiaea ec eannu. Noiia e?aeieo a?ao
aeieaeia auoue ?aaia eoiao n?aaeiae a?aou. O/ao ia/eiaaony n iiae?iaiuo
caienae a aeo?iaea ninoaaa e noiiu eaieoaea. Ana oaeouea iia?aoeee
io?aaeathony a aeo?iaea, ioeoaea ?ac a o?e ianyoea aeaeatho eoiaiaua
caiene a Aeaaioth eieao, e eoiae Aeaaiie eieae aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiu
eoiaai a aeo?iaea.

Yoa oi?ia o/aoa ioiineony e i?inoie aooaaeoa?ee. Ionthaea iai?iou ii
aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo ia ?aaiu iaaeaeo niaie, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, au/oy ec
eoiaa a?aou aeaaao eae eoia e?aaeeo, oae e noiio e?aaeeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe, iieo/ei noiio eaieoaea, eiathuaainy a aeaea. N?aaiea aa
n ia?aiia/aeueiie noiiie, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio i?eauee eee
oauoea. ?aaioa Aeaeiina canoaaeea caaeoiaoueny i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaieiie
caiene.

O?aioeey. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a. O?aioeey noaea naiie
iiaouanoaaiiie aea?aeaaie ie?a. Aa niiniau o/aoa oaeaea aeiieie?iaaee a
oicyenoaao Aa?iiu.

Ai O?aioeee o/ao ?anniao?eaaeny eae ninoaaeythuay /anoue iaoee ia
oi?aaeaiee aaeeie/iui i?aaei?eyoeai. Ia?aui, eoi aeae oaeoth o?aeoiaeo
aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, aue AEae Naaa?e, oi aea ienae e iniiaaoaeue oeieu
oeceie?aoia O?ainoa Eaia. Ii ii niiiaaaeny a iao/iuo aeinoieinoaao
aooaaeoa?ee e aiai?ee, /oi «oi?iu e i?aaeea naiaeyony e oaoieea, eioi?ay
i?eii?aaeeaaaony e ianoiyoaeuenoaai e ia aicaaaeaia a ?aia ciaiee,
iiaoueo i?inaaoeoue iaoeeth».

Aaee/aeoei oaaii aia?aae iinea ?aaio Ia/iee auei i?aaeeiaeaiea Naaa?e
?acaeaeeoue ana n/aoa e ?aaeno?u ia neioaoe/aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea. Oaeei
ia?acii, ii nicaeae aeaoonooiai/aooth nenoaio ?aaeno?aoeee o/aoiuo
aeaiiuo, eioi?ay auea eniieueciaaia i?e iiaeeoeeaoeee noa?ie
eoaeueyineie oi?iu n/aoiaiaenoaa a iiaoth eoaeueyineoth. A enoi?eth
aioee iinooeaou Naaa?e, niaethaeaiea eioi?uo yaeyaony iai?aiaiiui
oneiaeai i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa:

1) noiia naeueaei anao aiaeeoe/aneeo n/aoia aeieaeia auoue ?aaia
naeueaei oiai neioaoe/aneiai n/aoa, e eioi?iio iie ioe?uou;

2) noiia iai?ioia ii aeaaaoo e noiia iai?ioia ii e?aaeeoo anao
aiaeeoe/aneeo n/aoia ?aaia iai?ioai ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo oiai
neioaoe/aneiai n/aoa, e eioi?iio iie ioe?uou.

Eeanneoeeaoeey n/aoia ?acaeaaeanue Iaouea aea ea Ii?oii, eioi?ue
auaeaeye o?e a?oiiu n/aoia:

1) n/aoa nianoaaiieea (n/ao eaieoaea, i?eaueae e oauoeia) —
yeiiiie/aneia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea;

2) n/aoa eiouanoaa — auiieiytho oicyenoaaiioth ooieoeeth;

3) n/aoa ei??aniiiaeaioia (n/aoa ?an/aoia) — auiieiytho th?eaee/aneoth
ooieoeeth, oae eae iieacuaatho i?aaa e iaycaoaeuenoaa o?aoueeo eeoe.

Aeaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey iicaieeea noi?ioee?iaaoue iinooeao aea ea Ii?oa:
naeueaei n/aoia nianoaaiieea e eiouanoaa anaaaea ?aaii naeueaei n/aoia
ei??aniiiaeaioia (?an/aoia).

Aaeain aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia o?aeoiaaee eeai eae neiaie aeaieiie caiene
ia n/aoao, eeai eae i?ioeaaeo?o, naycaiioth n iiaeaaaeaieai eoiaia
iai?ioia a Aeaaiie eieaa. AE. Aiae?a auaeaeye aeaa aeaea aaeainia:
i?iaiua e caeeth/eoaeueiua. N?aaee iineaaeieo AE. Naaa?e ?acee/ae
eiaaioa?iue (ioeaiea ii naaanoieiinoe) e eiieo?niue (ioeaiea ii
i?iaeaaeiui oeaiai ia aeaiue ninoaaeaiey) aaeainu. Oaea a 1835 a. I.
Oa?a iinoaaee aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oieoeoee?iaaiiuo oi?i io/aoiinoe,
i?aaeaea anaai aaeainia, e ieaiia n/aoia.

O?aioeocneea aaoi?u ?ac?aaioaee ninoaa e no?oeoo?o o/aoiuo ?aaeno?ia, eo
eioi?iaoeeiiiua nayce, oaoie/aneea i?eaiu, eioi?ua i?eaaee e nicaeaieth
o?ao oi?i n/aoiaiaenoaa: o?aioeocneie (aea ea Ii?o), aia?eeaineie
(Aeaa?aiae), aaeueaeeneie (Aaooaeeue).

Nooue o?aioeocneie oi?iu n/aoiaiaenoaa caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aaeeiue
aeo?iae (o?iiieiae/aneay caienue) ?aniaaeaaony ia ianeieueei. A ioee/ea
io iaiaoeeie oi?iu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa o?aioeocneay i?aaeiieaaaao
aaaeaiea ia oieueei iaii?eaea e eanniaie eieae, ii e ae?oaeo aeo?iaeia,
?ann/eoaiiuo ia eaaeaeue aeae iniiaiuo iia?aoeee. Ia?eiaee/anee (iau/ii
?ac a ianyoe) ia iniiaa caienae a aeo?iaeao ninoaaeyeenue i?iaiaeee a
nai?iii aeo?iaea (Aeaaiie eieaa).

Aaeueaeeneay oi?ia n/aoiaiaenoaa yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth
o?aioeocneie. Yoa oi?ia i?aaeiieaaaea aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth aeo?iaea ia
/aou?a naiinoiyoaeueiuo ?aaeno?a: iieoiee, i?iaeaaee, eannu e oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia. Eo iai?iou ii ieii/aiee ianyoea ia?aiineeenue a Aeaaioth
eieao.

Aia?eeaineay oi?ia n/aoiaiaenoaa iniiaaia ia iiaii ?aaeno?a —
AEo?iae-Aeaaiay, aaea o?iiieiae/aneay caienue auea iauaaeeiaia n
nenoaiaoe/aneie. Aeey yoiai, ii iiaieth Aeaa?aiaea, aeinoaoi/ii aanoe
iyoue n/aoia: eannu, oiaa?ia, aeieoiaioia e iieo/aieth, aeieoiaioia e
iieaoa, oauoeia e i?eaueae. I?aaeoniao?eaaeinue oaeaea aaaeaiea aua o?ao
n/aoia: eaieoaea, aaeaina anooieoaeueiiai e aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai.
Ana n/aoa naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie aeaieiie caienueth ii i?aaeeo «oio, eoi
iieo/aao,— aeaaaooaony, a oio, eoi auaeaao,— e?aaeeooaony».

3.2. I?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey e aa iineaaenoaey aeey aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa

Ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea o/aoa caea i?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey. N
iiyaeaieai oaa?ee, aeaeaciuo aei?ia, n eiioeaio?aoeeae ?aai/ae neeu e
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, n iiauie eiioeaioeeyie i?iecaiaenoaa,
nianoaaiiinoe, eaieoaea e oi?aaeaiey, eciina e aii?oecaoeee
niaa?oainoaiaaeanue e nenoaia ?aaeno?aoeee oaeoia, ioeaiee iauaeoia e
?ane?uoey eioi?iaoeee a io/aoiinoe.

I?iecaiaenoai iiiaeanoaa ioiineoaeueii noaiaea?oiuo oiaa?ia ia oaa?eeao
iicaieyei cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi i?eaaei
e auoaniaieth ?o/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiianoiay i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay
aooaaeoa?ey ia?anoaea oaeiaeaoai?youe eioi?iaoeeiiiua iio?aaiinoe a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue nianoaaiieeia.

Eiioeaio?aoeey eaieoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey a oneiaeyo oaoiieiae/aneiai
?acaeoey ii?iaeeea caaea/e ?an/aoa aii?oecaoeee aeey aeeth/aiey a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee n?aaenoa o?oaea, o/aoa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, ioeaiee noieiinoe iai?ioiuo aeoeaia e en/eneaiey
i?eauee.

Eiioeaio?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu ia oaa?eeao i?eaaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nicaeaiey nenoai iieaou o?oaea, naa?oo?i/iuo, i?aiee, a oaeaea
oi?ie?iaaiey iieacaoaeae aeey ioaeae oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii. *aoeea
eiioeaioeee ca?aaioiie ieaou e oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii ieii/aoaeueii
ioi?ieeenue oieueei a XIX a.

Iio?aaiinoue a cia/eoaeueiuo n?aaenoaao aeey ?acaeoey aeciana i?eaaea e
nicaeaieth aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee. Iaaiiay aaeieieno?aoeey aeieaeia auea
ia?eiaee/anee io/eouaaoueny ia?aae nianoaaiieeaie, iaei ciaeiiuie n
aeayoaeueiinoueth eiiiaiee. A nayce n yoei ia/eiatho oi?ie?iaaoueny
eiioeaioeee aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. E?iia oiai, auyaeaiiay ca io/aoiue
ia?eiae i?eaueue auea aacie aeey ia/eneaiey aeeaeaeaiaeia, iiyoiio
ii?aaeaeaiea i?eauee noaei ia?ainoaiaiiie caaea/ae aooaaeoa?a.

Aiia?aoo oi?aaeaiey oaeaea o?aaiaaeinue aieueoa eioi?iaoeee aeey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e eiio?iey io eiaie nianoaaiieeia, eioi?ua ia i?eieiaee
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey a oi?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoeai. Ni a?aiaiai yoi
i?eaaei e nicaeaieth ?acee/iuo nenoai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e o/aoa
cao?ao, i?ecaaiiuo iiii/ue iaiaaeaea?ai a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

Eciaiaiey a yeiiiieea i?eaaee e eciaiaieyi a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
eiiiaieyo. Aeey i?eaea/aiey eaieoaea ioaeii auei eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue
i?eaaaiooue e naa?aaeaieyi iiiaeo ethaeae, oae eae n?aaenoa iaeiiai
aeaaea ninoiyoaeueiiai eeoea auei iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaa?ee e caaiaeia. Iaeei ec ia?auo caeiiia a Aa?iia,
i?eciaaaaoee aeayoaeueiinoue iaca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo eiiiaiee ia?ooaieai
iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, aue i?eiyo a Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 1719 a.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeiai caeiia auea aucaaia oai, /oi /aeiaae, anooieaoee
a aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey n iiaeiaiie i?aaiecaoeeae, ia iia i?aaeuyaeoue
eiio-eeai ene a neo/aa nii?a, iineieueeo eiiiaiey eiaea cia/eoaeueiia
/enei nianoaaiieeia (aeoeeiia?ia). Iaeiaei eaaaeueiinoue aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoa, a ia?yaeo n iae e o?aaiaaiey e aaaeaieth o/aoa e
i?aaenoaaeaieth io/aoiinoe, aoaeoo aaaaeaiu a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai oieueei a XIX a.

Aoi?ie aaaeiie iaeanoueth caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau, aeeyaoae ia
?acaeoea i?aeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, auei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i aaie?ionoaa. Iaeei ec ia?auo a Aa?iia caeiiia i
noaeao ii aeaeai i ianinoiyoaeueiinoe aeieaeieea aue i?eiyo a 1813 a.
Auee o/?aaeaeaiu noae e nenoaia ioeoeeaeueiuo oiieiiii/aiiuo, eioi?ua
caieiaeenue eeeaeaeaoeeae eiouanoaa aaie?ioa niaianoii n oiieiiii/aiiuie
e?aaeeoi?ia. Eiaiii ?ac?aaioea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii aeaeai i
ianinoiyoaeueiinoe aeieaeieeia i?eaaea e oi?ie?iaaieth i?eioeeia
eiouanoaaiiie iainiaeaiiinoe (icia/aao, /oi eioua/noai eiiiaiee aeieaeii
auoue iainiaeaiii io eiouanoaa ae?oaeo th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe)
a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa, oae eae aeaaeaeaoe (aeoeeiia?) ioaa/ae ii
iaycaoaeuenoaai eiiiaiee oieueei a i?aaeaeao noii, aeiaeaiiuo a eaieoae
eiiiaiee. Aeey caueou eioa?ania aeoeeiia?ia, ioi?aaiiuo io oi?aaeaiey
eiiiaieae, iiyaeythony i?aaeiinueee aeey oi?ie?iaaiey aua iaeiiai
i?eioeeia aooaaeoa?ee — i?eioeeia iai?a?uaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue
iicaieyao naiaa?aiaiii iaania/eoue eioi?iaoeeae, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, nianoaaiieeia e e?aaeeoi?ia.

A XVI—XIX aa. aeaaiaea?y niaa?oainoaiaaieth nianoaaiiie iaoiaeieiaee
o/ao ec iaai?a aeiai e yiie?e/aneeo i?aaee iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaaony a
i?oaeea enneaaeiaaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiiaea aaoi?u
iuoathony ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua o/aoiua eaoaai?ee iao/iui ycueii. A
oeacaiiue ia?eiae auee caeiaeaiu iniiau th?eaee/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie
o?aeoiaie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, auee aeaiu ia?aua eeanneoeeaoeee
aooaaeoa?neeo n/aoia, aeoeaii oi?ie?oaony aooaaeoa?neee ycue
(oa?ieiieiaey). ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, o?aaothuaai
cia/eoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee e
aeaei iiuiue noeioe aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e
?ac?aaioee iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.

4. Iao/iia ?acaeoea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a XIX – XX aa.

4.1. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao eiaao aeaa noi?iiu: i?aeoe/aneoth (n/aoiaiaenoai) e
oai?aoe/aneoth (n/aoiaaaeaiea). Ia?aay i/aaeaeia, aoi?ay iaiaoiaeeia
aeey iauyniaiey ia?aie e auyaeaiey aiciiaeiinoae eniieueciaaiey i?aeoeee
aeey aeinoeaeaiey eaaeaeui i?aaei?eyoeai iaeeo/oeo oicyenoaaiiuo
?acoeueoaoia. Enoi?e/anee i?ioanney aooaaeoa?a neiaeeeanue eae
i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, iiyoiio iao/iay iniiaa aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa inoaaony iayniie e iiiaei nia?aiaiiui aooaaeoa?ai. Iiiuoee
iniuneeoue eiae/aneea ia?aaeienu a oicyenoaaiiie aeecie i?aaei?eyoee
aeaee ia/aei iaoea i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa.

Oai?ey, ?iaeaeaynue ia iniiaa i?aeoeee, iaiauaao e iauyniyao oaeou
oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Iia ioaeia ia oai, eoi i?inoi ?aaioaao, a oai, eoi
aeoiaao e ?aaioaao. Ia?aui oai?ey nei?aa a?aaeeo, /ai iiiiaaao, aoi?ui —
oai, eoi enneaaeoao aeoaeiiua i?iaeaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, ninoaaeyao
ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou e auae?aao oa eee eiua iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eaiu
aeey aeinoeaeaiey aieueoae yooaeoeaiinoe a ?aaioa i?aaei?eyoey,— oai?ey
iaiaoiaeeia eae aicaeoo.

Aua a 1884 a. eoaeueyineee o/aiue Aei/aioei Aeaeeooe, aunooiay n
aeieeaaeii ia oaio «I?ioeia e aoaeouaa n/aoiaiaenoaa», auneacae
neaaeothuoth iuneue i caaea/ao, noiyaoeo ia?aae n/aoiaaaeaieai a oi
a?aiy: iaoaio aaeo auiaee ia aeieth aeaa aaaeiua caaea/e: iaeia
i?aeoe/aneay — onoaiiaeaiea a e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo n/aoiaiaenoaa,
niiniaiiai oaeiaeaoai?eoue iiaua iio?aaiinoe, ae?oaay — oai?aoe/aneay —
onoaiiaeaiea iao/iuo i?eioeeiia, auaiaeyueo n/aoiaiaenoai ec
yiie?e/aneie iaeanoe e ieii/aoaeueii iai?aaeythueo aai ia iooue
i?ia?anna. N oao ii? i?ioei aieaa aaea, iaeiaei e nae/an aicieeatho
nii?u i oii, /oi aooaaeoa?ey iiaeaa?aeaia aeeyieth yiie?ecia e
o?aaeeoeee.

Oai?ey — yoi iaai? eaeae a oie eee eiie iaeanoe ciaiee. A aooaaeoa?neii
o/aoa, eae e a ae?oaeo iaoeao, nouanoaotho ?acee/iua acaeyaeu ia
enneaaeoaiua eaoaai?ee (a aeaiiii neo/aa ia nouiinoue e i?e?iaeo n/aoia,
aaeaina e o.i.). A caaeneiinoe io yoiai oi?ie?othony ?acee/iua iao/iua
oeieu, oa/aiey, iai?aaeaiey. A caaeneiinoe io iauyniaiey i?aaee
?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ia n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
oai?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey ?acee/iuo aaoi?ia ?acaeaeytho ia th?eaee/aneea,
yeiiiie/aneea e aaeainiaua oai?ee.

4.2. TH?eaee/aneea oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

Nooue th?eaee/aneie o?aeoiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa naiaeeeanue e niaia
i?aa e iaycaoaeuenoa eeoe, o/anoaothueo a oicyenoaaiiii i?ioeanna. N
th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey oeaeueth o/aoa noaiiaeony eiio?ieue
aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia: nianoaaiieea, aaeieieno?aoi?a,
aaaioia (eeoe, caiyouo ia i?aaei?eyoee), ei??aniiiaeaioia (eeoe, n
eioi?uie i?aaei?eyoea aaaeao ?an/aou). Iineieueeo eiio?iee?iaaoue i?aaa
e iaycaoaeuenoaa iiaeii oieueei ii aeieoiaioai, i?aaeiao o/aoa
ninoaaeytho ia naie oeaiiinoe, a naaaeaiey i ieo. Oae eae ioaaonoaaiiua
eeoea aeieaeiu auee ioaa/aoue ca aaa?aiiua ei oeaiiinoe a i?iaeaaeiuo
oeaiao, oi eiaiii oaeay ioeaiea i?eciaaony i?aaeeueiie. Nouiinoue
aeaieiie caiene auoaeaea ec iai?a?uaiiai aicieeiiaaiey i?aaa
(iaycaoaeuenoaa) o iaeieo eeoe e iiaaoaiey o ae?oaeo. Ionthaea e aaeain
ii?aaeaeyeny eae oaaeeoea, a aeoeaa eioi?ie oeacaiu aeaaeaeueoeu
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae (iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea), a a ianneaa
ia?a/eneaiu nianoaaiieee (e?aaeeoi?u e aeaaeaeaoe i?aaei?eyoey).

A ?acaeoea th?eaee/aneeo oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia?iiiue aeeaae
aianee Y. Aeaa?aiae, E. Aaiuea, A. Oeaa e E. Iaea?iai, E. Aeeene, E.
Oeueiai, Y. Eaioa e A. Aeeueai, A.I. ?oaeaiianeee, Ae. *a?aiie e ae?.

I?ioanni? I.N. Iiiaceia ?acaeaeyao oai?ee th?eaee/aneiai, iai?aaeaiey ia
oai?ee iaeiiai ?yaea n/aoia e oai?ee aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia.

Aaoi?u oai?ee iaeiiai ?yaea n/aoia (Aeaa?aiae, Aaiuea, Oeaa e Iaea?iai,
Aeeene, Oeueiai) i?eciatho, /oi ana n/aoa iaeeiaeiau ii naiae i?e?iaea e
iiae/eiythony iauei i?aaeeai ?aaeno?aoeee: eoi iieo/aao — aeaaaooaony,
eoi aeaao — e?aaeeooaony. Ii iaeie aaoi?u, iai?eia? Aeaa?aiae, enoiaeyo
ec oiai, /oi ana n/aoa ii nooe yaeythony n/aoaie aeaaeaeueoea
(nianoaaiieea). Oaeea oai?ee iacaaiu I.N. Iiiaceiaui noauaeoeaiuie.
Ae?oaea aaoi?u aiai?yo, /oi n/aoa aaaeoony io eiaie oicyenoaa eae
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, a nianoaaiiee n/eoaaony e?aaeeoi?ii aeaiiiai
oicyenoaa. TH?eaee/aneea oai?ee aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia iniiaaiu ia
i?aaenoaaeaiee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey eae
niaieoiiinoe ioiioaiee oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia. Aooaaeoa?neee aaeain
iino?iai ec aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia, eioi?ua i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony ae?oa
ae?oao. I?aaeea caiene ia n/aoao caaenyo io niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
eaaeaeie a?oiiu n/aoia. Iiiaceia oaeaea ?acaeaeyao aeaiioth a?oiio
oai?ee ia noauaeoeaiua (n/aoa aaaeoony io eiaie nianoaaiieea) e
oicyenoaaiiua (n/aoa aaaeoony io eiaie th?eaee/aneiai eeoea). E
noauaeoeaiui oai?eyi iiaeii ioianoe oai?ee Eaioa e Aeeueai, *a?aiie, e
oicyenoaaiiui oai?eyi — oai?eth ?oaeaiianeiai.

A XX a. th?eaee/aneea oai?ee iiaeaa?aaeenue aeanoeie e?eoeea. I?ioanni?
E.O. O?io oeacuaae, /oi iniiaiia i?aaeei oai?ee iaeiiai ?yaea n/aoia ia
yaeyaony aeinoaoi/iui aeey i?eiaiaiey ei anai oicyenoaaiiui iia?aoeeyi.
Anoue oeaeue ?yae iia?aoeee, nouiinoue eioi?uo ia iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue
eeoe aeathueo e eeoe iieo/athueo (iai?eia?, nienaiea aeieaa
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiiai aeaaeoi?a, oie/oiaeaiea oiaa?ia iiaea?ii).
Ano?a/athony oaeaea iia?aoeee, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo aeathuee ia
iieo/aao i?aaa o?aaiaaiey e iieo/athuaio, a iieo/athuee ia ianao
iaycaoaeuenoa, eae iai?eia?, i?e oieaoa iaeiaia, ia/eneaiee ca?aaioiie
ieaou. Oa? io?eoeaao iao/ioth cia/eiinoue th?eaee/aneeo oai?ee, oae eae
iie /enoi iaoaie/aneei iooai iauyniytho i?aaeea aeaieiie caiene e
niaa?oaiii ia iinoeaatho iao/iuo iniia n/aoiaaaeaiey. Iaeiaei neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue ianiiiaiiua caneoae aaoi?ia yoeo oai?ee ia?aae aooaaeoa?neie
iaoeie. Ai-ia?auo, iioiio /oi eiaiii iie naeaeaee ia?aua iiiuoee
auyaeoue e i?eioeeieaeueii iainiiaaoue caeii aeaienoaaiiinoe
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee e iaoiae aeaieiie caiene. Ai-aoi?uo, ca
th?eaee/aneeie oai?eyie iaeiiai ?yaea n/aoia aei neo ii? inoathony
i?aeiouanoaa iaaeaaiae/aneiai iaoiaea, iicaieythuaai iaeaieaa eaaei e
i?inoi iciaeiieoue ia/eiathueo aooaaeoa?ia n oaoieeie ?aaeno?aoeee ia
n/aoao.

Oai?ey Aeaa?aiaea («La tenue des livres rendue facile», 1795). Yaeiii
Aeaa?aiae oeacuaae, /oi n/aoiaiaenoai eiaao aeaiyeoth caaea/o:
ai-ia?auo, aeaaaoue naaaeaiey i ninoiyiee n/aoa eaaeaeiai
ei??aniiiaeaioa, ai-aoi?uo, inaauaoue iieiaeaiea aeae ia ethaie iiiaio,
o.a. aeaaaoue naaaeaiey i aeaeaeaiee oeaiiinoae, i?eaueyo e oauoeao e
o.i. Aeey ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ aooaaeoa? iieuecoaony n/aoaie
aeaoo a?oii: n/aoa aeey eeoe, n eioi?uie ninoiyo a oicyenoaaiiuo
ioiioaieyo (niaoeeaeueiua n/aoa), e n/aoa oeaiiinoae (iauea n/aoa).
Aeaa?aiae ioia/ae, /oi a eaaeaeie aac eneeth/aiey iia?aoeee o/anoaotho
aeaa eeoea: iaeii ec ieo iieo/aao eaeoth-eeai oeaiiinoue, ae?oaia eeoei
yoo aea oeaiiinoue ioaeaao. Ia?aia eeoei yaeyaony aeieaeieeii, eee
aeaaeoi?ii, aoi?ia eeoei — aa?eoaeai, eee e?aaeeoi?ii. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai e iiaeeaaeeo ?aaeno?aoeee iooai ninoaaeaiey
niaoeeaeueiuo noaoae, a eioi?uo oeacuaaeenue au iaeiia?aiaiii aeaa
eeoea: aeaaeoi? e e e?aaeeoi?. Oaeei ia?acii, oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee
io?aaeathony ia n/aoao a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeii: aeaaaoiaaoue oiai, eoi
iieo/aao, e?aaeeoiaaoue oiai, eoi aeaao.

Aeey aieaa yniiai iiieiaiey aeaiiiai i?aaeea ninoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neeo
caienae Aeaa?aiae i?eaiaeeo neaaeothuea i?eia?u.

1. Oicyei i?iaeae Aeeueiio iyoue ai/ae aeia ca 600 o?aieia.

Aeeueii iieo/ee iyoue ai/ae aeia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aai n/ao ioaeii
aeaaaoiaaoue. Oicyei aeae iyoue ai/ae aeia, cia/eo, ii yaeyaony
e?aaeeoi?ii e aai n/ao ioaeii e?aaeeoiaaoue.

2. Oicyei iieo/ee iaee/iuie io Aeeueiia 600 o?aieia.

Oicyei iieo/ee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii a yoie iia?aoeee yaeyaony
aeaaeoi?ii, aai n/ao ioaeii aeaaaoiaaoue. Aeeueii ioaeae 600 o?aieia,
aai n/ao ioaeii e?aaeeoiaaoue.

I?e ninoaaeaiee caienae caaeathony aii?inu: «eoi iieo/ee?» e «eoi aeae?»
— aeey auyniaiey, eoi aea ec o/anoieeia yaeyaony aeaaeoi?ii, a eoi
e?aaeeoi?ii a eaaeaeie iia?aoeee.

Iao?oaeii caiaoeoue, /oi a eaaeaeie iia?aoeee n/ao oicyeia aoaeao
iiaoi?youeny eee a ea/anoaa aeaaeoi?a, eee a ea/anoaa e?aaeeoi?a. Yoi
aiieia anoanoaaiii, oae eae oicyei iaeciaiii yaeyaony iaeiie ec noi?ii a
ethaie naeaeea, niaa?oaaiie oicyenoaii (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aianoi iiiyoey
«oicyenoai» eniieuecotho iiiyoey «i?aaiecaoeey»). Aeaiiue n/ao,
ai-ia?auo, aue au iaoe?ai, ioee/aynue io aeo?iaea oicyenoaaiiuo
iia?aoeee oieueei ?aniieiaeaieai caienae, e, ai-aoi?uo, aaniieacai,
iineieueeo ia?yaeo n aeoaee?iaaieai aeo?iaeueiuo caienae ii ia aeaaae au
aiciiaeiinoe iaaiaeeoue auno?ua, yniua e oi/iua ni?aaee (i iieo/aiee,
auaea/a e inoaoeao oiaa?ia, aeaiaa e o.ae.) ec-ca ionoonoaey a iai
?acaeaeueiiai o/aoa.

Aeaa?aiae i?aaeeiaeee ?acaeaeeoue n/ao oicyeia ia iyoue n/aoia: n/ao
oiaa?ia, n/ao eannu, n/ao aeieoiaioia e iieo/aieth, n/ao aeieoiaioia e
iieaoa e n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia. Oaeei ia?acii, iauea n/aoa ii
eeanneoeeaoeee Aeaa?aiaea yaeythony iiae?acaeaeaieyie aaeeiiai n/aoa
oicyeia.

Oaia?ue aeey eiino?oe?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neeo caienae aii?inia: «Eoi
iieo/ee?» e «Eoi auaeae?» iaaeinoaoi/ii, eo i?eoiaeeony aeiiieiyoue
aii?inaie: «*oi iieo/ee?» eee «*oi auaeae oicyei?».

I?ioeann ninoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neeo caienae aoaeao i?ioaeaoue neaaeothuei
ia?acii.

1. Oicyei i?iaeae Aeeueiio iyoue ai/ae aeia ca 600 o?aieia.

Eoi iieo/ee? Aeeueii iieo/ee iyoue ai/ae aeia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aai n/ao
ioaeii aeaaaoiaaoue.

Eoi e /oi aeae? Oicyei aeae iyoue ai/ae aeia, o.a. oiaa?, cia/eo, n/ao
oiaa?ia ioaeii e?aaeeoiaaoue.

2. Oicyei iieo/ee iaee/iuie io Aeeueiia 600 o?aieia.

Eoi e /oi iieo/ee? Oicyei iieo/ee aeaiueae, neaaeiaaoaeueii, n/ao aeaiaa
ioaeii aeaaaoiaaoue.

Eoi ioaeae? Aeeueii ioaeae 600 o?aieia, aai n/ao ioaeii e?aaeeoiaaoue.

Iiieii niaoeeaeueiuo e iaueo n/aoia Aeaa?aiae o?aaiaae ioe?uoey aua e
o?ao aanueia aaaeiuo n/aoia iniaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a: n/aoa eaieoaea, n/aoa
aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai e n/aoa aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai.

Iacia/aieai n/aoa eaieoaea yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea /enoiai eiouanoaa
oicyeia, eee aai eaieoaea. Eaieoae oicyeia ii?aaeaeyaony iooai au/eoaiey
ec iauae noiiu anaai oiai, /oi ii eiaao, iauaai eoiaa aai aea
iaycaoaeuenoa. N/ao eaieoaea e?aaeeooaony ca ia?aiia/aeueiue eaieoae
oicyeia i?e ia/aea ei oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee e ca anyeiai ?iaea
oaaee/aiey yoiai eaieoaea iiae aeeyieai ee neo/aeiuo i?e/ei eee aea a
?acoeueoaoa i?eaueae, auyaeaoeony a eoiaa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
N/ao eaieoaea aeaaaooaony ca ana oi, /oi oiaiueoaao ?acia?u yoiai
eaieoaea iiae aeeyieai neo/aeiuo i?e/ei eee aea a ?acoeueoaoa oauoeia,
iieo/eaoeony a eoiaa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. N/ao eaieoaea
cae?uaaaony n/aoii aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai.

N/ao aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai neoaeeo aeey cae?uoey anao n/aoia, eae
niaoeeaeueiuo, oae e iaueo, ioe?uouo a Aeaaiie eieaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
caeeth/aiey e caaaeaine?iaaiey n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae n/aoii aaeaina
caeeth/eoaeueiiai iineaaeiee iauaaeeiyao a naaa e io?aaeaao naeueaei
anao cae?uouo ei n/aoia. N/ao aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai aeaaaooaony ca
aanue aeoea oicyeia ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey n/aoia e e?aaeeooaony ca aanue
aai iannea e io?aaeaao oaeei ia?acii oi/iia eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea
oicyeia ia oeacaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue i?aaeuaeouaio n/aoo n/ao aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai
neoaeeo aeey ioe?uoey aiiaue anao oao n/aoia, eioi?ua auee cae?uou
n/aoii aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai.

Iaa iineaaeieo n/aoa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aiia?aaeaaiuo eeoe,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey caeeth/aiey (n/ao aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai) e
ioe?uoey (n/ao aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai) n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae.

?anniio?aiiay oai?ey iaeaaeaao ?yaeii oycaeiuo iano: ionoonoaea
caeii/aiiie eeanneoeeaoeee n/aoia, iaoaaaeeoaeueiay o?aeoiaea i?aaee
caiene ii n/aoo i?eaueae e oauoeia, iaeaiia iauyniaiea cae?uoey e
ioe?uoey n/aoia e o.ae. Aianoa n oai neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue e
iieiaeeoaeueiua noi?iiu oai?ee Aeaa?aiaea e i?aaeaea anaai no?aieaiea
auaanoe iaoiae aeaieiie caiene enoiaey ec oiai iniiaiiai iieiaeaiey,
eioi?ia n ecaanoiui aeiiouaieai iiaeii iacaaoue caeiiii aeaienoaaiiinoe.
A i?aaenoaaeaiee Aeaa?aiaea eaaeaeay iia?aoeey aeaienoaaiia ii naiae
i?e?iaea, oae eae ninoieo ec aeaoo iniiaiuo yeaiaioia: iieo/aiey e
auaea/e. Iieo/aiea /aai-eeai naycaii o Aeaa?aiaea n i?aaenoaaeaieai i
aicieeiiaaiee aeieaeieea, a auaea/a /aai-eeai n i?aaenoaaeaieai i
e?aaeeoi?a. Eaaeaeue n/ao, eae niaoeeaeueiue, oae e iauee, iiaeao
iieo/aoue e auaeaaaoue iieo/aaiue iauaeo, niioaaonoaaiii /aio
iaycaoaeueii ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa /anoe: aeaaao — aeey ?aaeno?aoeee
iieo/aiee e e?aaeeo — aeey caiene auaea/. Ii eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay
iia?aoeey anaaaea ninoieo ec aeaoo i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ii naiae
i?e?iaea yeaiaioia — iieo/aiey e auaea/e, ionthaea eaaeaeay iia?aoeey
o?aaoao iaeiia?aiaiiie caiene ii aeaaaoo iaeiiai e e?aaeeoo ae?oaiai
n/aoa. Aeey naiaai a?aiaie (eiiaoe XVIII — ia/aei XIX a.) oai?ey
Aeaa?aiaea, aaconeiaii, auea e?oiiui aeinoeaeaieai a iaeanoe iainiiaaiey
aaaeiaeoeo n/aoiuo iieiaeaiee.

Oai?ey Aaiuea (1840). Eiiieeo Aaiuea ?acaeaae iuneue, /oi n/aoa aaaeoony
ia io eiaie nianoaaiieea, a io eiaie oicyenoaa eae th?eaee/aneiai eeoea.
Ana yoe n/aoa iauaaeeiythony a o?e a?oiiu: n/aoa eiiia?naioa (a yoo
a?oiio aoiaeyo n/ao eaieoaea e n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia), n/aoa
oeaiiinoae, iaoiaeyueony a oicyenoaa e yaeythueony iauaeoaie iia?aoeee,
n/aoa ei??aniiiaeaioia. N/aoa ia?aie e o?aoueae a?oii eeanneoeeaoeee
Aaiuea, i/aaeaeii, yaeythony n/aoaie ee/iuie. Oaeeie aea ee/iuie
yaeythony e n/aoa aoi?ie a?oiiu, iineieueeo oeaiiinoe, ii iiaieth
Aaiuea, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie n/aoa aaaioia, eioi?ui ii?o/aii iieo/aiea e
auaea/a oeaiiinoae. Iai?eia?, n/ao eannu neaaeoao iiieiaoue eae n/ao
eanne?a. Iaeiiia?acea i?eciaeia n/aoia (ana ee/iua) i?eaiaeeo e
onoaiiaeaieth iauaai aeey anao ieo i?aaeea n/aoiuo caienae: n/ao
yaeyaony aeaaeoi?ii, anee ii iieo/aao oiaa?u, iaee/iua aeaiueae,
aaenaey, eaeea-eeai oeaiiinoe eee i?eieiaao ia naay eioa?anu, ?anoiaeu,
ecaea?aeee e ae?oaea oauoee ?aciiai ?iaea; n/ao yaeyaony e?aaeeoi?ii,
anee ii auaeaao eee aeinoaaeyao oiaa?u, iaee/iua aeaiueae, aaenaey,
eaeea-eeai oeaiiinoe eee i?eiineo eioa?anu, aeioiaeu e ae?oaea i?eauee
?aciiai ?iaea.

E. Aaiuea auaeaeaaao ia ia?aue ieai ?acaeaeaiea iiiyoee oicyenoaa e
nianoaaiieea, iaeiaei a eiia/iii eoiaa aeaao oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea
aeaieiie caiene a aeooa oai?ee Aeaa?aiaea. A iaieo neo/ayo ana n/aoa
ieeoeaoai?ythony, a i?e ninoaaeaiee aooaaeoa?neeo caienae neaaeoao
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny iauei i?aaeeii: iieo/athuee aeaaaooaony, aeathuee
e?aaeeooaony.

Oai?ey Oeaa e Iaea?iaia (1891). A. Oeaa e E. Iaea?iai inoaiiaeeenue ia
auyniaiee iaeioi?uo iiiyoee. Iiae aeoeaii iie iiieiatho niaieoiiinoue
oiai, /ai aeaaeatho ia i?aaao nianoaaiiinoe; iiae ianneaii — i?aaa
o?aoueeo eeoe eee e?aaeeoi?ia, a iiae /enoui eaieoaeii, eee /enoui
eiouanoaii,— ?aciinoue io au/eoaiey noiiu ianneaa ec noiiu aeoeaa. Iiae
aeeyieai iia?aoeee a aeoeaa, ianneaa e /enoii eaieoaea i?ienoiaeyo
eciaiaiey, aeey o/aoa eioi?uo ioe?uaathony n/aoa.

Enneaaeoy oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe ninoaaiuo /anoae aeoeaa e ianneaa,
Oeaa e Iaea?iai i?eoee e onoaiiaeaieth neaaeothuae eeanneoeeaoeee:

— iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa, iai?eia?, aeaiueae, aeaeaeeiia e iaaeaeaeeiia
eiouanoai (aeoea);

— o?aaiaaiey e ae?oaei eeoeai, n?aaee eioi?uo a naith i/a?aaeue
auaeaeythony o?aaiaaiey, iniiaaiiua:

a) ia ?an/aoiuo ioiioaieyo, eee ee/iua o?aaiaaiey,

a) ia aeieaiauo aeieoiaioao: aaenaeyo e aeieoiaioao e iieo/aieth,
aoiaaeiuo aeaiueaao, iineieueeo iineaaeiea ia?aaiicia/iu caiieie iiiaoa
(aeoea e iannea).

Enoiaey ec i?eaaaeaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee aeoeaa e ianneaa Oeaa e Iaea?iai
i?aaeeiaeeee oaeoth eeanneoeeaoeeth n/aoia:

— n/ao eaieoaea n niioaaonoaothueie aniiiiaaoaeueiuie n/aoaie (n/ao
i?eaueae e oauoeia e o.i.);

— n/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa;

— n/aoa aeieaiauo aeieoiaioia;

— ee/iua n/aoa.

Iin?aaenoaii oeacaiiuo a?oii n/aoia o/eouaathony eciaiaiey,
i?ienoiaeyuea a aeoeaa e ianneaa. Eiino?oe?iaaiea aooaaeoa?neeo caienae
iiae/eiyaony iniiaiiio i?eioeeio aooaaeoa?ee, niaeanii eioi?iio
eaaeaeiio aeaaeoi?o aeieaeai i?ioeainoiyoue e?aaeeoi?. Ai ecaaaeaiea
aiciiaeiuo ioeaie Oeaa e Iaea?iai onoaiiaeee oaa?aeia i?aaeei,
iicaieythuaa ii?aaeaeeoue n/ao, eioi?ue iiaeeaaeeo aeaaaoiaaieth, e
n/ao, iiaeeaaeauee e?aaeeoiaaieth:

— aeaaeoi?ii aoaeao eaaeaeue n/ao eeoea, iieo/athuaai /oi-eeai io ian,—
eaaeaeue n/ao, eioi?ue iu ioe?uaaai aeey o/aoa eaeiai-eeai i?aaeiaoa, ca
ana oi, /oi ninoaaeyao eee oaaee/eaaao oeaiiinoue iineaaeiaai, ca
eaaeaeia oaaee/aiea eee i?e?auaiea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeaea ca oi, /oi
iu i?e iia?aoeeyo n yoei eeoeii eee n yoei i?aaeiaoii iieo/aai a aeaea
i?eauee;

— e?aaeeoi?ii aoaeao eaaeaeue n/ao eeoea, /oi-eeai iai aeathuaai eee
i?eeacuaathuaai aeaoue, — eaaeaeue n/ao i?aaeiaoa ca oi, /oi ec ninoaaa
yoiai i?aaeiaoa aoaeao caa?aii, o.a. ca eaaeaeia oiaiueoaiea,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeaea ca oi, /oi iu i?e iia?aoeeyo n yoei eeoeii
oa?yai.

Aeaiiia i?aaeei ninoieo ec o?ao i?aaeienaiee, ioiinyueony:

— e caienyi ii ee/iui n/aoai;

— e caienyi ii iaoa?eaeueiui n/aoai;

— e caienyi ii n/aoai i?eaueae e oauoeia.

I?e?iaea oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ii ee/iui n/aoai aeaienoaaiia, oae eae
ninoieo ec aeaoo yeaiaioia: iieo/aiey e auaea/e. A yoie /anoe
i?ineaaeeaaaony aiaeiaey n oai?eyie Aeaa?aiaea, Aaiuea e ae?.

I?aaeei, ioiinyuaany e caienyi ii iaoa?eaeueiui n/aoai, oaea yaeyaony
iiaui. Ei onoaiaaeeaaaony, /oi iaoa?eaeueiua n/aoa aeaaaoothony ca
anyeia oaaee/aiea oeaiiinoe o/eouaaaiuo iauaeoia e e?aaeeoothony ca
anyeia aa oiaiueoaiea. Iaeiaei aaoi?u oeacuaatho, /oi aeaaeoi?ii
iaoa?eaeueiue n/ao aoaeao ca ana auaea/e, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyony ec-ca
iauaeoa, o/eouaaaiiai ia yoii n/aoa, a oaeaea ca ana o?aaiaaiey ae?oaeo
eeoe, aicieeoeo ec-ca yoiai iauaeoa; e?aaeeoi?ii iaoa?eaeueiue n/ao
aoaeao ca oa o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ua n/ao yoio eiaao ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei
eeoeai. Oaeei ia?acii, iaoa?eaeueiua n/aoa o Oeaa e Iaea?iaia yaeythony
n/aoaie ieeoeaoai?aiiuie, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eioeeieaeueiua ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo iaoa?eaeueiuie e ee/iuie n/aoaie ionoonoaotho.

I?aaeei, eioi?ui ?aaoee?oaony ii?yaeie caienae i?eaueae e oauoeia,
o?aaoao, /oiau ca i?eauee niioaaonoaothuea iaoa?eaeueiua e ee/iua n/aoa
aeaaaoiaaeenue, a ca oauoee e?aaeeoiaaeenue. Yoi ianeieueei no?aiiia ia
ia?aue acaeyae o?aaiaaiea eiaao aeinoaoi/iia iainiiaaiea. I?aaeiieiaeei,
/oi a oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea i?aaei?eyoea i?eia?aei 1000 aaeeieoe
oiaa?a ii oeaia 1,5 ?oa. ca oooeo e i?iaeaei 1000 aaeeieoe oiaa?a ii
oeaia 2 ?oa. ca oooeo. Ia n/aoa oiaa?ia aoaeoo naeaeaiu neaaeothuea
caiene (?en. 1).

Aeaaao N/ao oiaa?ia
E?aaeeo

Eoieaii1500 ?oa.I?iaeaii 2000 ?oa.I?eaueue500 ?oa.?en. 4.1 – Caiene
ia n/aoa oiaa?ia

Ii i?aaeeai Oeaa e Iaea?iaia n/ao oiaa?ia iieo/ee, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?iecioei oaaee/aiea oeaiiinoae ia 1500 ?oa., iiyoiio aeaaaooaony. Caoai
n/ao oiaa?ia auaeae, i?iecioei oiaiueoaiea oeaiiinoae, iiyoiio n/ao
e?aaeeooaony ia 2000 ?oa. Ii oiaa?u auee i?iaeaiu ii oeaia aieaa
aunieie, /ai oeaia naaanoieiinoe, /oi a eoiaa aeaei ?acieoeo a 500 ?oa.,
/oi oa?aeoa?ecoao, ii iiaieth Oeaa e Iaea?iaia, eciaiaiea oeaiiinoe
i?iaeaiiie ia?oee oiaa?a a iiiaio aa i?iaeaaee. Oae eae yoi eciaiaiea
aeaei oaaee/aiea oeaiiinoe oiaa?a, o.a. a aeaiiii neo/aa n/ao iieo/ee
?acieoeo a 500 ?oa., ca yoo ?acieoeo n/ao oiaa?ia e aeieaeai auoue
aeaaaoiaai a iiiaio onoaiiaeaiey ?acia?ia oeacaiiie ?acieoeu. Ia noiio
?acieoeu, io?aaeaiiie ii aeaaaoo n/aoa oiaa?ia, aeieaeai auoue
e?aaeeoiaai n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia.

Anee au io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia aue iieo/ai oauoie, oi aai iiaeii auei au
iauynieoue eae oiaiueoaiea ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe i?iaeaiiie ia?oee
oiaa?ia a iiiaio aa i?iaeaaee. A yoii neo/aa i?iecioei au oiaiueoaiea
iauaeoa o/aoa, o.a. auaea/a n/aoii oiaa?ia, iiyoiio iineaaeiee e
iiaeeaaeae au e?aaeeoiaaieth n iaeiia?aiaiiui aeaaaoiaaieai n/aoa
i?eaueae e oauoeia ia ?aaioth noiio.

Oaeei ia?acii, n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia a naieo caienyo, oiaea
iiae/eiyaony iauaio i?aaeeo: i?e iieo/aiee aeaaaooaony i?e auaea/a
e?aaeeooaony. Yoi naienoai iauyniyaony oai, /oi n/ao, i?eaueae e oauoeia
iiieiaaony eae aniiiiaaoaeueiue n/ao e n/aoo eaieoaea. A iiieiaiee Oeaa
e Iaea?iaia oauoie ?anniao?eaaaony eae oiaiueoaiea oeaiiinoe, o.a.
auaea/a n/aoa, ia auaea/a yoa i?iaaaeaia ca n/ao nianoaaiieea,
iineieueeo ia eiiiaine?oaony i?eoieii eaeeo-eeai eiuo oeaiiinoae.
I?eaueue aea iiieiaaony eae oeaiiinoue, iieo/aiiay io aeaaeaeueoea
oicyenoaa e oaaee/eaathuay iauoth aaee/eio eiouanoaa nianoaaiieea.

N/ao eaieoaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianoaaiieea oicyenoaa, iiyoiio i?e
auaea/a oeaiiinoae oicyenoao e?aaeeooaony (a ei??aniiiaeaioeee n
iaoa?eaeueiuie n/aoaie iieo/aiiiai eiouanoaa) , a i?e iieo/aiee
i?aaeiaoia e aeieaia io oicyenoaa aeaaaooaony (a ei??aniiiaeaioeee n
iaoa?eaeueiuie n/aoaie auaeaiiuo oeaiiinoae). Ionthaea iiaeii naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi n/ao eaieoaea oaeaea ioiineony e ee/iui n/aoai nianoaaiieea
oicyenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey, i?aaeeiaeaiiay Oeaa e Iaea?iaiii, ianeieueei
ioee/aaony io ?aiaa ?anniio?aiiuo oai?ee. Caeanue aeaaony eiay
eeanneoeeaoeey n/aoia, a i?aaeeao aeaieiie caiene ia?yaeo n iiiyoeyie
iieo/aiey e auaea/e aaiaeeony iiiyoea oaaee/aiey e oiaiueoaiey, aeaaony
aieaa /aoeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?e?iaea i?eaueae e oauoeia. Ii ana
ia?a/eneaiiua iniaaiiinoe yaeythony eeoue aeaoaeyie, a iniiaiui
iieiaeaieai ana – oaee inoaaony aeaienoaaiiinoue oicyenoaaiiuo
iia?aoeee, caeeth/athuayny a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe aeaoo yeaiaioia:
iieo/aiee e auaea/a. A aeaiiii neo/aa ana aac eneeth/aiey n/aoa
ieeoeaoai?ythony e iiae/eiythony iauaio i?aaeeo: n/ao iieo/athuee
aeaaaooaony, n/ao aeathuee e?aaeeooaony.

Oai?ey Aeeene (1921). Eio?ain Aeeene aeieacuaaao, /oi a iniiaa caeiia
aeaienoaaiiinoe eaaeeo iiiyoea o?ainoa?oa, o.a. ia?aaea/e /aai-eeai io
iaeiiai eeoea eee ianoa ae?oaiio eeoeo eee ianoo. E?iia oiai, neaaeoao
ioee/aoue oicyenoai io aai nianoaaiieea. Oicyenoai aeeth/aao a naay, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, oeaiiinoe e i?aaa o?aaiaaiey e o?aoueei eeoeai, o.a. oi,
/oi ecaanoii iiae iauei iacaaieai aeoeaa, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
iaycaoaeuenoaa ii ioiioaieth e o?aoueei eeoeai, eee iannea. ?aciinoue
iaaeaeo aeoeaii e ianneaii eee eaieoae oaeaea aeieaeia auoue ioianaia e
ianneao, iineieueeo noiia iaycaoaeuenoa oiaea oa?aeoa?ecoao aaee/eio
iaycaoaeuenoa oicyenoaa ia?aae aai nianoaaiieeii. I?ienoiaeyuea iiae
aeeyieai oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee eciaiaiey a aeoeaa, ianneaa e eaieoaea
oicyenoai o/eouaaao, iieuecoynue n/aoaie. Aeeene i?aaeeaaaao
neaaeothuoth eeanneoeeaoeeth n/aoia, ioe?uaaaiuo oicyenoaii:

— ?aaeueiua n/aoa, eiathuea aeaei n iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie;

— ee/iua n/aoa, io?aaeathuea naeaeee n ?aciuie eeoeaie, n eioi?uie
eiathony aeaeiaua acaeiiioiioaiey;

— iiieiaeueiua eee aacee/iua n/aoa, eiathuea aeaei n ?acee/iuie
aeioiaeaie e ?anoiaeaie.

Ianiio?y ia i?aaeeiaeaiioth eeanneoeeaoeeth, Aeeene cayaeyao, /oi
eaeie-eeai nouanoaaiiie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo ?aaeueiuie e ee/iuie n/aoaie ia
nouanoaoao, oae eae ca anaie oeaiiinoyie noiyo eeoea, ioaaonoaaiiua ca
ieo ia?aae oicyeiii. A nouiinoe, ?aaeueiua n/aoa oaeaea yaeythony
ee/iuie.

I?e?iaea iiieiaeueiuo n/aoia iauyniyaony i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth i?eauee,
auyaeaiiie ca iia?aoeeiiiue ia?eiae. Ii iiaieth Aeeene, /enoay i?eaueue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia oicyenoao, a aai nianoaaiieeai, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
nianoaaiiee yaeyaony e?aaeeoi?ii oicyenoaa ia anth noiio /enoie i?eauee.
I?e cae?uoee io/aoiiai ia?eiaea naeueaei anao iiieiaeueiuo eee aacee/iuo
n/aoia aeeaathony a eoiaa a ee/iue n/ao nianoaaiieea, n/ao eaieoaea,
iiyoiio e o?aoueth a?oiio n/aoia iiaeii n iieiui i?aaii ioianoe e ee/iui
n/aoai.

E. Aeeene iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi i?aaei?eyoea ia iiaeao ie iieo/aoue
i?eaueue, ie oaea?aeeaaoue eaieoae aeey naiiai naay; e oi e ae?oaia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo nianoaaiieeo, iiea e oi e ae?oaia ia aoaeao ecuyoi O
i?aaei?eyoey nianoaaiieeii, iineaaeiee yaeyaony e?aaeeoi?ii i?aaei?eyoey
ia noiio yoiai eaieoaea e yoeo i?eaueae.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey Aeeene, ianiio?y ia i?aaeeiaeaiioth
eeanneoeeaoeeth n/aoia, oaeaea ieeoeaoai?yao ana n/aoa n aaaaeaieai
a?oiiu iiieiaeueiuo n/aoia. O?oae Aeeene auoae a 1921 a., eiaaea oaea
auee iioaeeeiaaiu aeinoaoi/ii niaea?aeaoaeueiua e aieaa i?ia?anneaiua
oai?ee yeiiiie/aneiai iai?aaeaiey, ii ianao a naaa y?ei ie?aoaiiua
eaoaai?ee th?eaee/aneie oai?ee.

Oai?ey Oeueiaia (1904). Eicao oii Oeueiai, i?eieiay ca enoiaeioth oi/eo
naieo iino?iaiee oieaa?naeueiia i?aaeei n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee — aeathuee
e?aaeeooaony, iieo/athuee aeaaaooaony,— i?aaeaea anaai onoaiaaeeaaao,
/oi iniiaaieai aeey aeaaaoiaaiey e e?aaeeoiaaiey yaeythony ia naie oaeou
iieo/aiey eee auaea/e /aai-eeai, a aicieeathuea ec yoeo oaeoia
th?eaee/aneea acaeiiioiioaiey, o.a. i?aai o?aaiaaiey i?e auaea/a e
iaycaoaeuenoai i?e iieo/aiee. Yoi ?annoaeaeaiea i?eaiaeeo e oi?ioee?iaea
neaaeothuaai i?aaeea: anee aeey n/aoa aicieeaao i?aai o?aaiaaiey, ii
e?aaeeooaony, anee aeey n/aoa aicieeaao iaycaoaeuenoai, ii aeaaaooaony.
Oaeay oi?ioee?iaea iiaeao auoue aeaia eeoue ia iniiaaiee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ia?niieoeeaoeee n/aoia, o.a. a ?acoeueoaoa
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iaaeaeaiey naienoaaie noauaeoia — iineoaeae i?aa
o?aaiaaiee e iaycaoaeuenoa.

Iniaaiiinoueth oai?ee Oeueiaia neaaeoao n/eoaoue oi, /oi n/ao aaeaina
yaeyaony n/aoii oi?aaeythuaai oicyenoaii. Oi?aaeythuee iieo/aao a ia/aea
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea io nianoaaiieea oicyenoaa ana eiouanoai, iieo/aiea
eioi?iai io?aaeaao ii aeaaaoo n/aoa aaeaina e e?aaeeoo n/aoa eaieoaea.
Nianoaaiiee noaiiaeony e?aaeeoi?ii oicyenoaa. Aica?auay nianoaaiieeo a
eiioea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea eiouanoai, i?eoiiiaeaiiia ia aaee/eio i?eauee
eee oiaiueoaiiia ia aaee/eio oauoea, oi?aaeythuee io?aaeaao yoi
eiouanoai ia e?aaeeoiaie noi?iia n/aoa aaeaina e aeaaaoiaie noi?iia
n/aoa eaieoaea. A ?acoeueoaoa yoie iineaaeiae caiene e?oa n/aoiie
?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iai?ioia caaeaiiue io/aoiue ia?eiae
caiueaaony, i?e/ai a neo/aa i?aaeeueii i?iaaaeaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee
aeaaaoiaay e e?aaeeoiaay noi?iiu eaaeaeiai n/aoa iieacuaatho iaeeiaeiaua
eoiae.

Eoae, ii oai?ee Oeueiaia ana n/aoa yaeythony ieeoeaoai?aiiuie. Eaaeaeay
iia?aoeey i?e ?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao iiae/eiyaony iauaio i?aaeeo: i?e
aicieeiiaaiee i?aaa o?aaiaaiey n/ao e?aaeeooaony, i?e aicieeiiaaiee
iaycaoaeuenoaa — aeaaaooaony.

Oaeei ia?acii, yoa oai?ey iaei /ai ioee/aaony io i?aaeuaeoueo, ii aeaao
iauyniaiea i?aaee ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ia n/aoao
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa n oi/ee c?aiey th?eaee/aneeo iiiyoee «i?aaa» e
«iaycaiiinoe».

Oai?ey Eaioa e Aeeueai. Yaeai Iuea? Eaioa e Aaeieueo Aeeueai iieaaaee,
/oi eeoei, i?iaiaeyuaa oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee n o?aoueeie eeoeaie ca
naie n/ao, iaycaii aanoe o/ao anao naieo iia?aoeee aeey onoaiiaeaiey
aeeyiey iineaaeieo ia oi eiouanoai, eioi?ui iii aeaaeaao e
?anii?yaeaaony. Iaycaiiinoue aaaeaiey o/aoa auoaeaao ec oiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue oaeiai eeoea eiaao ia oieueei
th?eaee/aneia, ii e nioeeaeueiia cia/aiea. Eeoei, eioi?ia iaycaii aanoe
o/ao naiaai eiouanoaa e aai eciaiaiee, iacuaaee ia/aeueiui n/aoiaiaeii.
Ia/aeueiue n/aoiaiae yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii e eaieoaeenoii, e
nianoaaiieeii, e eiiia?naioii, e aaeieieno?aoi?ii. Oicyenoaaiiua
iia?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey o/eouaathony i?e iiiiue aeaoo i?ioeainoiyueo
ae?oa ae?oao n/aoia: ?yae n/aoia ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea e ?yae n/aoia
o?aoueeo eeoe (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoea 4.1 – A?oiiu n/aoia a oai?ee Eaioa e Aeeueai

N/ao ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaeaN/aoa o?aoueeo eeoe1. N/aoa eaieoaea

2. N/aoa aeey o/aoa iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, iaoa?eaeia, eiaaioa?y,
eannu, aaenaeae e iieo/aieth, oiaa?ia, oeaiiuo aoiaa e o.ae.

3. N/aoa ?acoeueoaoiua 1. Aeaaeoi?u ?aciua

2. E?aaeeoi?u ?aciua

3. Aaenaey e ieaoaaeo

Aeaa ?yaea n/aoia, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a oaae.4.1, ioaaouaatho ana aac
eneeth/aiey oicyenoaaiiua iai?iou i?aaei?eyoey. Yoe iai?iou iiaoo auoue
aeaiyeiai ?iaea: iai?iou aioo?aiiea e iai?iou aiaoiea. Aiaoieie
yaeythony oaeea iai?iou, i?e eioi?uo aicieeatho acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie eae aneaaenoaea iaiiauo aeoia, oae e aneaaenoaea
?acee/iiai ?iaea ia?a/eneaiee n iaeiiai n/aoa ia n/ao ae?oaiai eeoea.
Eaaeaeue aiaoiee iai?io cao?aaeaaao n/aoa ii e?aeiae ia?a aeaoo eeoe,
iaeii ec eioi?uo e?aaeeooao aeathuaai, aeaaaooy iaeiia?aiaiii naiiai
naay ca iieo/aiioth oeaiiinoue, a ae?oaia aeaaaooao iieo/aoaey,
iaeiia?aiaiii e?aaeeooy naay ca auaeaaaaioth oeaiiinoue.

Aioo?aiieie iai?ioaie n/eoathony ana oa iia?aoeee yeiiiie/aneiai eee
/enoi n/aoiiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua niaa?oathony eeoeaie, iai?eia?
ia/aeueiui n/aoiaiaeii, eeoue o naay iaiin?aaenoaaiii, e eioi?ua ia
cao?aaeaatho o?aoueeo eeoe.

Niaieoiiinoueth aeaaaoiauo naeueaei n/aoia aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
aeoeaiie ianna, eiathuaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea.
Naaaeaiey ia aeoeaiie ianna aeathony n/aoaie o/aoa oeaiiinoae e n/aoaie
aeaaeoi?ia (?aaeueiue aeoea), n/aoaie oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia a /anoe
oauoea (oeeoeaiue aeoea). Niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoiauo naeueaei aeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea i ianneaiie ianna e aeeth/aao a naay inoaoee ii n/aoai
e?aaeeoi?ia, ee/iiai eaieoaea ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea (?aaeueiue iannea),
n/aoia i?eaueae e n/aoia, ?aaoee?othueo aeaaaoiaia naeueaei a noi?iio
oiaiueoaiey, eae, iai?eia?, oi?aiaay iaoeaiea, aii?oecaoeeiiiue eaieoae
(oeeoeaiua ianneau). Ionthaea iiaeii onoaiiaeoue no?oeoo?o
aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina. ?acoeueoaoiua n/aoa iinyo ia?aoiaeiue oa?aeoa? e
aeieaeiu cae?uaaoueny n/aoii eaieoaea. Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou iino?iaiey
aeoeaa e ianneaa ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaenoaaeoue iaa ?yaea n/aoia a aeaea oaaeeoeu (oaae.4.2).

Oaaeeoea 4.2 – Niaea?aeaiea n/aoia

N/ao ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaeaN/aoa o?aoueeo eeoeIannea oeeoeaiue

Eaieoae, i?eaueue

Aeoea ?aaeueiue

Iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai, eiaaioa?ue, iaoa?eaeu, eanna, aaenaey e
iieo/aieth, oiaa?u, oeaiiua aoiaae e i?i/ea oeaiiinoe

Aeoea ?aaeueiue

OauoeeAeoea ?aaeueiue

Aeaaeoi?u ?aciua

Iannea ?aaeueiue

E?aaeeoi?u ?aciua e aaenaey e ieaoaaeo

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii onoaiiaeoue e oa?aeoa?enoeeo ii?iaeueiiai no?iaiee
aaeaina (oaae. 4.3).

Oaaeeoea 4.3 – Aaeain

AeoeaIannea1. Oeaiiinoe

2. Aeaaeoi?u

3. Oauoee1. Eaieoae

2. E?aaeeoi?u

3. I?eaueue

?acoeueoaoiua n/aoa caieiatho iniaia ianoi: iie yaeythony iaeiia?aiaiii
e n/aoaie aaeieieno?aoi?a, e n/aoaie nianoaaiieea. Yoi ii?aaeaeyaony eo
niaoeeoe/aneei oa?aeoa?ii eae n/aoia, o/eouaathueo ni/aoaiea o?oaea
aaeieieno?aoi?a (ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea) e eaieoaea, i?e/ai yoi
ni/aoaiea o?oaea e eaieoaea i?iyaeyaony a oao ?acieoeao, eioi?ua
ieacuaathony a eoiaa aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo iai?ioia oeaiiinoae.
Aeaaaoiaia naeueaei ii n/aoo i?eaueae e oauoeia iieacuaaao noiio
ec?anoiaeiaaiiiai eaieoaea a nayce n iayooaeoeaiie ?aaioie
oi?aaeythuaai, e?aaeeoiaia naeueaei ia aeaiiii n/aoa iieacuaaao i?e?ino
eaieoaea a ?acoeueoaoa a?aiioiiai oi?aaeaiey aaeieieno?aoi?a. Ionthaea
iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia yaeythony n/aoaie,
aniiiiaaoaeueiuie e n/aoo eaieoaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie iieiaeaieyie oai?ee Eaioa e Aeeueai yaeythony
neaaeothuea:

— ia?niieoeeaoeey anao aac eneeth/aiey n/aoia;

— aaaaeaiea iiiyoey ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea eae eeoea, iaycaiiiai aanoe
o/ao iia?aoeee, i?iaiaeeiuo ei ca naie n/ao n o?aoueeie eeoeaie;

— ?acaeaeaiea n/aoia ia n/aoa ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea e n/aoa o?aoueeo
eeoe;

— i?aaenoaaeaiea ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea a aeaea aeaoo noauaeoia
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe: aaeieieno?aoi?a (oi?aaeythuaai) e
eaieoaeenoa (nianoaaiieea);

— ?aceiaeaiea ?yaea n/aoia ia n/aoa aaeieieno?aoi?a (n/aoa oeaiiinoae),
n/aoa eaieoaeenoa (n/ao eaieoaea) e n/aoa ia/aeueiiai n/aoiaiaea eae
aaeieieno?aoi?a e eae eaieoaeenoa (n/aoa oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia);

— oacen i caeeth/aiee n/aoia ?acoeueoaoiuo n/aoii eaieoaea.

Oai?ey ?oaeaiianeiai. Ii iiaieth Aeaenaiae?a Iaaeiae/a ?oaeaiianeiai
(1863—1934), caaea/a n/aoiaiaenoaa — yoi o/ao e en/eneaiea iauaia,
naienoa e ninoiyiey oicyenoaaiiuo iann i?aaei?eyoey, ecia?aiiuo
aeaiueaaie. Yoa niaieoiiinoue anaai en/eneeiiai ninoaaeyao aaeain
i?aaei?eyoey eae iauaeo o/aoa. Niioaaonoaaiii i?eioeeio aeaienoaaiiinoe,
ninoiyuaio a «naycaiiii i?ioeaiiieiaeaiee», aaeain ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa
iaeanoe: iaeanoue aioo?aiithth e iaeanoue aiaoithth. Yoe iaeanoe
naycuaathony eee aea ?aca?aie/eaathony ii?aaeaeaiiuie niioiioaieyie,
niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo ia?acoao o?aoueth iaeanoue: i?iiaaeooi/ioth eee
iia?aie/ioth. Oaeei ia?acii, any oicyenoaaiiay ianna aeaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey, ninoiyiea, iauai e naienoaa eioi?ie en/eneaiu a aeaiueaao,
?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo aeaoiy oeacaiiuie iaeanoyie — aioo?aiiae e
aiaoiae, i?e/ai ianna, eioi?ay ia?acoao aioo?aiithth iaeanoue,
iacuaaaony aeoeaiie, eee aeoeaii, a ianna, aoiaeyuay ai aiaoithth
iaeanoue,— ianneaiie eee ianneaii. Niaieoiiinoue ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
aeoeaiie e ianneaiie iannie ninoaaeyao athaeaeaoioth ianno, eee iai?io
aeaiiiai oicyenoaa.

Aeoea oicyenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiouanoai — niaieoiiinoue aauae
aeaiiiai oicyenoaa e aiiaua niaieoiiinoue /enoi yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee,
a iannea oeacuaaao ia i?ienoiaeaeaiea yoiai eiouanoaa eee
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aai e ioiioaiea e ioaeaeueiui eeoeai, o.a. iannea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue th?eaee/aneeo ioiioaiee — i?aa,
eiathueo yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea, eaeiaua yeiiiie/aneea i?aaa anoue nooue
eaieoaea.

Oeacaiiua o?e niaieoiiinoe — aeoea, iannea e athaeaeao — neaaatho aaeain
eee, eae auei neacaii, niaieoiiinoue anaai en/eneeiiai a oicyenoaa.
Oaeei ia?acii, aaeain ?aniaaeaaony ia o?e iniiaiuo n/aoa: n/ao aeoeaa,
n/ao ianneaa e n/ao athaeaeaoa. Iiae aeeyieai oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a
n/aoao aeoeaa, ianneaa e athaeaeaoa i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey a aeaoo
acaeiii eneeth/athueo iai?aaeaieyo — iieiaeeoaeueiii e io?eoeaoaeueiii.
Iiyoiio eaaeaeue n/ao iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa noi?iiu — eaaoth, eee
aeaaao, e i?aaoth, eee e?aaeeo, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?acaeaeueiiai
io?aaeaiey oaaee/aiee e oiaiueoaiee oicyenoaaiiuo iann. I?aaeea o/aoa
yoeo eciaiaiee ?oaeaiianeee au?aaeaao oi?ioeie «oio, n eiai i?e/eoaaony
/oi-ieaoaeue eee eoi iieo/ee /oi-ieaoaeue, aeaaaooaony, a oio, eiio
i?e/eoaaony eee eoi oieaoee /oi-ieaoaeue, e?aaeeooaony».

Eaaeaeue ec iniiaiuo n/aoia ?aceaaaaony ia ?yae yeaiaioa?iuo n/aoia:

— n/ao aeoeaa — ia ?yae iaoa?eaeueiuo n/aoia;

— n/ao ianneaa — ia ?yae ee/iuo n/aoia, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue
?aniaaeathony ia n/aoa aaaioia, n/aoa oiiaeia (n/aoa eaieoaeia
nianoaaiieea), n/aoa ei??aniiiaeaioia (n/aoa aeaaeoi?ia e n/aoa
e?aaeeoi?ia);

— n/ao athaeaeaoa — ia ?yae n/aoia aeioiaeia e n/aoia ?anoiaeia.

Aiaeece?oy i?e?iaeo n/aoia, ?oaeaiianeee i?eoiaeeo e caeeth/aieth, /oi
iaoa?eaeueiua n/aoa ia?acotho aaconeiaiue aeoea, oae eae anaaaea aeatho
aeaaaoiaia naeueaei. N/aoa aeaaeoi?ia oaeaea aeatho aeaaaoiaia naeueaei,
iiyoiio oiaea aeieaeiu io?aaeaoueny a aeoeaa aaeaina, iaeiaei aeaaeoi?ia
neaaeoao ioianoe e oneiaiiio aeoeao. N/aoa ?anoiaeia oiaea aeatho
aeaaaoiaia naeueaei, ?anoai?yynue a aeoeaa aaeaina, anee iai?io aeaiiiai
oicyenoaa ia iiiaio aai ninoaaeaiey ieacaeny iacaaa?oaiiui. N/aoa
?anoiaeia ioiinyony e oneiaiiio aeoeao.

Aiaeiae/iua ?annoaeaeaiey iiaeii i?eaanoe aeey ianneaa aaeaina, eioi?ue
ninoieo ec aaconeiaiiai ianneaa, ia?aciaaiiiai n/aoaie oiiaeia
(eaieoaea) e e?aaeeoi?ia, e oneiaiiai ianneaa, ninoiyuaai ec n/aoia
aeioiaeia (oaae. 4.4).

Oaaeeoea 4. 4 – Aaeain

AeoeaIanneaAeoea aaconeiaiue

N/aoa iaoa?eaeueiua

Aeoea oneiaiue

N/aoa aeaaeoi?ia

N/aoa ?anoiaeiaIannea aaconeiaiue

N/aoa eaieoaea

N/aoa e?aaeeoi?ia

Iannea oneiaiue

N/aoa aeioiaeia

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee ?oaeaiianeiai naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio:

— o/ao aaaeaony io eeoea oicyenoaa, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?iai i?eaiaeeo
ai acaeiiioiioaiea aai aeoeaioth e ianneaioth oicyenoaaiiua iannu;

— n/aoa aeoeaa ioaaouaatho n/aoa aauae oicyenoaa, a n/aoa ianneaa —
niaieoiiinoue i?aa oiai aea oicyenoaa;

— i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee aeoeaiie e ianneaiie iannu aicieeaao athaeaeao
oicyenoaa, ninoiyuee ec aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia e iicaieythuee a aeeiaieea
i?ineaaeeoue eciaiaiea eiouanoaaiiie iannu;

— i?aaeei ?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao «eoi iieo/ee — aeaaaooaony, eoi ioaeae
— e?aaeeooaony» iicaieyao ioianoe yoo oai?eth e th?eaee/aneiio
iai?aaeaieth.

Oai?ey *a?aiie. Aeaeocaiia *a?aiie (1827—1917) ecaanoai eae nicaeaoaeue
eiaeniia?aoee. A aa iniiaa eaaeeo iiiyoea i oicyenoaa eae i niaieoiiinoe
eioa?ania, ii?iaeaeaaiuo eaeie-eeai nianoaaiiinoueth. Yoe eioa?anu
naycuaatho ii?aaeaeaiiuie th?eaee/aneeie acaeiiioiioaieyie ?yae eeoe,
eiathueo oi eee eiia ioiioaiea e i?aaei?eyoeth. ?acee/atho /aou?a a?oiiu
oaeeo eeoe: nianoaaiieee, aaeieieno?aoi?u, aaaiou e ei??aniiiaeaiou.
Yoei eeoeai ioe?uaathony niioaaonoaothuea n/aoa, eioi?ua i?aaeiacia/aiu
aeey o/aoa i?aa e iaycaiiinoae aeaaeaeueoea oicyenoaa e ninoaaeytho
aeoea e iannea aaeaina. N/aoaie aaaioia iacuaatho oa n/aoa, ia eioi?uo
o/eouaatho eiie?aoiia eiouanoai (oiaa?u, aeaiueae, oeaiiua aoiaae e
o.ae.), eiathuaany aioo?e aeaiiiai oicyenoaa o niaoeeaeueii iacia/aiiuo
aeey yoiai eeoe — aaaioia. N/aoaie ei??aniiiaeaioia iacuaatho oa n/aoa,
eioi?ua ioe?uaathony aeey o/aoa oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee n eeoeaie,
noiyueie aia ?aiie aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey (aeaaeoi?u e e?aaeeoi?u). N/ao
aaeieieno?aoi?a yaeyaony iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo n/aoii nianoaaiieea e
n/aoaie aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia e oa?aeoa?ecoao eeoei, ianouaa
iaycaiiinoe ii oi?aaeaieth aeaeaie i?aaei?eyoey.

A ia/aea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, i?e ioe?uoee n/aoia, aaeieieno?aoi?
n/eoaaony e?aaeeoi?ii aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia ia anth noiio
oeaiiinoae, ia?aaeaiiuo ia o?aiaiea aaaioai, e i?aa o?aaiaaiey e
ei??aniiiaeaioai (aeaaeoi?ai). A oi aea a?aiy aaeieieno?aoi? — aeaaeoi?
nianoaaiieea e ei??aniiiaeaioia ia anth noiio naieo ia?aae ieie
iaycaoaeuenoa.

A eiioea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, i?e caeeth/aiee n/aoia, i?aaeiieaaaaony,
/oi aaeieieno?aoi?, ai-ia?auo, iieo/aao niioaaonoaothuea noiiu io
aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia (aeaaeoi?ia) a iieiia iiaaoaiea eo
caaeieaeaiiinoe aio, e, ai-aoi?uo, a naith i/a?aaeue eeeaeaee?oao naie
iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae nianoaaiieeii e ei??aniiiaeaioaie (e?aaeeoi?aie).

Oaeei ia?acii, eaaei onoaiiaeoue, /oi i?e ioe?uoee n/aoia n/aoii
aaeieieno?aoi?a aoaeao n/ao aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai, a i?e caeeth/aiee
n/aoia n/aoii aaeieieno?aoi?a aoaeao n/ao aaeaina caeeth/eoaeueiiai. I?e
oaeouae ?aaeno?aoeee n/ao aaeieieno?aoi?a auiaaeaao, e inoathony eeoue
o?e n/aoa: n/ao nianoaaiieea, n/ao aaaioia e n/ao ei??aniiiaeaioia. I?e
iauaaeeiaiee n/aoa aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia a iaeei n/ao inoathony
eeoue aeaa n/aoa: n/ao nianoaaiieea e n/ao aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia.

Oaeia naaaeaiea /aou?ao a?oii n/aoia e aeaoi a?oiiai *a?aiie iioeae?oao
oai, /oi noauaeoaie th?eaee/aneeo ioiioaiee iiaoo auoue eeoue
nianoaaiieee, aaaiou e ei??aniiiaeaiou. Oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee,
inouanoaeyaiua yoeie eeoeaie, eaaeaeue ?ac nii?iaiaeaeathony
aicieeiiaaieai i?aa o iaeieo e aicieeiiaaieai iaycaoaeuenoa o ae?oaeo
o/anoieeia oicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Aaeieieno?aoi? ai anao
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeeyo iiaeao aunooiaoue eeoue i?aaenoaaeoaeai
nianoaaiieea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaenoaiaaoue io eiaie nianoaaiieea.
I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, aicieeathuea o aaeieieno?aoi?a i?e niaa?oaiee
eaeeo-eeai oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee, yaeythony, ii nooe, i?aaaie e
iaycaoaeuenoaaie nianoaaiieea, a ia aaeieieno?aoi?a, iiyoiio aai iaeuecy
n/eoaoue noauaeoii th?eaee/aneeo ioiioaiee. Eneeth/ea n/ao
aaeieieno?aoi?a ec ninoaaa iniiaiuo a?oii n/aoia, *a?aiie iauaaeeiyao
n/aoa aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia a aaeeiue n/ao, iineieueeo i?aao
nianoaaiieea iaeciaiii i?ioeainoieo iaycaoaeuenoai eeoea, aoiaeyuaai a
eaeoth-eeai ec aeaoo oeacaiiuo a?oii eeoe, a eaaeaeiio i?aao aaaioia eee
ei??aniiiaeaioia iai?aiaiii i?ioeainoieo iaycaoaeuenoai nianoaaiieea.
Eaaeaeue n/ao iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa noi?iiu:

1) aeaaaoiaoth, ia eioi?ie caienuaaaony ana oi, /oi nianoaaiiee, aaaio
eee ei??aniiiaeaio aeieaeai ioaeaoue (iaycaoaeuenoaa);

2) e?aaeeoiaoth, ia eioi?ie caienuaaaony ana oi, /oi nianoaaiiee, aaaio
eee ei??aniiiaeaio eiaao iieo/eoue (i?aaa).

Enoiaey ec yoiai oicyenoaaiiue aaeain iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea
oaaeeoeu (oaae. 4.5).

Oaaeeoea 4.5 – Oicyenoaaiiue aaeain

N/ao nianoaaiieeaN/ao aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioiaAeieaeai ioaeaoue

(Aeaaao)Aeieaeai iieo/eoue (E?aaeeo)Aeieaeai ioaeaoue

(Aeaaao)Aeieaeai iieo/eoue (E?aaeeo)1234

I?eaaaeaiiay noaia oicyenoaaiiiai aaeaina ninoieo ec /aou?ao a?ao,
eioi?ua a i?ioeanna n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee eae au iauaaeeiythony a aeaa
ia?u a?ao: iaeia ec yoeo ia? ia?acoaony ec ia?aie e /aoaa?oie a?ao, a
aoi?ay — ec aoi?ie e o?aoueae a?ao. A?aou eaaeaeie ia?u eiatho i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia cia/aiea: anee nianoaaiiee aeieaeai /oi-eeai ioaeaoue
(a?aoa 1), oi eoi-eeai ec aaaioia aeieaeai /oi-eeai iieo/eoue (a?aoa 4),
a anee nianoaaiiee aeieaeai /oi-eeai iieo/eoue (a?aoa 2), oi eoi-eeai ec
aaaioia eee ei??aniiiaeaioia aeieaeai /oi-eeai ioaeaoue (a?aoa 3). I?e
oaeie nenoaia caiene ioeaee a ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee
iaia?oaeeaathony aaoiiaoe/anee.

Oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee ieacuaatho ?aciia aeeyiea ia aaee/eio
nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea. Iia?aoeee, eioi?ua aucuaatho i?inoia i?aa?auaiea
iaeiiai eiouanoaa a ae?oaia eee ia?a/eneaiea n iaeiiai n/aoa ia ae?oaie,
eae, iai?eia?, iieo/aiea e oieaoa aeieaia, i?iaeaaea e iieoiea
eiouanoaa, e ia io?aaeathony ia iauae aaee/eia eaieoaea, aeiaeaiiiai
nianoaaiieeii a aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea, iacuaathony ia?aiauathueie
iia?aoeeyie — ia?iooaoeeyie. Ae?oaea iia?aoeee, eioi?ua io?aaeathony ia
iauae aaee/eia eaieoaea, oaaee/eaay eee oiaiueoay aai ?acia?u,
iacuaathony iiaeeoeeaoeee. I?eia?u oaeeo iia?aoeee i?eaaaeaiu a oaae.
4.6.

Oaaeeoea 4.6 – Oicyenoaaiiue aaeain

? iiIia?aoeeyN/ao nianoaaiieeaN/ao aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioiaAeae
iia?aoeeeAeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeo1Eoieai oiaa? e iiea/ai iaee/iuie*400

400

400400Ia?iooaoeee2Ia/eneaiu i?ioeaiou ii
e?aaeeoo**200200Iiaeeoeeaoeey3I?iaeai oiaa? noieiinoueth 300 ?oa. ca 350
?oa 300

350300

350Ia?iooaoeey e iiaeeoeeaoeee

*Aaaio, i?eiyaoee oiaa?, aa?ao ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai ia?aae
nianoaaiieeii; auaea/a eanne?ii aeaiaa ca n/ao nianoaaiieea oiaiueoaao
iaycaoaeuenoai eanne?a ia?aae nianoaaiieeii.

**Aicieeee iaycaoaeuenoaa ei??aniiiaeaioa ii ioiioaieth e nianoaaiieeo,
i?e yoii ia onoaiaaeeaathony ieeaeea iaycaoaeuenoaa nianoaaiieea ii
ioiioaieth e eaeiio-eeai aaaioo eee ei??aniiiaeaioo.

***Iaycaiiinoe ei??aniiiaeaioa ia?aae nianoaaiieeii ia i?iaeaaeioth
noieiinoue iiaaoathony iaycaoaeuenoaii aaaioa-o?aieoaey oiaa?ia ia?aae
nianoaaiieeii ca i?iaeaiiue oiaa? ii oaeoe/aneie noieiinoe oiaa?a.

Eco/ay iniaaiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo iia?aoeee ii oicyenoaaiiiio aaeaino,
*a?aiie i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi ia?iooaoeee aucuaatho eceeoithth
n/aoioth ?aaioo, oae neacaoue, oaeaaeaatho aa. A oeaeyo nie?auaiey yoie
?aaiou eiaeniia?aoeae aaiaeeony ca/ao iaycaoaeuenoa, iineieueeo
aicieeathuea aeey nianoaaiieea i?aaa e iaycaoaeuenoaa au?aaeathony a
iaeeiaeiaie noiia. Anee au ia?iooaoeee ia ioia/aeenue ia n/aoao
nianoaaiieea, aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia, oi eiia/iue ?acoeueoao
(naeueaei) ii yoei n/aoai eiae au oi/ii oaeia aea cia/aiea, eae e a
neo/aa, anee au niioaaonoaothuea caiene eiaee ianoi.

Enoiaey ec yoiai eiaeniia?aoey i?aaeeaaaao aianoi iaeiia?aiaiiie caiene
ia?iooaoeee a aeaaao e e?aaeeo i?iaiaeeoue ca/ao,

oeacuaay noiio ca/aoa e oio n/ao, e eioi?iio yoio ca/ao ioiineony. A
yoeo oeaeyo a noaio oicyenoaaiiiai aaeaina aaiaeeony niaoeeaeueiay a?aoa
«Ca/aou e ia?aiauaiey», a eioi?ie ioia/athony noiia ca/aoa e
niioaaonoaothuee n/ao (oaae. 4.7).

Ec eiaeniia?aoe/aneiai aeo?iaea iiaeii onoaiiaeoue iauaa ninoiyiea
eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey e a oi aea a?aiy ii?aaeaeeoue ninoiyiea
ioaeaeueiuo /anoae eiouanoaa. Yoa i?iaeaia ?aoaaony iooai aeiiieiaiey
eiaeniia?aoe/aneiai aeo?iaea nenoaiie aiaeeoe/aneeo caienae a eieaa
?aceiaeaiee. A iniiaa eieae aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa eaaeeo ?aceiaeaiea
eieeaeoeaiuo n/aoia nianoaaiieea, aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia.
?aceiaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo a ii?aaeaeaiiii ii?yaeea: nia/aea
onoaiaaeeaaaony ianeieueei a?oii n/aoia, iaeaaeathueo iaiaa iaueie
i?eciaeaie, /ai iniiaiua n/aoa oicyenoaaiiiai aaeaina; oaeea n/aoa
aoaeoo i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie ia?aue ii?yaeie, eee ia?aoth nooiaiue,
?aceiaeaiey iniiaiiai n/aoa. Eaaeaeue n/ao ia?aiai ii?yaeea ?aceiaeaiey
?aniaaeaaony ia ?yae n/aoia aoi?iai ii?yaeea ?aceiaeaiey e o.ae. (oaae.
4.8).

Anee i?e o/aoa oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee iieueciaaoueny ?aceiaeaieyie
n/aoia nianoaaiieea e n/aoia aaaioia e ei??aniiiaeaioia, oi iieo/ei
/aoaa?ioth oi?io eiaeniia?aoee; anee iieueciaaoueny oieueei
?aceiaeaieyie n/aoia nianoaaiieea, oi iieo/ei o?ieioth oi?io
eiaeniia?aoee.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey *a?aiie aeaao ia oieueei oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea
i?aaee ?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao, ii e i?aaeeaaaao /aoeea aa?eaiou eo
i?aeoe/aneiai inouanoaeaiey.

Oaaeeoea 4.7. – Eiaeniia?aoe/aneee aeo?iae

? iiAeaoaIia?aoeey*enei noaoae e eo eoiaOicyenoaaiiue aaeainCa/aou e
ia?aiauaiey/eneieoiaN/aoa nianoaaiieea (A)N/aoa aaaioia e
ei??aniii-aeaioia (A)noiiaIaeia-iiaaiea
n/aoaAeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeo1.10.

1927a.1Eoieai oiaa? ca iaee/iua2800—-800AA2Ia/eneaiu
i?ioeaiou1200-200200—3I?iaeai oiaa? noieiinoueth 300 ?oa. ca 350
?oa.2650-5050-600AA

Oaaeeoea 4.8. – I?eia? ?aceiaeaiey n/aoia

Oicyenoaaiiue aaeainA «Nianoaaiiee»A «Aaaiou e ei??aniiiaeaiou»A1

«Eanna»A2 «Oiaa?u»A3 «Aeaeaee-iia eioua-noai»A4 «Aeaae-oi?u»A5
«E?aaee-oi?u»A2a «Noeii»A2b «Aa?oao»Ni?o1Ni?o 2

4.3 – Yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

A yeiiiie/aneeo oai?eyo aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aooaaeoa?neee o/ao
?anniao?eaaaony eae /anoue iieeoyeiiiiee. ?anoeaao yeiiiie/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey a oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?eoiaeeony ia eiiaoe XIX —
ia/aei XX a. Oeaeueth n/aoiaaaeaiey noaiiaeony auyaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia. Iiae yooaeoeaiinoueth iiieiatho niioiioaiea
auaiaeu e cao?ao, o.a. ?acoeueoao io oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a
aeaea i?eauee eee oauoea. Iniiaiia i?aaeei ?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao
aace?oaony ia iiiyoeyo i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea: oi, /oi i?eoei, caienuaaaony
ia aeaaao, oi, /oi ooei — ia e?aaeeo n/aoa. Caeii aeaienoaaiiinoe
iniiaai ia iiiyoee iaiu (iaiaia oeaiiinoyie).

Yoi i?eaaei e eeanneoeeaoeee oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa aac nayce ni
noiyueie ca ieie eeoeaie. A ioee/ea io i?aaenoaaeoaeae th?eaee/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey noi?iiieee yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee n/eoaee, /oi i?eaueue iiaeao
auoue iieo/aia oieueei iinea iieaou oeaiiinoae (niaeanii th?eaee/aneie:
oeiea i?aai ia iieo/aiea i?eauee aicieeaei iinea ia?aaea/e oeaiiinoae,
o.a. ioa?ocee). Eniieueciaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai eino?oiaioa?ey iicaieeei
auaanoe aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ia iae?io?iaaiue (o?iaaiue ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa no?aiu), ii a oi aea a?aiy ioi?aaoue aai io iianaaeiaaiuo
i?iaeai aooaaeoa?a.

E?eoeee yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee (a iniiaiii i?aaenoaaeoaee aaeainiaiai
iai?aaeaiey) ioia/aee aa nouanoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee. Iai?eia?, ia ana
iia?aoeee iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e iaia (iioa?y oiaa?ia i?e iiaea?a eee
oiaiueoaiea (oaaee/aiea) noieiinoe oiaa?ia a ?acoeueoaoa iaoeaiee eeai
ooeaiee). Iiyoiio iauyniaiea aeaieiie caiene n oi/ee c?aiey caeiia iaiu
ia yaeyaony aacoi?a/iui. Iaeiaei aeey naiaai a?aiaie yeiiiie/aneea
oai?ee auee aieaa niaa?oaiiuie, /ai th?eaee/aneea, e a iniiaiii ia
i?ioeai?a/eee ei. Aaaeue a iniiaa a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
eaaeao iaiiaua aeou, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ana oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
iiaoo auoue iauyniaiu eo aeiaiai?iie i?e?iaeie, auoaeathuae ec iaiaia
oeaiiinoyie.

Auaeathueieny i?aaenoaaeoaeyie yoie oeieu auee A.A. Neaa?n, E. Aiiaa?a,
I.A. Aeaoia, *. Aa??enii, O. ?ae e ae?. Iaeaieaa y?eea oai?aoe/aneea
iino?iaiey ?anniio?aiu ieaea.

Oai?ey Neaa?na. N iainiiaaieai iaiiaie oai?ee Aanoaoee Aaa?aoueaae/
Neaa?a aunooiee a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa 6 oaa?aey 1892 a. a aeieeaaea
«N/aoiaaaeaiea e n/aoiaiaenoai. Iiuo iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey». ?aoathuaa
cia/aiea o?e iino?iaiee oai?ee Neaa?na eiaao» eeanneoeeaoeey oeaiiinoae.
E ia?aie eaoaai?ee Neaa?a ioiineo aeaenoaeoaeueiua, eee aaniethoiua,
oeaiiinoe, o.a. oeaiiinoe, eioi?uie oicyenoai a neeo i?ioeuo niauoee
iaeaaeaao. Aeaenoaeoaeueiua oeaiiinoe iauaaeeiaiu a aeaa a?oiiu:

1) aauanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe, e eioi?ui i?e/eneythony ana iaoa?eaeueiua
oeaiiinoe (i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey) e aeaiueae;

2) iaaauanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe — onaiaiiua /aeiaaeii oiaiey /oi-eeai
aeaeaoue, a oaeaea i?eia?aoaiiua ciaiey.

Ei aoi?ie a?oiia oeaiiinoae ioiinyony oeaiiinoe oneiaiua, eee
ioiineoaeueiua. Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea oeaiiinoyie neaaeoao n/eoaoue oaeea,
iaeaaeaiea eioi?uie aeaao i?aai o?aaiaaiey eee i?aai ia?aaea/e
oeaiiinoae io ae?oaiai oicyenoaa, eee auiieiaiey ?aaio (ieacaiey oneoa).
Iaauaiey ieaoaaea iiaoo auoue iieiaeeoaeueiuie (/oaeea iaycaoaeuenoaa,
eioi?ua iaaeaeytho oicyenoai i?aaii o?aaiaaiey e ae?oaei oicyenoaai) eee
io?eoeaoaeueiuie (nianoaaiiua iaycaoaeuenoaa oicyenoaa).

Iauay noiia oeaiiinoae, iaoiaeyueony a oicyenoaa, ia?acoao aai eaieoae,
eioi?ue iiaeao auoue aeaiyeiai ?iaea: i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei, o.a.
i?eiaaeeaaeauei oicyeio, e nnoaeiui, o.a. i?eiaaeeaaeauei ae?oaei
eeoeai. Niiinoaaeyy aeaeu eaieoaea n onoaiiaeaiiie eeanneoeeaoeeae
oeaiiinoae, Neaa?a iainiiauaaao no?oeoo?o aaeaina (oaae. 9).

Oaaeeoea 4. 9 – No?oeoo?a aaeaina Neaa?na

1. Aauanoaaiiua Oeaiiinoe (I?aaeiaou Iio?aaeaiey E Aeaiueae)
C

2. I?aaa (*oaeea Iaauaiey Ieaoaaea)…..D

Eoiai X3.
I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae (nianoaaiiue)….K

4. Nnoaeiue eaieoae (nianoaaiiua iaauaiey ieaoaaea)
S

Eoiai
X

Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiie oaaeeoeu iiaeii iino?ieoue aaeainiaia o?aaiaiea

N + D = E + S.

Any oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ninoieo ec oao eee eiuo
iia?aoeee n oeaiiinoyie, eioi?ua iacuaathony oicyenoaaiiuie iai?ioaie.
Ana iai?iou Neaa?a ?acaeaeyao ia ainaiue a?oii:

1) iaoo?aeueiue iaiai, o.a. iaiai iaeiiai i?aaeiaoa iio?aaeaiey ia
ae?oaie;

2) iieoiea, o.a. iaiai aeaiaa ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey;

3) i?iaeaaea, o.a. iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey ia aeaiueae;

4) e?aaeeoiua naeaeee, o.a.:

— iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey eee aeaiaa ia iaauaiea ieaoaaea, iaiai
iaauaiee ieaoaaea ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaieyeee aeaiueae,

— iaiai iaeiiai iaauaiey ieaoaaea ia ae?oaia;

5) aeaiiceoiua naeaeee, o.a.:

— iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey eee aeaiaa ia iaauaiea iinoaaee,

— iaiai iaauaiey iinoaaee ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey eee aeaiueae;

6) eiienneiiiua naeaeee:

— aei i?iaeaaee eiienneiiiie oeaiiinoe,

— iinea i?iaeaaee eiienneiiiie oeaiiinoe;

7) ia?aiauaiea oeaiiinoae, o.a. iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey eee aeaiaa
a iaeiii ianoa ia oa aea oeaiiinoe a ae?oaii ianoa;

8) aeaeieciaiaiea oeaiiinoae, o.a. iaiai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey a iaeiii
eo aeaea ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey a i?aia?aciaaiiii aeaea (a oii /enea
iieaoa o?oaea).

Eoae, a iniiaa oicyenoaaiiuo iai?ioia eaaeeo iaiiaie aeo. Iineieueeo aeo
iaiaia ninoieo ec aeaoo aeaenoaee — iieo/aiey e ioaea/e, eaaeaeia
oicyenoai ?ani?aaeaeyao niaa?oaaiua ei iai?iou ii iauaeoai (aeaeai
oeaiiinoae) e ii noauaeoai (eeoeai, o/anoaothuei a aeoa iaiu) ia
ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu iai?ioia. Eeanneoeoee?iaaiiua oaeei ia?acii
oicyenoaaiiua iai?iou caienuaathony a niaoeeaeueiuo oaaeeoeao, eioi?ua
iacuaathony n/aoaie. Eaaeaeue n/ao ?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa /anoe: ia eaaie
?aaeno?e?othony iieo/aiiua oeaiiinoe (i?eoiae), ia i?aaie — ioaeaaaaiua
oeaiiinoe (?anoiae). Caeii aeaieiie caiene oicyenoaaiiuo iai?ioia
auoaeaao ec i?eioeeia aeaienoaaiiinoe oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee. Anee
i?eoiae oeaiiinoae ia iaeiii n/aoa i?aauoaao ?anoiae, iieo/aai
aeaaaoiaia naeueaei ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, anee iaiai?io —
e?aaeeoiaia. Niaieoiiinoue aeaaaoiauo naeueaei aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i
oeaiiinoyo, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aeaiiiio oicyenoao, niaieoiiinoue
e?aaeeoiauo naeueaei ioia?aaeaao aaee/eio i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai e
nnoaeiiai eaieoaeia, aeiaeaiiuo a aeaei.

Iaiiaay oai?ey Neaa?na a naia a?aiy aucaaea iaeeaeaiioth iieaieeo e
ai?y/ea aeeneonnee. Iniiaiuie aeiaiaeaie e?eoeeia oai?ee Neaa?na auea
o?oaeiinoue iauyniaiey aooaaeoa?neie i?e?iaeu oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa,
iia?aoeee iaaeinoa/ e iioa?ue io noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e o.i. Oai ia iaiaa
yoi auea iaeia ec naiuo niaa?oaiiuo n/aoiuo oai?ee.

Oai?ey Aiiaa?aa. A 1897 a. Eaa Aiiaa?a i?aaeeiaeee oai?eth, eioi?ay
iieo/eea iacaaiea oeeinioneie1. Ii oeacae, /oi a oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey iaiaoiaeeii aanueia no?iai ?acee/aoue
oicyenoaaiiua aeaenoaey e oicyenoaaiiua yaeaiey. Iiae oicyenoaaiiuie
aeaenoaeyie E. Aiiaa?a iiieiae, iai?eia?, iieo/aiea eee auaea/o oiaa?a,
auaea/o ca?aaioiie ieaou; i?iecioaaeoea aea eciaiaiey oiaa?iie iannu a
?acoeueoaoa ioia/aiiuo aeaenoaee, a oaeaea oaaee/aiea oiaa?iie iannu a
?acoeueoaoa ia/eneaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou Aiiaa?a n/eoae anoanoaaiiuie
yaeaieyie. Yoe anoanoaaiiua yaeaiey aucaaiu aeaenoaeyie oicyenoaothuaai
noauaeoa, iie yaeythony neaaenoaeyie oaeeo aeaenoaee, ii eciaieoue
aeaiiua neaaenoaey a ?acoeueoaoa ae?oaeo aeaenoaee oicyenoaothuee
noauaeo ia iiaeao. Eoae, aeaenoaea (iai?eia?, iieo/aiea oiaa?a) —
i?e/eia, a yaeaiea (oaaee/aiea oiaa?iie iannu) — neaaenoaea.
Enneaaeiaaiea iiaeiaiuo yaeaiee au?aaeaaony eae a ii?aaeaeaiiie eo
ioeaiea, oae e a n?aaiaiee ?yaea yaeaiee ae?oa n ae?oaii. Aaeeiui
ecia?eoaeai anao aac eneeth/aiey yaeaiee neoaeeo aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea.
Ionthaea iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi oicyenoaaiiua yaeaiey iiaeii
eco/aoue, iacaaeneii io i?e?iaeu oao eee eiuo oeaiiinoae, cao?aaeaaaiuo
yoeie yaeaieyie. Oaeay aiciiaeiinoue ioe?uaaaony n/aoiaaaeaieth
aeaaiaea?y aaeeiiia?aciiio ioeaii/iiio iniiaaieth yaeaiee, eioi?ua
i?eia?aoatho oa?aeoa? iaoaiaoe/aneeo aaee/ei.

Eaaeaeie iaeii?iaeiie a?oiia yaeaiee niioaaonoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiue n/ao,
eioi?ue ?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa noi?iiu — aeaaaoiaoth e e?aaeeoiaoth. Ia
eaaie (aeaaaoiaie) noi?iia ?aaeno?e?oaony oicyenoaaiiia yaeaiea, eioi?ia
?anniao?eaaaony eae neaaenoaea; ia i?aaie (e?aaeeoiaie) — oicyenoaaiiia
aeaenoaea, eioi?ia i?eciaaony i?e/eiie. Cia/eo, eaaeaeia yaeaiea
aeieaeii auoue caienaii aeaaaeaeu: a aeaaao iaeiiai n/aoa e e?aaeeo
ae?oaiai n/aoa. Oae E. Aiiaa?a iauyniye i?eioeei aeaienoaaiiinoe,
eioi?ue auoaeaao ec i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae e oa?aeoa?ecoao iaoiae
aeaieiie caiene. Aaeain ?anniao?eaaaony eae oaaeeoea, a aeoeaa eioi?ie
ia?a/eneythony neaaenoaey i?e/ei, oeacaiiuo a ianneaa.

Oai?ey Aeaoiaa. Ieeieae Aeaenaiae?iae/ Aeaoia (1875-1942) — ?onneee e
niaaoneee aooaaeoa?, noi?iiiee iauaeoeaiie o?aeoiaee aeaieiie caiene ia
iniiaa caeiia iaiu. Ii neiino?oe?iaae iiaeaeue anao aiciiaeiuo aeaeia
iaiaia a oicyenoaa, io?aaeaaiuo aeaieiie caienueth,— «eaaae?ao
i?ioanni?a Aeaoiaa» (?en. 4.2). Oae, iaiiaay oai?ey auaeaeyao o?e a?oiiu
oeaiiinoae: aauanoaaiiua (A), aeaiaaeiua (Ae) e oneiaiua, o.a.
iaycaoaeuenoaa e iieaoa (O).

picscalex600100090000031602000002009601000000009601000026060f002203574d4
64301000000000001000efd0000000001000000000300000000000000030000010000006
c0000000000000000000000350000006f0000000000000000000000c41d00005d1100002
0454d4600000100000300001000000002000000000000000000000000000000611300006
81b0000d2000000290100000000000000000000000000005034030028880400160000000
c000000180000000a0000001000000000000000000000000900000010000000080700001
a040000520000007001000001000000a4ffffff000000000000000000000000900100000
00000cc04400022430061006c00690062007200690000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000110090b2110010000000f4b5110074b31100cb4f6032f4b51100ecb21100100000005
cb41100d8b511001c4f6032f4b51100ecb211002000000091772f31ecb21100f4b511002
0000000ffffffff3c29e00018782f31ffffffffffff0180ffff01800fff0180ffffffff0
00000000008000000080000d4fbfa0401000000000000005802000025000000372e9001c
c00020f0502020204030204ef0200a07b20004000000000000000009f000000000000004
30061006c0069006200720000000000410e0000b4b311006e282f31e88d083214b711002
0b311006a3a273106000000010000005cb311005cb31100a07925310600000084b311003
c29e0006476000800000000250000000c00000001000000250000000c000000010000002
50000000c00000001000000120000000c00000001000000180000000c000000000000025
4000000540000000000000000000000350000006f00000001000000e1748740397687400
000000057000000010000004c000000040000000000000000000000080700001a0400005
0000000200000003600000046000000280000001c0000004744494302000000fffffffff
fffffff090700001b0400000000000046000000140000000800000047444943030000002
50000000c0000000e000080250000000c0000000e0000800e00000014000000000000001
0000000140000000400000003010800050000000b0200000000050000000c029f0010010
40000002e0118001c000000fb02f2ff0000000000009001000000cc0440002243616c696
2726900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d0100000
40000002d010000040000002d0100000400000002010100050000000902000000020d000
000320a0d000000010004000000000010019f0020b208001c000000fb020200010000000
000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d0000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000040000002d010100040000002d010100030000000000

?en. 2. Eaaae?ao i?ioanni?a IA. Aeaoiaa

Iiaeaeue i?aaeii?aaeaeyao e eeanneoeeaoeeth n/aoia, e ei??aniiiaeaioeeth
iaaeaeo ieie. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi aooaaeoa?neee aaeain anoue
neaaenoaea aeaieiie caiene.

Eaaae?ao i?ioanni?a Aeaoiaa eeethno?e?oao ana iioiee oeaiiinoae:

1 — iaiai aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae ia aeaiueae (iai?eia?, i?iaeaaea
oiaa?ia ca iaee/iue ?an/ao);

2 — iaiai aeaiaa ia aauanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe (iai?eia?, iieoiea oiaa?ia ca
iaee/iua aeaiueae);

3 — iaiai aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae ia oneiaiua oeaiiinoe, o.a. ia
iaauaiea ieaoaaea (iai?eia?, i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe) ;

4 — iaiai oneiaiuo oeaiiinoae ia aauanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe (iai?eia?,
iieoiea oiaa?ia n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea, eioi?ay i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth
e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe);

5 — iaiai aeaiaa ia oneiaiua oeaiiinoe (iai?eia?, auaea/a aeaiaa iiae
io/ao);

6 — iaiai oneiaiuo oeaiiinoae ia aeaiueae (iai?eia?, iieaoa n/aoia
iieoiaoaeyie);

7 — iaiai iaeieo aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae ia ae?oaea aauanoaaiiua
oeaiiinoe (iai?eia?, ?acai?ea caeaiey ia ae?iaa);

8 — iaiai iaeieo oneiaiuo oeaiiinoae ia ae?oaea oneiaiua oeaiiinoe
(iai?eia?, ia?aaiae aeieaa e ca/ao acaeiiuo o?aaiaaiee).

E?eoeee ioia/aee iaaeinoaoie iiaeaee IA. Aeaoiaa — eaii?e?iaaiea
iia?aoeeiiiuo, ?acoeueoaoiuo, niae?aoaeueii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo e
?aaoee?othueo n/aoia, /oi oiaiueoaao aa iiciaaaoaeueioth oeaiiinoue.

Aaeainiaoth oai?eth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ?ac?aaaouaaee a iniiaiii
i?aaenoaaeoaee aa?iaiiycu/iuo no?ai Aa?iiu, a oaeaea ?inneeneeo aaoi?ia.

?anoeaao aaeainiaie oai?ee i?eoiaeeony ia ia?aoth iieiaeio XX a. Anee
th?eaee/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay oeieu iauyniyee aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ia
iniiaa th?eni?oaeaioeee e iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee niioaaonoaaiii, oi
i?aaenoaaeoaee aaeainiaie oai?ee enoiaeeee ec naiie aooaaeoa?ee.
Nouiinoue aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iie aeaeaee a oao aeieoiaioao e
?aaeno?ao, eioi?ua iinooiatho aooaaeoa?o. O/aoiay i?ioeaaeo?a — yoi
oeaeue, iaoiae e i?aaeiao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iao/iay noi?iia
aooaaeoa?ee naiaeeony e iaeneiaeueii oi/iie oi?iaeecaoeee o/aoiie
i?ioeaaeo?u, /oi i?aa?auaao aa a naiaia?aciue iaoaiaoe/aneee ycue
oicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Aieueoea caneoae aaeainiaay oeiea eiaao a
/anoe ?acaeoey au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, a nicaeaiee ea?oi/iuo oi?i
n/aoiaiaenoaa, ono?aiaiee ec o/aoa o?iiieiae/aneie caiene (aeo?iaea),
?ani?ino?aiaiee iaoaiaoe/aneeo e noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia,

oieoeeaoeee ieaia n/aoia.

A iaiaoeeie oeiea /aoei ?aca?aie/aiu aeaa oeeeea o/aoa:

1) oi?aiaay aooaaeoa?ey — o/ao aiaoieo ioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoey, auyaeaiea
ninoaaa n?aaenoa e ii?aaeaeaiea oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa (oi/iua oeeo?u);

2) i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aooaaeoa?ey — i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iia?aoeee aioo?e
i?aaei?eyoey (i?eaeeceoaeueiua oeeo?u).

Yoe iai?aaeaiey acaeiii aeiiieiyee e ?acaeaaee ae?oa ae?oaa a ioee/ea io
oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa a aia?eeaineie i?aeoeea, eioi?ua
iacaaeneiu ae?oa io ae?oaa. Oi?aiaay aooaaeoa?ey iaoea oai?aoe/aneia
iainiiaaiea a aaeainiaaaeaiee, a i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aooaaeoa?ey — a
eaeueeoeyoeee.

I?aaenoaaeoaee aaeainiaie oai?ee oaeaeyee ia?iiiia aieiaiea eco/aieth
aaeaina e oi?iuaieth aai no?oeoo?u. Iie n/eoaee, /oi aaeain aeieaeai
auoue iiiyoai ethaiio a?aiioiiio /aeiaaeo, /oiau ii iia i?eiyoue aa?iia
?aoaiea. Aeaeaaynue io iauaai e /anoiiio, iie n/eoaee, /oi n/aoa
eiae/anee auoiaeyo ec aaeaina (niioaaonoaotho aai noaoueyi), a ia
iaiai?io. N/aoa iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oi/iiai e iieiiai auyaeaiey eciaiaiee a
ioaeaeueiuo noaoueyo aaeaina. N/aoa a iaeaieaa iauai aeaea nio?aiytho
no?oeoo?o aaeaina, o.a. aeaeyony ia aeaa /anoe, e eiatho i?aaie/aneoth
naycue n aaeainii. Ana oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a
aeaea noai, iicaieythueo onoaiiaeoue eo aeeyiea ia noaouee aaeaina,
i?eieiay ciae « + » aeey iaicia/aiey oaaee/aiee e ciae « — » aeey
iaicia/aiey oiaiueoaiee (?en. 4.3).

Aaeain 1Aaeain 2Aaeain 3Aaeain 4+

_++__+

_?en. 4.3. – Noaiu oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee

Ionthaea auaiaeeony caeii aeaienoaaiiinoe: eaaeaeay iia?aoeey
aeaienoaaiia ii naiae i?e?iaea, iineieueeo eiaao naiei ?acoeueoaoii
aeaieiia eciaiaiea a aaeaina, i?e/ai oaeia, /oi iniiaiie i?eciae aaeaina
— ?aaainoai eoiaia aai aeoeaa e ianneaa — inoaaony iaeciaiiui. I?aaeei
?aaeno?aoeee ia n/aoao aoaeao auoaeaoue ec ?aaainoaa aaeaina. Eae e a
aaeaina, ia eaaie noi?iia n/aoa (a aeaaaoa) io?aaeaaony oaaee/aiea
aeoeaiuo e oiaiueoaiea ianneaiuo noaoae aaeaina, ia i?aaie noi?iia n/aoa
(a e?aaeeoa) io?aaeaaony oaaee/aiea ianneaiuo e oiaiueoaiea aeoeaiuo
noaoae.

Iaeiaei e?eoeee auyaeyee oycaeiua ianoa e a aaeainiauo oai?eyo. I?aaeaea
anaai iie ioia/aee niiieoaeueiinoue a i?aaeeueiinoe ioiaeaeanoaeaiey
ianneaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa n io?eoeaoaeueiui eiouanoaii (I. Aa?eeia?, E.
Ioe, E.O. Oa?, O.A. Aca?neee e ae?.). I/aaeaeii, /oi oaeia iiieiaiea
i?e?iaeu ianneaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa auei aucaaii no?aieaieai
iauaaeeieoue aeoeaiua e ianneaiua n/aoa a aaeeiue ?yae n/aoia
eiouanoaaiiuo, /oi e i?eaiaeeei e ?aaiicia/iinoe:

— oaaee/aiey aeoeaiie e oiaiueoaiey ianneaiie /anoae eiouanoaa;

— oiaiueoaiey aeoeaiie e oaaee/aiey ianneaiie /anoae eiouanoaa.

Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ia?aua ec oeacaiiuo eciaiaiee iiaeeaaeaee ?aaeno?aoeee
ia aeaaaoiaie noi?iia n/aoa, a aoi?ua — ia e?aaeeoiaie. Oaeei ia?acii,
/oiau iieo/eoue ea/anoaaiii iaeeiaeiaua ?acoeueoaou, aianoi oaaee/aiey
aeoeaa aeinoaoi/ii oiaiueoeoue iannea, e iaiai?io. Iiaeiaiia o?aaieaaiea
niaa?oaiii ?aciuo ii niaea?aeaieth eciaiaiee, oioy e i?eaiaeyueo e
iaeeiaeiaiio a?eoiaoe/aneiio ?acoeueoaoo, ianiiiaiii, iiae?uaaao
aaoi?eoao iaeioi?uo aaeainiauo oai?ee. Aua aieaa niiieoaeueiui yaeyaony
ioianaiea n/aoa eaieoaea e noaoe/aneei n/aoai. Aeaaiaea?y iauaaeeiaieth
n/aoa eaieoaea n aeoeaiuie e ianneaiuie n/aoaie nicaeaaony neooaoeey,
i?e eioi?ie n/ao eaieoaea ieacuaaaony ?an/eaiaiiui ia aeaa a?oiiu
n/aoia: n/ao ia?aiia/aeueiiai eaieoaea, ioiinyueeny e ?yaeo n/aoia
noaoe/aneeo e i?eia?aoathuee oai naiui io?eoeaoaeueiia n/aoiia cia/aiea,
e n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia, nio?aiythuee iieiaeeoaeueiia cia/aiea, /oi
aano?aeii n oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey iiiyoey «eaieoae».

Ii iiaieth E. Aiiaa?aa, o?aaiaiey, eioi?ua iieiaeaiu a iniiao aaeainiaie
oai?ee, iino?iaiu ia aoi?inoaiaiiuo iiiaioao i?iecaieueiuo niiinoaaeaiee
?acee/iuo a?oii n/aoia, eioi?ua aneaaenoaea eo «acaeiiinoe» aeieaeiu
acaeiii aeiiieiyoue ae?oa ae?oaa, oae eae yaeythony ninoaaiuie /anoyie
iaeiie noiiu. Eiaiii iiyoiio Aiiaa?a ioia/aao, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea
n/aoiaaaeaiey eae io?anee iaoaiaoeee iai?aaeeueii, oae eae iii eiaao
aeaei ia n iaoaiaoe/aneeie, aano?aeoiuie ioiioaieyie, a n
yeiiiie/aneeie, eiie?aoiuie, oaeoe/anee nouanoaothueie yaeaieyie,
auoaeathueie ec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; /enea a n/aoiaaaeaiee
yaeythony eeoue oi?iie au?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo oeaiiinoae.

Iaeaieaa y?eea oai?ee aaeainiaie oeieu i?aaenoaaeaiu neaaeothueie
o/aiuie:

Oai?ey E?aeieoa. Ii iunee A. E?aeieoa (?aaioa iioaeeeiaaia a 1896 a.),
eaaeaeia oicyenoai — yoi naiinoiyoaeueiia oeaeia, eioi?ia iiaeao eiaoue
iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe, i?aaa o?aaiaaiey e aeieae. Noaouey aaeaina
«Eaieoae» i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio caaeieaeaiiinoe nianoaaiieeo
i?aaei?eyoey. Ionthaea aaeain — yoi niioiioaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae
e i?aa o?aaiaaiey (aeoea) e aeieae i?aaei?eyoey (iannea). Oicyenoaaiiua
iia?aoeee aicaeaenoaotho ia ioaeaeueiua /anoe aeoeaa e ianneaa
aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina, eioi?ua ii ioiioaieth e oicyenoao iiaoo
aicieeaoue, ninoiyoue eee en/acaoue. ?aaeno?aoeee iiaeeaaeao oieueei
ioiioaiey aicieeiiaaiey e en/aciiaaiey ioaeaeueiuo /anoae aeoeaa e
ianneaa, oae eae ninoiyiea ia ioaeaeaaony a aeiiieieoaeueiie
?aaeno?aoeee (anee oeaiiinoe eee aeiea aicieeee e ia en/acee, oi iie,
ianiiiaiii, aua iaoiaeyony ia aaeaina). Iiyoiio eaaeaeue n/ao
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa /anoe, iaeia ec eioi?uo neoaeeo aeey
?aaeno?aoeee aicieeiiaaiee, a ae?oaay — aeey ?aaeno?aoeee en/aciiaaiee.
Iineieueeo oaeou aicieeiiaaiey e en/aciiaaiey yaeythony i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie ae?oa ae?oao, eae e ninoiyiea eiouanoaa a aeoeaa eee
ianneaa, i/aaeaeii, /oi aicieeiiaaiea aeoeaa aeieaeii ioia/aoueny ia
eaaie noi?iia n/aoa, a aicieeiiaaiea ianneaa — ia i?aaie, en/aciiaaiea
aeoeaa — ia i?aaie noi?iia n/aoa, a en/aciiaaiea ianneaa — ia eaaie.
Oaeei ia?acii, oeaeueth aeaieiiai n/aoiaiaenoaa yaeyaony ieaiiia?iay
?aaeno?aoeey aicieeiiaaiee e en/aciiaaiee, eiathueo ianoi a ioiioaiee
ioaeaeueiuo /anoae aeoeaa e ianneaa.

I?eauee e oauoee oaeaea aeieaeiu caienuaaoueny n?aco iinea eo
aicieeiiaaiey. I?eaueue — yoi aeiea oicyenoaa ii ioiioaieth e oiio, eoi
i?eieiaao ia naay ?ene, o.a. ii ioiioaieth e oiio, eoi eiaao i?aai ia
i?eaueue. Anee eiaaony /enoue eaieoae, oi yoei eeoeii aoaeao aeaaeaeaoe
i?aaei?eyoey, i?eiyaoee ia naay ?ene. Anee aea eiouanoaa ieacuaaaony
iaiueoa aeieaia, oi oaeeie eeoeaie aoaeoo e?aaeeoi?u oicyenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, oa?aeoa?iuie iniaaiiinoyie oai?ee E?aeieoa yaeythony
neaaeothuea:

— oicyenoai neaaeoao n/eoaoue naiinoiyoaeueiui i?aaieciii, iaeaaeathuei
iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie, i?aaaie o?aaiaaiey e aeieaaie;

— eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaie/aneoth /anoue ianneaa,
e?aaeeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue nianoaaiieeo;

— n/aoa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aaeno?aoeee aicieeiiaaiee e en/aciiaaiee
ioaeaeueiuo /anoae aeoeaa e ianneaa aaeainaa ?aaiiaaeeeie noiia.

Oai?ey Aa?eeia?a. A iniiaa n/aoiie oai?ee, i?aaeeiaeaiiie iaiaoeeei
aaoi?ii Iaio?aaeii Aa?eeia?ii a 1924 a., eaaeeo iiiyoea i oicyenoaa,
iainiaeaiiii io naiaai aeaaeaeueoea. Eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa
io?aaeaaony aai aaeainii, ninoiyuei ec aeaoo /anoae — aeoeaa e ianneaa.
Aeoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue iieiaeeoaeueiiai eiouanoaa, a
iannea — io?eoeaoaeueiiai (aeieae), eioi?ia iiaeao oie/oiaeaoue /anoe/ii
eee iieiinoueth iieiaeeoaeueiia eiouanoai (iiaaoaiea aeieaia naycaii n
auauoeai eiouanoaa eee oiaiueoaieai eaieoaea). Eciaiaiey aeoeaiuo (+) e
ianneaiuo (—) noaoae iiaoo auoue eeoue aeaiyeiai ?iaea: oaaee/aiea
(i?eoiae, +) e oiaiueoaiea (?anoiae, —). I?aaenoaaea aaeain eae
iaiauathuee n/ao i?aaei?eyoey, eaaay /anoue eioi?iai (aeoea) niaiaaeaao
ii cia/aieth n aeaaaoii n/aoia (+), a i?aaay /anoue (iannea) — n
e?aaeeoii n/aoia (—), iainiiaaiea aeaieiie caiene iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
iaoaiaoe/anee (ia iniiaaiee i?aaee neiaeaiey iieiaeeoaeueiuo e
io?eoeaoaeueiuo /enae):

1) + (+ Eiouanoai) = +,

o.a. oaaee/aiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai eiouanoaa caienuaaaony a aeaaao;

2) – (+ Eiouanoai) = -,

o.a. oiaiueoaiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai eiouanoaa caienuaaaony a e?aaeeo;

3) + (— Eiouanoai) = – ,

o.a. oaaee/aiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai eiouanoaa caienuaaaony a e?aaeeo;

4) – (— Eiouanoai) = +,

o.a. oiaiueoaiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai eiouanoaa caienuaaaony a aeaaao.

Ana eciaiaiey aeoeaa e ianneaa Aa?eeia? iacuaaao oicyenoaaiiuie
iai?ioaie, eioi?ua aeaeeo ia aiaoiea (acaeiiioiioaiey n o?aoueeie
eeoeaie) e aioo?aiiea (ana inoaeueiua). A iniiaa anao aac eneeth/aiey
iai?ioia eaaeeo aeo iaiu, i?aaeiieaaathuee iaeiia?aiaiiia e ?aaiiaaeeeia
oaaee/aiea iaeiie noaouee aaeaina e oiaiueoaiea ae?oaie noaouee aaeaina.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaaeaeue oicyenoaaiiue iai?io yaeyaony aeaienoaaiiui ii
naiae i?e?iaea.

N/aoiay caienue anaaaea cao?aaeaaao aeaa n/aoa oaeei ia?acii, /oi iaeei
ec ieo aeaaaooaony, a ae?oaie e?aaeeooaony, i?e/ai ia?aay caienue iineo
iieiaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, a aoi?ay — io?eoeaoaeueiue.

Oai?ey Aaeaaaia. Aeaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/ Aaeaaai (1879 – 1938) oeacuaae,
/oi n/aoiaiaenoai eiaao naie ii?aaeaeaiiue iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey —
aaeeie/iia oicyenoai e ?aaioa yoiai oicyenoaa. Aaeeie/iia oicyenoai ia
iiaeao ioiaeaeanoaeyoueny n ee/iinoueth aai aeaaeaeueoea, iiyoiio a
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa aeieaeii i?iaiaeeoueny /aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo
yoeie aeaoiy oaeoi?aie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy
iaaeaeo oicyenoaii e aai aeaaeaeueoeai nouanoaotho iinoiyiiua e
ii?aaeaeaiiua acaeiiioiioaiey, o/ao eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeyao iaeio ec
aeaaiaeoeo caaea/ n/aoiaiaenoaa.

Oicyenoai, auiieiyy a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe aieth aeaaeaeueoea, aeey
inouanoaeaiey yoie aeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeii iaeaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui
eiouanoaii. Ninoiyiea yoiai eiouanoaa, a ?aaii e ana eciaiaiey, eioi?ua
a iai i?ienoiaeyo, iieacuaathony a iniaie oaaeeoea, eiaioaiie aaeainii.
Aaeain oicyenoaa ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa /anoe — aeoea e iannea. Aeoea
oicyenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue aauiuo e ee/iuo i?aa yoiai
oicyenoaa, iannea — niaieoiiinoue iaycaoaeuenoa oicyenoaa ia?aae
ioaeaeueiuie th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie, a oaeaea ia?aae
aeaaeaeueoeai oicyenoaa. Iineaaeiee aeae iaycaoaeuenoa anaaaea ?aaai
?aciinoe iaaeaeo aeoeaii e eoiaii iaycaoaeuenoa oicyenoaa ia?aae
o?aoueeie eeoeaie. ?aciinoue yoa iineo iacaaiea n/aoiiai (/enoiai)
eaieoaea e yaeyaony au?aaeaieai iauae noiiu oeaiiinoae, aeiaeaiiuo a
aeaei aai aeaaeaeueoeai, ca eioi?ua oicyenoai ianao ii?aaeaeaiiua
iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae naiei aeaaeaeueoeai. Oaeei ia?acii, eae aeieae
oicyenoaa, oae e n/aoiue eaieoae a ?aaiie noaiaie yaeythony
iaycaoaeuenoaaie oicyenoaa. Ii iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy aeaeaie
iaycaoaeuenoa nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiia ?acee/ea, ei?aiyuaany a ?aciie
th?eaee/aneie i?e?iaea yoeo iaycaoaeuenoa. Oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue
iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae o?aoueeie eeoeaie ninoieo a oii, /oi oaeea
iaycaoaeuenoaa anaaaea au?aaeathony a oaa?aeie aeaiaaeiie noiia, a oi
a?aiy eae iaycaoaeuenoaa oicyenoaa ia?aae nianoaaiieeii ie a eiae ia?a
ia iiaoo au?aaeaoueny a oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiie aeaiaaeiie noiia.

Ioia/aiiua iniaaiiinoe th?eaee/aneie i?e?iaeu n/aoiiai eaieoaea
iicaieytho ?aoeoue aii?in i i?eaueyo e oauoeao oicyenoaa. Auyaeythueany
a ?acoeueoaoa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey i?eauee
i?eiaaeeaaeao ia oicyenoao, a aai aeaaeaeueoeo, e iiyoiio niioaaonoaaiii
eciaiytho ?acia?u n/aoiiai eaieoaea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ieacuaathony
aeiiieieoaeueiui iaycaoaeuenoaii oicyenoaa ia?aae naiei aeaaeaeueoeai, a
oauoee oiaiueoatho noiio n/aoiiai eaieoaea e iiyoiio ?aaiicia/iu
oiaiueoaieth oeacaiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa oicyenoaa.

Ana yoe iaycaoaeuenoaa oicyenoaa aicieeatho ia?aeeaeueii n iieo/aieai
eaeeo-eeai n?aaenoa io o?aoueeo eeoe eee aea aeaaeaeueoea oicyenoaa;
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeea iaycaoaeuenoaa, ae?oaeie neiaaie iannea,
yaeythony enoi/ieeaie iieo/aiey anao iaoiaeyueony a ?anii?yaeaiee
oicyenoaa oeaiiinoae.

Aeey eeethno?aoeee naiae iunee Aaeaaai i?eaiaeeo aanueia iaaeyaeiue
i?eia?. ?anniao?eaay eiion a aai ai?eciioaeueiie e aa?oeeaeueiie
i?iaeoeeyo, iu iieo/ei a ia?aii neo/aa e?oa, a ai aoi?ii neo/aa
o?aoaieueiee. Niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi i?aaeeueiue e?oa e ?aaiiaaae?aiiue
o?aoaieueiee ie/aai iauaai ii naiaio aiaoiaio aeaeo ia eiatho, e ia
iaiaa ynii, /oi yoio e?oo e yoio o?aoaieueiee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
ecia?aaeaiea iaeiiai oaea a aai i?iaeoeeyo ia ?aciua ieineinoe. Oaeei
ia?acii, iai?aeeia?iinoue e ?aciua ecia?aaeaiey iaeiiai e oiai aea
iauaeoa ia yaeythony iniiaaieai n/eoaoue iieo/aiiua ecia?aaeaiey
ecia?aaeaieyie ?aciuo i?aaeiaoia. Aeoea e iannea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
?aciua ecia?aaeaiey eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey eae iniiaiiai
iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey i?e ninoaaeaiee eiaaioa?y, eae i?aaeeueiue e?oa e
?aaiiaaae?aiiue o?aoaieueiee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ecia?aaeaiey eiiona.

Aaeeiay nouiinoue aeoeaa e ianneaa iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue aaeeiia i?aaeei
aeey caiene anao oao eciaiaiee, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a oa/aiea io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea a ninoaaiuo /anoyo aeoeaa e ianneaa. Yoi i?aaeei auoaeaao ec
aiaeeca oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee n oi/ee c?aiey aeeyiey eo ia n/aoa,
ioe?uoua aeey o/aoa ioaeaeueiuo noaoae aeoeaa e ianneaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
oaeiai aiaeeca Aaeaaai ioia/aao neaaeothuea oeie/iua neo/ae n/aoiie
?aaeno?aoeee:

— a n/aoao, ioe?uaaaiuo aeey caiene iia?aoeee n iaoa?eaeueiuie
oeaiiinoyie, iia?aoeee ii oaaee/aieth eiee/anoaa e noieiinoe yoeo
oeaiiinoae caienuaathony a aeaaao, iia?aoeee ii oiaiueoaieth eiee/anoaa
e noieiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ioia/athony a e?aaeeoa;

— a n/aoao, ioe?uaaaiuo aeey caiene ?an/aoia n aeaaeoi?aie, iia?aoeee,
oaaee/eaathuea i?aaa oicyenoaa e aai aeaaeoi?ai, caienuaathony a aeaaao;
iia?aoeee, oiaiueoathuea i?aaa oicyenoaa e aai aeaaeoi?ai, ioia/athony a
e?aaeeoa;

— a n/aoao, ioe?uouo aeey caiene ?an/aoia n e?aaeeoi?aie, iia?aoeee,
oiaiueoathuea iaycaoaeuenoaa oicyenoaa ia?aae aai e?aaeeoi?aie,
ioia/athony a aeaaaoa, iia?aoeee, oaaee/eaathuea yoe iaycaoaeuenoaa,
ioia/athony a e?aaeeoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, eaaeaeay iia?aoeey ieacuaaao iaeiia?aiaiii
iieiaeeoaeueiia e io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaienoaaiia ii naiae i?e?iaea. I?aaeei caiene ia
n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, noi?ioee?iaaiiia Aaeaaaiii, aeaneo, /oi «ia
aeaaao eaeiai-eeai n/aoa caienuaathony iia?aoeee, ieacuaathuea
iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia oo eee eioth /anoue aeoeaa eee ianneaa
oicyenoaa, eioi?ay iieacaia a caaieiaea n/aoa; ia e?aaeeo eaeiai-eeai
n/aoa caienuaathony iia?aoeee, ieacuaathuea io?eoeaoaeueiia aeeyiea ia
oo /anoue aeoeaa eee ianneaa oicyenoaa, eioi?ay iieacaia a caaieiaea
yoiai n/aoa».

Eoae, iniiaiuie iniaaiiinoyie oai?ee Aaeaaaia yaeythony neaaeothuea:

— a iniiaa n/aoiaaaeaiey eaaeeo iiiyoea i oicyenoaa eae i
naiinoiyoaeueiii oeaeii, iaeaaeathuai iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie,
i?aaaie o?aaiaaiey e iaycaoaeuenoaaie ia?aae o?aoueeie eeoeaie e
aeaaeaeueoeai oicyenoaa;

— ana n/aoa, ioe?uoua a i?aaeaeao oicyenoaa, iaeii?iaeiu ii naiae
i?e?iaea e i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aaeno?aoeee iieiaeeoaeueiuo (ia aeaaaoa)
e io?eoeaoaeueiuo (ia e?aaeeoa) aeeyiee oicye noaaiiuo iia?aoeee ia
eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa.

Oai?ey ?inne. Aeaeocaiia ?inne (1845—1921) ?acaeaae iaoaiaoe/aneoth
oai?eth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, a iniiao eioi?ie iieiaeaii o?aaiaiea,
au?aaeathuaa eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa:

A – I – E = I,

aaea A — aeoea;

I — iannea (iaycaoaeuenoaa); E — /enoue eaieoae.

Yoi o?aaiaiea iieacuaaao, /oi eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea oicyenoaa
oi?ie?oaony ec iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia, ?aaiuo a
niaieoiiinoe ae?oa ae?oao. O?aaiaiea iiaeao auoue i?aia?aciaaii a
ae?oaia o?aaiaiea:

A = I + E.

Iiae aeeyieai aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaa a ninoaaa yoeo yeaiaioia
i?ienoiaeyo iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua eciaiaiey:

— iieiaeeoaeueiuie yaeythony ninoiyiea noaoae aeoeaa e oaaee/aiea yoiai
ninoiyiey, a oaeaea oiaiueoaiea ninoiyiey

noaoae ianneaa;

— io?eoeaoaeueiuie n/eoathony ninoiyiea noaoae ianneaa e oaaee/aiea
yoiai ninoiyiey, a oaeaea oiaiueoaiea ninoiyiey noaoae aeoeaa.

Caaea/a n/aoiaaaeaiey caeeth/aaony a oaeouae ?aaeno?aoeee anao yoeo
iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee e ii?aaeaeaiee
yeiiiie/aneiai cia/aiey anao yeaiaioia, auyaeythueony a ?acoeueoaoa
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea oeacaiiuo yeaiaioia onoaiaaeeaaaony n iiiiuueth
oaaeeoe, iacuaaaiuo n/aoaie. Yoe oaaeeoeu, eee n/aoa, i?aaeiacia/aiu:

— aeey eeanneoeeaoeee iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia
oicyenoaa ii eo yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth, o.a. i?enaiaiey eaaeaeiio
n/aoo iaeiaiiaaiey;

— aeey neiaiee/aneiai iaicia/aiey, yaeyaony aeaiiue yeaiaio
iieiaeeoaeueiui eee io?eoeaoaeueiui, o.a. oi?iie n/aoa, neiaieii
eioi?iai yaeyaony ciae O.

Neiaieu eiatho a iaoaiaoeea aieueoia cia/aiea, oae eae n eo iiiiuueth
i?e?iaea oiai eee eiiai yeaiaioa ii?aaeaeyaony aai ianoii ii ioiioaieth
e aeaiiiio neiaieo. Aeey eeethno?aoeee aeaiiiai iieiaeaiey ?inne
i?eaiaeeo i?eia?, eiaaea au?aaeaiea (a:b) iaicia/aao, /oi «a» yaeyaony
aeaeeiui, a «b» aeaeeoaeai, a au?aaeaiea (b : a) iieacuaaao, /oi oaea
«b» yaeyaony aeaeeiui, a «a» aeaeeoaeai.

Oi/ii oaeia aea cia/aiea eiaao e ciae n/aoa (O), eniieueciaaiea eioi?iai
iaeaa/aao auno?ia ii?aaeaeaiea enoeiiiai cia/aiey yeaiaioa i?e iaeiii
eeoue acaeyaea ia aeaiiue n/ao: anee yeaiaio iiiauai ia eaaoth noi?iio
yoiai ciaea, oi yoi aoaeao icia/aoue iieiaeeoaeueiia eciaiaiea;
iiiauaiea yeaiaioa ia i?aaoth noi?iio aoaeao icia/aoue io?eoeaoaeueiia
eciaiaiea eiouanoaaiiiai ninoiyiey oicyenoaa.

I?e ?aaeno?aoeee eciaiaiee a aeoeaa iniiaiia o?aaiaiea i?eiao
neaaeothuee aeae:

(A + a – a) = I + E, eee A + a = I + E + a.

I?e ?aaeno?aoeee eciaiaiee a ianneaa iniiaiia o?aaiaiea aoaeao
i?eieiaoue oaeie aeae:

A = (I – i + i) + E, eee A + i = I + i + E.

Eciaiaiey a eaieoaea oiaea iiaeaa?aathony n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee,
iiae/eiythuaeny i?aaeeai, onoaiiaeaiiui aeey ia?auo aeaoo neo/aaa
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?inne ia iuoaaony enneaaeiaaoue yeiiiie/aneoth eee
th?eaee/aneoth i?e?iaeo oeaiiinoae eeai ioaeaeueiuo /anoae oicyenoaa.
Ana i?aaeea caienae ii n/aoai naiaeyony eeoue e iaania/aieth
i?aaeeueiinoe iaoaiaoe/aneeo o?aaiaiee, ioaeaeueiua /anoe eioi?iai
aaoiiaoe/anee iieacuaatho ii?yaeie caiene ii n/aoai oao eee eiuo noii.
Iaeiaei i?eaea/aiea iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa aeaei ?inne aiciiaeiinoue
nicaeaoue oaoiaoioth oi?io n/aoiaiaenoaa, iicaieythuoth oeene?iaaoue
oaeou oicyenoaaiiie aeecie a iao?eoeao, /oi nicaeaei oe?ieea
aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?eiaiaiey a oeaeyo aiaeeca eeiaeiie aeaaa?u.

Oai?ey Eieueiaiia. ?aaioa E. Eieueiaiia auea iioaeeeiaaia a 1904—1906
aa. Aaoi? iacaae naith oai?eth /enoi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oicyenoaaiiie
oai?eae. Ii ?anniao?eaaao oicyenoai eae niaieoiiinoue eiaaioa?iuo
oeaiiinoae e eiaaioa?iuo aeieaia, eiuie neiaaie, eae eiouanoaaiioth
ianno, ninoiyuoth ec «eiaaioa?iuo aeoeaia» e «eiaaioa?iuo ianneaia».
Aianoi «ieeoeaoai?aiey oicyeia» Eieueiaii noaiiaeony ia ianoi
aaeieieno?aoi?a oicyenoaa. N oi/ee c?aiey aaeieieno?aoi?a, eaieoae
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoaiaoe/aneia ioiioaiea, nouanoaothuaa iaaeaeo
aaeieieno?aoi?ii e aeaaeaeueoeai oicyenoaa e yaeyaony io?eoeaoaeueiie
aaee/eiie (-). Ioee/ea /enoi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oai?ee io ?aiaa
?anniio?aiiuo oicyenoaaiiuo oai?ee (I. Aa?eeia? e ae?. ) ninoieo a
?aciii iiieiaiee i?e?iaeu i?eaueae e oauoeia (oaae. 4.10)

Oaaeeoea 4.10 – Ioee/ey /enoi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oai?ee io oicyenoaaiiuo
oai?ee

Oicyenoaaiiay oai?ey*enoi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oai?eyI?eaueue – oneoae
oicyenoaa (aeaaeaeueoea)Aicieeiiaaiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai
ioiioaiey aaeieieno?aoi?a e aeaaeaeueoeo oicyenoaaOauoie – oneoae
o?aoueeo eeoe. *anoe aeoeaiiai eiouanoaa (aei nienaiey ca n/ao
aeaaeaeueoea oicyenoaa)En/aciiaaiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai
ioiioaiey aaeieieno?aoi?a e aeaaeaeueoeo oicyenoaa

Iiaeaiaey eoia, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi, ianiio?y ia ana iiiuoee
ioiaaeaaaoueny io i?aaenoaaeoaeae oicyenoaaiiie oai?ee, ana aea /enoi
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oai?ey iaoiaeeony n ieie a oaniii ninaaenoaa: aianoi
oeeoeaiiai iaeooioai?aiey oicyenoaa i?aaenoaaeyaony ia iaiaa oeeoeaiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia aaeieieno?aoi?a, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaiii aeaaeaeueoeo
oicyenoaa.

Oai?ey Athaee. Oaaeoea?neee aaoi? iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oai?ee O?el?eo
Athaee (1833 – 1902) ooaa?aeaeae /oi aeaieiay aooaaeoa?ey ioee/aaony io
i?inoie ia i?eiaiaieai niiniaa aeaieiie caiene (oae eae iauaeou o/aoa
nenoaiaoece?othony e a i?inoie aooaaeoa?ee), a auyaeaieai eciaiaiee
eaieoaea n/aoiui iooai. *enoue eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo
iaaeaeo noiiie eiouanoaa e iaycaoaeuenoaaie oicyenoaa. Aeey io?aaeaiey
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee aeieaeii auoue aeaa ?yaea
n/aoia: ?yae n/aoia eiouanoaaiiuo e ?yae n/aoia /enoiai eaieoaea. ?yae
n/aoia eiouanoaaiiuo ninoieo ec n/aoia aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo, a ?yae
n/aoia /enoiai eaieoaea io?aaeaao ?acieoeo iaaeaeo aeoeaii e ianneaii.
Iaaeaeo yoeie n/aoaie nouanoaoao ?acee/ea a iniaaiiinoyo iino?iaiey.

A aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo n/aoao aeaaaoiaay noi?iia eiaao iieiaeeoaeueiia
cia/aiea e i?aaeiacia/aaony aeey caiene aeoeaiuo noaoae, o.a.
oaaee/eaathueo eee oeo/oathueo aeaaininoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey, a
e?aaeeoiaay noi?iia eiaao cia/aiea io?eoeaoaeueiia e neoaeeo aeey
?aaeno?aoeee ianneaiuo noaoae, o.a. oiaiueoathueo eee oooaeoathueo
aeaaininoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio a n/aoa /enoiai
eaieoaea aeaaaoiaay noi?iia eiaao io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea e niae?aao
caiene ianneaiuo noaoae, oiaiueoathueo aaee/eio /enoiai eaieoaea, a
e?aaeeoiaay noi?iia eiaao cia/aiea iieiaeeoaeueiia e i?aaeiacia/aaony
aeey ?aaeno?aoeee aeoeaiuo noaoae, oaaee/eaathueo noiio /enoiai
eaieoaea.

Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey i?e oaaee/aiee
/anoe aeoeaa aeieaeia aucuaaoue iaeiia?aiaiiia oiaiueoaiea ae?oaie /anoe
aeoeaa eee oaaee/aiea /enoiai eaieoaea, e iaiai?io, i?e oiaiueoaiee
/anoe aeoeaa iaeiia?aiaiii aeieaeii eiaoue ianoi eee oaaee/aiea ae?oaie
/anoe aeoeaa, eee aea oiaiueoaiea /enoiai eaieoaea. Oaeei ia?acii,
eaaeaeay iia?aoeey iaeiia?aiaiii aucuaaao aeaa caiene ia
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noi?iiao aeaoo ?aciuo n/aoia: ii aeaaaoo iaeiiai e
e?aaeeoo ae?oaiai. Yoo caeiiiia?iinoue Athaee iiyniyao aeaaa?ae/aneeie
o?aaiaieyie:

— aeoeaiua e ianneaiua n/aoa: Aeaaao — E?aaeeo = Naeueaei

(a +b) – (a + n) = s;

— n/aoa /enoiai eaieoaea: E?aaeeo — Aeaaao = Naeueaei

b — n = s,

aaea a — iia?aoeee, ia aeeythuea ia aaee/eio /enoiai eaieoaea;

b — iia?aoeee, oaaee/eaathuea /enoue eaieoae;

n — iia?aoeee, oiaiueoathuea /enoue eaieoae;

s — ?acoeueoao iia?aoeee, eee /enoue eaieoae. Ionthaea noaiiaeony yniui,
/oi ?aaainoai noii aeaaaoiauo e e?aaeeoiauo iai?ioia ii n/aoai yaeyaony
neaaenoaeai iauaaeeiaiey aeaoo i?eaaaeaiiuo o?aaiaiee a iaeii iauaa:

E?aaeeo = Aeaaao

(a + b) + n = (a + n) + b.

?aaainoai eoiaia aeaaaoiauo e e?aaeeoiauo noii auoaeaao, ii iiaieth
Athaee, ec neaaeothueo iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee:

— /enoue eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo iaaeaeo eoiaii aeoeaa e
eoiaii ianneaa;

— aeey ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee iaiaoiaeeii aeaa ?yaea
n/aoia: iaeei ?yae aeey ?aaeno?aoeee eiouanoaa (aeoeaiua e ianneaiua
n/aoa), aoi?ie ?yae aeey o/aoa eciaiaiee /enoiai eaieoaea;

— a ?yaeo eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia (iieiaeeoaeueiia eiouanoai, eee
oeaiiinoe,— aeoeaiua n/aoa, io?eoeaoaeueiia eiouanoai, eee aeieae,—
ianneaiua n/aoa) aeoeaiua noiiu caiinyony a aeaaao, io?eoeaoaeueiua
noiiu — a e?aaeeo;

— ia n/aoa /enoiai eaieoaea aeoeaiua noiiu io?aaeathony ia e?aaeeoa,
ianneaiua — ia aeaaaoa;

— /enoue eaieoae e i?eaueue i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iieiaeeoaeueiua
aaee/eiu, a oauoee — aaee/eiu io?eoeaoaeueiua.

Oai?ey ?aeoa e E?aeaeaa. Aano?eeneea niaoeeaeenou ?aeo e E?aeaea, eae e
Athaee, oeacuaaee, /oi caaea/aie e i?aaeiaoii aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee
yaeythony:

— o/ao ioaeaeueiuo /anoae eiouanoaa, eo oaaee/aiee e oiaiueoaiee;

— o/ao /enoiai eaieoaea e aai eciaiaiee a ?acoeueoaoa i?eaueae e
oauoeia.

Yoe caaea/e ?aoathony n iiiiuueth aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia: n/aoia
eiouanoaaiiuo e n/aoia /enoiai eaieoaea. Aeey eaaeaeiai ?yaea n/aoia
nouanoaotho i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiua i?aaeea ?aaeno?aoeee o/eouaaaiuo
eciaiaiee.

?aeo e E?aeaea i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi yoa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yaeyaony
nouanoaaiiui i?eciaeii aeaieiie nenoaiu n/aoiaiaenoaa e auoaeaao ec
iaiaoiaeeiinoe oae acaeiii naycaoue oeacaiiua aeaa ?yaea n/aoia, /oiau
?acoeueoaou, auyaeyaiua aeaiiuie ?yaeaie, acaeiii eiiiaine?iaaeenue, a
ia i?inoi oaeaaeaaeenue, neaaaeenue ae?oa n ae?oaii.

I?eaaaeaiiia iieiaeaiea aaoi?u iiyniytho neaaeothueie ae aeaaa?ae/aneeie
o?aaiaieyie (oaae. 11).

Oaaeeoea 4.11. – O?aaiaiey ?aeoa e E?aeaeaa

?yae eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia?yae n/aoia /enoiai eaieoaeaIa/aeueiua
o?aaiaieyA – I = E

A oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea aeoea eciaiyaony ia aaee/eio
picscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
e6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000020001c00
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0077400000001b05
0a60bdacf477c6acf4770100000000003000040000002d01000008000000320a40013a00
01000000b1790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb0210000700
00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d000000000a000000040000000000ffff
ffff0100000000003000040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000a,
iannea – ia aaee/eio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 io/aoiiai ia?eiaea /enoue eaieoae eciaiyaony ia aaee/eio
i?eaueae + i e oauoeia – oCaeeth/eoaeueiua
o?aaiaiey(Apicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c00000000000500000009020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) –
(Ipicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c00000000000500000009020000000005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) =
E1

eee oi?iuaiiay: A1-I1 = E1E + (i-o) = E1I?eieiay ai aieiaiea ?aaainoai
aaee/eiu E1 a iaieo ?yaeao, i?eaaaeaiiua o?aaiaiey neeaathony a iniiaiia
o?aaiaiea aeaieiie nenoaiu n/aoiaiaenoaa:

A1 – I1 = E + (i-o)Aaeaeo oiai, /oi ia n/aoao Aeaaiie eieae ia iaeieo e
oao aea noi?iiao iiaoo noiyoue eeoue neaaaaiua aaee/eiu (n iaeeiaeiaui
iaoaiaoe/aneei ciaeii), iniiaiia o?aaiaiea iiaeii i?aia?aciaaoue oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau ia iaaeo aai noi?iiao ieacaeenue eneeth/eoaeueii aaee/eiu
ni ciaeii «+». Oaoie/aneia o?aaiaiea i?aeoe/aneiai n/aoiaaaeaiey
auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

A+o=I1 + E + iIaicia/aiey:

A – ia/aeueiue aeoea;

A1 – caeeth/eoaeueiue aeoea (ia?acothueeny a ?acoeueoaoa i?e?auaiee e
oiaiueoaiee ia/aeueiiai aeoeaa ia aaee/eio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 oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a io/aoiii ia?eiaea);

I – ia/aeueiue iannea;

I1 – caeeth/eoaeueiue iannea (ia?acothueeny a ?acoeueoaoa i?e?auaiee
ia/aeueiiai ianneaa ia aaee/eio i?eaueae «+i» e oiaiueoaiiue ia oauoee
«-o»).

Iineaaeiaa o?aaiaiea iieacuaaao, /oi ia eaaoth noi?iio (aeaaao) n/aoia
ioiinyony ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea aeoeaiiai eiouanoaa e oauoeia, a ia
i?aaoth noi?iio (e?aaeeo) — ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea ianneaiiai eiouanoaa,
/enoiai eaieoaea e i?eaueae, i?e/ai eoia aeaaaoiauo caienae anaaaea
?aaai eoiao e?aaeeoiauo caienae ai anae niaieoiiinoe n/aoia.

Oai?ey Ioe. O?aioeocneee aaoi? Eaii Ioe, ?aaioa eioi?iai auea
iioaeeeiaaia a 1927 a., ioia/aao oa?aeoa?ioth iniaaiiinoue aaeaina,
ninoiyuoth a oii, /oi caeanue eaieoae oicyenoaa iiiauaaony, a nouiinoe,
aeaaaeaeu: ai-ia?auo, a ianneaa — a iauae aai noiia e, ai-aoi?uo, a
aeoeaa — ?an/eaiaiiui ii ioaeaeueiui eaoaai?eyi oeaiiinoae. Ionthaea, ii
iiaieth E. Ioe, neaaeoao, /oi a /enea o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e
?aoeeiiaeueiie n/aoiie oai?ee, aeieaeii oeao?e?iaaoue ia oieueei
o?aaiaaiea ia onoaiiaeaiee iauaai i?aaeea, i?eiaieiiai ai anao neo/ayo
n/aoiuo caienae e niiniaiiai iiyoiio neoaeeoue iaaeaaeiui i?iaiaeieeii
/a?ac aanueia neiaeiue eo eaae?eio, ii e o?aaiaaiea i aeieacaoaeuenoaa
i?aaeeueiinoe iiiauaiey noaouee eaieoaea a ianneaa aaeaina.

Iiaeaa?aay ouaoaeueiiio aiaeeco iniiaiua iieiaeaiey, ano?a/athueany a
n/aoiuo oai?eyo ?acee/iuo aaoi?ia, Ioe i?eoiaeeo e iiaieth, /oi aac
eniieueciaaiey oeeoeaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ie iaeia ec ieo ia a ninoiyiee
oaeiaeaoai?eoue aoi?iio ec o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeaiiuo e ?aoeeiiaeueiie
n/aoiie oai?ee. I?eoiaey a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai iaci?a e ecaanoiie oi?ioea
A — I = E e ioia/ay, /oi /enoue eaieoae yaeyaony ia oeaiiinoueth, a
eeoue ?aciinoueth iaaeaeo aeoeaii e ianneaii, Ioe inoaiaaeeaaaony ia
n/aoiii i?aaeea, i?aaeeiaeaiiii o?aioeocii E.Iooi a neaaeothuae
oi?ioee?iaea: iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aciinoue caiineony a e?aaeeo n/aoa,
io?eoeaoaeueiay — a aeaaao n/aoa, i?e/ai iiaeaa?aaao yoi oeacaiea i
caianaiee iieiaeeoaeueiiai /enoiai eaieoaea a e?aaeeo n/aoa i?iaa?ea
iooai ouaoaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey eae i?e?iaeu aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo
eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia, oae e ii?yaeea eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

N/aoiua aaee/eiu eae aeoeaiiai, oae e ianneaiiai eiouanoaa
eiino?oe?othony ec oeaeiai ?yaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee oieueei
neaaaaiuo e au/eoaaiuo. Oaeei ia?acii, eciaiaiey, ec eioi?uo
neeaaeuaaaony oa eee eiay n/aoiay aaee/eia, iiaoo auoue eeoue aeaiyeiai
?iaea: eee neaaaaiua, o.a. iieiaeeoaeueiua, oa?aeoa?ecoaiua ciaeii « +
», eee au/eoaaiua, o.a. io?eoeaoaeueiua, oa?aeoa?ecoaiua ciaeii « — ».
Anee aeey ioiaoie anao yoeo eciaiaiee aoaeao ioaaaeaia iniaay oaaeeoea,
oi iia, anoanoaaiii, aeieaeia auoue ?acaeaeaia ia aeaa noi?iiu, ia
eioi?uo eciaiaiey iieiaeeoaeueiua eee io?eoeaoaeueiua aoaeoo
caienuaaoueny ioaeaeueii ae?oa io ae?oaa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, auaiaey
?aciinoue iaaeaeo eoiaaie iaaeo yoeo noi?ii, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
n/aoioth aaee/eio aeoeaiiai eee aea ianneaiiai eiouanoaa ia ethaie
aeaeaaiue iiiaio a?aiaie.

Oaeay oaaeeoea ecaanoia a n/aoiaiaenoaa iiae iacaaieai n/aoa. Niinia
eniieueciaaiey n/aoa aeey caienae iiaeii onoaiiaeoue a i?eiyoeai
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oneiaey, iai?eia?, oaeiai: anyeia iieiaeeoaeueiia
eciaiaiea aoaeao caienuaaoueny ia eaaoth noi?iio, eee a aeaaao, anyeia
io?eoeaoaeueiia eciaiaiea aoaeao caienuaaoueny ia i?aaoth noi?iio, eee a
e?aaeeo.

Enneaaeoy ii?yaeie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo n/aoia, iiaeii
iaia?oaeeoue, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie (aeaaao n/aoa) aoaeoo
iinooieaiey aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae, i?aa o?aaiaaiey, oiaiueoaiea
aeieaia i?aaei?eyoey; a io?eoeaoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie (e?aaeeo n/aoa)
aoaeoo auaea/e aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae, oiaiueoaiea i?aa o?aaiaaiey,
oaaee/aiea aeieaia i?aaei?eyoey.

Ionthaea iiaeii auaanoe caeeth/aiea, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie
aoaeoo oa, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth /enoiai eaieoaea, a
io?eoeaoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie aoaeoo ana oa, eioi?ua aeaeoo ca niaie aai
oiaiueoaiea, niioaaonoaaiii i?eaaaeaiiie ?aiaa oi?ioea: A — I = E. Oaeei
ia?acii, n/aoiay ?aaeno?aoeey eciaiaiee a aeoeaiii e ianneaiii eiouanoaa
inouanoaeyaony niaeanii oeacaiiiio i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiio oneiaeth caiene ia
n/aoao.

Ia?aoiaeei oaia?ue e ?aaeno?aoeee oi?aiauo ?anoiaeia e anyeiai ?iaea
i?eaueae e oauoeia. Neaaeoy onoaiiaeaiiiio i?aaeeo, oauoee, eae
oaeoe/anee oiaiueoathuea aaee/eio /enoiai eaieoaea e eiathuea iiyoiio
ii?aaeaeaiii io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea, i?eoeinue au caienuaaoue a
e?aaeeo niioaaonoaothuaai n/aoa, iai?eia? n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia. Ii
oiio aea i?aaeeo i?eauee, eae aeaenoaeoaeueii oaaee/eaathuea /enoue
eaieoae e eiathuea iiyoiio, ianiiiaiii, iieiaeeoaeueiia cia/aiea,
iaiaoiaeeii auei au ioia/aoue a aeaaaoa niioaaonoaothuaai n/aoa,
iai?eia? oiai aea n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia. Iaaeaeo oai ecaanoii, /oi
ii?iaeueiue ii?yaeie ?aaeno?aoeee o?aaoao ioianaiey oauoeia a aeaaao, a
i?eaueae — a e?aaeeo n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia. Cia/eo, ii?aaeaeaiiia
?aiaa i?aaeei n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee ia iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaii aeey
io?aaeaiey ia n/aoao i?eaueae «oauoeia. Ionthaea iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi
n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia a oaeaea n/ao eaieoaea iaeaaeatho oa?aeoa?ii,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiui oa?aeoa?o eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia, /oi aiieia
niioaaonoaoao n/aoiiio i?aaeeo, i?aaeeiaeaiiiio E. Iooi e aeanyuaio, /oi
iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aciinoue, eee /enoue eaieoae, caienuaaaony r e?aaeeo
niioaaonoaothuaai n/aoa.

Anee io ?annoaeaeaiee ia?aeoe e aaeaino (oaae. 4.12) e aeiionoeoue
aiciiaeiinoue ?aceiaeaiey aai ia aeaa i?inoaeoeo aaeaina, oi iieo/ei
no?oeoo?o, i?eaaaeaiioth a oaae. 4.13.

Oaaeeoea 4.12. – Aaeain

AeoeaIanneaOiaa?u, aeaiueae, aeaaeoi?u e i?i/ea 500000

Oauoee 20000

Aaeain
520000E?aaeeoi?u 200000

*enoue eaieoae 250000

I?eauee 700000

Aaeain 520000

Oaaeeoea 4.13. – Aaeain n ?aceiaeaieyie

Aaeain AIieiaeeoaeueiue /enoue eaieoaeAeoea

Oiaa?u, iaee/iua aeaiueae, aeaaeoi?u e i?i/ea 500000Iannea

E?aaeeoi?u 200000

I?aauoaiea aeoeaa iaae ianneaii 300000

-Aaeain AOauoee 20000*enoue eaieoae 250000

I?eauee 70000Ia/aeueiue /enoue eaieoae
picscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
e6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000020001c00
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c00002b090a2240f1
1200d89ff377e19ff3772020f577260966d0040000002d01000008000000320a40013a00
01000000b1790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb0210000700
00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d0000260966d000000a0021008a010000
0000ffffffff5cf31200040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000eciaiaie
yEoiai 20000Eoiai 320000300000

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aaeain oicyenoaa, a nouiinoe,
?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa /anoe:

1) aaeain A, iieacuaathuee ninoiyiea aeoeaiiai e ianneaiiai eiouanoaa ia
aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie; yoa /anoue aaeaina i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
noaoe/aneee ?ac?ac aaeaina oicyenoaa;

2) aaeain A, oa?aeoa?ecothuee eae iai?aaeaiea, oae e aaee/eio eciaiaiee
ia/aeueiiai /enoiai eaieoaea. Anee aaeain A i?aaenoaaeoue a aieaa
aeaoaeueiii aeaea, o.a. n oeacaieai ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?eaueae e
oauoeia, oi oaeie aaeain aeano naaaeaiey i i?e/eiao eciaiaiee a /enoii
eaieoaea, ?aaii eae e ia ioiineoaeueiie cia/eiinoe, oaeaeueiii aana
eaaeaeie ec yoeo i?e/ei. Oaeay /anoue iauaai aaeaina i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeeiaie/aneee ?ac?ac aaeaina oicyenoaa.

Ec anaai neacaiiiai Ioe caeeth/aao, /oi:

— oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee yaeyaony aeaieiie o/ao
/enoiai eaieoaea, aeey /aai eniieuecothony aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ae?oa
ae?oao ?yaea n/aoia, ?aaeno?e?othueo eciaiaiey a /enoii eaieoaea
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie niiniaaie;

— oeaeueth oaeiai o/aoa yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue iieacaoue ninoiyiea
i?aaei?eyoey a aeaoo ?ac?acao (aeeiaie/aneii e noaoe/aneii), ii a
aaeeiie e iieiie n/aoiie oaaeeoea, ioia?aaeathuae oaeei ia?acii
iaeiia?aiaiii eae ninoiyiea, oae e ?acaeoea aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Eaaeaeoth ec i?eaaaeaiiuo /anoae iauaai aaeaina iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
neaaeothueie o?aaiaieyie:

1) aaeain A: A1 – I1 = E1;

2) aaeain A: E + (i – o) = E1.

Iooai niaaeeiaiey iaieo o?aaiaiee iieo/aai iniiaiia o?aaiaiea oai?ee
aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia:

A1 – I1 = E + (i – o).

Iooai i?aia?aciaaiey iineaaeiaai o?aaiaiey iieo/aai oaea ecaanoiia
oaoie/aneia o?aaiaiea i?aeoe/aneiai n/aoiaiaenoaa: A1 + o = E + I1 + i.

Oaeei ia?acii, caienue /enoiai eaieoaea, aeieaia e i?eaueae ia iaeiie
noi?iia, a oauoeia e aeoeaia ia ae?oaie noi?iia aaeaina yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii niaa?oaiii i?aaiia?iuo aeaaa?ae/aneeo aeaenoaee neeyiey a
aaeeiue aaeain aeaoo aaeainia, niaa?oaiii ?acee/iuo iaaeaeo niaie ii
naiae i?e?iaea.

N oi/ee c?aiey i?aaee n/aoiie ?aaeno?aoeee ana n/aoa iauaaeeiythony a
aeaa a?oiiu: a?oiia A, eee a?oiia i?yiuo n/aoia, e a?oiia A, eee a?oiia
ia?aoiuo n/aoia. Aeaiiua a?oiiu n/aoia eiino?oe?othony ii neaaeothuei
noaiai (?en. 4.4).

I?yiua n/aoa (a?oiia A) Ia?aoiua n/aoa (a?oiia A)

Aeaaao (+)E?aaeeo (-)Aeaaao (-)E?aaeeo (+) ?en.4.4. – Noaiu
eiino?oe?iaaiey n/aoia

E a?oiia A ioiinyony n/aoa aeey o/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae,
aeaaeoi?ia e e?aaeeoi?ia, a naiae niaieoiiinoe ninoaaeythuea aeoea e
iannea aaeaina; a yoie a?oiia aoaeao /eneeoueny noieueei n/aoia, ia
neieueei aeaeia iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, aeaaeoi?ia e e?aaeeoi?ia
aoaeao ?aniaaeaoueny /enoue eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey. A?oiia A ninoaaeyaony
ec n/aoia ia/aeueiiai eaieoaea e i?eaueae e oauoeia, ioe?uaaaiuo a
eiee/anoaa, iaiaoiaeeiii aeey o/aoa anao oao i?e/ei eciaiaiee /enoiai
eaieoaea, noaoenoeea eioi?uo iai eaaeaony ioaeiie.

O/eouaaaiua anaie yoeie n/aoaie eciaiaiey /enoiai eaieoaea iiaoo auoue
naaaeaiu e neaaeothuei o?ai aeaeai:

1) oeaiiinoiua eciaiaiey;

2) eciaiaiey oi?iu;

3) niaoaiiua eciaiaiey.

Oeaiiinoiua eciaiaiey ?aaeno?e?othony iooai aeaieiie caiene ia aeaoo
n/aoao, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e ?aciui a?oiiai (A e A), neaaeothuaai oeia:

1) n/ao a?oiiu A (+) n/aoo a?oiiu A (+) — a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee i?eauee;

2) n/ao a?oiiu A (—) n/aoo a?oiiu A (—) — a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee oauoeia.

Eciaiaiey oi?iu io?aaeathony ia ia aaee/eia /enoiai eaieoaea, a eeoue ia
oi?ia aaeaina noaoe/aneiai eee aeeiaie/aneiai. Ana oaeea eciaiaiey a
noaoe/aneii aaeaina aoaeoo aucuaaoueny anyeiai ?iaea iia?aoeeyie
iaiiaiai oa?aeoa?a, iai?eia?:

n/ao a?oiiu A (+) n/aoo a?oiiu A (—).

A aeeiaie/aneii aaeaina eciaiaiey oi?iu aoaeoo naiaeeoueny ei anyeiai
?iaea ia?a/eneaieyi n iaeiiai ?acoeueoaoiiai n/aoa] ia ae?oaie,
iai?eia?:

n/ao a?oiiu A (—) n/aoo a?oiiu A (+).

Niaoaiiua eciaiaiey /enoiai eaieoaea ii oi?ia neeaaeuaathony, a
nouiinoe, ec ia?auo aeaoo aeaeia eciaiaiee. Aeinoaoi/ii oeie/iui
i?eia?ii niaoaiiuo iia?aoeee iiaeao neoaeeoue i?iaeaaea oiaa?a
noieiinoueth 100 ?oa. ca 120 ?oa. Oaeia eciaiaiea, ii iiaieth E. Ioe,
aoaeao ?aaeno?e?iaaoueny neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1) n/ao eannu (+ n/aoo oiaa?ia (—) ia 100 ?oa.;

2) n/ao eannu (+) n/aoo i?eaueae e oauoeia (+) ia 20 ?oa.

?acthie?oy eceiaeaiiua ?annoaeaeaiey E. Ioe, ioiaoei iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
aai oai?ee:

— iniiaiui i?eioeeiii yaeyaony aeaieiay ?aaeno?aoeey /enoiai eaieoaea
i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aciinoue iaaeaeo aeoeaii e
ianneaii, iin?aaenoaii aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia;

— aeaa ?yaea n/aoia aeeth/atho a naay n/aoa a?oiiu A (aeoeaiua e
ianneaiua), i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?aaeno?aoeee noaoeee, e n/aoa a?oiiu A
(n/aoa eaieoaea e ?acoeueoaoiua), iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?aaeno?aoeee
aeeiaieee /enoiai eaieoaea;

— eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey aucuaaao eciaiaiey a aeaoo n/aoao,
naiaeyueany e o?ai oeiai: ii niaea?aeaieth (oeaiiinoiua), ii oi?ia e
niaoaiiua;

— no?iaiea e niaea?aeaiea aaeaina iauyniyaony neeyieai a iaeei iauee
aaeain aeaoo ?aciuo aaeainia: noaoe/aneiai e aeeiaie/aneiai.

Oai?ey Oa?a (1922). Oaaeoea?neee aooaaeoa? Eiaaii O?eae?eo Oa?
(1846—1924) ioia/ae, /oi aeaieiay, eee nenoaiaoe/aneay aooaaeoa?ey
yaeyaony niaa?oaiiaeoae ec o?ao aeaeia aooaaeoa?ee1, iineieueeo
en/a?iuaathuei ia?acii io?aaeaao ia oieueei e?oaiiai?io oeaiiinoae
aeaiiiai oicyenoaa, ii e ?anoiaeu e aeioiaeu ioaeaeueiiai oicyenoaa; a
yoeo oeaeyo n/aoo ninoiyiey, oaaee/aiey eee oiaiueoaiey ?acee/iuo
yeiiiie/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo aeaeia oeaiiinoae i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony
n/ao /enoiai eaieoaea (n/ao eaieoaea) e n/ao aai oiaiueoaiee e
oaaee/aiee (n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia), aucaaiiuo aeioiaeaie e ?anoiaeaie.
Oaeei i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieai aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea iia?aoeee th?eaee/aneiai
e yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, iiaeeaaeauea n/aoiie caiene, i?eaiaeyony a
no?iaoth nenoaio (ionthaea iacaaiea «nenoaiaoe/aneay aooaaeoa?ey»).

Aeiionoei, /oi o oicyenoaa ia ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie eiaaony ?yae
oeaiiinoae, eioi?ua niioaaonoaaiii eo iniaaiiinoyi iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu
a iaeioi?ia /enei a?oii, noieiinoue eioi?uo oneiaii iaicia/ei al, a2, a3
e o.ae. Noiio noieiinoe anao a?oii oeaiiinoae iaicia/ei eae A; a
?acoeueoaoa iieo/ei neaaeothuaa o?aaiaiea:

al + a2 + a3 + … = A (aeoea). (1)

Yoi o?aaiaiea aoaeao iieacuaaoue, /oi aeoea yaeyaony noiiie noieiinoae
?acee/iuo oeaiiinoae eee, ae?oaeie neiaaie, /oi noiia /anoae ?aaia
oeaeiio.

Eiouanoai oicyenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eaieoae (E), iiyoiioal + a2 + a3
+ … = A = E. (2)

Oaeei ia?acii, eaieoae oicyenoaa — yoi noiia noieiinoe anao oeaiiinoae,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo oicyenoao.

Aeiionoei aeaeaa, /oi ?yae oeaiiinoae, iaoiaeyueony a oicyenoaa,
iinooiee io o?aoueeo eeoe eee aea io ae?oaeo aaeeie/iuo oicyenoa, i?e/ai
yeaeaaeaio yoeo oeaiiinoae aeieaeai auoue aiciauai /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy
yoei aea eeoeai eee oicyenoaai. Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeiioneaai
nouanoaiaaiea aeieaia o aeaiiiai oicyenoaa. Yoe aeieae aeieaeiu auoue
iiaaoaiu, i?e/ai iiaaoaiea iiaeao i?iecieoe eneeth/eoaeueii iooai
ecuyoey iaeioi?uo ec eiathueony o oicyenoaa oeaiiinoae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?e iaee/ee o oicyenoaa aeieaia i?aaeiaa o?aaiaiea A = E oaea ia aoaeao
io?aaeaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiia iieiaeaiea aauae, eai E, ianiiiaiii,
aeieaeii auoue iaiueoa A ia anth noiio aeieaia oicyenoaa. Iaicia/ei
ioaeaeueiua aeieae /a?ac il, i2, i3 e o.ae., a noiio yoeo aeieaia /a?ac
I (iannea) e aaaaeai eo a iaoa o?aaiaiea a oeaeyo io?aaeaiey
oaeoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey aauae:

(al + a2 + a3 + …) – (il + i2 + i3 + …) = A – I = E.

Oaeei ia?acii, ec o?aaiaiey neaaeoao, /oi eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeaaa?ae/aneoth noiio A + (— I). Eco/ay yoi o?aaiaiea, i?eoiaeei e
auaiaeo, /oi iauay eiouanoaaiiay ianna i?aaei?eyoey ninoieo, a nouiinoe,
ec aeaoo acaeiii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ii naiaio cia/aieth aeaeia eiouanoaa:
aeoeaa e ianneaa. A oi a?aiy eae aeoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue
iieiaeeoaeueiuo /anoae eiouanoaa, iannea iauaaeeiyao io?eoeaoaeueiua
/anoe eiouanoaa.

A oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea iiae aeeyieai e?oaiiai?ioa eaieoaea,
au?aaeathuaainy a ?yaea oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee, i?ienoiaeyo oa eee eiua
eciaiaiey eae a iauae noiia eaieoaea, oae e a ninoaaeythueo yoo noiio
aeoeaa e ianneaa. Ana oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu a o?e
a?oiiu: iaiiaua (aianoi ioaeaiiie oeaiiinoe i?eoiaeeo ae?oaay
oeaiiinoue, ?aaiay ae ii noieiinoe), ?acoeueoaoiua (aeeytho ia oieueei
ia ninoaa eiouanoaa, ii e ia aaee/eio eaieoaea), niaoaiiua (ni/aoaiea
iaiiauo iia?aoeee n ?acoeueoaoiuie). Eiia/ii, iia?aoeee iiaeeytho ia
iniiaiia o?aaiaiea, eioi?ia aoaeao eciaiyoueny neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1) i?e iaiaia iaeiie oeaiiinoe (a) ia ae?oaoth oeaiiinoue (a), ?aaioth
ae ii noieiinoe:

A + an – an = E; (4)

2) i?e iieaoa aeieaa oicyenoaa i iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie a noiia n:

(A – in)- (I – in) = E; (5)

3) i?e iieoiea oiaa?ia ia noiio (a) i?ioea auaea/e niei-aaenaey ia noiio
(a):

(A + am)- (I + am) = E; (6)

4) iieaoa aeieaa e?aaeeoi?o ii ioe?uoiio n/aoo o niei-aaenaeai ia noiio
m:

A – (I + im – im) = E. (7)

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ana iiaeiaiiai ?iaea iia?aoeee ia iauae aaee/eia
eaieoaea ia io?aaeathony, ?aaeno?e?iaaoue eo ioaeii, iineieueeo eaaeaeay
oaeay iia?aoeey aeaeieciaiyao ninoaa ioaeaeueiuo /anoae eiouanoaa.

?acoeueoaoiua iia?aoeee ioee/athony io ae?oaeo oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee
oai, /oi iie aeeytho ia oieueei ia ninoaa eiouanoaa, ii e ia aaee/eio
/enoiai eaieoaea. Iiaeiaiua iia?aoeee iaaethaeathony, eiaaea:

— aneaaenoaea oo?aou eiouanoaa acaiai ia iinooiaao eaeiai-eeai
yeaeaaeaioa;

— a oicyenoai iinooiaao oeaiiinoue aac auaea/e eaeiai-eeai yeaeaaeaioa;

— a nayce n ii?aaeaeaiiuie th?eaee/aneeie ioiioaieyie aeey oicyenoaa
aicieeatho iaycaoaeuenoaa eee i?aaa aac niioaaonoaothueo eiiiainaoeee.
Iiaeiaiua iia?aoeee eciaiytho iniiaiia aaeainiaia o?aaiaiea neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

1) i?e auauoee eaeie-eeai oeaiiinoe (ae) aac iieo/aiey yeaeaaeaioa:

. (A – ae) – I = E – ae; (8)

2) i?e iinooieaiee eaeie-eeai oeaiiinoe (a) aac auaea/e-yeaeaaeaioa:

A + a – I = E + a; (9)

3) i?e aicieeiiaaiee iaycaoaeuenoaa (c) aac iieo/aiey eaeie-eeai
eiiiainaoeee:

A – (I + c) = E – c; (10)

4) i?e en/aciiaaiee iaycaoaeuenoaa (c) aac auaea/e eaeie -eeai
eiiiainaoeee:

A- (I – c) = E + c. (11)

Niaoaiiua iia?aoeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ni/aoaiea iaiiauo iia?aoeee n
iia?aoeeyie ?acoeueoaoiuie. Aeaaiaeoeie aeaeaie iiaeiaiiai ?iaea
iia?aoeee yaeythony i?iaeaaea oiaa?a n i?eaueueth e i?iaeaaea oiaa?a n
oauoeii. Niaoaiiua iia?aoeee io?aaeathony e ia iniiaiii o?aaiaiee:

1) i?e i?iaeaaea oiaa?a noieiinoueth (a) ca (a + a):

A – a + (a + a) – I = E + a;
(12)

2) i?e i?iaeaaea oiaa?a noieiinoueth (a) ca (a — ae):

A-a+(a-ae)-I = E-ae.
(13)

Ec i?eaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae anao a?oii
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee neaaeoao, /oi eaaeaeay iia?aoeey aac eneeth/aiey
yaeyaony aeaienoaaiiie ii naiae i?e?iaea, i?e/ai aeaienoaaiiinoue yoa
i?iyaeyaony a aeaieiii aeeyiee, ai-ia?auo, ia ninoaaiua /anoe eiouanoaa
e, ai-aoi?uo, ia /enoue eaieoae. Yoo iniaaiiinoue oicyenoaaiiuo
iia?aoeee Oa? iiyniyao noaiaoe/anee (?en. 4.5).

Oaaee/aieth eaeie – eeai iaeiie /anoe eiouanoaai?ioeainoieoeee
oiaiueoaiea eaeie – eeai ae?oaie /anoe eiouanoaa, eee oaaee/aiea /enoiai
eaieoaeaOiaiueoaieth eaeie – eeai iaeiie /anoe eiouanoaai?ioeainoieoEee
oaaee/aiea eaeie – eeai ae?oaie /anoe eiouanoaa, eee oiaiueoaiea /enoiai
eaieoaea?en. 4.5. – Noaia aeaienoaaiiinoe oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee

O/ao anae oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe n iiiiuueth oeaeiai ?yaea oaeeo
o?aaiaiee aue au aeaeii iai?aeoe/iui, iiyoiio aianoi o?aaiaiee
eniieuecotho iniaua aeaonoi?iiiea oaaeeoeu, eee n/aoa. Naiaia?aciia
no?iaiea n/aoia n eo iiae?acaeaeaieai ia i?aaoth (e?aaeeoiaoth) e eaaoth
(aeaaaoiaoth) /anoe iicaieeei au eniieueciaaoue yoe n/aoa aeey
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey a ieo oaaee/aiee e oiaiueoaiee eae ninoaaiuo /anoae
eiouanoaa, oae e /enoiai eaieoaea. Oaeei ia?acii, o?aaiaiea (1) iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuei ia?acii (?en. 4.6).

N/aoa
eiouanoaa N/ao eaieoaea

AeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeo

Noiia ninoaaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa = /enoiio eaieoaeo, eee o.e. A
oiaeaeanoaaiii E, oia1+a2+

a3+…=AAE?en. 4.6. – Noaia o?aaiaiey (1)

Yoa noaia iieacuaaao, /oi i?e ia/aea caienae ii n/aoai ioaeaeueiua /anoe
eiouanoaa caiinyony a aeaaao n/aoia eiouanoaa, a iauay noiia yoeo /anoae
— a e?aaeeo n/aoa eaieoaea.

O?aaiaiea (2) aoaeao i?aaenoaaeaii neaaeothuae noaiie (?en. 4.7)

N/aoa
eiouanoaa N/ao eaieoaea

AeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeoEaieoae (A-I) ecia?aaeaaony eae ?aciinoue
iaaeaeo oiaiueoaaiui e au/eoaaiui. Oae eae a1+a2+a3+… oiaeaeanoaaiii I e
?aciinoue A-I oiaeaeanoaaiia /enoiio eaieoaeo, iieo/aai nie?auaiiia
ecia?aaeaieaa1+a2+

a3+…

=(A)n1+n2+

n3+…

(=I)=IAAI=E

?en. 4.7. – Noaia o?aaiaiey (2)

Ia iniiaaiee yoie noaiu onoaiiaei, /oi ianneaiua /anoe eiouanoaa
caiinyony a e?aaeeo n/aoia eiouanoaa, a /enoue eaieoae — a e?aaeeo n/aoa
eaieoaea. Niaeanii yoie aea noaia aeoeaiua (iieiaeeoaeueiua) /anoe
eiouanoaa aeieaeiu auoue caienaiu a aeaaao, a ianneaiua
(io?eoeaoaeueiua) /anoe eiouanoaa — a e?aaeeo eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaaao iineaaeieo oa?aeoa?ecoaony ciaeii « + », a
e?aaeeo — ciaeii « — ».

Noaiaoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea iaiiauo iia?aoeee ecia?aaeaii ia ?en. 4.8.

A oi?ia o?aaiaiee
A oi?ia n/aoia

N/aoa eiouanoaa N/ao eaieoaea

AeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeoA + an – an – I = E;A

+anI

-an=

=…

-E

-(A – in)- (I – in) = E;A

-inI

+in=

=…

-E

-(A + am)- (I + am) = E;A

AmI

Am=

=…

-E

-A – (I + im – im) = E.A

ImI

Im=

=…

-E

-?en. 4.8. – Noaia iaiiauo iia?aoeee

Aiaeiae/ii ia noaia i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaoiua iia?aoeee (?en. 4.9).

A oi?ia o?aaiaiee
A oi?ia n/aoia

N/aoa eiouanoaa N/ao eaieoaea

AeaaaoE?aaeeoAeaaaoE?aaeeo(A – ae) – I = E – ae;A

-I

ae=

=…

aeE

-A + a – I = E + a;A

aI

-=

=…

-E

aA – (I + c) = E – c;A

-I

c=

=…

cE

-A- (I – c) = E + c.A

cI

-=

=…

-E

c?en. 4.9. – Noaia ?acoeueoaoiuo iia?aoeee

Oaeei ia?acii, ec noaiu ?acoeueoaoiuo iia?aoeee iiaeii eaaei
onoaiiaeoue, /oi yoe iia?aoeee io?aaeathony eae ia eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoao,
oae e ia n/aoao eaieoaea, i?e/ai oaaee/aieth aeoeaiuo e oiaiueoaieth
ianneaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa, o.a. aeaaaoiaaieth n/aoia eiouanoaa, anaaaea
niioaaonoaoao oaaee/aiea /enoiai eaieoaea eee, ae?oaeie neiaaie,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony e?aaeeoiaaiea n/aoa eaieoaea. Oiaiueoaieth aea
aeoeaiuo e oaaee/aieth ianneaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa niioaaonoaotho
oiaiueoaiey /enoiai eaieoaea eee, ae?oaeie neiaaie, e?aaeeoiaaieth
n/aoia eiouanoaa i?ioeainoieo aeaaaoiaaiea n/aoa eaieoaea. Ionthaea Oa?
aeaeaao neaaeothuaa caeeth/aiea: aeey ii?aaeaeaiey /enoiai eaieoaea e
aai oaaee/aiee e oiaiueoaiee oaeoe/anee aac?acee/ii oaaee/eaaoue
aeoeaiua oeaiiinoe eee oiaiueoaoue aeieae: anee A — (I — n1) = E, oi e
(A + i1) — I = E. Oaaee/aiea aeieaia ieacuaaao oaeie aea yooaeo, eae e
oiaiueoaiea aeoeaia: anee (A — a1) — I = E, oi e A — (I + a1) = E.

Auaiaeu, auoaeathuea ec i?iaaaeaiiiai oaeei ia?acii aiaeeca oeie/iuo
iia?aoeee n oi/ee c?aiey aeeyiey eo ia niioaaonoaothuea n/aoa, iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea naiaeee (oaae. 14).

Caneoaie Oa?a neaaeoao n/eoaoue ia oieueei ianoiyoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea
e aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi oi?ioea A = I, a nouiinoe, ?acai?a/eaaaony
a oi?ioeu

A+O=I+E+I? (14),
aaea

O – oauoee;

I? – i?eauee;

A-I=E+I?-O
(15)

Ii e onoaiiaeaiea aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey oaoie/aneei i?aia?aciaaieai aua
e ae?oaiai iniiaiiai o?aaiaiey, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey aoi?ie oi?iu aai
oai?ee

A – I –E = I? – O
(16)

Oaaeeoea 4.14 – Aeeyiea iia?aoeee ia n/aoa eiouanoaa e eaieoaea

Oeie/iua iia?aoeee i?aaei?eyoeyN/aoa eiouanoaaN/aoa eaieoaeaAeaaao
(oaaee/aiea)E?aaeeo (oiaiueoaiea)Aeaaao (oiaiueoaiea)E?aaeeo
(oaaee/aiea)O/?aaeaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeyIa/aeueiay noieiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo
e th?eaee/aneeo oeaiiinoae–Ia/aeueiue /enoue eaieoaeIaiiaua
iia?aoeeeOaaee/aiea noieiinoe iaeiie eaoaai?ee oeaiiinoaeOiaiueoaiea
noieiinoe ae?oaie eaoaai?ee oeaiiinoaeI?eaueeOaaee/aiea noieiinoe
eaeie-eeai eaoaai?ee oeaiiinoaeOaaee/aiea /enoiai
eaieoaeaOauoeeOiaiueoaiea noieiinoe eaeie-eeai eaoaai?ee
oeaiiinoaeOiaiueoaiea /enoiai eaieoaeaEeeaeaeaoeey (caaa?oaiea
ia?eiaea)Aeaaao – E?aaeeo (naeueaei aeaaaoa) eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia (iiaua
ninoaaiua /anoe eiouanoaa) E?aaeeo – Aeaaao (naeueaei e?aaeeoa) n/aoia
eaieoaea (iiaue /enoue eaieoae)

Eaaay /anoue o?aaiaiey (16) iieacuaaao ninoiyiea eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey
ia ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie (aooaaeoa?neee aaeain), i?aaay /anoue
o?aaiaiey (16) iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue eciaiaiey eaieoaea a aeeiaieea
(aaeain i?eaueae e oauoeia). Aeey o/aoa eciaiaiee a ninoaaa eiouanoaa e
/enoiai eaieoaea iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue aeaa ?yaea acaeiii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo n/aoia: n/aoa noaoe/aneea (aeey o/aoa eiouanoaa,
aeieaia e eaieoaea) e n/aoa aeeiaie/aneea (aeey o/aoa aeioiaeia,
?anoiaeia e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia).

E.O. Oa? oi?ioee?oao i?aaeei (iinooeao Oa?a): naeueaei n/aoia
noaoe/aneeo ?aaii e acaeiii i?ioeaiiieiaeii naeueaei n/aoia
aeeiaie/aneeo.

Nouanoaoao aua e o?aouey oi?ia oai?ee aeaoo ?yaeia n/aoia Oa?a, eioi?ie
niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaiea A = I. Ii e yoiio o?aaiaieth Oa? ioiineony
aanueia e?eoe/anee. I?eciaaay, /oi yoi o?aaiaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
o?aaiaiea aaeaina, Oa? iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi yoi i?iaiue aaeain, eioi?ue a
nouiinoe yaeyaony eiio?ieueiui n?aaenoaii i?aaeeueiinoe n/aoiuo caienae.
I?iaiue aaeain niaea?aeeo ia eaaie noi?iia naeueaei aeoeaiuo n/aoia, a
oaeaea n/aoia oauoeia (A + O), e ia i?aaie noi?iia — naeueaei n/aoia
ianneaiuo, eaieoaea e i?eaueae (I + E + I?), /oi iicaieyao naeaeaoue
auaiae i niioaaonoaee i?iaiiai aaeaina oaoie/aneiio o?aaiaieth (14).
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, aeaaaoiaia naeueaei ?aaii e?aaeeoiaui naeueaei anao
n/aoia Aeaaiie eieae. Ii iiaieth Oa?a, neiaieii aeoeaa (A) iai?aaeeueii
iaicia/aaony niaieoiiinoue naeueaei eiouanoaaiiuo n/aoia e n/aoia
oauoeia e neiaieii ianneaa (I) — niaieoiiinoue naeueaei n/aoia ianneaiuo
(iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie), eaieoaea e i?eauee.

Oai ia iaiaa iaeioi?ua aeinoieinoaa anoue e o oi?ioeu A = I, ii i?e
iai?aiaiiii oneiaee, /oi e ianneao ioiineony ia aaeiaay, a /enoay
i?eaueue eee ?aciinoue iaaeaeo i?eaueyie e oauoeaie (I? — O). A oaeii
aeaea oi?ioea iiaeao auoue iieacia eae oai?aoeeai, oae e i?aeoeeai. N
iao/iie oi/ee c?aiey iiiyoea ianneaa, iauaaeeiyy aiaaeeii nianoaaiiue e
/oaeie (caaiiue) eaieoae, i?aia?aciauaaaony a iiiyoea enoi/ieea
i?ienoiaeaeaiey eiouanoaa. Aeey i?aeoeea aeaiiia o?aaiaiea eiaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa, iineieueeo ia eaaie aai noi?iia iaoiaeeony
eneeth/eoaeueii eiouanoai, a ia i?aaie noi?iia yoiio eiouanoao
i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony iaa enoi/ieea aai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii,
nianoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny n aeaoo oi/ae
c?aiey:

— n th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey eiouanoai ?anniao?eaaaony a ioiioaiee aai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ii?aaeaeythony iaa enoi/ieea eaieoaea (nianoaaiiiai e
caaiiiai);

— n yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey eiouanoai ?anniao?eaaaony a ioiioaiee aai
ninoaaa, a aai ?aaeueiuo oi?iao.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie iieiaeaieyie nenoaiaoe/aneie oai?ee Oa?a iiaeii
iacaaoue neaaeothuea:

— i?eaaaeaiu a no?iaoth nenoaio iiaeeaaeauea n/aoiie caiene aiaoiea e
aioo?aiiea iia?aoeee th?eaee/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua
naaaeaiu a o?e a?oiiu: iaiiaua (aianoi ioaeaiiie oeaiiinoe i?eoiaeeo
ae?oaay oeaiiinoue, ?aaiay ae ii noieiinoe), ?acoeueoaoiua (aeeytho ia
oieueei ia ninoaa eiouanoaa, ii e ia aaee/eio eaieoaea), niaoaiiua
(ni/aoaiea iaiiauo e ?acoeueoaoiuo iia?aoeee);

— aeaienoaaiiinoue oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee iauyniyaony n iiiiuueth
aeaaa?ae/aneeo o?aaiaiee, auaiaeeiuo ec oi?ioeu A – I = E;

— i?aaeei (iinooeao Oa?a), eioi?ia iicaieeei a aoaeouai aeiiieieoue
aooaaeoa?neee aaeain (?ane?uaathuee noaoeeo /anoae eiouanoaa e /enoiai
eaieoaea) io/aoii i i?eaueyo e oauoeao (iieacuaathuei aeeiaieeo
oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia n iiiiuueth aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia);

— o?aaiaiea Oa?a iaaeyaeii iieacuaaao, /oi oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee aoaeao iaeeiaeiaui eae a noaoeea (?acieoea
iaaeaeo aeoeaii, iaycaoaeuenoaaie (ianneaii) e eaieoaeii ia ?aciua
aeaou), oae e a aeeiaieea (?acieoea iaaeaeo aeioiaeaie e ?anoiaeaie
(i?eaueueth e oauoeii) ca i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoaie: A —
I — E = I? — O);

— iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey eiouanoaa (aeoeaa)
enoi/ieeai aai ia?aciaaiey (ianneao e eaieoaeo), /oi ?ane?uaaao
yeiiiie/aneoth oi?io (/anoe eiouanoaa a aeoeaa) e th?eaee/aneia
niaea?aeaiea (i?aaa ?acee/iuo eeoe ia aeaiiia eiouanoai).

Oai?ey Aca?neiai. Oaaei? Aaiaaeeeoiae/ Aca?neee (1836— 1916) — ?onneee
aooaaeoa?, nicaeaoaeue o?ieiie oi?iu o/aoa (ecaanoiie oaeaea iiae
iacaaieai «?onneay o?ieiay nenoaia n/aoiaiaenoaa»), eioi?ay, ii iiaieth
Aca?neiai, ono?aiyao iaaeinoaoee aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee, iineieueeo
iicaieyao ia ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie i?aaenoaaeoue nianoaaiieeo oeiainiaue
?acoeueoao i?aaei?eyoey e onoaiiaeoue aeaoo, n eioi?ie iii
(i?aaei?eyoea) ia/iao iie?uaaoue naie ?anoiaeu e i?eiineoue i?eaueue.

O.A. Aca?neee onoaiaaeeaaao o?e iniiaiua caaea/e, eioi?ua n/aoiaiaenoai
aeieaeii ?aoaoue a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa:

– n/aoiaiaenoai aeieaeii aeaaaoue iai?a?uaioth ea?oeio aeoeaa e ianneaa
i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. aai iai?a?uaiue eiaaioa?ue;

– n/aoiaiaenoai aeieaeii iieacuaaoue ioaeaeueii aeey eaaeaeie io?anee
eee niaoeeaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey aaeiaua i?eauee e oauoee;

– n/aoiaiaenoai aeieaeii eiaoue aeinoaoi/ii i?inoua oi?ioeu i?iaa?ie,
eioi?ua iiaoo aa?aioe?iaaoue aac anyeeo ioeaie oi/iinoue
niioaaonoaothueo auaiaeia.

Ana yoe caaea/e n/aoiaiaenoai ?aoaao iooai ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo
iai?ioia i?aaei?eyoey, i?e/ai ?aaeno?aoeey yoa neeaaeuaaaony ec
neaaeothueo caienae: o?iiieiae/aneie, nenoaiaoe/aneie e naiaeiie.
Eaaeaeiio aeaeo caienae aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue naie eieae, eee, eae
aiai?eo Aca?neee, ia?aeeaee.

Ia?aay ia?aeeaeue, eee eaieoaeueiay eieaa, i?aaeiacia/aaony aeey
o?iiieiae/aneie caiene e caiaiyao niaith eanniaue aeo?iae e iaii?eae
(oaae. 4.15).

Oaaeeoea 4.15 – Eaieoaeueiay eieaa (ia?aeeaeue)

Iacaaiea n/aoaAeaoa e nouiinoue iai?ioiaEiio?ieue eoiaiaEanna
OeaiiinoeInoaoeei?eoiae-iue?anoiae-iuei?eoiae?anoiaei?eoiae?anoiaei?eoia
e?anoiae

Ia?aay a?aoa eaieoaeueiie eieae neoaeeo aeey ioiaoee acaeiii
ei??aniiiaee?othueo n/aoia, cao?aaeaaaiuo ?aaeno?e?oaiie iia?aoeeae;
aoi?ay a?aoa i?aaeiacia/aia aeey eceiaeaiey a iae aeaou e nouiinoe
iia?aoeee; a o?aoueth a?aoo auienuaaaony noiia eaaeaeie iia?aoeee
(aeaiiua yoie a?aou niaea?aeao aaaeiaeooth /anoue i?eciaeia aa?iinoe
caienae a eaieoaeueiie eieaa); /aoaa?oay e iyoay a?aou ioaeiu aeey
caiene i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea aeaiaa, aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo oeaiiinoae;
oanoay a?aoa niaea?aeeo aeaa iiaea?aou: «oiaiueoaiea inoaoeia»,
i?aaeiacia/aiioth aeey caiene a iae oi?aiauo ?anoiaeia, oauoeia e o.i.,
e «oaaee/aiea inoaoeia» — aeey caiene, ai-ia?auo, anao aiciauaiee
i?iecaaaeaiiuo oi?aiauo ?anoiaeia e, ai-aoi?uo, anao oaea
ii?aaeaeeaoeony i?eaueae. Iaaeaeo noiiiauie a?aoaie eaieoaeueiie eieae
nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay caaeneiinoue, aiaoiei ia?acii i?iyaeythuayny a
caiene eaaeaeie oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee 3 ?aca:

1) a a?aoo «eiio?ieue eoiaia»;

2) a a?aoo «eanna» eee «oeaiiinoe» (ii i?eoiaeo) e a a?aoo «inoaoee»
(iiaea?aoa «oiaiueoaiea») a neo/aa auyaeaiey oauoeia;

3) a a?aoo «eanna» eee «oeaiiinoe» (ii ?anoiaeo) e a a?aoo «inoaoee»
(iiaea?aoa «oaaee/aiea») a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee i?eaueae.

Oaeei ia?acii, a?aou 4 e 5 eaieoaeueiie eieae iiaoo auoue iauaaeeiaiu a
aeaa iauea a?aou neaaeothuei ia?acii (oaae. 4.16).

Oaaeeoea 16 Iauaaeeiaiea a?ao 4 e 5 eaieoaeueiie eieae

I?eoiae

?anoiae

Inoaoie (auaiae)oiaiueoaiea (oauoie)oaaee/aiea (i?eaueue)

Ianiio?y ia oi?iaeueioth caaeneiinoue yoeo a?ao, iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaoao
ii?aaeaeaiiia i?eioeeieaeueiia ?acee/ea. Iiae i?eoiaeii Aca?neee
iiieiaao aeaenoaeoaeueiia iinooieaiea i?aaeiaoia, eiathueo ?aaeueioth
oeaiiinoue, iiae ?anoiaeii — ioione yoeo aea oeaiiinoae ii oeaia naiae
i?eoiaeiie, aeaenoaeoaeueiie; a?aoa «inoaoie (auaiae)» a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ia?aui aeaoi iieacuaaao ia aeaeaeaiea ioia/aiiuo a
oao a?aoao oeaiiinoae, a ?acoeueoaou yoiai aeaeaeaiey, o.a. oauoee e
i?eauee eee oiaiueoaiea e oaaee/aiea iauae aaee/eiu nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eyoey. Aeey yniiai iiieiaiey oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae oao
caienae, eioi?ua eiatho ianoi a eaieoaeueiie eieaa, i?eaaaeai iaeei ec
i?eia?ia, i?aaeeaaaaiuo Aca?neei (oaae.4.17).

Ec yoiai i?eia?a auoaeaao, /oi a?aoa «eanna» niaea?aeeo aeaiiua ia
iaeiie /anoe aeoeaa i?aaei?eyoey, a?aoa «oeaiiinoe»—1 i ae?oaie /anoe
aeoeaa e anaai ianneaa, a?aoa «inoaoie (auaiae)» — aeaiiua i
ia?aiia/aeueiii /enoii eaieoaea e iineaaeothueo aai eciaiaieyo ia noiio
auyaeaiiuo i?eaueae e oau eia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oa caiene, eioi?ua
eiatho ianoi a ooiaeaiaioaeueiii o?oaea Aca?neiai, iieiinoueth
ioia?aaeatho oaea ecaanoiia o?aaiaiea oai?ee Oa?a:

A – I = E + (I? – O).

Iao?oaeii oaeaea caiaoeoue, /oi aeieae o?aoueei eeoeai i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie io?eoeaoaeueiua oeaiiinoe, noiia eioi?uo iiaeeaaeeo au/aoo ec
iauae noiiu aeoeaa a neo/aa ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea
i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaaeeoea 4.17 – I?eia? caienae eaieoaeueiie eieae

Aeaoa e nouiinoue iai?ioiaEiio?ieue
eoiaiaEannaOeaiiinoeInoaoeei?eoiae?anoiaei?eoiae?anoiaei?eoiae?anoiaeNae
ueaei ia 1 yiaa?y 1870a.

N?aaenoaa (aeoea):

iaee/iuo aeaiaa

na?aa?a

iaaaee

ieaouey

aeiea ca I.

Iiaaoaiea (iannea):

aeieaeai I.I.

400

420

300

500

200

100

400

420

300

500

200

100

100

400

420

300

500

200

Eoiai192040014201001001820I?iaa?ea:

Eanna + Oeaiiinoe = Inoaoee

400+1320=1720picscalex250100090000032a0200000200a20100000000a20100002606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I?eoiae – ?anoiae =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I?eoiae – ?anoiae = 400

Oaaee/aiea – Oiaiueoaiea = 1720Iia?aoeee ca yiaa?ue 1870a.

Iieo/aii aeaeiaaiey

Iieo/aii aeieaia

Oiea/aii aeieaia

Eoieaii na?aa?a

Eoieaii oeaiiuo aoiaa

I?iaeaiu oeaiiua aoiaae:

n i?eaueueth

n oauoeii

250

200

100

50

200

105

100

250

200

105

98

100

50

200

100

50

200

200

100

100

2

250

5

-Eoiai2925105335017705001022075I?iaa?ea:

Eanna + Oeaiiinoe = Inoaoee

703+1270 =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I?eoiae – ?anoiae =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I?eoiae – ?anoiae = 1270

Oaaee/aiea – Oiaiueoaiea = 1973

Aoi?ay ia?aeeaeue, eee eieaa nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia, caiaiyao niaie ana
aniiiiaaoaeueiua eieae (?aaeno?u aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa) (oaae. 4.18).

Oaaeeoea 4.18 – Eieaa o/aoa a?aceeueneiai eioa

Ni n/aoa …

ia n/ao …Aeaoa

Oiae

aeae

OeaiaEiee/anoaiNoiiaAuaiae?oa.

eii.

?aaoeyoi?

i?eoiae

?anoiae

i?eoiae

?anoiae

oauoie

i?eaueue

Iacaa-iea?

I?e iciaeiieaiee n oa?aeoa?iuie iniaaiiinoyie noiiiauo a?ao eieae
nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia iiaeii onoaiiaeoue i?eioeeieaeueiia ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo aeaiiuie, niaea?aeaueieny a a?aoao «noiia» e «auaiae». A a?aoa
«noiia» i?inoaaeythony naaaeaiey i aeaeaeaiee oeaiiinoae ii eo
ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe, a a a?aoa «auaiae» — ?acoeueoaou yoiai
aeaeaeaiey. Ec inoaeueiuo a?ao yoie eieae iaeaieueoee eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeyao a?aoa «?aaoeyoi?». Yoa a?aoa, ii iiaieth Aca?neiai,
iaiaoiaeeia aeey i?iaa?ee i?eciaeia aa?iinoe, iaaeaeo oai, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iaeuecy aeiionoeoue oeai n iaeeeie ae?iayie (iie ia?aiaiyee au
e cao?oaeiyee ?aaioo n/aoiaiaea), n ae?oaie — ia neaaeoao aiineoue a
n/aoiaiaenoai iaoi/iinoae, oioy au ?aaee ie?oaeaiey ae?iaae. Aeey yoiai
onoaiaaeeaaaony i?aaeei: caienuaaoue ioa?anuaaaiua eee i?eaaaeyaiua i?e
ie?oaeaiee oeai noiiu a iniaoth a?aoo «?aaoeyoi?». Eiaaea ie?oaeaiea
oeai au?aaeaaony i?eaaaeaieai eaeie-eeai noiiu, yoa iineaaeiyy
aunoaaeyaony a a?aoa «?aaoeyoi?» n ieionii ( —), icia/athuei, /oi
i?eaaaeaiiia neaaeoao ioiyoue i?e auaiaea i?eciaeia aa?iinoe. Eiaaea aea
i?e ie?oaeaiee oeeo? ioa?anuaaaony oeeo?a ae?iae, aa neaaeoao caienaoue
n iethnii ( + ), icia/athuei, /oi ioa?ioaiioth oeeo?o i?e auaiaea
i?eciaeia aa?iinoe ioaeii i?eaaaeoue. Iaeiiaoe, a neo/ayo e?oaeie oeaiu
?aaoeyoi?ii aunoaaeyaony iieue. Noiiu ?aaoeyoi?a neeaaeuaathony iethn n
iethnii, ieion n ieionii, iaiueoay aaee/eia au/eoaaony ec aieueoae, e
?acieoea aunoaaeyaony eae iineaaeiee ?aaoeyoi? aeaiiiai n/aoa.

I?aaeeueiinoue caienae a eieaa nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia oaeinoiaa?yaony
neaaeothueie o?aiy i?eciaeaie aa?iinoe.

Ai-ia?auo, aeieaeiu iieo/aoueny iaeeiaeiaua ?acoeueoaou:

— au/eoaiey eoiaia i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea, iaiueoaai ec aieueoaai;

— oiiiaeaiey eiee/anoaa inoaoea ia oeaio iethn eee ieion ?aaoeyoi?.

Yoei i?eciaeii aa?iinoe aeieacuaaaony i?aaeeueiinoue aeaiiuo i
eiee/anoaa, oeaia e noiia.

Ai-aoi?uo, iauee eoia inoaoeia ii eieaa nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia aeieaeai
auoue ?aaai iauaio eoiao inoaoeia eaieoaeueiie eieae.

A-o?aoueeo, i?e eiaaioa?ecaoeee aeaiiua i eiee/anoaa aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue inoaoeo, oeacaiiiio a nenoaiaoe/aneie eieaa.

O?aouey ia?aeeaeue, eee naiaeii-io/aoiay eieaa (oaae. 4.19), neoaeeo
aeey iauaaeeiaiey a iae caienae iai anao oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeeyo, aeey
n?aaiaiey yoeo caienae iaaeaeo niaie e, iaeiiaoe, aeey ninoaaeaiey
iieiiai io/aoa i oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Caiene a yoo
eieao i?iecaiaeyony ia iniiaa aeaiiuo eieae nenoaiaoe/aneeo n/aoia,
iieo/aiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa iiaen/aoa ioaeaeueiuo n/aoia. Naiaeii-io/aoiay
eieaa caiaiyao Aeaaioth e eiaaioa?ioth eieae e a iniaaiiinoe oaeea n/aoa
Aeaaiie eieae, eae n/aoa aaeaina ia/eiaoaeueiiai e caeeth/eoaeueiiai,
eaieoaea, i?eaueae e oauoeia.

Oaaeeoea 4.19. – Naiaeii – io/aoiay eieaa

? n/aoaIacaaiea n/aoaI?eoiae?anoiaeAuaiaeInoaaonyInoaoie
(aeoea)iinooieeiInoaoie (iannea)auaueioaueii?eaueiN?aaenoa
(aeoea)Iaycaoaeuenoa

(iannea)Iaiueea12000–12000-2000–Eioa1004725-4725-284100-I?i/ea37000038
9635600003120003498498335579635192000Eoiai382100394360600003287253498410
0619579635192000Iiaeaioiaea e i?iaa?eaAnaai n inoaoeii: 382100+394360 =
776460Anaai n inoaoeii:

60000+328725 = 388725I?eauei–oauei: 100619 – 34984 = 65635Aeoea –
iannea:

579735 – 192000 = 387735I?iaa?ea:

1) anaai i?eoiae – anaai ?anoiae = aeoea eii. = 776460 – 388725 =
387735;

2) (aeoea ia/. – iannea ia/.)+(i?eauei – oauei) = aeoea eii. – iannea
eii. = (382100 – 60000)+65635 = 387735;

3) Aeaiiua a?aou «inoaaony» aeieaeiu niaiaaeaoue n aeaiiuie
eiaaioa?ecaoeee a eiioea io/aoiiai aiaea.

Iciaeiieaiea n iniaaiiinoyie caienae a naiaeii – io/aoiie eieaa
i?eaiaeeo e neaaeothuei caeeth/aieyi: anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea eeoue
a?aou «i?eoiae», «?anoiae» e «inoaaony», oi aeaiiua yoeo a?ao
oeeaaeuaathony a o?aaiaiea, auaaaeaiiia Oa?ii: A – I = E + (I? – O).

Anee ca iniiao acyoue a?aou «i?eoiae», «?anoiae» e «auaiae», oi
i?eieiaai ai aieiaiea, /oi ia?aua aeaa a?aou niaea?aeao aeaiiua
ioiineoaeueii:

– ia?aiia/aeueiiai aeoeaa e iineaaeothueo eciaiaiee a iai (o.a.
Apicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c000000000005000000090200000000050
00000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b02000
00000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0fffff
fe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000020001c0
00000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c000068090a4a40f
11200d89ff377e19ff3772020f57790096689040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0
001000000b1790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070
000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00009009668900000a0021008a01000
00000ffffffff5cf31200040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000a =
A1);

– ia?aiia/aeueiiai ianneaa iineaaeothueo eciaiaiee a iai (o.a.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 =
I1);

– ia?aiia/aeueiiai eaieoaea aac iineaaeothueo eciaiaiee a iai (o.a.
A-I=E).

A?aoa auaiae niaea?aeeo aeaiiua ioiineoaeueii eiaaoeo ianoi a oa/aiea
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea eciaiaiee a ia/aeueiii eaieoaea (o.a. eciaiaiee ia
aaee/eio i?eaueae eee oauoeia). Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiiua yoeo a?ao
iieiinoueth oeeaaeuaathony a ae?oaia o?aaiaiea Oa?a: A1 – I1 – E = I? –
O.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae, ioiaoei iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee Aca?neiai:

-o/ao oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey inouanoaeyaony i?e
iiiiue o?ao ia?aeeaeae (eiea): o?iiieiae/aneie, eee eaieoaeueiie eieae,
nenoaiaoe/aneie eieae e naiaeii – io/aoiie eieae;

– caiene a eaaeaeie eieaa naiaeyony e ?aaeno?aoeee o?ao aaaeiaeoeo
iiiaioia eaaeaeie oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee: i?eoiae, ?anoiae e ?acoeueoao
i?eoiaeii – ?anoiaeiie iia?aoeee;

– i?aaeeueiinoue caienae a eaaeaeie eieaa oaeinoiaa?yaony o?aiy
i?eciaeaie aa?iinoe, i?enoueie eaaeaeie ia?aeeaee;

– eaaeaeay iia?aoeey eiaao aeaa aaaeiaeoeo neaaenoaey: aeeyao ia
iniiaiua /anoe eiouanoaa (neaaenoaey yoeo iia?aoeee – i?eoiae e ?anoiae
oeaiiinoae), aeeyao ia iauoth aaee/eio ia?aiia/aeueiiai eaieoaea
(?acoeueoao eae neaaenoaea i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea);

– aeey ia?aie a?oiiu neaaenoaee i?aaeiacia/athony a?aou «eanna» e
«oeaiiinoe» a eaieoaeueiie eieaa, «i?eoiae e ?anoiae» a naiaeii –
io/aoiie eieaa, oaeei ia?acii, yoe a?aou niioaaonoaotho eiouanoaaiiui
n/aoai;

– aeey o/aoa aoi?ie a?oiiu neaaenoaee neoaeao a?aou «inoaoie (auaiae)» a
eaieoaeueiie eieaa e «auaiae» a naiaeii-io/aoiie eieaa, niioaaonoaaiii
yoe a?aou iiaeii n/eoaoue ?yaeii n/aoia eaieoaea.

Oai?ey Eoineiai. I?ioanni? I.N. Eoineee a ?aaioao, iaienaiiuo a ia?eiae
1900—1928 aa., e?eoeeoao iaeioi?ua iieiaeaiey oai?ee Oa?a e aianoa n oai
aieaa aeaoaeueii e /aoei iainiiauaaao aeaaiaeoea aa iieiaeaiey.

Iooaeeeaaynue io oi?ioeu A — I = E, Eoineee iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi /enoue
eaieoae — yoi n/aoiay aaee/eia, iieo/aiiay iooai au/eoaiey ec iauae
noiiu aeoeaa iauae noiiu aeieaia, eiathueony ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee.
Eaieoae aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i oie noiia eiouanoaa, eioi?ay ia
ia?aiaiaia aeieaaie e ia iiaeeaaeeo niaoaieth n ?acee/iuie n/aoiuie
eaoaai?eyie eee aea neeyieth a aaeeiia oeaeia. Iiyoiio iienuaaoue
aaeainiaia o?aaiaiea oi?ioeie A == I, aaea iannea i?aaenoaaeyao
enoi/ieee ia?aciaaiey eiouanoaa, o.a. iauaaeeiyao a aaeeiia oeaeia
eaieoae e aeieae, iai?aaiia?ii. Iaeiaei anee a ianneaa aaeaina
auaeaeeoue aeaa ninoaaiua /anoe — eaieoae e iaycaoaeuenoaa, oi iiiauaiea
eo ia iaeio noi?iio iiaeao auoue iainiiaaii. A yoii neo/aa iiaeii
aiai?eoue ia oceii (aeieae) e oe?ieii (niaieoiiinoue nianoaaiiuo e
caaiiuo enoi/ieeia) niunea iiiyoey «iannea».

I.N. Iiiaceia, e?eoeeoy iiaue oa?iei «iannea a oe?ieii niunea»,
ioia/aao, /oi oiaaea aiciiaeii e aaaaeaiea iiiyoey «aeoea a oe?ieii
niunea». Oae, anee eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey i?aauoaao aai aeieae, ?acieoea
ia?acoao /enoue eaieoae, anee eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey ?aaii aai aeieaai,
/enoue eaieoae ?aaai ioeth, anee aea aeieae i?aauoatho noieiinoue
eiouanoaa, oi eiaai aeaei n ianinoiyoaeueiinoueth. I/aaeaeii, /oi
eaaeaeue ec oeacaiiuo neo/aaa iiaeao auoue iienai o?aaiaieyie: a ia?aii
neo/aa A = I + E, ai aoi?ii neo/aa A = I, a a o?aoueai neo/aa A + + E =
I; e anee aeey ia?aiai o?aaiaiey iiiaaeiaeeinue aaaaeaiea iiiyoey
«iannea a oe?ieii niunea», oi aeey o?aoueaai o?aaiaiey i?eoeinue au
aaanoe iiiyoea «aeoea a oe?ieii niunea». Oieueei aeaaiaea?y yoei
eneonnoaaiiui iiiyoeyi e oaeaaony nio?aieoue cia/eiinoue o?aaiaiey A = I
aeey anao aac eneeth/aiey /anoiuo neo/aaa iniiaiiai o?aaiaiey.

Oai?ey Iaiaeioiioei. A?a/aneee niaoeeaeeno Iaiaeioiioei i?aaenoaaee naie
oai?aoe/aneea acaeyaeu a aeieeaaea ia 5-i Iaaeaeoia?iaeiii n/aoiii
eiia?anna (A?thnnaeue, 1926 a.), aaea oeacae, /oi n/aoiaaaeaiea eiaao
naiei i?aaeiaoii i?eioeeiu e i?aaeea, ioiinyueany aeaaiui ia?acii:

— e i?aaiecaoeee n/aoiaiaenoaa a aaeeie/iii oicyenoaa;

— e nenoaiaoe/aneie ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey;

— e auyaeaieth e aiaeeco yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey.

Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea iaeaaeaao iaeioi?ui eiouanoaii eee aeoeaii,
ninoiyuei ec ?yaea aauanoaaiiuo e iaaauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae. Noieiinoue
anao yoeo oeaiiinoae aeieaeia auoue au?aaeaia a aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao.
Iaee/ea oaeiai eiouanoaa nii?yaeaii n ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?aaaie
nianoaaiiinoe ia iaai. I?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ?aniaaeathony ia i?aaa
o?aoueeo eeoe, eee iannea, e i?aaa aeaaeaeueoea i?aaei?eyoey, eee
eaieoae. Yoe iaa aeaea i?aa eiie?aoece?othony iooai ioeaiee eo a oao aea
aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao, eioi?ua auee i?eiyou aeey ioeaiee aeoeaa.
Ianiiiaiii, iaaeaeo eiouanoaii i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaaie nianoaaiiinoe ia
yoi eiouanoai aeieaeii auoue iieiia niioaaonoaea, aiaoiei ia?acii
i?iyaeythuaany a oiaeaeanoaa eo noiiiauo au?aaeaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, a
iniiaa n/aoiaaaeaiey eaaeeo oi ?aaainoai, eioi?ia iaeciaiii nouanoaoao a
ethaii oicyenoaa iaaeaeo eiouanoaaiiie iannie yoiai oicyenoaa (A) e oaie
i?aaaie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, o?aoueeo eeoe (I), a n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
aeaaeaeueoea aeaiiiai oicyenoaa (E), eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiythony ia
aeaiioth ianno. Oeacaiiia ?aaainoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?aaiaieai A = I +
E, yaeythueiny a oi aea a?aiy au?aaeaieai aaeaina oicyenoaa.

Aeey o/aoa anao aac eneeth/aiey eciaiaiee a aeoeaa, ianneaa e eaieoaea,
aucuaaaiuo oicyenoaaiiuie iia?aoeeyie i?aaei?eyoey, ioe?uaathony iniaua
aeaonoi?iiiea oaaeeoeu, eee n/aoa, a eioi?uo ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea
aeoeaa caienuaathony ia oie aea noi?iia, ia eioi?ie iie iaoiaeyony a
o?aaiaiee aaeaina, a oiaiueoaiey ioia/athony ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
noi?iiao n/a oia. Oaeei ia?acii, noaiu n/aoia aeoeaa, ianneaa e eaieoaea
i?eioo neaaeothuee aeae (?en. 4.10).

+Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo – – Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo + –
Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo +

Aeoeaa ianneaa
eaieoaea

Ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea aeoeaaOiaiueoaiea aeoeaaOiaiueoaiea
ianneaaNinoiyiea e oaaee/aiea ianneaaOiaiueoaiea eaieoaeaNinoiyiea e
oaaee/aiea eaieoaea?en. 4.10 – Noaiu iino?iaiey n/aoia aeoeaa, ianneaa e
eaieoaea

Eae aeaeei, i?eiaiyaiua a n/aoiaaaeaiee oa?ieiu «aeaaao» e «e?aaeeo»
iiaoo oa?aeoa?eciaaoue: «aeaaao» — eae ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea aeoeaa,
oae e oiaiueoaiea ianneaa e eaieoaea, a «e?aaeeo» — eae oiaiueoaiea
aeoeaa, oae e ninoiyiea e oaaee/aiea ianneaa e eaieoaea. Yoi
aeaienoaaiiia cia/aiea e aeaaaoa e e?aaeeoa ii?aaeaeyaony enoi?e/anee
neiaeeaoeiny iau/aa» iaicia/aoue iaeiaiiaaieai «aeaaao» eaaua noi?iiu
anao aac eneeth/aiey n/aoia, a iaeiaiiaaieai «e?aaeeo» —
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua, eee i?aaua noi?iiu oao aea n/aoia.

Onoaiaaeeaay yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai, Iaiaeioiioei iieaiece?oao n aaoi?aie,
eioi?ua iniiauaatho naie oai?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey ia o?aaiaiee A — I — E
= 0, e, eae neaaenoaea, ioiinyo ana n/aoa e iaeiiio ?yaeo (o.a. n/aoa
iaeeiaeiau ii niaea?aeaieth e no?iaieth). Iineaaeiaa o?aaiaiea, ii
iiaieth Iaiaeioiioei, eca?auaao enoeiioth i?e?iaeo n/aoia ianneaa e
eaieoaea, oae eae i?aaenoaaeyao ana n/aoa a neaaeothuai aeaea (?en.
11).

+Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo – – Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo + –
Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo +

Aeoeaa ianneaa
eaieoaea

?en. 4.11 – Noaiu iino?iaiey n/aoia a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaieai A-I-E =
0

Oaeia no?iaiea oeacaiiuo n/aoia yaii ia niioaaonoaoao | enoeiiiio
iieiaeaieth aauae, iineieueeo i?eaiaeeo e neaaeothuei iai?aaeeueiui
ooaa?aeaeaieyi:

— oiaiueoaiey ianneaa e eaieoaea iiaeeaaeao ioianaieth; a e?aaeeo, a eo
oaaee/aiey — a aeaaao;

— ciae neiaeaiey, eee oaaee/aiey ( + ), a ?aaiie noaiaie iiaeao
oa?aeoa?eciaaoue e oaaee/aiea aeoeaa, e oiaiueoaiea ianneaa e eaieoaea,
a ciae oiaiueoaiey, eee au/eoaiey (—), a iaeeiaeiaie ia?a neiaieece?oao
e oiaiueoaiea aeoeaa, e oaaee/aiea ianneaa e eaieoaea.

Iaiaeioiioei ioia/ae, /oi a iaoaiaoeea, eiia/ii, iiaeii ia?aiineoue
/eneiaia cia/aiea eaaeaeiai ec /eaiia o?aaiaiey ec iaeiie /anoe
o?aaiaiey a ae?oaoth, iaiyy ciae ia?aae yoei ni/eaiii, ii a
n/aoiaaaeaiee ie a eiai neo/aa iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi oaaee/aiea aeoeaa
iaoiaeeo naia ianoi a ianneaa, /oi aianoi oiaiueoaiey aeoeaa iiaeii
oaaee/eoue iannea eee eaieoae.

Oaeei ia?acii, no?iaiea n/aoia aaeaina neeaaeuaaaony iiae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aeeyieai iniiaiiai aaeainiaiai o?aaiaiey A = I + E,
eioi?ia aeaao ?aaeueiia ioia?aaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aauae.

Iacuaeaiinoue ?aaainoaa yaeyaony neaaenoaeai iaiaia ?aaiiaaeeeeo
oeaiiinoae, oa?aeoa?ecothuaai eaaeaeoth oicyenoaaiioth iia?aoeeth. A
yeiiiie/aneii ninoiyiee i?aaei?eyoey oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee aucuaatho
aeaiyeia eciaiaiea:

— eee oaaee/eaay e oiaiueoay aeoea: A + (a — a) = I + E;

— eee oaaee/eaay aeoea e iannea: A + a = (I + a) + E;

— eee oaaee/eaay aeoea e eaieoae: A + a = I + (E + a);

— eee oiaiueoay aeoea e iannea: A — a = (I — a) + E;

— eee oiaiueoay aeoea e eaieoae: A — a = I + (E — a);

— eee oaaee/eaay e oiaiueoay iannea: A = (I + a — a) + E;

— eee oaaee/eaay iannea e oiaiueoay eaieoae: A = (I + a) + (E – a);

— eee oiaiueoay e oaaee/eaay eaieoae: A = I+(E + a — a).

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey, yaeyynue neaaenoaeai
iaiaia oeaiiinoyie, aucuaaao aeaieiia eciaiaiea a ninoaaiuo /anoyo
aaeaina, ii/aio e o?aaoao aeaieiie ?aaeno?aoeee ia aeaoo n/aoao
iaiaieaaaiuo oeaiiinoae: ia eaaie noi?iia iaeiiai (ii aeaaaoo) e ia
i?aaie noi?iia ae?oaiai (ii e?aaeeoo).

Eaaeaeue ni/eai oeacaiiiai o?aaiaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony ciaeii « + », ii
anee ninoaaeoue iai?ioioth aaaeiiinoue ii anai n/aoai, oi ie iaae iaeiie
a?aoie oaeie aaaeiiinoe iaeuecy aoaeao iinoaaeoue aaeeiiai ciaea (o.a. «
+ » eee « — »), iineieueeo, iai?eia?, a eaaie iai?ioiie a?aoa aaaeiiinoe
aoaeoo noiyoue noiiu eaauo noi?ii eae n/aoia aeoeaa, oae e n/aoia
ianneaa e eaieoaea, a a i?aaie a?aoa — noiiu i?aauo noi?ii yoeo aea
n/aoia, eioi?ua, eae ecaanoii ec i?eaaaeaiiuo noai n/aoia, iaeaaeatho
oa?aeoa?ii, i?ioeaiiieiaeiui ae?oa ae?oao.

Eaaeaeue ni/eai o?aaiaiey A = I + E i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiaiie n/ao
aaeaina, iauaaeeiythuee niioaaonoaothuee ?yae n/aoia aeoeaiuo, ianneaiuo
eee eaieoaeueiuo. Iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho ?yae n/aoia
eaieoaea, a eioi?ue aoiaeyo n/aoa eaieoaea, i?eaueae, oauoeia, i?eaueae
e oauoeia. Eco/ay no?iaiea e no?oeoo?o aeaiiuo n/aoia, iiaeii i?eeoe e
caeeth/aieth, /oi no?oeoo?a n/aoia oauoeia eiaao niaa?oaiii eiie
oa?aeoa?, /ai no?oeoo?a eiuo n/aoia aeaiiiai ?yaea. Iaaeyaeii yoi
?acee/ea auyaeyaony ia noaiao (?en. 4.12)

Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo
Aeaaao N/aoa E?aaeeo +

oi?aiauo oauoeia
eaieoaea

?anoiaeia

+-+–+

Aeaaao N/ao E?aaeeo Aeaaao N/ao
E?aaeeo

i?eaueae i?eaueae

e oauoeia

-+-+?en. 4.12. – Noaia ?yaea n/aoia eaieoaea

Iniaaiiinoue n/aoa oauoeia Iaiaeioiioei iauyniyao oai, /oi iie yaeythony
io?eoeaoaeueiuie ii ioiioaieth e n/aoai i?eaueae e eaieoaea. Ia oaeii
n/aoa oauoee iai?a?uaii neeaaeuaathony aeey oiai, /oiau ii ieii/aiee
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea aeaaaoiaia naeueaei yoiai n/aoa auei iiaaoaii
i?eaueyie. N/aoa iaeiiai ?yaea, eiathuea io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea ii
ioiioaieth e inoaeueiui n/aoai, aaoi? iacuaaao eiio?a?iuie.

Ii aiaeiaee n io?eoeaoaeueiuie n/aoaie a ?yaeo n/aoia eaieoaea
nouanoaotho eiio?a?iua n/aoa e a ?yaeao aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo n/aoia.
Oaeie iaoiae n/aoiie caiene neiaieece?oao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
niioaaonoaothueo au/aoia ec aaee/ei, ioia?aaeaaiuo iniiaiuie n/aoaie.
Iiyoiio i?e auyaeaiee enoeiiie noieiinoe iauaeoia, o/eouaaaiuo ia
iniiaiuo n/aoao, ec naeueaei iineaaeieo iaiaoiaeeii au/anoue naeueaei
n/aoia io?eoeaoaeueiuo (eiio?a?iuo).

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea ioia/aiiua eiio?a?iua n/aoa,
iiaeii iieaaaoue, /oi iieiay nenoaia n/aoia aeieaeia neeaaeuaaoueny
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1) n/aoa aeoeaa;

2) eiio?a?iua n/aoa aeoeaa;

3) n/aoa ianneaa;

4) eiio?a?iua n/aoa ianneaa;

5) n/aoa eaieoaea e ?aca?aia;

6) n/aoa i?eaueae (a?aiaiiua);

7) eiio?a?iua n/aoa eaieoaea e i?eaueae:

— n/aoa ecaea?aeae (a?aiaiiua),

— n/aoa oauoeia (a?aiaiiua).

Ionthaea auoaeaao, /oi neaaeothuea ?aaainoaa, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
ii?aaeaeaiiua oi?iu yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey:

1) Aeoea = Iannea;

2) Aeoea = Eaieoae;

3) Aeoea + Oauoee = Iannea + Eaieoae (ia?aiia/aeueiue);

4) Aeoea + Aeaoeoeeo = Iannea;

5) Aeaoeoeeo = Iannea;

6) Aeoea = Iannea + Eaieoae (ia?aiia/aeueiue) + I?eauee, yaeythony
/anoiuie neo/ayie iniiaiiai ?aaainoaa A = I + E.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey Iaiaeioiioei aeieacuaaao, /oi aaeeinoaaiii
enoeiiie n/aoiie oai?eae yaeyaony oai?ey o?ao ?yaeia n/aoia, a iniiaa
eioi?ie eaaeeo oi?ioea A = I + E.

Oai?ey Aethia?oa. AEai Aaoeno Aethia?oa, aaoi? iiceoeaiie oai?ee, a
?aaioao, ecaeaiiuo a 1914—1927 aa., inoaiaaeeaaeny i?aaeaea anaai ia
ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoey «n/ao». Iainii?eiui yaeyaony oi ianoiyoaeuenoai,
/oi n/aoiay iaoea iiaeao eiaoue ioiioaiea eneeth/eoaeueii e aii?inai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey oeaiiinoae. Oaeei ia?acii,
aeieaeia nouanoaiaaoue aeinoaoi/ii oaniay naycue iaaeaeo n/aoiaaaeaieai
e iieeoe/aneie yeiiiieae. Iaaeaeo oai eeoue iaiiiaea yeiiiienou inaauaee
n/aoiua aii?inu, i?e/ai aeaaea yoe iaiiiaea yeiiiienou ia iiaee
i?iieeiooue a nouiinoue n/aoiaaaeaiey e aeaoue oi/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
n/aoa. A ?acoeueoaoa nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey aauae eco/aieai e
?ac?aaioeie n/aoiuo i?iaeai aeieaeiu auee caiyoueny n/aoiua ?aaioieee, a
naieo enneaaeiaaieyo ieacaaoeany ia aieaa oaea/eeauie, /ai yeiiiienou.

?acae?ay niioaaonoaothuea o?oaeu i?aaenoaaeoaeae th?eaee/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey (Aeae. *a?aiie, Y.I. Eaioa e A. Aeeueai), Aethia?oa i?eoae e
auaiaeo, /oi ie iaeei ec ieo ia aeae iaaeeaaeauaai ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey
«n/ao».

I?enooiay e ?ac?aoaieth yoie aaaeiaeoae n/aoiie i?iaeaiu, Aethia?oa
enoiaey ec iauiinoe eioa?ania n/aoiaaaeaiey e iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee
onoaiiaee, /oi iaueie eioa?anaie yoeo iaoe yaeyaony oeaiiinoue.

Anee ianeieueei aaeeieoe oeaiiinoe oa?aeoa?ecothony iaueie aeey ieo anao
i?eciaeaie, oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ana yoe oeaiiinoe aoiaeyo a ninoaa
iaeiiai e oiai aea eeanna aaeeieoe oeaiiinoe. Eaaeaeue eeann aaeeieoe
oeaiiinoe, i/aaeaeii, aeieaeai auoue, ai-ia?auo, iaeii?iaeiui, o.a. ana
aoiaeyuea a iaai aaeeieoeu oeaiiinoe aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue iaueie
i?eciaeaie, e, ai-aoi?uo, eioaa?aeueiui, o.a. a iaai aeieaeiu aoiaeeoue
ana aaeeieoeu oeaiiinoe, iaeaaeathuea iaueie i?eciaeaie.

Niaieoiiinoue i?eciaeia, ii?aaeaeythueo aaeeiue eeann, yaeyaony
oneiaiinoueth aieaa eee iaiaa neiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a. Iai?eia?, a, b, n e d
yaeythony oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie, naienoaaiiuie aaeeieoeai oeaiiinoe.
Anee iu onoaiiaei, /oi aeaiiue eeann iaeaaeaao anaie /aou?ueiy
i?eciaeaie (a + b + n + d), oi eeannu oeaiiinoae, eiathueo oieueei o?e
i?eciaea (iai?eia?, a + b + n), eee oieueei aeaa ec ieo, eee aea oieueei
iaeei i?eciae ec /aou?ao, aoaeoo yaeyoueny iiaeeeannaie, eee
noaeeannaie. Anee eeannu ii?iaeaeatho ae?oa ae?oaa a ii?yaeea ia?aoiaea
io iaiaa neiaeiuo e aieaa neiaeiui, oi ia?acothuayny na?ey, eee oeaiue
eeannia, aoaeao eiaiiaaoueny ?yaeii eeannia, iai?eia?: a, a + b, a + b +
n, a + b + n + d. Iaaeaeo ?aciuie eeannaie oeaiiinoae nouanoaoao
ii?aaeaeaiiay acaeiinaycue.

Eaaeaeue iauaeo iiciaaony iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iai oaeaaony aeeth/eoue
aai a oio eee eiie ?yae iauaeoia. Oaeei ia?acii, ciaiea iiyaeyaony e
nouanoaoao aeaaiaea?y eeanneoeeaoeee, eee ?ani?aaeaeaieth ii eeannai e
?yaeai eeannia.

Ia iniiaaiee eceiaeaiiiai Aethia?oa i?eoae e auaiaeo i nouanoaiaaiee
oaeie iaoee, eioi?ay eiaea au i?aaeiaoii eeanneoeeaoeeth aaeeieoe
oeaiiinoae e eco/aiea eeannia yoeo aaeeieoe. Caeanue iaaieueii
iai?aoeaaaony aiaeiaey n ae?oaeie iaoeaie. Iai?eia?, eaaeaeoth oeao?o
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae eeann oi/ae, niioaaonoaaiii anoue e iniaay
iaoea i eeannao oi/ae, iacuaaaiay aaiiao?eae. Oi/ii oaeaea, anee
oneiaeoueny iacuaaoue eeann aaeeieoe oeaiiinoe n/aoii, oi iiaeii i?eeoe
e caeeth/aieth i nouanoaiaaiee iniaie iaoee i eeannao aaeeieoe
oeaiiinoae, eioi?ay e aoaeao eiaiiaaoueny n/aoiaaaeaieai.

Oaeei ia?acii, Aethia?oa aeaao neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea n/aoa: n/aoii
iacuaaaony anyeee eeann aaeeieoe oeaiiinoae.

Eaaeaeue n/ao iiaeao auoue ?anniio?ai n aeaoo oi/ae c?aiey: ai-ia?auo, n
oi/ee c?aiey aai eiae/aneiai iauaia e, ai-aoi?uo, n oi/ee c?aiey aai
iai?yaeaiey. Iauai oiai eee eiiai n/aoa ii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?iuie
i?eciaeaie, naienoaaiiuie na?oiie?iaaiiui aaeeieoeai oeaiiinoe, a
iai?yaeaiea n/aoa ii?aaeaeyaony /eneii oaeeo aaeeieoe. I?eciaee n/aoa
yaeythony iinoiyiiuie e iaeciaiyaiuie. Eciaiyoue i?eciaee n/aoa — cia/eo
i?aia?aciauaaoue aai a eiie n/ao aieaa iauaai iacia/aiey, anee eciaiaiea
oi?iuaao yoe i?eciaee, e iaiaa iauaai iacia/aiey, anee i?eciaee
oneiaeiythony. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio iai?yaeaiea n/aoa eciaiyaony
ai a?aiaie e iiae aeeyieai niioaaonoaothueo i?e/ei. Anee iu aoaeai
eco/aoue iai?yaeaiea eee ninoiyiea n/aoa ia eaeie-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiue
iiiaio a?aiaie, oi aoaeai eiaoue aeaei ni noaoeeie n/aoa, anee aea
aoaeai enneaaeiaaoue ninoiyiea n/aoa ca iaeioi?ue aieaa eee iaiaa
aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae a?aiaie, oi aoaeai eiaoue aeaei n aeeiaieeie n/aoa.

Aaeeieoeu oeaiiinoe, iaoiaeyueany a ?anii?yaeaiee eiie?aoiiai oicyenoaa
e aiieiuathueany a oaeeo oi?iao, eae aeaiueae, oiaa?u, i?aaa o?aaiaaiey,
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae aaeeiue eeann aaeeieoe oeaiiinoe e eiaiiaaoue
aai n/aoii aeoeaa aeaiiiai oicyenoaa (A). Oi/ii oaeaea a iniaue eeann
iiaeii iauaaeeieoue oa aaeeieoeu oeaiiinoe, eioi?ua aeaiiia oicyenoai
aeieaeii ae?oaei oicyenoaai e iacaaoue yoio eeann n/aoii ianneaa (I).
Eaaeaeie aaeeieoea oeaiiinoe ianneaa aoaeai i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue aaeeieoeo
oeaiiinoe aeoeaa aieioue aei en/a?iaiey oiai ec yoeo aeaoo n/aoia,
eioi?ue eiaao iaiueooth iai?yaeaiiinoue: inoathuayny a?oiia aaeeieoe
oeaiiinoe ia?acoao n/ao, eioi?ue iaicia/ei eae /enoia ninoiyiea.

Aiieia i/aaeaeii, /oi i?e oaeii i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee aeoeaa ianneao iiaoo
auoue o?e neo/ay: A > I, A < I, A = I. A ia?aii neo/aa /enoia ninoiyiea aoaeao aeoeaiia, eee Na, ai aoi?ii — ianneaiia, eee Ni, a o?aoueai — ioeaaia. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo neo/aaa iiaeii ecia?aceoue oaeei niiniaii:1) A = I + Na;2) A + Ni - I;3) A = I.Eaaeaeia ec i?eaaaeaiiuo au?aaeaiee aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoue oo n/aoioth eaoaai?eth, eioi?ay ecaanoia iiae iacaaieai aaeain. Ionthaea iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi aaeain yaeyaony au?aaeaieai oiai niioiioaiey, eioi?ia nouanoaoao iaaeaeo aeoeaii, ianneaii e /enoui ninoiyieai aeaiiiai oicyenoaa.Oaeei ia?acii, Aethia?oa naiaeeo aaeain e o?ai iniiaiui n/aoai: aeoeao, ianneao e /enoiio ninoiyieth (eaieoaea). Yoe o?e iniiaiuo n/aoa ?aniaaeathony ia o?e ?yaea n/aoia — aeoeaiuo, ianneaiuo e eaieoaeueiuo. Iooai eiae/aneeo oiicaeeth/aiee auaiaeeony i?aaeei:— iiaeeaaeao ioianaieth a aeaaao n/aoa: oaaee/aiea aeoeaa, oiaiueoaiea ianneaa, oauoee;— iiaeeaaeao ioianaieth a e?aaeeo n/aoa: oiaiueoaiea aeoeaa, oaaee/aiea ianneaa, i?eauee.?acthie?oy eceiaeaiiua iniaaiiinoe ?annoaeaeaiee Aethia?oa, ioiaoei, /oi a eoiaa i?aaeea ?aaeno?aoeee oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ia n/aoao niioaaonoaotho oai i?aaeeai, eioi?ua auaiaeeee i?aaenoaaeoaee aaeainiauo oai?ee. Iaeiaei Aethia?oa a iieiie, yniie e eiae/aneie oi?ia no?ieo naie aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iiyoiio aai iiaeii n aeinoaoi/iui iniiaaieai n/eoaoue iniiaiiieiaeieeii aaeainiaie oai?ee o?ao ?yaeia n/aoia. E?iia oiai, aai caneoaie yaeyaony aeoaieia oai?aoe/aneia iniuneaiea no?oeoo?u e niaea?aeaiey n/aoia n iiceoeee ia oieueei iaoaiaoeee, ii e yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, /oi iicaieeei aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiea n/aoa eae eeanna aaeeieoe oeaiiinoae.A caeeth/aiea ioiaoei, /oi eiaiii ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX — ia/aea XX a. ec i?aeoeee ieii/aoaeueii auaeaeeeanue oai?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iaoea ia/eiaaony n e?eoeee ieoia, iiiuoee iauynieoue oa eee eiua yaeaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Ia?aua o/aiua aooaaeoa?u iieacaee iaaeinoaoi/iinoue i?eiaiyaiuo oi?i, iie aia?aua noaee eiino?oe?iaaoue o/aoiua eaoaai?ee, iniuneeee ooieoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e caaeoiaeenue iaae aai yooaeoeaiinoueth. Iiaay iaoiaeieiaey e ia/aei eniieueciaaiey a eiioi?ao au/eneeoaeueiuo i?eai?ia iicaieeee aooaaeoa?ee aieoe a XX a. a niaa?oaiii eiii ea/anoaa.5. Iniiaiua eaeae aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a XX a.5.1. A?eoaii – aia?eeaineay oeieaAeaaaeoeaoia noieaoea — yiioa aeiaaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaea e nioeeaeueiie aeecie. Ai-ia?auo, nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey a ?innee ?aneieiea ie? ia aeaa eiieo?e?othueo yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo aeiea. Ai-aoi?uo, aeaa ie?iaua aieiu i?eaaee e Aaeeeie yeiiiie/aneie aeai?annee a no?aiao Aa?iiu. NOA oaeaea eniuoaee ana oyaiou yeiiiie/aneie aeai?annee, iineieueeo aneaaenoaea ioeaca io iieeoeee ecieyoeeiiecia a ia/aea XX a. iniiaiua ?uiee nauoa iaoiaeeeenue a aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao. Aaiiieeoe/aneia ?aniieiaeaiea NOA, oaeaeaiiinoue io oaao?a aiaiiuo aeaenoaee ieacaeenue e?aeia auaiaeiuie. A oi a?aiy eae Aa?iia aiaaaea, a iioii ainnoaiaaeeaaeanue, aia?eeaineay yeiiiieea iaae?aea neeo, iinoaaeyy a Aaeeeia?eoaieth e ?inneth i?iaeiaieuenoaea, aiaiioth oaoieeo e ae?. Iiyoiio yaiethoeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a XX a. i?ioiaeeea iiae aeeyieai eiiia?/aneie e iieeoe/aneie yeniainee NOA.Eiaiii aic?anoaiea yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu a iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae, eiioeaio?aoeey i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea, ?acaeoea eieeaeoeaiuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe oaaee/eee ni?in ia oneoae aooaaeoa?ia, /oi e i?eaaei e auno?iio ?acaeoeth oai?ee e i?aeoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Ia?aua iiiuoee aaaaeaiey i?eioeeiia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa auee i?aaei?eiyou ioaeaeueiuie niaoeeaeenoaie, iicaeiaa enneaaeiaaiey noaee i?eia?aoaoue eieeaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?. ?aaiou aaoi?ia, eae i?aaeei, ia auee iai?aaeaiu ia eaeoth-oi ii?aaeaeaiioth o/aoioth aeayoaeueiinoue, a ioaaouaaee i?iaeaio a oeaeii. A iniiaa enneaaeiaaiee eaaeaei iaaethaeaiea i?aeoeee o/aoa (yiie?e/aneee iiaeoiae), a ia i?aaeienaiea ii?i (ii?iaoeaiue iiaeoiae). Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou ?anniao?eaaeenue eae /anoue aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, /oi caiueaei oeeee enneaaeiaaiey «i?aeoeea — oai?ey — i?aeoeea». E?iia oiai, a ?aaioao ia auei ie e?eoe/aneie ioeaiee i?aeoeee, ie aiaeeca iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey, iiyoiio iiaua iieieaiey aooaaeoa?ia iao/aeenue ia oii aea o?iaia, /oi, i/aaeaeii, ia niinianoaiaaei ?acaeoeth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie enneaaeiaaoaeyie ia?aie iieiaeiu XX a. auee A.A. Iaoii (1922), O.I. Naiaea?n, O.?. Oaooeeae e O. Iii? (1938), N. Aeeiai (1939).Iaoii auaeaeioe 10 iinooeaoia:1. naiinoiyoaeueii oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa (eiouanoaaiiie iainiaeaiiinoe);2. ooieoeeiie?othuaai i?aaei?eyoey (iai?a?uaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe) ;3. ?aaainoaa niaieoiiie noieiinoe eiouanoaa niaieoiiie noieiinoe eaieoaea;4. aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina eae n?aaenoaa i?aaenoaaeaiey oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey;5. iinoiyiiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu ecia?aiey;6. cao?ao eae enoiaeiie ioeaiee (enoi?e/aneay noieiinoue);7. cao?ao eae ioeaiee i?iaeoeoeee (oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue);8. i?ei?eoaoiinoe au/aoa oauoeia ec iaeiieaiiie i?eauee;9. i?eauee eae enoi/ieea auieao aeeaeaeaiaeia aeoeeiia?ai;10. OEOI eae iaoiaea ioeaiee caiania (ioeaiea ii noieiinoe ia?auo ii a?aiaie caeoiie).Naiaea?n, Oaooeeae e Iii? i?iaaee enneaaeiaaiea ia iniiaa ii?ina eeoe, ninoaaeythueo e eniieuecothueo oeiainiaoth io/aoiinoue, eco/aiey eeoa?aoo?u e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa iie ii?aaeaeeee a?oiiu i?eioeeiia: iauea, io/aoa i i?eaueyo e oauoeao, aaeaina, eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai aaeaina, eiiiaioa?eaa e i?eia/aiee. E iaeaieaa aaaeiui ec yoeo i?eioeeiia ioiinyony neaaeothuea:- aooaaeoa?neee o/ao aeieaeai niiauaoue i oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee e oi?ie?iaaiee i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey;- noaouee eaieoaea e aeioiaeia aeieaeiu auoue ?aca?aie/aiu;- aeaiiua i?ioeuo ia?eiaeia aeieaeiu auoue aeinooiiu aeey aiaeeca;- o/aoiay o?aeoiaea iauaeoia aeieaeia auoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiie;- aeieaeai aeaaainoaiaaoue eiina?aaoeaiue iiaeoiae (aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau aeieaeiu ioeaieaaoueny ii inoaoi/iie noieiinoe, a caianu e cao?aou — ii iaeiaiueoae ec aeaoo: eee ii naaanoieiinoe, eee ii ?uii/iie oeaia; iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaaaoue ?aca?a ia iie?uoea oauoeia e i?eciaiea oneiaiuo iaycaoaeuenoa, ioeaiea eioi?uo nouanoaaiia, e o.i.);- ia?aaeeciaaiiue aeioiae ia aeieaeai aeeth/aoueny a ?an/ao i?eauee;- aia?aaeecaoeeiiiay i?eaueue aeieaeia io?aaeaoueny ioaeaeueii;- eni?aaeaiey ioeaie i?aaeuaeoueo io/aoiuo ia?eiaeia aeieaeiu io?aaeaoueny a io/aoa i i?eaueyo e oauoeao;- — niioaaonoaea e ia?eiaee/iinoue cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia.Aeeiai auaeaeee e ioa?aeoa?eciaae aeieo?eiu (o?aaiaaiey) e niaeaoaiey (aeiiouaiey) aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. E ia?aui ii ioian eiina?aaoeci, ?ane?uoea, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue e iaoa?eaeueiinoue. Ei aoi?ui — naiinoiyoaeueii oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa, ioeaiee e io/aoiiai ia?eiaea.Eieeaeoeaiua enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeeeenue a ?aieao oieaa?neoaoia e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Aia?eeaineay aooaaeoa?neay annioeeaoeey (AAA) a 1936 a. iioaeeeiaaea A?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea i i?eioeeiao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iieiaeaiea eiiiaioe?iaaee niaoeeaeenou e e?eoeeiaaee eae i?aaenoaaeoaee iaoee, oae e aooaaeoa?u-i?aeoeee; oai naiui oaaee/eeny iauai niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u.Iaeaieaa ai?y/ea aeeneonnee auee naycaiu n o?aeoiaeie n/aoia eaieoaea, i?eaueae e oauoeia. Io iiieiaiey nouiinoe eaieoaea e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia caaeneo no?iaiea e niaea?aeaiea niioaaonoaothueo aooaaeoa?neeo io/aoia. A?oiia o/aiuo, eioi?ua aeeaaeuaaee a iiiyoea eaieoaea e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia yeiiiie/aneee niune, iieo/eea iacaaiea einoeooaeenoia. I?aaenoaaeoaee aooaaeoa?neie iaoee, n/eoaaoea eaieoae th?eaee/aneie eaoaai?eae, ioiineeenue e ia?niiaeenoai. Eo ?anoiaeaeaiey ai acaeyaeao i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae. 5.1.Oaaeeoea 5.1 – ?aoaiea i?iaeai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe ia?niiaeenoaie e einoeooaeenoaieI?iaeaiaEinoeooaeenouIa?niiaeenouO?aeoiaea n/aoa eaieoaeaNianoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoeyE?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey nianoaaiieeoNiaea?aeaiea ianneaa aaeainaEaieoae e iaycaoaeuenoaa (e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue)Enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoeOeaeue i?aaei?eyoeyOaaee/aiea i?eauee e eaieoaeaOaaee/aiea enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey Niaea?aeaiea n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeiaIniiaiie n/ao, auyaeythuee oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao?aaoee?othuee n/ao e n/aoo eaieoaeaOa?aeoa?enoeea n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeiaOeiainiai - ?acoeueoaoeaiueNiae?aoaeueii - ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiueAaeainiaia o?aaiaieaA-I = EA = E + I?ieue aeeaeaeaiaeia*anoue ?anoiaeia i?aaei?eyoey*anoue i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey?aioaaaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoeyIoiioaiea i?eauee aac aeeaeaeaiaeia (ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee) e eaieoaeoIoiioaiea i?eauee n aeeaeaeaiaeaie (/enoie i?eauee) e eoiao aaeainaIoeaiea aeoeaiaIi naaanoieiinoeIi ?uii/iui oeaiaiAeey eiai i?aaeiacia/ai aaeainAeey aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoeyAeey noi?iiieo iieueciaaoaeae aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoeIa?eiaee/iinoue o/aoiiai oeeeeaIo/aoiue ia?eiae ?aaai oicyenoaaiiiio oeeeeoIo/aoiue ia?eiae – eaeaiaea?iue aiaeAii?oecaoeey ?aca?a (enoi/iee nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa)?aaoeyoea e noieiinoe aeoeaa (ooi/iyao ioeaieo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa)Iniiaaoaee iai?aaeaieyO?ainen IeeneaeAeeueyi Yiae?th IaoiiIniiaiie oeaeueth ethaie eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony iieo/aiea i?eauee. Ia?aae aooaaeoa?aie auea iinoaaeaia caaea/a ia oieueei naiaa?aiaiii e oi/ii ii?aaeaeyoue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao, ii e iaania/eaaoue oi?aaeai/aneee ia?niiae eioi?iaoeeae, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. Iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, eiaaea oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, aiciiaeia oieueei i?e yooaeoeaiii oi?aaeaiee cao?aoaie. Iiyoiio aoi?ui iai?aaeaieai ?acaeoey o/aoa noaiiaeony i?iecaiaenoaaiiue o/ao, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue iaania/eoue eioi?iaoeeiiiua iio?aaiinoe oi?aaeaiey.Aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee (naeaeaoue o/ao i?oaeeai oi?aaeaiey) auee auaeaeioou iiaua eaeae, naycaiiua a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n iiauie nenoaiaie o/aoa cao?ao.Aua a 1918 a. eiaeaia?-iooaaoe A. Yia?nii a ?aaioa «I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea eae iniiaa iia?aoeaiie ?aaiou e ca?aaioiie ieaou» oeacae, /oi o?aaeeoeeiiiay aooaaeoa?ey eiaao oio iaaeinoaoie, /oi ieeaeiai ioiioaiey iaaeaeo oai, /oi anoue, e oai, /oi aeieaeii auoue, ia onoaiaaeeaaao; iiaeeeiiay nooue o/aoa ninoieo a oii, /oiau oaaee/eoue /enei e eioaineaiinoue i?aaeinoa?aaeaiee. Nooue i?aaeinoa?aaeaiee caeeth/aaony a oeenaoeee anao ioeeiiaiee io ii?iu.*a?oa? Aa??enii, eniieuecoy eaeae Yia?niia, noi?ioee?iaae i?eioeeiu nenoaiu noaiaea?oiuo ecaea?aeae (standard costing). Noaiaea?oiua ecaea?aeee — yoi onoaiiaeaiiua ii?iu ?anoiaeia, iniiaaiiua ia iaoo?aeueiuo ecia?eoaeyo, eioi?ua aaiaeeeenue a nenoaio aooaaeoa?neeo n/aoia. Oaeie niinia caiene iieacuaaao, eae oaeoe/aneia oa/aiea oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia ioeeiiyaony io ca?aiaa iaia/aiiuo oeaeae. Iniiaiuie caaea/aie nenoaiu noaiaea?oiuo ecaea?aeae yaeythony oi?aaeaiea cao?aoaie e eiio?ieue cao?ao; onoaiiaeaiea ?aaeueiuo oeai; iiaeaioiaea athaeaeaoia ?aciuo o?iaiae e ?acee/iuo i?iaiicia.Auaeathueeny yeiiiieno Aeaeii Ii?en Eea?e oeacae a 1923 a., /oi aeey aaeieieno?aoi?a eaaeaeay noaouey cao?ao eiaao ?acioth oeaeaaoth onoaiiaeo e yoi aeaaiia, a ?ani?aaeaeaiea cao?ao aeey i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee cia/aiey ia eiaao. Yoo eaeath , a 1936 a. eniieueciaae aeey ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeieiaee o/aoa a nenoaia i?yiuo cao?ao (direct costing) Aeaeiiaoai Oa??en. Ii ioia/ae, /oi i?yiua cao?aou iiiaaeatho ia ecaeaeey e yaeythony ia?aiaiiuie (aa?uee?othony a caaeneiinoe io iauaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee), a einaaiiua cao?aou aicieeatho ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae e yaeythony iinoiyiiuie (ia caaenyo io iauaia i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee). Iiyoiio ia?aua aeieaeiu eaieoaeece?iaaoueny e oeene?iaaoueny eae ?anoiaeu oieueei iinea ?aaeecaoeee ecaeaeee, a aoi?ua — n?aco ii ia?a aicieeiiaaiey nienuaathony ia ?anoiaeu io/aoiiai ia?eiaea. Oaeei ia?acii, ieieiaeueiay ioioneiay oeaia iiaeao auoue nieaeaia aei aaee/eiu i?yiie naaanoieiinoe, aeaaea anee iia ieaaeaony ieaea iieiie naaanoieiinoe. Iineieueeo i?aaei?eyoea ana ?aaii ianao ii?aaeaeaiiua iauea cao?aou, naycaiiua n niaea?aeaieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, oi oaeie caeac iiaeao nieceoue iioa?e i?aaei?eyoey e oai naiui iiauneoue aeioiae.Iiiuoeo niaaeeieoue i?eioeeiu aeaoo ?anniio?aiiuo nenoai o/aoa cao?ao a iaeiie nenoaia «aee?aeo-noaiaea?o» i?aaei?eiye Aaio, iaeiaei, eae oeacuaaee e?eoeee, oaeia ni/aoaiea ia anaaaea auaaao oaea/iui.Ecia/aeueii nenoaiu o/aoa cao?ao auee caaeoiaiu eae eino?oiaio, iicaieythuee auyaeoue iaeniieueciaaiiua ?aca?au, aac nayce n eiie?aoiuie eniieieoaeyie. A aeaeueiaeoai aicieeea eaeay eniieueciaaoue aaee/eio cao?ao aeey ioeaiee oao eee eiuo aaeieieno?aoi?ia. Yoi i?eaaei e oi?ie?iaaieth a 1952 a. Aeaeiiii A. Oeaaeinii eiioeaioeee o/aoa ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe (responsibility center). O/ao iia?aoeee a ianoao eo aicieeiiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaee naaiaioia i?aaiecaoeee iiaeio/aoiu e ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca naie o/anoie ?aaiou. Auaeaeytho /aou?a aeaea iaeaieaa iaueo oeaio?ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe: oeaio?u cao?ao, oeaio?u aeioiaeia, oeaio?u i?eauee, eiaanoeoeeiiiua oeaio?u. Oeaio?u ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aiauatho aieiaiea iieueciaaoaeae n yeiiiie/aneie iiceoeee ia th?eaee/aneoth; eo oi?ie?iaaiea i?aneaaeoao oeaeue nicaeaoue aeey aaeieieno?aoi?ia oneiaey naiieiio?iey. TH?eaee/aneia cia/aiea ii?iaoeaia naycaii n ia?aie/aieai iieiiii/ee aaeieieno?aoi?ia (a?aieoeu aeiaa?ey), yeiiiie/aneia — auoue i?eaioe?ii, o.a. iiaeneaceie, a i?aaiecaoeee iiaaaeaiey aaeieieno?aoi?a.Onoaiiaeaiea oeaio?ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe naycaii n eniieueciaaieai i?eioeeiia ineoieiaee a oi?aaeaiee (aeoaaei?eci — iaoea i iiaaaeaiee). Oae, i?aaeiaoii o/aoa e eiio?iey noaiiaeony ineoieiaey (iiaaaeaiea) eeoe, caiyouo a oicyenoaaiiii i?ioeanna, ia i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, a iioeau eo aeaenoaee. Iaoea i iiaaaeaiee iiiiaea noaiaea?oece?iaaoue aooaaeoa?neoth ?aaioo. Eniieuecoy i?eioeei «noeioe — ?aaeoeey» (aeieoiaio eae noeioe i?aaeii?aaeaeyao ?aaeoeeth, eee iiaaaeaiea, eae aaeieieno?aoi?a, oae e aooaaeoa?a), aia?eeaioeu iino?ieee aeai?eoi ?aaiou aooaaeoa?a e iiaeaioiaeee ii/ao aeey eniieueciaaiey YAI a o/aoa.Oaeia iiae/eiaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa oeaeyi oi?aaeaiey i?eaaei e oiio, /oi a NOA aooaaeoa?neee o/ao noaee ?acaeaeyoue ia oeiainiaue o/ao e oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao. Aia?aua eo ?acee/ey noi?ioee?iaae *a?euec Oi?ia?ai a na?aaeeia XX a. (oaae. 5.2).Oaaeeoea 5.2. – N?aaiaiea oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoaI?eciaeOi?aaeai/aneee o/aoOeiainiaue o/aoIio?aaeoaee eioi?iaoeeeAioo?aiiea iieueciaaoaee (iaiaaeaea?u, aaeieieno?aoi?u e o. i.)Aiaoiea iieueciaaoaee (iaeiaiaua i?aaiu, aaiee, eiaanoi?u, aeoeeiia?u, eiaanoi?u e ae?.)Oeaeue o/aoaIaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeae oi?aaeythueo e iaiaaeaea?ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiae aeey i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaieeNinoaaeaiea io/aoiinoe aeey aiaoieo iieueciaaoaeae aeey oiai, /oiau iie iiaee ioeaieoue oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeyNaiaiaea auai?a niiniaia o/aoaIieiay naiaiaea, iniiaaiiay ia i?ioanneiiaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe aooaaeoa?a*aoei ii?aaeaeaiiua i?eioeeiu a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaiiA?aiaiiie aniaeoIaoeaeaiiinoue ia aoaeouaa (i?iaiicu, niaou ii aeaiiui i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea)Io?aaeaiea e ioeaiea i?ioeuo (naa?oeaoeony) niauoeeEcia?eoaeeEae iaoo?aeueiua, oae e aeaiaaeiuaOieueei aeaiaaeiua ecia?eoaeeIo/aoiue ia?eiaeIa?eiae, oaeiaiue aeey aaeieieno?aoeee, - aeaiue, iaaeaey, aeaeaaea, ianyoe e ae?.Eaeaiaea?iue aiae n ?acaeaeie ia eaa?oaeu. Aeaiiua i?aaenoaaeythony ia?anoathuei eoiaiiIaai? iieacaoaeaeIa ii?aaeaeaiIi?aaeaeai niioaaonoaothueie noaiaea?oaieNoaiaiue ioaaonoaaiiinoeAeenoeeieeia?iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue, auaiai? (ii?eoeaiea), eeoaiea i?aieeAaeieieno?aoeaiay (oo?aou) eee oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue5.2. ?ac?aaioea noaiaea?oia (ii?i) aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoaIiae aooaaeoa?neeie noaiaea?oaie iiieiatho iienaiea iaoiaeia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?aeoe/anee ii eaaeaeiio iieacaoaeth aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. O/aoiua noaiaea?ou — ?acoeueoao acaeiiaeaenoaey iiiaeo oaeoi?ia: yeiiiie/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo, enoi?e/aneeo, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e i?. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee noaiaea?oia aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa eiioeeeoa eioa?ania eeoe, eanathueony aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Iieacaoaee, ii?aaeaeyaiua a nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, aeeytho ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeaa iaaeaeo ?aciuie a?oiiaie. Aneaaenoaea yoiai ia eneeth/aii, /oi ia aooaaeoa?a iiaeao auoue ieacaii aeaaeaiea n oeaeueth i?eiyoey auaiaeiiai aeey oie eee eiie a?oiiu eeoe ?aoaiey. Iiyoiio noaiaea?oecaoeey niiniaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iaiaoiaeeia ia oieueei aooaaeoa?o, ii e iieueciaaoaeyi aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.I?ioanneiiaeueiua aooaaeoa?neea i?aaiecaoeee ?aciuo no?ai iuoaeenue aeinoe/ue aaeeiiia?acey niiniaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, i?eiaiyaiuo ia i?aeoeea oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie. Iai?eia?, Einoeooo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia Aiaeee e Oyeuena a 1946 a. ia/ae ioaeeeiaaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Aiaeiae/ii iinooieee Aano?aeeeneee einoeooo e Iiaicaeaiaeneia iauanoai. Oaiaie ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee noaiiaeeenue, eae i?aaeei, /anoiua aii?inu, aucuaaaoea a?aiy io a?aiaie o?oaeiinoe ia i?aeoeea. Oaeie iiaeoiae e onoaiiaeaieth o/aoiuo noaiaea?oia iieo/ee iacaaiea «i?eno?aeueiiai». A iineaaeiea aiaeu aii?in i noaiaea?oecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aucuaae ai?y/ea aeeneonnee, eioi?ua ioi?ieeenue eae ?uii/iue e ?aaoeyoeaiue iiaeoiaeu.A iniiaa ?uii/iiai iiaeoiaea eaaeeo i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi io/aoiay eioi?iaoeey — yeiiiie/aneee oiaa?, iiaeiaiue i?i/ei oiaa?ai e oneoaai. Iiyoiio iia iiaeaa?aeaia aeeyieth ni?ina (ni noi?iiu iieueciaaoaeae) e i?aaeeiaeaiey (ni noi?iiu oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia). Ai acaeiiaeaenoaee yoeo ?uii/iuo nee aeinoeaaaony ?aaiiaanea, i?e eioi?ii ?ane?uaaaony iioeiaeueiue iauai eioi?iaoeee ii iioeiaeueiie oeaia. Noi?iiieee oaeiai iiaeoiaea n/eoatho iaaeaeaoaeueiui, /oiau noaiaea?ou auee iaycaoaeueiu aeey eniieiaiey.Caueoieee ?aaoeyoeaiiai iiaeoiaea iieaaatho, /oi ioeaee e aiiiaeee ?uiea, a oaeaea i/aaeaeiay aneiiao?ey a ioiioaiee eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa eioi?iaoeee, aeinooiiie ?aciui iieueciaaoaeyi, aaaeouay e ?inoo iaaeiaa?ey ni noi?iiu eiaanoi?ia, iiaoo auoue eni?aaeaiu n iiiiuueth ?aaoee?iaaiey. Ii aicieeaao aii?in, eoi aeieaeai onoaiaaeeaaoue oaeea noaiaea?ou — i?ioanneiiaeueiua aooaaeoa?neea i?aaiecaoeee, o.a. /anoiue naeoi?, eee i?aaiu, i?aaenoaaeythuea eioa?anu iauanoaa a oeaeii, o.a. iauanoaaiiue naeoi?. A nia?aiaiiii aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia oi, eaeea i?aeoe/aneea iaoiaeu eee noaiaea?o ou aoaeoo n/eoaoueny i?eaieaiuie, ieacuaatho aeanoiua i?aaiecaoeee, o/anoaothuea a eo ?ac?aaioea.Ia?aua aooaaeoa?neea i?aaiecaoeee auee noi?ie?iaaiu a Aa?iia aua a eiioea XIX a. Iaeiaei nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey iie ia eiaee. Aia?eeaineay annioeeaoeey iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia (AA?A) auea nicaeaia a 1899 a. a ooaoa Iueth-Ei?e eae iauaaeeiaiea aooaaeoa?ia-i?aeoeeia, a a 1902 a. iie iauaaeeieeenue a ?aieao ooaoia a Oaaea?aoeeth iauanoa i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia NOA. A 1904 a. Oaaea?aoeey noaneaee?iaaea ia?aue Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiia?ann aooaaeoa?ia, eioi?ue i?iaiaeeony aei ianoiyuaai, a?aiaie eaaeaeua iyoue eao (e?iia ia?eiaea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu). A 1916 a. annioeeaoeey auea i?aia?aciaaia a Einoeooo aooaaeoa?ia NOA, eioi?ue ian/eouaae 1150 /eaiia. A 1917 a. Einoeooo aue ia?aeiaiiaai a Aia?eeaineee einoeooo aooaaeoa?ia e i?inouanoaiaae aei 1957 a., eiaaea aue noi?ie?iaai Aia?eeaineee einoeooo aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo (i?enyaeiuo) aooaaeoa?ia (AICPA).Aooaaeoa?u-oai?aoeee (i?aiiaeaaaoaee oieaa?neoaoia) a 1916a. iauaaeeieeenue a Aia?eeaineoth aooaaeoa?neoth annioeeaoeeth (AAA), /oi iicaieeei iauaaeeieoue oneeey o/aiuo aeey i?iaaaeaiey eieeaeoeaiuo iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.Aooaaeoa?u NOA, iaeanoue eioa?ania eioi?uo auea naycaia n i?iecaiaenoaii e oi?aaeaieai, a 1919 a. iauaaeeieeenue a Iaoeeiiaeueioth annioeeaoeeth aooaaeoa?ia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa (ICMA).A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ai iiiaeo no?aiao nouanoaotho i?aaiecaoeee, iaaeaeaiiua i?aaii onoaiaaeeaaoue noaiaea?ou aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iai?eia?, a Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 1974 a. aue nicaeai (iooai i?aia?aciaaiey Einoeoooa i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia Aiaeee, Oyeuena e Oioeaiaeee, eioi?ue nouanoaiaae n XIX a.) Eiinoeueoaoeaiue eiieoao aooaaeoa?neeo i?aaiecaoeee. A 1990 a. aai ooieoeee auee ia?aaeaiu Niaaoo ii noaiaea?oai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa (ASB), eioi?ue iacia/aaony i?aaeoaeuenoaii e iiaeio/aoai Niaaoo ii i?aaenoaaeaieth oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe (FRS) aeey iauanoaaiiiai naeoi?a. A Eaiaaea ia o?iaia Niae?oaeanoaa aaaeouae i?aaiecaoeeae yaeyaony CICA, i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa eioi?ie anoue a eaaeaeie ec aeanyoe i?iaeioeee. I?ioanneiiaeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a Aano?aeee inouanoaeytho aeaa i?aaiecaoeee: Aano?aeeeneia iauanoai aeeieiie?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia-i?aeoeeia (ASCPA), eioi?ia nouanoaoao n XIX a. e ian/eouaaao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ieiei 75 oun. /aeiaae, e Einoeooo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia Aano?aeee (ICAA), aicieeoee iooai iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai iauaaeeiaiee ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee, /eneaiiinoueth ieiei 15 oun. /aeiaae. A Iiaie Caeaiaeee ?acaeoeai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa caieiaaony Iauanoai aooaaeoa?ia Iiaie Caeaiaeee (NZSA), eioi?ia auei nicaeaii iooai i?aia?aciaaiee ?acee/iuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee, nouanoaothueo n 1894 a.Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XX a. i?eia?aoaao neeoeii aieueoia cia/aiea, /oiau inoaaeyoue ana ?aoaiey ia oniio?aiea iaeieo aooaaeoa?ia. Eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea a a?eoaii-aia?eeaineeo no?aiao, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi ia ia?aue ieai auoiaeeo iaoaieci, ni/aoathuee a naaa neeu niaoeeaeenoia ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo e i?aaeoaeuenoaa n o/anoeai i?i/eo caeioa?aniaaiiuo noi?ii (i?aaenoaaeoaeae aaieianeeo, no?aoiauo, oiiaeiauo e eiuo einoeoooia). Oae, a 1974 a. Aia?eeaineee einoeooo aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo (i?enyaeiuo) aooaaeoa?ia (AICPA) a nayce n oai, /oi, ia eiay oi?ioi i?i?aaioaiiie oai?aoe/aneie aacu, n caaea/ae ?aaoee?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia ni?aaeyeny, aue i?aia?aciaai a Niaao ii noaiaea?oai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa (FASB), aaea oai?aoeee e i?aeoeee iauaaeeieee naie oneeey. Ae?oaie aaaeiie ?aaoee?othuae aooaaeoa?neee o/ao i?aaiecaoeeae yaeyaony Eiienney ii oeaiiui aoiaaai e ae?aeai (SEC), a iaycaiiinoe eioi?ie aoiaeeo oi?aaeaiea aiaoiae io/aoiinoueth ei?ii?aoeee. Eiaiii SEC, yaeyynue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeeae, iaaeaeaiiie niioaaonoaothueie aeanoiuie iieiiii/eyie, ooaa?aeaeaao noaiaea?ou, auioneaaiua FASB, a ea/anoaa iauai?eiyouo i?eioeeiia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa (GAAP) — General Accepted Accounting Principles.Oaeei ia?acii, e eiioeo XX a. a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo aeayoaeueiinoue ei?ii?aoeee, e aaaaeaiey noaiaea?oia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aooaaeoa?u eiaee ana aieueoa ia?aie/aiee a auai?a oi?i i?aaenoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee aeey aiaoieo iieueciaaoaeae.5.3. I?ioanneiiaeueiay yoeeaI?ioanneiiaeueiay yoeea yaeyaony iniiaie iauanoaaiiiai aeiaa?ey. Anee iauanoai oa?yao aeiaa?ea e oneoaai i?ioanneiiaeia, oi ia?anoaao eie iieueciaaoueny, e i?ioanney, eae iniaue aeae aeayoaeueiinoe a?oiiu ethaeae, auiieiythueo nioeeaeueii cia/eiua ooieoeee, iinoaiaiii auie?aao. A?eiaoae, iaiauay ?acoeueoaou nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, auaae iyoue naienoa, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey anao i?ioannee: oai?aoe/aneea ciaiey, aaoi?eoao, iiaeaea?aeea iauanoaa, eiaeaenu yoe/aneiai iiaaaeaiey, eoeueoo?a.I?ioanneiiaeeci iie?aaony ia ciaiey, o.a. ia oai?aoe/aneoth aaco, eioi?ay iicaieyao ia i?aeoeea ?acaeaaoue iaauee. Aeinoeaeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?iaiy i?aaeiieaaaao i?eia?aoaiea eae eioaeeaeooaeueiiai, oae e i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa, ia?aciaaiea a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo i?aaenoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui aeey nicaeaiey aacu i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e anooieaiey a ?yaeu i?ioanneiiaeia.Aaoi?eoao i?ioannee iiaeaea?aeeaaaony n aeaoo noi?ii: aioo?aiiae n?aaeie (naiie i?ioanneae) ca n/ao ciaiee, aeenoeeieeiu, eaaeeoeeaoeee i?ioanneiiaeia e aiaoiae n?aaeie (eeeaioaie, iieueciaaoaeyie aooaaeoa?neie eioi?iaoeee).Aaoi?eoao i?ioannee o?aaoao iiaeaea?aeee ni noi?iiu iauanoaa. Iau/ii iia inouanoaeyaony ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiii o?iaia iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aa (eeoeaice?iaaiea iaycaoaeueiiai aoaeeoa, aee?aaeeoaoeey o/aaiuo oeaio?ia ii iiaeaioiaea e iiauoaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi-?ia e ae?.) e i?eaeeaaee (i?ioanneiiaeueiay iacaaeneiinoue, naii?aaoee?iaaiea e caueoa io aeeyiey iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey).Aeey iaania/aiey iauanoaaiiiai eiio?iey eaaeaeay i?ioanney nicaeaao i?ioanneiiaeueiue eiaeaen, eioi?ui ii?aaeaeyaony aeenoeeieeia e iiaaaeaiea aa /eaiia e ?aaoee?othony ioiioaiey «eeeaio — i?ioanneiiae», «iauanoai — i?ioanneiiae», «i?ioanneiiae — i?ioanneiiae».Eoeueoo?a i?ioannee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue nioeeaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ii?i iiaaaeaiey e neiaieia. Oeaiiinoe — yoi ooiaeaiaioaeueiua oaaaeaeaiey, eioi?ua aeeytho ia iiaaaeaiea a iniauo neooaoeeyo. Eae i?aaeei, nioeeaeueiua oeaiiinoe yaeythony iaua/aeiaa/aneeie (iai?eia?, /anoiinoue, ioaaonoaaiiinoue, o.a. /oanoai aeieaa), ii iiaoo ii?aaeaeyoueny e iaoeeiiaeueiuie eee ?aeeaeiciuie (iniaaiii a no?aiao Ainoiea) iniaaiiinoyie, neiaeeaoeieny a oie eee eiie no?aia. Iai?eia?, i?ei?eoaoiinoue eioa?ania ainoaea?noaa e /aeiaaea ?acee/aaony a NOA e ?innee. A ?innee o?aaeeoeeiiii iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea aieueoeinoaa a?aaeaeai e ainoaea?noaaiiiio eiouanoao, eioi?ia ?aiueoa au?aaeaeinue a eaciie?aaenoaa, a nae/an — a iaaeaeaiee ieaoeoue iaeiae. Aia?eeaineea o?aaeeoeee i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiu: oieaoa iaeiaia n/eoaaony a?aaeaeaineei aeieaii. No?aieaiea i?inoiai aia?eeaineiai a?aaeaeaieia i?ineaaeeoue ca caeiiiiineooiinoueth naiaai ninaaea eee eieeaae aeey /aeiaaea, ainieoaiiiai a ?inneeneeo o?aaeeoeeyo, ia anaaaea eaaeaony ii?yaei/iui. Ionthaea e ?aciia ioiioaiea e iaycaiiinoe aooaaeoa?a iiiaauaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu (a ?innee yoi iaeiaiaua neoaeau) i ia?ooaieyo caeiia i?e inouanoaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee. Aeaaea i?e aianaiee oaeie iaycaiiinoe a ?inneeneee eiaeaen i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee i?aoeaaeaioia nei?aa anaai ia aoaeao, iineieueeo ?aaioiaeaoaee iaeiei ec ea/anoa «oi?ioaai» aooaaeoa?a aei neo ii? n/eoatho oiaiea ne?uaaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiia iieiaeaiea aauae io iaeiaiauo i?aaiia.Aaaeiui ao?eaooii i?ioannee n/eoathony i?ioanneiiaeueiua neiaieu (yiaeaiu, aeiiu, aeaaecu e ae?.), eioi?ua annioeee?othony n yoei aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe, eaeaioeoeoee?otho i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue /aeiaaea e oie eee eiie i?ioanneiiaeueiie a?oiia, oe?aieytho eieaeae i?ioannee.Aa?a aooaaeoa?ia aue ?ac?aaioai AE.A. Aethia?oa e i?aaenoaaeai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio eiia?anno aooaaeoa?ia a 1946 a. A iaaea iooai iaeiaeaiey ecia?aaeaiu aanu (neiaieece?othuea aaeain — ?aaainoai aeoeaa e ianneaa), nieioea (neiaie oiai, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao inaauaao ana noi?iiu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey) e e?eaay Aa?ioeee (neiaieece?oao aaneiia/iinoue, o.a. icia/aao, /oi o/ao, aicieeioa iaeiaaeaeu, aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue anaaaea). Ii e?ath iaaea ?aniieiaeai aeaaec «Conseience, independence, science» — «Aeiaa?ea, iacaaeneiinoue, iaoea». Aa?a aooaaeoa?ia aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie yaeyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiie yiaeaiie, neiaieece?othuae i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e aooaaeoa?neie i?ioannee.Neiaieii Einoeoooa i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia ?innee yaeyaony «aaei/ea», eee «e?uae». Oaeie ciae eniieuecotho a ?aaioa aeey i?iaa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe ?acianaiey noii ec aeieoiaioia a ?aaeno?u e aeey eiio?iey iieiiou o/aoiuo caienae.?ac?aaioeo iieiaeaiee Eiaeaena i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee neaaeoao n/eoaoue aieueoie caneoaie aia?eeaineie aooaaeoa?ee. Aeaeii Eanoeia Ea??e (1900—1984) aian ia?iiiue aeeaae ia oieueei a nicaeaiea yoiai Eiaeaena, ii e a i?iiaaaiaeo yoeee. Ia?aue yoe/aneee eiaeaen aooaaeoa?ia aue i?eiyo a 1987 a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aai iniiaiua i?eioeeiu naiaeyony e oiio, /oi i?ioanneiiaeueiue aooaaeoa? aeieaeai:— auoue i?yiieeiaeiui e /anoiui i?e auiieiaiee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae;— auoue i?eioeeieaeueiui e ia aucuaaoue i?aaeoaaaeaeaiey;— iaeaaeaoue aunieei o?iaiai eiiiaoaioeee e iinoiyiii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aai ia aeieaeiii o?iaia;— nio?aiyoue eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue eioi?iaoeee, e?iia neo/aaa, o?aaothueo ii caeiio io?aaeaoue oaeoth eioi?iaoeeth;— niaethaeaoue iacaaeneiinoue (eae ii?aeueioth, oae e iaoa?eaeueioth).Aeey iaania/aiey auiieiaiey yoe/aneeo ii?i iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniio?aoue ia?u aeenoeeieeia?iiai aicaeaenoaey, a a iniauo neooaoeeyo aeaaea a?aaeaeaineie e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. E oaeei ia?ai iiaeii ioianoe iauanoaaiiia ii?eoeaiea (a i?ioanneiiaeueiie n?aaea), nicaeaiea e ioaeeeaoeey «/a?iuo nieneia» iaaeia?iniaanoiuo aooaaeoa?ia, i?einoaiiaeo ia a?aiy eee eeoaiea i?aaa caieiaoueny aeaiiui aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe e o.ae.Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiua i?eioeeiu i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee oe?aieytho noaoon aooaaeoa?a, iiauoatho i?anoeae e aeiaa?ea e aooaaeoa?neie i?ioannee e, eae neaaenoaea, oaaee/eaatho ni?in ia aooaaeoa?neea oneoae.5.4. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oieoeeaoeey o/aoaEniieii aaea aooaaeoa?u ia eaaeaeii i?aaei?eyoee auae?aee naie iiaeoiaeyuea oieueei aeey ieo e nianoaaiieeia i?eaiu. A ia/aea XX a. iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai ei?ii?aoeee, e ?acee/ey a o/aoiuo nenoaiao noaee iaoaoue:— eiaanoi?ai — yenii?oe?iaaoue oiaa? ca ?oaaae;— aooaaeoa?ai — iaiyoue ianoi ?aaiou;— i?ia?aiienoai — nauaaoue e oe?aaee?iaaoue i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou;— i?aiiaeaaaoaeyi — eiiieaeoiaaoue a?oiiu iao/athueony;— aaoi?ai — ?ani?ino?aiyoue eieae.Aia?aua i?iaeaia auea iinoaaeaia a 1904 a. ia ia?aii Iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eiia?anna aooaaeoa?ia.Ianoueiaea iiaeaeae aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iineo aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa? e ecaanoia eae i?iaeaia oieoeeaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie iaeaieueooth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eee aeaa iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth yoie i?iaeaiu: aa?iiiecaoeey e noaiaea?oecaoeey. Ecia/aeueii yoe iiiyoey ?acee/aeenue e ii nooe, e ii i?eioeeiai eo ?aaeecaoeee, iaeiaei a iineaaeiea aiaeu iie eniieuecothony eeai eae neiiieiu, eeai eae acaeiiaeiiieiythuea iiiyoey.Eaeay aa?iiiecaoeee ?acee/iuo nenoai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ?aaeecoaony a ?aieao Aa?iiaeneiai niiauanoaa (AN). Eiaeea aa oaeiaa: a eaaeaeie no?aia iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue naiy nenoaia o/aoa e nenoaia noaiaea?oia, ?aaoee?othueo aa. Aeaaiia, /oiau yoe noaiaea?ou ia i?ioeai?a/eee ae?oa ae?oao, o.a. iaoiaeeeenue a aa?iiiee. A iniiaa i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee eaeae aa?iiiecaoeee eaaeeo iieeoe/aneia niaeaoaiea no?ai — /eaiia AN, iiyoiio iniiaiua iieiaeaiey o/aoiuo aee?aeoea aeeth/aiu a iaoeeiiaeueiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yoeo no?ai, eiathueo ioiioaiea e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo.Eaeay noaiaea?oecaoeee o/aoiuo i?ioeaaeo? ?aaeecoaony a ?aieao oieoeeaoeee o/aoa, eioi?oth i?iaiaeeo Eiieoao ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Eiaeea yoiai iiaeoiaea oaeiaa: aeieaeai nouanoaiaaoue oieoeoee?iaaiiue iaai? noaiaea?oia, i?eiaiyaiuo e ethaie neooaoeee a ethaie no?aia. Iiyoiio noaiiaeony aanniuneaiiie ?ac?aaioea iaoeeiiaeueiuo noaiaea?oia. *oi eanaaony aaeeiuo noaiaea?oia, oi a ioee/ea io AN iie aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny a ?acoeueoaoa aeia?iaieueiiai niaeaoaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee no?ai.Ec anaai iiiaiia?acey o/aoiuo nenoai iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iniiaiuo oeia:1) a?eoaii-aia?eeaineay iiaeaeue—iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay, i?eiaiyaony a NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Ieaea?eaiaeao, Eaiaaea, Eiaeee, Aano?aeee, THA? e ae?. Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth yaeyaony i?eaioaoeey io/aoiinoe ia eiaanoi?ia e e?aaeeoi?ia. Iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeae ainoaea?noaa (a eeoea iaeiaiauo i?aaiia) auaaaeaii ca ?aiee oeiainiaiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. Aeaiiay iiaeaeue aace?oaony ia iaoeeiiaeueiuo noaiaea?oao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa NOA, eioi?ua i?eiyoi iacuaaoue GAAP;2) eiioeiaioaeueiay iiaeaeue iauaaeeiyao o/aoiua nenoaiu O?aioeee, Aa?iaiee, Aano?ee e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo no?ai Aa?iiu. Aeecee e iae ssiiiey e ?inney. Iiaeaeue ioee/aaony aunieie noaiaiueth aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a o/aoioth iieeoeeo (i?eiaiaiea aaeeiiai ieaia n/aoia, neaaeiaaiea ooaa?aeaeaiiui i?eioeeiai io?aaeaiey iia?aoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiinoue ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae iaeiaiauo e eiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e ae?.). I?aeoeea o/aoa iaeiieno?aiu nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io i?aeoeee ae?oaie;3) nenoaia iiaeaioiaee oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe a niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie noaiaea?oaie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe (INOI, eee IASB). Yoi iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua i?eioeeiu, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue caeiaeaiu a iniiao iaoeeiiaeueiuo noaiaea?oia ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo. INOI oaeaea iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aeey ninoaaeaiey oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ei?ii?aoeee a ea/anoaa iniiaiuo noaiaea?oia.Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a ie?iaie i?aeoeea neiaeeeanue o?aaeeoeey, ii eioi?ie io/aoiinoue e?oiiuo aa?iiaeneeo, a oii /enea ?inneeneeo, ei?ii?aoeee ia?an/eouaaaony a niioaaonoaee ni noaiaea?oaie NOA, o.a. n GAAP. Yoi iauyniyaony no?aieaieai aa?iiaeneeo eiiiaiee aanoe ae?aeaaua iia?aoeee ia aia?eeaineeo oiiaeiauo ae?aeao, yeniaineae aia?eeaineeo ei?ii?aoeee ia aa?iiaeneii ?uiea e o.i.Iaeiaei aei nicaeaiey iaycaoaeueiuo aeey i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia e ie?iaie oieoeeaoeee o/aoa aua i/aiue aeaeaei. Aeaaiie i?e/eiie yoiai yaeyaony oi, /oi a iaoeeiiaeueiuo nenoaiao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aeey en/eneaiey i?eauee eniieuecothony naie aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu (aaethoa) . E?iia oiai, yoe nenoaiu iniiaaiu ia aaeiauo iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aaeeoeeyo aeaeiaiai iai?ioa.?acthie?oy eceiaeaiiia, ioiaoei, /oi a XX a. o/ao noaiiaeony nioeeaeueiui yaeaieai. Niaea?aeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iinoiyiii eciaiyaony a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie iauanoaa. Aeey iaania/aiey eioa?ania aiaoieo iieueciaaoaeae oi?ie?othony i?eioeeiu oeiainiaiai o/aoa e oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe. Aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae oi?aaeaiey e i?eiyoey yooaeoeaiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee ia/eiaao aeoeaii ?acaeaaoueny oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao. Eiaiii eciaiaiey nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu aunooiatho oaeoi?aie ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. Yoi o?aaeeoeeiiiay oi/ea c?aiey, iaeiaei anoue e aeueoa?iaoeaiue acaeyae. Oai?ey, auaeaeiooay Ciiaa?oii a 1924 a., aeaneo, /oi ?acaeoea aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee auei ianoieueei aaaeiui, /oi i?eaaei e iiaeuaio eaieoaeecia. Oae eee eia/a, acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo aooaaeoa?neei o/aoii e iauanoaii iauaeoeaii nouanoaotho.6. ?acaeoea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a ?innee6.1. Aeeyiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aaeeoeee e iaioaeeoaoa ia oi?ie?iaaiea i?eioeeiia ?inneeneie aooaaeoa?eeAooaaeoa?neee o/ao, yaeyynue i?eeeaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoeie, oi?ie?oaony iiae aeeyieai iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aaeeoeee e niioaaonoaoao yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa.Aicieeiiaaiea ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa, ioiinyo e 862 a. Ia?aua iieoi?a noieaoey a iai eniieueciaaeenue naiua i?eieoeaiua o/aoiua i?eaiu, naycaiiua n ?aaeno?aoeeae oi?aiauo iai?ioia e nai?ii aeaie (iaeiaia). A yoio ia?eiae ethaia oicyenoai ?anniao?eaaeinue eae /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue eiycy, iiyoiio ?acia?u aeaie ia ia?aie/eaaeenue. Eiycue iia acyoue ana, /oi n/eoae ioaeiui aeey naay e eeoiei aeey naieo iiaeaeaiiuo. Iicaeiaa ainoaea?noaii ?oeiaiaeeee oea?ue, eiia?aoi?, aaia?aeueiue nae?aoa?ue, a nae/an i?aceaeaio, ii nooue ioiioaiee «/aeiaae — ainoaea?noai» ia eciaieeanue: ainoaea?noai onoaiaaeeaaao e aiaae?yao i?aaeea (caeiiu), eieoeee?oy eaeae «naa?oo».Oaeay iniaaiiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa noi?ie?iaaea ia?aue i?eioeei ?onneiai o/aoa: ainoaea?noai yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui nianoaaiieeii anaai eiouanoaa a no?aia, a cia/eo, e caeiiu caueuatho eioa?anu ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. Iiyoiio e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia caeiiu ieooo aeey ethaeae, a ethaeae «?aaiytho» iiae caeiiu, /oi e i?eaiaeeo e ianniaiio iaaeaeaieth yoe caeiiu auiieiyoue, iniaaiii a oie /anoe, eioi?ay naycaia n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ioaeaaaoue ainoaea?noao /anoue naiaai eiouanoaa a aeaea iaeiaia.Neaaenoaeai oaeiai iiaeoiaea e ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe noaei eaciie?aaenoai, n eioi?ui ouaoii ai?ieenue a ?innee ai ana a?aiaia. Aeey nie?uoey ceioiio?aaeaiee io/aou iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe iiaeaeaeuaaeenue, iieacaoaee oi?ie?iaaee oaeeie, eaeeie auei auaiaeii, a ia oaeeie, eaeeie iie auee a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio aeiaa?ey e io/aoiinoe, a oii /enea e aooaaeoa?neie, iao e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy. N?aaee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii iiaiea, /oi cai?aoeaaoue aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue — cia/eo ia aeiaa?youe ia?oia?o. Neiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey n/eoaaony iaaeaaeiaa oeeo?, i?eaaaeaiiuo ia aoiaaa. Oae oi?ie?oaony aoi?ie i?eioeei ?inneeneie aooaaeoa?ee: a o/aoa aiaoiee aeae aeieoiaioa ai?acaei aaaeiaa, /ai aai aioo?aiiaa niaea?aeaiea, o.a. eioi?iaoeey. I?ei?eoao oi?iu iaae niaea?aeaieai aeaao iaeioi?oth eaaeouothny oaa?aiiinoue a aeinoiaa?iinoe iieacaoaeae io/aoiinoe. Ii ethaiaue e ii?yaeeo ia ecaaaeyao io ioeaie.A neeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aaeeoeee iiyaeyaony aua iaeei i?eioeei, niaeanii eioi?iio iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae ia/aeueieeii aaaeiaa iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae ae?oaeie eeoeaie. O/ao iiieiaaony eae o?oaeiaay iiaeiiinoue, iaeiaeaiiay ia aaeieieno?aoeeth auoanoiyueie ia/aeueieeaie. A ?ac oae, oi e aanoe o/ao iiaeii iaea/anoaaiii, eeoue au ieeoi ia iaeacae. Yoio i?eioeei neeai e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, oieueei ia/aeueiee aunooiaao a eeoea einiaeoi?a iaeiaiaiai i?aaia.Oaeei ia?acii, i?eioeeiu ?onneie aooaaeoa?ee noi?ie?iaaeenue iiae aeeyieai enoi?e/aneie o?aaeeoeee, iaoeeiiaeueiie ineoieiaee e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Enoi?e/anee a ?innee neiaeeeanue aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiay nenoaia, a oii /enea a o/aoa, o.a. oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi noieo oieueei ecaeaoue oi?ioee caeii (iieiaeaiea, eino?oeoeeth), e ana iaaeinoaoee en/acioo, eiaao iiiaiaaeiaoth o?aaeeoeeth.6.2. O/ao a aei?aoi?iaiiia a?aiyEiioeuen e ?acaeoeth o/aoiie iunee ia ?one aeaei i?eiyoea o?enoeainoaa, aneaaenoaea /aai iiyaeeinue iiiai iiianou?ae, aaaeoueo ia?iiioth ii oai a?aiaiai e ?aciiia?acioth oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue. A iiianou?yo nouanoaiaae neiaeiue ii?yaeie ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaycaiiinoae. Oi?aaeythuee (eaea?ue) eiae a naiai iiae/eiaiee eacia/ay (ioaaonoaaiiue ca aeaiueae) e noa?oeaa (ioaaonoaaiiua ca iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe). Ca eaaeaeue eiouanoaaiiue iauaeo ioaa/ae oeaeiaaeueiee (auai?iay aeieaeiinoue). Aeey caiene o?iaeay aaeenue niaoeeaeueiua eieae, eioi?ua neoaeeee io/aoaie. Ca aaaeaiea yoeo eiea ioaa/aee aeuey/ee, a a oeaeyo eiio?iey i?iaiaeeeenue eiaaioa?ecaoeee. Oeaiu ia oneoae oea?eae (e?auaiea, aai/aiea, ioiaaaiea e o.i.) onoaiaaeeaaeenue a caaeneiinoe io cao?ao ia niaea?aeaiea iiiaoia, a ia io ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.Neaaeothuee yoai naycai n yiioie oaoa?neiai eaa. Oaoa?u iuoaeenue aaanoe iiaeooioth aeaiue. Aeey yoiai auea i?iaaaeaia ia?aay ia?aienue ianaeaiey, o.a. «eiaaioa?ecaoeey» ethaeae. Iinoaiaiii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea noaei aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui: n aiaaoiai a?aee aieueoa, n aaaeiiai — iaiueoa. Iiyaeeanue eieeaeoeaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue, o.a. anee eoi-oi oaaaeeo, oi inoaaoeany ieaoyo aeaiue ca aaaeaoea. Ca?iaeeeanue aoiinoa?a aeia?iaieueiie neaaeee, oae eae iaaeieiea iaeiiai ec /eaiia eieeaeoeaa aiciauaeanue inoaeueiuie (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao eieeaeoeaiay iaoa?eaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue).N XV ii XVII a. aaiaeyony o?iee — oaa?aeua caaeaiey. Eaaeaeiio ?aaioieeo onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?ia: neieueei, eaeie ?aaiou neaaeoao auiieieoue, a eaeea n?iee. ?aaioieeo noaiiaeony auaiaeii iieo/eoue iaiueoaa caaeaiea, a naeaeaoue aieueoa, /oiau iieo/eoue aeiiieieoaeueiua ei?iiaua. Yoi i?eaaei e onoaiiaeaieth ia?aaeueiuo ii?i (caieaeaiiuo ieaiiauo caaeaiee), eioi?ua iiaeii auei eaaei ia?aauiieiyoue e iieo/aoue ca yoi i?aiee.A n?aaeiaaaeiaie ?innee auea ioiineoaeueii ?acaeoa oi?aiaey. Caiene i aeieaao aaeenue ia oeo?ao aeeaioiuo eee ia aeiua/eao, eioi?ua iiaee auoue oe?aaeaiu eee ooa?yiu. Iiyoiio noiiu caaeieaeaiiinoe nee/aee n o/anoieeaie naeaeie. Oi?ie?oaony niinia o/aoa, ninoiyuee ai acaeiiie auaa?ea aeaaeoi?neie e e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe o eeoe, o/anoaothueo a oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannao (eieeaoeey). Yoio niinia iicaieyao ane?uoue ceioiio?aaeaiey, niaa?oaiiua aeaaea iiiai aaeia iacaae.6.3. O/ao a yiioo Iao?a IA XVIII a. a ?innee i?aaeoaeuenoai Iao?a I i?eciaei ionoaeinoue no?aiu e anoaei ia iooue ?aoi?i, eioi?ua cao?aaeaaee e o/ao. A 1710 a. a aacaoa «Iineianeea iiainoe» iiyaeeinue iiaia neiai «aooaaeoa?» (auei i?aaeeiaeaii e ?onneia neiai «eieaiaea?aeaoaeue», ii iii ia i?eaeeeinue).Eiaeono?eaeecaoeey no?aiu auea naycaia n ?acaeoeai eacaiiuo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo e aeiieo?aiiuo caaiaeia, ei?aaeano?ieoaeueiuo e eiuo i?aaei?eyoee. O/aoo e eiio?ieth oaeaeyeinue ia?iiiia aieiaiea, eino?oeoeee ii o/aoo ecaeaaaeenue eae ainoaea?noaaiiua aeou. Ia?aue ec ieo aeaoe?oainy 2 yiaa?y 1714 a. Aai iieiaeaiey auee iaycaoaeueiuie aeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa e i?iiuoeaiiinoe. O?aaiaaeinue naiaa?aiaiii aeaeaoue caiene, aaeaaeiaaii aanoe i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiua eieae, e?iia oiai, auei onoaiiaeaii no?iai ia?niiaeueiia iiae/eiaiea ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe.E?oiiaeoei niauoeai a enoi?ee ?onneiai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa auei ecaeaiea ?aaeaiaioa oi?aaeaiey aaeie?aeoaenoaa e aa?oe io 5 ai?aey 1722 a., eioi?ui i?aaeoniao?eaaeanue no?iaay nenoaia iaoo?aeueii-noieiinoiiai o/aoa iaoa?eaeia e ?ac?aoaeinue aeaeaoue caiene a aooaaeoa?neea eieae oieueei ia iniiaa ii?aaaeaoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia. I?eoiaei-?anoiaeiay eieaa ii o/aoo iaoa?eaeia aeieaeia auea aanoenue a aeoaaeoiii ii?yaeea ii iaeiaiiaaieth, n oeacaieai eiee/anoaa e noiiu.I?eioeeiu aeieoiaioe?iaaiey niaethaeaeenue e ia eacaiiuo aeiieo?aiiuo caaiaeao, aaea aeey iaoa?eaeueiiai o/aoa oaeaea auee aaaaeaiu i?eoiaei-?anoiaeiua eieae. Niaoeeaeueiay eieaa ioe?uaaeanue aeey o/aoa auiieiaiiuo aeiaiai?ia n iiae?yae/eeaie.Ia?iiiia ?acaeoea iieo/ee o/ao ia o?aeueneeo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo caaiaeao. Aeeeei Eaaiiae/ Aaiiei (1676—1750) ?ac?aaioae nenoaio i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa, eioi?ay iaania/eaaea nieioioth aeieoiaioaoeeth anao oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie, ?aaoey?iia i?iaaaeaiea eiaaioa?ecaoeee e ninoaaeaiea io/aoiinoe. E?iia oiai, ii oniaa?oainoaiaae iaoiaeeeo o/aoa cao?ao n iiiiuueth eeiaeiie caiene. A ?acoeueoaoa a nenoaia o/aoa oi?ie?iaaeanue aiaeeoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey oi?aaeaiey no?oeoo?iuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie.O/ao oanii ia?aieaoaeny n ieaie?iaaieai, i?e/ai any ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?inoie a i?iecaiaenoaa aiceaaaeanue ia oi?aaeythueo. Ca ianaiaa?aiaiioth iiaea/o cayaie ia o?aeueneeo caaiaeao ia aeiiaiuo iaeaaaeny oo?ao.Iaeiaei aeaieiay caienue ia eniieueciaaeanue, oae eae o/ao a iaoo?aeueiuo aaeeieoeao aue aieaa iiiyoai. Oniao ethaie ?aaiou iaaiciiaeai aac eiio?iey, n?aaenoaii eiio?iey auee aeiiinu. E i?yiui aeiiinai ioiioaiea auei iieiaeeoaeueiia, a e aiiieiiui — aeaienoaaiiia (aiaoiaa iaiaeia?aiea, aioo?aiiaa iiiu?aiea). Aeiiinu iiiu?yee niaoeeaeueiua ethaee — oeneaeu. Iie aeieaeiu auee iaania/eoue niaethaeaiea oeiainiaie aeenoeeieeiu, eo ?aaiea iiiu?yeinue e iaoa?eaeueii, ii e ioaaonoaaiiinoue auea iaiaeay: anee ii eaeie-eeai i?e/eia oeneae ia auiieiye naie iaycaiiinoe aeieaeiui ia?acii (ae?oaeaa, a?aaeaea eee acyoea), aai iiaee eacieoue eee nineaoue ia aaea?u n au?uaaieai iicae?ae e eiioeneaoeeae anaai eiouanoaa. Ca aieaa iaeeea i?anooieaiey oeneaeu iaeacuaaeenue a?aiaiiie nnueeie eee oo?aoii. Neaaenoaeai iiaeiaiuo ia? noaei oi, /oi a ainoaea?noaaiiii oicyenoaa o/ao aue oi?ioi ?acaeo.Iaeaieaa na?ueacii n oi/ee c?aiey oai?ee o/ao ?acaeaaeny a oicyenoaao iiiaueeia. Aeaaiuie iauaeoaie o/aoa auee ethaee, a neio, iaoie, eiaaioa?ue o/eouaaeenue ii e?aiinoiui e?anoueyiai. Iniiaiui iaoiaee/aneei i?eaiii neoaeeea eiaaioa?ecaoeey oeaiiinoae e ethaeae. Caiene caiineeenue a niaoeeaeueiua eieae eee ia ae?ee.Oaeouee o/ao o?aaiaae neiaeiie nenoaiu eiea. Oeaio?aeueioth eieao — oaaaeue — aae noa?inoa. A iae o/eouaaeinue, neieueei a?aiaie e?anoueyiei io?aaioae ia aa?ueia. Oaaaeue aue iieiaiiue, ioe?uaaeny ia eaaeaeoth aea?aaith. Neaaeothuay eieaa — aeiiaoiee aeo?iae, a eioi?ii caienuaaee a o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea nia?oiinoue, ?iaeaeaaiinoue, iiaaae e?aiinoiuo e o.ae. A iieaaie oao?aaee iienuaaee ninoiyiea iieae. A oeaaiie oao?aaee aaee caienue iaee/ey e aeaeaeaiey oeaaa. Aeaiaaeiay oao?aaeue auea i?aaeoniio?aia aeey o/aoa i?eoiaea, ?anoiaea e inoaoea aeaiaa, aeiiiaay oao?aaeue — aeey caiene aeieaia. Ioaeaeueii caaiaeeeanue oao?aaeue iiai?ia n ioaeeeia. Iaeiiaoe, a iineaaeithth oao?aaeue caienuaaee oi, /oi ia aioei a ae?oaea eieae. Eaaeaeay oao?aaeue i?aaenoaaeyea niaie aooaaeoa?neee ?aaeno?. Aaeaaiaeii caaiaeeeenue iiaua oao?aaee, i?e/ai ia ia iniiaa i?aaeuaeoueo caienae, a ii aeaiiui eiaaioa?ecaoeee.O/ao a oi?aiaea oaeaea aue iniiaai ia iaoo?aeueiuo ecia?eoaeyo e aaeny ii i?inoie (oiea?aoe/aneie) nenoaia. Aeaaiue i?eioeei ioeaiee oiaa?ia — ii naaanoieiinoe (ii oaeoe/aneei cao?aoai ia iieoieo).Aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i, a oii /enea a iaeanoe o/aoa, iaiaoiaeeiu auee a?aiioiua ethaee. A aeiiao?ianeoth yiioo ciaiey ia?aoiaeeee io iooea e nuio, io oicyeia e i?eeac/eeo e o.i. Oaeia o/aiea oeaieei i?aeoeeo, o.a. oiaiea aeaea aeaeaoue, a ia neiaa aiai?eoue. I?e Ai?ena Aiaeoiiaa auea naeaeaia iiiuoea ioi?aaeoue o/aueony ca a?aieoeo, ii iie ana oai e inoaeenue. A 1721 a. Iao? I iuoaeny nicaeaoue eiiia?/aneoth oeieo, aaea au o/eeenue aanoe eieae. O/aiea a iao?ianeie oeiea ?anniao?eaaeinue eae neoaeaa. O o/eoaeae auea iaycaiiinoue iao/eoue, o o/aieeia — iao/eony.Anee iaycaiiinoue ia auiieiyeanue, iaeaaaeenue iaeacaiey: ca ioeac ioaa/aoue — oo?ao, ca aea?cinoue — aeoue aaoiaaie, ca i?iaoe —naaeaoue ia oeaiue.Eoae, ?aoi?iu Iao?a I i?aneaaeiaaee aeaa oeaee: oneeeoue eiio?ieue ca nio?aiiinoueth nianoaaiiinoe e oaaee/eoue aeioiaeu eaciu. Ii yoe oeaee ia auee aeinoeaioou ie i?e Iao?a I, ie iinea iaai. Oniaoiiio ?acaeoeth o/aoa iaoaee:- aeiaiaoeci iuoeaiey;- i/aiue ieceee o?iaaiue i?aainiciaiey;- ieceee o?iaaiue a?aiioiinoe;- ieceee o?iaaiue iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee.6.4. ?acaeoea o/aoa a eiioea XVIII — ia/aea XIX a.A enoi?ee iaoaai ioa/anoaa XVIII aae aue iaeiei ec aeaaiiieo/iuo. Iineaaeiaaoaee Iao?a I no?aieeenue oeo/oeoue o/ao, e iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiui n?aaenoaii aeey yoiai auea i?eciaia aeaieiay aooaaeoa?ey. Ia?aui oieeiaaoaeai aeaieiie caiene a ?innee noae Ieoaee Aeieo?eaae/ *oeeia (1740—1792). Ii aue ia?aui ?onneei aaoi?ii eieae ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «Ianoaaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii ioaeiia aeey ?inneeneeo eoioeia, a aieaa aeey iieiaeuo ethaeae», eioi?ay auoea a naao a 1788 a. Naiay aea ia?aay eieaa ia ?onneii ycuea ii o/aoo «Eeth/ eiiia?oeee eee oi?aiaee, oi anoue iaoea aooaaeoa?ee, ecuyaeythuay niaea?aeaiea eiea e i?ienoiaeaeaiea n/aoia eiiia?/aneeo», ia?aaaaeaiiay n aiaeeeneiai ycuea, auea ecaeaia a 1783 a. Aaoi? yoie eieae eceaaae o/ao ii noa?ieoaeueyineie oi?ia, o.a. aac ?acaeaeaiey n/aoia ia neioaoe/aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea. *oeeia a naiae eieaa iienuaae o?aioeocneoth oi?io n/aoiaiaenoaa.Nionoy 20 eao, a 1804 a., auoea a naao o?aouey eieaa ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo ia ?onneii ycuea, eioi?ay oaeaea eiaea yiioaeueiia cia/aiea aeey ?onneie aooaaeoa?ee. Yoi eieaa Eaaia Na?eeiaa «Niaa?oaiiue n/aoiaiae eee e?aoeia e yniia ?oeiaiaenoai ii aooaaeoa?ee aiiaua n i?eniaieoieaieai i?aeoe/aneeo oi?aiauo i?eia?ia», aaea ii eceiaeee iaiaoeeoth oi?io n/aoiaiaenoaa. Inaiaiea aa?iiaeneie o/aoiie iunee ia auoanieei ?onneoth o?aaeeoeeth a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa, a i?aaie/ii aienaeinue a iaa.Nenoaia o/aoa a oi?aiaea auea iniiaaia ia aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee e ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeanue Aaie?ioneei Onoaaii (1800), a aieaa aeaoaeueii — Caeiiii i ii?yaeea aaaeaiey eoioeaie oi?aiauo eiea (1834). Caeiiii i?aaeienuaaeenue ii?yaeie e oi?ia o/aoa a oi?aiaea a caaeneiinoe io aeaea i?aaei?eyoey — iioiaia, ?icie/iia eee iaei/iia. Ana i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu auee aanoe o?e eieae: oiaa?ioth (aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao oiaa?ia), eanniaoth (nieioiay ?aaeno?aoeey anao auieao e iinooieaiee) e ?an/aoioth (ia?a/aiue eeoe, n eioi?uie i?aaei?eyoea aaaeao ?an/aou). A ?icie/iie e iioiaie oi?aiaea, e?iia yoiai, ioaeii auei aanoe aeieoiaioaeueioth eieao (ia?a/aiue aaenaeae, aeoeee, caaiiuo ienai, aeiaiai?ia e o.ae.). A iaei/iie e ?icie/iie oi?aiaea i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue aaaeaiea i?inoie, a a iioiaie — aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee. Iiyoiio iioiaui i?aaei?eyoeyi ioaeii auei aanoe aeo?iae o?iiieiae/aneie ?aaeno?aoeee, eieao eiiee anae enoiaeyuae ei??aniiiaeaioeee, eieao enoiaeyueo n/aoia e Aeaaioth eieao (a?innaoo) aeey nenoaiaoe/aneie ?aaeno?aoeee.E?iia oiai, Caeiiii io 1834 a. onoaiaaeeaaeenue oi?ia e aeae aeaieia, o.a. auea naeaeaia iiiuoea oieoeeaoeee aooaaeoa?neeo aeieoiaioia, ii ianiio?y ia yoi, ana eoia/aneea eieae aaeenue aeiaieueii iaa?aaeii.Ia?aia a ie?a eiiia?/aneia o/eeeua auei ioe?uoi a 1772 a. a Iineaa ia aeaiueae o?aeueneiai i?iiuoeaiieea I. Aeaieaeiaa. *a?ac ianeieueei eao o/eeeua ia?aaaee a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, aaea iii i?inouanoaiaaei aei ?aaiethoeee. Iao/aiea iaeue/eeia e aeaai/ae auei niaianoiui. Iie eco/aee o?e eiino?aiiuo ycuea, eiiia?/aneoth ei??aniiiaeaioeeth ia ?onneii e eiino?aiiuo ycueao. Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi ioaiaeeeinue eco/aieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, ia yoii ianoaeaaea naia Aeaoa?eia II. A 1804 a. ia n?aaenoaa iineianeiai eoia/anoaa ioe?ueinue aoi?ia o/eeeua a Iineaa. A yoii aea aiaeo E.E. A?iieueae i?aaieciaae a Iineaa aua iaeii eiiia?/aneia o/eeeua, eioi?ia iioii auei ia?aeiaiiaaii a Iineianeoth i?aeoe/aneoth aeaaeaieth. Iia iaoiaeeeanue a aaaeaiee Iineianeiai iauanoaa ethaeoaeae eiiia?/aneeo iaoe e ioiineeanue e n?aaeiei o/aaiui caaaaeaieyi. A 1805 a. a Iaeanna ioe?ueinue aua iaeii o/eeeua, ia aaca eioi?iai iioii aue nicaeai Iiai?inneeneee oieaa?neoao.A nayce n ia?aciaaieai o/eeeu ana aooaaeoa?u ?acaeaeeeenue ia aeaa a?oiiu: oai?aoeee e i?aeoeee. Eco/aoue aooaaeoa?neee o/ao no?aieeenue e thiioe, aeaeathuea ?acaiaaoaoue, e aeai?yia, aiyueany ?aci?aiey. Ii/aa aeey ?acaeoey ?onneie iao/iie oeieu auea nicaeaia a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. E.E. A?iieueaeii, E. Aoiaoiaui e Y.A. Ioa?iaui.Ea?e Eaaiiae/ A?iieueae i?eaoae ec Aa?iaiee e aue a ?innee ia?aui i?aiiaeaaaoaeai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Oeaeue aooaaeoa?ee ii aeaeae a oii, /oiau ane?uoue i?e/eiu eciaiaiee a ninoaaa eiouanoaa, i?aaeiaoii aooaaeoa?ee iacuaae e?oaiiai?io eaieoaea (oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa); ?ac?aaioae i?eaeiaeueioth nenoaio o/aoa oiaa?ia; aeey en/eneaiey naaanoieiinoe i?aaeeaaae aanoe eaeueeoeyoeeiiioth eieao. Niaeanii aeaiiui eaeueeoeyoeeiiiie eieae a naaanoieiinoue oiaa?ia aeeth/aaony anoanoaaiiay oaueue a iooe, o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu e iioeeiu. Aeey iauyniaiey aeaieiie caiene E.E. A?iieueae i?eaeaeae iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao, oae eae ionoaeaae acaeyaeu iaiaoeeie oeieu. Iniaue aeeaae ii aian a oi?ie?iaaiea ?onneie aooaaeoa?neie oa?ieiieiaee: aeae iiiyoea o/aoiiai ?aaeno?a, aaae oa?iei «?aeaieooeyoeey» eae iiiyoea a?oiie?iaee o/aoiuo aeaiiuo, aeaaieu «noi?ie?iaaoue», «aeaaaoiaaoue» e ae?. A?iieueae ia?aui aunooiee n o/aieai i ?aaecee e iaoiaeao aa i?iaaaeaiey. Iaeiiaoe, ii ia?aui i?eaae a naiae ?aaioa enoi?e/aneea naaaeaiey ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo e iieiaeee ia/aei eco/aieth enoi?ee aeaiiie iaoee.Eaai Aoiaoia, neoaeauee iaoa?ao?aneie oi?aiaie oe?iu, iieaaae, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoueny eae /anoue iieeoyeiiiiee. I?aaeiaoii o/aoa ii iauyaee ia naii oicyenoai, a aai ecia?aaeaiea ia n/aoao, ia oicyenoaaiiua i?ioeannu, a iaoiaeu o/aoiiai ecia?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeee ia yoeo i?ioeannao. Oaeei ia?acii, oaea a ia/aea XIX a. iaiaoeeinue aeaa iai?aaeaiey a o?aeoiaea o/aoa: i?aaeiaoiia (eiouanoai, e?oaiiai?io eaieoaea, i?eaueue) e iaoiaeieiae/aneia (no?iaiea n/aoia). E. Aoiaoia iienae eniieueciaaiea aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee ia oieueei aeey oi?aiaee, ii e aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A oeaio?a aai aieiaiey auea o?iiieiae/aneay caienue, o.a. iaiyoiay eieaa, caiene a eioi?ie aaaeoony n oeacaieai iaycaoaeueiuo ?aeaeceoia.Y?ano Aeaenaaae/ Ioae?ia — o/eoaeue iaoaiaoeee e oeceee a Ieaiaoeeie aeiiacee a. Iao?icaaiaenea. I?aaeiaoii o/aoa ii n/eoae anyeee o?oae, eiathuee oeaeueth i?eaueue. Ioae?ia oeacuaae aeaa iniiaiuo aa?eaioa i?aaiecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai o/aoa:- auaeaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa e eaeueeoeyoeee a iniaue oeeee, ia naycaiiue n iauei o/aoii;- aeeth/aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa a aaeeiue o/aoiue oeeee.Y.A. Ioae?ia ?aeiiaiaeiaae auaeaeyoue niaoeeaeueiue n/ao aeey o/aoa iaeaieaa nae?aoiuo iia?aoeee; i?e ioeaiea oiaa?ia enoiaeee ec naaanoieiinoe a ioee/ea io A?iieueaea. Ioae?ia ianoaeaae ia oii, /oi i?e?iaea aeaieiie caiene auoaeaao ec oicyenoaaiiuo iai?ioia; ioaeaaae i?aaeii/oaiea nenoaiaoe/aneie caiene, iineieueeo o?iiieiae/aneay, ii aai iiaieth, ioaeia oieueei eae caiiieiathuaa ono?ienoai.Eoae, ?aaiou aaoi?ia XVIII e ia?aie iieiaeiu XIX a. noaee ?anoeaaoii ?onneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey e i?eaaee e oi?ie?iaaieth iniia ?onneie oeieu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.6.5. ?onneay iaoeeiiaeueiay oeiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoaIoiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa noaea oie/eii aeey ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia e, eae neaaenoaea, aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. A oi?ie?iaaiee oeieu i?ineaaeeaathony o?e yoaia:1) ca?iaeaeaiea e oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo eaeae;2) ?ani?ino?aiaiea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?eciaiea yoeo eaeae;3) ?aci/a?iaaiea a yooaeoeaiinoe iiauo eaeae.Ia?aue yoai ia/eiaaony n o?oaeia Iaaea Eaaiiae/a ?aeiaioa e Aeaenaiae?a Aaneeueaae/a I?ieioueaaa. Iaa aaoi?a noiyee ia ?oaaaea noa?ie e iiaie ?onneeo oeie. Ni noa?ie eo ?iaeieo oceii?aeoe/aneee iiaeoiae e aeaeo, n iiaie — oieaa?naeueiinoue, n eioi?ie iie ?ani?ino?aiytho iaoiae aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee ia ana io?anee oicyenoaa.I.E. ?aeiaio naiaeee i?aaeiao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e eciaiaieyi a eiouanoaa. A iauyniaiee i?e/ei aeaieiie caiene ii enoiaeee ec i?eioeeiia ia?niieoeeaoeee. Oeaeue o/aoa — iaaeiiouaiea ioeaie a ?aaeno?aoeee e nenoaiiia auyniaiea i?e/ei i?eaueae e oauoeia. Neioaoe/aneee o/ao aaoi? o?aeoiaae eae eiio?ieueiue, iineieueeo naeueaei e aai iai?iou aeieaeiu eiio?iee?iaaoue naeueaei e iai?iou ii aiaeeoe/aneei n/aoai. Eioa?aniu aai iunee i i?iiuoeaiiii o/aoa: I.E. ?aeiaio ?aeiiaiaeiaae ioe?uaaoue n/aoa ia ia aeaeu i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee, a ia o/anoee (oeaoa), o.a. ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Cao?aou ii aeaeee ia i?yiua (ca?aaioiay ieaoa, iaoa?eaeu e aii?oecaoeey) e einaaiiua (ana inoaeueiua); einaaiiua ?anoiaeu ?aeiiaiaeiaae ?ani?aaeaeyoue a eiioea aiaea i?iii?oeeiiaeueii noiia iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, cae?aieaiiuo ca iiae?acaeaeaieai. N ?aaio ?aeiaioa ia/eiaeny iia?aoeaiue o/ao, e eioi?iio ioiineony ana, /oi o/eouaaaony ia i?aaei?eyoee, ii ia io?aaeaaony a o/aoiuo ?aaeno?ao (eiio?ieue auiieiaiey caeacia, ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee e o.i.). Aaeain o?aeooaony eae iaiauathuee n/ao, eioi?ue cae?uaaao inoaeueiua n/aoa. I?aeoeeo o/aoa o/aiue eceaaae ii iaiaoeeie oi?ia n/aoiaiaenoaa.A.I. I?ieioueaa ?acaeaeye acaeyaeu, iioiaeea ia yeiiiie/aneoth oai?eth; enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi i?eoiae oeaiiinoae anaaaea aucuaaao ?anoiae ae?oaeo oeaiiinoae; n/eoae, /oi eoaeueyineay oeiea oaeiaia aeey eco/aiey; o?aaiaae, /oiau eaaeaeay iia?aoeey caienuaaeanue a aeo?iae ioaeaeueii.N o?aaeeoeeiiiuie acaeyaeaie ?aeiaioa e I?ieioueaaa aue iieiinoueth ia niaeanai Oaaei? Aaiaaeeeoiae/ Aca?neee, eioi?ue ?ane?uaae iaaeinoaoee aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee, iacuaay aa ai?ianeie. Acaiai aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee ii i?aaeeaaae o?ieioth, eioi?oth a ie?iaie i?aeoeea iacuaatho ?onneie. Oioy iao/iua iiiiiaiou Aca?neiai ioia/aee, /oi yoi iaeia ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee, ii iacuaae aa o?ieiie ii neaaeothuei i?e/eiai:- ?aaeno?aoeey aaaeaony ii o?ai iai?aaeaieyi: i?eoiae, ?anoiae e ?acoeueoao aeaeaeaiey oeaiiinoae;- eniieuecothony o?e o/aoiuo ?aaeno?a, eee, eae aiai?eo Aca?neee, ia?aeeaee: aeo?iae (o?iiieiae/aneay caienue), Aeaaiay eieaa (nenoaiaoe/aneay caienue), aaeain (naiaeii-io/aoiay caienue);- — i?aaeeueiinoue caienae i?iaa?yaony o?aiy i?eciaeaie aa?iinoe, i?enoueie eaaeaeie ia?aeeaee (eieaa).Iiaaoi?noai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi Aca?neee noaaee ia?aae o/aoii iiaua oeaee:- ii?aaeaeaiea n iiiiuueth aooaaeoa?neeo caienae oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie;- eniieueciaaiea oieueei iieoiiuo oeai e ioeaiee ii naaanoieiinoe, eniieueciaaiea n/aoa iaoeaiee (oi?aiaie neeaeee), iaoiaeaeaiea ?aaeeciaaiiie oi?aiaie iaoeaiee ii n?aaeiaio i?ioeaioo;- iauaaeeiaiea aiaeeoe/aneiai e neioaoe/aneiai o/aoa;- aeinoeaeaiea naiieiio?iey iooai ca?aiaa caaeaiiiai a o/aoa niaiaaeaiey eiio?ieueiuo noii (19 iieacaoaeae);- i?iaaaeaiea eiaaioa?ecaoeee iineaaeiaaoaeueii e iinoiyiii (iai?eia?, naaiaeiy i?iaa?ytho /ae e eioa, caao?a nie/ee e naoa? e o.ae.).O.A. Aca?neee aeae ii?aaeaeaiea «ia?oaie oi/ee», o.a. o?iaiy, n eioi?iai i?aaei?eyoea ia/eiaao iieo/aoue i?eaueue, iie?ua ecaea?aeee.Nenoaia Aca?neiai auea ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aeey eco/aiey ai anai ie?a aooaaeoa?neei eiia?annii a Oa?ea?oa (Aaeueaey, 1912), oae eae aa eaeae auee niaa?oaiii iiauie aeey nia?aiaiieeia.Aaeeea caneoaa Aca?neiai a noaiiaeaiee aooaaeoa?neiai ia?aciaaiey. Ioe?uoua ei n/aoiaiaeiua eo?nu a 1872 a. a Iineaa, a iioii a Iaoa?ao?aa iieueciaaeenue ia?iiiie iiioey?iinoueth. Caeanue iieo/aee ia?aciaaiea ia oieueei ioae/eiu, ii e aeaiueiu. Niaianoiua caiyoey i?eiineee iieueco e ioae/eiai, oae eae ia iieiaeuo ethaeae neeueii aeaenoaiaaei oi, /oi aeaiueiu ca/anooth ?aaioaee aeeo?aoiaa e ioaa/aee eo/oa. Aca?neee iinoiyiii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi aeaiueia-n/aoiaiae «yaeyaony ianoiyuei eeaaeii aeey oicyeia ii naiae aeia?iniaanoiinoe e eniieieoaeueiinoe. Oai, aaea o?aaoaony oneae/eainoue, iia anaaaea ieoieo naia aeaeiaaiea oie iieuecie, eioi?oth i?eianao aeaeo oi/iinoue e aeeo?aoiinoue, naienoaaiiay aeaineiio o?oaeo»1.Aianoe iiaaoi?neea eaeae a aooaaeoa?neee o/ao iuoaeenue iiiaea. Oae, E.I. Oiaeaa ecia?ae i?eaeiaeueioth /aoaa?ioth aooaaeoa?eth, ii iia ieacaeanue iiaeeoeeaoeeae aeaieiie.Anee Aca?neee e Oiaeaa iuoaeenue ?ac?ooeoue ia?aaeeaio aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee, oi Aaeeoeeee, Eaaiia e Oaeueaeaaocai e ae?oaea iuoaeenue eciaieoue aa ecioo?e.E.O. Aaeeoeeee ecaanoai iiiuoeie nicaeaiey iae?io/aoa, eioi?ue iiieiae eae aooaaeoa?eth, iino?iaiioth ia aaca noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia. A iniiaa caienae eaaeao ia aooaaeoa?neea aeieoiaiou, a aeou noaoenoe/aneiai en/eneaiey. Aaeeoeeee aiai?ee, /oi aanoe iae?io/ao ioaeii iauanoaaiiuie, a ia ainoaea?noaaiiuie neeaie. Iniiaiui iaaeinoaoeii oai?ee Aaeeoeeiai auei ionoonoaea iaoaiecia aeaiiino?aoeee eniieueciaaiey aeaieiie caiene.N.O. Eaaiia auaeaeioe caaea/o nicaeaiey niaoeeaeueiuo n/aoia aeey aaaeaiey cao?ao (n/aoa i?iecaiaenoaa). Iiiai aieiaiey ii oaeaeye iiioey?ecaoeee enoi?ee iaoee, ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?eciaiea i?eoei e iaio aeaaiaea?y ?aaioa i noaeaaii-aooaaeoa?neie yenia?oeca, eioi?ay auea ia?aaaaeaia ia ianeieueei eiino?aiiuo ycueia.Y. Oaeueaeaaocai aeaeae a o/aoa n?aaenoai oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai. Ii ia?aui aaae a eaeueeoeyoeeth ii?iaoeaiue iaoiae. Ii?iu onoaiaaeeaaeenue ?ac a 10 eao e ooaa?aeaeaeenue eiienneae yenia?oia. Aeaeaa a o/aoa ?aaeno?e?iaaee ioeeiiaiey io ii?i e iieacuaaee eo eae i?eauee eee oauoee. E niaeaeaieth, i?aaeeiaeaiey Oaeueaaocaia ia iieo/eee i?eciaiey o nia?aiaiieeia.Oaeei ia?acii, ia ia?aii yoaia oi?ie?iaaiey ?onneie aooaaeoa?neie oeieu auaeaeeeenue o?aaeeoeeiiaeenou (?aeiaio, I?ieioueaa e ae?.) e iiaaoi?u (Aca?neee, Aaeeoeeee e ae?.).Aoi?ie yoai ?acaeoey ?onneie oeieu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa naycai n ?ani?ino?aiaieai iiauo eaeae. Ia/aei yoiai yoaia iiaeii ioianoe e 1888 a., eiaaea Aaeieueo Ia?eiae/ Aieueo nicaeae ia?aue a ?innee aeo?iae «N/aoiaiaenoai». A.I. Aieueo eiae iaaeaeoia?iaeioth ecaanoiinoue: /eai Aieiineie aeaaeaiee n/aoiaiaeia, aeaenoaeoaeueiue /eai Iauanoaa eoaeueyineeo n/aoiaiaeia, /eai-ei??aniiiaeaio Eieeaaee aooaaeoa?ia O?aeii, Einoeoooa ieaea?eaiaeneeo n/aoiaiaeia. Aai aeeaeaeoei iiiiuieeii aue Aaneeee Aeieo?eaae/ Aaeia — ia?aue ?onneee oai?aoee, nicaeaaoee oeeinioeth o/aoa.A aeo?iaea ia/aoaeenue e?oiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee o/aoiie iunee: Y.A. Aaeueaeaiaa?a (enoi?ee o/aoa), NI. Aa?aoe (?anniao?eaae aii?inu io?aneaaiai o/aoa), E.E. Aiiaa?a (e?oiiaeoee oai?aoee o/aoa). E ?aaioa a aeo?iaea i?eaeaeaeenue aaoi?u ec i?iaeioeee: Aaoaiueeia (Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae), Aa?aooe (Aeaaeeie?), Iiiia (E?aniiy?ne), ?onneyi (Iaeanna) e ae?. N aeo?iaeii nio?oaeie/aee e eiino?aiiua aaoi?u: E.O. Oa?, A.I. Eaioa, O. Aanoa, A. Aeaeeooe e ae?.Aieueoia aieiaiea ia no?aieoeao aeo?iaea oaeaeyeinue iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey einoeoooa i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia. ?inneeneei aooaaeoa?ai iauyniyee, /oi nooue i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia (aoaeeoi?ia) ninoieo a oii, /oi iie ii i?inueaa eeeaioia e ca ieaoo aeieaeiu i?iaa?youe iauaeoeaiinoue io/aoiinoe i?aaei?eyoee. Aoaeeoi?u ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ea/anoai naiae ?aaiou e aiciauatho oauoee iioa?iaaoei, anee iacaia/aiiua iaaeinoaoee a io/aoiinoe iaianee eiio-eeai oua?a. Ii ainiiaenoai a ?innee ?aaecee ia iicaieeei iiiyoue i?aeiouanoaa aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe (aoaeeoi?o caieaoeee, a ii aua e iaaeinoaoee iieacuaaao). Aoaeeoi?u a naith i/a?aaeue ia iiaee iiiyoue, ii/aio iie ieeiio ia aeieaeiu aeieeaaeuaaoue i auyaeaiiuo iaaeinoaoeao. E?iia oiai, iiiaei eacaeinue, /oi aoaeao nicaeaaaoueny n/aoiay a?enoie?aoey, a yoi ia i?aaeeinue aieueoeinoao. Iiyoiio oaeie i?aai ia aue ia?aciaai, oioy any aeieoiaioaoeey auea aioiaa.A nayce n ia/aeii ?onnei-yiiineie aieiu a 1904 a. oeiaine?iaaiea i?ae?aoeeinue e aeo?iae cae?ueny. Ii a i?ioeaiaan «N/aoiaiaenoao» noaee auioneaoueny e ae?oaea aeo?iaeu: «N/aoiaiae», «I?aeoe/aneay aeeciue» (iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Aca?neiai), «Eiiia?naio», «Eiiia?/aneee ie?» e o.i. Aeaaiui i?aiyonoaeai aeey anao aeo?iaeia auei ionoonoaea oeiaine?iaaiey. Aaeeinoaaiiui i?ioeaaoathuei ecaeaieai aue aeo?iae «Eiiia?/aneee aeayoaeue» iiae ?aaeaeoeeae I.A. Oaaa?iaa. Eae auynieeinue, Oaaa?ia iiaeeoiae a e?oiiuo eiiiaieyo neoaeaueo e ociaaae eiiia?/aneea oaeiu. Iioii ia?auaeny e oicyaaai n i?inueaie i iiaea?oaiaaiee e a neo/aa ioeaca ?aciaea/ae eo ia no?aieoeao naia aeo?iaea.Iiuiia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee aucaaei ia?iiiue ni?in ia aooaaeoa?ia. Eiee/anoai eo?nia aooaaeoa?ia, eiiia?/aneeo o/eeeu e oeie ?inei a aaiiao?e/aneie i?ia?annee: a 1895 a. a ?innee auei ainaiue eiiia?/aneeo o/eeeu; a 1901 a. a aaaeaiee Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia auei oaea 48 eiiia?/aneeo o/eeeu, 36 oi?aiauo oeie, 14 oi?aiauo eeannia, 21 n/aoiaiaeiue eo?n; a e 1913 a. ian/eouaaeinue oaea 465 eiiia?/aneeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.E ia/aeo XX a. iiyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aunoai eiiia?/aneii ia?aciaaiee. Oae, a Iaoa?ao?aneii iieeoaoie/aneii einoeoooa a 1899 a. iiyaeeinue yeiiiie/aneia ioaeaeaiea. A 1907 a. iineianeea eo?nu auee i?aia?aciaaiu a Iineianeee eiiia?/aneee einoeooo. Oi aea i?iecioei n eeaaneeie eo?naie.Oaeei ia?acii, ?ani?ino?aiaiea aooaaeoa?neeo ciaiee e iiauo eaeae oei ii aeaoi iai?aaeaieyi: ia?aciaaiea e ecaeaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue.O?aoee yoai oi?ie?iaaiey ?onneie aooaaeoa?neie oeieu niaiae n ia?aie ?onneie ?aaiethoeeae. A o/ao i?eoee iiaua ethaee, aicieeee iiaua oa/aiey, iiyaeeenue iiaua i?iaeaiu. A yoi a?aiy ia?aciaaeinue aeaa iao/iuo iai?aaeaiey: iaoa?ao?aneay e iineianeay oeieu. Eo ?acaeaeyei o/aiea i n/aoao e aaeaina (oaae. 6.1).Oaaeeoea 6.1 - ?acee/ey iineianeiai e iaoa?ao?aneiai oa/aiee ?onneie oeieu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoaIineianeay oeieaIaoa?ao?aneay oeiea1. N/aoa – yeaiaiou aaeaina. Nenoaia n/aoia caaeaia aaeainii, neaaeiaaoaeueii, o/eoue ioaeii io aaeaina e n/aoo1. Aaeain – neaaenoaea nenoaiu n/aoia, o/eoue ioaeii io n/aoa e aaeaino2. Aaeain – oi?iuaiiay oi?ia eiaaioa?y2. Aaeain iie?aaony oieueei ia n/aoa e ia naycai n eiaaioa?ai3. N/aoa aeaeyony ia aeoeaiua e ianneaiua (aeaa ?yaea n/aoia)3. Ana n/aoa iaeii?iaeiua (iaeei ?yae n/aoia)4. Aeaieiay caienue – neaaenoaea a?oiie?iaee n/aoia a aaeaina4. Aeaieiay caienue – neaaenoaea a?oiie?iaee caeiia iaiu5. I?aaenoaaeoaee:I.N. Eoineee – aaoi? aaeainiaie oai?ee o/aoa, caieiaeny aii?inaie yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca;A.A. Aao/ena?aeoeaa – noi?ioee?iaae iieiaeaiey aaeainiaie oai?ee a 31 oacen;O.E. Aaeueia? – caieiaeny iiaeiyoeai i?anoeaea aooaaeoa?neie i?ioannee5. I?aaenoaaeoaee:A.A. Neaa?n – o?aaiaae iiia?aaeaeueiie eaeueeoeyoeee (iieooaa?eeaoiue iaoiae o/aoa cao?ao);A.E. Aoeyaa – ?ac?aaioae o/aiea i no?oeoo?a naaanoieiinoeIiaeaiaey eoia ?anniio?aieth ?acaeoey ?onneie iaoeeiiaeueiie oeieu, iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi iia ai iiiaii noi?ie?iaaeanue iiae aeeyieai aa?iiaeneie o/aoiie iunee. Oae, aua a ia/aea XIX a. noieeioeenue aeaa aeeyiey ia ?onneee o/ao: o?aioeocneia e iaiaoeeia. Iiaaaeeei iaiaoeeia. Yoiio niinianoaiaaei oi, /oi a oeacaiiia a?aiy iaiaoeeee eaieoae ea?ae aanueia aaaeioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea, i?aiiaeaaaoaeyie eiiia?/aneeo aeenoeeieei auee i?aeiouanoaaiii iaioeu e, iaeiiaoe, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?aeoeeothueo aooaaeoa?ia oaeaea ninoiyea ec iaioeaa. Aeeyiea o?aioeocneie oeieu auei ecia/aeueii neaaaa e e na?aaeeia XIX a. i?ae?aoeeinue aiiaua. Eoaeueyineia aeeyiea ia ?onneee o/ao auei iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiui e iaaeoaieei, a aiaei-aia?eeaineiai aeeyiey, a nouiinoe, ia auei aieioue aei 90-o aa. XX a. Oai ia iaiaa iaoeeiiaeueiua o?aaeeoeee ia auee caauou, ioa/anoaaiiay o/aoiay iuneue ioaa/aea o?iaith ie?iauo noaiaea?oia, a ai iiiaii e i?aainoiaeeea eo.6.6. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a NNN?Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a NNN? i?aaie/ii i?iaeieaeaea o?aaeeoeee aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee, iaeiaei n ia?auo aeiae oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ca/aoee iiaiai o/aoa. Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey 1917 a. i?eaaea e ia?iiiui nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei eciaiaieyi, eioi?ua ia iiaee ia io?aceoueny ia aaaeaiee o/aoa.A yaiethoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a NNN? iiaeii auaeaeeoue oanoue yoaiia:1) 1917—1918 aa. — iiiuoee noaaeeecaoeee oicyenoaa, iooe aaeaioaoeee o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia a iiaie nenoaia oicyenoaiaaiey;2) 1918—1921 aa. (aiaiiue eiiioieci) —?acaae noa?uo nenoai e oi?i aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, nicaeaiea iiauo o/aoiuo ecia?eoaeae;3) 1921—1929 aa. (iyi) — ?anoaa?aoeey o?aaeeoeeiiiie nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;4) 1929—1953 aa. (iino?iaiea nioeeaeecia) — aeaoi?iaoeey i?eioeeiia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;5) 1953—1984 aa. (yiioa iooaiaee e canoiy) — niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/aoa, aiaeec aai i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? e ?ani?ino?aiaiea iaoaiece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;6) 1984—1991 aa. — ia?ano?ieea anao nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a no?aia, iiiuoea aic?iaeaeaiey eeanne/aneeo i?eioeeiia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Iiae?iaii ioa?aeoa?ecoai yoe yoaiu.Ia ia?aii yoaia aei eaoa 1918 a. i?iaeieaeaei nouanoaiaaoue /anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai. A yoio ia?eiae o/ao ia iaiaaoeeny iiauie eaeayie, ii e ia ?anoa?ye noa?uo. E?oiiaeoea o/aiua noa?ie ?innee — A.A. Neaa?a, A.I. ?oaeaiianeee, I.A. Eeia?enia, ?.ss. Aaeoeiai — ecaeaaaee iiaua e ia?aecaeaaaee noa?ua o?oaeu.Aeeyoaeueiui /aeiaaeii a yoi a?aiy noaiiaeony Aeaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/ Aaeaaai — ioee/iee ia?aiai auionea Iineianeiai eiiia?/aneiai einoeoooa (iuia eiaie Ieaoaiiaa), iieo/eaoee ia?aciaaiea a Eoaeee, o/aiee A.I. ?oaeaiianeiai e O. Aanoa. Ii iiaeaioiaee aaaeiaeoea ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou a iaeanoe n/aoiaiaenoaa:- 5 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. ecaeaiu iinoaiiaeaiea NIE «Ia ia?aciaaiee e ninoaaa eieeaaee Eiienna?eaoa aineiio?iey» e aeae?ao «I i?aaao ia?iaeiiai eiienna?a ii aineiio?ieth a NIE»;- 13 ethey 1918 a. OeEE ?NON? ecaeae «Iniiaiua iieiaea-* ii o/aoo eiouanoaa», aaea auea naeaeaia 1iiuoea ia?aeoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii oicyenoaa io niaoiiai o/aoa e aeaieiiio;- 27 ethey 1918 a. NIE ?NON? i?eiye iinoaiiaeaiea i oi?iuo eieaao, aaaeaiea eioi?uo aiaiyeinue a iaycaiiinoue /anoiui oi?aiaui e oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi.Oaeei ia?acii, ia?aua oaae a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa auee iai?aaeaiu ia naiia oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eeanne/aneiai o/aoa, i?e yoii eniieueciaaeny iiuo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai.A na?aaeeia 1918 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aoeei ia?aeoe e eiiioienoe/aneiio iauanoao. Aua a i?aaeaeaa?ee ?aaiethoeee A.E. Eaiei i?iaeoiuaay niiniau ei?aiiie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee, aeaeae aaeeinoaaiiue iooue e iino?iaieth iiaie no?aiu — ?aai/ee eiio?ieue e iaoeeiiaeecaoeey eaieoaeenoe/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee. Eaiei ia oieueei ?acaee ?yae iieiaeaiee, auaeaeioouo E. Ia?enii e O. Yiaaeuenii, ii e i?aaeeiaeee iiaua eaeae, eioi?ua noaee ?aoathueie ia oieueei a iieeoeea e yeiiiieea, ii a ?acaeoee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Iiaua eaeae Eaieia iiaeii naanoe e neaaeothuei:1) iauaiaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa:- o/ao e eiio?ieue eiatho eeanniaoth i?e?iaeo, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeiu auoue ia?oeeiui aeaeii, oeaeue o/aoa —eiio?ieue ca ia?ie o?oaea e iio?aaeaiey,- o?aaiaaiey e nioeeaeenoe/aneiio o/aoo — ianniainoue (i?eieiaao o/anoea ana aeaaniiniaiia ianaeaiea no?aiu), aeaniinoue (aac yoiai iaeuecy ai?ioueny n iaaeinoaoeaie), ioaaonoaaiiinoue (eiio?ieue ia oieueei iaee/ey e aeaeaeaiey oeaiiinoae, ii e aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae), i?inoioa (aeieaeai auoue iiiyoai ethaiio a?aiioiiio /aeiaaeo);2) i?aeoe/aneea aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee anae nenoaiu o/aoa:- eiiieaeniue e nenoaiiue Iiaeoiae,- ?ac?aaioea i?eioeeiia aeayoaeueiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa (a oii /enea o/aoii-eiio?ieueiiai), oae eae i?aaeeueiay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaea oaaee/eaaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. A iniiaa i?aaiecaoeee — ii?ie?iaaiea o?oaea,- o/aoiua ?aaioieee ia nicaeatho noieiinoe, neaaeiaaoaeueii, niaea?aeaoue aiia?ao aooaaeoa?ee ioaeii ia n/ao i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa.E eiiioienoe/aneiio i?iecaiaenoao e ?ani?aaeaeaieth ?a oeee ia?aeoe a iaeei iea: o e?anoueyi caa?aoue oeaa (i?iae?acaa?noea) e ?acaeaoue aai ii caaiaeai; o aiaaouo caa?aoue iaeaaeaeo e ?acaeaoue iaeiouei; ioiaieoue aeaiueae ca iaiaaeiaiinoueth. Oaeie iiaeoiae i?eaae e ?acaaeo anaai oicyenoaa, e ia?iaeiiio iaaeiaieuenoao. Ii a iiauo oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey iaiaoiaeeiu auee iiaua iiaeoiaeu e e aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Iiiaea yeiiiienou aeieacuaaee, /oi aeaiaaeiue ecia?eoaeue iioa?ye anyeee niune, e i?aaeeaaaee iiaua, ii eo iiaieth, aieaa niaa?oaiiua. Oaeeo yeiiiienoia iacuaaee ?iiaioeeaie, /oi ioia/ae, iai?eia? A.ss. Nieieia. A caaeneiinoe io auai?a iiaiai ecia?eoaey iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iai?aaeaiey: o?oaeiaia, yia?aaoe/aneia e i?aaeiaoiia. O?oaeiaia iai?aaeaiea auei naiui aeeyoaeueiui, oioy eaeay ia iiaa (Ioyi, I?oaeii e ae?.): eaaeaeue o?oaeyueeny iieo/aao eieaeeo, a eioi?ie ioia/aaony /enei o?oaei/ania (o?oaeiaeiae). A iaaaceia i?e ioionea i?iaeoeoia aeaeaaony niioaaonoaothuay ioiaoea. Yia?aaoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea iniiaaii ia eniieueciaaiee oneiaiie i?iecaaaeaiiie aaeeieoeu yia?aee (y?a). Noi?iiieee i?aaeiaoiiai iai?aaeaiey a ea/anoaa aaeeiiai ecia?eoaey i?aaeeaaaee oneiaiia eiee/anoai aiieiuaiiiai a i?aaeiaoa iaoa?eaea e i?oaeee i?iecaiaenoaa.Ana ?iiaioeee ioiineeenue e o/aoo a?aaeaeaaii, n/eoaee, /oi ii aeieaeai auoue caiaiai yeiiiie/aneei o/aoii: nai oa?iei «aooaaeoa?neee» onoa?ae, ianao ia naaa neaaeu «i?ieeyoiai» eaieoaeecia e ineoieiae/anee ioioaeaaao iieiaeuo ethaeae io caiyoey aeaiiie i?ioanneae. Caaea/a yeiiiie/aneiai o/aoa aeieaeia ninoiyoue a auyaeaiee ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie yooaeoeaiinoe acaiai ii?aaeaeaiey i?eauee ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee.Aoi?ay a?oiia — iaoo?aeenou — ?anniao?eaaea aooaaeoa?eth oieueei eae iaoa?eaeueiue (iaoo?aeueiue) o/ao. Eaeae iaoo?aeenoia iaoee io?aaeaiea a ?ac?aaioaiiuo IE ?EE Iniiaiuo iieiaeaieyo ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio n/aoiaiaenoao e io/aoiinoe, ecaeaiiuo 20 naioya?y 1920 a. Eae e ?iiaioeee, iaoo?aeenou auee a?aaeaeaaiu e o?aaeeoeeiiiie aooaaeoa?ee.Oaeei ia?acii, eaeae ?iiaioeeia e iaoo?aeenoia naiaeeeenue e eniieueciaaieth iaaeoiaiiuo oneiaiuo aei aano?aea aaeeieoe (o?yaeia, y?aia e ae?.) eee e aica?auaieth e enoieai n/aoiaiaenoaa — e iaoo?aeueiiio eiaaioa?iiio o/aoo, eeoaiiiio aiciiaeiinoe aeaoue oioue neieueei-ieaoaeue iaiauathuaa ecia?aiea o/eouaaaiui oeaiiinoyi.E 1921 a. o/ao iaoiaeeeny a caiouaiiii ninoiyiee:- n?iee i?aaenoaaeaiey io/aoiinoe ia niaethaeaeenue;- eaeueeoeyoeey e ?an/ao naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ionoonoaiaaee;- oeaiu onoaiaaeeaaeenue ia iniiaa niaoiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee;- naa?ea neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa ia auiieiyeanue;- naiae ioaeaeueiuo aaeainia, aoiaeyueo a o?ano, ionoonoaiaae.A 1922 a. ANIO ecaeae Iieiaeaiea i n/aoiaiaenoaa e io/aoiinoe, a eioi?ii iiae/a?eeaaeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ii aeaieiie nenoaia, ?aaeno?aoeee oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe n iiiiuueth o?iiieiae/aneie e nenoaiaoe/aneie caiene, aaaeaiey Aeaaiie eieae e o.ae. Aooaaeoa?u aua ia oniaee ?acia?aoueny a oiieinoyo yoiai Iieiaeaiey, eae a 1923 a. AOeEE e NIE, ia i?eieiay ai aieiaiea o?aaiaaiey Iieiaeaiey, ecaeaee aeae?ao «I ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, aeaenoaothueo ia ia/aeao eiiia?/aneiai ?an/aoa (o?anoao)». A yoii aea aiaeo XII nuacae ?EI (a) i?eiye n?aaee i?i/eo ?aoaiea a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, eaii?e?oy oaea ecaeaiiua aeou.I?e/eiaie oaeie ia?acaa?eoe auea ai?ueaa ?acee/iuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo a?oii, eioi?ua ?aoaee naie /enoi i?ioanneiiaeueiua aii?inu n iiiiuueth iai?ioanneiiaeia, iaeaaeathueo aeanoueth. A ai?ueao ca ?oeiaiaenoai aiaoaeny e Niaao O?oaea e Iai?iiu, eioi?ue ecaeae I?aaeea ninoaaeaiey aaeainia e ia/eneaiey aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuie e eiiia?aoeaiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie. O?aaiaaiey yoiai Iieiaeaiey auee iaienaiu iaia?aiii aeaoniuneaiii. Oaeei ia?acii, a ethaii neo/aa aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a iiaeii auei iaaeieoue a iai?aaeeueiii aaaeaiee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ai a?aaeeoaeuenoaa.A aeaeaa?a 1927 a. XV nuacae AEI(a) aeae aee?aeoeau ia ninoaaeaiea ia?aiai iyoeeaoiaai ieaia. Aeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa yoi au?aceeinue a iiae/a?eeaaiee ?iee ieaiiauo iieacaoaeae, aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae i?eciaaaeny eiio?ieue ca eo auiieiaieai. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao noae n?aaenoaii i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa e ?aaeeia yeiiiiee, n?aaenoaii ai?ueau n ath?ie?aoeciii e aieieeoie. Auei auaeaeiooi aeaa acaeiieneeth/athueo o?aaiaaiey: oneeeoue eiio?ieue e nie?aoeoue io/aoiinoue.XVI ia?oeeiay eiioa?aioeey a ai?ueaa n ath?ie?aoeciii auaeaeioea aano?aeiia o?aaiaaiea: aaeeinoai aooaaeoa?neiai, iia?aoeaiiai e noaoenoe/aneiai o/aoa. Oaeei ia?acii, oie/oiaeay ath?ie?aoeci, aooaaeoa?neee o/ao i?aa?aoeee a /enoi ath?ie?aoe/aneia aeaei.Oai ia iaiaa eiaiii a yoi a?aiy, ianiio?y ia anth iaonoie/eainoue e ia?acaa?eoo iaaeaeo ?aaoee?othueie i?aaiaie, aooaaeoa?neay iuneue oniaoii ?acaeaaeanue. Aaaeouea aooaaeoa?u a enoi?ee ?innee: A.I. ?oaeaiianeee (1863—1934), ?.ss. Aaeoeiai (1870—1936), E.ss. Eeia?enia (1873—1956), E.A. Aeaoia (1875— 1942), E.?. Ieeieaaa (1877—1942), A.M. Aaeaaai (1879—1938),— ia/aaoea naith aeayoaeueiinoue aua aei ?aaiethoeee, naie eo/oea eieae ecaeaee eiaiii a yoi a?aiy.A caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeie aniaeo a iauyniaiee aeaieiie caiene i?aaaee?iaae, a oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia?aciaaeinue ianeieueei iai?aaeaiee, a oii /enea i?aaeiaoiia e iaoiaeieiae/aneia.I?aaeiaoiia iai?aaeaiea iniiauaaeinue ia oii, /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao eiaao niaoeeoe/aneia niaea?aeaiea, e iiae?acaeaeyeinue ia th?eaee/aneia e yeiiiie/aneia oa/aiey. TH?eaee/aneay oeiea auea i?aaenoaaeaia e?aeia neaai, caoi yeiiiie/aneia iai?aaeaiea eiaei aieueoia aeeyiea. Iniiaaoaeyie yoie oeieu auee ?onneea aooaaeoa?u A.I. Aieueo e A.A. Neaa?a, a niaaoneia a?aiy — I.A. Aeaoia.Noi?iiieee iaoiaeieiae/aneiai iai?aaeaiey iaoiaeeeenue iiae aeeyieai iaoaiaoe/aneeo, noaoenoe/aneeo e oeeinioneeo eaeae (?.ss. Aaeoeiai, I.N. Eoineee, A.A. Aao/ena?aeoeaa, A.I. Aaeaaai e ae?.).A.A. Aao/ena?aeoeaa ?anniao?eaae aeeyiea oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie ia eciaiaiey a aaeaina e auaae /aou?a oanoa, iaeiiio ec eioi?uo ioaa/aao oa eee eiay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey:A + a - a = I,A = I + b - Ue,A + n = I + n,A - d = I - d,aaea A — aeoea;I — iannea; a, b, n, d — oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia.Ia?aua aeaa oeia eciaiaiey aaeaina Aao/ena?aeoeaa iacuaae ia?iooaoeeyie, iineaaeiea aeaa — iiaeeoeeaoeeyie. I?inoioa e aeinooiiinoue naeaeaee yoo oai?eth aaeeinoaaiii i?eciaiiie a NNN?.Aieueoei aeeyieai a yoi a?aiy iieueciaaeanue oai?ey Aaeaaaia, eioi?ue anth aooaaeoa?neoth iaoiaeieiaeth enoieeiauaae n oi/ee c?aiey oi?iaeueiie eiaeee, i?eciaaay /aou?a iaoiaea n/aoiaaaeaiey:1. eiaeoeoeee (eiaaioa?ue, aaeain, n/aoa);2. aeaaeoeoeee (aeaieiay caienue);3. aiaeec (ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou, ?aaeno?u aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa);4. neioac (niaoiia n/aoiaiaenoai, Aeaaiay eieaa).Iicaeiaa Aaeaaai ioioae io naieo i?eioeeiia e iiiuoaeny iainiiaaoue nouiinoue aeaieiie caiene enoiaey ec i?eioeeiia aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia, ca /oi iiaeaa?any ?aceie e?eoeea. A 20-a aiaeu XX a. iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea iiaay aeenoeeieeia — aaeainiaaaeaiea. ?aciua aaoi?u iiieiaee niaea?aeaiea iiaie iaoee ii-?aciiio. Iaeaieaa i?eaeiaeueiue iiaeoiae aue o AI. ?oaeaiianeiai, eioi?ue iiieiae n/aoiaaaeaiea e aaeainiaaaeaiea eae neiiieiu. A aeaaiaeoeo naieo /a?oao oai?ey ?oaeaiianeiai yaeyaony i?iecaiaeiie io oai?ee Eaioa e Aeeueai. Iniiaiua aeinoeaeaiey ?oaeaiianeiai iiaeii naanoe e neaaeothuei:- ii onoaiiaee, /oi aaeain aaeeie/iiai i?aaei?eyoey ?aniaaeaaony ia n/ao aeoeaa (niaieoiiinoue aauae) e n/ao ianneaa (niaieoiiinoue iaycaoaeuenoa), ?aaeno?aoeey anao eciaiaiee iiae/eiyaony i?aaeeo «oio, eoi iieo/ee eee n eiai i?e/eoaaony,— aeaaaooaony, eoi oieaoee eee eiio i?e/eoaaony,— e?aaeeooaony»;- ?ane?ue iaoiaeeeo eneeth/aiey aioo?aiieo iai?ioia i?e ninoaaeaiee naiaeiuo aaeainia;- eeanneoeoee?iaae aaeainu ii oneiaeyi oicyenoaaiiuo neooaoeee;-nicaeae o/aiea i n?aaieoaeueiii aaeaina e eiio?aaeaina;- ane?ue niaea?aeaiea oaeeo eaoaai?ee, eae aannii?iay i?eaueue e aannii?iue oauoie;- auaeaeee /aou?a iaoiaea aiaeeca: yenia?eiaioaeueiue (onoaiiaeaiea nayce iaaeaeo n/aoaie), n?aaieoaeueiue (?ane?uoea iaoaiecia ia?aciaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia), oaoie/aneee (ii?aaeaeaiea aeinoiaa?iinoe aooaaeoa?neeo aeaiiuo), oai?aoe/aneee (?ane?uoea niunea aooaaeoa?neie iaoiaeieiaee).Aiineaaenoaee aaeainiaaaeaiea, onoaiiaeaoaa naycue iaaeaeo aaeainii e oi?aaeaieai i?aaei?eyoeai, noaei iniiaie iiaie iaoee — aiaeeca oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.A yoi a?aiy ecaeaaaeinue iiiaeanoai aeo?iaeia, eioi?ua niinianoaiaaee iiioey?ecaoeee aooaaeoa?neeo eaeae: «Aanoiee n/aoiaiaea», «N/aoiaiaenoai», «N/aoiay iuneue», «Niooiee eiioi?ueea e n/aoiaiaea» e ae?. Naie aeo?iaeu auee e a i?iaeioeee — «N/aoiia aeaei» a Niieainea, «Atheeaoaiue aeaeueiaainoi/iiai iauanoaa aooaaeoa?ia» a *eoa, «Aii?inu o/aoa e aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa» ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca, «N/aoiue ?aaioiee» a Oa?ueeiaa, «Atheeaoaiue ?aaioieeia o/aoa» a Eacaie e o.i.Iaeiaei oaea a ia/aea 1929 a. noaee iiyaeyoueny i?eciaee oiai, /oi ethaee, aicaeaaeyaoea o/ao, i?iiiaaaeotho /oi-oi ia oi. A eaieoaeenoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe oee/aeenue o?oaeu Neaa?na, Aeaoiaa, Eeia?eniaa. Iicaeiaa a?aaeeoaeyie auee iacaaiu ?o-aeaiianeee e Aaeaaai. O/aiea ?oaeaiianeiai auei i?eciaii ao?aeoaciui, e a 1934 a. ii aiacaiii neii/aeny io na?aea/iiai i?enooia. Iaae Aaeaaaiii aue ono?iai iieacaoaeueiue iauanoaaiiue noae. A ?acoeueoaoa aio auea cai?auaia iaaeaaiae/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, e a 1938 a. ii oia?. Oae a 30-a aiaeu XX a. oai?ey e i?aeoeea o/aoa noaee no?aieoaeueii aeaa?aaee?iaaoue. N?aaee aooaaeoa?ia iiyaeeenue ethaee, eioi?ua i?iaeaaee naaa aei?iao oai, /oi eeaaaoaee ia eo/oeo, ni/eiyy iieeoe/aneea aeiiinu. ?acoeueoaoii caeii/eaoeony aeeneonnee noaei ooaa?aeaeaiea i i?eioeeieaeueiuo ?acee/eyo iaaeaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneei e eaieoaeenoe/aneei o/aoii (oaae.6.2).Oaaeeoea 6.2 – ?acee/ey iaaeaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneei e eaieoaeenoe/aneei o/aoiiEaieoaeenoe/aneee o/aoNioeeaeenoe/aneee o/ao1. Io?aaeaao i?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa, iniiaaiiue ia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe1. Io?aaeaao i?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa, iniiaaiiue ia nioeeaeenoe/aneie nianoaaiiinoe2. Aooaaeoa?ey ia?aie/aia ?aieaie i?aaei?eyoey2.Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao – /anoue aaeeiie nenoaiu ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai o/aoa3. O/ao – /anoiia aeaei ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae3. Ieai n/aoia aaeeiue aeey anao i?aaei?eyoee e oieoeeaoeey iaoiaeieiaee4. Oeaeue o/aoa – auyaeaiea i?eauee4. Oeaeue o/aoa – io?aaeaiea auiieiaiey ieaia5. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao - eiiia?/aneay oaeia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaoo auoue oaeueneoeeaoeee5. Aeaniinoue a o/aoa, cia/eo ii ?aaeueii e iauaeoeaii io?aaeaao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueA ianoiyuaa a?aiy, eiaaea iu n?aaieaaai o/ao a aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaia e a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, iu ioia/aai ia?iiiua ?acee/ey, auoaeathuea ec ?aciiia?acey oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. Iiiiiieueiay ainoaea?noaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa ?acei oi?iuaao oaoieeo o/aoa e i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony auiieiaieai ieaia, a ia aaee/eiie iieo/aiiie i?eauee. Oaeei ia?acii, ?acee/ey a nioeeaeenoe/aneii e eaieoaeenoe/aneii o/aoa auee iniiaaiu ia ?acee/eyo yeiiiieei-i?aaiaie nenoaiu: aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie e ?uii/iie.E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue aua ?yae onoaiiaie:- noa?ie i?eiaiaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?eciaii ana ia?iaeiia oicyenoai;- nouanoaiaaiea n/aoiaaaeaiey (oai?ee) e n/aoiaiaenoaa (i?aeoeee) auei i?eciaii iaoeaeaniia?aciui, iiyoiio auea nicaeaia aaeeiay iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneay aeenoeeieeia — aooaaeoa?neee o/ao;- aeaieiay caienue noaea ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iaoiae (niinia) o/aoa, a ia eae iauaeoeaii aeaenoaothuee caeii.Ana yoe auaiaeu auoaeaee ec o?aaiaaiee XVI ia?oeeiie eiioa?aioeee ia onoaiiaeaiee aaeeinoaa aooaaeoa?neiai, noaoenoe/aneiai e iia?aoeaiiai o/aoa, e a 1931 a. auei nicaeaii Oeaio?aeueiia oi?aaeaiea ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai o/aoa (OeOIOO) i?e Ainieaia NNN?.Iaeiia?aiaiii ia/aeanue e?eoeea oai?ee aooaaeoa?neiai, o/aoa eae iaoee, ia io?aaeathuae ei?aiiuo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo eaieoaeenoe/aneei e nioeeaeenoe/aneei o/aoii. Niaoeeaeueiua aeo?iaeu iaeei ca ae?oaei cae?uaaeenue. I?anoeae o/aoiie i?ioannee ?acei oiae. A ?acoeueoaoa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ia oaaoaei eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia, a a o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo — nooaeaioia. Ieceia ea/anoai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo no?aiu iaoneiaeei oa?iaeathuee ?ino oeuaiee e iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia.A?aae io eeeaeaeaoeee naiinoiyoaeueiinoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aue ianoieueei i/aaeaeai, /oi oaea a 1932 a. Niaia?eii naiei iinoaiiaeaieai «I i?aaao e iaycaiiinoyo aeaaiuo e noa?oeo aooaaeoa?ia a o/?aaeaeaieyo e i?aaiecaoeeyo iauanoaaiiiai naeoi?a» ioiaiee neeyiea aooaaeoa?ee n ae?oaeie neoaeaaie i?aaei?eyoey. A yoii aeieoiaioa ?aoaeenue aeaa caaea/e:- aeaaiue aooaaeoa? iiae/eiyeny oieueei ?oeiaiaeeoaeth i?aaei?eyoey;- iaycaiiinoueth aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a noaee aeiiinu ia ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey.?aaeueiue eiio?ieue ia aaeny. Aianoi yoiai auee i?iaaaeaiu ia?ii?eyoey, yeiau oaeoaeythuea oic?an/ao:- aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey aooaaeoa?ee;- ninoaaeaiea aaeaaeiaaiuo aaeainia;- ?ani?ino?aiaiea a?aoe/aneeo iaoiaeia o/aoa (E.A. Aucia);- ?acaeoea ea?oi/iie oi?iu ?aaeno?aoeee, oae iacuaaaiue eiie?o/ao;- i?eiaiaiea au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee (E.I. ssiaeoe);- ?acaeoea ii?iaoeaiiai o/aoa (I.O. AEaa?ae).Iaiaoiaeeii neacaoue ianeieueei neia i o?oaeao Iienay Oa?eoiiiae/a AEaa?aea. Ii ?ac?aaioae iieiaeaiey ii i?aaiecaoeee neioaoe/aneiai o/aoa a oneiaeyo i?eiaiaiey ii?iaoea ii?iaoeaiiai iaoiaea o/aoa cao?ao: n/ao i?iecaiaenoaa aeaeeony ia o?e noan/aoa — ieaiiaua cao?aou, ioeeiiaiey io ii?i, eciaiaiey ii?i. Aeieoiaiou ninoaaeythony oieueei ia auyaeaiiua ioeeiiaiey. Eaeay noaiaea?oiuo ecaea?aeae auea caeinoaiaaia o aia?eeaioeaa, ii aaeaioe?iaaoue aa e aeayoaeueiinoe niaaoneeo i?aaei?eyoee aei eiioea ia oaeaeinue.Aia?aua ii?iaoeaiue o/ao aue ii?iaiaai ia i?aeoeea ia oa?ueeianeii caaiaea «Na?i e iieio» a 1930 a., a a 1932 a. oaea 12 i?aaei?eyoee ?aaioaee ia iniiaa ii?iaoeaiiai o/aoa. Ii oe?ieiio i?eiaiaieth ii?iaoeaiiai o/aoa iaoaee iaaeinoaoee a ieaie?iaaiee e eiio?iea: ioeeiiaiey io onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i aeinoeaaee 30% (ia i?aaei?eyoeyo NOA i?e iaoiaea noaiaea?oiuo ecaea?aeae ioeeiiaiey ninoaaeyee 0,5—2%) e i?aaei?eyoey ?aaioaee ia?eoie/ii (?aceia oneeaiea ?aaiou e eiioeo ianyoea). Eoae, aneaaenoaea oiai /oi aooaaeoa?neee o/ao aue i?eciai a?aaeiui, eiathuei eaieoaeenoe/aneea ei?ie, i?ioanney aooaaeoa?a noaea iaiiioey?iie, a eiiaaea e iianiie. Ia?anoaee ecaeaaaoueny niaoeeaeueiua aeo?iaeu, auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu i?ioanneiiaeueiua iauaaeeiaiey aooaaeoa?ia. Iiiaea oi?ioea niaoeeaeenou auee ?ai?anne?iaaiu: iaeie ii iieeoe/aneei noaoueyi (iieiia a?aaeeoaeuenoai), ae?oaea ii oaieiaiui (aeieaeiinoiua ceioiio?aaeaiey). Eiaiii iiyoiio i?aaiecaoeey o/aoa ia no?ieeao AOEAAa eiiaaea auea iinoaaeaia aieaa yooaeoeaii, /ai ia i?aaei?eyoeyo no?aiu. Caeanue aia?aua auea inouanoaeaia nenoaia ia?aaeaeaeiuo no?ieoaeueiuo eieiii, aiaae?aia nenoaia aioo?eiino?ia/iiai oic?an/aoa n aai aaeainiaui io?aaeaieai, ?ac?aaioaia iiaay oi?ia o/aoa a no?ieoaeuenoaa, aiaae?aiu iaoiaeu ii?iaoeaiiai o/aoa e eaeueeoee?iaaiey naaanoieiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio e o.ae. AOEAA inouanoaeye ia?iiioth, ?aciinoi?iiithth i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, ninoaaeythuoth cia/eoaeueioth /anoue i?ioeanna eiaeono?eaeecaoeee no?aiu a 30—50 aiaeao XX a. (no?ieee eiiioiecia, nii?oaeaiea ciaiaieouo eaiaeia, ia?aiai AAIa, iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo eiiaeiaoia, aeaeaciuo aei?ia e o.ae.). Aua iaeei oaeo caneoaeeaaao iaoaai aieiaiey. A 1937 a. aicieeea eaeay nicaeaiey iiaiai nieeaeiiai aeo?iaea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo. Eaeath iaeia?ee ia?eii oeiainia NNN? A.A. Caa?aa, e 2 aeaeaa?y 1937 a. aue iiaeienai e ia/aoe ia?aue iiia? aeo?iaea «Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao», eioi?ue auoiaeeo e iiiuia. AEo?iae iaycaoaeueii ioe?uaaeny ia?aaeiaie noaoueae ia iauaiieeoe/aneea oaiu eee ioeoeeaeueiuie niiauaieyie, niaea?aeae noaouee ii ?acee/iui aniaeoai o/aoa, aiaeeca, eiio?iey, iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia e ae?. Auione ?aaoey?iiai ia/aoiiai ecaeaiey auiieiye ?yae ooieoeee: eioi?iaoeeiiioth, o/aaii-ia?aciaaoaeueioth, iaoiaeieiae/aneoth.Oaeei ia?acii, a 30—50 aiaeao XX a. iaaethaeaeenue ia oieueei io?eoeaoaeueiua oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Oaeoe/anee e 1953 a. oai?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia?anoaea nouanoaiaaoue. Oi, /oi auaeaaaeinue ca oaeiaoth, auei iaai?ii o?eaeaeueiuo o?ac. Noaei iiaeiui ainoaaeyoue oi, /aai ia auei. O?iaaiue i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee iaaeae. Iaeiaei a yoio ia?eiae auee oniaoe a iaeanoe n/aoiaiaenoaa (ii ia n/aoiaaaeaiey) . Yoe oniaoe naycaiu n o/aoii cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai, oi?ie?iaaieai oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo no?oeoo? e n iaoaiecaoeeae ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. Oae, a iaeanoe o/aoa cao?ao e eaeueeoee?iaaiey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iaaethaeaeny onoie/eaue ?ino ciaiee, i?ineaaeeaaeanue i?aainoaaiiinoue n i?aaeuaeouei ia?eiaeii. Iaeaieaa y?eay aeeneonney ?acaa?ioeanue ii aii?ino iieooaa?eeaoiiai e aaniieooaa?eeaoiiai aa?eaioa i?aaiecaoeee naiaeiiai o/aoa cao?ao.I?e iieooaa?eeaoiii iaoiaea noaaeeanue caaea/a en/eneaiey naaanoieiinoe eaaeaeiai iieooaa?eeaoa. Iaeaieaa y?eeie noi?iiieeaie yoiai iaoiaea auee AA Aeiaeiiia e I.I. Iiae/aiei. Eo a?aoiaiou naiaeeeenue e oiio, /oi iieooaa?eeaoiue aa?eaio iicaieyao:- aeeth/aoue a iauaeou o/aoa ia oieueei aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, ii iieooaa?eeaou, o.a. i?iaeoeoeeth, i?ioaaeooth ii?aaeaeaiiua noaaeee ia?aaioee;- oneeeoue eiio?ieue ca aeaeaeaieai e nio?aiiinoueth iieooaa?eeaoia.Eo iiiiiaiou — I.O. AEaa?ae e A.O. Iaeee — i?eaiaeeee oaeea aeiaiaeu:- iieooaa?eeaoiue aa?eaio ioee/aaony aieueoie o?oaeiaieinoueth, ii ia ianao ieeaeie aeaenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee;- ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eiie?aoiua iieooaa?eeaou ianoo iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea, e yoi noa?a iia?aoeaiiai o/aoa.Neieue iiiai ie caieiaeenue aooaaeoa?u aeaiiie i?iaeaiie, iia oae e ia neiaeeeanue a caeii/aiioth oai?eth. Oai ia iaiaa aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia ?anniao?eaatho naaanoieiinoue eae iniiaioth eaoaai?eth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, /oi iaoneiaeaii, ii eo iiaieth, ?yaeii i?e/ei:auyaeaiea ?aca?aia;eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai anao ?ano?nia;iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe e ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa;n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec;oeaiiia?aciaaiea;ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa;?ani?ino?aiaiea ia?aaeiaiai iiuoa.Iaeiaei eaaeaeue ec yoeo aeiaiaeia iiaeii ii?iaa?aiooue. ?aiaa oaea auei aeieacaii, /oi aooaaeoa?neay eaeueeoeyoeey ia ioaeia, oae eae oeaia a oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee neeaaeuaaaony iiae aeeyieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, a naia ii naaa oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue ia i?iaeaaeioth oeaio ia aeeyao (aeeyao ieaiiaay, eee ii?iaoeaiay, naaanoieiinoue). E?iia oiai, i?ioeaieee aooaaeoa?neie eaeueeoeyoeee i?eaiaeeee neaaeothuea aeiaiaeu:- aaee/eia naaanoieiinoe iaoneiaeaia ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie — /oi ii eino?oeoeee aeeth/aaony a naaanoieiinoue, oi e aoaeao;- aaee/eia cao?ao caaeneo io eieaaaiey oeai, oa?eoia, noaaie iaeiaia, i?ioeaioiuo noaaie e ae?.;- no?iai ?aca?aie/eoue cao?aou iaaeaeo io/aoiuie ia?eiaeaie iaaiciiaeii;- iauai aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee caaeneo io iauaia e ioeaiee iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa;- ?ani?aaeaeaiea einaaiiuo cao?ao iineo oneiaiue oa?aeoa?;- naaanoieiinoue aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee — n?aaeiaa?eoiaoe/aneay aaee/eia, eioi?ay yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii eco/aiey noaoenoeee;- ?an/ao naaanoieiinoe o?oaeiaiie, aei?ia, ii ia aeaao aeaenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee.A /enea i?e/ei iiioey?iinoe eaeueeoeyoeee iiaeii iacaaoue eaaeouothny oaaaeeoaeueiinoue /enae, aiciiaeiinoue aooaaeoa?ee ?anoe?eoue ooaou e iiaeiaio iaiaoiaeeiie ?aaiou aeieoiaioaeueiui aa iiaeiaeai. Ii yoi ia cia/eo, /oi eaeueeoeyoeey aiiaua ia ioaeia. Iia iaiaoiaeeia eae ieaiiaay (ia?niaeoeaiay) e eae ?ao?iniaeoeaiay. Ia?aay i?aaeiacia/aia aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee i i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee e ii?aaeaeaiee oeai, aoi?ay — a nayce n eiio?ieueiuie aii?inaie ii auioneo eaeeo-eeai aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee e ae?.Eae aeaeii, i?aaeeueiua acaeyaeu, auneacaiiua aooaaeoa?aie XVIII—XX aa., auee iaecaanoiu iiaeaaeythuaio aieueoeinoao aooaaeoa?ia, eioa?anu eioi?uo auee oeaeeeii e iieiinoueth iiaeiuaiu n/aoiaiaenoaii (i?aeoeeie), a ia iaoeie.Aoi?ie aii?in, eioi?ue oe?iei aeeneooe?iaaeny a yiioo canoiy,— niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u aooaaeoa?ee. Aei 1964 a. auea i?eiyoa onoaiiaea ia aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiue o/ao, caoai ia oeaio?aeeciaaiiue, a n ia/aeii ia?ano?ieee aiiaue caaiai?eee i iieueca aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee.Oeaio?aeecaoeey — yoi nenoaia, i?e eioi?ie o/ao i?aaiecoaony io eiaie nianoaaiieea (iia?aoeaii oi?aaeythuaai eeoea) e eaaeaeue o/anoiee oicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna oeaeeeii iiaeio/aoai nianoaaiieeo.Aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey — yoi nenoaia, i?e eioi?ie o/ao i?aaiecoaony ii eaaeaeiio iauaeoo, aoiaeyuaio a i?aaei?eyoea, a noaiaiue iiaeio/aoiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony ii oeacaieth auoanoiyueo einoaioeee.N na?aaeeiu 50-o aiaeia XX a. iiuiue eiioeuen e ?acaeoeth iieo/aao iaoaiece?iaaiiay aooaaeoa?ey; yoa oaia noaiiaeony i/aiue iiioey?iie. Aeaaiui eaeaieiaii iaoaiecaoeee o/aoa noae Aaneeee Eaaiiae/ Enaeia. Ii oi?ie?oao oaaee/ii-ia?oiea?oi/ioth oi?io n/aoiaiaenoaa, nicaeaao o/aiea i eiiieaeniie iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee.?ani?ino?aiaiea yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth iiauo iiiyoee: ANO (oaiaeaioeey e oeaio?aeecaoeee) e A?I (oaiaeaioeey e aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee). Iineieueeo aooaaeoa?u ia eiaee niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee e ineoieiae/anee ia auee aioiau e ?aaioa ia YAI, ia i?aeoeea noi?ie?iaaeinue iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea e oaoieea, oae eae e iau/iui ioeaeai i?eaaaeeenue aua e eiiiuethoa?iua. Aiciee aeoaieee e?ecen a eniieueciaaiee YAI. Eeoue nionoy iiiai eao iooai i?ia e ioeaie auee auaeaeaiu iniiaiiieaaathuea i?eioeeiu, eaaeauea a iniiaa ?aoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa a oneiaeyo aai iaoaiecaoeee.Nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a NNN? auea nicaeaia a oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie oeaio?aeeciaaiii oi?aaeyaiie yeiiiieee n i?aiaeaaeaieai a iae ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. Yoa nenoaia iaoiaeeeanue a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iniia oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey e auea iai?aaeaia ia iaania/aiea ?oeiaiaenoaa anae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ni noi?iiu auoanoiyueo i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea eo eiio?iey ca auiieiaieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo ieaiia e ca nio?aiiinoueth ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe; iieiinoueth niioaaonoaiaaea ainiiaenoaothuae iiaeaee yeiiiieee e auea aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiie a aa oneiaeyo, ii ieacaeanue iai?eniiniaeaiiie aeey io?aaeaiey iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, oi?ie?othueony a ?innee a nayce n ia?aoiaeii ia ?uii/ioth iiaeaeue.A yoi a?aiy iiaeieiaeenue i?iaeaiu ia?aoiaea i?aaei?eyoee ia oicyenoaaiioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e naiioeiaine?iaaiea, aiaae?aiey oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa eae aaaeiaeoaai iaoiaea oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai. Noaea aeooaeueiie i?iaeaia iiauoaiey ?iee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a ?aoeeiiaeueiii e yeiiiiiii eniieueciaaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, eioi?ua iiaeii ?aaeeciauaaoue oieueei ia iniiaa oaeouaai e ia?niaeoeaiiai aiaeeca, aace?othuaainy ia aeinoiaa?iie o/aoiie eioi?iaoeee.Ia/aei aeoeaiie ?aaiou ii ia?ano?ieea nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?eoeinue ia 1989—1990 aa., eiaaea aicieeea i?aeoe/aneay iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaea?iecaoeee yoie nenoaiu aeey i?aaei?eyoee n o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea e aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, oeie/iuo aeey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. ?acoeueoaoii noaea ia?a?aaioea e caiaia ?yaea iaoiaeee o/aoa, ia ioaa/aaoeo oneiaeyi aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Aianoa n oai noaea i/aaeaeiie iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eniiniaeaiey ?inneeneie nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e iaiythueiny yeiiiie/aneei ioiioaieyi, eiioeaiooaeueiie ia?a?aaioee anae ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/aneie aacu o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, i?aaeaea anaai ieaia n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e eino?oeoeee ii aai i?eiaiaieth, iieiaeaiey ii aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe e ae?oaeo aeoia, eioi?ua auee i?eaioe?iaaiu ia noa?ua oneiaey oicyenoaiaaiey.E eiioeo 1991 a. n o/anoeai yenia?oia Oeaio?a ii OIE III aue iiaeaioiaeai iiaue ieai n/aoia, eioi?ue nio?aiee i?aainoaaiiinoue n i?aaeiei (no?oeoo?a iino?iaiey, iaeiaiiaaiea e ii?yaeie eiaee?iaaiey n/aoia), ii i?aoa?iae eiioeaiooaeueiua Eciaiaiey. Auee ono?aiaiu oaeea iaaeinoaoee noa?ie nenoaiu o/aoa, eae eaii?e?iaaiea iai?ioa eaieoaea, oi?iuaiiia io?aaeaiea oiaa?iiai e?oaiiai?ioa, i?aiaeaaeaiea iaoo?aeenoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e iaoiaeeea o/aoa oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey, ionoonoaea a ninoaaa iauaeoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iaeioi?uo aeaeia eiouanoaa e iia?aoeee, ia ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo eee ia nouanoaiaaaoeo a ieaiiaie yeiiiieea, ii eiathueo aaaeiia cia/aiea a ?uii/iie (aaethoiua iia?aoeee, oeaiiua aoiaae, iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau e ae?.).Ei?aiiay eiiea anae yeiiiieee no?aiu i?eaaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey iiauo eiio?ieueiuo no?oeoo?, i?enoueo ?uieo. Oae, a 1990 a. auea nicaeaia ainoaea?noaaiiay iaeiaiaay neoaeaa, i?ecaaiiay iaania/eoue aeaenoaaiiue eiio?ieue ca iieiioie e naiaa?aiaiiinoueth ia?a/eneaiey iaeiaia a athaeaeao anaie th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie.Oaeei ia?acii, nionoy iiiaea aiaeu aooaaeoa?u aa?ioeenue e enoieai o/aoa, aic?iaeaeay i?eioeeiu, neiaeeaoeany aei ?aaiethoeee.Iiaeaiaey eoia eco/aieth iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a ?innee, ioiaoei iniiaiua iiiaiou. Aeaaiie /a?oie ?inneeneiai o/aoa o?aaeeoeeiiii yaeyaony aeanoeia ?aaoee?iaaiea ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia ecaeaao caeiiu e eino?oeoeee, ii?aaeaeythuea i?aaeea aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Aaaeiui aeinoeaeaieai niaaoneiai o/aoa iiaeii iacaaoue iieioth oieoeeaoeeth o/aoiuo i?ioeaaeo?: aaeeiue ieai n/aoia, aaeeiua oi?iu ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia e io/aoiinoe e o.ae. Ii eiaiii neeueiua noi?iiu aooaaeoa?ee e noaee neaainoueth i?e ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi, oae eae ia iicaieeee i?aaieciaaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth nenoaio o/aoa aeey eaaeaeiai oicyenoaa.7. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a nia?aiaiiie ?innee7.1. I?iaeaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee a ?inneeEiioeaioeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, nouanoaiaaaoay a oneiaeyo oeaio?aeeciaaiii ieaie?oaiie yeiiiieee, auea iaoneiaeaia iauanoaaiiui oa?aeoa?ii nianoaaiiinoe e iio?aaiinoyie ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie. Aeaaiui iio?aaeoaeai eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?oaiie a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa, aunooiaei ainoaea?noai a eeoea io?aneaauo ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa, ieaie?othueo, noaoenoe/aneeo e oeiainiauo i?aaiia. Aeaenoaiaaaoay nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiainiaiai eiio?iey ?aoaea caaea/e auyaeaiey ioeeiiaiee io i?aaeienaiiuo iiaeaeae oicyenoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia.Eciaiaiea nenoaiu iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, a oaeaea a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie n?aaeu i?aaeii?aaeaeeei iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaeaeaaoiie o?ainoi?iaoeee eiioeaioeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, eioi?ay aeieaeia noaoue yeaiaioii ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u, iaania/eaathuae aeaaii?eyoiue eeeiao aeey /anoiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey, a oii /enea eiino?aiiiai. Eiioeaioeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ?innee auea iaeia?aia Iaoiaeieiae/aneei niaaoii ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo i?e Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e I?aceaeaioneei Niaaoii Einoeoooa i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia 29 aeaeaa?y 1997 a. A iae cae?aieaiu iniiau iino?iaiey nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a oneiaeyo iiaie yeiiiie/aneie n?aaeu, neeaaeuaathuaeny a no?aia. A Eiioeaioeee ii?aaeaeaiu oeaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, iniiau i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, o?aaiaaiey e ninoaao e niaea?aeaieth eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?oaiie a nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, e?eoa?ee i?eciaiey e ioeaiee eiouanoaa, iaycaoaeuenoa, aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia. Eiioeaioeey ia yaeyaony ii?iaoeaiui aeieoiaioii, a iae eeoue iieacaiu iai?aaeaiey, ii eioi?ui aoaeao i?iaiaeeoueny ?aoi?ia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.7.2. ?aoi?ie?iaaiea o/aoa a niioaaonoaee n INOIE niaeaeaieth, i?ioeann ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ionoaao io iauaai i?ioeanna yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i a ?innee. A oeaeyo eciaiaiey oaeiai iieiaeaiey aeae auea ?ac?aaioaia I?ia?aiia ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie noaiaea?oaie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe (INOI), eioi?ay ooaa?aeaeaia iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 6 ia?oa 1998 a. ? 283.Oeaeue ?aoi?ie?iaaiey — i?eaaaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a niioaaonoaea o?aaiaaieyi ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e INOI.A niioaaonoaee n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiu caaea/e ?aoi?ie?iaaiey:- noi?ie?iaaoue nenoaio noaiaea?oia o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, iaania/eaathueo iieueciaaoaeae, i?aaeaea anaai eiaanoi?ia, iieaciie eioi?iaoeeae;- iaania/eoue oayceo ?aoi?iu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a ?innee n iniiaiuie oaiaeaioeeyie aa?iiiecaoeee noaiaea?oia ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia;- ieacaoue iaoiaeieiae/aneoth iiiiuue i?aaiecaoeeyi a iiieiaiee e aiaae?aiee ?aoi?ie?iaaiiie iiaeaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.?aoi?ia i?iaiaeeony ii neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi:- niaa?oainoaiaaiea ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey;- oi?ie?iaaiea ii?iaoeaiie aacu (iaoeeiiaeueiuo noaiaea?oia) a niioaaonoaee n ieaiii aiaae?aiey iieiaeaiee ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo a i?aeoeeo, ooaa?aeaeaiiui ?anii?yaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 22 iay 1998 a. ? 587-?;- iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea (eino?oeoeee, iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eiiiaioa?ee e o.i.);- eaae?iaia iaania/aiea (oi?ie?iaaiea aooaaeoa?neie i?ioannee, iiaeaioiaea e iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee niaoeeaeenoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa);- iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai (anooieaiea e aeoeaiay ?aaioa a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo, acaeiiaeaenoaea n iaoeeiiaeueiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, ioaaonoaaiiuie ca ?ac?aaioeo noaiaea?oia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e ?aaoee?iaaiea niioaaonoaothuae aeayoaeueiinoe).Ii eaaeaeiio iai?aaeaieth I?ia?aiia niaea?aeeo ia?a/aiue aii?inia, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue. A i?eeiaeaiee i?eaaaeai ieai ia?ii?eyoee ii ?aaeecaoeee ?aoi?i aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee auoue i?iaaaeaiu e 2000 a. ii ianyoeai. Oae, ii ia?aiio iai?aaeaieth (niaa?oainoaiaaiea ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey) aianaiu eciaiaiey a Oaaea?aeueiue caeii io 21 iiya?y 1996 a. ? 129-OC «I aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa» ii aii?ino i?iaaaeaiey aooanoaoeee aooaaeoa?ia. ?acoeueoaoii auiieiaiey aoi?iai iai?aaeaiey (oi?ie?iaaiea ii?iaoeaiie aacu) yaeeenue ?ac?aaioaiiua e ooi/iaiiua iieiaeaiey ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo e io/aoiinoe, aaaaeaiea a i?aeoeeo iiaiai Ieaia n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e Eino?oeoeee ii aai i?eiaiaieth, ecaeaiea ia ?onneii ycuea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe e neiaa?y oa?ieiia, oiio?aaeyaiuo a ieo. Ii o?aoueaio iai?aaeaieth (iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea) ?ac?aaioaiu e ooaa?aeaeaiu iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee a ?ac?aca ioaeaeueiuo iieiaeaiee ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo (IAO), oeiiaua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aeey noauaeoia iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa n o/aoii o?aaiaaiee INOI, ia?aniio?aiu oi?iu ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia e ?aaeno?ia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. A ?aieao /aoaa?oiai iai?aaeaiey (eaae?iaia iaania/aiea) ?ac?aaioaiu Iieiaeaiea ia aooanoaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia, iiaua ia?aciaaoaeueiua noaiaea?ou aeey iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, ecaeaaony o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a. A /anoe iineaaeiaai iai?aaeaiey (iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai) Einoeooo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia ?innee acaeiiaeaenoaoao n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie i?ioanneiiaeueiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e Eii?aeeiaoeeiiiui niaaoii ii iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa no?ai NIA.Iaeiaei ia ana iieiaeaiey, i?eiyoua a I?ia?aiia, auiieiaiu a n?ie e a oii aeaea, a eioi?ii iie auee caaeoiaiu. Oae, aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ia ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii o/aoo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa, ooaa?aeaeaiea eioi?uo ieaie?iaaeinue a aaaonoa 1998 a. Iaoiaeeony a ?aaioa ?yae iieiaeaiee ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo: «?ai?aaiecaoeey i?aaiecaoeee» (a 2003 a. i?eiyou iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey), «A?aiaea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa» (ia ?ac?aaioaiu aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie). Ieaiii aiaae?aiey noaiaea?oia ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo auee i?aaeoniio?aiu iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua auoee a naao, ii a aeaea iaoiaee/aneeo oeacaiee, o.a. noaoon aeieoiaioia aue iiieaeai. E oaeei iaoiaee/aneei oeacaieyi ioiinyony «I?eaueue ia aeoeeth», «Naiaeiay aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue», «Aeiaa?eoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea eiouanoaii». Iiiai nii?ia a i?ioanneiiaeueiie n?aaea aucaae i?iaeo Eiaeaena i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee. Iinea aeieaeo aeeneonnee i?iaeo aue iai?aaeai ia aei?aaioeo e i?eiyo n iii?aaeaie 24 iay 1999 a.N?aaee i?iaeai, iaoathueo auiieiaieth i?ia?aiiu, iiaeii iacaaoue neaaeothuea:- iaaeaaii?eyoiay yeiiiie/aneay ianoaiiaea a no?aia (e?ecen 1998 a.);- iaauiieiaiea a?aoeea ?ac?aaioee caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia ii iiiaei iai?aaeaieyi, /oi caaea?aeeaaei i?eiyoea iaeioi?uo iaoeeiiaeueiuo noaiaea?oia ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo (iai?eia?, ii iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai — /anoue o?aouey A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ii iaeiaiaui ?an/aoai —niaoeeaeueiay /anoue Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ii ?ai?aaiecaoeee — Oaaea?aeueiue caeii «Ia oieoa?iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo», ii ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiue — Oaaea?aeueiue caeii «I aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea Athaeaeaoiiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee» e o.ae.);- iinoiyiiia iaiiaeaiea INOI;- i?eaioe?iaaiiinoue i?aeoeee i?eiaiaiey IAO ia iaeiaiaua o?aaiaaiey;- ionoonoaea io?aneaauo oeacaiee ii i?eiaiaieth i?aaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;- ionoaaaiea a ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii iao/aiey e ia?aiiaeaioiaee aooaaeoa?neeo eaae?ia.7.3. Eiioeaioeey ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia n?aaeian?i/ioth ia?niaeoeaoEiioeaioeey ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia n?aaeian?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao, ?ac?aaioaiiay ii ?aoaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa, iai?aaeaia ia iiauoaiea ea/anoaa eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?oaiie a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, e iaania/aiea aa?aioe?iaaiiiai aeinooia e iae caeioa?aniaaiiui iieueciaaoaeyi. Eiioeaioeey auea iaeia?aia i?eeacii Ieioeia ?innee io 1 ethey 2004 a. ? 180.Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?iecioee cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey, ai iiiaii i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiua iacaaiiie I?ia?aiiie ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa 1998 a.Eciaiaiey a nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe auee iai?aaeaiu ia iaania/aiea oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee i oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, iieaciie caeioa?aniaaiiui iieueciaaoaeyi. A ea/anoaa iniiaiiai eino?oiaioa ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe auee i?eiyou iaaeaeoia?iaeiua noaiaea?ou oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe. A aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe ?ane?uaaaony eioi?iaoeey ia aooeee?iaaiiuo eeoeao, niauoeyo iinea io/aoiie aeaou, oneiaiuo oaeoao oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?ae?auaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaanoeaiaiee oeiainiauo e ae?oaeo aeoeaia, ii naaiaioai e ae? Oicyenoaothuea noauaeou eniieuecotho a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe niiniau ioeaiee aeoeaia e iaycaoaeuenoa, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia oneiaey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. E?oiiaeoea oicyenoaothuea noauaeou (iaooyiie, aaciaie, yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneie, iaoaeeo?ae/aneie, aaoiiiaeeano?ieoaeueiie, oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aaieianeiai naeoi?a) aioiayo eiinieeaee?iaaiioth oeiainiaoth io/aoiinoue ii INOI eee eiui iaaeaeoia?iaeii i?eciaaaaiui noaiaea?oai. Iieo/ee ?acaeoea ?uiie aoaeeoi?neeo oneoa. Aic?in i?anoeae aooaaeoa?neie i?ioannee, aicieeea aoaeeoi?neay i?ioanney. Iiyaeeny ?yae i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee, ioaeaeueiua ec eioi?uo noaee /eaiaie Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oaaea?aoeee aooaaeoa?ia.A oi aea a?aiy, ianiio?y ia ii?aaeaeaiiua oniaoe a ?acaeoee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, eiathony na?ueaciua i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony:- a ionoonoaee ioeoeeaeueiiai noaoona aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, ninoaaeyaiie ii INOI, a oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiie eio?ano?oeoo?u i?eiaiaiey INOI;- a oi?iaeueiii iiaeoiaea ?aaoee?othueo i?aaiia e oicyenoaothuea noauaeoia ei iiiaei eaoaai?eyi, i?eioeeiai e o?aaiaaieyi aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, ioaa/athuei oneiaeyi ?uii/iie yeiiiieee;- a iaii?aaaeaiii aunieeo cao?aoao oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia ia iiaeaioiaeo eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe ii INOI iooai o?ainoi?iaoeee aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, iiaeaioiaeaiiie ii ?inneeneei i?aaeeai;- a cia/eoaeueiii aaeieieno?aoeaiii a?aiaie oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia ii i?aaenoaaeaieth ecauoi/iie io/aoiinoe i?aaiai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, a oaeaea eceeoieo cao?aoao ec-ca iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aeeaeueii n aooaaeoa?neei o/aoii aanoe iaeiaiaue o/ao;.- a neaainoe nenoaiu eiio?iey ea/anoaa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, a oii /enea a iaaunieii ea/anoaa aoaeeoa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.- a iaaeinoaoi/iinoe o/anoey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee e ae?oaie caeioa?aniaaiiie iauanoaaiiinoe, aeeth/ay iieueciaaoaeae aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, a ?aaoee?iaaiee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, a oaeaea a ?acaeoee aooaaeoa?neie e aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee;- a ieceii o?iaia i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee aieueoae /anoe aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia, a oaeaea iaaeinoaoi/iinoe iaaueia eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeee, iiaeaioiaeaiiie ii INOI.Neiaeeaoayny nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe ia iaania/eaaao a iieiie ia?a iaaeeaaeauaa ea/anoai e iaaeaaeiinoue oi?ie?oaiie a iae eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea nouanoaaiii ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey yoie eioi?iaoeee.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy neeaaeuaathony aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Aaaaeaiu a aeaenoaea ii?iaoeaiua i?aaiaua aeou, ioaaouaathuea aieueoeinoai iauaeoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. A i?ioanneiiaeueiii niiauanoaa iaeiieaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua iaauee e iiuo aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo. A iauanoaa nic?aei iiieiaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiauoaiey oaiiia ia?aoiaea e eniieueciaaieth INOI.Oeaeueth ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe ia n?aaeian?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao (2004—2010 aa.) yaeyaony nicaeaiea i?eaieaiuo oneiaee e i?aaeiinueie iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai e oniaoiiai auiieiaiey nenoaiie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe i?enoueo ae ooieoeee a yeiiiieea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a /anoiinoe, ooieoeee oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee i aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, iieaciie aeey i?eiyoey yeiiiie/aneeo, ?aoaiee caeioa?aniaaiiuie aiaoieie e aioo?aiieie iieueciaaoaeyie (nianoaaiieeaie, eiaanoi?aie, e?aaeeoi?aie, i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, oi?aaeai/aneei ia?niiaeii oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia e ae?.). Nooue aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ninoieo a aeoeaecaoeee eniieueciaaiey INOI aeey ?aaeecaoeee yoie ooieoeee iooai nicaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiie eio?ano?oeoo?u e iino?iaiey yooaeoeaiiai o/aoiiai i?ioeanna.Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e io/aoiinoue iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeaaoue ii neaaeothuei iniiaiui iai?aaeaieyi:- iiauoaiea ea/anoaa eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?oaiie a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe;- nicaeaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u i?eiaiaiey INOI;- eciaiaiea nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe;- oneeaiea eiio?iey ea/anoaa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe;- nouanoaaiiia iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee niaoeeaeenoia, caiyouo i?aaiecaoeeae e aaaeaieai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, aoaeeoii aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, a oaeaea iieueciaaoaeae aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao aeieaeai ?acaeaaoueny eae /anoue aaeeiie nenoaiu o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay oaeaea noaoenoe/aneee e iia?aoeaii-oaoie/aneee o/ao. Aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii, iaania/eaathuei aaeeinoai yoie nenoaiu, yaeyaony ia?ae/iue o/ao eae enoi/iee aeaiiuo aeey iineaaeothuaai iaeaieeaaiey, nenoaiaoecaoeee e iaiauaiey eo a niioaaonoaee n caaea/aie, o?aaiaaieyie e iaoiaeieiaeae eaaeaeiai aeaea o/aoa.A i?ioeanna ?acaeoey iniaoth aeooaeueiinoue aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aaeeinoaa e oeaeinoiinoe nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe i?eia?aoaao iaania/aiea noaaeeueiinoe yoie nenoaiu. Ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea a yoii eiaao auyaeaiea ?eneia ?acaeoey (iaaaeaeaaoiinoue ?aaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee, ianiiinoaaeiinoue eioi?iaoeee, iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaoee?iaaiey, iaeiiaieinoue ?acaeoey e ae?.). I?aaeioa?auaiea eee niya/aiea iineaaenoaee yoeo ?eneia o?aaoao inouanoaeaiey i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e i?ioanneiiaeueiui niiauanoaii eiiieaena niioaaonoaothueo ia?.Eae iieacuaaao ioa/anoaaiiue e ie?iaie iiuo, ?acaeoea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe aeieaeii i?ienoiaeeoue a oaniie nayce n eciaiaieyie yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia e ioaa/aoue oa?aeoa?o e o?iaith ?acaeoey oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia. Iaaeiionoeii iaii?aaaeaiiia caoyaeaaiea i?ioeannia i?aia?aciaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy oi?ne?iaaiea eciaiaiee a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe aia nayce n eciaiaieyie a oicyenoaaiiii iaoaiecia e ?aaeueiui ooieoeeiie?iaaieai ?uii/iuo einoeoooia iiaeao i?eaanoe e nieaeaieth ea/anoaa oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee a yeiiiieea, aeene?aaeeoaoeee INOI, a oaeaea ineaaeaieth oeiainiaie aeenoeeieeiu. E?iia oiai, ia?aoiae ia INOI o?aaoao a?aiaie aeey i?aeoe/aneie io?aaioee iiauo iaoiaeia e i?ioeaaeo? nai?a e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee.Eciaiaiey a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, a /anoiinoe ia?aoiae ia INOI, aeieaeiu i?ienoiaeeoue iinoaiaiii n o/aoii aiciiaeiinoae, iio?aaiinoae e aioiaiinoe i?ioanneiiaeueiie e ae?oaie caeioa?aniaaiiie iauanoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.I?aaeoniio?aiiua Eiioeaioeeae iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe ioiinyony ei anai io?aneyi e noa?ai yeiiiieee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Aianoa n oai ?aaeecaoeey eo a iaeioi?uo io?aneyo e noa?ao yeiiiieee (a /anoiinoe, a iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo, aaieianeie nenoaia) eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua iniaaiiinoe.A athaeaeaoiie noa?a iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe ii?aaeaeaiu Eiioeaioeeae ?aoi?ie?iaaiey athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a 2004—2006 aa., iaeia?aiiie iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 22 iay 2004 a. ? 249. Aeaaiay caaea/a a yoie iaeanoe caeeth/aaony a i?eaeaeaiee i?eioeeiia e o?aaiaaiee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a athaeaeaoiie noa?a a niioaaonoaea oneiaeyi aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoia yoie noa?u a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, a oaeaea i?eioeeiai e o?aaiaaieyi aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ae?oaeo noa?ao yeiiiieee. Iniiaiui eino?oiaioii ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a athaeaeaoiie noa?a aeieaeiu noaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiua noaiaea?ou oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe aeey iauanoaaiiiai naeoi?a (INOIIN).Iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe — iiauoaiea ea/anoaa eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?oaiie a ieo. Ie?iaie iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi oa?aeoa?enoeee, ii?aaeaeythuea iieaciinoue eioi?iaoeee, aeinoeaathony iaiin?aaenoaaiiui eniieueciaaieai INOI eee i?eiaiaieai eo a ea/anoaa iniiau iino?iaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.Nia?aiaiiue aooaaeoa?neee o/ao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaco, ia iniiaa eioi?ie oicyenoaothuea noauaeou iiaeaioaaeeaatho aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue th?eaee/aneiai eeoea (aeaeaa — eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue) e eiinieeaee?iaaiioth oeiainiaoth io/aoiinoue. E?iia oiai, eioi?iaoeey, oi?ie?oaiay a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa, eniieuecoaony aeey ninoaaeaiey oi?aaeai/aneie, iaeiaiaie, noaoenoe/aneie io/aoiinoe, io/aoiinoe ia?aae iaaeci?iuie i?aaiaie. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia iniiaa aeaiiie eioi?iaoeee aeieaeiu ninoaaeyoueny e ae?oaea aeaeu io/aoiinoe.A nayce n yoei aeaaiay caaea/a a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa caeeth/aaony a iaania/aiee ioiineoaeueiie iacaaeneiinoe i?aaiecaoeee o/aoiiai i?ioeanna io eaeiai-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea io/aoiinoe. I?eioeeiu e o?aaiaaiey e i?aaiecaoeee o/aoiiai i?ioeanna, a oaeaea aaciaua i?aaeea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aeieaeiu onoaiaaeeaaoueny n o/aoii i?eioeeiia e o?aaiaaiee INOI oaeei ia?acii, /oiau oicyenoaothuea noauaeou eiaee aiciiaeiinoue oi?ie?iaaoue eioi?iaoeeth aeey ?aciuo aeaeia io/aoiinoe, a oii /enea ii INOI. Iaeioi?ua eaoaai?ee oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia iiaoo i?eiaiyoue oi?iuaiiua i?ioeaaeo?u aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue eae yeaiaio iaoiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa auiieiyao aeaa ooieoeee: eioi?iaoeeiiioth e eiio?ieueioth. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iia oa?aeoa?ecoao oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea e oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iia iaania/eaaao nenoaiiue eiio?ieue i?aaeeueiinoe e oi/iinoe aeaiiuo aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?e caaa?oaiee eaaeaeiai o/aoiiai oeeeea. A nayce n yoei ana oicyenoaothuea noauaeou aeieaeiu ninoaaeyoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue ca eaaeaeue io/aoiue ia?eiae.Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue i?aaeiacia/aia, a oii /enea:- aeey auyaeaiey eiia/iiai oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa — /enoie i?eauee (oauoea) e ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa iaaeaeo nianoaaiieeaie;- aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey a iaaeci?iua i?aaiu;- aeey auyaeaiey i?eciaeia aaie?ionoaa oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia;- aeey oi?ie?iaaiey aaeeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie aacu noaoenoe/aneiai iaaethaeaiey e iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae;- aeey eniieueciaaiey a oi?aaeaiee oicyenoaothuei noauaeoii, noaeii?iecaiaenoaa e i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaieeAeaaiay caaea/a a iaeanoe eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe caeeth/aaony a iaania/aiee aa?aioe?iaaiiiai aeinooia caeioa?aniaaiiui iieueciaaoaeyi e ea/anoaaiiie, iaaeaaeiie ; e niiinoaaeiie ia?niieoeoee?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee i oicyenoaothueo noauaeoao. Aeey ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue iaiaoiaeeii ninoaaeyoue ii ?inneeneei noaiaea?oai, ?ac?aaaouaaaiui ia iniiaa INOI. A ia?niaeoeaa n o/aoii iaeiieaiiiai iiuoa oeaeaniia?acii ioeaieoue aiciiaeiinoue ninoaaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiui e?oaii oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii INOI (aianoi ?inneeneeo noaiaea?oia).A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo a ?inneeneeo noaiaea?oao iiaeao i?aaeoniao?eaaoueny ianeieueei aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iiaeoiaeia e oi?ie?iaaieth e i?aaenoaaeaieth eioi?iaoeee a aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. Iaeiaei aeey iiauoaiey niiinoaaeiinoe aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe ?aciuo oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia eiee/anoai oaeeo neo/aaa aeieaeii auoue ia?aie/aii e a aeaeueiaeoai aai neaaeoao iaoeeiiii nie?auaoue.?inneeneeie noaiaea?oaie iiaeao i?aaeoniao?eaaoueny ?aciue iauai eioi?iaoeee, ?ane?uaaaiie a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe ioaeaeueiuie eaoaai?eyie oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, a /anoiinoe, aiciiaeii ninoaaeaiea oi?iuaiiie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoeEiinieeaee?iaaiiay oeiainiaay io/aoiinoue eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe i?aaeiacia/aia aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey e oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe a?oiiu oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, iniiaaiiie ia ioiioaieyo eiio?iey. Eiinieeaee?iaaiiay oeiainiaay io/aoiinoue auiieiyao eneeth/eoaeueii eioi?iaoeeiiioth ooieoeeth e i?aaeinoaaeyaony caeioa?aniaaiiui aiaoiei iieueciaaoaeyi. Oaeay io/aoiinoue aeieaeia noaoue iaeiei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee aeey i?eiyoey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee yoeie iieueciaaoaeyie.Aeaaiay caaea/a a iaeanoe eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe caeeth/aaony a iaania/aiee aa?aioe?iaaiiiai aeinooia caeioa?aniaaiiui iieueciaaoaeyi e ea/anoaaiiie, iaaeaaeiie e niiinoaaeiie eioi?iaoeee i a?oiia oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia. Aeey ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue iaycaoaeueiia ninoaaeaiea eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe ii INOI, a oaeaea iaycaoaeueiua aoaeeo e ioaeeeaoeeth io/aoiinoe.Oi?aaeai/aneay io/aoiinoue i?aaeiacia/aia aeey eniieueciaaiey a oi?aaeaiee oicyenoaothuei noauaeoii (?oeiaiaenoaii, ae?oaei oi?aaeai/aneei ia?niiaeii). A nayce n yoei niaea?aeaiea, ia?eiaee/iinoue, n?iee, oi?iu e ii?yaeie aa ninoaaeaiey oicyenoaothuee noauaeo ii?aaeaeyao naiinoiyoaeueii. Aianoa n oai ia?aaeiaay i?aeoeea oi?aaeaiey iieacuaaao, /oi iaeaieaa iieaciui e yooaeoeaiui yaeyaony oaeia iino?iaiea oi?aaeai/aneie io/aoiinoe, i?e eioi?ii niaea?aeaiea e ii?yaeie ninoaaeaiey aa iniiauaathony ia oao aea i?eioeeiao, ia eaeeo oi?ie?oaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aooaaeoa?neay e eiinieeaee?iaaiiay oeiainiaay io/aoiinoue.Aeaaiay caaea/a a iaeanoe oi?aaeai/aneie io/aoiinoe caeeth/aaony a oe?ieii ?ani?ino?aiaiee ia?aaeiaiai iiuoa aa i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea iiuoa eniieueciaaiey aa a oi?aaeaiee oicyenoaothuei noauaeoii.Iaeiaiaay io/aoiinoue (iaeiaiaua aeaeea?aoeee) i?aaeiacia/aia aeey oeneaeueiuo oeaeae e iaycaoaeueia aeey ninoaaeaiey oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie, e?oo eioi?uo onoaiiaeai iaeiaiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Iaeiaiaay io/aoiinoue aeieaeia ninoaaeyoueny ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?oaiie a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa, iooai ei??aeoe?iaee aa ii i?aaeeai iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.Aeaaiay caaea/a a iaeanoe iaeiaiaie io/aoiinoe caeeth/aaony a nieaeaiee cao?ao ia aa oi?ie?iaaiea iooai nouanoaaiiiai i?eaeeaeaiey i?aaee iaeiaiaiai o/aoa e i?aaeeai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey INOI a yeiiiieea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee yaeyaony nicaeaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u, iaania/eaathuae eniieueciaaiea yoeo noaiaea?oia a ?aaoee?iaaiee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe e iaiin?aaenoaaiii oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie. Iniiaiua yeaiaiou: caeiiiaeaoaeueiia i?eciaiea INOI a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee; i?ioeaaeo?a iaeia?aiey INOI; iaoaieci iaiauaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiuoa i?eiaiaiey INOI; ii?yaeie ioeoeeaeueiiai ia?aaiaea INOI ia ?onneee ycue; eiio?ieue ea/anoaa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, iiaeaioiaeaiiie ii INOI, a oii /enea aoaeeo; iao/aiea INOI.Aeey aeoeaiiai i?eiaiaiey INOI a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao caeiiiaeaoaeueiia i?eciaiea. A /anoiinoe, eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe, iiaeaioiaeaiiie ii INOI, aeieaeai auoue i?eaeai noaoon iaeiiai ec aeaeia ioeoeeaeueiie io/aoiinoe.Oeaeue i?ioeaaeo?u iaeia?aiey eaaeaeiai INOI (aeeth/ay ?acuyniaiey) — aeeth/aiea eo a nenoaio ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaiauo aeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Oaeay i?ioeaaeo?a aeieaeia ninoiyoue ec i?ioanneiiaeueiie iauanoaaiiie yenia?oecu e aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea eaaeaeiai noaiaea?oa. Yoa i?ioeaaeo?a aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue: i?eaeaiea th?eaee/aneie neeu INOI ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee; iaaeiiouaiea ionooieaiee io INOI; o/ao iniaaiiinoae yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee; niiinoaaeiinoue oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee a yeiiiieea. A ioaeaeueiuo e?aeia ?aaeeeo neo/ayo enoiaey ec neiaeeaoaeny yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aiciiaeai ia ia?aie/aiiue n?ie ioeac io iaeia?aiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai INOI. Aianoa n oai iaaeiionoeii iaeia?aiea /anoe eaeiai-eeai noaiaea?oa.Iaoaieci iaiauaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiuoa i?eiaiaiey INOI aaaeai aeey iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai e aaeeiiia?aciiai eniieueciaaiey noaiaea?oia oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie e eae ?acoeueoao niiinoaaeiinoe oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee i ieo. Oaeie iaoaieci i?aaeiieaaaao, a /anoiinoe, iaee/ea ?acee/iuo eioi?iaoeeiiii-iaoiaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia ii i?eiaiaieth INOI, eioi?ua iinyo eneeth/eoaeueii ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.I?eiaiaieth a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iiaeeaaeeo ioeoeeaeueiue oaeno INOI ia ?onneii ycuea. A nayce n yoei iaiaoiaeei iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuee iaainoaea?noaaiiue i?aai, eioi?ue aeieaeai: iiaeaioaaeeaaoue ioeoeeaeueiue oaeno ia ?onneii ycuea; ioneaaeeaaoue eciaiaiey a oaenoa ia aiaeeeneii ycuea e naiaa?aiaiii aiineoue eo a ioeoeeaeueiue oaeno ia ?onneii ycuea; aanoe aeinna?ee oa?ieiia INOI ia ?onneii ycuea. Aeaiiue i?aai aeieaeai ninoiyoue ec aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ia?aaiae/eeia e i?ioanneiiaeia a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, aoaeeoa, oeiainiaiai aiaeeca, iaiaaeaeiaioa e eiuo niaaeiuo iaeanoyo.?acaeoea nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe aeieaeii auoue iai?aaeaii ia iino?iaiea oaeie iiaeaee, eioi?ay o/eouaaea au eioa?anu anao caeioa?aniaaiiuo noi?ii, iaania/eaaea nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaoee?iaaiey. A iniiaa yoie iiaeaee — ?acoiiia ni/aoaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai niiauanoaa (i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee e ae?oaie caeioa?aniaaiiie iauanoaaiiinoe).?ani?aaeaeaiea ooieoeee iaaeaeo i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e i?ioanneiiaeueiui niiauanoaii aeieaeii enoiaeeoue ec neaaeothuaai. Iaania/eaay ?aaeecaoeeth eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa ia eioi?iaoeeth a noa?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe e yeiiiieee, aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e io/aoiinoue yaeythony iaeiie ec aa?aioee aaeeiiai ?uiea e aaeeinoaa yeiiiie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. ?aaoee?iaaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe aeieaeii iaania/eaaoue aaeeinoai nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue ?acaeoey yoie nenoaiu, o/ao eioa?ania oe?ieiai e?ooa caeioa?aniaaiiuo iieueciaaoaeae, a oaeaea i?aainoaaiiinoue.E aaaeaieth i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe aeieaeiu auoue ioianaiu:— au?aaioea ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe;— niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiauo iniia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe;— onoaiiaeaiea i?ioeaaeo?u iaeia?aiey INOI e aaaaeaiea eo a aeaenoaea ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee;— i?aaiecaoeey ?ac?aaioee e ooaa?aeaeaiea ?inneeneeo noaiaea?oia e eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaiauo aeoia a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe;— ainoaea?noaaiiue eiio?ieue niaethaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe;— iiieoi?eia oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo ?enee noaaeeueiinoe nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe;— acaeiiaeaenoaea n iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuie e iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe.E aaaeaieth i?ioanneiiaeueiiai niiauanoaa aeieaeiu auoue ioianaiu:— i?aaenoaaeaiea e caueoa eioa?ania i?ioanneiiaeueiiai niiauanoaa;— iiaeaioiaea i?aaeeiaeaiee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth i?aaiauo iniia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe;— o/anoea a ?ac?aaioea eee eieoeeaoeaiay ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoia ?inneeneeo noaiaea?oia e eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaiauo aeoia a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea ?acuyniaiee eo;— i?ioanneiiaeueiay iauanoaaiiay yenia?oeca INOI a i?ioeanna iaeia?aiey eo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee;— ?ac?aaioea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia, a oii /enea io?aneaaiai oa?aeoa?a, a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe;— iaiauaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia?aaeiaiai iiuoa aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e iiaeaioiaee aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe;— ?ac?aaioea ii?i i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee e eiio?ieue niaethaeaiey eo /eaiaie i?ioanneiiaeueiiai niiauanoaa;— eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai /eaiaie i?ioanneiiaeueiiai niiauanoaa noaiaea?oia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe;— iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee /eaiia i?ioanneiiaeueiiai niiauanoaa;— iiieoi?eia oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo ?enee noaaeeueiinoe nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe;— acaeiiaeaenoaea n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe.I?eieiay ai aieiaiea iauanoaaiioth cia/eiinoue noaiaea?oia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, iaiaoiaeeii eo oe?ieia i?eciaiea, iniiaaiiia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia aeiaa?ee e iei e oaaaeaeaiiinoe a eo aaeaeaaoiinoe e ea/anoaa. Aeey i?eciaiey noaiaea?oia a i?ioeann eo i?eiyoey iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/eoue i?ioanneiiaeueiia niiauanoai, eioi?ia aoaeao ?ac?aaaouaaoue i?iaeou iaoeeiiaeueiuo noaiaea?oia e (eee) i?iaiaeeoue i?ioanneiiaeueioth iauanoaaiioth yenia?oeco noaiaea?oia. I?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a naith i/a?aaeue i?aaiecotho ?ac?aaioeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo noaiaea?oia, iiaeaioaaeeaatho noaiaea?ou e ooaa?aeaeaieth (iaeia?aieth) e ooaa?aeaeatho (iaeia?ytho) eo, iaania/eaatho th?eaee/aneia ioi?ieaiea, ?aaeno?aoeeth e aaaeaiea ?aano?a noaiaea?oia.Oeaeaniia?acii, /oiau i?ioanneiiaeueiia niiauanoai o/anoaiaaei a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey noaiaea?oia /a?ac niaoeeaeueiue i?aai, ninoiyuee ec aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo, oe?iei ecaanoiuo e aaoi?eoaoiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?ioanneiiaeueiiai niiauanoaa, aeeth/ay iieueciaaoaeae aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. Ia?aiia/aeueii yoio i?aai aeieaeai aeaenoaiaaoue a ?aieao nenoaiu ooaa?aeaeaiey (iaeia?aiey) noaiaea?oia a ea/anoaa niaauaoaeueiiai i?e oaaea?aeueiii i?aaia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, ia eioi?ue aiceiaeaia au?aaioea ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee e ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. Iniiaiie caaea/ae niaoeeaeueiiai i?aaia aeieaeia noaoue i?ioanneiiaeueiay iauanoaaiiay yenia?oeca: i?iaeoia ?inneeneeo noaiaea?oia a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe e ?acuyniaiee e iei, INOI a i?ioeanna eo iaeia?aiey; ioeoeeaeueiiai oaenoa INOI ia ?onneii ycuea, a oii /enea aeinna?ey.I?ioanneiiaeueiay iauanoaaiiay yenia?oeca i?iaeoia noaiaea?oia e eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaiauo aeoia i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiea niioaaonoaey eo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iio?aaiinoyi caeioa?aniaaiiuo iieueciaaoaeae eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?oaiie a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. Iio?aaiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe i?eieiathony ai aieiaiea ia?yaeo n iio?aaiinoyie eiuo iieueciaaoaeae e ia ?anniao?eaathony a ea/anoaa i?ei?eoaoiuo. E?iia oiai, aeieaeii onoaiaaeeaaoueny niioaaonoaea i?iaeoia noaiaea?oia e ae?oaeo ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaiauo aeoia: iauei i?eioeeiai aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, yeiiiie/aneei oneiaeyi oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, INOI, io?aneaaie niaoeeoeea aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, o?aaiaaieth i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecoaiinoe.A aeaeueiaeoai ii ia?a iaeiieaiey iiuoa ainoaea?noaaiii-iauanoaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, nicaeaiey oe?iei i?eciaaaaiuo e i?iyaeaoeo naay a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee, a oaeaea n o/aoii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iiuoa oeaeaniia?acii aoaeao ?anniio?aoue aii?in ia eciaiaiee i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iu o/anoey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai niiauanoaa a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey noaiaea?oia, a /anoiinoe iaaeaeaiee niioaaonoaothueie ooieoeeyie iaainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia.Eae iieacuaaao ioa/anoaaiiay e ie?iaay i?aeoeea, aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii iaania/aiey ea/anoaa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe yaeyaony aeaenoaaiiue eiio?ieue ea/anoaa.Iniiaie nenoaiu eiio?iey aeieaeai auoue einoeooo aoaeeoa eae oi?ia iacaaeneiie i?iaa?ee aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia eeoeaie, iaeaaeathueie iaiaoiaeeiie eaaeeoeeaoeeae e iaaeaeaiiuie niioaaonoaothueie iieiiii/eyie. A yoii ioiioaiee einoeooo aoaeeoa noaiiaeony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo eino?oiaioia ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. I?aaeiinueeaie aeaenoaaiiinoe aoaeeoa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe yaeythony:— ea/anoaaiiua noaiaea?ou aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe, niioaaonoaothuea iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai aoaeeoa;— /aoeea i?aaeea iacaaeneiinoe aoaeeoi?neeo i?aaiecaoeee e aoaeeoi?ia;— iai?aeiaeiia neaaeiaaiea aoaeeoi?neeo i?aaiecaoeee e aoaeeoi?ia Eiaeaeno i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee;— aaeeiua eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua o?aaiaaiey e aoaeeoi?ai, iacaaeneii io oiai, a eaeie io?anee eee noa?a yeiiiieee iie aaaeoo aeayoaeueiinoue;— aunieee eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiue o?iaaiue (a oii /enea a iaeanoe INOI) aoaeeoi?ia, iaania/eaaaiue nenoaiie aooanoaoeee e iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee, aeeth/ay eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiue yecaiai;— eiio?ieue ea/anoaa ?aaiou aoaeeoi?neeo i?aaiecaoeee e aoaeeoi?ia ni noi?iiu i?aaeaea anaai i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee;— yooaeoeaiay nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiii-iauanoaaiiiai iaaeci?a ca aoaeeoi?neeie i?aaiecaoeeyie e aoaeeoi?aie.Ia?yaeo n aoaeeoii nenoaia eiio?iey ea/anoaa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao niioaaonoaothuoth iaaeci?ioth aeayoaeueiinoue oiieiiii/aiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia (Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau ii oeiainiaui ?uieai, Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau no?aoiaiai iaaeci?a e ae?.). Eo iniiaiie caaea/ae yaeyaony iaania/aiea aa?aioe?iaaiiiai aeinooia e ea/anoaaiiie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe caeioa?aniaaiiui iieueciaaoaeyi. N yoie oeaeueth ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu aeieaeiu eiio?iee?iaaoue, ianeieueei oicyenoaothuea noauaeou naiaa?aiaiii e iieii ?ane?uaatho aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue, a oaeaea a eaeie noaiaie eioi?iaoeey a ioaee/iie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe niioaaonoaoao i?eiyoui noaiaea?oai.Nenoaia eiio?iey ea/anoaa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe aeieaeia oaeaea aeeth/aoue a naay eiiieaen ia? oeiainiaie, aaeieieno?aoeaiie e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia e eo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae.Iaiaeia cia/aiea aeey ea/anoaa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe eiaao nenoaia ei?ii?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey (iiaaaeaiey) oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, niioaaonoaothuay ia?aaeiaiio ie?iaiio iiuoo a yoie iaeanoe.?acaeoea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe iaaiciiaeii aac niaa?oainoaiaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai ia?aciaaiey. N iaeiie noi?iiu, caaea/a caeeth/aaony a iiaeaioiaea aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia, iiieiathueo eiioeaioeee e eiie?aoiua i?aaeea oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, aeaaeathueo nia?aiaiiuie iaaueaie aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, iiaeaioiaee e aoaeeoa aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ea/anoaaiiay nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea aeinoaoi/iiai /enea iieueciaaoaeae, ioaeaeathueony a eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?oaiie a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, eiathueo iio?aaiinoue e iaauee aa eniieueciaaiey i?e i?eiyoee yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee, a /anoiinoe i?e auai?a iai?aaeaiee eiaanoe?iaaiey eaieoaea e aiaeeca ?eneia, naycaiiuo n yoei. Iaee/ea caeioa?aniaaiiuo iieueciaaoaeae yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo i?aaeiinueie ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.I?e ii?aaeaeaiee niaea?aeaiey i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee e iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee eaae?ia a ?anniao?eaaaiie iaeanoe iniaia aieiaiea aeieaeii auoue ia?auaii:— ia aeoaieia inaiaiea eaaeaueo a iniiaa INOI eiioeaioeee — iieaciinoe e nouanoaaiiinoe eioi?iaoeee, i?ei?eoaoa yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey ia?aae th?eaee/aneie oi?iie, nio?aiaiey eaieoaea, oeaiiinoe aeaiaa e ae?.;— ia oi?ie?iaaiea iaaueia aeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeee, iaeaieeaaaiie a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa, aeey oi?aaeaiey oicyenoaothuei noauaeoii e inouanoaeaiey yooaeoeaiiai ei?ii?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey;— ia au?aaioeo iaaueia i?eiaiaiey oaeeo niiniaia ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee, eae aeeneiioe?iaaiea, aa?iyoiinoiua ?an/aou, iaoaiaoe/aneay noaoenoeea;— ia oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai iiaeoiaea e i?eiaiaieth noaiaea?oia e eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaiauo aeoia a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. Oaeie iiaeoiae caeeth/aaony a naiinoiyoaeueiie iinoaiiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe iooai ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeiia e o?aaiaaiee, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo noaiaea?oaie e eiuie ii?iaoeaiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie;— ia au?aaioeo iaaueia i?ioanneiiaeueiiai noaeaeaiey i?e eaaeeoeeaoeee, noieiinoiii ecia?aiee, eeanneoeeaoeee e ioeaiea cia/eiinoe (nouanoaaiiinoe) oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie aeey oeaeae aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoa;— ia iao/aiea eniieueciaaieth oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae, noi?ie?iaaiiuo ii INOI, a nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia;— ia oi?ie?iaaiea aeoaieiai iiieiaiey ii?i i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee.Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee e iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee eaae?ia a ?anniao?eaaaiie iaeanoe yaeythony:— ia?ai?eaioaoeey o/aaiuo i?ia?aii n?aaeieo e aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, a oaeaea i?ia?aii iiaeaioiaee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia ia oaeoaeaiiia eco/aiea INOI e oi?ie?iaaiea iaaueia i?eiaiaiey INOI ia i?aeoeea;— iiieoi?eia ea/anoaa o/aaiuo i?ia?aii n?aaeieo e aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, a oaeaea i?ia?aii iiaeaioiaee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia;— ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii iao/aiey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e ae?oaiai oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia iniiaai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, a oii /enea eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe;— iaania/aiea niioaaonoaey o/aaiuo i?ia?aii iiaeaioiaee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia niioaaonoaothuei iaaeaeoia?iaeiui i?ia?aiiai (n o/aoii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e o?aaeeoeee aooaaeoa?neiai ia?aciaaiey a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee);— ?ac?aaioea ?inneeneeo noaiaea?oia ia?aciaaiey e aooanoaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia ia iniiaa noaiaea?oia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oaaea?aoeee aooaaeoa?ia;— iaiiaeaiea e ?ac?aaioea iiaiai o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneiai iaania/aiey ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna aeey ?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee iao/athueony aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo e io/aoiinoe.Eiioeaioeey aeieaeia ?aaeeciauaaoueny ii niaoeeaeueiui ieaiai, ioaaouaathuei ana auaeaeaiiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. A ia?eiae 2004—2010 aa. i?aaeiieaaathony neaaeothuea yoaiu ?aaeecaoeee Eiioeaioeee:2004—2007 aa. — iaycaoaeueiue ia?aaiae ia INOI eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe iauanoaaiii cia/eiuo oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, e?iia oao, /uee oeaiiua aoiaae ia?auathony ia oiiaeiauo ?uieao ae?oaeo no?ai e eioi?ua ninoaaeytho oaeoth io/aoiinoue ii eiui iaaeaeoia?iaeii i?eciaaaaiui noaiaea?oai. Ooaa?aeaeaiea iniiaiiai eiiieaeoa ?inneeneeo noaiaea?oia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe ia iniiaa INOI. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?eioeeiia e o?aaiaaiee e i?aaiecaoeee o/aoiiai i?ioeanna, a oaeaea aaciauo i?aaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, iaania/eaathueo oi?ie?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee aeey ninoaaeaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie e eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe. Nicaeaiea niaoeeaeueiiai i?aaia a ?aieao nenoaiu ooaa?aeaeaiey (iaeia?aiey) noaiaea?oia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe. Nicaeaiea iniiaiuo yeaiaioia eio?ano?oeoo?u i?eiaiaiey INOI. Naeeaeaiea i?aaee iaeiaiaiai o/aoa n i?aaeeaie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Aeoeaecaoeey o/anoey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee a ?acaeoee e ?aaoee?iaaiee aooaaeoa?neie e aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee. Oneeaiea eiio?iey iaania/aiey iauanoaaiii cia/eiuie oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie ioaee/iinoe eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee e iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee eaae?ia, a oii /enea iieueciaaoaeae aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, io/aoiinoe e aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe;2008—2010 aa. — iaycaoaeueiue ia?aaiae ia INOI eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe ae?oaeo oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, a oii /enea iauanoaaiii cia/eiuo, oeaiiua aoiaae eioi?uo ia?auathony ia oiiaeiauo ?uieao ae?oaeo no?ai e eioi?ua ninoaaeytho oaeoth io/aoiinoue ii eiui iaaeaeoia?iaeii i?eciaaaaiui noaiaea?oai. Ioeaiea aiciiaeiinoe ninoaaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiui e?ooii oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii INOI (aianoi ?inneeneeo noaiaea?oia). Oe?aieaiea e ?anoe?aiea noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe niaoeeaeueiiai i?aaia a ?aieao nenoaiu ooaa?aeaeaiey (iaeia?aiey) noaiaea?oia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, aeaeueiaeoaa iiauoaiea ?iee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee a ?acaeoee e ?aaoee?iaaiee aooaaeoa?neie 1e aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee. ?acaeoea nenoaiu eiio?iey iaania/aiey oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie ioaee/iinoe aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. ?anoe?aiea noa?u eiio?iey ia ea/anoai aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, a oii /enea iiaeaioiaeaiiie ii INOI.7.4. Aeayoaeueiinoue Einoeoooa i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia ?innee (EIA) ?innee.A ai?aea 1997 a. a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (a. Iineaa) auei nicaeaii iaeiiia?/aneia ia?oia?noai «Einoeooo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia ?innee», o/?aaeeoaeyie eioi?iai noaee aaaeouea aunoea o/aaiua, iao/iua e iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee. Aeoeaiia o/anoea a nicaeaiee e aeayoaeueiinoe EIA ?innee i?eieiaao Ieioei ?innee.Einoeooo iauaaeeiyao aooanoiaaiiuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia — ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e aaaeoueo niaoeeaeenoia aooaaeoa?neeo neoaea i?aaiecaoeee, aoaeeoi?neeo e eiinaeoeiaiauo neoaea, i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneee ninoaa a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca e aoaeeoa ?acee/iuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, niaoeeaeenoia oeiainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioa. Ia?aui i?aceaeaioii EIA ?innee aue eca?ai ss.A. Nieieia.Iniiaiuie oeaeyie EIA ?innee yaeythony:— iauaaeeiaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia a aaeeioth i?ioanneiiaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth;— iiauoaiea noaoona e i?anoeaea i?ioannee, oi?ie?iaaiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey i aeia?iniaanoii ?aaioathueo aooaaeoa?ao e aoaeeoi?ao;— ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa, aiaae?aiea a i?aeoeeo iiauo ii?i e iaoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa, ioaa/athueo o?aaiaaieyi I?ia?aiiu ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a niioaaonoaee n INOI;— i?aaenoaaeaiea eioa?ania aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia a caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiao aeanoe;— i?aaiecaoeey eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eiinaeoeiaiauo oneoa ii io?aaeaieth oie?aoeee a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e oi?ie?iaaieth iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu.Aaaeouaa ianoi a ?ac?aaioea ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa caieiaao Ieioei ?innee. O?aaeeoeeiiii aeey ?innee ?ac?aaioeie ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia aeey oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia caieiaaony Aeaia?oaiaio iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe Ieioeia ?innee. Iaoiaeieiae/aneea neoaeau a ieienoa?noaao e aaaeiinoaao (ca eneeth/aieai no?aoiauo e e?aaeeoiuo) i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaotho. Iiyoiio aeiaaaeaiea i?aaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aei i?aaiecaoeee, oieeiaaiea aeieoiaioia e eiio?ieue ca eo eniieiaieai oaeoe/anee aaaeoony i?iecaieueii.N ia?auo aeiae nicaeaiey EIA ?innee aeoeaii aeeth/eeny a ?ac?aaioeo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, a oaeaea iiaiai caeiia i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa. Nia/aea i?iaeou ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia i?ioiaeyo aeinoaoi/ii aeanoeoth i?iaa?eo a yenia?oiuo niaaoao EIA ?innee, nicaeaaaaiuo niaoeeaeueii aeey ?anniio?aiey eaaeaeiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioa. Caoai aieueoeinoai ec ?ac?aaioaiiuo aeieoiaioia i?ioiaeeo yenia?oeco a Iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiie eiiennee ii ?aoi?ie?iaaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?e I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O e oieueei iinea yoeo i?ioeaaeo? iinooiatho a Aeaia?oaiaio ii iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa Ieioeia ?innee.EIA ?innee caieiaao aaaeiia ianoi a nenoaia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey aooaaeoa?ia. Oae, a oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ioaeaeaieyo Einoeoooa nicaeathony yenia?oiua niaaou, a eioi?ua aoiaeyo ia oieueei niaoeeaeenou — /eaiu EIA ?innee, ii e /eiiaieee, io eioi?uo caaenyo oa eee eiua aii?inu. EIA ?innee iiiiaaao iaeoe ?aoaiea i?iaeai, ia aeiaiaey aeaea aei a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea, i?iaiaeeo naieia?u e eiinoeueoaoeee ii aii?inai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e o.i.Aeayoaeueiinoue EIA ?innee a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ioaaouaaao oieueei iineaaocianeia iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee. Nicaeaia e iinoiyiii iaiiaeyaony i?ia?aiia iiaeaioiaee aeaaiuo aooaaeoa?ia, ?ac?aaioaia nenoaia aooanoaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia, aeaenoaoao nenoaia iinoiyiiiai aaeaaiaeiiai iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee aooanoiaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia. A yoio i?ioeann aiaeaeathony i?aeoe/anee ana aaaeouea yeiiiie/aneea aocu no?aiu.Naiia aeoeaiia o/anoea EIA ?innee i?eieiae a ?ac?aaioea Eiaeaena i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey nio?aiaiey i?ioannee aooaaeoa?a, aeey aeinoeaeaiey aa iacaaeneiinoe e caueuaiiinoe. Naaiaeiy ia?aae EIA ?innee noiyo aeaa caaea/e: aeiaaaeaiea Eiaeaena yoeee aei eaaeaeiai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aooaaeoa?a e i?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu eiio?iey ca niaethaeaieai Eiaeaena. Aeey ?aoaiey aoi?ie caaea/e iio?aaothony cia/eoaeueiua oneeey.Oaeei ia?acii, a nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo i?ioanney aooaaeoa?a noaiiaeony aua aieaa cia/eiie. Yoi naycaii n ?acaeoeai ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a ?innee, n aeoeaecaoeeae yeiiiieee e eioaa?aoeeae yeiiiie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa.8. Caeiiiia?iinoe enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoaI?aeoeea o/aoa eiaao ouny/aeaoithth enoi?eth, a oa/aiea eioi?ie auee nicaeaiu noa?aioeiu o/aoa ?acee/iuo yoie/aneeo aa?eaioia. Oai?ey o/aoa ia/aea ?acaeaaoueny n XV a. n iaeiia?aiaiiie oi?iaeecaoeeae a iinooeaoao (caeiiao, i?aaeeao) e noa?aioeiao (iaueo i?eciaeao). Caeiiiia?iinoe yaiethoeee noi?ioee?iaaiu O.I. Iaeueeiaie a iiiyoeyo ia?aaeeai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa: ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe, oi?iaeeciaaiiinoe, i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, noaa?aieoaoa e enoi?e/aneie i?aainoaaiiinoe.Ia?aaeeaia ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe ninoieo a aaeeinoaa yeiiiie/aneie e eiio?ieueiie ooieoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, ?aaeecaoeey eioi?uo iaania/eaaaony iaoiaeieiaeae eae niaieoiiinoueth i?ioanneiiaeueiiai eino?oiaioa?ey. Yeiiiie/aneay ooieoeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?iyaeyeanue (e i?iyaeyaony) a eioi?iaoeeiiiie eieoaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia niaea?aeaiea iicaieyao auiieieoue eiio?ieueioth ooieoeeth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Eiio?ieueiay ooieoeey icia/aea ioaaonoaaiiinoue o/aoiuo ?aaioieeia ca niioaaonoaea oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ii?iai oi?aaeaiey ia iniiaa inouanoaeaiey a aeieoiaioaeueiii o/aoa yeiiiie/aneie ooieoeee e ioaaonoaaiiinoue aooaaeoa?ia ca iaoiaeieiaeth o/aoa. Yaiethoeey eiio?ieueiie ooieoeee ninoieo a ia?aoiaea io oioaeueiiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai eiio?iey e th?eaee/aneiio ?aaoee?iaaieth, eioi?ia yaeyaony i?eciaeii oeeaeeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Ii i?ei?eoao eiaao yeiiiie/aneay ooieoeey, oeaeue eioi?ie — aeaoue aaeaeaaoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ii ?yaeo ia?aiao?ia; oeaeue eiio?ieueiie ooieoeee — oaaaeeoueny a yoii.Ia?aaeeaia oi?iaeeciaaiiinoe i?iyaeyaony a noa?aioeiao o/aoiuo aeieoiaioia e a noa?aioeiao iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, eioi?ua eiatho yoie/aneia niaea?aeaiea. Noa?aioeiu aeieoiaioia icia/atho oaoie/aneee niinia ?aaeno?aoeee, oi?iu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, oaoiieiaee aeieoiaioia eae iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee. Aeaiiay ia?aaeeaia iaania/eaaao onoie/eainoue e noaaeeueiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo o/aoiuo nenoai ia yoaiao nia?aiaiiie aaeaioaoeee e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai. Ia?ooaiea noaaeeueiinoe iiaeao ieacuaaoue iaaeaaii?eyoiia aicaeaenoaea ia o/aoioth iiaeaeue nouanoaothuaai yoiina, oae eae iia ano?iaia a nenoaio iaoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, eiio?iey e naiiniciaiey.Ia?aaeeaia i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iaiauaao niaianoiia aeaenoaea ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe e oi?iaeeciaaiiinoe. Yoa ia?aaeeaia icia/aao iaoaieci aeaenoaey iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, niaea?aeauee yooaeo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. Acaeiiaeaenoaea ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe e oi?iaeeciaaiiinoe iiaeao auoue ia?auaii aioo?ue (eio?iaa?oeaiue i?eioeei) eee aiaia (yeno?aaa?oeaiue i?eioeei). Eio?iaa?oeaiue i?eioeei a ia?aaeeaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa icia/aao eioi?iaoeeiiioth caaeaiiinoue, ia?aie/aiiinoue aooaaeoa?neie nenoaiu ethaiai o?iaiy (oicyenoaa, yoiina) aiciiaeiinoyie iaoiaeieiaee. I?aaeaeu o/aoiie i?ioeaaeo?u ii?aaeaeyao enoiaeiue ninoaa aai iauaeoia e ia?ae/iue o/ao. ?anoe?aiea ninoaaa (aaiae iiauo) o/aoiuo iauaeoia i?ienoiaeeo a nayce n ?acaeoeai iaoee e oaoieee, yeiiiieee e iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Ii ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeieiaee o/aoa iiauo iauaeoia niaea?aeeo yeaiaio iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony ca i?aaeaeaie inaiaiiuo niiniaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. I?aiaeieaiea iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, naycaiiie n aaaaeaieai iiaie iaoiaeieiaee, icia/aao aeaenoaea i?eioeeia yeno?aaa?oeaiinoe. Aai ?aaeecaoeey naycaia ni naaaeeie iao/iuie eaeayie, iiauie i?ioanneiiaeueiuie ?aoaieyie e eiaao neaaenoaeai ?anoe?aiea ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe.Ia?aaeeaia noaa?aieoaoa aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ?aaoee?oao niioiioaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe e i?ioanneiiaeueiie iacaaeneiinoe o/aoiiai niiauanoaa a noa?a iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. I?ioanneiiaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue iiyaeeanue ia ?aiieo yoaiao yaiethoeee (eanou a no?aiao Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea), i?e/ai aeayoaeueiinoue o/aoiiai niiauanoaa anaaaea auea iauaeoii eiio?iey (aeieaeiinoiua eino?oeoeee, ioeoeeaeueiay io/aoiinoue, nenoaia iaeacaiee e o.i.). TH?eaee/aneia ?aaoee?iaaiea aa?ao ia/aei n ii?i ?eineiai i?aaa, eioi?uie onoaiaaeeaaeanue iaycaiiinoue aanoe aeieoiaioaeueiue o/ao e niaeanii eioi?ui ca yoei o/aoii i?eciaaaeanue ooieoeey th?eaee/aneie aeieacaoaeueiinoe. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeieiaee o/aoa auea i?a?iaaoeaie o/aoiuo ?aaioieeia. Eiaiii oaeie aa?eaio i?ioanneiiaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aue oianeaaeiaai aa?iiaeneei i?aaii. Nia?aiaiiue ?inneeneee aa?eaio i?ioanneiiaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?eaioe?iaai ia yaiethoeeiiii-a?oae/aneoth ae?aaiaainoi/ioth iiaeeoeeaoeeth (i?yiay ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeaiaioaoeey), ii iaeiia?aiaiii niaea?aeeo i?eciaee aa?iiaeneiai aa?eaioa (ii?iu iauaai th?eaee/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, aa?eaiou o/aoiie iieeoeee).I?ioanneiiaeueiay iacaaeneiinoue aicieeea eae neaaenoaea naii?acaeoey iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e eae n?aaenoai naiicaueou o/aoiiai niiauanoaa. Yaiethoeey iacaaeneiinoe i?ioea iooue io i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ciaiee eanou ae?aoeia-/eiiaieeia aei aa?eaoeee nia?aiaiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia. ?inneeneee aa?eaio noaa?aieoaoa ia i?eaioe?iaai ia i?ioanneiiaeueioth iacaaeneiinoue ioa/anoaaiiie iaoiaeieiaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, a nin?aaeioi/ai a iniiaiii ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Oaeie iiaeoiae iiaeao i?eaanoe e iaaino?aaiaaiiinoe aooaaeoa?ia ioa/anoaaiiui aecianii, nieaeaieth oai?/aneeo iieneia iiauo ?aoaiee o/aoiuie ?aaioieeaie.Ia?aaeeaia enoi?e/aneie i?aainoaaiiinoe iaoiaeieiaee i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao i iai?iaeoeoeaiinoe yaiethoeeiiiuo aica?aoia, /oi iaeiia?aiaiii iaoneaaeeaaao i?aeoe/aneoth cia/eiinoue enoi?e/aneiai aiaeeca aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Nia?aiaiiua aooaaeoa?neea nenoaiu ainoiaeyo e noa?ieoaeueyineie iaoiaeieiaee, eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue eiaao ei?ie a ae?aaia?eineie o/aoiie nenoaia. Eaoeineay iaoiaeieiaey ianeaaeiaaea ae?aaiaa?a/aneea noa?aioeiu. Ooia?i-aaaeeiineay iaoiaeieiaey i?aiaeaaeaea a ae?aaiinoe ia anai Aeeaeiai Ainoiea. Ae?aaiaaaeiaoneea noa?aioeiu aianoa n ae?aaiaa?a/aneeie aioee a yeeeienoe/aneea. Iaoaieci enoi?e/aneie i?aainoaaiiinoe aeaenoaoao aeaaiaea?y aeiieiaioa iaoiaeieiaee eee aa ioaeaeueiuo noa?aioeiia. Yaiethoeey i?aainoaaiiinoe anoue ia i?inoi niaia noa?aioeiia, a caiaia onoa?aaoeo eeaee?othueie. Nia?aiaiiie aeiieiaioie (n eiioea 60-o aiaeia XX a.) yaeythony INOI. Eo yoiiaaiac yaeyaony aiaeinaeniineei. A enoi?e/aneii eiioaenoa INOI niaiytho aeiieiaioo eoaeueyineie o/aoiie nenoaiu e iiaoo icia/aoue ia/aei iiaiai yaiethoeeiiiiai yoaia oi?iaeeciaaiiinoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.9.Aoaeeo - i?aaeiinueee aicieeiiaaiey, yoaiu ?acaeoeyAoaeeo eiaao oaea aeinoaoi/ii aieueooth enoi?eth. Ia?aua iacaaeneiua aoaeeoi?u iiyaeeenue aua a XIX a. a aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaieyo Aa?iiu. Neiai «aoaeeo» a ?aciuo ia?aaiaeao icia/aao «ii neuoeo» eee «neooathuee».Aicieeiiaaiea aoaeeoa naycaii n ?acaeaeaieai eioa?ania oao, eoi iaiin?aaenoaaiii caieiaaony oi?aaeaieai i?aaei?eyoeai (aaeieieno?aoeey, iaiaaeaea?u), e oao, eoi aeeaaeuaaao aeaiueae a aai aeayoaeueiinoue (nianoaaiieee, aeoeeiia?u, eiaanoi?u). Iineaaeiea ia iiaee e ia oioaee iieaaaoueny eeoue ia oo oeiainiaoth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth i?aaeinoaaeyee oi?aaeythuea e iiae/eiaiiua ei aooaaeoa?u i?aaei?eyoey. Aeinoaoi/ii /anoua aaie?ionoaa i?aaei?eyoee, iaiai ni noi?iiu aaeieieno?aoeee nouanoaaiii iiauoaee ?ene oeiainiauo aeiaeaiee. Aeoeeiia?u oioaee auoue oaa?aiu a oii, /oi eo ia iaiaiuaatho, /oi io/aoiinoue, i?aaenoaaeaiiay aaeieieno?aoeeae, iieiinoueth io?aaeaao aeaenoaeoaeueiia oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey. Aeey i?iaa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe i?eaeaoaeenue ethaee, eioi?ui, ii iiaieth aeoeeiia?ia, iiaeii auei aeiaa?youe. Aeaaiuie o?aaiaaieyie, i?aaeuyaeyaiuie e aoaeeoi?o, auee aai aacoi?a/iay /anoiinoue e iacaaeneiinoue. Ciaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia eiaei nia/aea iniiaiiai cia/aiey, iaeiaei n oneiaeiaieai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai noaiiaeony e oi?ioay i?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea aoaeeoi?a.Enoi?e/aneie ?iaeeiie aoaeeoa n/eoaaony Aiaeey, aaea n 1844 a. auoiaeeo na?ey caeiiia i eiiiaieyo, niaeanii eioi?ui i?aaeaiey aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee iaycaiu i?eaeaoaoue ia ?aaea iaeiiai ?aca a aiae niaoeeaeueiiai /aeiaaea aeey i?iaa?ee aooaaeoa?neeo n/aoia e io/aoa ia?aae aeoeeiia?aie.A ?innee caaiea aoaeeoi?a auei aaaaeaii Iao?ii 1. Aeieaeiinoue aoaeeoi?a niaiauaea a naaa iaeioi?ua iaycaiiinoe aeaeii?iecaiaeeoaey, nae?aoa?y e i?ieo?i?a. Aoaeeoi?ia a ?innee iacuaaee i?enyaeiuie aooaaeoa?aie. Ana o?e iiiuoee i?aaiecaoeee einoeoooa aoaeeoa (a 1889, 1912e 1928 a.) ieacaeenue iaoaea/iuie.Ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen 1929—1933 aa. oneeee iio?aaiinoue a oneoaao aooaaeoa?ia-aoaeeoi?ia. A yoi a?aiy ?acei iaeanoi/athony o?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ee e aa iaycaoaeueiinoe, oaaee/eaaaony ?uii/iay iio?aaiinoue a oaeiai ?iaea oneoaao. Iinea ieii/aiey e?ecena i?aeoe/anee ana no?aiu ia/eiatho aaiaeeoue iaycaoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey e iauaio eioi?iaoeee, niaea?aeauaeny ..a aiaeiauo io/aoao, e iaycaoaeueiinoe ioaeeeaoeee yoeo io/aoia e caeeth/aiee aoaeeoi?ia. Aoaeeo noaiiaeony iiuiui i?oaeeai i?ioea iioaiie/anoaa.Aei eiioea 40-o aa. aoaeeo a iniiaiii caeeth/aeny a i?iaa?ea aeieoiaioaoeee, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuae caienaiiua aeaiaaeiua iia?aoeee, e i?aaeeueiie a?oiie?iaea yoeo iia?aoeee a oeiainiauo io/aoao. Yoi aue oae iacuaaaiue iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee aoaeeo. Iinea 1949 a. iacaaeneiua aoaeeoi?u noaee aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeyoue aii?inai aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey a eiiiaieyo, iieaaay, /oi i?e yooaeoeaiie nenoaia aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey aa?iyoiinoue ioeaie iacia/eoaeueia e oeiainiaua aeaiiua aeinoaoi/ii iieiu e oi/iu. Aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu ia/aee caieiaoueny aieueoa eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, /ai iaiin?aaenoaaiii aoaeeoi?neeie i?iaa?eaie. Oaeie aoaeeo iieo/ee iacaaiea nenoaiii-i?eaioe?iaaiiiai.O?aoee yoai ?acaeoey aoaeeoa — aai i?eaioaoeey ia aiciiaeiue ?ene i?e i?iaaaeaiee i?iaa?ie eee i?e eiinoeueoe?iaaiee, i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea e ecaaaeaiea ?enea; aoaeeo, i?e eioi?ii enoiaey ec oneiaee aeciana eeeaioa i?iaa?ea i?iaiaeeony auai?i/ii, a iniiaiii oai, aaea ?ene ioeaee eee iioaiie/anoaa iaeneiaeueiue. A ia/aea 70-o aa. ia/aeanue ?ac?aaioea aoaeeoi?neeo noaiaea?oia. A Aiaeee aoaeeoi?aie eiaiothony ethaua niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe eiio?iey ca aeinoiaa?iinoueth oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe, a oii /enea e ?aaioathuea a ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiao. Ai O?aioeee a iaeanoe iacaaeneiiai oeiainiaiai eiio?iey aeaenoaotho aeaa i?ioanneiiaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee: aooaaeoa?ia-yenia?oia, eioi?ua caieiathony iaiin?aaenoaaiii aaaeaieai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, ninoaaeaieai io/aoiinoe e ieacaieai eiinoeueoaoeeiiiuo oneoa a yoie iaeanoe, e eiienna?ia (oiieiiii/aiiuo) ii n/aoai, iaania/eaathueo eiio?ieue ca aeinoiaa?iinoueth oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe. A NOA i?iaa?eo aeinoiaa?iinoe oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe inouanoaeyao aeeieiie?iaaiiue iauanoaaiiue aooaaeoa?,Ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao eeoeai, aeaeathuei i?eia?anoe i?ioanneth aooaaeoa?a-aoaeeoi?a, i?aaenoiyo aeieaea aiaeu o/aau e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea iiiai/eneaiiua yecaiaiu. I?aaenoaaeoaee Iaeaou aoaeeoi?ia, i?aaiecaoeee, iauaaeeiythuae anao eeoe yoie i?ioannee, ?aaoey?ii i?iaa?ytho eo ?aaioo, e eneeth/aiea ec Iaeaou aoaeeoi?ia icia/aao cai?auaiea aeaeueiaeoae aeayoaeueiinoe.9.1. Aoaeeo a Aaeeeia?eoaieeA aiaeiycu/iuo no?aiao naiia ae?aaiaa oiiieiaiea ia aoaeeoa aeaoe?oaony 1130 a. (aeieoiaio a?oeaa eacia/aenoaa Aiaeee e Oioeaiaeee). Eiiaeiineia Neoe iiaeaa?aaeinue aoaeeoo ii e?aeiae ia?a oaea a 1200-a aiaeu, a a ia/aea XIV noieaoey a /enea auai?iuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe cia/eeenue e aoaeeoi?u e ia/eiay n oao ii? a a?oeaao iiiaeanoai aeieoiaioia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i oe?ieii i?eciaiee cia/aiey aoaeeoa e i ?aaoey?iii inouanoaeaiee aoaeeoa io/aoia ioieoeeiaeeoaoia, /anoiuo caieaaeaaeaiee e ?aianeaiiuo aeeueaeee. 24 ia?oa 1324 a. ei?ieue Yaeoa?ae II iiaeienae oeac i iacia/aiee o?ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo aoaeeoi?ia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu eni?aoeaaoue, i?iaa?youe e «a?aoue ana n/aoa, eioi?ua auee aaaaeaiu e eioi?ua aoaeoo aaaaeaiu a i?iaeioeeyo: Ienoi?aea, Aa?eaioaiaea, Naoooaiioiia, Oyeuena, Niiia?naooe?a e Aei?naoa, aeaeaoue e iaicia/aoue ana, /oi aoaeeoi?u ni n/aoaie aeaeaoue aeieaeiu».Nai aoaeeo a Aaeeeia?eoaiee oiai ia?eiaea iiae?acaeaeyeny ia aeaa oeia:«Ioaee/iue aoaeeo», - o.a. a aoeaaeueiii niunea caneooeaaiea aoaeeoi?neeo io/aoia a i?enoonoaee aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe e a?aaeaeai. Aoaeeoi?neea io/aou /eoae aneoo eacia/ae. Oaeay i?aeoeea aaeanue n o/aoii oiai, /oi a?aiioie aeaaeaee aeaeaei ia iiiaea. E na?aaeeia XVI aaea a io/aoao aoaeeoi?ia oeacuaaeinue «auneooaii ieaeaiiaeienaaoeieny aoaeeoi?aie».Aeaoaeueiay i?iaa?ea n/aoia oieao oi?aaeythueo oeiainaie e?oiiuo iiianoee - onoiue io/ao aoaeeoi?a ia?aae aeaaeaeueoeai e niaaoii oi?aaeythueo iiianouey. I?e yoii aoaeeoi? iau/ii yaeyeny /eaiii niaaoa, e niaeanii auaiaeai aaoi?ia «Aoaeeo Iiioaiia?e», yoio aeae aoaeeoa yaeyaony i?aaeoa/ae nia?aiaiiiai aioo?aiiaai aoaeeoa.I?e yoii iaa ?anniio?aiiuo aeaea aoaeeoa auee iai?aaeaiu ia iaania/aiea iiaeio/aoiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo e /anoiuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe a ioiioaiee aaa?aiiuo ei n?aaenoa.Ii iaeiie ec aa?nee, aicieeiiaaiea aoaeeoa eiaao neaaeothuoth enoi?eth: ecaanoiue iieeoee e yeiiiieno XVIII aaea Aeaei?aeae Oionii eae-oi ii?aeiiaiaeiaae oioeaiaeneei eiiia?naioai i?iaanoe i?iaa?eo eo aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. ?acoeueoaou ieacaeenue noieue cia/eoaeueiu, /oi «/a?noaua, neoiua e iaaeaioe/iua» (eae eo ii?aaeaeyee i?i/ea a?eoaioeu) oioeaiaeoeu i?eciaee iieueco oaeeo i?iaa?ie e noaee eo i?aeoeeiaaoue.A 1805 aiaeo a Yaeeiao?aa aue ecaeai ni?aai/iee, aaea auee i?eaaaeaiu eiaia 17 aoaeeoi?ia, eioi?ua anei?a nicaeaee naith i?ioanneiiaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth. (Eae ecaanoii, i?ioanneiiaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee a oi a?aiy auee oaea o iiiaeo i?ioannee, ia/aei auei iieiaeaii a n?aaeiaaaeiauea n ia?aciaaieai aeeueaeee). A 1854 a. a Yaeeiao?aa auei ia?aciaaii «Iauanoai aooaaeoa?ia», eioi?ia iauaaeeieei aooaaeoa?ia-aoaeeoi?ia.Iinea i?eiyoey a 1862 a. caeiia i a?eoaineeo eiiiaieyo, niaeanii eioi?iio eiiiaiee ii iaiueoae ia?a iaeei ?ac a aiae aeieaeiu auee i?aaenoaaeoue n/aoa e io/aou aeey i?iaa?ee niaoeeaeenoaie ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo e oeiainiaiio eiio?ieth, ?yaeu aoaeeoi?ia nouanoaaiii iiiieieeenue. Aaoi?u eieae, nnueaynue ia a?eoaineiai aaoi?a ?e/a?aea A?aoia, oeacuaatho /eneaiiinoue aoaeeoi?ia ai anai ie?a a 1905 a. - 11 ouny/, ec eioi?uo iieiaeia i?eoiaeeeanue ia Aaeeeia?eoaieth.A 1880 a. aue iniiaai Einoeooo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia a Aiaeee e Oyeuena. Noi eao nionoy (ia 1 yiaa?y 1983 a.) ii eiae 76 ouny/ /eaiia, i?e/ai ii/oe iieiaeia eo /enea eiaea aic?ano ieaea 35 eao, aeaa o?aoe - ieaea 45 eao. Anaai a Aaeeeia?eoaiee ian/eouaaaony oanoue iniiaiuo aooaaeoa?neeo e aoaeeoi?neeo i?aaiecaoeee, a oii /enea:Annioeeaoeey aeeieiie?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia;Einoeooo aooaaeoa?ia-eaeueeoeyoi?ia e aooaaeoa?ia-oi?aaeaioeaa;Einoeooo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia Oioeaiaeee;I?enyaeiue einoeooo iauanoaaiiuo oeiainia e o/aoa;Einoeooo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia a E?eaiaeee.Oai ia iaiaa, i?aaii caieiaoueny eiaiii aoaeeoii iaeaaeatho oieueei /eaiu einoeoooia i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia Aiaeee e Oyeuena, Oioeaiaeee, E?eaiaeee e Annioeeaoeee aeeieiie?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia.Einoeooo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia a Oioeaiaeee iieo/ee ei?ieaaneoth a?aiioo ia iniiaaiea a 1951 a. e aeeth/ee a naie ninoaa nouanoaiaaoea ?aiaa ioaeaeueii einoeooou i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia Yaeeiao?aa, Aeacai e Aaa?aeeia.Nia/aea iaycaiiinoe aoaeeoi?a ia auee /aoei ii?aaeaeaiu: ana eiaanoi?u - e aeoeeiia?u, e e?aaeeoi?u - aeaeaee a iai caueoieea naieo eioa?ania. Nia?aiaiiue acaeyae ia aoaeeoi?a eae ia eeoei, ioaaonoaaiiia oieueei ia?aae aeoeeiia?aie, ia/ae ii aeaiiui oi?ie?iaaoueny iinea i?eiyoey caeiia i eiiiaieyo a 1929 a., niaeanii eioi?iio ana eiiiaiee iaycaiu aeeth/aoue a naie oeiainiaua io/aou n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia.Aiaeeeneea niaoeeaeenou na?aaeeiu - eiioea i?ioeiai aaea aianee nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea aoaeeoa e oaoieee ?aaecee. O?aaiaiey aaeaina auee nicaeaiu a ia?aie iieiaeia i?ioeiai aaea A.O. Oinoa?ii e ai aoi?ie iieiaeia - Eio?ainii Aeeene:A - I = E e A = I + E.N?aaee aiaeeeneeo niaoeeaeenoia auee ao?iua aeeneonnee ioiineoaeueii ioeaiie noaoae aaeaina, i?e yoii iieaieea iaaeaeo e?oiiaeoeie niaoeeaeenoaie i?eaaea e oiio, /oi ia ia?aue acaeyae nooea noieanoe/aneea o?aaiaiey aaeaina, eioa?i?aoe?iaaiiua n oi/ee c?aiey ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa e eioa?ania eeoe, eiathueo ioiioaiea e oe?ia, iicaieeei eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ?aciiia?aciua ia?ooaiey, e eioi?ui oae neeiiiu ethaee. Iineieueeo yoa neeiiiinoue iaaethaeaeanue aeiaieueii /anoi, ii iiaieth niaoeeaeenoia, iaiaoiaeeii auei nenoaiaoe/aneia i?iaaaeaiea eiiieaeniuo e oeaeaauo aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ie, aa?aioe?othueo eioa?anu eiio?aaaioia. Eio?ain Aeeene - e?oiiaeoee aaoi?eoao oiai a?aiaie aeaeae oeaee ?aaecee a auyaeaiee:1) iiaeeiaia;2) neo/aeiuo ioeaie;3) iaaeinoaoea a i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa.?aaecey ia/eiaeanue n eannu. Aiaeec aaeaina ?anniao?eaaeny n oi/ee c?aiey eioa?ania ?acee/iuo caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe.Aieueoie aeeaae a oai?eth aoaeeoa aian A.O. Aaonii, eioi?ue, iie?aynue ia oi?ioeu Oinoa?a e Aeeene, auaeaeee o?e aeaea oaeueneoeeaoeee o/aoa: (aniiiieoa o?aaiaiea aaeaina A - I = E)A - I > I(1)o.a. a aeoeaa iieacuaaaony aieueoa, /ai anoue ia naiii
aeaea;

E > I(2)o.a. noiia eaieoaea caauoaia;

E < I(3)o.a. noiia eaieoaea caieaeaia.Neooaoeey (1) icia/aao, /oi iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea niaa?oeee oeuaiea, iii iiaei auoue o nianoaaiieea, o ae?oaiai iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiiai eeoea e o noi?iiieo eeoe, iai?eia?, iieoiaoaeae. Aaoniia eioa?aniaae oieueei ia?aue neo/ae.Neooaoeey (2) aicieeaao a oeaeyo i?eoe?aoeaaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiiai iieiaeaiey (iai?eia?, aeaeaiey iiaeiyoue eo?n aeoeee).Neooaoeey (3) icia/aao, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueiia iieiaeaiea eo/oa io?aaeaiiiai a aaeaina (iai?eia?, aeaeaiea eciaieoue noiiu iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae).Neooaoeey (1) iacuaaaony nie?uoeai, neooaoeey (2) e (3) - aoaee?iaaieai. Aoaee?iaaiea a o/aoa auei iiae?iaii ?anniio?aii iaiaoeeei o/aiui E.O. Oa?ii, niaoeeaeece?othueiny a iaeanoe aaeainiaaaeaiey (a 1925 a. auoae ia?aaiae aai eieae «Aooaaeoa?ey e aaeain» a ecaeaoaeuenoaa «Yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue»). Oaeueneoeeaoeey, eae aieaa oe?ieia iiiyoea, ?anniao?eaaeinue e aiaeece?iaaeinue aiaeeeneeie aoaeeoi?aie.Aeey auyaeaiey oaeueneoeeaoeee ii Aaoniio iaiaoiaeeiu neaaeothuea oneiaey:1) niaeaenoaea aeaau oe?iu, ii a eo/oai neo/aa aioia ?aciaea/eoue nie?uoea, ii ii/oe ieeiaaea - aoaee?iaaiea;2) /aoeia i?aaenoaaeaiea, n eaeie oeaeueth iiaeao auoue iiaeaa?aioo oio eee eiie n/ao oaeueneoeeaoeee (aeey ?aaeci?a ioaeia niaoeeaeueiay eeanneoeeaoeey n/aoia);3) ciaiea ineoieiaee iioaioeeaeueiiai ?ano?ao/eea, aai aeaeaiea e oiaiea «ia?aoeoue ie?oaeathuea ianoiyoaeuenoaa a naith iieueco»;4) aiaeec acaeiiioiioaiee nio?oaeieeia ?aaecoaiiai i?aaei?eyoey;5) aeeeoaeueiinoue ?aaiou («aeaeaao i?anooiieea iaiaa inoi?iaeiui»);6) aiaeoeeiciinoue, a oie eee eiie noaiaie caeiaeaiiay a oa?aeoa?a eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, iiaeao anaaaea i?eaanoe ineoe/anee iaonoie/eaiai e ae/iiai /aeiaaea e iuneyi: «Ii/aio O iiaeii oae iiiai, a iia iaeuecy aeaaea oae iaei» e i?.;7) iaa?aaeiinoue a caienyo;8) caiouaiiinoue, ionoaaaiea aooaaeoa?neeo caienae io niaa?oaiey oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie;9) iacia/aiea ia aeieaeiinoe ii i?ioaeoeee («iaeii ec naiuo aieueoeo cie o/aoa»).Iacaaiiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa i?eaiaeyo e auaiaeo, /oi i?aaeiaoii ?aaecee e, a eiia/iii n/aoa, aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa yaeyaony ineoieiaey eeoe, caiyouo a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe nio?oaeieeia, a iioeau eo aeaenoaee.Aiaeaea?, enoiaey ec noieue ia/aeueiie ioeaiee naieo nia?aiaiieeia ooaa?aeaeae, /oi «aeaayoue aeanyouo anao oeuaiee i?ienoiaeeo ii aeia aooaaeoa?ia», a Aaonii auaeaeye iaeeiiaaeoeaoue oeie/iuo i?anooieaiee aooaaeoa?ia:1) ia i?eoiaeothony oeaiiinoe, i?aaeaea anaai aeaiaaeiua;2) aeieoiaiou ioi?ieythony ia oai aeiai;3) eneonnoaaiii caauoathony inoaoee ii aeaiaaeiui (eanna) e iaoa?eaeueiui n/aoai;4) caauoathony eoiae ieaoaaeiuo aaaeiiinoae;5) caauoaaony ca?ieaoa «ae?ocueyi» aooaaeoa?a;6) auienuaathony aeaiueae ia iiaenoaaiuo eeoe («ia?oaua aeooe»);7) caauoathony oeaiu ii naiai?o n iinoaaueeaie;8) oeeoeaiia e?aaeeoiaaiea n/aoa eannu eee io?aaeaiea oeeoeaiie e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;9) iieaoa caauoaiiuo eiienneiiiuo e aeaeaae eo n iieo/aoaeyie;10) iiaeaeaeea aeieoiaioia, eae i?aaeei, /aeia;11) iieaoa ianeieueei ?ac iaeiiai e oiai aea aeieoiaioa (eee aai ?acee/iuo yecaiiey?ia)».Eae iu aeaeei, i/aiue iiiaia, iiaeia/aiiia aua a i?ioeii aaea aiaeeeneeie o/aiuie, aeooaeueii e nae/an.N?aaee aiaeeeneeo o/aiuo ia auei aaeeiiai iiaiey ioiineoaeueii iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?iaaaeaiey i?iaa?ie. Anee (eae oaea ioia/aeinue ?aiaa) Eio?ain Aeeene n/eoae, /oi i?iaa?ea aeieaeia ia/eiaoueny n eannu e aai iiaeaea?aeeaaee ae?oaea aeaeiua o/aiua (Aaonii e *yaeaee), oi Aiaeaea? ianoaeaae ia i?iaa?ea i?aaeaea anaai Aeaaiie eieae. I?e yoii nouanoaoao oae iacuaaaiia «i?aaeei Aiaeaea?a», eioi?ia aeaneo: «I?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e neaaeothuaio n/aoo, i?aaeuaeouee aeieaeai auoue aiieia en/a?iai», a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue n/aoia onoaiaaeeaaao nai i?iaa?ythuee.Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, aiaeeeneea o/aiua aianee aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea oai?ee e iaoiaeia aoaeeoa. Ei aea nia?aiaiiue aoaeeo iaycai iiyaeaieth aieao, iicaieythueo nouanoaaiii nie?aoeoue o?oaeiaieinoue i?iaa?ie. A iienai i?eia? ?aaiou aeaoo aiaeeeneeo yenia?oia a Iaoa?ao?aa a 1908 a. Iie ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue aieaoie, niaea?aeauae ieiei 150 aii?inia, i?inoaaeyee a ea/anoaa ioaaoia /enea e «ea?oeia ninoiyiey aeae eiiiaiee iieo/aeanue oaeeaeoaeueii yniay e iieiay».Caeii/eoue e?aoeoth enoi?eth noaiiaeaiey aoaeeoa a Aaeeeia?eoaiee oi/aony ii?aaeaeaieai Einoeoooa I?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia Oioeaiaeee (ICAS):«Aoaeeo i?aaenoaaeyao eiiieaen iaoiaeia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia onoaiiaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe e oeaeinoiinoe nenoai oi?aaeaiey, oi/iinoe oeiainiauo io/aoia».9.2. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey aoaeeoa a NOAA NOA aoaeeoi?neia aeaei aicieeei iiae aeeyieai a?eoaineie i?aeoeee aoaeeoa. Ia yoi i?yii oeacuaaao aia?eeaineee aaoi? Oeeueyi Noaiaa?a, eioi?ue ienae, /oi «ooieoeey aoaeeoa... auea ia?aianaia a Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou a?eoaineeie aooaaeoa?aie a eiioea XIX noieaoey». Eiaaea aiaeeeneea aeaeaciiaei?iaeieee, no?aoiaua eiiiaiee e ae?oaea eiaanoi?u iai?aaeeenue a Naaa?ioth Aia?eeo, aianoa n ieie iiaoaee e iacaaeneiua aoaeeoi?u aeey caueou eioa?ania e?oiiuo aiaeeeneeo e?aaeeoi?ia. Aei ia/aea XX aaea a NOA aoaeeo iniiauaaeny ia aiaeeeneie iiaeaee, i?aaeoniao?eaathuae aeaoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey aeaiiuo, ioiinyueony e aaeaino.A 1886 a. a NOA aue i?eiyo ia?aue caeii i i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ao, eioi?ue aeae ia/aei i?ioeanno ia?aciaaiey aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i. A 1887 a. auea ia?aciaaia annioeeaoeey aoaeeoi?ia Aia?eee, a a 1896 a. a ooaoa Iueth-Ei?e caeiiiaeaoaeueiui iooai auea ?aaeaiaioe?iaaia aoaeeoi?neay aeayoaeueiinoue - a /anoiinoe, aeieaeiinoue aoaeeoi?a iia caieiaoue aeeieiie?iaaiiue aooaaeoa?, oniaoii naeaaoee yecaiai ii niaoeeaeueiinoe a Iueth-Ei?eneii oieaa?neoaoa e iieo/eaoee niaoeeaeueioth eeoeaiceth ia i?aai caieiaoueny aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth.A 1905 a, a caoai e a 1909 a. ?. Iiioaiia?e ecaeae n ?aaeaeoeeiiiuie eni?aaeaieyie a NOA eieao Eio?aina Aeeene «Aoaeeo: i?aeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai aeey aoaeeoi?ia». ?acaeaay eaeae Eio?aina Aeeene, ii ienae, /oi oeaeue aoaeeoa naiaeeony e ?ane?uoeth aieueiuo e iaaieueiuo ioeaie, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue ianoi a oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe. Enoiaey ec yoiai e auea auno?iaia ea?a?oey aoaeeoi?neeo caaea/, naycaiiay n iaia?oaeaieai o?ao aeaeia ioeaie:1) aieueiuo (ceioiio?aaeaiey);2) iaaieueiuo (iienee, a?eoiaoe/aneea ioeaee);3) i?eioeeieaeueiuo (auai? iaaa?iuo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?eaiia).Iaeiaei oaiiu ?acaeoey aeciana a NOA ?acei ioee/aeenue io a?eoaineeo, aeey Aia?eee aiaeeeneea iaoiaeu noaee iai?eaieaiuie aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi a?eoaineee noeeue i?iaa?ee o?aaoao /a?an/o? iiiai a?aiaie e n?aaenoa. Aia?eeaineee aoaeeo aneaaenoaea niaoeeoeee naa?oauno?uo oaiiia ?inoa aia?eeaineiai aeciana eiioea XIX aaea - ia/aea XX aaea ioaeaeaeny a auno?uo oaiiao i?iaaaeaiey i?iaa?ie, a neaaeiaaoaeueii - a i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiaeyo aoaeeoa. Aia?eeaineea aoaeeoi?u noaee i?aeoeeiaaoue i?eiaiaiea «oanoiaiai aoaeeoa», nai?a naeaeaoaeuenoa i aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu o ia?oia?ia ii aeciano n oeaeueth i?iaa?ee iia?aoeee. Iie ia/aee o/eouaaoue eioa?anu eiaanoi?ia, oaeaeyoue ana aieueoa aieiaiey ioeaiea aeoeaa e ianneaa e ioioee io aeinoaoi/ii i?aiaeaaeathuae a aiaeeeneie oeiea aeaoaeueiie i?iaa?ee. Ni?in e?aaeeoi?ia, a iniiaiii aaieia, i?eaae e ?anoe?aieth caaea/ aoaeeoa e e ?ac?aaioea iiauo iaoiaeia aoaeeoa e iiaeoiaea e noaiaea?oecaoeee.?. Iiioaiia?e a 1912 a. iaienae eieao «Aoaeeo: oai?ey e i?aeoeea», eioi?ay i?e iineaaeothueo ecaeaieyo e ia?aecaeaieyo (aieioue aei iaoeo aeiae) iieo/eea iacaaiea «Aoaeeo Iiioaiia?e». A ia?aii ecaeaiee yoie eieae ii iacuaae aia?eeaineee aoaeeo ?aiiaai yoaia «n/aoiaiae/aneei aoaeeoii», iiae/a?eeaay, /oi o?e /aoaa?oe ?aai/aai a?aiaie aoaeeoi?a ooiaeeei ia iiaen/aou e ninoaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neeo eiea. Nai ?iaa?o Iiioaiia?e (1872-1953) yaeyeny ia oieueei oai?aoeeii, ii e i?aeoeeii aoaeeoa. Niaianoii n eieeaaaie ii aua a 1898 aiaeo iniiaae oe?io, eioi?ay aiineaaenoaee noaea iaeiie ec aaaeoueo aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i ie?a «Eoia?n yiae Eaea?aiae», niinianoaiaae nicaeaieth Aia?eeaineiai einoeoooa i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia e noae aai i?aceaeaioii, i?aiiaeaaae a Eieoiaeeneii, Iueth-Ei?neii e Iaineeueaaineii oieaa?neoaoao.A NOA aoaeeo iaycaoaeai aeey eiiiaiee, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo Eiienneae ii oeaiiui aoiaaai e, nicaeaiiie a 1934 a. iinea ae?aeaaiai e?aoa ia Oiee-no?eo a 1929 a. Caeii i oeaiiuo aoiaaao 1933 a. e Caeii i ae?aeao 1934 a. o?aaiaaee, /oiau ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua eiiiaiee ninoaaeyee niioaaonoaothuea oi?iu oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe.A NOA eiathony aeaa oeia i?ioanneiiaeueiuo e iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aoaeeoi?neeo i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeei ec ieo i?aaenoaaeai ia iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii, oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia e iacuaaaony Aia?eeaineei Einoeoooii aeeieiie?iaaiiuo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia. Yoio einoeooo aiciee a 1887 a. e n oao ii? ea?aao aaaeouoth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee aoaeeoi?neeo eaae?ia. Ii oaeinoiaa?yao eaaeeoeeaoeeth nieneaoaey, eioi?ue naeaao niioaaonoaothuea yecaiaiu e iieo/aao aeeieii aooaaeoa?a-aoaeeoi?a. Einoeooo ?oeiaiaeeo iao/iie e iaoiaee/aneie ?aaioie a NOA, ioaeeeoao iiiia?aoee e ecaeaao ?yae aeo?iaeia ii aoaeeoo, n?aaee eioi?uo iaeaieueooth iiioey?iinoue eiaao «Aeaei?iye io Yeeaoioaine».E?iia iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai Einoeoooa nouanoaotho i?ioanneiiaeueiua aoaeeoi?neea i?aaiecaoeee ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiuo ooaoia, eioi?ua iacuaathony iauanoaaie aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia. *eaiu yoeo iauanoa eiatho i?aai ia i?iaaaeaiea aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ie e ieacaiea eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie iiiiue ia oa??eoi?ee naieo ooaoia. Aooaaeoa?u-aoaeeoi?u iiaoo caieiaoueny naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth a ?aieao /anoiie i?aeoeee eee aea auoue nio?oaeieeaie aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i. Iaeaieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua aoaeeoi?u aaaeoo i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneoth ?aaioo a oieaa?neoaoao e eieeaaeaeao.A NOA a 1917 a. n oeaeueth noaiaea?oecaoeee i?ioeaaeo? aoaeeoa ?ac?aaaouaathony «Ooaa?aeaeaiiua iaoiaeu ii iiaeaioiaea aeaiiuo aaeainiaiai io/aoa», ia?aniio?aiiia ecaeaiea auoei a 1929 a. iiae iacaaieai «I?iaa?ea oeiainiauo io/aoia». A yoii ecaeaiee iiae/a?eeaaeanue aaaeiinoue aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey, a oaeaea aiai?eeinue i i?aeoeea ninoaaeaiey caeeth/aiee.A 1934 a. iioaeeeiaai aeieoiaio «I?iaa?ea oeiainiauo io/aoia iacaaeneiuie aoaeeoi?aie», a eioi?ii auee ?aeiiaiaeiaaiu neaaeothuea iicaeiaa iianaianoii i?eiyoua i?ioeaaeo?u aoaeeoa: eco/aiea eiaaioa?iie aaaeiiinoe e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea aeaaeoi?ia ii ?an/aoai.Aeoeaiue i?ioeann noaiaea?oecaoeee ia/aeny n 1939 aiaea, eiaaea Aia?eeaineee einoeooo aeeieiie?iaaiiuo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia (AICPA) o/?aaeee Eiieoao ii aoaeeoi?neei i?ioeaaeo?ai e ii ecaeae ia?aia Iieiaeaiea ia aoaeeoi?neie i?ioeaaeo?a. N 1939 a. AICPA ia/ae ioaeeeiaaoue atheeaoaie enneaaeiaaiee e io/aou ii i?ioeaaeo?ai aoaeeoa - ia?aua i?eaeiaeueiua aeieoiaiou einoeoooa, eanathueany noaiaea?oecaoeee aoaeeoa. A ia?aii io/aoa ii i?ioeaaeo?ai aoaeeoa auei i?eaaaeaii 7 eeth/aauo iieiaeaiee, eaaeaueo a iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey i?ioannee aoaeeoi?a. A io/aoa i?eciaiu iaycaoaeueiuie i?ioeaaeo?aie aoaeeoa eco/aiea eiaaioa?iuo aaaeiiinoae e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ecae?aoue iacaaeneiuo aoaeeoi?ia Niaaoii aee?aeoi?ia, a eiiiaieyi nicaeaaaoue iacaaeneiua eiieoaou ii aoaeeoo aeey iaaethaeaiey ca aioo?aiieie i?iaa?eaie e aooaaeoa?neeie i?ioeaaeo?aie, noi?ioee?iaaiu ia?acoeu caeeth/aiee aoaeeoi?a ii i?aaenoaaeaiiie oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee.70-80-aiaeu XX aaea a NOA ioia/aiu iiauoaiiui eioa?anii iauanoaaiiinoe e e?oao iaycaiiinoae e ?aaioa aoaeeoi?ia. Eoiaii noae auaiae i ianiioaaonoaee iaaeaeo oai, a /ai ii i?aaenoaaeaieth iauanoaa aeieaeai caeeth/aoueny aoaeeo, e aiciiaeiinoyie ?aaeueiiai i?ioeanna aoaeeoa, eioi?ua ia?aie/aiu ii?aaeaeaiiuie ?aieaie (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue - ia?aie/aieyie ii n?ieai i?iaaaeaiey aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ie) e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oneeeoue aeoeaiinoue Niaaoa ii aoaeeoi?neei noaiaea?oai n oeaeueth nie?auaiey e aeaeueiaeoae eeeaeaeaoeee yoiai ?ac?uaa.Ii?aaeaeaiey aoaeeoa ?aciuie i?aaiecaoeeyie a NOA ?acee/athony. Oae, iai?eia?, Aia?eeaineee einoeooo i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia ii?aaeaeyao aoaeeo eae «i?ioeann, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai eiiiaoaioiue iacaaeneiue ?aaioiee iaeaieeaaao e ioeaieaaao naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia eioi?iaoeee, iiaeaeathuaeny eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea e ioiinyuaeny e niaoeeoe/aneie oicyenoaaiiie nenoaia, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue e au?aceoue a naiai caeeth/aiee noaiaiue niioaaonoaey yoie eioi?iaoeee onoaiiaeaiiui e?eoa?eyi», a eiieoao Aia?eeaineie annioeeaoeee aooaaeoa?ia ii iniiaiui eiioeaioeeyi o/aoa aeae oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea aoaeeoo: «Aoaeeo - yoi nenoaiiue i?ioeann iieo/aiey e ioeaiee iauaeoeaiuo aeaiiuo ia yeiiiie/aneeo aeaenoaeyo, onoaiaaeeaathuee o?iaaiue eo niioaaonoaey ii?aaeaeaiiiio e?eoa?eth e i?aaenoaaeythuee ?acoeueoaou caeioa?aniaaiiui iieueciaaoaeyi».A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a NOA aieaa 45000 aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i. *enei caiyouo eieaaeaony io 1 aei ianeieueeeo ouny/ /aeiaae. Eo iiaeii na?oiie?iaaoue a 4 eaoaai?ee.1. «Aieueoay oanoa?ea», eae aa iacuaaee ?aiueoa, - noia?aeaaiou ia ?uiea aoaeeoi?neeo oneoa, iaeioi?ua ec ieo iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee neeyiey. (Iueth-Ei?eee ioen eaaeaeie aieaa 1000 /aeiaae), ioenu ai anao e?oiiuo ai?iaeao NOA e ie?a, aiaeiaie aeioiae aieaa 500 iei. aeieea?ia NOA. A oie eee eiie oi?ia ana yoe oe?iu i?enoonoaotho oaeaea e ia ?uiea aoaeeoi?neeo oneoa a ?innee, a iniiaiii ca?aaeno?e?iaaa oae iacuaaaiua «NI».2. Ae?oaea iaoeeiiaeueiua oe?iu (?yae oe?i n/eoathony iaoeeiiaeueiuie, o.e. eiatho ioenu a aieueoae /anoe e?oiiuo ai?iaeia), eiatho iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iioaioeeae.3. E?oiiua ianoiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua oe?iu (anoue ianeieueei nioai aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i n i?ioanneiiaeueiui ooaoii aieaa 50 /aeiaae).4. Iaeua ianoiua oe?iu - aieaa 95% aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i eiatho /eneaiiinoue iaiaa 25 /aeiaae e iaeei ioen.I?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i - aaeeiiee/iia aeaaeaiea, oiaa?euanoai eee i?ioanneiiaeueiay ei?ii?aoeey.A NOA aoaeeoi?u na?oeoeoee?othony ii o?ai niaoeeaeecaoeeyi:1) i?enyaeiue aooaaeoa?;2) i?enyaeiue aioo?aiiee aoaeeoi?;3) i?enyaeiue aoaeeoi? eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai.Aeey oiai, /oiau iieo/eoue eeoeaiceth io ooaoa ia aaaeaiea i?aeoeee e i?aai iacuaaoueny «i?enyaeiue aooaaeoa?», i?aoaiaeaio aeieaeai auaea?aeaoue yecaiai, eioi?ue i?iaiaeeony ?ac a iieaiaea, aioiaeony Yecaiaiaoeeiiiie eiienneae e i?iaiaeeony iaeiia?aiaiii ia anae oa??eoi?ee NOA a iaa e iiya?a e ioaa/aoue o?aaiaaieyi eiiennee ii o?iaith ia?aciaaiey e iiuoa.Yecaiai ai anao ooaoao i?iaiaeeony ii neaaeothuei /aou?ai i?aaeiaoai.1. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa - i?iaa?ea ciaiee eaiaeeaeaoia ii i?eioeeiai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.2. I?aeoeea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa - i?iaa?ea niiniaiinoe eaiaeeaeaoa i?eiaiyoue i?eioeeiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, o?aaiaaiey ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia, oaoieeo ninoaaeaiey io/aoiinoe, i?eioeeiu e i?ioeaaeo?u oaaea?aeueiie iaeiaiaie io/aoiinoe.3. Aoaeeo - i?iaa?ea ciaiee eaiaeeaeaoii i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae, aoaeeoi?neeo noaiaea?oia e i?ioeaaeo?, noaiaea?oia iaaoaeeoi?neeo oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo i?enyaeiuie aooaaeoa?aie.4. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai - i?iaa?ea ciaiey eaiaeeaeaoii th?eaee/aneiai niaea?aeaiey ia?ii?eyoee, a iniaaiiinoe ioiinyueony e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo e aoaeeoo, a oaeaea th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aoaeeoi?ia.Yecaiaiu yoe aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiu. Oieueei 10% i?aoaiaeaioia naeatho ana yecaiaiu n ia?aiai ?aca. I?e yoii, iaeioi?ua ooaou o?aaotho oaeaea i?iaa?ee ciaiee eaiaeeaeaoia ii ae?oaei i?aaeiaoai. A eaaeaeii ooaoa o?aaiaaiey e o?iaith ia?aciaaiey e i?aeoe/aneiio iiuoo naie.Aeey oiai /oiau ?aaioaoue a aoaeeoi?neie oe?ia, naeaaaoue noieue neiaeiua yecaiaiu iaiaycaoaeueii, iaeiaei, aeey oiai /oiau noaoue ia?oia?ii (a ia i?inoi iaaiiui ?aaioieeii), yoi iaycaoaeueii.I?enyaeiue aioo?aiiee aoaeeoi? - niaoeeaeeno, naeaaoee yecaiai ia aioo?aiiaai aoaeeoi?a e iieo/eaoee na?oeoeeao, ii i?aaa iieo/aiey eeoeaicee ia i?aeoeeo ia eiaao. Aeey i?aoaiaeaioia oaeaea onoaiiaeaiu o?aaiaaiey ii o?iaith ia?aciaaiey e i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa.9.3 ?acaeoea aoaeeoa a Aa?iaieeAa?iaiey eiioea XIX aaea yaeyeanue no?aiie, a eioi?ie ao?ii ?acaeaaeny eaieoaeeci e ia/aei yoiai ao?iiai ?inoa auei iieiaeaii iauaaeeiaieai aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa a aaeeioth no?aio aeaaiaea?y oneeeyi «aeaeaciiai eaioeea?a» Iooi oii Aenia?ea.A Aa?iaiee ia?aua oaae ii aaaaeaieth aoaeeoa auee naeaeaiu a 1870 a., eiaaea aeiiieiaiea e caeiio ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao iaycaei iaaethaeaoaeueiua niaaou yoeo iauanoa inouanoaeyoue i?iaa?eo aaeaina, io/aoa i ?ani?ino?aiaiee i?eauee e aeieeaaeuaaoue i ?acoeueoaoao i?iaa?ee ia iaueo nia?aieyo aeoeeiia?ia. Iaeiaei a caeiia ia auei oeacaii, eaeay yoi aeieaeia auoue i?iaa?ea - nianoaaiiuie (aioo?aiieie) ?aaeci?aie eee aea i?eaeaoaiiuie ni noi?iiu. A nayce n oai, /oi a?thiaea?neay eeoi?aaeea iinea 1870 a. i?eaaea e nicaeaieth e auno?iio e?aoo iiiaeanoaa aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, aa?iaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniio?aei i?iaaaeaiea aiaoiaai aoaeeoa.14 aaaonoa 1884 a. ii i?eia?o aiaeeeneeo aoaeeoi?ia a Aa?iaiee aicieeaao einoeooo aooaaeoa?ia-?aaeci?ia (iaeiaei, a naiae eieaa «I/a?ee ii enoi?ee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa» ss?ineaa Ay/aneaaiae/ Nieieia ioia/aao, /oi «...iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneay oaiaeaioeey ioiineea aicieeiiaaiea i?ioannee e XVIII a. e aeaaea ei a?aiaiai Aaicu» (no?. 109 - niinea). Iiaeiaiua einoeooou ia aac aeeyiey iaiaoeeie o?aaeeoeee auee i?aaieciaaiu a O?enoeaiee (Inei), Aaia, Aoaeaiaooa, Oeth?eoa, ?eaa, Aaeueneiaoi?na. Einoeooo nouanoaiaae ia n?aaenoaa aaieia e io?aaeae eioa?anu e?oiiiai oeiainiaiai eaieoaea. Aooaaeoa?a-?aaeci?a iacuaaee o?aeaaiaea?. Iaiaoeeea enneaaeiaaoaee ii-?aciiio ioeaieaaee aeayoaeueiinoue o?aeaaiaea?ia. Iai?eia?, Aa?noia? ienae, /oi «O?aeaaiaea? ia oieueei i?aaenoaaeoaeue a th?eaee/aneii niunea, ii e aeiaa?aiiia eeoei, ae?oa, niaao/ee, iiiiuiee, ei?i/a - i?aaay ?oea, aa?iay ?oea, eioi?ay aeey ian ?aaioaao oai, aaea iu naie ii?o/aai eee aaea oneiaey ianoa, a?aiaie, ee/iua, oicyenoaaiiua, iaoa?eaeueiua iai iaoatho naiei naeaeaoue ana e aaea iai iaiaoiaeeii o?aouea eeoei, eiaiii o?aeaaiaea?». Iaeiaei ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee, a /anoiinoe, ?. Ooa?i e ?. Aaeaaeue ?aciaea/aee aeayoaeueiinoue einoeoooa eae iaeiyooaeoeaioth, aei?iaoth e e?aeia i?eno?anoioth, auiieiyaioth a eioa?anao e?oiiuo aaieia. ss.A. Nieieia n/eoaao, /oi iacaaeneii io ioeaiie nia?aiaiieeia einoeooo ?aaeci?ia niinianoaiaae au?aaioea e niaa?oainoaiaaieth ii?aaeaeaiiuo niiniaia i?iaaaeaiey aeieoiaioaeueiuo ?aaecee, oi?ioee?iaaieth o?aaiaaiee e eeoeai iiaie i?ioannee e i?eaiaeeo a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea yoie iunee oeeoaoo ec eieae E. Ii?oeeaa «Oaoieea ?aaecee eiea e aaeaina», ecaeaiiie a Iineaa a 1925 a.: «?aaeci? aeieaeai ecaaaaoue anaai oiai, /oi i?iecaiaeeo aia/aoeaiea, eae aoaeoi aai iiaiea e nenoaia aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiu; ii ia aeieaeai i?aa?auaoue iaeeea ioeaee a ainoaea?noaaiiua i?anooieaiey, anee a iauai a ?aaioa auea i?iyaeaia o?aaoaiay ouaoaeueiinoue e aeia?iniaanoiinoue; ii aeieaeai niieieii auneooaoue acaeyaeu e iiaiey ae?oaeo, aeaaea anee iie i?ioeai?a/ao aai nianoaaiiiio iiaieth, oae eae ia anaaaea auaaao, /oi au/eoaiiia e ecia?aoaiiia a eaaeiaoao eee iaeia?aiiia ia ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo iiaeao n/eoaoueny iaiaoiaeeiui e i?aaeeueiui aeey aaaaeaiey a nianoaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee. Ia anaaaea aeaaiiieo/ea i?aaei?eyoey e aa?aioey aai i?aaeeueiiai aaaeaiey caaenyo io ninoaaeaiey e i?eiaiaiey iiauo oi?ioey?ia». Oiiiyiooua ?. Ooa?i e ?. Aaeaaeue a /enea ae?oaeo o/aiuo yaeyeenue o/aiuie, aianoeie cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea aiaeeca oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e aiaeeca aaeaina. A iaiaoeeie oeiea auaeaeyee o?e iai?aaeaiey eco/aiey aaeaina:1) yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec;2) aiaeec th?eaee/aneee, /oi i?eaaei e nicaeaieth aooaaeoa?neie ?aaecee;3) iiioey?ecaoeey ciaiee i aaeaina n?aaee aeoeeiia?ia.Eiaiii a Aa?iaiee a eiioea XIX - ia/aea XX aaeia aicieeei i?eaeiaeueiia iao/iia iai?aaeaiea - aaeainiaaaeaiea. Ii iiaieth ss. Nieieiaa, aicieeiiaaiea aaeainiaaaeaiey auei iaoneiaeaii o?aiy oaeoi?aie:1) aeayoaeueiinoueth e?oiiuo th?enoia, nicaeaaoeo niaoeeaeueioth io?aneue i?aaa - aaeainiaia i?aai;2) i?iiaaaiaeie aaeaina eae iniiaiiieaaathuae enoiaeiie eiioeaioeee aooaaeoa?ee;3) iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iciaeiieoue iannu aeoeeiia?ia n iaoaieciii iniiaiie io/aoiie oi?iu - aaeainii, i?e enneaaeiaaiee no?oeoo?u iineaaeiaai.I?e yoii caneoaie eiaiii iaiaoeeeo th?enoia yaeyeinue oi?ioee?iaaiea iniiaiuo o?aaiaaiee e aaeaino:1) oi/iinoue;2) iieiioa;3) yniinoue;4) i?aaaeeainoue;5) i?aainoaaiiinoue;6) aaeeinoai aaeaina.N 1908 a. i?e Eaeioeeaneie Aunoae Eiiia?/aneie oeiea auea ia/aoa niaoeeaeueiay iiaeaioiaea aooaaeoa?ia-?aaeci?ia (n?ie iao/aiey - 1 aiae). Ia ioaeaeaiea i?eieiaeenue oieueei eeoea, eiathuea aunoaa yeiiiie/aneia ia?aciaaiea e iiuo aooaaeoa?neie ?aaiou.N 1931 aiaea aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa iaycaiu i?iaiaeeoue aoaeeoi?neea i?iaa?ee (iaycaiiinoue i?ioiaeaeaiey aiaoiae aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ee auea noi?ioee?iaaia a i?aaeienaiee ioiineoaeueii aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa). Yoi auei aucaaii oai, /oi iaaethaeaoaeueiua niaaou aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa ia ni?aaeyeenue n aiceiaeaiiie ia ieo iaycaiiinoueth ii i?iaaaeaieth i?iaa?ie, oai aieaa, /oi iauaeoaie i?iaa?ie noaee ia oieueei aiaeiaua io/aou, ii e any i?aaiecaoeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. O?oaeiinoue onoaoaeyeanue aua e oai, /oi iiiaea aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa eiaee iiiai/eneaiiua oeeeaeu, oioy naycaiiua n aieiaiie i?aaiecaoeeae (iaoa?eineei iauanoaii), ii ai iiiaii naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeythuea naith i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e eiiia?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Oaeie aieueoie iauai neiaeiie ?aaiou iiaee auiieieoue oieueei i?eaeaoaiiua ni noi?iiu eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua niaoeeaeenou.A 1932 a. a Aa?iaiee nicaeai Einoeooo aoaeeoi?ia a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aaea/e aio ooieoeee ?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoaai Einoeoooa ?aaecee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa, i?inouanoaiaaaoee aei 1945 a. Iinea ieii/aiey aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu a Aethnnaeueaei?oa aue ia?aciaai Einoeooo aoaeeoi?ia, eioi?ue a iiya?a 1954 a. aue ia?aeiaiiaai a Einoeooo aoaeeoi?ia a Aa?iaiee. Ca yoi a?aiy Aethnnaeueaei?oneee einoeooo, i?iaiaey i?ioanneiiaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia anae oa??eoi?ee Aa?iaiee, caaiaaae aunieee aaoi?eoao, /oi iicaieeei aio noaoue iauaaa?iaineie i?aaiecaoeeae.Caaea/e Einoeoooa aoaeeoi?ia caeeth/athony a niaeaenoaee ?acaeoeth aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee e iaania/aiee no?aiu aoaeeoi?neeie eaae?aie, a ?ac?aaioea aaeeiuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?eioeeiia e ii?i, niaethaeaiee yoeo ii?i anaie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee. Aeey ianoaeaeaiey aicieeathueo i?iaeai a ?aaioa Einoeoooa aoaeeoi?ia i?e iai nicaeathony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua eiieoaou, aeeth/athuea a naie ninoaa iiuoiuo e caneoaeaiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee. ?acoeueoaou yoeo ianoaeaeaiee ioaeeeothony a niaoeeaeueiii aeo?iaea «Aee Ae?ooaooni?thooia», ia?eiaee/iinoue eioi?iai iaeei ?ac a 2 ianyoea e a aaeaiany/iuo auioneao «Oaioiao?eooai». A yoeo aea ecaeaieyo ioaeeeothony ?acee/iua iaoa?eaeu aeey oe?ieiai iciaeiieaiey e ianoaeaeaiey, iai?eia?, i?iaeou aeieoiaioia, a oaeaea i?eiyoua aeieoiaiou, eanathueany aoaeeoa aioo?e no?aiu e ca ?oaaaeii.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Einoeooo aoaeeoi?ia aeia?iaieueii aoiaeyo ieiei 5600 aoaeeoi?ia e 600 aoaeeoi?neeo i?aaiecaoeee, o.a. i?eia?ii 80% anao i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeaiiie i?ioannee. Aeaaiia oneiaea /eainoaa - aeia?iaieueiia, ii no?iaia niaethaeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?aaee, aeeth/ay niaethaeaiea yoe/aneeo ii?i.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey iaicia/aiey i?ioannee aoaeeoi?a a O?A eniieuecoaony oa?iei «ae?ooaooni?thoa?», /oi aoeaaeueii icia/aao «eiio?iea? yeiiiieee». Yoio oa?iei caueuai caeiiiaeaoaeueii, a ana eiua, i?eiaiyaoeany ?aiaa a oiaea enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey Aa?iaiee (?aaeci?, oeiainiaue einiaeoi? e i?.) a i?ioanneiiaeueiii iaeoiaea ia ano?a/athony. «Niaeanii Aa?iaineiio a?aaeaeaineiio oeiaeaieth, enoiee eioi?iai ainoiaeyo aua e 1896 a. e eioi?ia a iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie nia?aiaiiie yiioe oi?ia aeaenoaoao e a O?A, aoaeeoi? yaeyaony i?aaenoaaeoaeai naiaiaeiie i?ioannee, aai caaea/ae yaeyaony «inouanoaeyoue i?iecaiaenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneee eiio?ieue, a iniaaiiinoe aiaeiauo oeiainiauo io/aoia i?aaei?eyoee, e aeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth i ?acoeueoaoao oaeiai eiio?iey».Ainoaea?noaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia aoaeeoi?neoth aeayoaeueiinoue a Aa?iaiee aeiiieiyaony oai, /oi ana aoaeeoi?u e aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu aeieaeiu auoue a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea /eaiaie Aoaeeoi?neie iaeaou. Iaycaiiinoue Aoaeeoi?neie iaeaou caeeth/aaony a caueoa i?ioanneiiaeueiuo eioa?ania aoaeeoi?ia e niaeaenoaee ?inoo aaoi?eoaoa aoaeeoi?neie i?ioannee, ieacaiea eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie e i?aaiaie iiiiue /eaiai iaeaou, iiauoaiee eaaeeoeeaoeee aoaeeoi?ia, eiio?iea ca aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth e niaeaenoaee a iao/aiee iiauo aoaeeoi?neeo eaae?ia. *eaiaie Aoaeeoi?neie iaeaou aianoa n aoaeeoi?aie, caieiathueieny eneeth/eoaeueii naieie i?ioanneiiaeueiuie iaycaiiinoyie, yaeythony ?oeiaiaeeoaee, /eaiu i?aaeaiee e ae?oaea ioaaonoaaiiua ?aaioieee aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i, aeaaea anee iie ia caiyou iaiin?aaenoaaiii aoaeeoii.N 1 yiaa?y 1986 a. i?ioanneiiaeueiua aoaeeoi?neea ii?iu i?eaaaeaiu a niioaaonoaea n 4, 7 e 8 aee?aeoeaaie Niaaoa Aa?iiaeneeo Niiauanoa, eae e ii?iu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.I?aai i?iaaaeaiey aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ie cae?aieaii oieueei ca ioeoeeaeueii oiieiiii/aiiuie aoaeeoi?aie - «eiio?iea?aie yeiiiieee», «i?enyaeiuie eiio?iea?aie aooaaeoa?neeo eiea», a oaeaea ioeoeeaeueii oiieiiii/aiiuie aoaeeoi?neeie oe?iaie.Aoaeeoi?u aanueia ia?aie/aiu a ioiioaiee niaiauaiey aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe n eaeie-eeai eiie. Aeiionoeii eeoue niaiauaiea aoaeeoa ni neaaeothueie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe:1) inouanoaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaey naiaiaeiie i?ioannee a oaoie/aneie iaeanoe e a th?eaee/aneie iaeanoe;2) iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa a einoeoooao iao/iiai i?ioeey, i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneay ?aaioa a aocao e oieaa?neoaoao;3) o/anoea a iia?aoeeyo aeiaa?eoaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey eee a oeaeooeea?iuo iia?aoeeyo (o?aiaiea e oi?aaeaiea oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, eioi?uie ii ?anii?yaeaaony a eioa?anao naiaai eeeaioa), a oaeaea a iia?aoeeyo ii naeaanoe?iaaieth (aoaeeoi?neay iaeaoa O?A aeaao ?ac?aoaiea ia oaeoth aeayoaeueiinoue eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iia yaeyaony a?aiaiiui, a ia iinoiyiiui yaeaieai);4) naiaiaeiay i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue a iaeanoe eeoa?aoo?u eee eneonnoaa.Ca ia?ooaiey, naycaiiua n i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeeie, i?ioeaii?aaiuie aeaenoaeyie e i?., aoaeeoi?u iiaoo auoue iiaeaa?aeaiu ?acee/iui ia?ai aicaeaenoaey, ia/eiay io i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey, caia/aiey ca iacia/eoaeueiua i?iaeiiinoe. Aeaeaa neaaeotho aieaa nouanoaaiiua ia?u - aeaiaaeiua oo?aou, cai?auaiea caieiaoueny aeaiiie i?ioanneae. Nouanoaoao i?ioanneiiaeueiue noae, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaao neiaeiua aeaea, naycaiiua n ia?ooaieyie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aoaeeoi?aie.Nenoaia iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia aoaeeoi?ia aanueia neiaeiay, auniee oaeaea o?aaiaaiey e i?aoaiaeaioai: aeey oiai /oiau auoue aeiiouaiiui e yecaiaio, eaiaeeaeao aeieaeai eiaoue aunoaa ia?aciaaiea ii iaeiie ec ianeieueeeo niaoeeaeueiinoae e oanoeeaoithth i?aeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a yeiiiie/aneie iaeanoe (i?e yoii ia iaiaa /aou?ao eao i?eieiaoue o/anoea a eniieiaiee oao eee eiuo eiio?ieueiuo ooieoeee). A aeaea eneeth/aiey aeiioneathony e yecaiaio eaiaeeaeaou, ia eiathuea caeii/aiiiai aunoaai ia?aciaaiey, ii eiathuea ia iaiaa, /ai 10-eaoiee noaae a ea/anoaa aoaeeoi?a-annenoaioa eee eiiai ?aaioieea a aoaeeoi?neii iauanoaa. Nouanoaotho oaeaea eiua ia?aie/aiey, a /anoiinoe, aei yecaiaiia ia aeiioneathony eeoea, eioi?ua:a neeo eaeiai-eeai ia?ooaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa O?A ia eiatho i?aaa caieiaoue iinou a ioeoeeaeueiuo aaaeiinoaao;iieo/eee ioeac a i?aaa eniieiyoue naie i?ioanneiiaeueiua iaycaiiinoe;eiatho oece/aneea iaaeinoaoee aeeeoaeueiiai naienoaa, ia aeathuea aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeeueii eniieiyoue iaycaiiinoe aoaeeoi?a;eiatho iao?aaoee?iaaiiua aeieaeiui ia?acii oeiainiaua e yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey;eiatho ia?aie/aiey a ieaia ?anii?yaeaiey naiei eiouanoaii;ec-ca naiaai iiaaaeaiey aucuaatho niiiaiey a oii, niiaoo ee iie aeieaeiui ia?acii auiieiyoue iaycaiiinoe aoaeeoi?a.Aeiiieieoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi nieneaoaeue aeieaeai auoue iaioeai a niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaieai no. 116 Eiinoeoooeee O?A. Yecaiaiaoeeiiiua eiiennee oi?ie?othony aeanoyie oaaea?aeueiuo caiaeue, i?e yoii aii?in i aeiionea e yecaiaio i?aoaiaeaioa ?aoaao eiienney, eioi?ay oaeaea ai?aaa a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe cai?ineoue o eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiieieoaeueiua naaaeaiey e ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiua iocuau. Aeiiouaiiua e yecaiaio i?aaeinoaaeytho ienueiaiioth iao/ioth ?aaioo ii niaoeeaeueiinoe, auiieiaiioth aeiia, aeaeaa auiieiythony o?e ienueiaiiua ?aaiou a i?enoonoaee yecaiaiaoi?ia e onoiay /anoue yecaiaia. A neo/aa oniaoiie naea/e yecaiaiia, aeanoe oaaea?aeueiie caiee auaeatho aeieoiaio, oaeinoiaa?ythuee i?ioanneiiaeueiue noaoon aoaeeoi?a. Iinea iieo/aiey yoiai aeieoiaioa aoaeeoi?u noaiiayony /eaiaie aoaeeoi?neie iaeaou, eioi?ay aaaeao i?ioanneiiaeueiue ?aano? aoaeeoi?ia, aoaeeoi?neeo iauanoa, i?eiyaoeo i?enyao eiio?iea?ia aooaaeoa?neeo eiea, a oaeaea eo iauanoa. Eaaeaeue aoaeeoi? aeieaeai eiaoue nianoaaiioth ia/aoue, eioi?ay oaeinoiaa?yao aai i?ioanneiiaeueiue noaoon e iiceoeeth, noi?ie?iaaiioth ia iniiaa caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaeienaiee.Aoaeeo a Aa?iaiee eiaao ianeieueei iai?aaeaiee:aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue i?aaei?eyoey a eiioea oeiainiaiai aiaea (i?iaa?ea i?aaeeueiinoe aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neeo eiea, i?iaa?ea aiaeiaie io/aoiinoe);aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue aeieoiaioia th?eaee/aneiai eeoea a ia?eiae aai iniiaaiey ia i?aaeiao niioaaonoaey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao no?aiu;aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue ii ii?o/aieth iauaai nia?aiey aeoeeiia?ia (eae i?aaeei ioaeaeueiua iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, a ia ana);aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue ioaeaeueiuo naaiaioia aeaeiaie e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe (a /anoiinoe, aeaiiie?iaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae a e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo);aoaeeoi?neea i?iaa?ee ia i?aaeiao iaia?oaeaiey i?aaiia?ooaiee, aeeth/ay eiio?ieueiua i?iaa?ee oaeouaai oa?aeoa?a, i?aaaioeaiua i?iaa?ee n oeaeueth i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey aiciiaeiuo ia?ooaiee;eiio?ieueiay i?iaa?ea anaai i?aaei?eyoey eee aai /anoe (iai?eia?, a neo/aa i?iaeaaee).9.4. Aoaeeo ai O?aioeee e EoaeeeAi O?aioeee ooieoeeiie?otho aeaa iniiaiua i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueany ?oeiaiaenoaii aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth a no?aia, - Iaeaoa yenia?oia-aooaaeoa?ia e iiaa?aiiuo aooaaeoa?ia e Iauanoai eiienna?ia ii n/aoai. Iniiaiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo yenia?oaie-aooaaeoa?aie e eiienna?aie ii n/aoai ninoiyo a oii, /oi yenia?ou-aooaaeoa?u i?eaeaoathony aeey i?iaaaeaiey i?iaa?ie aaaeaiey o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, a eiienna?u ii n/aoai iacia/athony a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea a aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa niaeanii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao. A eaaeaeii aeoeeiia?iii iauanoaa aeieaeai auoue iacia/aiiue eiienna? ii n/aoai, a anee yoi iauanoai iaycaii ioaeeeiaaoue eiinieeaee?iaaiioth io/aoiinoue, oi aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa aeaoo eiienna?ia.Eiienna?u ii n/aoai inouanoaeytho i?iaa?ee oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa e noaayo ia io/aoao na?oeoeeaou, iiaeoaa?aeaeay eo aeinoiaa?iinoue e iainiiaaiiinoue caienyie ia aooaaeoa?neeo n/aoao. Iiyoiio aeayoaeueiinoue eiienna?ia ii n/aoai aeiaieueii aeanoei ?aaeaiaioe?oaony i?aeiiainii io 19 naioya?y 1945 a. Aeayoaeueiinoue yenia?oa-aooaaeoa?a ia noieue no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?oaony ainoaea?noaii. A iniiaiii iie caiyou oaeoueie eiinoeueoaoeeyie ii o/aoo, iaiaaeaeiaioo e i?aaiaui aii?inai, e?iia anaai, iie caieiathony iinoaiiaeie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, iaeaaeeaatho nenoaio aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey. Ooieoeee eiienna?ia ii n/aoai yenia?ou-aooaaeoa?u iiaoo auiieiyoue oieueei ia a oie oe?ia, eioi?ie ieacuaaeenue eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae eee i?iecaiaeeeanue iinoaiiaea eee niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa.Eae e a ae?oaeo no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie, ?acaeoea aoaeeoa i?eaaei e auaeaeaieth niaoeeaeecaoeee - ec n?aaeu aoaeeoi?ia, ii o?aaeeoeee iacuaaaiuo yenia?oaie-aooaaeoa?aie, auaeaeeeenue niaoeeaeenou ii iaeiaiaiio, i?aaiaiio eiinoeueoe?iaaieth, ii iaiaaeaeiaioo.Iaeaoa yenia?oia-aooaaeoa?ia e iiaa?aiiuo aooaaeoa?ia iauaaeeiyao aoaeeoi?neea o/?aaeaeaiey e ioaeaeueiuo aoaeeoi?ia ia iaoeeiiaeueiii e ?aaeiiaeueiuo o?iaiyo. Iia ioeoeeaeueii i?aaenoaaeyao ana aoaeeoi?neea i?aaiecaoeee, ooieoeeiie?othuea ai O?aioeee, a ioiioaieyo n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie. Iao/ioth, iaoiaeieiae/aneoth e i?aaiecaoeeiiioth ?aaioo a iaeanoe aoaeeoa aaaeao O?aioeocneee einoeooo yenia?oia-aooaaeoa?ia n ?aceaeaioeeae a Ia?eaea, ecaeathuee aeo?iae, inaauathuee i?iaeaiu o/aoa e aoaeeoa. ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia iinoaiiaeo o/aoa ai O?aioeee ieacuaaao Iaoeeiiaeueiue Niaao ii o/aoo, yaeythueeny eiinoeueoaoeaiui i?aaiii i?e ieieno?a yeiiiieee e oeiainia. A iai 80 /eaiia, aieueoeinoai n?aaee eioi?uo - yenia?ou-aooaaeoa?u, eiienna?u ii n/aoai, aeaaiua aooaaeoa?u i?aaei?eyoee.Ai O?aioeee aeinoaoi/ii neeueii ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aoaeeoa (yoi iiaeii ioiaoeoue ia i?eia?a iacia/aiey eiienna?ia ii n/aoai a aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa), ainoaea?noai inouanoaeyao i?yiie eiio?ieue ca oi?ie?iaaieai aoaeeoi?neeo eaae?ia, eo i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaeie e oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoueth.Iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi eiaiii o?aioeocneiio ycueo iu iaycaiu oa?ieiii «aaeo?», «ana a aaeo?a» (io o?aioeocneiai - ii nae aeaiue), eioi?ue icia/aao ninoiyiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, eiaaea ana io/aoiua caiene aeaeathony a aeaiue niaa?oaiey oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee, a aieaa oe?ieii niunea - eiaaea o/aoii-au/eneeoaeueiua ?aaiou auiieiythony a onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee e ana iia?aoeee ?aaeno?e?othony iaiaaeeaiii iinea eo niaa?oaiey.Eoaeey ioiineony e /eneo no?ai, aaea neeueii ?acaeoi ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aoaeeoa.A eiioea yiaa?y 1992 a. a Eoaeee i?eiyoi i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiia iinoaiiaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio caeiiioth aoaeeoi?neoth aeayoaeueiinoue iiaoo inouanoaeyoue oieueei oa eeoea, eioi?ua aianaiu a eiaiiie ?aano?, iaoiaeyueeny iiae eiio?ieai ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee.Nieneaoaee caaiey aoaeeoi?a aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue aeeieiiaie i aunoai yeiiiie/aneii, th?eaee/aneii, eiiia?/aneii ia?aciaaiee eeai i n?aaeiai aooaaeoa?neii ia?aciaaiee i?e iaee/ee ia iaiaa o?ao eao i?aeoe/aneiai noaaea.Aeey oiai /oiau iieo/eoue i?aai caieiaoueny aoaeeoii, nieneaoaee aeieaeiu naeaoue yecaiaiu ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, i?aao, au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea e eioi?iaoeea. Naea/o yecaiaiia oaeaea eiio?iee?oao ieienoa?noai thnoeoeee.A eiaiiii ?aano?a aeieaeiu /eneeoueny eae aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu, oae e ioaeaeueiua eeoea. Aieueoeinoai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i aeieaeiu i?ieoe oaeaea ia?niiaeueioth ?aaeno?aoeeth.A Eoaeee, eae e ai O?aioeee, aoaeeoi?u aeaeyony ia aeaa eaoaai?ee: i?iaa?eo e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe inouanoaeytho oae iacuaaaiua «aeiooi?e eiiia?/eaeenoe», a iinoaiiaeo aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e oaeouaa eiinoeueoe?iaaiea ii o/aoiui aeaeai inouanoaeytho «?aaeaeeiiuea?e» (ni. eiienna?u ii n/aoai e yenia?ou-aooaaeoa?u ai O?aioeee).Iu ?anniio?aee e?aoeia eceiaeaiea enoi?ee aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey aoaeeoa a ?yaea caiaaeiuo no?ai. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a no?aiao AN i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann oieoeeaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa, naycaiiue n aeoeaecaoeeae i?ioeanna aa?iiaeneie eioaa?aoeee, aaaaeaieai aaeeiie aa?iiaeneie aaethou - aa?i. I?iaeaia aa?iiiecaoeee aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe a Aaeeiie Aa?iia iinayuaia 8-y aee?aeoeaa Niaaoa Aa?iiaeneeo Niiauanoa io 10 ai?aey 1984 a. Ana eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua o?aaiaaiey aeieaeiu auoue aaeeiu e aoaeeoi?u, auaea?aeaaoea yecaiaiu e iieo/eaoea i?aaa ?aaioaoue a naiae no?aia aeieaeiu aoaeoo eiaoue i?aaa ?aaioaoue e a ae?oaeo no?aiao, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa Aa?iiaeneiai Niiauanoaa. Iaeiaei yoio i?ioeann ineiaeiyaony oai, /oi ?aeoeia i?ioannee aoaeeoi?a, oioy e aeinoaoi/ii aunie ai anao no?aiao - o/anoieeao AN, ii iieaoa aoaeeoi?neeo oneoa aanueia ?acee/aaony a caaeneiinoe io no?aiu.9.5. Yoaiu ?acaeoey aoaeeoa a ?inneeIieiioeaiiue aoaeeo aiciiaeai oieueei a yeiiiie/anee ?acaeoie no?aia. O?e ?aca a iaoai ainoaea?noaa auee i?aaei?eiyou iiiuoee nicaeaoue aoaeeo, e ana iie ia oaeaeenue. I?e/eiaie auee iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e noieeiiaaiea acaeyaeia ?acee/iuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo a?oii. Iiyoiio a ?innee aoaeeoi?neay aeayoaeueiinoue – yaeaiea aeinoaoi/ii iiaia, iaoneiaeaiiia ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. A ia/aea 90-o aiaeia, eiaaea ii ia?a aeoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoee nie?aoeeanue noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey e aaaeiinoaaiiua ?aaeceiiiua neoaeau i?ae?aoeee naia nouanoaiaaiea, ia/aeny i?ioeann ianniaiai nicaeaiey aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i (a ?innee naiay ia?aay aoaeeoi?neay oe?ia auea nicaeaia a 1987aiaeo e iacuaaeanue AI «Eiaoaeeo». Nicaeaiea oe?iu auei naycaii n ia?aciaaieai niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa).Ia?aay iiiuoea ioiineony e eiioeo XIX - ia/aeo XX aaeia. A no?aia i?ienoiaeee oaiiiaiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino (a ia?eiae n 1885 ii 1913 a. oaii ?inoa i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a Aiaeee ca aiae ?aaiyeny 2,11%; a Aa?iaiee - 4,5%, a NOA - 5,2%; a ?innee - 5,72%), aicieeaei iiiaeanoai aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, iaaethaeaeny ia?iiiue i?eoie eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. Ana yoi aucaaei ni?in ia aoaeeo e oneoae i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia. Caia/aoaeueiue ?onneee aooaaeoa? O.A. Aca?neee (1836 - 1916 aa.) auaeaeioe eaeath ia?aciaaiey iauanoaa "naaaeoeo e aeaaiiaaeaaeiuo eeoe". A 1891 a. oaeia iauanoai, eae ei?ii?aoeey i?enyaeiuo n/aoiaiaeia, noi?ie?iaaeinue, ii e ooo aicieeea aeaaiay o?oaeiinoue: aooaaeoa?u, n/aoiaiaeu e eiio?iea?u "oaaaeatho" oa i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua i?eciathony ainoaea?noaii. Oieueei /a?ac o?e aiaea - 30 aeaeaa?y 1894 a. - i?aaiecaoi?u Einoeoooa i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia aeiaeeenue i?eiyoey oneiaiuo iaoa?eaeia a Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia, a eioi?ii yoi aeaei e caaeioei. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue n/aoiuo ?aaioieeia naeaeaea aeae, /oi a no?aia yoiai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai i?aaia ia nouanoaoao, e i?aaei?eiyea eiio?-iiiuoeo. 18 aeaeaa?y 1894 a. ia oi?aeanoaaiiii canaaeaiee Iauanoaa aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey eiiia?/aneeo ciaiee a aeaiue /anoaiaaiey iaiyoe "ia?aio/eoaey aeaieiiai n/aoiaiaenoaa" Eoee Ia/iee ii/aoiui /eaiii Iauanoaa E.Ae. Aiioaiaaocaiii (1832 - 1910 aa.) aue naeaeai aeieeaae ia ionoonoaee aoaeeoa e i iaii?iaeueiii iieiaeaiee aooaaeoa?ia a ?innee, iinea eioi?iai ii ia?aoeeny e Iauanoao n i?aaeeiaeaieai oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue ia?aae i?aaeoaeuenoaii ia o/?aaeaeaiee Einoeoooa aooaaeoa?ia e i?enyaeiuo n/aoiaiaeia, aeaaea ia oiiiyioa, /oi oaeie oaea nouanoaoao aieaa o?ao eao. E eieoeeaoeaa Aiioaiaaocaia a ioee/ea io eieoeeaoea Aca?neiai aeanoe i?eneooaeenue ni/oanoaaiii, e ai aoi?ie iieiaeia aeaeaa?y 1896 a. a Niaao Iauanoaa iinooieei io ieieno?a oeiainia i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ia?aciaaiee eiiennee iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii /eaia Niaaoa I.I. Oeeoiae/a aeey ?ac?aaioee ieii/aoaeueiiai i?iaeoa iieiaeaiey ia Einoeoooa. Ii yoio i?iaeo i?iaaeeeny ec-ca io?eoeaoaeueiiai aeeyiey eiina?aaoeaiie i?annu, eioi?ay ooaa?aeaeaea, /oi a iaoae no?aia caieiaoueny nicaeaieai iiaeiaiuo einoeoooia - cia/eo ia?aoeeiiaeueii o?aoeoue ia?iaeiua n?aaenoaa.Aoi?ay iiiuoea ioiineony e ia?eiaeo, eiaaea iinea nioeeaeueiuo iio?ynaiee 1905 a. a no?aia aiciee eiinoeoooeeiiiue no?ie. Yeiiiieea e eiiia?/aneia ia?aciaaiea auee aiiaue ia iiaeuaia. Aooaaeoa?u iiiuoaeenue a naiae n?aaea naie ?aoeoue i?iaeaiu i?ioannee e noi?ie?iaaoue aoaeeo. Iiaua ethaee ana ia/aee nia/aea. Aeaaiui aeaenoaothuei eeoeii noae caia/aoaeueiue ?onneee aooaaeoa? O.E. Aaeueia? (1873 - 1945 aa.). Eiaiii ii aiiaue ?aoeoaeueii caaiai?ee ia Einoeoooa. Iiaiaeii aeey yoiai iineoaeeei auno?ia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiiai e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiiia?/aneiai ia?aciaaiey. Anee a 1896 a. a ?innee auei 13 eiiia?/aneeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, a a 1901 a. - 88, oi a 1909 a. oaeeo caaaaeaiee auei 344; a 1910 a. /enei iao/athueony ninoaaeyei ieiei 47 000 /aeiaae. Niioaaonoaaiii aic?inea e a?iey n/aoiuo ?aaioieeia. Iaeiaei nouanoaiaaaoaa a oi a?aiy caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iaaeaeyei aooaaeoa?a oeaeui ?yaeii iaycaiiinoae, ia i?aaeinoaaeyy aio i?aa. Iiiaeanoai noaeaaiuo i?ioeannia iieacaei eo aani?aaiia iieiaeaiea. A 1909 a. Ana?inneeneei nuacaeii aooaaeoa?ia aue iaeia?ai aeieeaae Aaeueia?a e ecaeaiu o?oaeu nuacaea, ii iiiaei o/anoieeai nuacaea iieacaeinue (o?oaeii noaeeoue, ni?aaaaeeeai eee iao), /oi aai ?ieue neeoeii auiy/eaaaony, a o?oaeu ae?oaeo aooaaeoa?ia aeieaeiiai io?aaeaiey ia iieo/ao. Ia/aeenue acaeiiua iaaeiaiey, /oi ia?aeeciaaei aeaei nicaeaiey ?inneeneiai aoaeeoa a naiii ia/aea. Oae aanneaaii, ia oniaa ii-ianoiyuaio ia/aoueny, caeii/eeanue e yoa iiiuoea.Eioa?anii aniiiieoue, /oi a oa aeaeaeea a?aiaia neoaeeei iiaiaeii e ?aciiiuneeth. Oae, aieueoea neiaeiinoe aicieeee ii aii?ino i aiciiaeiinoe i?eaea/aiey a /enei /eaiia Einoeoooa eiino?aioeaa. Ai anao i?iaeoao i?iaiaeeeanue aeanoeay eeiey ia oi, /oi /eaiaie Einoeoooa iiaoo auoue oieueei iiaeaeaiiua ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Oieueei i?iaeo Aiioaiaaocaia aeiioneae o/anoea eiino?aioeaa, ii n iaiai?eaie. Iie eiaiiaaeenue a?aiaiiuie /eaiaie Einoeoooa, ia iiaee ioe?uaaoue n/aoiua eiioi?u e, /oi naiia aeaaiia, ia iiaee aoiaeeoue a Niaao Einoeoooa.Aeaeaa nii?iui aue aii?in i eaaeeoeeaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ia. Ana noiaeeeenue a oii, /oi /eaiu Einoeoooa aeieaeiu auoue ?acaeaeaiu ii noaiaie eaaeeoeeaoeee ia o?e eaoaai?ee. Aca?neee, nio?aiyy o?e o?iaiy, aaiaeee, o/eouaay ioa/anoaaiioth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, aua aeaa a?oiiu: ii/aoiua /eaiu, o.a. aeanoue eiouea (aaeeeea eiycuey, ieieno?u, oiaa?eue ieieno?ia, aeaaeaieee) e /eaiu-ni?aaiiaaoaee, o.a. yoi eeoea, ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e i?ioannee ia eiathuea, ii ieaoyuea /eaineea aciinu e ieacuaathuea ae?oaea aeaeu iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai aniiiiuanoaiaaiey.Ana i?iaeou onoaiaaeeaaee ?aciua o?aaiaaiey e ia?aoiaeo yoeo /eaiia ec eeanna a eeann. *oiau iinooieoue a ia?aue eeann ii Aiioaiaaocaio, /aeiaae aeieaeai aue auoue ia iieiaea 18 eao e naeaoue yecaiaiu ii iauaia?aciaaoaeueiui i?aaeiaoai (?onneee ycue e a?eoiaoeea). Aaeueia? n/eoae aeinoaoi/iui ia?aciaaiea a iauaia /aou?ao eeannia e ?aaioo ii niaoeeaeueiinoe (eioi?ay iiaeoaa?aeaeaeanue ni?aaeie). ?a/e ia yecaiaia ia auei. O Aca?neiai i?iua - noaae ia iaiaa 3 ianyoeaa e iao/aiea ia eo?nao naiiai Aca?neiai.Aoi?ie eeann i?aaeoniao?eaae: o Aiioaiaaocaia ieieiaeueiue noaae - 3 aiaea e yecaiaiu; o Aaeueia?a - noaae 3 aiaea e aianoi yecaiaia i?aaenoaaeaiea ienueiaiiiai ni/eiaiey ia caaeaiioth oaio; o Aca?neiai - noaae 2 aiaea, ciaiea o/aoa a iaeiie ec io?aneae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e eo?nu Aca?neiai (yecaiaiia iao).O?aoee eeann: o Aiioaiaaocaia - ieieiaeueiue noaae 5 eao a oaeeo o/?aaeaeaieyo, aaea iie iiaee i?eia?anoe iaiaoiaeeiua i?aeoe/aneea naaaeaiey aeey naiinoiyoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aaaeaiey n/aoiaiaenoaa e io/aoiinoe oicyenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia, e naea/a yecaiaiia. O Aaeueia?a o?aaiaaeny noaae 5 eao, ia?aciaaiea ia ieaea n?aaeiaai, iaienaiea e ioaee/iay caueoa aeaoo ienueiaiiuo ?aaio ia caaeaiiua oaiu. O Aca?neiai - noaae ia iaiaa 5 eao e eo?nu Aca?neiai (yecaiaia iao). Iniaaiiinoueth iiaeoiaea Aca?neiai auei oi, /oi noaae iia auoue nie?auai aeey eeoe, eiathueo n?aaeiaa ia?aciaaiea, ia 1/3, a aeey eeoe n aunoei ia?aciaaieai - ia 2/3.Aeey anao i?iaeoia oa?aeoa?ii auei oi, /oi i?eieiaeny ai aieiaiea noaae oieueei i?aaeuaeouaai eeanna (nooiaie). Oaeei ia?acii, /oiau aeinoe/ue, neaaeai, o?aoueae nooiaie o Aca?neiai, ioaeii auei oaea e ia?aie eiaoue 3 ianyoea noaaea, ei aoi?ie - 2 aiaea e e o?aoueae - 5 eao. A eoiaa, noaiiaynue iieiii?aaiui /eaiii niiauanoaa (Einoeoooa), i?aoaiaeaio aeieaeai aue eiaoue iauee noaae ieieioi 7 eao e 3 ian.Aaoi?u anao i?iaeoia iiieiaee, /oi eo eieeaae i/aiue ia ethayo yecaiaiu. E a eaaeaeii i?iaeoa i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue eacaeee aeey oao, eoi ia iiaeao, ia oi/ao eee n/eoaao ieaea naiaai aeinoieinoaa naeaaaoue yecaiaiu. Iai?eia?, Aiioaiaaocai n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui inaiaiaeeoue:- aeaeathueo anooieoue a /eaiu 2 e 1 noaiaie n ?ac?aoaiey Aeaaiiai Niaaoa ii i?aaenoaaeaieth Ie?oaeiiai Niaaoa i oii, /oi yoe eeoea eiui iooai i?eia?aee i?aeoe/aneea ciaiey;- eeoe n aunoei ia?aciaaieai, a oaeaea ioee/eaoeony naieie o/aiuie o?oaeaie ii n/aoiaaaeaieth eee aeieaieaoiae aooaaeoa?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth n ?ac?aoaiey Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia.Aieueoea aeeneonnee aucaae e aii?in i i?aanoaaiiinoe ethaeae iaoae i?ioannee e a nayce n yoei i ii?yaeea i?eaia e eneeth/aiey ec Einoeoooa. Aiioaiaaocai yoi o?aaiaaiea oi?ioee?iaae aeinoaoi/ii /aoei: /eaiaie Einoeoooa ia iiaoo auoue eeoea:- iauyaeaiiua ianinoiyoaeueiuie aeieaeieeaie;- iiaeaa?aoeany a niioaaonoaee n noaeaaiuie i?eaiai?aie eeoaieth eee ia?aie/aieth i?aa ninoiyiey, a oaeaea nayuaiiineoaeeoaee, eeoaiiua aeooiaiiai caaiey ii i?eaiai?o aeooiaiiai noaea;- ninoiyuea iiae neaaenoaeai ca i?anooieaiey e i?inooiee, aeaeouea ca niaie eeoaiea eee ia?aie/aiea i?aa ninoiyiey, e oa, eioi?ua, iiauaaa iiae noaeii ca oaeea i?anooieaiey eee i?inooiee, ia ii?aaaeaiu noaeaaiuie i?eaiai?aie;- eneeth/aiiua ni neoaeau ii noaeo eee ec n?aaeu iauanoa e aeai?yineeo nia?aiee ii i?eaiai?ai oao nineiaee, e eioi?ui iie i?eiaaeeaaeao.Aaeueia? iiae/a?eeaae oieueei i?ioanneiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? iauanoaa e ene?aiia n/eoae, /oi i?aanoaaiiua aniaeou iaaei inoaaeoue nayuaiiineoaeeoaeyi. Eiii?iienniia ?aoaiea i?aaeeiaeee Aca?neee: i?aanoaaiiue oeaic aeieacuaaaony i?ioieieii ia eca?aiee aieueoeinoaii aieinia i?e cae?uoie aaeeioe?iaea.I?aaa Einoeoooa oi?ioee?iaaeenue aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei, e ooo i?ioeai?a/ey ia auei:- ecaeaiea ia?eiaee/aneiai i?aaia - i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aeo?iaea;- ioaeeeaoeey o?oaeia, o/aaieeia, ianoaaeaiee e eiea ii n/aoiaiaenoao e io/aoiinoe;- ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ecaeaiee;- i?aaiecaoeey aeaeeioae;- i?iaaaeaiea naieia?ia, eiioa?aioeee, onoiuo e ienueiaiiuo eiinoeueoaoeee;- nicua i?ioanneiiaeueiuo nuacaeia;- i?iaaaeaiea eiieo?nia ia "ni/eiaiey ii eiiia?/aneei iaoeai";- iiiiuue a iiaeuneaiee ?aaiou /eaiai Einoeoooa e i?aaeinoaaeaiea iiniaee eiaaeeaeai e eeoeai iiaeeeiai aic?anoa, ia niiniaiui e ?aaioa, a oaeaea eo aaeiaai (yoi aeieaeii auei i?aa?aoeoue Einoeooo a iaeia iiaeiaea i?ionithca n/aoiuo ?aaioieeia).A aa?eaioa Aaeueia?a auei aua iaeii i/aiue aaaeiia ooi/iaiea i i?aaao Einoeoooa - eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth /eaiia /a?ac iniai oiieiiii/aiiuo eeoe.Aiioaiaaocai i?iaiaeee iuneue, /oi oieueei eeoeai aunoae noaiaie iiaoo auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiu i?aaa. E eiaiii yoe eeoea iiaoo:- caieiaoue aeieaeiinoe aeaaiuo aooaaeoa?ia a oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao, aaieao, aaiee?neeo eiioi?ao, no?aoiauo e eiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo, aiaeiaua io/aou e aaeainu eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeythony Ieienoa?noao oeiainia;- ioe?uaaoue aooaaeoa?neea eiioi?u;- auoue i?aaenaaeaoaeyie eee aeaaiuie aooaaeoa?aie eiieo?niuo oi?aaeaiee;- eniieiyoue ooieoeee ?aaeci?ia;- i?iaiaeeoue yenia?oecu eiiia?/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee.Aua i?ino?aiiaa auneacaeny Aca?neee: /eaiu Einoeoooa 1 eaoaai?ee eiatho i?aai caieiaoue ioaaonoaaiiua aeieaeiinoe ia anao i?aaei?eyoeyo. I?e yoii iie aeieaeiu i?iaa?youe i?aaeeueiinoue n/aoia e io/aoia, i?eieiaoue ia naay i?aaiecaoeeth e aaaeaiea n/aoiaiaenoaa ia ?acee/iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e a oicyenoaao, i?iaiaeeoue eo eiio?ieue e ?aaeceth, o/?aaeaeaoue ia naia eiy aeey eniieiaiey eceiaeaiiuo ooieoeee n/aoiua eiioi?u. I?aaa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua 1 eaoaai?ee i?enyaeiuo aooaaeoa?ia, iiaoo auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiu /eaiai Einoeoooa 3 eaoaai?ee, ii ia eia/a eae a ea/anoaa iiiiuieeia ia?auo. Iie ia eiatho i?aaa ioe?uaaoue n/aoiua eiioi?u e aeaaaoue oaeinoiaa?aiey i i?iaa?ea io/aoiinoe. *eaiu Einoeoooa 3 eaoaai?ee eiatho i?aai caieiaoue eeoue aeieaeiinoe, ia naycaiiua n na?ueaciie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.Ana yoi cao/aei oi?ioi, ii auei aiaeoeeicii e ia?aaeueii. Aaaeue eoiaoe Oeo Oeou/ auae?ae naaa n/aoiaiaea, ia ia?auay aieiaiey ia oi, i?enyaeiue yoi n/aoiaiae eee iao. Aio ioaeai aue a?aiioiue, eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue, nia?aiaiiue aooaaeoa?, iiieiathuee ioa/anoaaiiue e iaaeaeoia?iaeiue o/ao. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, aio o?aaiaaeny naie /aeiaae, eioi?ue iia eaaei oeoe io iaeiaia, iaiaiooue e?aaeeoi?ia e aeoeeiia?ia, auaeoue aeaiueae o aeieaeieeia.O?aouey iiiuoea auea i?aaei?eiyoa a 1924 a. A yeiiiieea aic?iaeaeaeenue ?uii/iua ioiioaiey e n ieie - eaeae 1894 e 1909 aa. A 1924 a. aue nicaeai Einoeooo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia-yenia?oia (EAAY) i?e IE?EE (Ia?iaeiue Eiienna?eao ?aai/a-E?anoueyineie Einiaeoeee) NNN?. Aai caaea/e ii?aaeaeyeenue eae niaeaenoaea i?aaeeueiie iinoaiiaea a no?aia n/aoiaiaenoaa, a oaeaea aea/a caeeth/aiey ii anyeiai ?iaea aii?inai n/aoiaiaenoaa e io/aoiinoe ii o?aaiaaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. Aeayoaeueiinoue Einoeoooa iineea caieiooue oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo aanue iaeiieaiiue a i?ioeanna ?aaiou iaoa?eae i?aaenoaaeyeny a aeaea caeeth/aiee e aeieeaaeia a oeaio?aeueiua ath?i EAAY, a caoai neaieeaaeny a o?aieeeuao. Niioaaonoaaiii ana iaia?oaeaiiua iaaei/aou e aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe iinoaiiaee n/aoiaiaenoaa e io/aoiinoe ia ioaeeeiaaeenue.Aeey ea/anoaaiiiai auiieiaiey yenia?oecu aooaaeoa? aeieaeai aue eiaoue aunieoth eaaeeoeeaoeeth. Iiyoiio i?e ca/eneaiee a aeaenoaeoaeueiua /eaiu EAAY e a eaiaeeaeaou iaiaoiaeeii auei eiaoue iaaeeaaeauee noaae ?aaiou ii neaaeothuei aeaeai n/aoiaiaenoaa: athaeaeaoiiio, i?iiuoeaiiiio, eiiia?aoeaiiio, oi?aiaiio, aaieianeiio, naeueneioicyenoaaiiiio.E 1928 a. Einoeooo e aai nio?oaeieee iieo/eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?eciaiea. Iaeei ec naiuo ciaiaieouo aooaaeoa?ia OO a. ?. Iiioaiia?e (1872 - 1953 aa.), aoaeo/e eca?ai i?aceaeaioii III Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiia?anna, i?eaeanee i?aaenoaaeoaeae EAAY aeey o/anoey a ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiu eiia?anna e a aai ?aaioa. Einoeooo iai?aaee ia eiia?ann i?aaenoaaeoaeueioth aeaeaaaoeeth. Yoi aue iee ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey aooaaeoa?ia a ?innee. A oaea a 1929 a. no?aia ia?aoea e aeanoeiio aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiiio ?aaoee?iaaieth, e ethaee aeaaea caauee, /oi oaeia i?ioanneiiaeueiue aoaeeo e ca/ai ana yoi ioaeii.Aeaaiay i?e/eia eeeaeaeaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe naiaeeeanue e oiio, /oi yeiiiieea noaea oi?ie?iaaoueny ii aeanoeie aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaia e iauanoai ia iuouaei ianoiyoaeueiie iio?aaiinoe ie a aoaeeoa, ie a i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aooaaeoa?ao. Ai-ia?auo, aooaaeoa?u, a ianna naiae, ia i/aiue aeaeaee, /oiau a eo n?aaea aiciee i?eaeeaae?iaaiiue eeann eo/oeo, iie ia oioaee aicieeiiaaiey n/aoiie a?enoie?aoee. Ai-aoi?uo, i?aaei?eieiaoaee ia oioaee, /oiau eoi-oi /oaeie ciaeiieeny n eo aeaeaie. A-o?aoueeo, oi?aaeythuea oe?i n/eoaee, /oi i?eaeaoaoue aoaeeoi?ia e ieaoeoue ei ca eiio?ieue aaci?aanoaaiii; ii, anee iieo/ea ieaoo, aoaeeoi? oi?ie?iaae ii io/aoiinoe eeeaioa ia oi iiaiea, eioi?ia iineaaeiee oioae, yoi aini?eieiaeinue oaea eae aiiethuay iaii?yaei/iinoue.Eaeay naeaaaoue yecaiaiu iniaaiii oieaeaea o?oaeiaiai /aeiaaea, aini?eieiaeanue "?aaioieeaie ia?a e /a?iee" eae aua iaeii inei?aeaiea. E iie aeaeaee naie auaiaeu: oieaoa aciinia a Einoeooo iaaeaeeo eo; iiae/eiaiea /eaiai Einoeoooa ii?aaioeo eo aua aieueoa; iiiaea, ia iiiaaoea a Einoeooo, iioa?ytho ?aaioo.N oao ii? i?ioei noi eao, e, iineieueeo aieueoia aeaeeony ia ?annoiyiee, i/aaeaeii, /oi oa ai?noea yiooceanoia, eioi?ay caaioeeanue i noaeueaao i?ioannee, auea i?aaa. Eo ia?aaioee, eaaeauea a aeaeeioa/iie iuee, aeieaeiu anei?a aine?aniooue, a au?aaeaiiua a ieo aeeaua iunee - iiii/ue oai, eoi no?ieo aeeaie nia?aiaiiue o/ao. Ii noae aiciiaeai a ?acoeueoaoa ioeaca io nioeeaeecia e ?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Oaia?ue aiiaue iiyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aoaeeoa, e ii aiciee. A ioee/ea io i?aaeieo iiiuoie nicaeaoue aoaeeo "nieco" ia yoio ?ac aoaeeo nicaeaee "naa?oo".A 1987 a. ia?aie ?inneeneie aoaeeoi?neie oe?iie noaea oe?ia "Eiaoaeeo" (iia ia iiaea n/eoaoueny iacaaeneiie, iineieueeo aa o/?aaeeoaeyie aunooiaee Ieioei - 55% onoaaiiai eaieoaea, Ieioi?aiaee - 10% e o.ae.). Aa aeayoaeueiinoue caeeth/aeanue a i?iaa?ea oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iieo/aiee e aiaeeca anae iaiaoiaeeiie aeieoiaioaoeee; iieo/aiee aeaiiuo i aeayoaeueiinoe i?iaa?yaiuo i?aaiecaoeee io o?aoueeo eeoe (Ainaaiea, eiuo e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, ae?oaeo naycaiiuo n iei i?aaiecaoeee); o/?aaeaeaiee naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa; iiaeaea?aeea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo eiioaeoia n eiioe?iaie; ioaeeeaoeee io/aoiinoe eae a ?innee, oae e ca ?oaaaeii; ieacaiee eiinoeueoaoeeiiiuo oneoa ii iinoaiiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e i?aaiecaoeee aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey e o.ae.1990 a. - a?aiy oi?ie?iaaiey iiaeeeiiiai aoaeeoa. I?eiyoea a yoii aiaeo ?yaea caeiiia iicaieeei nicaeaoue iiiaeanoai aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i. Eo o/?aaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou i?aaeoniao?eaaee i?iaaaeaiea i?iaa?ie oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee ethauo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i e aeaeia nianoaaiiinoe n oeaeueth iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey aeinoiaa?iinoe e ?aaeueiinoe eo oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe, i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiinoeueoaoeee ii aii?inai oeiainiaie, i?aaiaie, oicyenoaaiiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy ia ?uiea ?innee iiyaeeanue "aieueoay oanoa?ea".A e?oiiuo ai?iaeao ?innee auea nicaeaia nenoaia iiaeaioiaee aoaeeoi?ia; ia?aaaaeaiu e ecaeaiu o/aaieee Aaeaina, ?iaa?oniia, A?aina e Eiaaaea, Iiioaiia?e; ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea iiniaey ii niioaaonoaothuei aeenoeeieeiai; ioe?uou niaoeeaeueiua eaoaae?u, e iiauoaia eaaeeoeeaoeey i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa. *a?ac iiaeiaioth nenoaio aooanoaoeee i?ioee a ia/aea 90-o aa. ouny/e aoaeeoi?ia. Yoio iiuo aue o/oai a 1995 a. iinea auoiaea Iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 06.05.1994 N 482, ii?aaeaeythuaai ii?yaeie aooanoaoeee aoaeeoi?ia.Ca iineaaeiea 15 eao a no?aia neiaeeeenue e nenoaia aoaeeoa, e ?uiie, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey aa aeayoaeueiinoe.Aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu, i?aaeeaaathuea naie oneoae, iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu:- ianeieueei ouny/ iaaieueoeo ioa/anoaaiiuo oe?i e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aoaeeoi?ia;- ianeieueei aeanyoeia ?inneeneeo oe?i, eaaeaeay n /eneii niaoeeaeenoia nauoa 30 /aeiaae;- "aieueoay /aoaa?ea" e ianeieueei aeanyoeia ae?oaeo caiaaeiuo eiiiaiee.Ia?aay a?oiia oe?i aicieeea aeaaiui ia?acii ec-ca aeaeaiey auaoeo ?aaeci?ia, inoaaoeony aac?aaioiuie, iaeoe i?eiaiaiea naiei neeai e aicieeiiaaiey iiiaeanoaa iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua a oie eee eiie noaiaie ioaeaeaeenue a aeaoaaii aoaeeoa e iaaei?iaeo eiinoeueoaoeeiiiuo oneoaao. Yoe oe?iu /anoi auee ia a ninoiyiee i?iaiaeeoue ?aaioo ia aeinoaoi/ii aunieii o?iaia, e a ieo iaaethaeaeanue aeinoaoi/ii aunieay oaeo/anoue eaae?ia. Yoe oe?iu eiatho naie naaiaio ?uiea, oae eae niaoeeaeece?othony ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeao aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneoa (eiinoeueoaoeee ii aaaeaieth o/aoa, iaeiaai, i?iaeaiai oi?aaeaiey oe?iie).Aoi?ay a?oiia caaiaauaaao a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ana aieaa i?i/iia iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea. Aieaa oiai, n 1995 - 1996 aa. ?inneeneea oe?iu ia/aee oanieoue caiaaeiua oe?iu. A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia iiaeii i?eaanoe aoaeeo Aaiea ?innee a 1997 a., aoaeeo oeaeaauo caeiia Ie?iaiai aaiea (e eiioeo 1997 a. eo auei ieiei 20) e ae?. Eiino?aiiua oe?iu, i?eciaaay a aeaiiii neo/aa i?ei?eoao ioa/anoaaiiuo, /anoi niaeaoaeenue ia ?ieue noaiiae?yae/eeia i?e ?inneeneeo oe?iao. I?e/eiaie oniaoa ?inneeneeo oe?i auee ciaiea ioa/anoaaiiie niaoeeoeee, oaiaoe/iinoue a ?aaioa e iaee/ea iaiaoiaeeiuo naycae.Iaeiaei a iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiyoue iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey "aanoa?iecaoeee". E i?e/eia, eae yoi ie ia?aaeienaeueii, naycaia n ioiineoaeueiie noaaeeecaoeeae ia ?uiea. Nae/an oaea ia iaaei niaa?oaoue /oaean, a neaaeoao oieueei ?ac?aaioaoue /aoeea aeai?eoiu i?iaa?ee, eae yoi aeaeatho caiaaeiua oe?iu, e no?iai ei neaaeiaaoue. ?inneeneea oe?iu, eae i?aaeei, i?aiaa?aaatho yoei, oioy, anee aeaenoaiaaoue ii ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiiio oaaeiio, aa?iyoiinoue i?eiyoey i?aaeeueiiai ?aoaiey ninoaaeo ieiei 70%. E?iia oiai, e caiaaeiua oe?iu iaiytho naie iiaeoiaeu: eaae?iaue iioaioeeae o ieo oaia?ue noaiiaeony eiui, e i?e auai?a nio?oaeieeia iie i?eaioe?othony ia noieueei oaea ia ciaiea eiino?aiiiai ycuea, neieueei ia aeaaeaiea o/aoii e aoaeeoii. Iiaeoiae yoeo oe?i oaeaea i?aaeiieaaaao aieueooth noaaeeueiinoue, o.a. ?aaioo aac aceaoia, ii e aac iaaeaiee. Caiaaeiua oe?iu oaeaea ia/eiatho iiieiaoue i?aeiouanoaa ?inneeneeo niaoeeaeenoia e noa?athony oaie eee eiuie iaoiaeaie i?eaea/ue eo e nio?oaeie/anoao. A ea/anoaa oaeeo iaoiaeia iiaeii iacaaoue aeaaeaiea ni noi?iiu oaeoe/aneeo e iioaioeeaeueiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia ia oe?io-eeeaioa n o?aaiaaieai i?eaea/ue oioy au a ea/anoaa noaiiae?yae/eea iniiaiie ?inneeneie aoaeeoi?neie oe?iu caiaaeiiai aoaeeoi?a n iineaaeothuei auoaniaieai ?inneeneie oe?iu, a oaeaea ianoiyoaeueiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ni noi?iiu aaiea eee iaoa?eineie oe?iu, aoaeeoi?aie eioi?uo yaeythony eiino?aioeu, i i?eaea/aiee a ea/anoaa oioy au aoi?iai aoaeeoi?a caiaaeiie eiiiaiee.Aeinoieinoaa caiaaeiuo oe?i i/aaeaeiu: yoi ecaanoiinoue oi?aiaie ia?ee, e?oiiua iaaeaeoia?iaeiua nayce, iaaeaeoia?iaeiay "aoaeeoi?neay i?anna", aunieia ea/anoai oneoa, niioaaonoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai. Aianoa n oai aeayoaeueiinoue caiaaeiuo oe?i ia ?inneeneii ?uiea iiaeaa?aaaony e?eoeea, ai-ia?auo, ca iiiiiieecaoeeth, eioi?ay aeioiaeeo aei oiai, /oi caiaaeiua oe?iu ianeoaeeaatho aei 50% anaai ?uiea aoaeeoi?neeo oneoa, e, ai-aoi?uo, ca i?eno?anoiinoue, a neeo /aai eiino?aiiue aoaeeoi?, i?iaa?ythuee ?inneeneoth oe?io, eioi?ay ?aaioaao ia caiaaeiii ?uiea, ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai iiaeao iinoaaeoue naiaai ?inneeneiai eeeaioa a iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey, /ai oa, a eioi?uo iaoiaeeony aai eiino?aiiay oe?ia-eiieo?aio. E?iia oiai, iiaeii aiai?eoue i iaei??aeoiii auiieiaiee naieo iaycaoaeuenoa caiaaeiuie oe?iaie ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi aieueoeinoai ?inneeneeo aaieia-aaie?ioia auee eeeaioaie e?oiiuo caiaaeiuo aoaeeoi?ia, aeaaoeo iieiaeeoaeueiia aoaeeoi?neia caeeth/aiea.N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ?inneeneiai e caiaaeiiai iiaeoiaeia e i?iaaaeaieth aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ie iicaieyao iieo/eoue neaaeothuoth ea?oeio (oaae. 9.1.).Oaaeeoea 9.1. - N?aaiaiea ?inneeneiai e caiaaeiiai iiaeoiaeia e i?iaaaeaieth aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ieN i/iE?eoa?ee Aoaeeo ia Caiaaea Aoaeeo a ?innee 1I?e/eiu e ii?yaeie aicieeiiaaiey Aiciee aeaaii, anoanoaaiii, "nieco" ec iio?aaiinoae oicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa Aiciee iaaeaaii, "naa?oo" iooai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anii?yaeaiee 2Oeaeue Auyaeaiea enoeiiie aeinoiaa?iinoe aeaiiuoaooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe No?iaia niioaaonoaea aeaiiuo io/aoiinoe o?aaiaaieyi ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia 3N eai iaiin?aaenoaaiii inouanoaeyaony eiioaeo i?e i?iaaaeaiee i?iaa?eeN aaeieieno?aoi?ii N aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii 4 Caaea/a Iiieiaiea aeciana eeeaioa; n?aaenoai ?aoaiey aeaiiie caaea/e - iiieiaiea io/aoiinoe Iiieiaiea ii?yaeea, niaeanii eioi?iio ninoaaeaia io/aoiinoue 5Iauaeo iniiaiiai enneaaeiaaiey Aaeain eeeaioa Io/ao i i?eaueyo e oauoeao 6Aeaaiua iieueciaaoaee Nianoaaiieee, eiaanoi?u e e?aaeeoi?u Ia?aaeei a yoii ea/anoaa aunooiaao iaeiaiaay einiaeoeey7Aeoeaioe?iaaiea aieiaiey i?e i?iaaaeaiee aoaeeoa I?iaa?ea noaoae aaeaina e io/aoa i i?eaueyo e oauoeao, o.a. naeueaei ?anniao?eaaaony eae iniiaa oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey eeeaioa I?iaa?ea naieo oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee, o.a. iai?iou ii n/aoai o/aoa ?anniao?eaathony eae iniiaa oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey eeeaioa 8Aeeyiea iaoiaeieiaeee o/aoiie iieeoeee Iniiaiie oii? aeaeaaony ia aiaeeca iaoiaeieiaee e o/aoiie iieeoeee Iaoiaeieiaey e o/aoiay iieeoeea ?anniao?eaathony a nayce n oi?iaie ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia e o/aoiuo ?aaeno?ia 9Cia/aiea noaoae io/aoiinoe ?anniao?eaathony a caaeneiinoe io io?anee oicyenoaa e oeia i?aaei?eyoey ?anniao?eaathony a caaeneiinoe io aiciiaeiinoae ecuyoey aeoeaia: /ai eaa/a ecuyoea, oai nouanoaaiiaa aeoea 10Nouanoaaiiinoue Niioiineony ni anae io/aoiinoueth, /oi aaoiiaoe/anee canoaaeyao aoaeeoi?a aiaeece?iaaoue noaouee io/aoiinoe Niioiineony n eaaeaeie noaoueae io/aoiinoe, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ianouanoaaiiua noaouee iiaoo auoue ia i?iaa?aiu 11Auai?i/iue iaoiae ?anniao?eaaaony eae aeinoieinoai i?iaa?ee, iineieueeo ii aieaa yeiiiie/ai e oi/ai ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaecaaaeiue ieion i?iaa?ee, iineieueeo ii iaaeinoaoi/ii oi/ai 12Aioo?aiiee eiio?ieueI?eiaiyaony oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea eiathony iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue aai aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue Eee aiiaua ia i?eiaiyaony, eee i?eiaiyaony ai anao neo/ayo 13I?iaaaeaiea eiaaioa?ecaoeee ai a?aiy aoaeeoa Iaycaoaeueii Iaiaycaoaeueii 14I?eiaiaiea aoaeeoi?neeo noaiaea?oia I?eieiathony eae iai?aeiaeiia oneiaea aeey auiieiaiey ?aaio Ia i?aeoeea ?anniao?eaathony eae ?aeiiaiaeaoeeeIaniio?y ia ioia/aiiua ?acee/ey, neaaeoao iiieiaoue, /oi nicaeaiea iaeeiaeiauo oneiaee aeey eiieo?aioeee ?inneeneeo e caiaaeiuo oe?i yaeyaony iai?aeiaeiui oneiaeai aaaeaiey aeciana. Yoi oneiaea iiaeao i?aaeiieaaaoue i?eiaiaiea neaaeothueo ia?:- aeinooi ioa/anoaaiiui oe?iai e ?aaioa ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui i?iaeoai;- ia?aie/aiea aeiee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia a onoaaiuo eaieoaeao nicaeaaaaiuo i?aaiecaoeee;- eeieoe?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe eiino?aiiuo niaoeeaeenoia a ninoaaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i e onoaiiaeaiea a ea/anoaa o?aaiaaiey aaaaeaiey a /enei o/?aaeeoaeae (niaeaaeaeueoeaa) eiino?aiiuo oe?i aieueoeinoaa ?inneeneeo a?aaeaeai (eae yoi naeaeaii ai iiiaeo no?aiao). Ii oaeoo ?aaeno?aoeee eiioe?iu yaeythony ?inneeneeie th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, ii ii no?oeoo?a nianoaaiiinoe i?aeoe/anee ana iie - oe?iu ni 100%-iui (eee /ooue iaiueoei) eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii. E?iia oiai, ii nooe, anaaaea o/?aaeeoaee - eiino?aiiua oe?iu ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a iooi?iuo ciiao, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue auaica ec ?innee eaieoaea (aeeaeaeaiaeia, i?eauee).Iaeiaei aeaenoaothuay nenoaia aoaeeoa eiaao, iniaaiii ia i?aeoeea, ?yae nouanoaaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia, naycaiiuo a iniiaiii n iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoueth:- iauanoaa, /eaiu eioi?iai /anoi ia iiieiatho, /oi oaeia aoaeeo e eoi oaeea aoaeeoi?u; a nouiinoe, iaei eoi ec oao eeoe, eioi?ua iieoiatho aeoeee e/eee iaeeaaoeee, eioa?anoaony oeiainiaie io/aoiinoueth oe?i, oeaiiua aoiaae eioi?uo iie i?eia?aoatho;- aaeieieno?aoi?ia, eioi?ua a eo/oai neo/aa aeaeyo ?ieue aoaeeoi?a a nicaeaiee aa?aioe?iaaiiie caueou io aeaenoaee iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee, a ooaeoai - a iiiuoea i?eaeaoue noaoon iaeiaiauo einiaeoeee naiei aoaeeoi?neei oe?iai;- aooaaeoa?ia, eioi?ua iieaaatho, /oi aoaeeoi? - yoi eiinoeueoaio ii o?oaeiui aii?inai.O?oaeiinoe aicieeatho e a n?aaea naieo aoaeeoi?ia, iineieueeo ec-ca acaeiiie eiieo?aioeee iiea inoathony iaoaea/iuie iiiuoee i?aaiecaoeee eo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauaaeeiaiee.Nae/an aoaeeo noae iaiouaieaiie /anoueth iauanoaa. Iaeiaei a aai oai?ee e i?aeoeea eiathony nouanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe, eanathueany oeaeae e caaea/, a oaeaea iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiey aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?ie. Yoe iniaaiiinoe ia aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iaaeinoaoee, eai iie i?iaeeeoiaaiu iauaeoeaii neiaeeaoeieny oneiaeyie, e oieueei eciaiaiea iineaaeieo naeaeaao aoaeeo oaeei, eaeei aai oioyo aeaeaoue oaea naaiaeiy ninoaaeoaee aoaeeoi?neeo noaiaea?oia.9.6. Nia?aiaiiua oai?ee aoaeeoaIinea e?aoeiai ?anniio?aiey enoi?ee noaiiaeaiey aoaeeoa eae aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe inoaiiaeiny ia iaeioi?uo oai?aoe/aneeo aniaeoao nia?aiaiiiai aoaeeoa. Eae e a ethaie iaoea, a aoaeeoa nouanoaotho ?acee/iua iao/iua iai?aaeaiey, ?acee/iua oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, iniaaiiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu n/aoia e oeiainiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ieacuaatho nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea iao/iuo iai?aaeaiee a iaeanoe ?ac?aaioee oai?ee e iaoiaeia aoaeeoa. Iaeiaei i?iaeaiu oieoeeaoeee aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, ana aieueoaa e aieueoaa acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea yeiiiiee e oeiainia aieaa ?acaeouo no?ai a iaiaa ?acaeoua, ?acaeoea o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee, oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee a aeciana e oeiainao, nicaeaiea Aaeeiie Aa?iiu i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe oieoeeaoeee e noaiaea?oecaoeee oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe e, niioaaonoaaiii, auaeaeytho a ea/anoaa iniaaiii aaaeiuo i?iaeai oieoeeaoeeth noaiaea?oia aoaeeoa, oai?aoe/aneeo aniaeoia e iaoiaeia iiaeaioiaee aoaeeoi?ia.?anniio?ei nia?aiaiiua oai?ee aoaeeoa.A aoaeeoa iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iai?aaeaiey oai?ee:aaeaeaaoiinoe;eiio?ieeeiaa;eiinaeoeiaa.Oai?ey aaeaeaaoiinoe aaaeao naith enoi?eth io o?oaeia aiaeeeneeo oai?aoeeia. Ia?aua iao/iua ?aaiou a yoie iaeanoe auee iioaeeeiaaiu O. Ieeneaai a 1881 aiaeo e Eio?ainii Aeeene a 1892 aiaeo. Iineaaeiaaoaeue yoie oai?ee O. ?ooae a 1989 aiaeo iioaeeeiaae neaaeothuoth oi?ioee?iaeo: «Aoaeeo aeieaeai auoue ii?aaeaeai eae i?ioeann i?iaa?ee n oeaeueth iieo/aiey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey niioaaonoaey o/aoiie eioi?iaoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe». Neaaeoy yoie oai?ee a oa/aiea iiiaeo eao i?eiaiyeny i?yiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiue iiaeoiae - iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey noa?aeenue iieo/eoue iooai i?yiiai n?aaiaiey aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.I?e yoii iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oaeiaa:n?aaiaiea n o/aoiuie ?aaeno?aie;n?aaiaiea n ia?ae/iuie aeieoiaioaie;i?iaa?ea eiae/aneie oaycee io/aoiuo aeaiiuo (eieeaoeey);i?yiia n?aaiaiea o/aoiuo aeaiiuo n oaeoe/aneei eiouanoaaiiui ninoiyieai i?aaei?eyoey (eiaaioa?ecaoeey).A ?aieao aeaiiie oai?ee nouanoaiaaee aeaa aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iiaeoiaea i?yiiai iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai aoaeeoa:io aeieoiaioia e io/aoiinoe;io io/aoiinoe e aeieoiaioai.I?iaeieaeay e ?acaeaay iiaeoiae Eio?aina Aeeene, i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiiie oai?ee aeaeaee naith caaea/o a ?ane?uoee aieueiuo e iaaieueiuo ioeaie, i?iieeoeo a i?iaa?yaiue io/ao (iu ia yoii oaea oiiieiaee a nayce n ia?aecaeaieai o?oaea E. Aeeene a Aia?eea, inouanoaeaiiui ?. Iiioaiia?e).Niaieoiiinoue eceiaeaiiuo acaeyaeia iieo/eea iaoaoi?e/aneea iacaaiey iieeoeaeneie oai?ee eee oai?ee «noi?iaeaaiai ina», niaeanii eioi?ie aoaeeoi? - «noi?iaeaaie ian», io?aiythuee aeia?i nianoaaiieeia, o.a. aoaeeo i?iaiaeeony a eioa?anao nianoaaiieeia, i?e yoii ?ieue aoaeeoa naiaeeony e i?iaa?ea oaeoe/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey niauoee, eiaaoeo ianoi a i?ioeii e onoaiiaeaieth eo oi/iinoe. Aoaeeoi? ioaa/aao ia aii?in, /oi anoue ia naiii aeaea, ii, e niaeaeaieth, iaaeinoaoeii aeaiiie oai?ee yaeyaony oi, /oi ia iiiaio iciaeiieaiey n iiaieai aoaeeoi?a iioaioeeaeueiiai eiaanoi?a, yoi iiaiea oaea onoa?aaaao.A ia?aie /aoaa?oe XX aaea aicieeea oai?ey eiio?ieeeiaa, niaeanii eioi?ie oeaeue aoaeeoa niauaaony n «ia?oauo aeieoiaioia» ia «aeeaoth i?aaiecaoeeth» aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey ia i?iaa?yaiie oe?ia. Caeanue iu aeaeei ia?ai?eaioaoeeth «noi?iaeaaiai ina» ia ?ieue «niaaee-euaeee», eioi?ay aeieaeia iieacaoue nianoaaiieeo, ianeieueei yooaeoeaii ?aaioaea iaaiiay aaeieieno?aoeey.?anniio?ei oaeoth neooaoeeth: i?aaei?eyoea ca io/aoiue aiae iieo/eei X ?oaeae i?eauee e i?iaiaeece?oai yoio oaeo niaeanii aeaiiui oai?eyi.I?iaaaey iiae?iaioth i?iaa?eo i?aaei?eyoey «noi?iaeaaua inu» ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueiay i?eaueue ?aaia o/aoiie (eee e?aeia iacia/eoaeueii, aac nouanoaaiiuo iaeiaiauo iineaaenoaee ioee/aaony io iaa). Aoaeeo n/eoaaony auiieiaiiui.Caaea/a «euaae» naiaeeony e oiio, /oiau enneaaeiaaa aeayoaeueiinoue aaeieieno?aoeee, oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey, iieacaoue nianoaaiieeai, /oi aaeieieno?aoeey a neo/aa aieaa yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou iiaea au iieo/eoue ia O, a (O + Ae), ii, anee au ?aaioaea ooaea eee /anoiaa (eiaaony a aeaeo /anoiaa ii ioiioaieth e iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth), oi i?eaueue iiaea au auoue e iaiueoa, o.a. O - Ae. A yoii neo/aa aoaeeoi?neea i?ioeaaeo?u naiaeyony e einaaiiui iaoiaeai, ?ane?uaathuei neaaua ianoa a oi?aaeaiee e aieiaiea aoaeeoi?a eiioeaio?e?oaony ia oii, /oi eiaiii yoe neaaua ianoa aeieaeiu auoue i?iaa?aiu. A aeaiiii neo/aa ?a/ue ia eaeao ia ono?aiaiee anao ioeeiiaiee, aeeth/ay e ia?ooaiea i?aaee o/aoa, a ia eo cia/eiinoe. Iaoa?eaeueiuie (eee nouanoaaiiuie, cia/eiuie) n/eoathony oa ioeeiiaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo ieacaoue aeeyiea ia i?eieiaaiua oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey, iiyoiio aoaeeoi? aeieaeai eo auyaeoue. A ?aieao aeaiiie oai?ee ?ane?uaaaony iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai, iia iicaieyao ane?uoue iaeniieueciaaiiua ?aca?au, ii eiaao e naie iaaeinoaoee, a /anoiinoe oi, /oi noaiaiue iauaeoeaiinoe io/aoiuo aeaiiuo i?e yoii nieaeaaony.Oai?ey eiinaeoeiaa iai?yioth naycaia n yooaeoeaiinoueth aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. A ioaeeeaoeee 1983 a. I. Oa?a?, Ae. Eaio naiaeyo caaea/e aoaeeoa ia e iiaeoaa?aeaeaieth io/aoiinoe, ia e aiaeeco aa aaeaeaaoiinoe e auyaeaieth aeaenoaaiiinoe aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey, a e aiaeeco yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou naiiai i?aaei?eyoey. Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeyaony yooaeoeaiinoueth ?aaiou aai nio?oaeieeia e i?aaeaea anaai aaeieieno?aoeee e aoaeeo iiieiaaony eae iaeia ec oi?i eiinaeoeiaa nianoaaiieeia ioiineoaeueii ea/anoaa ?aaiou iaaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee. A eeoa?aoo?a yoa oai?ey oaeaea iineo iacaaiey «oai?ey aaaioia» e «oai?ey niaaee-iiaiaeu?y». Yoi aucaaii oai, /oi aoaeeoi? a yoii neo/aa aunooiaao ia eae io?aiiee /oaeiai aeia?a, ia iaaeniio?uee, a iiiiuiee nianoaaiieeia e aaeieieno?aoi?ia. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eiioeeeo iaaeaeo nianoaaiieeaie e aaeieieno?aoeeae ionoonoaoao e aoaeeoi? iiiiaaao iaaei noi?iiai i?eeoe e niaeaneth. Nooue oai?ee aaaioia a oii, /oi iia ia?aiineo aeoeaio n aeieoiaioia ia ethaeae - oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, a iu oaea aiai?eee ?aiaa i ?anniio?aiee naiiai i?ioeanna aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa eae i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo a?oii, o/anoaothueo a oicyenoaaiiii i?ioeanna. I?e yoii oeaeue aoaeeoa - iieacaoue, eae ?ani?aaeaeythony aeiee oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia a caaeneiinoe io ?aaeueiiai aeeaaea a iaai ?acee/iuo a?oii. A yoii neo/aa, ii iiaieth N.I. Au/eiaie e ss.A. Nieieiaa, aoaeeoi? a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a a?a/ eee nayuaiiee, iiiiaathuee ethaeyi onoaiiaeoue ni?aaaaeeeaue aaeain eioa?ania.?acaeoeai yoie oai?ee noae aeoaaei?enoe/anee iiaeoiae, niaeanii eioi?iio iiaaaeaiea aoaeeoi?a i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony noeioeaie e ia eaaeaeue noeioe o iaai aeieaeia auoue niioaaonoaothuay ?aaeoeey. A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo iniaaiiinoae iiaeii auaeaeeoue oaeo, /oi aaaeiaeoeie i?ioeaaeo?aie noaiiayony:oanou, i?e/ai oanoe?iaaiea noauaeoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey aeaaea aaaeiaa oanoe?iaaiey aeieoiaioia;?ene, eai ?an/ao iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, a oneiaeyo eioi?iai i?eieiathony oa eee eiua ?aoaiey - iniiaa iniia ?aaiou aoaeeoi?a.Oai?ey «niaaee-iiaiaeu?y» enoiaeeo ec noauaeoeaiuo ioeaiie e iicaieyao auynieoue oi, /oi eaaeeo ca aeieoiaioaie aia ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie, i?e yoii iia ono?aieaia ia a i?ioeia, a a aoaeouaa. Eiaiii a ?aieao yoie oai?ee oe?iei eniieuecothony noioanoe/aneea iaoiaeu, i?eaioe?iaaia oeaeeeii ia iaoaiaoe/aneea aeenoeeieeiu - oai?eth aa?iyoiinoae, oai?eth eioi?iaoeee, eeiaeiia i?ia?aiie?iaaiea, oai?eth ea?, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua i?eaiu nenoaiu «aee?aeo-einoeia» a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa.A iiiia?aoee «Aeieacaoaeuenoaa a aoaeeoa» N.I. Au/eiaa auaeaeyao ianeieueei eioth (aieaa aeaoaeueioth) eeanneoeeaoeeth oai?ee aoaeeoa, a eioi?ie auaeaeyaony oanoue oai?ee:iieeoeaeneay oai?ey (eee oai?ey «noi?iaeaaiai ina»), oaea ?anniio?aiiay ?aiaa;oai?ey «iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe», ia?aie/eaathuay ?ieue aoaeeoi?a onoaiiaeaieai ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, eniieuecoy a iniiaiii aeaiiua oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe;oai?ey iiaea?aoi?a, ooaa?aeaeathuay, /oi aoaeeoi? aunooiaao a ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie noi?iiaie, o/anoaothueie a oicyenoaaiiii i?ioeanna e i?aaeuyaeythueie ii?aaeaeaiiua e /anoi i?ioeai?a/eaua o?aaiaaiey. A ?aieao aeaiiie oai?ee aoaeeoi? aeieaeai iiieiaoue yoe i?ioeai?a/ey e auae?aoue oaeoth no?aoaaey nai?a aeieacaoaeuenoa, eioi?ay au a iioeiaeueiie noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?yea au o?aaiaaieyi ii?aaeaeaiiiai ei e?oaa iieueciaaoaeae;eaacee?eoe/aneay oai?ey, niaeanii eioi?ie iiaiea aoaeeoi?a e i?ioeann nai?a aeieacaoaeuenoa caaenyo io iiiaeanoaa aicieeathueo ianoiyoaeuenoa;oai?ey aaaioia (iia auea oaea e?aoei ?anniio?aia);oai?ey i ?iee aoaeeoi?a eae eino?oiaioa nioeeaeueiiai eiio?iey ca aaaeaieai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, eioi?ay iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi eeeaioii aoaeeoi?a aunooiatho ia nianoaaiieee e oai aieaa ia aaeieieno?aoi?u (aee?aeoi?a), a iauanoai a oeaeii, e /oi ia aaaeii, /oi aeoiatho eeoea, eoieaoea aeoeee, a oi, /oi iiaoo iiaeoiaoue iioaioeeaeueiua iieoiaoaee.E?aoei i?iaiaeece?iaaa noaiiaeaiea aoaeeoa a ?acaeouo no?aiao, ?anniio?aa oai?ee aoaeeoa, iiaeii niaeaneoueny n auaiaeaie iiiaeo aaoi?ia, a /anoiinoe E.E. Ai?iieiie. i oii, /oi «aei eiioea 40-o aiaeia aoaeeo a iniiaiii caeeth/aeny a i?iaa?ea aeieoiaioaoeee, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuae caienaiiua aeaiaaeiua iia?aoeee, e i?aaeeueiie a?oiie?iaea yoeo iia?aoeee a oeiainiauo io/aoao e iieo/ee iacaaiea iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaai aoaeeoa, a ia?eiae aai noaiiaeaiey - ia?aui yoaiii ?acaeoey aoaeeoa. Oa?aeoa?ecoy yoio yoai iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aoaeeo a eeanne/aneii iiieiaiee yoiai neiaa i?aaenoaaeye niaie aiaoiee, iacaaeneiue, aiaaaaeiinoaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue aeayoaeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia (eiiiaiee)...Ia aoi?ii yoaia ?acaeoey aoaeeoa, iinea 1949 a. iacaaeneiua aoaeeoi?u (aiaoiea) noaee aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeyoue aii?inai aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey a eiiiaieyo, iieaaay, /oi i?e yooaeoeaiie nenoaia aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey aa?iyoiinoue ioeaie iacia/eoaeueia e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oeiainiaua aeaiiua e io/aou aeinoaoi/ii iieiu e oi/iu. Aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu ia/aee caieiaoueny aieueoa eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, /ai iaiin?aaenoaaiii aoaeeoi?neeie i?iaa?eaie. Oaeie aoaeeo iieo/ee iacaaiea picscalex1000100090000034303000000007802000000007802000026060f00e604574d 46430100000000000100e0380000000001000000c404000000000000c404000001000000 6c00000000000000000000000b0000000b00000000000000000000004f0100004e010000 20454d4600000100c40400000f0000000100000000000000000000000000000090060000 1a040000d601000025010000000000000000000000000000f02b07008878040046000000 2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000 6000000046000000a001000094010000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e400900 0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f 214007000c0000000000000008400005ec000000e00000000210c0db0100000000000000 0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d494844520000000c 0000000c0403000000a45b41d400000018504c5445000000ffffffe7144afb7396ffffff 000000000000000000166655920000000574524e53ffffffff00fbb60e5300000001624b 47440088051d480000000c636d50504a436d7030373132000000074f6db7a50000003049 44415418d36370520202150665631527632320a56c04a6c03c2525171725250615136713 6727180515c4aa016218002cf80d4965f03cd50000000049454e44ae4260820008400108 24000000180000000210c0db01000000030000000000000000000000000000001b400000 40000000340000000100000002000000000000bf000000bf000040410000404103000000 000000b3000000b3ffff3f41000000b3000000b3ffff3f41210000000800000062000000 0c00000001000000150000000c00000004000000150000000c0000000400000046000000 1400000008000000544e50500601000051000000b000000000000000000000000b000000 0b000000000000000000000000000000000000000c0000000c0000005000000030000000 8000000030000000000000008600ee000c0000000c000000280000000c0000000c000000 0100010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff00 7fe00000f9f07c04fff08743f9f05943f0f09304a6500000a650803ff0f00000f9f00000 fff00000f9f000007fe0004151000000e800000000000000000000000b0000000b000000 000000000000000000000000000000000c0000000c000000500000003800000088000000 6000000000000000c60088000c0000000c000000280000000c0000000c00000001000400 00000000000000000000000000000000040000000000000000000000ffffff004a14e700 9673fb001222222222210202233321123332030323332332333203022333211233320302 222211112222030321311331131203022131133113120101222211112222030123332112 333201022333233233320301233321123332020212222222222102024600000014000000 08000000544e5050070100004c0000006400000000000000000000000b0000000b000000 00000000000000000c0000000c0000002900aa0000000000000000000000803f00000000 000000000000803f00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000220000000c000000ffffffff460000001c00000010000000454d462b02400000 0c000000000000000e000000140000000000000010000000140000000400000003010800 050000000b0200000000050000000c020c000c00030000001e0004000000070104000400 0000070104003d000000410b8600ee000c000c00000000000c000c000000000028000000 0c0000000c00000001000100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000ffffff007fe00000f9f07c04fff08743f9f05943f0f09304a6500000a650803f f0f00000f9f00000fff00000f9f000007fe0004159000000410bc60088000c000c000000 00000c000c0000000000280000000c0000000c0000000100040000000000000000000000 000000000000040000000000000000000000ffffff004a14e7009673fb00122222222221 020223332112333203032333233233320302233321123332030222221111222203032131 133113120302213113311312010122221111222203012333211233320102233323323332 0301233321123332020212222222222102020c00000040092900aa000000000000000c00 0c0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000nenoaiii-i?eaioe?iaaiiiai, oae eae aeae aiciiaeiinoue iaaethaeaoue nenoaiu, eiio?iee?othuea iia?aoeee NAE.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony o?aoee yoai ?acaeoey aoaeeoa - aoaeeo, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia ?ene. I?e i?iaaaeaiee i?iaa?ie eee eiinoeueoe?iaaiee aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?ann/eouaatho aiciiaeiue ?ene. Eae i?aaeei, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aoaeeoi?neay i?iaa?ea i?iaiaeeony auai?i/ii - a iniiaiii oai, aaea ?ene ioeaee (eee iioaiie/anoaa) iaeneiaeueiue.Eae e ana iao/iua oai?ee, oai?ee aoaeeoa eiatho naie iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yaii auoaeatho caaea/e aoaeeoa eae iao/iiai iai?aaeaiey a ?innee - ia iniiaa aiaaoaeoaai ie?iaiai iiuoa, o/eouaay iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe yeiiiieee, ?ac?aaioaoue oai?aoe/aneea iiaeoiaeu, a oaeaea ia iniiaa eco/aiey ie?iaiai iiuoa ?aaeaiaioaoeee aoaeeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe iooai aaaaeaiey noaiaea?oia, ?ac?aaioaoue nenoaio noaiaea?oia, iicaieythuoth ?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue aoaeeo e eniieueciaaoue a i?aeoeea ana iiaaeoea iao/iua aeinoeaeaiey.Iaeiaei i?aaeaea /ai ?anniao?eaaoue aoaeeo a ?innee, iaiaoiaeeii i?ineaaeeoue aai enoi?e/aneea ei?ie.Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e aoaeeo a ssiiieeEiinoaioei ?aae/aieiO?ainieaioaoeey caiaaeiie iiaeaee o/aoa e aoaeeoa, i?iaaaeaiiay iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, ieacaeanue ia nianai oaea/iie iia?aoeeae. Iineaaenoaey iuouathony aei neo ii? …Io aaoi?a:Aeaiiue aeieoiaio yaeyaony nie?auaiiui ia?aaiaeii (n oe?aeineiai) iaeiie ec iieo iineaaeieo iaci?iuo noaoae ii enoi?ee o/aoa e aoaeeoa a ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiaoAa?iiaeneee noeeue aaaeaiey aeaieiie aooaaeoa?ee aue aaniethoii iaecaanoai a ssiiiee aieioue aei na?aaeeiu XIX noieaoey, eiaaea yoi ino?iaiia ainoaea?noai iiae aeaaeaieai NOA iaeiiaoe ioeacaeinue io iieeoeee naiiecieyoeee, i?iaiaeeiie n ia/aea XVII aaea. N/eoaaony, /oi aeaieiay aooaaeoa?ey aia?aua auea i?aaenoaaeaia a ssiiiee a 1865 aiaeo a Yiioo Yaei [1, c. 291]. Ia i?aeoeea iia ia/aea i?eiaiyoueny iinea iiyaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo eino?oeoeee Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaiea ssiiiee (1872 a.) e ioaeeeaoeee Ieienoa?noaii oeiainia ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioa iiae iacaaieai Ginko Boki Seiko (Iaoiae aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iia?aoeee a aaiea) [2, c. 12-14].A 1878 a. auee ioe?uou oiiaeiaua ae?aee a Oieei e Inaea, a caoai eae a?eau iinea aeiaeaey noaee iiyaeyoueny ?acee/iua aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa. A 1890 aiaeo aue i?eiyo Eiiia?/aneee eiaeaen, niaeanii eioi?iio aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa auee iaycaiu i?aaenoaaeyoue iauanoaaiiinoe eioi?iaoeeth i?i eiathueany aeoeau e aooaaeoa?neee aaeain. Eiaiii n yoiai aiaea a ssiiiee e ia/eiaaony iuooeiue i?ia?ann a ?acaeoee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ?iaeaeaiee aooaaeoa?neie i?ioannee a ssiiiee nua?aei oaeaea iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Iaeia ia aeioiaeu aue aaaaeai a 1896 a., iinea /aai, e?iia iau/iuo aooaaeoa?ia, iiyaeeenue iaeiaiaua aaaiou, i?aaeinoaaeyaoea eiiiaieyi i?ioanneiiaeueiua eiinoeueoaoeee a iaeanoe oieaou iaeiaia. Oaeei ia?acii, aua a eiioea XIX aaea a ssiiiee nouanoaiaaee aeaa eaoaai?ee aooaaeoa?ia – iaeie aaee o/ao a eiiiaieyo e aioiaeee oeiainiaoth io/aoiinoue, a ae?oaea niaoeeaeece?iaaenue ia aii?inao iaeiaiaiai o/aoa e i?aaeinoaaeaiey eiinoeueoaoeee.Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieyie Eiiia?/aneiai eiaeaena 1890 aiaea a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea iiaeaa?aaeny aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ea ni noi?iiu ooaoiuo aoaeeoi?ia. ?ieue ooaoiiai aoaeeoi?a, eae oeacuaatho O. Eoe e I. Eeeoey, auea iiaeiaia ?iee aioo?aiiaai aoaeeoi?a a caiaaeiuo no?aiao e io iaai ia o?aaiaaeinue iaee/ea na?oeoeeaoa i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aooaaeoa?a [3, n. 17]. Oaeoe/anee, yoe ethaee iacuaaeenue aoaeeoi?aie iiieiaeueii e eiio?ieueiua ooieoeee i?aeoe/anee ia auiieiyee.E i?eia?o, a 1909 aiaeo auee iaia?oaeaiu oaeou iioaiie/anoaa a eiiiaiee Dai Nihon Seito Co. (a iineaaenoaee yoio i?aoeaaeaio noae ecaanoiui eae “aeaei Nitto Inc.”). Iioaiie/anoai nii?iaiaeaeaeinue ianee?iaeie iacaeiiiuo iia?aoeee a o/aoa e auieaoie oae iacuaaaiuo “aeeaeaeaiaeia”, eioi?uie yooaeoeaii “cae?uaaee aeaca” /eaiai iaaeci?iiai niaaoa. A ?acoeueoaoa iaiaeeaeaiiia iaaeaiea oeaiu aeoeee i?eaaei e aaie?ionoao eiiiaiee. Iinea yoiai neo/ay ny? Eeiae Iaenaaee IaeAeiiaeueae, a oi a?aiy a?eoaineee iinie a ssiiiee, ?aoeoaeueii oeacae ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue aoaeeoi?ia [4, c. 88].Oaeei ia?acii auei iieiaeaii ia/aei oi?ie?iaaieth yiiineiai aoaeeoa ii i?eia?o Aaeeeia?eoaiee, nenoaia o/aoa e aoaeeoa a eioi?ie n/eoaeanue a ia/aea OO aaea iaeaieaa ?acaeoie e i?ia?anneaiie.Ieienoa?noai naeueneiai oicyenoaa e oi?aiaee ssiiiee, eioi?ia a oi a?aiy eiaei iaeaieueoea iieiiii/ey a yoii aii?ina, iaiaaeeaiii i?iaaei enneaaeiaaiea nenoai o/aoa a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, NOA e Aa?iia. ?acthia yoiai enneaaeiaaiey auei iioaeeeiaaii a 1909 a. iiae iacaaieai “Io/ao ia enneaaeiaaiee nenoai [iiaeaioiaee] aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia”. Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi n?aaee yiiineeo aooaaeoa?ia a yoi a?aiy ia/aeinue aeoeaiia aeaeaeaiea a iieueco i?eiyoey Caeiia i?i ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia. Ia?aue i?iaeo oaeiai caeiia aue iiaeaioiaeai a 1914 a., ii aue ioeeiiai ec-ca ia?ac?aoaiiuo nii?iuo iiiaioia. Anaai i?iaeou aeaiiiai caeiia auiineeenue ia ianoaeaeaiea ainaiue ?ac e eeoue /a?ac 13 eao (a 1927 a.) Caeii i?i ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia aue iaeiiaoe-oi i?eiyo [5, c. 51-101].I?e/eia, ec-ca eioi?ie ?aiiea i?iaeou yoiai caeiia auee ioaa?aioou, ninoieo a oii, /oi a ssiiiee ia/aea OO aaea aua ia auei aoiinoa?u, niinianoaiaaaoae i?eiyoeth aoaeeoi?ia iauanoaii. Iiiaea niiiaaaeenue a iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Aeaaea i?eiyoue a 1927 a. Caeii i?i ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia aue aua i/aiue aeaeae io niaa?oainoaa e eiae iiiaeanoai ioee/ee io a?eoaineie nenoaiu o/aoa, eioi?ay auea n naiiai ia/aea ii?aaeaeaia eae ia?acaoe. A iaai ia auei aeeth/aii ie iaeiiai iieiaeaiey, caueuathuaai aooaaeoa?ia. Ethaie, eoi eco/ae aooaaeoa?eth a oieaa?neoaoa (eieeaaeaea) eee eiae ii e?aeiae ia?a iaeei aiae i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa, iia ca?aaeno?e?iaaoueny a ea/anoaa i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aooaaeoa?a.A eiioea 20-o – a 30-o aiaeao OO aaea aic?inei eiee/anoai iaeiaiauo aaaioia, aeaeathueo eaaaeece?iaaoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue ii i?eia?o aooaaeoa?ia. Iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey yoiai neiaeeeenue ai a?aiy 2-e ie?iaie aieiu, eiaaea iaeiae nouinoaaiii aic?inee. Aeey iaania/aiey oniaoiiai i?iaaaeaiey iieeoeee iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ssiiiee, naycaiiie n iaeiaiauie ?aoi?iaie, a 1942 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii i?i iaeiaiauo aaaioia [6, c. 344].Iinea ii?aaeaiey ssiiiee ai 2-e ie?iaie aieia ana iineaaeothuea ?aoi?iu i?iaiaeeeenue eneeth/eoaeueii eae /anoue ieeoiaoeeiiiie iieeoeee, i?iaiaeeiie Aeaaiui ooaaii Nithcie/aneee ieeoiaoeeiiiuo nee (GHQ). Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo iai?aaeaiee yoie iieeoeee auea yeiiiie/aneay ?aoi?ia, naycaiiay n ?inioneii aecaeaaoeo – yiiineeo oeiainiauo iauaaeeiaiee. Eiiaiaeiaaiea ieeoiaoeeiiiuo nee no?aieeinue iaania/eoue aeaiie?aoecaoeeth ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa e iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey (a o./. e th?eaee/aneea) aeey aiaea/aiey a yiiineoth yeiiiieeo eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea.A 1948 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii i?i oeaiiua aoiaae e oiiaeiaue ?uiie, eioi?ue aeey caueou eioa?ania eiaanoi?ia i?aaeoniao?eaae iaycaoaeueiia ?ane?uoea iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee a oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea aa iacaaeneiuie aoaeeoi?aie. Yoio caeii ii/oe iieiinoueth eiie?iaae aia?eeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, a eiaiii Caeii i?i oeaiiua aoiaae 1933 aiaea e Caeii i?i oiiaeiaoth ae?aeo, i?eiyoue a NOA a 1934 aiaeo [6, c. 355].I?iaeaiu aicieeee a nayce n nicaeaieai nenoaiu aoaeeoa, oae eae i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aoaeeoi?ia a ssiiiee ia nouanoaiaaei, a ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia eiiaiaeiaaiea ieeoiaoeeiiiuie neeaie n/eoaei iaiiaeaioiaeaiiuie aeey ?aaiou a oneiaeyo iiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa [7, c. 67]. Aneaaenoaea yoiai a 1948 aiaeo aue i?eiyo Caeii i?i aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia (CPA).Iiaue caeii i?aaeoniao?eaae i?iaaaeaiea niaoeeaeueiiai yecaiaia aeey ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia, eioi?ua eiaee eae ieieioi o?e aiaea i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa. Nouanoaiaaaoay ?aiaa nenoaia o/aoa auea ioiaiaia. Anee ?aiaa iiiaea aooaaeoa?a ieeiaaea aeaaea ia i?iaiaaee i?iaiaeeoue aoaeeoi?neea i?ioeaaeo?u, oi oaia?ue, oneeeyie eiiaiaeiaaiey ieeoiaoeeiiiuo nee, iie aeieaeiu auee iao/eoueny yoiio, a oaeaea inaieoue i?eiyoua ia Caiaaea i?eioeeiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.Yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, i?iaiaeeiua iiae yaeeie eiiaiaeiaaiey ieeoiaoeeiiiuo nee, einioeenue oaeaea yiiineie iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. A 1949 a. a ssiiieth i?eauea a?oiia yenia?oia ai aeaaa n i?ioanni?ii Eieoiaeeneiai oieaa?neoaoa Ea?eii N. Oioiii, eioi?ay aeieaeia auea ?ac?aaioaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aoi?ie?iaaieth iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. I?aaeeiaeaiiay a?oiiie Oioia nenoaia i?ia?anneaiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, nin?aaeioi/aiiay ia i?yiuo iaeiaao, aeaenoaoao a ssiiiee e nae/an. E?iia oiai, a ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo Oioia auei oeacaii ia ieceoth eaaeeoeeaoeeth iaeiaiauo aaaioia, ec-ca eioi?uo o iineaaiaiiie iaeiaiaie aaeieieno?aoeee /anoi aicieeaee iaaei?acoiaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiiai niaauaiey noa?ay nenoaia, naycaiiay n aeayoaeueiinoueth iaeiaiauo aaaioia, auea ioiaiaia, a a 1951 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii i?i aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo iaeiaiauo aooaaeoa?ia, aeaenoaothuee ii naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue [6, c. 345].Oaeei ia?acii, i?ieaey aeiaieueii neiaeiue iooue, aicieeee aeaa i?ioanneiiaeueiua eaoaai?ee yiiineeo aooaaeoa?ia. Ia?aay ec ieo – aeeieiie?iaaiiua iauanoaaiiua aooaaeoa?u – auiieiyao nianoaaiii aooaaeoa?neea e aoaeeoi?neea ooieoeee, a aoi?ay, iauaaeeiythuay iaeiaiauo aooaaeoa?ia, niaoeeaeece?oaony ia aii?inao iaeiaiaiai o/aoa. Iaa i?ioanneiiaeueiua a?oiiu onoaiiaeee aeiaieueii neiaeiua o?aaiaaiey e yecaiaiothueiny ia caaiea aeeieiie?iaaiiiai aooaaeoa?a e nicaeaee naie i?aaiecaoeee.Iu oaea oiiieiaee ?aiaa, /oi nenoaiu ioaee/iiai ?ane?uoey oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee e iacaaeneiiai aoaeeoa a iaainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a yeiiiieee ssiiiee aei ieii/aiey 2-e ie?iaie aieiu oaeoe/anee ia nouanoaiaaee. Oaeoe/anee any yeiiiieea ssiiiee eiio?iee?iaaeanue aecaeaaoeo e iinea aai ?aniaaea ia?aciaaeny aaeooi, eioi?ue iaaei auei eae-oi caiieieoue. A iineaaiaiiie ssiiiee eiiiaiee ia/aee iauaaeeiyoueny ianeieueei ia ae?oaeo ia/aeao, /ai yoi i?ienoiaeeei ?aiaa a NOA eee Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Iinea ?inionea aecaeaaoeo aieaa auaiaeiui iooai iieo/aiey iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa aeey aieueoeinoaa eiiiaiee auei iai?yiia aaieianeia oeiaine?iaaiea, a ia i?yiia oeiaine?iaaiea n iiiiuueth oiiaeiaiai ?uiea. Niioaaonoaaiii, eiinieeaee?iaaiiay nenoaia o/aoa, oa?aeoa?iay aeey caiaaeiuo eiiiaiee (ei?ii?aoeee) a iineaaiaiiie ssiiiee ia auea nicaeaia e iiiaea eiiiaiee i?iaeieaeaee aanoe aeaea ni naieie iiiai/eneaiiuie ioaeaeaieyie ii noa?eiea. O/ao oaeeo iia?aoeee eciaeeiaae nie?uoeyie aeioiaeia, iaieioee?iaaieai i?eaueyie e neo/ayie iioaiie/anoaa.A oi a?aiy iaiiiaea aeeieiie?iaaiiua yiiineea aooaaeoa?a eiaee oioue eaeie-oi iiuo i?iaaaeaiey aoaeeoa. I?e/eiu yoiai auee ?aniio?aiu iaie ?aiaa. Inouanoaeaiea aoaeeoa, anoanoaaiii aoei ia?aie/aiiui ec-ca ionoonoaey eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia. Aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ea iiaeaa?aaeenue eeoue oa ei?ii?aoeee, eioi?ua auee ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu ia oiiaeiaie ae?aea e iiyoiio iiaeiaaeaee iiae aeaenoaea iieiaeaiee Caeiia i?i oeaiiua aoiaae e oiiaeiaue ?uiie 1948 aiaea. A oa aea a?aiy ?yae e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee ia iiaeaa?aaeny iacaaeneiiio aoaeeoo, a i?aeoe/anee ana n?aaeiea e iaaieueoea eiiiaiee auee ioaa/aiu eeoue i?iaa?eaie aioo?aiieo aoaeeoi?ia, ?aaioathueo a niioaaonoaee n Eiiia?/aneei eiaeaenii. Iiiaea aioo?aiiea aoaeeoi?u anth aeeciue ?aaioaee ia iaeio eiiiaieth, eiaee iaaeinoaoi/iua ciaiey a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e iaoiaeieiaee eiio?iey e eniuouaaee iaaeinoaoie iacaaeneiinoe aeey oiai, /oiau auoue iauaeoeaiuie.Oaeei ia?acii, aneaaenoaea ia?aoi?ie?iaaiiie nenoaiu aoaeeoa ei?ii?aoeaiue eiio?ieue a ssiiiee aei aoi?ie iieiaeiu 40-o aiaeia OO aaea aue aeiaieueii neaaui e iayooaeoeaiui. Ia oiia aanueia iaiaaeaaeiiai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa oaeie eiio?ieue noaaee iiae aieueoie aii?in nei?ia iiyaeaiea noieue ioaeiuo ssiiiee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. Iaeiiaoe, a ia?aua iineaaiaiiua aiaeu aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu a ssiiiee iieiinoueth ionoonoaiaaee, a ?aaeeea aoaeeoi?neea i?iaa?ee i?iaiaeeeenue ioaeaeueiuie aeeieiie?iaaiiuie aooaaeoa?aie.Neo/aeenue, i?aaaea, neooaoeee, eiaaea aoaeeo i?iaiaeeeny niaeaniaaiii ianeieueeeie iauaaeeieaoeieny aoaeeoi?aie, ii iiiaea eiiiaiee caeeth/aee niaeaoaiey i?i io?oaeie/anoai n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie yenia?oaie-aooaaeoa?aie, eiathueie na?oeoeeao CPA. Eiia/ii, iaeei aoaeeoi? oece/anee ia iia auiieieoue anth iaiaoiaeeioth ?aaioo, anee ?a/ue oea i?i aieueooth ei?ii?aoeeth, iaeiaei ii aue caeioa?aniaai a i/aiue aunieie iieaoa, eioi?oth oaeay ei?ii?aoeey i?aaeeaaaea e eioi?oth ia iaaei auei aeaeeoue n eieeaaaie. Oaeei ia?acii, nicaeaaaeenue oneiaey aeey oo?aou iacaaeneiinoe, oae eae aoaeeoi?u-iaeeii/ee i/aiue aei?iaeeee naieie ei?ii?aoeaiuie eeeaioaie e ieeiei ia?acii ia oioaee eo oa?youe [6, n. 346]. E?iia oiai, iacaaeneiinoue auea aeiaieueii i?iaeaieoe/iui aii?inii aeey yiiineeo aoaeeoi?ia ec-ca i?iaeai eoeueoo?iiai e iaioaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, ia /oi oeacuaaao a naiae noaouea Aeae.E. IaeEeiiii [8].I?ioei aeiaieueii iiiai a?aiaie aei oiai, eae a ssiiiee aaaee iieiiianooaaiue aoaeeo. Yoi i?iecioei oieueei a 1957 aiaeo, a aei yoiai (1951-57 aa.) yiiineea aoaeeoi?u a yenia?eiaioaeueiii ii?yaeea iaaeaaee naaa oeoee, iuoaynue iooai i?ia e ioeaie eae neaaeoao iaeaaeaoue i?ioanneae.Iinea aiaae?aiey iaycaoaeueiiai aoaeeoa, eioi?ia i?ioei aac iniaaiiuo iaaei?acoiaiee (iieiaeeoaeueii neacaeny oanoeeaoiee yeia?eiaioaeueiue ia?eiae), eacaeinue, /oi aoaeeo i?i/ii ooaa?aeeeny ia yiiineie caiea, ii oaeoe/anee auoiaaaoea iiiai eao iioaiie/aneea noaiu iieo/aiey ne?uouo aeeaeaeaiaeia oae e ia auee enei?aiaiu. Aieiaiea e iiiai/eneaiiui oaeoai nie?uoey ?aaeueiie eioi?iaoeee eiiiaieyie a?aiaiii ineaaei, /aio niinianoaiaae auno?ue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino ssiiiee, i?iaeieaeaaoeeny aei ia/aea 60-o aiaeia OO aaea.A 1963 aiaeo a yiiineie yeiiiieea ia/aeny e?ecen, eioi?ue i?eaae e aaie?ionoao iiiaeo eiiiaiee, iniaaiii a 1964-65 aiaeao. Eiaiii oiaaea ane?ueenue neo/ae iacaeiiiuo aeaenoaee ?oeiaiaenoaa eiiiaiee, naycaiiua n ianee?iaeie ?aaeueiie i?eauee e aaaeaieai aeaieiiai o/aoa. Iacaaeneiua aoaeeoi?u, iiiaea ec eioi?uo aeaenoaiaaee eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, i?iyaeee naay a ia?eiae e?ecena ia n eo/oae noi?iiu. Iiyoiio i?iaaaeaiea aoaeeoa eiiiaiee a iaeeii/eo auei cai?auaii e n 1967 aiaea ia/aee nicaeaaaoueny ia?aua oe?iu, iauaaeeiythuea CPA.Aue ?ai?aaieciaai JICPA, eioi?ue iauaaeeiee iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai i?aeoeeothueo aoaeeoi?ia. E?iia oiai, iinoieueeo aioo?aiiee aoaeeo oiaea i?iyaee naay ia eo/oei ia?acii, auee i?eiyou ia?u ii oe?aieaieth nenoaiu aioo?aiiaai aoaeeoa a yiiineeo ei?ii?aoeeyo. E niaeaeaieth, ianiio?y ia i?eiyoua ia?u, yiiineea aoaeeoi?u noieeioeenue n iiauie i?iaeaiaie.Ai-ia?auo, JICPA iieo/ee noaoon oae iacuaaaiie niaoeeaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a auei ?aaeoeeae ia a?iieea neaiaeaeu aie?oa iaaie?ioeaoeony eiiiaiee (iniaaiii iieacaoaeueiui auei aaie?ionoai Sanyo Special Steel Co., eioi?ia i?i/ii aioei a enoi?eth eae iaeii ec naiuo neaiaeaeueiuo a enoi?ee ssiiiee). Aeey aoaeeoi?ia, iaaeia?iniaanoii auiieiythueo naith ?aaioo, auee aaaaeaiu aaeieieno?aoeaiua naieoeee aieioue aei aiioee?iaaiey ?aaeno?aoeee.I?aaeoaeuenoai, iaeiaei, ia inoaiiaeeinue ia yoeo naieoeeyo. Ieienoa?noai oeiainia, eioi?ia ia iniaaiii aa?eei a niiniaiinoue JICPA e naiii/enoea e iaiiaeaieth, iieo/eei ?aaeueiua ?u/aae aeeyiey ia yoo i?aaiecaoeeth. Aaaaeaiea aeey JICPA noaoona niaoeeaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee i?aaeoniao?eaaei onoaiiaeaiea aeanoeiai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai eiio?iey, iaoneiaeaiiiai niaoeeoeeie yoiai oeia i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u (a ssiiiee niaoeeaeueiua ei?ii?aoeee nicaeathony i?aaeoaeuenoaii n ii?aaeaeaiiie no?aoaae/aneie oeaeueth e aeanoei eiio?iee?othony ei).Ai-aoi?uo, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?iaeaeaaeinue i/aiue iaaeeaiii. Eeoue a 1974 aiaeo aoaeeo, i?iaiaeeiue CPAs, aue i?aaeienai Eiiia?/aneei eiaeaenii a ioaao ia oneeeaathueany iio?aaiinoe a nicaeaiee iaaeaaeiiai aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey a ei?ii?aoeeyo. ?aoi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu o/aoa e aoaeeoa i?ioiaeeei ca cae?uouie aeaa?yie e i?eoeeothuea niaoeeaeenou eiaee iaiiiai iaiueoa aeeyiey ia i?ioeann, /ai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua /eiiaieee.A-o?aoueeo, n eaaeaeui aiaeii ane?uaaeenue ana iiaua neo/ae iioaiie/anoaa a o/aoa ei?ii?aoeee, i?e/ai aooaaeoa?u e aoaeeoi?u, ioaaonoaaiiua ca yoi, ioaeaeuaaeenue n?aaieoaeueii eaaei – eae i?aaeei, iacaeiiiua iia?aoeee i?inoi ioiaiyeenue. Iaiaaeaea?u, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iioaiie/aneea noaiu, ioia?aaeaaiua a o/aoa, oaeaea iaeacaiey i?aeoe/anee ia ianee.A iiaeiaiuo oneiaeyo a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia yiiineay yeiiiieea aiaea a aani?aoeaaeaioioth aeai?anneth. A 1996 aiaeo ?acaaeeeenue iiiaea eiiiaiee, niaoeeaeece?othueany ia nnoaeao iiae aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai, a a 1997 aiaeo iiaeiaiay o/anoue iinoeaea e ?yae no?ieoaeueiuo eiiiaiee [9, c. 167-171]. Aeaeueoa, a 1998 aiaeo, iineaaeiaae eieeain aaiea Hanwa e aaie?ionoai Aaiea aeieain?i/iiai e?aaeeoiaaiey ssiiiee. Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi ai anao yoeo neo/ayo caeeth/aiey aoaeeoi?ia auee iieiaeeoaeueiuie. Eiia/ii aea, eiaaea ei?ii?aoeee iaeia ca ae?oaie iaaeaee a aacaeio oeiainiaiai e?ecena, aoaeeoi?u iiiaee iiae aaoaiue iaiiue aiieia caneoaeaiiie e?eoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, iaaeaaiee neo/ae aaie?ionoaa Enron – e?oiiaeoae yia?aaoe/aneie eiiiaiee NOA – n aeoaieei iiieiaieai aue ano?a/ai a ssiiiee, eioi?ay ia?aaeeea ia/oi iiaeiaiia, oieueei a aoeueoeo ianooaaao, ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 90-o aiaeia.A cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ineaaeaiea iacaaeneiiai aoaeeoi?neiai eiio?iey auei iaoneiaeaii iieeoeeie Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia ssiiiee, eioi?ia i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth iiae/eieei naaa JICPA. Iiiaea /eaiu ?oeiaiaenoaa iineaaeiaai – auaoea ioaaonoaaiiua ?aaioieee Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia, eioi?ua aeoeaii aeeytho ia aeayoaeueiinoue oi?iaeueii iacaaeneiuo yiiineeo aoaeeoi?ia. A ?acoeueoaoa ieacaeinue, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiua caeeth/aiey aeey eiiiaiee, eioi?ua iaaie?ioeeenue, aoaeeoi?u aeaaaee iiae cia/eoaeueiui aeaaeaieai ni noi?iiu Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia. Eiaiii yoei e iauyniyaony oaeo, /oi aoaeeoi?u, aeaaoea iieiaeeoaeueiua caeeth/aiey iioaioeeaeueiui aaie?ioai, ia iiianee ieeaeiai iaeacaiey. Eia/a auoue e ia iiaei – Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ssiiiee auei ia aioiai ioaee/ii auna/ue naii naay.I?e/eiu yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, ?ac?aceaoaainy a ssiiiee ia en/a?iuaathony, eiia/ii, i?iaeaiaie o/aoa e aoaeeoa, ii yoio oaeoi? neaaeoao ana aea n/eoaoue iaeiei ec iniiaiuo. Iaaaeaeaaoiinoue nenoaiu iacaaeneiiai aoaeeoa e aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey a yiiineeo ei?ii?aoeeyo o?iaith yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, a oaeaea o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea, cia/eoaeueii onoaoaeea e?ecen, eioi?ue iiaeii auei au anee ia i?aaeioa?aoeoue, oi oioy au niya/eoue.Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iinea 1999 aiaea a ssiiiee auee i?eiyou iaeioi?ua ia?u ii iiauoaieth ea/anoaa aoaeeoa, i?iaaeeiiai CPAs, oaeea eae aaaaeaiea iaycaoaeueiiai iinoiyiiiai iao/aiey aoaeeoi?ia e i?iaa?ie ?aaiou aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i ni noi?iiu JICPA, iiiaea auneacuaatho niiiaiea a oii, /oi neooaoeey aoaeao ei?aiiui iacacii eciaiaia a eo/ooth noi?iio [10, n. 50]. E niaeaeaieth, aeeyiea Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia ssiiiee ia aoaeeo inoaaony neeoeii aieueoei, /oi a?aaeeo iacaaeneiinoe aoaeeoi?ia e aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i. E?iia oiai, niaoeeoeea yiiineie ei?ii?aoeaiie eoeueoo?u e iaiaaeaeiaioa aeaeatho aeiaieueii i?iaeaiaoe/iui aaaaeaiea iieiioeaiiiai aioo?aiiaai aoaeeoa, iai?eia?, a oaeii aeaea, a eaeii ii nouanoaoao a NOA.Neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi iiiuoee ooaa?aeeoue a ssiiiee caiaaeiua iiaeaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa oaeaeenue aeaeaei ia iieiinoueth. Oae e ia oaeaeinue nicaeaoue iacaaeneiua i?ioanneiiaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?ia e aoaeeoi?ia (e?iia JICPA, oaeoe/anee iiaeeiio?ieueiiai Ieienoa?noao oeiainia), eioi?ua iiaee au neoaeeoue aa?aioaie i?ia?anna e oniaa?oainoaiaaiey i?aeoeee o/aoa e aoaeeoa. Aioo?aiiee aoaeeo a yiiineeo ei?ii?aoeeyo ia i?eaeeeny, /oi cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao yooaeoeaiinoue ei?ii?aoeaiiai eiio?iey. Iu aeaeei, /oi iiaeiaiua ianiioaaonoaey iiaoo auoue, iyaei aiai?y, aanueia iai?eyoiuie. Iiuo ssiiiee yaeyaony iaaeyaeiui e iio/eoaeueiui o?ieii, eioi?ue aeieaeai canoaaeoue i?ecaaeoiaoueny e ian. Eo/oa ia ianooiaoue ia oa a?aaee, ia eioi?ua ianooiee oaie ninaae …Eeoa?aoo?a:1. Shimme, S. Introduction to double-entry bookkeeping in Japan // The Accounting Review. – 1937. – Vol. 12, No. 3. – P. 290-295.2. Someya, K. Japanese Accounting. – New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1996.3. Cooke, T.E. and Kikuya, M. Financial Reporting in Japan: Regulation, Practice and Environment. – Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, 1992.4. Murase, G. The present status of the public accounting profession in Japan // The Accounting Review. – 1962. – Vol. 37, No. 1. – P. 88-91.5. Hara, I. Evolution of the System for Professional Accountants in Japan (in Japanese). – Tokyo: Hakuto Shobo, 1989.6. Sakagami, M., Yoshimi, H., and Okano, H. Japanese accounting profession in transition // Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal. – 1999. – Vol. 12, No. 3. – P. 340-357.7. Fujita, Y. The evolution of financial reporting in Japan // The International Journal of Accounting, Education and Research. – 1966. – Vol. 2, No. 1. – P. 49-75.8. McKinnon, J.L. Cultural constraints on audit independence in Japan // The International Journal of Accounting. – 1984, Fall. – P. 17-43.9. Hall, M.J.B. Financial Reform in Japan: Causes and Consequences. – Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1998.10. Gordon, W.D. A Critical Evaluation of Japanese Accounting Changes Since 1997. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MA in Advanced Japanese Studies. – Sheffield, UK: University of Sheffield, School of East Asian Studies, 1999.I?eeiaeaiea A Enoi?ey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa a ssiiiee *1890I?eiyo Eiiia?/aneee eiaeaen ssiiiee1948I?eiyou Caeii i?i oeaiiua aoiaae e oiiaeiaue ?uiie e Caeii i?i aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia (CPA)1949Iioaeeeiaaiu noaiaea?ou oeiainiaiai o/aoa aeey eiiia?/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee.Nicaeai yiiineee Einoeooo aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia (JICPA) eae naii?aaoee?othuayny anioeeaoeey1950Iioaeeeiaaia Eino?oeoeey i?i oa?ieiieiaeth, oi?iu e iaoiaeu iiaeaioiaee oeiainiauo io/aoia.Aia?aua iioaeeeiaaiu noaiaea?ou aoaeeoa e naycaiiua n ieie i?aaeea1951Aoaeeo, i?iaiaeeiue aeeieiie?iaaiiuie iauanoaaiiuie aooaaeoa?aie, noae iaycaoaeueiui a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii i?i oeaiiua aoiaae e oiiaeiaue ?uiie1966JICPA ?ai?aaieciaai a niioaaonoaee n iiauie iieiaeaieyie Caeiia i?i aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia, niaeanii eioi?ui ana CPA aeieaeiu auoue /eaiaie JICPA1967Nicaeaia ia?aay aoaeeoi?neay eiiiaiey a niioaaonoaee n ia?aniio?aiiui Caeiiii i?i aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia1971Iioaeeeiaaiu noaiaea?ou aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aeey /anoiuo oeie1973JICPA noae iaeiei ec /eaiia-iniiaaoaeae Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiieoaoa ii noaiaea?oai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa (IASC) 1974Aoaeeo, i?iaiaeeiue aeeieiie?iaaiiuie iauanoaaiiuie aooaaeoa?aie, noae iaycaoaeueiui a niioaaonoaee n Eiiia?/aneei eiaeaenii ssiiiee1975Iioaeeeiaaiu noaiaea?ou, naycaiiua n ninoaaeaieai eiinieeaee?iaaiiie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoeNoae iaycaoaeueiui aoaeeo aaieia e no?aoiauo eiiiaiee1977Ia/aeinue i?iaaaeaiea iacaaeneiiai aoaeeoa i?iiaaeooi/iuo e eiinieeaee?iaaiiuo oeiainiauo io/aoiaJICPA noae iaeiei ec /eaiia niaaoa iniiaaoaeae Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oaaea?aoeee aooaaeoa?ia (IFAC)1979Iioaeeeiaaiu noaiaea?ou aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iia?aoeee a eiino?aiiie aaethoa1987A Oieei ninoiyeny 13-e Anaie?iue eiia?ann aooaaeoa?ia1988Nouanoaaiii ia?aniio?aiiu o?aaiaaiey e ?ane?uoeth eioi?iaoeee i?i naaiaiou aeayoaeueiinoe a oeiainiauo io/aoao.Eni?aaeaiu o?aaiaaiey e ?ane?uoeth iia?aoeee ni naycaiiuie noi?iiaie e i?aaenoaaeaieth eioi?iaoeee i?i ?uii/ioth noieiinoue oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea1991Nouanoaaiii ia?aniio?aiu noaiaea?ou aoaeeoa e naycaiiua n ieie i?aaeea1992Aianaiu eciaiaiey a Caeii i?i aeeieiie?iaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aooaaeoa?ia, naycaiiua n i?iaaaeaieai yecaiaiaie aeey CPA e ae?oaeie i?iaeaiaie1993Aianaiu eciaiaiey a Eiiia?/aneee eiaeaen n oeaeueth ?anoe?aiey i?aa aeoeeiia?ia e iieiiii/ee ooaoiuo aoaeeoi?ia, a oaeaea oeo/oaiey i?ioeaaeo?, naycaiiuo n aicieeathueie aeieaiauie iaycaoaeuenoaaie1995Eciaiaiu noaiaea?ou aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iia?aoeee a eiino?aiiie aaethoa.Iiyaeeny Caeii i?i oeo/oaiea e ?anoe?aiea noa?u eiio?iey e iaiaaeaeiaioa a oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaieyo1998Ioia/aia iyoeaeanyoay aiaeiaueia n ia/aea aeayoaeueiinoe CPA a ssiiiee1999Iioaeeeiaaiu noaiaea?ou aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia.Aianaiu eciaiaiey a Eiiia?/aneee eiaeaen n oeaeueth nicaeaiey iiaie oiiaeiaie ae?aee e o?ainoa?oiie nenoaiu.Eni?aaeaiu noaiaea?ou aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iia?aoeee a eiino?aiiie aaethoa * Enoi/iee: The Japanese Institute of Certified Public Accountants (2000).I?eeiaeaiea A Noa?a iaycaoaeueiiai aoaeeoa a ssiiiee *Aeaeu aoaeeoa e caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeouIauaeou aoaeeoaIaycaoaeueiue aoaeeoEiiia?/aneee eiaeaen e naycaiiua n iei caeiiu · eiiiaiee (kabushiki kaisha) n iaiiea/aiiuie iau/iuie aeoeeyie ia noiio 500 iei. eai e aieaa, eee iauae noiiie aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa 20 iei. eai e aieaa;· acaeiiua no?aoiaua eiiiaiee, e?aaeeoiua aaiee (shinyo kinko), e?aaeeoiua eiiia?aoeau (shinyo kumiai), o?oaeiaua aaiee (rodo kinko), ii?aaeaeaiiua niioaaonoaothueie caeiiaie Caeii i?i oeaiiua aoiaae e oiiaeiaue ?uiie · eiiiaiee, aianaiiua a nienie ia oiiaeiaie ae?aea;· eiiiaiee, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua ssiiineie annioeeaoeeae aeeea?ia oeaiiuo aoiaa;· eiiiaiee, i?aaeeiaeeaoea aeey naiaiaeiiai ia?auaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa ia noiio 500 iei. eai e aieaa;· eiiiaiee, ia/eouaathuea ii e?aeiae ia?a 500 aeoeeiia?ia Ae?oaea neo/ae iaycaoaeueiiai aoaeeoa · /anoiua oeieu, iieo/athuea noaneaeee io ainoaea?noaa eee ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe;· i?ionithcu;· io/aou i noaneaeeyo, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua iieeoe/aneeie ia?oeyie a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii i?i iiiiuue iieeoe/aneei ia?oeyi;· ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe Iaiaycaoaeueiue aoaeeo(ia i?aaeoniio?aiiue caeiiii)· eiiiaiee, a eioi?ua eiaanoe?iaaee n?aaenoaa iaeua e n?aaeiea eiaanoeoeeiiiua e eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oe?iu;· ?aeeaeiciua e iaeiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, iio?aaeoaeueneea eiiia?aoeau e i?aaiecaoeee cae?aaiio?aiaiey;· aoaeeo a neo/ayo neeyiey eiiiaiee, ia?aaea/e eee i?eia?aoaiey aeciana;· aoaeeo a ae?oaeo neo/ayo, ia oeacaiiuo auoa Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aoaeeo· yiiineea eiiiaiee, /eneyueany a ae?aeaauo nieneao ae?oaeo no?ai;· eiino?aiiua eiiiaiee, inouanoaeythuea iia?aoeee a ssiiiee * Enoi/iee: The Japanese Institute of Certified Public Accountants (2000).

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