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Анализ результатов финансово-хозяйственной деятельности предприятия, организации

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IEIENOA?NOAI YEIIIIE*ANEIAI ?ACAEOEss

E OI?AIAEE ?O

OTHIAINEEE OI?AIAI-YEIIIIE*ANEEE

OAOIEEOI

?AAI*Ass I?IA?AIIA

I?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?aeoeee,

noaaee?iaee ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 0601

«Yeiiiieea, aooaaeoa?neee o/?o e eiio?ieue»

Othiaiue 2006

Ninoaaeaia a niioaaonoaee n ainoaea?noaaiiuie o?aaiaaieyie e ieieioio
niaea?aeaiey e o?iaith iiaeaioiaee auioneieeia ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 0601
«Yeiiiieea, aooaaeoa?neee o/?o e eiio?ieue».

Cai. aee?aeoi?a ii

o/aaiie ?aaioa

_________________ I. ?. Eenaeaaa

?aai/ay i?ia?aiia i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?aeoeee ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 0601
«Yeiiiieea, aooaaeoa?neee o/?o e eiio?ieue» n?aaeiaai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey.

Ninoaaeoaeue: A. A. Ieiaaaa

?aaeaeoi?: I. A. Aino?aoeiaa

?aoeaicaio: N.N.Aaiiiaa

I. Iiynieoaeueiay caienea.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay i?aeoeea ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 0601 «Yeiiiieea,
aooaaeoa?neee o/?o e eiio?ieue» eiaao naiae oeaeueth cae?aieoue e
?anoe?eoue oai?aoe/aneea ciaiey, iieo/aiiua nooaeaioaie a oaoieeoia a
i?ioeanna eco/aiey eo?nia: «Aooaaeoa?neee o/?o», «Aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe», « iaeiae e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea», a oaeaea iaeaaeaoue
i?aeoe/aneeie iaaueaie ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/?oo, eiio?ieth e aiaeeco
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee.

Nooaeaiou i?ioiaeyo i?aeoeeo a aooaaeoa?ee eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo?
oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, yaeythueony th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie.
Aacu i?aeoeee inaauaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuie ?aai/eie ianoaie aooaaeoa?ia
aeey inaiaiey i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii e onei?aiiie ia?aaioee o/?oiie,
?an/?oiie e aiaeeoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee n iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?a.

?oeiaiaenoai nooaeaioaie – i?aeoeeaioaie aiceaaaaony ia aeaaiiai
aooaaeoa?a i?aaei?eyoey eee aai caianoeoaey e ioi?ieyaony i?eeacii. Ni
noi?iiu oaoieeoia yoe caaea/e inouanoaeytho i?aiiaeaaaoaee niaoeeaeueiuo
aeenoeeieei.

N iiiaioa ca/eneaiey nooaeaioia a ia?eiae i?aeoeee a ea/anoaa
i?aeoeeaioia ia ?aai/ea ianoa ia ieo ?ani?ino?aiythony i?aaeea io?aiu
o?oaea e i?aaeea aioo?aiiaai ?anii?yaeea, aeaenoaothuea ia i?aaei?eyoee,
a i?aaiecaoeee. E?iia oiai ia nooaeaioia, ca/eneaiiuo ia ?aai/ea
ooaoiua ianoa, ?ani?ino?aiyaony o?oaeiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?O e, iie
iiaeeaaeao ainoaea?noaaiiiio nioeeaeueiiio no?aoiaaieth ia ?iaia ni
anaie ?aaioieeaie.

Ai a?aiy i?aaeaeeieiiiie i?aeoeee nooaeaiou auiieiytho ana caaeaiey
i?aaeoniio?aiiie i?ia?aiiie, iaeaieeaatho eiiee ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia,
o/?oiuo ?aaeno?ia, oi?i io/?oiinoe, ninoaaeytho aiaeeoe/aneea ?an/?ou e
aeaeatho caeeth/aiey i ?acoeueoaoao, a ii ieii/aiee i?aeoeee ninoaaeytho
io/ao.

Iau?i io/?oa ia aeieaeai i?aauoaoue 12 – 15 no?aieoe ?oeiieniiai oaenoa.
E io/?oo i?eeaaathony aeieoiaiou (oiaa?iua io/?ou, io/?ou iaoa?eaeueii –
ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe, aeo?iaeu – i?aea?a ii n/aoai, n/aoa – oaeoo?u e
o.ae.), a ninoaaeaiee eioi?uo nooaeaiou i?eieiaee o/anoea
naiinoiyoaeueii.

Iinea i?ioiaeaeaiey i?aeoeee nooaeaioo auaeaaony oa?aeoa?enoeea,
eioi?ay iiaeienuaaaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaei?eyoey e ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
i?aeoeea io yoiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Eoiaii i?aeoeee ii i?ioeeth niaoeeaeueiinoe, yaeyaony ioeaiea, eioi?ay
aunoaaeyaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aeoeee io o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey, ia
iniiaaiee iaaethaeaiey ca naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaioie i?aeoeeaioa,
oa?aeoa?enoeee e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ioeaiee ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aeoeee io
i?aaiecaoeee.

A niioaaonoaea n o/aaiui ieaiii nooaeaiou i?ioiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
i?aeoeeo (noaaee?iaeo) ii i/iie oi?ia iao/aiey 8 iaaeaeue, a ii cai/iie
oi?ia- 4 iaaeaee.

Nooaeaiou, ia auiieieaoea i?ia?aiio i?aeoeee, e naea/a eoiaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aooanoaoeee ia aeiioneathony.

II. Oaiaoe/aneee ieai.

i/iIaeiaiiaaiea ?acaeaeia Eiee/anoai aeiaeEiee/anoai /aniaAaiaeiue
eino?oeoaae121.Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaei?eyoey,
i?aaiecaoeee382.Iienaiea o/aoiie iieeoeee, i?eiaiyaiie ia i?aaei?eyoee,
a i?aaiecaoeee383.Ninoaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neeo aeieoiaioia ii oicyenoaaiiui
iia?aoeeyi e ?an/aou ca io/aoiue ia?eiae15444Iaeiaiaue o/ao6205.Aiaeec
?acoeueoaoia oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey,
i?aaiecaoeee620

Ioi?ieaiea io/aoa26Eoiai:36108

II. Oaiaoe/aneee ieai

i/iIaeiaiiaaiea ?acaeaeia Eiee/anoai aeiaeEiee/anoai /aniaAaiaeiue
eino?oeoaae121.Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaei?eyoey,
i?aaiecaoeee3102.Iienaiea o/aoiie iieeoeee, i?eiaiyaiie ia i?aaei?eyoee,
a i?aaiecaoeee3103.Ninoaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neeo aeieoiaioia ii
oicyenoaaiiui iia?aoeeyi e ?an/aou ca io/aoiue ia?eiae20584Iaeiaiaue
o/ao9285.Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee1030

Ioi?ieaiea io/aoa26Eoiai:48144

III. Niaea?aeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?aeoeee

1.Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee.

Ninoaaeoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee:

-io?aneaaay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue;

-anni?oeiaio auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e oi?aaeai/aneay no?oeoo?a;

-i?aaiecaoeey o/aoa;

-o/?aaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou;

2.Iienaiea o/aoiie iieeoeee, i?eiaiyaiie ia i?aaei?eyoee, a
i?aaiecaoeee.

Iienaoue o/aoioth iieeoeeo, i?eiaiyaioth ia i?aaei?eyoee, a
i?aaiecaoeee, ia?auay aieiaiea ia neaaeothuea iiiaiou:

-i?aaiecaoeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa (i?aaiecaoeeiiiay oi?ia iino?iaiea
aooaaeoa?ee);

-auai?u oi?iu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;

-ii?aaeaeaiea eiee/anoaa e n?ieia i?iaaaeaiea eiaaioa?ecaoeee eiouanoaa
e ?an/aoia;

-ii?yaeie ia/eneaiey eciina ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai e iaiaoa?eaeueiui
aeoeaai;

-ii?yaeie nienaiey cao?ao ii ?aiiioo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia ecaea?aeee
ia?auaiey;

-noieiinoiie i?aaeae ioianaiey i?aaeiaoia e iniiaiui n?aaenoaai;

-auai? aa?eaioa neioaoe/aneiai o/aoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiaa?iuo caiania
e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee;

-auai? niiniaa a?oiie?iaee e nienaiey ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey;

-n?iee iiaaoaiey ?anoiaeia aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia;

-iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;

-nicaeaiea ?aca?aia ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai;

-nicaeaiea i?i/eo ?aca?aia.

Nooaeaio aeieaeai

ciaoue:

– niaea?aeaiea o/?oiie iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoey;

– iaycaiiinoe e i?aaa aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a;

– aeieaeiinoiua eino?oeoeee aooaaeoa?a;

– ?aai/ee ieai n/aoia.

oiaoue:

– ninoaaeoue ?aai/ee ieai n/aoia;

– ninoaaeoue noaio aeieoiaioiiai?ioa.

O/ao iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia:

-ioi?ieaiea aeieoiaioia ii o/aoo iinooieaiey, ia?aiauaiey e auauoey
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia;

-?an/ao aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia;

-?an/ao ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe e ?acoeueoaoa io auauoey iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia;

-ioi?ieaiea aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?3.

O/ao o?oaea e ca?aaioiie ieaou:

-ioi?ieaiea ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia ii o/aoo o?oaea e ca?aaioiie ieaou;

-?an/ao ca?aaioiie ieaou e auaea/a (iniiaiie e aeiiieieoaeueiie);

-?an/ao iiniaey ii aieueie/iiio eenoo;

-ioi?ieaiea aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?10,?10/1, aaaeiiinoe ?12,?15.

O/ao eanniauo iia?aoeee:

-aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea eanniauo iia?aoeee;

-ninoaaeaiea io/aoa eanne?a;

-ioi?ieaiea aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?1 e iia?aoeee aaaeiiinoe ?1.

O/ao ia ?an/aoiii n/aoa:

-ioi?ieaiea ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia ii o/aoo iia?aoeee ia ?an/aoiii n/aoa;

-ia?aaioea auienee aaiea n ?an/aoiiai n/aoa;

-ioi?ieaiea aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?2 e aaaeiiinoe ?2.

O/ao ?an/aoia:

-ioi?ieaiea ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia ii o/aoo ?an/aoia n iiaeio/aoiuie
eeoeaie, aeaaeoi?aie e e?aaeeoi?aie, athaeaeaoii, i?aaiaie nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey e iaania/aiey;

-?an/ao iiaeio/aoiuo noii, ?an/ao iaeiaia, io/eneaiee e oiiae
nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey e iaania/aiey;

-ioi?ieaiea aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?3, ?7, ?8.

O/ao e?aaeeoia aaiea:

-?an/ao noii i?ioeaioia ii e?aaeeoai aaiea, eo o/ao;

-ioi?ieaiea aeo?iaea i?aea?a ?4.

O/ao eaieoaeia i?aaei?eyoey (oiiaeia):

-ia?aciaaiea oiiaeia, eo eniieueciaaiea;

-aooaaeoa?neea i?iaiaeee ii o/aoo oiiaeia;

-ioi?ieaiea aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?15.

I?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe:

-oi?iu iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia i?aaei?eyoee;

-ii?yaeie ioi?ieaiey ia ?aaioo ia aeieaeiinoe, naycaiiua n iaoa?eaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

O/ao oiaa?iuo iia?aoeee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oi?aiaee:

-enoi/ieee iinooieaiey oiaa?ia, aeiaiai?u iinoaaee, aeiaiai?u
eoiee-i?iaeaaee, ioi?ieaiea aeiaa?aiiinoae ia iieo/aiea oiaa?ia;

-ioi?ieaiea ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia i?e iinooieaiee e ioa?ocea oiaa?ia;

-?an/ao i?iaeaaeiuo oeai ia iinooieaoea oiaa?u;

-aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea e ii?yaeie nienaiey oiaa?iuo iioa?ue;

-ii?yaeie ninoaaeaiea oiaa?iuo io/aoia, i?iaa?ea e ia?aaioea eo a
aooaaeoa?ee;

-ii?yaeie caiene a eieao iieoiie e a eieao i?iaeaae;

-ioi?ieaiea aeo?iaeia-i?aea?ia ii n/aoai 41,60,62,76.

O/ao oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia:

-?an/ao oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia;

-?an/ao ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?eauee;

-ioi?ieaiea aeo?iaea-i?aea?a ?15;

-caiieiaiea oi?iu ?2 «Io/ao i i?eaueyo e oauoeao».

Aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue:

-ninoaaeaiea oi?i io/aoiinoe ia iniiaaiee Aeaaiie eieae (O.?1, O.?3,

O.?3, O.?4, O.?5);

-ioi?ieaiea ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia ia eiiiuethoa?a n iiiiuueth eiathueony
aooaaeoa?neeo i?ia?aii:

-auaanoe ia ia/aoue ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeaiiua aeey aioiaie io/aoiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee.

Nooaeaio aeieaeai ciaoue:

-ii?iaoeaiua aeou ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo;

-iniiaiua i?eioeeiu aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ioaeaeueiuo iauaeoia;

-cia/aiea aooaaeoa?neeo aeieoiaioia;

-ii?yaeie io?aaeaiey oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ia n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa;

-iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey oua?aa;

-oeaiiia?aciaaiea a oi?aiaea;

-iauai e oi?iu aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.

Nooaeaio aeieaeai oiaoue:

-ninoaaeyoue aooaaeoa?neea aeieoiaiou ii ioi?ieaieth oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey,i?aaiecaoeee;

-ioe?uaaoue e ninoaaeyoue aeo?iaeu-i?aea?a, aeaaioth eieao e ae?.
?aaeno?u;

-i?iaiaeeoue o/ao inoaoeia eiouanoaa e enoi/ieeia eo ia?aciaaiey;

-ninoaaeyoue io/aoiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee.

4.Iaeiaiaue o/ao

Eniieuecoy io/aoiinoue i?aaei?eyoey:

-?ann/eoaoue iaeiae, ninoaaeoue aooaaeoa?neea i?iaiaeee e caiieieoue
iaeiaiaua aeaeea?aoeee n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae en/eneaiey iaeiaia ia
aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee, a i?aaiecaoeee;

-n iiiiuueth i?ia?aii aaoiiaoecaoeee o/aoa iiaeaioiaeoue aeieoiaioaoeeth
ii iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee.

Nooaeaio aeieaeai ciaoue:

– iaeiaiaue Eiaeaen ?O;

– ninoaa e oi?iu iaeiaiaie io/aoiinoe;

– iauai, niaea?aeaiea, aae?ana e n?iee i?aaenoaaeaiey iaeiaiaie
io/aoiinoe.

Nooaeaio aeieaeai oiaoue:

– i?iecaiaeeoue ?an/aou ii iaeiaai;

– ioi?ieyoue iaeiaiaua aeaeea?aoeee ii aeaeai oiea/eaaaiuo iaeiaia.

5.Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoea, i?aaiecaoeee

Aiaeec iniauaiiinoe e eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

– oeaee, caaea/e, enoi/ieee aiaeeca;

– aiaeec aeaeaeaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. Aiaeec ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, ninoiyiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa;

– ioeaiea oaoie/aneiai ninoiyiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa;

– iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa;

– aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. Ioeaiea aeeyiey
yenoaineaiiai e eioaineaiiai eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa o?oaea ia
i?e?auaiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.

– ?aca?au iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Aiaeec oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee
(i?aaei?eyoey)

– oi?ie?iaaiea e ?an/ao iieacaoaeae i?eauee io i?iaeaae, i?eauee aei
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, /enoie i?eauee;

– aiaeec e ioeaiea aeeiaieee, o?iaiy e no?oeoo?u i?eauee. Yeiiiie/aneea
oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia aaee/eio i?eauee;

– oaeoi?iue aiaeec i?eauee io i?iaeaae, i?eauee aei iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;

– nenoaia iieacaoaeae ?aioaaaeueiinoe, eo oa?aeoa?enoeea e oaeoi?iue
aiaeec ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

– ?aca?au oaaee/aiey i?eauee, iiauoaiey ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

Ioeaiea oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey e aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee
(i?aaei?eyoey)

– nenoaia iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo oeiainiaia ninoiyiea;

– yeni?ann – aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey. Yoaiu yeni?ann – aiaeeca;

– aeaoaeece?iaaiiue aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey, aai oeaeue, iniiaiua
yoaiu. Auyaeaiea «aieueiuo» noaoae io/aoiinoe;

– aiaeec eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey. Ioeaiea no?oeoo?u, ninoaaa e
aeeiaieee nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa;

– ?an/ao, aiaeec e ioeaiea iieacaoaeae oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe
i?aaiecaoeee. Oa?aeoa?enoeea oeiia oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe.

– iiiyoea eeeaeaeiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, eeeaeaeiinoe aeoeaia,
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee;

– Aiaeec oeiainiauo eiyooeoeeaioia e eo a?oiie?iaea ii yeiiiie/aneiio
niuneo;

– iieacaoaee aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe. Iauay ioeaiea oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey e
ia?u ii aai oeo/oaieth;

– iaoiaeu i?iaiice?iaaiey aiciiaeiiai aaie?ionoaa (ianinoiyoaeueiinoe)
i?aaiecaoeee.

Nooaeaio aeieaeai ciaoue:

– iaoiaeeeo aiaeeca ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u iniiaiuo oiiaeia;

– iaoiaeeeo ?an/aoia iieacaoaeae oaoie/aneiai ninoiyiey e yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa;

– oi?ie?iaaiea e ?an/ao iieacaoaeae: i?eauee io i?iaeaae, i?eauee io
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, /enoie i?eauee;

– iaoiaeeeo aiaeeca o?iaiy e aeeiaieee oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia;

– oaeoi?iue aiaeec i?eauee e ?aioaaaeueiinoe;

– nenoaio iieacaoaeae ?aioaaaeueiinoe e iooe aa iiauoaiey;

– nenoaio iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo oeiainiaia ninoiyiea
i?aaiecaoeee e iaoiaeu eo ii?aaeaeaiey;

– iaoiaeeeo aiaeeca ninoaaa e aeeiaieee eiouanoaa i?aaiecaoeee,
enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey eiouanoaa;

– eiyooeoeeaiou eeeaeaeiinoe, oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe.

Nooaeaio aeieaeai oiaoue:

– i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec aeeiaieee ninoaaa, no?oeoo?u, oaoie/aneiai
ninoiyiey e yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa;

– i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec aeeyiey oaeoi?ia ia yenoaineaiinoue e
eioaineaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa;

– i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec aeeiaieee oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia;

– ?ann/eouaaoue e aeaaaoue ioeaieo aeeyieth oaeoi?ia ia i?eaueue io
i?iaeaae, i?eaueue aei iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ?aioaaaeueiinoue;

– ?ann/eouaaoue ii aaeaino eiyooeoeeaiou, oa?aeoa?ecothuea oeiainiaia
ninoiyiea i?aaiecaoeee e aeaaaoue ioeaieo eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey,
oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe, ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee.

E?aoeee ia?a/aiue ii?iaoeaii-caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia, n eioi?uie
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?aaioaao aooaaeoa?.

1. Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii io 21.11.96 a. ? 129 –OC «I aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa»
i?eiyo Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie 23.02.96a.

2. Iieiaeaiea ii iiaaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aooaaeoa?neie
io/aoiinoe, i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 24.07.98 a. ?34i.

3. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «O/aoiay iieeoeea i?aaiecaoeee»
(IAO 1/98), i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 09.12.98 a. ?60i.

4. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «O/ao aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia) ia
eaieoaeueiia no?ieoaeuenoai» (IAO 2/94), i?eeac Ieienoa?noaa ?O io
20.12.94 a. ? 167.

5. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «O/ao eiouanoaa e iaycaoaeuenoa
i?aaiecaoeee, noieiinoue eioi?iai au?aaeaia a eiino?aiiie aaethoa» (IAO
3/95), i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 13.06.95 a. ?50i.

6. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «O/ao iniiaiuo n?aaenoa (IAO
6/97), i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 03.09.97 a. ?65i.

7. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «O/ao
iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania» (IAO 5/98), i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io
15.06.98 a. ?24 i.

8. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo Oneiaiua oaeou oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe» (IAO 8/98), i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 25.11.98a. ?57i.

9. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «Niauoea iinea io/aoiie aeaou»
(IAO 7/98), i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 25.11.98a. ?56i.

10. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «Aeioiaeu i?aaiecaoeee» (IAO
9/99), i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 06.05.99a. ?32i.

11. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «Aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee» (IAO 4/99), i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 06.07.99a. ?43i.

12. Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «?anoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee» (IAO
10/99), i?eeac Ieioeia ?O io 06.05.99a. ?33 i e o.ae.

13. Iieiaeaiea i ninoaaa cao?ao ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), e i ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia, o/eouaaaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee, iinoaiiaeaiee
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 05.08.92 a. ?52, n eciaiaieyie.

14. Ieai n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee e eino?oeoeey ii aai i?eiaiaieth, i?eeac
Ieioeia ?O io 31.10 2000 a. ?94i.

15. Ia?eiaee/aneay ia/aoue:

– «Oeiainiaay aacaoa»

– I?eeiaeaiea «O/ao, iaeiae, i?aai».

– I?eeiaeaiea «Ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou».

– AEo?iae «Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao»

– AEo?iae «Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee oi?aiaee e
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey»

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. E?aa/aiei E.E. «Aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a oi?aiaea»
Ieine: Aunoay oeiea 2002 a .

2. Aa?thoeia I.N «Aiaeec oeiainiai- yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey» I: AeEN – 2002 a.

3. Aaeaiia I.E. Oa?aiao A.Ae. «Oai?ey aiaeeca oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe» I: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea 2000 a.

I?AAIECAOeEE AOOAAEOA?NEIAI O*AOA

Caaea/e e i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao yaeyaony iaeiie ec ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey e
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oii?yaei/aiioth nenoaio nai?a, ?aaeno?aoeee e
iaiauaiey eioi?iaoeee a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee ia eiouanoaa,
iaycaoaeuenoaao i?aaiecaoeee e eo aeaeaeaiee iooai nieioiiai,
iai?a?uaiiai e aeieoiaioaeueiiai o/aoa anao oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee.

Iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ia i?aaei?eyoee
aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue auiieiaiea neaaeothueo iniiaiuo caaea/:

• oi?ie?iaaiea iieiie e aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeee i aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee e aa eiouanoaaiiii iieiaeaiee, iaiaoiaeeiie eae aioo?aiiei
iieueciaaoaeyi aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe — ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi, o/?aaeeoaeyi,
o/anoieeai e nianoaaiieeai eiouanoaa i?aaiecaoeee, oae e aiaoiei
iieueciaaoaeyi aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe — eiaanoi?ai, e?aaeeoi?ai e
ae?.;

• oi?ie?iaaiea iieiie e aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeee i aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey e aa eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiee, iaiaoiaeeiie aioo?aiiei e
aiaoiei iieueciaaoaeyi;

• eiio?ieue ca iaee/eai e aeaeaeaieai eiouanoaa, eniieueciaaieai
iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia;

• eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
ii o/aoo e io/aoiinoe;

• naiaa?aiaiiia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea iaaaoeaiuo yaeaiee a
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey;

• naiaa?aiaiiia e oi/iia ii?aaeaeaiea cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoeee e ieacaiea oneoa (ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
oi?aiaee);

auyaeaiea aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo ?aca?aia aeey iaania/aiey oeiainiaie
onoie/eainoe i?aaei?eyoey e o. ae.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a i?aaiecaoeee iiaeii
noi?ioee?iaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii: aooaaeoa?neee o/ao eiouanoaa,
iaycaoaeuenoa e oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee inouanoaeyaony niiniaii aeaieiie
caiene a niioaaonoaee n Ieaiii n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
oeiainiai-Oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee; iniiaaieai aeey
caiene a o/aoiuo ?aaeno?ao yaeythony aeaiiua ia?ae/iuo o/aoiuo
aeieoiaioia, oeene?othueo oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
ninoaaeyoueny a iiiaio niaa?oaiey oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee eee n?aco
iinea aa niaa?oaiey; eiouanoai, iaycaoaeuenoaa e oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee
aeey io?aaeaiey a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe iiaeeaaeao ioeaiea a
aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee (a ?oa.); iieiioa io?aaeaiey a o/aoa ca io/aoiue
ia?eiae anao oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee; ?aaoey?iinoue i?iaaaeaiey
eiaaioa?ecaoeee eiouanoaa e oe-iainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa e io?aaeaiey aa
?acoeueoaoia a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa; niaethaeaiea a oa/aiea io/aoiiai
aiaea o/aoiie iieeoeee i?aaiecaoeee; I?aaeeueiinoue io?aaeaiey aeioiaeia
e ?anoiaeia, ioiinyueony e io/aoiiio ia?eiaeo; niioaaonoaea aeaiiuo
aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa aeaiiui neioaoe/aneiai o/aoa.

A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea o/aoa iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa yaeythony neaaeothuea: I?iaeieaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe;

i?aainoaaiiinoue (iinoiyinoai) o/aoiie iieeoeee; ia/eneaiea (iaeiieaiea,
i?e?ino).

I?eioeei i?iaeieaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe icia/aao, /oi i?aaei?eyoea aoaeao
i?iaeieaeaoue ooieoeeiie?iaaoue e ia iaia?aii nie?auaoue iauai
aeayoaeueiinoe eee eeeaeaee?iaaoueny.

I?eioeei i?aainoaaiiinoe (iinoiyinoaa) a iaoiaeao o/aoa o?aaoao
eniieueciaaiey aua?aiiuo iaoiaeia o/aoa a oa/aiea io/aoiiai aiaea.

I?eioeei ia/eneaiey (iaeiieaiey, i?e?inoa) icia/aao, /oi oicyenoaaiiua
iia?aoeee io?aaeathony a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa oiaaea, eiaaea iie
aicieeatho.

E?iia yoeo iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee e ae?oaea o/aoiua i?eioeeiu: ioeaiee eiouanoaa
e iaycaoaeuenoa aeaieiie caiene oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee, inoi?iaeiinoe,
nouanoaaiiinoe, aeia?iea/anoaaiiinoe eioi?iaoeee.

Ioeaiea eiouanoaa e iaycaoaeuenoa aaaeaony ia aeaoo niaa?oaiey
iia?aoeee.

I?eioeei inoi?iaeiinoe iaycuaaao o/eouaaoue ana oaeoi?u, eioi?ua iiaoo
ieacaoue aeeyiea ia oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea i?aaiecaoeee.

I?eioeei nouanoaaiiinoe iiiiaaao ii?aaeaeeoue oaeoeeo iiaaaeaiey
i?aaiecaoeee ii auai?o ii?yaeea nienaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e
ioaeaeueiuo cao?ao ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee.

I?eioeei aeia?iea/anoaaiiinoe eioi?iaoeee icia/aao iaania/aiea aa
aeinoiaa?iinoe e io?aaeaiey ?aaeueiiai oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey
i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua noaiaea?ou aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e nenoaia
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

O/aoiua nenoaiu ?acee/iuo no?ai ioee/athony iiiaiia?aceai, /oi naycaii n
oa?aeoa?ii ?acaeoey ?uiea eaieoaeia, /eneii eiaanoi?ia e e?aaeeoi?ia,
?acia?aie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie i?aaei?eyoey (i?aaiecaoeee),
iauei o?iaiai ia?aciaaiey, caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie nenoaiaie e ae?oaeie
oaeoi?aie.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue auaeaeyaony /aou?a iniiaiua oeieu aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa: eoaeueyineay, o?aioeocneay, iaiaoeeay e aiaei-aia?eeaineay.

?ac?aaioeie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e
oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe (INAO) caieiaaony Eiieoao ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
noaiaea?oai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, nicaeaiiue a 1973 a. niaeaoaieai
aeaayoe no?ai, A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Eiieoao iauaaeeiyao aieaa 100
i?aaiecaoeee-/ eaiia.

?ac?aaaouaaaiua Eiieoaoii noaiaea?ou iinyo ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e
i?eiaiythony a ?aciuo no?aiao ii-?aciiio. Eae i?aaeei, eaaeaeay no?aia
i?eiaiyao o?aaeeoeeiiioth iaoeeiiaeueioth nenoaio aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa,
ii aaeaioe?iaaiioth e ianeieueeei eee aieueoeinoao iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
noaiaea?oia.

I?e ?ac?aaioea INAO iacaaiiui Eiieoaoii auea i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea
iaiauaiey aieueoiai iiuoa, iaeiieaiiiai a ?aciuo no?aiao. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ei ?ac?aaioaii aieaa 30 noaiaea?oia, eanathueony ?acee/iuo noi?ii
aaaeaiey o/aoa.

No?oeoo?a e ooieoeee neoaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa

Aooaaeoa?neay neoaeaa i?aaiecaoeee (aooaaeoa?ey) — yoi
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiia iiae?acaeaeaiea eee ioaeae, aaaeouee aooaaeoa?neee
o/ao e ninoaaeythuee aooaaeoa?neea io/aou ia i?aaei?eyoee. Iia
ia?aaaouaaao i?aaenoaaeyaiua a aooaaeoa?eth anaie e iiae?acaeaeaieyie
i?aaiecaoeee iaiaoiaeeiua aeey o/aoa aeieoiaiou e io/aoiua naaaeaiey e
ia eo iniiaa ninoaaeyao aeaiiua i ?aaeueiinoe ioaeaeueiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii. Aooaaeoa?neee aiia?ao auiieiyao
oaeaea ooieoeee eiio?iey 3 aeaeia: i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai, oaeouaai e
iineaaeothuaai.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue eiio?ieue i?iaiaeeony aei niaa?oaiey oicyenoaaiiie
iia?aoeee, eiaaea aeaaiue aooaaeoa? iiaeienuaaao aeieoiaiou, neoaeauea
iniiaaieai aeey i?eaiee e auaea/e aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo e ae?oaeo oeaiiinoae.

Oaeouee eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony a iiiaio niaa?oaiey oicyenoaaiiuo
iia?aoeee n?aco iinea eo niaa?oaiey iooai i?iaa?ee aeieoiaioia n oi/ee
c?aiey caeiiiinoe iia?aoeee, i?aaeeueiinoe ioi?ieaiey aeieoiaioia,
a?eoiaoe/aneeo ?an/aoia e iiaen/aoia.

Iineaaeothuee eiio?ieue i?iaiaeeony ii enoa/aiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie
i?e iiaeaaaeaiee eoiaia oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee ca io/aoiue ia?eiae.

Ii oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neee o/ao iiaeao auoue oeaio?iaaiiui e
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiui.

I?e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiie oi?ia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia eaaeaeii
i?aaei?eyoee nicaeaaony aooaaeoa?ey, yaeythuayny naiinoiyoaeueiie
no?oeoo?iie aaeeieoeae. Aa aicaeaaeyao aeaaiue aooaaeoa?.

I?e oeaio?aeecaoeee o/aoa ia aieiaiii i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ia iauaaeeiyao
ianeieueei iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeaaony oeaio?aeeciaaiiay
aooaaeoa?ey.

I?e oeaio?aeeciaaiiie oi?ia o/aoa a e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo aooaaeoa?ey
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia a?oiiu: oiaa?iay, oeiainiai-?an/aoiay, ?an/aoia ii
iieaoa o?oaea, ii o/aoo iaoa?eaeia e ae?.

Niaeanii Oaaea?aeueiiio caeiio «I aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa» io 21 iiya?y 1996
a. ? 129-OC ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?aaiecaoeeth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a
i?aaiecaoeeyo e niaethaeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?e auiieiaiee
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ianao ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaiecaoeee.

O/aoiay iieeoeea i?aaiecaoeee

O/aoiay iieeoeea i?aaiecaoeee — niaieoiiinoue niiniaia aaaeaiey
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa: ia?ae/iiai iaaethaeaiey, noieiinoiiai ecia?aiey,
oaeouae a?oiie?iaee e eoiaiaiai iaiauaiey oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

O/aoiay iieeoeea oi?ie?oaony aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii (aooaaeoa?ii)
i?aaiecaoeee e ooaa?aeaeaaony aa ?oeiaiaeeoaeai. I?e yoii
ooaa?aeaeaaony:

• ?aai/ee ieai n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, niaea?aeauee neioaoe/aneea e
aiaeeoe/aneea n/aoa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;

• oi?iu ia?ae/iuo o/aoiuo aeieoiaioia, i?eiaiyaiuo aeey ioi?ieaiey
oaeoia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii eioi?ui ia i?aaeoniio?aiu
oeiiaua oi?iu ia?ae/iuo o/aoiuo aeieoiaioia, a oaeaea oi?iu aeieoiaioia
aeey aioo?aiiae aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe;

• ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey eiaaioa?ecaoeee aeoeaia e iaycaoaeuenoa
i?aaiecaoeee;

• iaoiaeu ioeaiee aeoeaia e iaycaoaeuenoa;

• i?aaeea aeieoiaioiiai?ioa e oaoiieiaey ia?aaioee o/aoiie eioi?iaoeee;

• ae?oaea ?aoaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee o/aoiie iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoey ii eiie?aoiiio
iai?aaeaieth e i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa auae?aaony iaeei ec
ianeieueeeo niiniaia, aeiioneaaiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e ii?iaoeaiuie
aeoaie ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo.

I?eiyoea i?aaei?eyoeai o/aoiie iieeoeee ioi?ieyaony
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiui aeieoiaioii (i?eeacii, ?anii?yaeaieai
e o.i.), eioi?ue a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea aeieaeai auoue iiaeienai
aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii e ooaa?aeaeai ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaei?eyoey.

O/aoiay iieeoeea i?eieiaaony aei ianooieaiey iiaiai oeiainiaiai aiaea e
i?eiaiyaony iineaaeiaaoaeueii ec aiaea a aiae. Eiaiea o/aoiie iieeoeee
iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny oieueei a neo/ayo:

– eciaiaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee ii?-ieaiuo
aeoia ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo;

– ?ac?aaioee i?aaiecaoeeae iiauo niiniaia aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;

– nouanoaaiiiai eciaiaiey oneiaee aeayoaeueiinoe eee aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe, /oi iiaeao auoue naycaii n ?ai?aaiecaoeeae, niaiie oi?iu
nianoaaiiinoe e o.i.

O/aoiay iieeoeea oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa neaaeothueo iniiaiuo aeiiouaiee
(o?aaiaaiee): eiouanoaaiiay iainiaeaiiinoue, o. a. eiouanoai,
yaeythuaany nianoaaiiinoueth aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, o/eouaaaony
ioaeaeueii aeoeaia e iaycaoaeuenoa ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee; i?a?uaiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, o. a. i?aaiecaoeey aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue naith
aeayoaeueiinoue a iaic?eiii aoaeouai e o iaa ionoonoaotho iaia?aiey e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eeeaeaeaoeee eee nouanoaaiiiai nie?auaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaycaoaeuenoaa aoaeoo iiaaoaoueny a
onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, ai, e niaeaeaieth, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaiiia o?aaiaaiea ia iiaeao auoue auiieiaii a iieiii
iauaia, iineieueeo a ?innee ionoonoaoao neiaeeaoayny eoeueoo?a
iiiaauaiey caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe i a?icyuai aaie?ionoaa eee eiuo
iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaeyo.

I?eeac ia o/aoiie iieeoeea iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e ?acaeaea,
eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo aeeth/aao ianeieueei yeaiaioia.

1. I?aaiaoea e o/aoiie iieeoeea. A yoie /anoe oeacuaathony iniiaiua
ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou, eioi?uie ?oeiaiaenoaoaony aeaaiue aooaaeoa? i?e
aaaeaiee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a i?aaiecaoeee. Caeanue aea oeene?othony
ioaaonoaaiiua ca i?aaiecaoeeth e aaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a
i?aaiecaoeee.

2. Aua?aiiua aa?eaiou iaoiaeeee o/aoa, A yoii ?acaeaea io?aaeathony
i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a i?aaiecaoeee.

3. I?aaiecaoeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. A yoii ?acaeaea onoaiaaeeaathony,
eoi aaaeao aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a i?aaiecaoeee, a?aoee e i?aaeea
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa, oi?iu ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia, ieai n/aoia
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

I?aaa, iaycaiiinoe e ioaaonoaaiiinoue aooaaeoa?a

A niioaaonoaee n Iieiaeaieai ii aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e
aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
i?aaiecaoeee iiaeao a caaeneiinoe io iauaia o/aoiie ?aaiou:

– o/?aaeeoue aooaaeoa?neoth neoaeao eae no?oeoo?iia iiae?acaeaeaiea,
aicaeaaeyaiia aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii; aaanoe a ooao aeieaeiinoue
aooaaeoa?a;

– ia?aaeaoue ia aeiaiai?iuo ia/aeao aaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie aooaaeoa?ee, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee eee
aooaaeoa?o-niaoeeaeenoo, aanoe aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ee/ii.

Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii «I aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa» onoaiiaeaii /oi aeaaiue
aooaaeoa? (aooaaeoa? i?e ionoonoaee a ooaoa aeieaeiinoe aeaaiiai
aooaaeoa?a) iacia/aaony ia aeieaeiinoue e ?iaeaeaaony io aeieaeiinoe
?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaiecaoeee e aio iaiin?aaenoaaiii iiae/eiyaony.

A iaycaiiinoe aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a aoiaeeo oi?ie?iaaiea o/aoiie iieeoeee,
aaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, naiaa?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea iieiie e
aeinoiaa?iie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. Aeaaiue aooaaeoa? iaania/eaaao
niioaaonoaea inouanoaeaiey oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a oaeaea eiio?ieue ca aeaeaeaieai eiouanoaa e
auiieiaieai iaycaoaeuenoa.

O?aaiaaiey aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a ii aeieoiaioaeueiiio ioi?ieaieth
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee e i?aaenoaaeaieth a aooaaeoa?eth iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeieoiaioia e naaaeaiee iaycaoaeueiu aeey anao ?aaio-i?aaiecaoeee.

Aac iiaeiene aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a aeaiaaeiua e ?an/aoiua aeieoiaiou,
oeiainiaua e e?aaeeoiua iaycaoaeuenoaa n/eoathony iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie e
ia aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny e eniieiaieth.

A neo/aa ?aciiaeanee iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaiecaoeee e aeaaiui
aooaaeoa?ii ii inouanoaeaieth ioaeaeueiuo oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee
aeieoiaiou ii iei iiaoo auoue i?eiyou e eniieiaieth n ienueiaiiith
?anii?yaeaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ue ianao anth iieiioo
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iineaaenoaey inouanoaeaiey oaeeo iia?aoeee.

?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaiecaoeee e ae?oaea eeoea, ioaaonoaaiiua ca
i?aaiecaoeeth e aaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, a neo/aa oeeiiaiey io
aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie
i?aaiia, inouanoaeythueo ?aaoee?iaaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, eneaaeaiey
aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe e ianiaethaeaiey n?ieia aa i?aaenoaaeaiey e
ioaeeeaoeee i?eaeaeathony e aaeieieno?aoeaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe a
niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

I?e oaieueiaiee aeaaiue aooaaeoa? naeaao aeaea aiiaue iacia/aiiiio
aeaaiiio aooaaeoa?o. I?e iacia/aiee e inaiaiaeaeaiee aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a
i?eai e naea/a aeae ioi?ieythony aeoii iinea i?iaa?ee ninoiyiey
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe ?aaeceiiiie eiienneae o/?aaeeoaeae eee
iacaaeneiie aoaeeoi?neie i?aaiecaoeeae, eioi?ue ooaa?aeaeaaony
?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaei?eyoey. Ia a?aiy ionoonoaey aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a
(ioione, aieaciue) aai i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ia?aoiaeyo e caianoeoaeth, a
i?e ionoonoaee iineaaeiaai e ae?oaiio aeieaeiinoiiio eeoeo, /oi
onoaiaaeeaaaony ?anii?yaeaieai ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey.

I?AAIECAOeEss NENOAIU IAOA?EAEUeIIE IOAAONOAAIINOE

A niioaaonoaee n Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io
14 iiya?y 2002 a. N 823 “I ii?yaeea ooaa?aeaeaiey ia?a/iae aeieaeiinoae
e ?aaio, caiauaaiuo eee auiieiyaiuo ?aaioieeaie, n eioi?uie
?aaioiaeaoaeue iiaeao caeeth/aoue ienueiaiiua aeiaiai?u i iieiie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie eee eieeaeoeaiie (a?eaaaeiie) iaoa?eaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea oeiiauo oi?i aeiaiai?ia i iieiie iaoa?eaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe” (Nia?aiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee,
2002, N 47, no. 4678) Ieienoa?noai o?oaea e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iinoaiiaeyao:

1. Ooaa?aeeoue:

Ia?a/aiue aeieaeiinoae e ?aaio, caiauaaiuo eee auiieiyaiuo ?aaioieeaie,
n eioi?uie ?aaioiaeaoaeue iiaeao caeeth/aoue ienueiaiiua aeiaiai?u i
iieiie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaaeinoa/o
aaa?aiiiai eiouanoaa niaeanii i?eeiaeaieth N 1;

Oeiiaoth oi?io aeiaiai?a i iieiie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iaoa?eaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe niaeanii i?eeiaeaieth N 2;

Ia?a/aiue ?aaio, i?e auiieiaiee eioi?uo iiaeao aaiaeeoueny iieiay
eieeaeoeaiay (a?eaaaeiay) iaoa?eaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaaeinoa/o
aaa?aiiiai ?aaioieeai eiouanoaa niaeanii i?eeiaeaieth N 3;

Oeiiaoth oi?io aeiaiai?a i iieiie eieeaeoeaiie (a?eaaaeiie)
iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe niaeanii i?eeiaeaieth N 4.

2. I?eciaoue ia aeaenoaothueie ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee:

Iinoaiiaeaiea Aineiio?oaea NNN? e Nae?aoa?eaoa AOeNIN io 28 aeaeaa?y
1977 a. N 447/24 “Ia ooaa?aeaeaiee ia?a/iy aeieaeiinoae e ?aaio,
caiauaaiuo eee auiieiyaiuo ?aaioieeaie, n eioi?uie i?aaei?eyoeai,
o/?aaeaeaieai, i?aaiecaoeeae iiaoo caeeth/aoueny ienueiaiiua aeiaiai?u i
iieiie iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia iaania/aiea nio?aiiinoe
oeaiiinoae, ia?aaeaiiuo ei aeey o?aiaiey, ia?aaioee, i?iaeaaee
(ioionea), ia?aaicee eee i?eiaiaiey a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea
oeiiaiai aeiaiai?a i iieiie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iaoa?eaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe”;

Iinoaiiaeaiea Aineiio?oaea NNN? e Nae?aoa?eaoa AOeNIN io 14 naioya?y
1981 a. N 259/16-59 “Ia ooaa?aeaeaiee ia?a/iy ?aaio, i?e auiieiaiee
eioi?uo iiaeao aaiaeeoueny eieeaeoeaiay (a?eaaaeiay) iaoa?eaeueiay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue, oneiaee aa i?eiaiaiey e oeiiaiai aeiaiai?a i
eieeaeoeaiie (a?eaaaeiie) iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe”;

Iinoaiiaeaiea Aineiio?oaea NNN? e Nae?aoa?eaoa AOeNIN io 22 ethiy 1983
a. N 133/13-53 “I aianaiee eciaiaiee a Iinoaiiaeaiea Aineiio?oaea NNN? e
Nae?aoa?eaoa AOeNIN io 14 naioya?y 1981 a. N 259/16-59”;

Iinoaiiaeaiea Aineiio?oaea NNN? e Nae?aoa?eaoa AOeNIN io 26 naioya?y
1986 a. N 365/22-37 “I aeiiieiaiee Ia?a/iy ?aaio, i?e auiieiaiee eioi?uo
iiaeao aaiaeeoueny eieeaeoeaiay (a?eaaaeiay) iaoa?eaeueiay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue”.

IA?A*AIUe AeIEAEIINOAE E ?AAIO, CAIAUAAIUO EEE AUIIEIssAIUO ?AAIOIEEAIE,
N EIOI?UIE ?AAIOIAeAOAEUe IIAEAO CAEETH*AOUe IENUeIAIIUA AeIAIAI?U I
IIEIIE EIAeEAEAeOAEUeIIE IAOA?EAEUeIIE IOAAONOAAIIINOE CA IAAeINOA*O
AAA?AIIIAI EIOUANOAA

Eanne?u, eiio?iea?u, eanne?u-eiio?iea?u (a oii /enea noa?oea), a oaeaea
ae?oaea ?aaioieee, auiieiythuea iaycaiiinoe eanne?ia (eiio?iea?ia).

?oeiaiaeeoaee, eo caianoeoaee, niaoeeaeenou e eiua ?aaioieee,
inouanoaeythuea: aeaiiceoa?ioth aeayoaeueiinoue; yenia?oeco, i?iaa?eo
iiaeeeiiinoe e eioth i?iaa?eo, a oaeaea oie/oiaeaiea a onoaiiaeaiiii
ii?yaeea aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia, oeaiiuo aoiaa, yieoe?iaaiiuo e?aaeeoiie eee
eiie oeiainiaie i?aaiecaoeeae e eee Ieioeiii ?innee aeaieia; iia?aoeee
ii eoiea, i?iaeaaea, ?ac?aoaieth ia iieaoo e eiui oi?iai e aeaeai
iai?ioa aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia, oeaiiuo aoiaa, ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia, iiiao
ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia e eiuo aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae; iia?aoeee n
aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoueth i?e ianeoaeeaaiee aaieiiaoia e ianeoaeeaaiea
eeeaioia, eiathueo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua naeou a o?aieeeua, o/ao e o?aiaiea
oeaiiinoae e eiiai eiouanoaa eeeaioia a o?aieeeua; iia?aoeee ii yiennee,
o/aoo, o?aiaieth, auaea/a e oie/oiaeaieth aaieianeeo, e?aaeeoiuo,
aeeneiioiuo ea?o, eanniaiio e eiiio oeiainiaiio ianeoaeeaaieth eeeaioia,
ii iiaen/aoo, ia?an/aoo eee oi?ie?iaaieth aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe e
aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae; eieannaoi?neea ooieoeee e ia?aaiceo
(o?ainii?oe?iaeo) aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e eiuo oeaiiinoae (a oii /enea
aiaeeoaee-eieannaoi?u), a oaeaea eiua ?aaioieee, auiieiythuea
aiaeiae/iua ooieoeee.

Aee?aeoi?a, caaaaeothuea, aaeieieno?aoi?u (a oii /enea noa?oea,
aeaaiua), ae?oaea ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaiecaoeee e iiae?acaeaeaiee (a oii
/enea naeoeee, i?eaiiuo, ioieoia, ioaeaeia, caeia) oi?aiaee,
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, auoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey, ainoeieoe (eaiieiaia,
iioaeae), eo caianoeoaee, iiiiuieee, i?iaeaaoeu, oiaa?iaaaeu anao
niaoeeaeecaoeee (a oii /enea noa?oea, aeaaiua), a oaeaea eiua ?aaioieee,
auiieiythuea aiaeiae/iua ooieoeee; ia/aeueieee (?oeiaiaeeoaee)
no?ieoaeueiuo e iiioaaeiuo oeaoia, o/anoeia e eiuo
no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, i?iecaiaeeoaee ?aaio e ianoa?a
(a oii /enea noa?oea, aeaaiua) no?ieoaeueiuo e iiioaaeiuo ?aaio.

Caaaaeothuea, ae?oaea ?oeiaiaeeoaee neeaaeia, eeaaeiauo (ioieoia,
ioaeaeaiee), eiiaa?aeia, eaia? o?aiaiey, ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee e
iiae?acaeaeaiee ii caaioiaea, o?ainii?oe?iaea, o?aiaieth, o/aoo e
auaea/a iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, eo caianoeoaee; caaaaeothuea
oicyenoaii, eiiaiaeaiou caeaiee e eiuo nii?oaeaiee, eeaaeiaueee,
eanoaeyioe; noa?oea iaaeeoeeineea nano?u i?aaiecaoeee cae?aaiio?aiaiey;
aaaiou ii caaioiaea e / eee niaaaeaieth, yeniaaeeoi?u ii ia?aaicea e
ae?oaea ?aaioieee, inouanoaeythuea iieo/aiea, caaioiaeo, o?aiaiea, o/ao,
auaea/o, o?ainii?oe?iaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae.

Caaaaeothuea e eiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee aioa/iuo e eiuo oa?iaoeaaoe/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee, ioaeaeia, ioieoia e eiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, eo caianoeoaee,
i?iaeci?u, oaoiieiae, oa?iaoeaaou.

Eaai?aiou, iaoiaeenou eaoaae?, aeaeaiaoia, caaaaeothuea naeoi?aie
aeaeeioae.

?aaiou: ii i?eaio e auieaoa anao aeaeia ieaoaaeae; ii ?an/aoai i?e
i?iaeaaea (?aaeecaoeee) oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa (a oii /enea ia
/a?ac eanno, /a?ac eanno, aac eannu /a?ac i?iaeaaoea, /a?ac ioeoeeaioa
eee eiiai eeoea, ioaaonoaaiiiai ca inouanoaeaiea ?an/aoia); ii
ianeoaeeaaieth oi?aiauo e aeaiaaeiuo aaoiiaoia; ii ecaioiaeaieth e
o?aiaieth anao aeaeia aeeaoia, oaeiiia, aaiiaiaioia (aeeth/ay aaiiaiaiou
e oaeiiu ia ioione ieue (i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey) e ae?oaeo ciaeia
(aeieoiaioia), i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?an/aoia ca oneoae.

?aaiou, naycaiiua n inouanoaeaieai: aeaiiceoa?iie aeayoaeueiinoe;
yenia?oecu, i?iaa?ee iiaeeeiiinoe e eiie i?iaa?ee, a oaeaea oie/oiaeaiey
a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia, oeaiiuo aoiaa, yieoe?iaaiiuo
e?aaeeoiie eee eiie oeiainiaie i?aaiecaoeeae e / eee Ieioeiii ?innee
aeaieia; iia?aoeee ii eoiea, i?iaeaaea, ?ac?aoaieth ia iieaoo e eiuo
oi?i e aeaeia iai?ioa aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia, oeaiiuo aoiaa, ae?aaioeaiiuo
iaoaeeia, iiiao ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia e eiuo aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae;
iia?aoeee n aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoueth i?e ianeoaeeaaiee aaieiiaoia e
ianeoaeeaaieai eeeaioia, eiathueo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua naeou a o?aieeeua,
o/aoii e o?aiaieai oeaiiinoae e eiiai eiouanoaa eeeaioia a o?aieeeua;
iia?aoeee ii yiennee, o/aoo, o?aiaieth, auaea/a e oie/oiaeaieth
aaieianeeo, e?aaeeoiuo, aeeneiioiuo ea?o, eanniaiio e eiiio oeiainiaiio
ianeoaeeaaieth eeeaioia, ii iiaen/aoo, ia?an/aoo eee oi?ie?iaaieth
aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe e aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae; eieannaoi?neeo ooieoeee e
ia?aaiceie (o?ainii?oe?iaeie) aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e eiuo oeaiiinoae.

?aaiou: ii eoiea (i?eaio), i?iaeaaea (oi?aiaea, ioioneo, ?aaeecaoeee)
oneoa, oiaa?ia (i?iaeoeoeee), iiaeaioiaea eo e i?iaeaaea (oi?aiaea,
ioioneo, ?aaeecaoeee).

?aaiou: ii i?eaio ia o?aiaiea, ia?aaioea (ecaioiaeaieth), o?aiaieth,
o/aoo, ioioneo (auaea/a) iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ia neeaaeao, aacao, a
eeaaeiauo, ioieoao, ioaeaeaieyo, ia o/anoeao, a ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeeyo e
iiae?acaeaeaieyo; ii auaea/a (i?eaio) iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae eeoeai,
iaoiaeyueiny a naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiuo e ae?oaeo ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeeyo, iaineiiaoao, eaiieiaao, iioaeyo, aeiiao ioaeuoa,
ainoeieoeao, iauaaeeoeyo, eiiiaoao ioaeuoa ia o?ainii?oa, aeaoneeo
i?aaiecaoeeyo, nii?oeaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiuo e oo?enoneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo, a
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo, a oaeaea iannaaee?ai anao aeaeia
o?ainii?oa; ii yeeie?iaea iannaaee?neeo noaeia, aaaiiia e naiieaoia.

?aaiou: ii i?eaio io ianaeaiey i?aaeiaoia eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai iacia/aiey
e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ia o?aiaiea, a ?aiiio e aeey
auiieiaiey eiuo iia?aoeee, naycaiiuo n ecaioiaeaieai, ainnoaiiaeaieai
eee oeo/oaieai ea/anoaa yoeo i?aaeiaoia (oeaiiinoae), eo o?aiaieth e
auiieiaieth ae?oaeo iia?aoeee n ieie; ii auaea/a ia i?ieao ianaeaieth
i?aaeiaoia eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai iacia/aiey e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae.

?aaiou: ii i?eaio e ia?aaioea aeey aeinoaaee (nii?iaiaeaeaiey) a?oca,
aaaaaea, ii/oiauo ioi?aaeaiee e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, eo
aeinoaaea (nii?iaiaeaeaieth), auaea/a (naea/a).

?aaiou: ii iieoiea, i?iaeaaea, iaiaio, ia?aaicea, aeinoaaea, ia?anueea,
o?aiaieth, ia?aaioea e i?eiaiaieth a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa
ae?aaioeaiiuo e iieoae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia, eaiiae, neioaoe/aneiai
ei?oiaea e eiuo iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea ecaeaeee ec ieo.

?aaiou: ii au?aueaaieth, ioei?io, niaea?aeaieth e ?acaaaeaieth
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo.

?aaiou: ii ecaioiaeaieth, ia?a?aaioea, o?ainii?oe?iaea, o?aiaieth, o/aoo
e eiio?ieth, ?aaeecaoeee (iieoiea, i?iaeaaea, iinoaaea) yaea?iuo
iaoa?eaeia, ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa e iooiaeia, ae?oaeo oeie/aneeo
aauanoa, aaeoa?eieiae/aneeo iaoa?eaeia, i?oaeey, aiai?eiania,
eiiieaeoothueo e iei, ac?ua/aouo aauanoa e ae?oaie i?iaeoeoeee
(oiaa?ia), cai?auaiiuo eee ia?aie/aiiuo e naiaiaeiiio iai?ioo.

IA?A*AIUe ?AAIO, I?E AUIIEIAIEE EIOI?UO IIAEAO AAIAeEOUeNss IIEIAss
EIEEAEOEAIAss (A?EAAAeIAss) IAOA?EAEUeIAss IOAAONOAAIIINOUe CA
IAAeINOA*O AAA?AIIIAI ?AAIOIEEAI EIOUANOAA

?aaiou: ii i?eaio e auieaoa anao aeaeia ieaoaaeae; ii ?an/aoai i?e
i?iaeaaea (?aaeecaoeee) oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa (a oii /enea ia
/a?ac eanno, /a?ac eanno, aac eannu /a?ac i?iaeaaoea, /a?ac ioeoeeaioa
eee eiiai eeoea, ioaaonoaaiiiai ca inouanoaeaiea ?an/aoia); ii
ianeoaeeaaieth oi?aiauo e aeaiaaeiuo aaoiiaoia; ii ecaioiaeaieth e
o?aiaieth anao aeaeia aeeaoia, oaeiiia, aaiiaiaioia (aeeth/ay aaiiaiaiou
e oaeiiu ia ioione ieue (i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey) e ae?oaeo ciaeia
(aeieoiaioia), i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?an/aoia ca oneoae.

?aaiou, naycaiiua n inouanoaeaieai: aeaiiceoa?iie aeayoaeueiinoe;
yenia?oecu, i?iaa?ee iiaeeeiiinoe e eiie i?iaa?ee, a oaeaea oie/oiaeaiey
a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia, oeaiiuo aoiaa, yieoe?iaaiiuo
e?aaeeoiie eee eiie oeiainiaie i?aaiecaoeeae e / eee Ieioeiii ?innee
aeaieia; iia?aoeee ii eoiea, i?iaeaaea, ?ac?aoaieth ia iieaoo e eiui
oi?iai e aeaeai iai?ioa aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia, oeaiiuo aoiaa, ae?aaioeaiiuo
iaoaeeia, iiiao ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia e eiuo aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae;
iia?aoeee n aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoueth i?e ianeoaeeaaiee aaieiiaoia e
ianeoaeeaaieai eeeaioia, eiathueo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua naeou a o?aieeeua,
o/aoii e o?aiaieai oeaiiinoae e eiiai eiouanoaa eeeaioia a o?aieeeua;
iia?aoeee ii yiennee, o/aoo, o?aiaieth, auaea/a e oie/oiaeaieth
aaieianeeo, e?aaeeoiuo, aeeneiioiuo ea?o, eanniaiio e eiiio oeiainiaiio
ianeoaeeaaieth eeeaioia, ii iiaen/aoo, ia?an/aoo eee oi?ie?iaaieth
aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe e aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae; eieannaoi?neeo ooieoeee e
ia?aaiceie (o?ainii?oe?iaeie) aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e eiuo oeaiiinoae.

?aaiou: ii eoiea (i?eaio), i?iaeaaea (oi?aiaea, ioioneo, ?aaeecaoeee)
oneoa, oiaa?ia (i?iaeoeoeee), iiaeaioiaea eo e i?iaeaaea (oi?aiaea,
ioioneo, ?aaeecaoeee).

?aaiou: ii i?eaio ia o?aiaiea, ia?aaioea (ecaioiaeaieth), o?aiaieth,
o/aoo, ioioneo (auaea/a) iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ia neeaaeao, aacao, a
eeaaeiauo, ioieoao, ioaeaeaieyo, ia o/anoeao, a ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeeyo e
iiae?acaeaeaieyo; ii yeeie?iaea iannaaee?neeo noaeia, aaaiiia e
naiieaoia; ii ianeoaeeaaieth aeeeiai naeoi?a ainoeieoe (eaiieiaia,
iioaeae e o.i.).

?aaiou: ii i?eaio io ianaeaiey i?aaeiaoia eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai iacia/aiey
e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ia o?aiaiea, a ?aiiio e aeey
auiieiaiey eiuo iia?aoeee, naycaiiuo n ecaioiaeaieai, ainnoaiiaeaieai
eee oeo/oaieai ea/anoaa yoeo i?aaeiaoia (oeaiiinoae), eo o?aiaieth e
auiieiaieth ae?oaeo iia?aoeee n ieie; ii auaea/a iai?ieao ianaeaieth
i?aaeiaoia eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai iacia/aiey e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae.

?aaiou: ii i?eaio e ia?aaioea aeey aeinoaaee (nii?iaiaeaeaiey) a?oca,
aaaaaea, ii/oiauo ioi?aaeaiee e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeaiaaeiuo
oeaiiinoae, eo aeinoaaea (nii?iaiaeaeaieth), auaea/a (naea/a).

?aaiou: ii ecaioiaeaieth (nai?ea, iiioaaeo, ?aaoee?iaea) e ?aiiioo iaoei
e aiia?aoo?u, i?eai?ia, nenoai e ae?oaeo ecaeaeee, auioneaaiuo aeey
i?iaeaaee ianaeaieth, a oaeaea aeaoaeae e caianiuo /anoae.

?aaiou: ii iieoiea, i?iaeaaea, iaiaio, ia?aaicea, aeinoaaea, ia?anueea,
o?aiaieth, ia?aaioea e i?eiaiaieth a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa
ae?aaioeaiiuo e iieoae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia, eaiiae, neioaoe/aneiai
ei?oiaea e eiuo iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea ecaeaeee ec ieo.

?aaiou: ii au?aueaaieth, ioei?io, niaea?aeaieth e ?acaaaeaieth
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo.

?aaiou: ii ecaioiaeaieth, ia?a?aaioea, o?ainii?oe?iaea, o?aiaieth, o/aoo
e eiio?ieth, ?aaeecaoeee (iieoiea, i?iaeaaea, iinoaaea) yaea?iuo
iaoa?eaeia, ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa e iooiaeia, ae?oaeo oeie/aneeo
aauanoa, aaeoa?eieiae/aneeo iaoa?eaeia, i?oaeey, aiai?eiania,
eiiieaeoothueo e iei, ac?ua/aouo aauanoa e ae?oaie i?iaeoeoeee
(oiaa?ia), cai?auaiiuo eee ia?aie/aiiuo e naiaiaeiiio iai?ioo.

O*AO OIAA?IUO IIA?AOeEE A ?ICIE*IIE OI?AIAEA

Caaea/e e i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa oiaa?iuo iia?aoeee

• iaania/eoue eiio?ieue ca iaee/eai, aeaeaeaieai e nio?aiiinoueth
oiaa?ia e oa?u;

• i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaoue iaoa?eaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oiaa?u e
oa?o;

• eiio?iee?iaaoue auiieiaiea iauaia ?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa e i?eauee;

• i?eieiaoue ia?u e ?aaeecaoeee iaoiaeiauo e caeaaeaeuo oiaa?ia;

• i?iaa?youe i?aaeeueiinoue aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey i?eaiee e
ioionea oiaa?ia e oa?u, caeiiiinoue e oeaeaniia?aciinoue iia?aoeee;

• iaania/eoue eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai aeiaiai?iie aeenoeeieeiu,
?anoe?aieai oicyenoaaiiuo naycae;

• naiaa?aiaiii i?iaiaeeoue eiaaioa?ecaoeee;

• eiio?iee?iaaoue i?aaeeueiinoue oeai e oi?aiauo iaaeaaaie;

• naiaa?aiaiii e i?aaeeueii auyaeyoue aaeiaie aeioiae (AAe) io
?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia.

Caaea/e, iinoaaeaiiua ia?aae aooaaeoa?neei o/aoii, iiaoo auoue auiieiaiu
i?e i?aaeeueiie aai i?aaiecaoeee e niaethaeaiee neaaeothueo i?eioeeiia:

• o/ao oiaa?ia noiiiaie a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee, e?iia eiienneiiiie
oi?aiaee e iaaaceiia ii i?iaeaaea aioeeaa?iuo aauae e ae?aaioeaiiinoae;

• o/ao oiaa?ia e oa?u ii iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiui eeoeai;

• aaeeinoai ioeaiee i?e eo ii?eoiaeiaaiea e auauoee.

Oeaiiia?aciaaiea a oi?aiaea

Aieueoia cia/aiea a ?icie/iie oi?aiaea ea?aao oeaia. Oeaia – aeaiaaeiia
au?aaeaiea noieiinoe oiaa?a, oneoae.

A niioaaonoaee n i. 4.1 Iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oi?ie?iaaieth e
i?eiaiaieth naiaiaeiuo oeai e oa?eoia ia i?iaeoeoeeth, oiaa?u e oneoae,
ooaa?aeaeaiiuo Ieiyeiiiieee ?innee, naiaiaeiua ?icie/iua oeaiu e oa?eou
ii?aaeaeythony naiinoiyoaeueii ?icie/iuie oi?aiauie i?aaei?eyoeyie e
ae?oaeie th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, inouanoaeythueie i?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia
ianaeaieth, a niioaaonoaee n eiiuthieoo?ie ?uiea, ea/anoaii e
iio?aaeoaeueneeie naienoaaie oiaa?ia, enoiaey ec naiaiaeiie ioioneiie
oeaiu i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaey eee ae?oaiai iinoaaueea e oi?oiaie
iaaeaaaee.

Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oi?aiaee i?eiaiythony:

• naiaiaeiua ioioneiua (iioiaua) oeaiu;

• naiaiaeiua ?icie/iua oeaiu;

• caeoii/iua oeaiu;

• aeiaiai?iua oeaiu.

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee naiaiaeiuo ?icie/iuo oeai i?aaei?eyoey oi?aiaee,
?aaeecothuea oiaa?u ianaeaieth, i?eiaiytho e naiaiaeiie ioioneiie oeaia
oiaa?a oi?aiaoth iaaeaaaeo Iia i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iie?uoey ?anoiaeia,
iieo/aiey i?eauee e oieaou iaeiaia. No?oeoo?o naiaiaeiie ?icie/iie oeaiu

A oi?aiaoth iaaeaaaeo aeeth/athony ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey, a oii /enea
o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu ii aeinoaaea oiaa?ia io iinoaaueea, ae?oaea
?anoiaeu ii caeoiea e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ?icie/iuo oi?aiauo
i?aaiecaoeee, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, a oaeaea i?eaueue.

Naiaiaeiua ?icie/iua oeaiu e ?acia?u i?eiaiyaiuo iaaeaaaie aeieaeiu
oeene?iaaoueny i?iaeaaoeii a i?ioieiea eee a ?aano?a Naiaiaeiuo
?icie/iuo oeai ii i?aaenoaaeaiiie ieaea oi?ia.

Naiaiaeiay ioioneiay oeaia (iioiaay oeaia) – oeaia ii eioi?ie
i?aaei?eyoey oi?aiaee iieoiatho oiaa?u e i?iaeoeou o i?iecaiaeeoaey e
iioiauo aac.

?icie/iay oeaia – oeaia, ii eioi?ie ?icie/iua i?aaei?eyoey ?aaeecotho
oiaa?u. Iia ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:

?icie/iay oeaia = Naiaiaeiay ioioneiay + Oi?aiaay iaaeaaaea + IAeN+
Iaeia n i?iaeaae oeaia

Aeiaiai?iay oeaia – oeaia, onoaiaaeeaaaiay ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe iaaeaeo
i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai.

Caeoii/iay oeaia – oeaia, ii eioi?ie i?aaei?eyoey ?icie/iie oi?aiaee
i?eia?aoatho oiaa?u o /anoiuo eeoe, o eieoicia e niaoicia.

O/ao oiaa?ia ia ?icie/iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo aaaeaony ii o/aoiui oeaiai, o,
a. oeaiai, ii eioi?ui i?eoiaeoaony e nienuaaaony oiaa? a iaaaceia.

Aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea e o/ao iinooieaiey oiaa?ia

Ia ?icie/iua oi?aiaua i?aaei?eyoey oiaa?u iinooiatho io i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, iioiauo aac, /anoiuo eeoe, naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Aeey ?aaoey?iie iinoaaee oiaa?ia i?aaei?eyoey oi?aiaee
caeeth/atho a niioaaonoaee n AE ?O Aeiaiai?u eoiee-i?iaeaaee n
iinoaaueeaie. A aeiaiai?ao niaeaniauaathony eiie?aoiua oneiaey aeinoaaee
e ii?yaeie i?eaiee oiaa?ia. Iniiaiuie ?aeaeceoaie aeiaiai?a iinoaaee
yaeythony:

• iaeiaiiaaiea noi?ii;

• i?eiao aeiaiai?a;

• iaeiaiiaaiea oiaa?a;

• oneiaey ieaoaaea e oeaiu ii aeiaiai?o iinoaaee;

• n?iee eniieiaiey aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa;

• o?aaiaaiey e oiaeiaea oiaa?a;

• iniaaiiinoe no?aoiaaiey e o?ainii?oe?iaaiey oiaa?a;

• iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ia?aoiaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia iinoaaeyaiua
oiaa?u;

• ii?yaeie aiciauaiey oauoeia;

• ii?yaeie ?anniio?aiey nii?ia.

aeiaiai?u iiaoo caeeth/aoueny iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, a oaeaea
iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie. A iaycaiiinoe aooaaeoa?ee
oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey aoiaeeo eiio?ieue ca naiaa?aiaiiinoueth iieaou ii
aeiaiai?ai iinoaaee, a oaeaea i?aaeeueiinoueth e naiaa?aiaiiinoueth
iinoaaee oiaa?ia.

Ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou ii o/aoo oiaa?ia iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aiaoiea e
aioo?aiiea.

Iniiaiui aiaoiei aeieoiaioii ?icie/iie oi?aiaee yaeyaony oiaa?iay
iaeeaaeiay (oi?ia ? OI?A-12). Iia neoaeeo i?eoiaeiui (aoiaeyuei)
aeieoiaioii. Ninoaaeyaony iinoaaueeii a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao. Ia?aue
inoaaony o iinoaaueea, aoi?ie yecaiiey? ia?aaeaaony i?aaei?eyoeth
?icie/iie oi?aiaee e yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey ii?eoiaeiaaiey oiaa?ia.

Anee aeinoaaea oiaa?ia i?iecaiaeeony neeaie o?ainii?oiie i?aaiecaoeee,
auienuaaaony oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiay iaeeaaeiay, eioi?ay ninoieo ec aeaoo
?acaeaeia: oiaa?iiai e o?ainii?oiiai.

Anee oiaa?inii?iaiaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou io iinoaaueea auee ioi?ieaiu
iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii, i?e iinooieaiee oiaa?ia i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii
ninoaaeoue aeo i i?eaiea oiaa?a (oi?ia ? OI?A-1).

A neo/aa ianiioaaonoaey oaeoe/aneiai iaee/ey oiaa?ia aeaiiui, oeacaiiui
a nii?iaiaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao, aeieaeai ninoaaeyoueny aeo ia
onoaiiaeaiiii ?anoiaeaeaiee ii eiee/anoao e ea/anoao
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae (oi?ia ? OI?A-2), eioi?ue yaeyaony
th?eaee/aneei iniiaaieai aeey i?aaeuyaeaiey i?aoaicee iinoaaueeo. Aeou
ninoaaeythony eiienneae ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e
iinoaaueea.

Aioo?aiiea ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue o/ao oiaa?ia
aioo?e oi?aiaie i?aaiecaoeee, o. a. iie aeieaeiu io?aaeaoue:

• ia?aiauaiea oiaa?ia aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey;

• nienaiea oiaa?ia, iai?eaiaeiuo e ?aaeecaoeee e aioo?aiiaio
eniieueciaaieth.

Yoe aeieoiaiou iiaeienuaatho oiieiiii/aiiua nio?oaeieee oi?aiaiai
i?aaei?eyoey.

E iniiaiui aioo?aiiei aeieoiaioai ioiinyony:

• aeo i i?eaiea oiaa?a (oi?ia ? OI?A-4);

• iaeeaaeiay ia aioo?aiiaa ia?aiauaiea oiaa?ia (oi?ia ?OI?A-13);

• ?anoiaeii-i?eoiaeiay iaeeaaeiay (aeey iaeei?icie/iie oi?aiaee) (oi?ia
? OI?A-14);

• oiaa?iue io/ao, (oi?ia ? OI?A-29);

• io/ao ii oa?a (oi?ia ? OI?A-30);

• nii?iaiaeeoaeueiue ?aano? naea/e aeieoiaioia (oi?ia ? OI?A-31).
Aioo?aiiea i?eoiaeiua aeieoiaiou ninoaaeythony a oii neo/aa, anee iao
ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia io iinoaaueea, a oaeaea i?e aioo?aiiai ia?aiauaiee
oiaa?ia.

Ii?yaeie aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey i?eaiee oiaa?ia caaeneo io niiniaa
aeinoaaee oiaa?ia e ianoa i?eaiee: ia neeaaea iinoaaueea (aacu) eee a
iaaaceia.

Aeey iieo/aiey oiaa?ia ni neeaaeia iinoaaueeia, noaioeee aeaeaciie
aei?iae (i?enoaie) o?aaoaony aeiaa?aiiinoue. Ii?yaeie auaea/e e o/aoa
aeiaa?aiiinoae.

I?e ioa?ocea oiaa?ia aeaeaciie aei?iaie iinoaauee ioi?ieyao
aeaeaciiaei?iaeioth iaeeaaeioth, eioi?ay yaeyaony nii?iaiaeeoaeueiui
aeieoiaioii e auaeaaony a?ociiieo/aoaeth ia noaioeee iacia/aiey.
Iaaacei, iieo/ea eioi?iaoeeth io aeaeaciie aei?iae i i?eauoee a?oca,
ioi?aaeyao naiaai i?aaenoaaeoaey n aeiaa?aiiinoueth aeey iieo/aiey
oiaa?ia. Aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea iinooieaiey oiaa?ia.

Anee oiaa? iinooiee io iinoaaueea aac nii?iaiaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia, ii
i?eieiaaony aac eiee/anoaa iano iooai ninoaaeaiey i?eaii/iie eiienneae
i?eaiiiai aeoa (oi?ia ? OI?A-4) a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao.

A nooi/iue n?ie iieoiaoaeue oaaaeiieyao iinoaaueea i i?eauoee oiaa?a ia
ioaaonoaaiiia o?aiaiea. Iinoaauee a oa/aiea 5aeiae aeieaeai aeaoue
?anii?yaeaiea ia eniieueciaaiee oiaa?a eee aai ia?aaae?aniaea. Anee io
iinoaaueea naiaa?aiaiii ia iinooieei ioaaoa, n iaai aceiathony iaie.

N?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a, i?eiyoiai ia ioaaonoaaiiia
o?aiaiea, ca au/aoii ?anoiaeia ii o?aiaieth e ?aaeecaoeee,
ia?a/eneythony iinoaaueeo.

Anee aeiaiai?ii iinoaaee i?aaeoniio?aia oeaio?aeeciaaiiay aeinoaaea
i?iaeoeoia e oiaa?ia a iaaacei, iinoaaueeo a onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee
aunueathony ia?yaeu e ?acia?yaeee.

Oiaa?u a iaaaceia i?eieiathony e ioi?ieythony ?anieneie iaoa?eaeueii
ioaaonoaaiiiai eeoea ia nii?iaiaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao. I?e iinooieaiee
oeaiae iaycaoaeueii eo ia?aia?eaaiea, e a neo/aa ?anoiaeaeaiey
ninoaaeyaony aeo (oi?ia ? OI?A-24). Ia?aia?eaaiea i?iaiaeeony /eaiaie
eiiennee a ninoaaa oiaa?iaaaea, i?aaenoaaeoaey iauanoaaiiinoe e
iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiiai eeoea. Aeo ninoaaeyaony a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao:
iaeei inoaaony o iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiiai eeoea, a aoi?ie –
i?eeaaaaony e i?eoiaeiui aeieoiaioai e ia?aaeaaony a aooaaeoa?eth.
Oaeoe/aneay ia?a aeeeiu eonea i?inoaaeyaony ia y?eue i?iecaiaeeoaey
/a?ieeaie eee oa?eeiaie ?o/eie e ne?aieyaony iiaeienyie /eaiia eiiennee
ia y?euea oeacuaaaony iiia? e aeaoa aeoa. Auyaeaiiua eceeoee oeaiae
i?eoiaeothony.

Neioaoe/aneee e aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao iinooieaiey oiaa?ia e oa?u

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao oiaa?ia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oi?aiaee aaaeaony ia
iniiaaiee Eino?oeoeee ii i?eiaiaieth Ieaia n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, ooaa?aeaeaiiie
i?eeacii Ieioeia ?innee io 31 ieoya?y 2000 a. ? 94-i, ia n/aoa 41/2
«Oiaa?u a ?icie/iie oi?aiaea». Yoi n/ao aeoeaiue, n/ao eiouanoaa, ii
no?oeoo?a e iacia/aieth — iniiaiie, eiaaioa?iue. Ii aeaaaoo aeaiiiai
n/aoa io?aaeaaony iinooieaiea oiaa?ia a iaaacei, ii e?aaeeoo — auauoea,
nienaiea ?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia, ii?/a, aie, eii. Naeueaei ii n/aoo 41/2
iieacuaaao inoaoie oiaa?ia a iaaaceia.

Noieiinoue oiaa?ia i?e iinooieaiee e auauoee io?aaeaaony ia n/aoa 41/2 a
iaeiie e oie aea ioeaiea (ii naiaiaeiui ?icie/iui oeaiai). Ia yoii n/aoa
o/eouaaaony e noaeeiiinoaea. Oi?aiaua iaaeaaaee ia noaeeiiinoaeo ia
ia/eneythony.

E n/aoo 41/2 ?aaoee?othuei, eiio?a?iui, o. a. oiaiueoathuei noieiinoue,
yaeyaony n/ao 42 «Oi?aiaay iaoeaiea». Yoi ianneaiue n/ao. Aeaiiua ii
aeaaaoo ionoonoaotho. Ii e?aaeeoo io?aaeathony oi?aiaua iaaeaaaee ia
iinooieaoea oiaa?u e oi?aiaua iaaeaaaee ia nienaiiua oiaa?u ii aeoai,
caienaiiua iaoiaeii «e?aniia noi?ii». Ia yoii n/aoa eiia/iia naeueaei
iiaeao auoue oieueei e?aaeeoiaui. Iii io?aaeaao noiio oi?aiaie
iaaeaaaee, ioiinyuaeny e inoaoeo oiaa?ia ia i?aaei?eyoee ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee.

O/ao oa?u aaaeaony ia n/aoa 41/3 «Oa?a iiae oiaa?ii e ii?iaeiyy».
Oa?aeoa?enoeea n/aoa aiaeiae/ia n/aoo 41/2 «Oiaa?u a ?icie/iie
oi?aiaea».

O/ao ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ?icie/iie oi?aiaee

?icie/iue oiaa?iiai?io — yoi i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia ianaeaieth ca iaee/iue
?an/ao iacaaeneii io iooae eo ?aaeecaoeee, aeey ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey.

?icie/iay i?iaeaaea oiaa?a ?aaoee?oaony no. 494 AE ?O.

A niioaaonoaee n IAO 9/99 aeioiaeaie i?aaiecaoeee i?eciathony oaaee/aiea
yeiiiie/aneeo auaiae a ?acoeueoaoa iinooieaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
eiiai eiouanoaa, iiaaoaiey iaycaoaeuenoa, i?eaiaeyueo e oaaee/aieth
eaieoaea yoie i?aaiecaoeee ca eneeth/aieai aeeaaeia o/anoieeia.

Aeioiaeu i?aaiecaoeee a caaeneiinoe io eo oa?aeoa?a, oneiaey iieo/aiey e
iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, iiae?acaeaeythony ia:

• aeioiaeu io iau/iuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe – yoi au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee
i?iaeoeoeee e oiaa?ia, iinooieaiey, naycaiiua n auiieiaieai ?aaio,
ieacaieai oneoa;

• au?o/eo, i?eieiaaioth e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo a noiia, en/eneaiiie a
aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee, ?aaiie aaee/eia iinooieaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e
eiiai eiouanoaa, e (eee) aaee/eio aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Au?o/ea i?eciaaony a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa i?e iaee/ee neaaeothueo
oneiaee:

• i?aaiecaoeey eiaao i?aai ia iieo/aiea yoie au?o/ee, auoaeathuaa ec
eiie?aoiiai aeiaiai?a;

• noiia au?o/ee iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia;

• eiaaony oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa eiie?aoiie iia?aoeee
i?iecieaeao oaaee/aiea yeiiiie/aneeo auaiae i?aaiecaoeee;

• i?aai nianoaaiiinoe (aeaaeaiey, iieueciaaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey) ia
i?iaeoeoeeth (oiaa?) ia?aoei io i?aaiecaoeee e iieoiaoaeth eee ?aaioa
i?eiyoa caeac/eeii (oneoaa ieacaia);

• ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua i?iecaaaeaiu eee aoaeoo i?iecaaaeaiu a nayce n yoie
iia?aoeeae, iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu.

A o/aoiie iieeoeea i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeii auoue caoeene?iaaii, /oi a
aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe iiaeeaaeeo ?ane?uoeth eae ieieioi neaaeothuay
eioi?iaoeey: ii?yaeie i?eciaiey au?o/ee i?aaiecaoeee;

niinia ii?aaeaeaiey aioiaiinoe ?aaio (oneoa, i?iaeoeoeee), au?o/ea io
auiieiaiey (ieacaiey, i?iaeaaee) eioi?uo i?eciaaony ii ia?a aioiaiinoe.

Iiiaioii ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a n/eoaaony eo ia?aaea/a iieoiaoaeyi.

• Niaeanii Eino?oeoeee ii caiieiaieth oieoeoee?iaaiiuo oi?i
Oaaea?aeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaoenoe/aneiai iaaethaeaiey a ninoaa
?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa aeeth/athony:

• i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia a ?icie/iie naoe (iaaaceiu, eaaee, iaeaoee, ea?ueee,
eeinee, aaoiiaou, ?acaiciay, ?aciiniay e ae?oaay oi?aiaay naoue) ca
iaee/iue ?an/ao;

• i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia ia aoeoeeiiao, /a?ac eiiia?/aneea iaaaceiu e iaeaoee
ii oeaiai oaeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee;

• i?iaeaaea ianaeaieth oiaa?ia aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey ii ia?acoeai —
iaaaee, oieiaeeeueieeia, ?aaeeiaiia?aoo?u, eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae e ae?.;

• i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia a e?aaeeo n ?ann?i/eie ieaoaaea, i?e/ai a
oiaa?iiai?io aeeth/aaony iieiay noieiinoue oiaa?ia ii oeaiai oaeoe/aneie
?aaeecaoeee ia iiiaio iieoiee eo ianaeaieai;

• noieiinoue oiaa?ia, i?iaeaiiuo a ii?yaeea eiienneiiiie oi?aiaee;

• noieiinoue oiaeiaee, eiathuae i?iaeaaeioth oeaio, ia aoiaeyuoth a
oeaio oiaa?a;

• i?iaeaaea ianaeaieth ii?iaeiae oa?u.

A ninoaa ?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa ii i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia o/?aaeaeaieyi,
i?aaiecaoeeyi, i?aaei?eyoeyi aeeth/aaony i?iaeaaea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo e
iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia ec ?icie/iie naoe ii aaciaee/iiio ?an/aoo
ioaeaeueiui i?aaei?eyoeyi, i?aaiecaoeeyi, o/?aaeaeaieyi
(cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?aciaaiey, eoeueoo?u e nii?oa, aeaoneei, ea/aaiui,
ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneei, aeiiai ioaeuoa, eioa?iaoai aeey i?anoa?aeuo,
aeiiai eiaaeeaeia, o/aaiui e ae?.).

Iineieueeo iniiaiie oi?iie ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia yaeyaony i?iaeaaea ca
iaee/iue ?an/ao, iauai ?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa ii?aaeaeyaony noiiie
au?o/ee, iinooieaoae a eanno.

Aieueoeinoai i?aaei?eyoee oi?aiaee, ?aaeecothueo oiaa?u (?aaiou, oneoae)
ianaeaieth aeey ee/iiai eniieueciaaiey ca iaee/iue ?an/ao, iaycaiu
i?eiaiyoue eiio?ieueii-eanniaua iaoeiu (EEI).

Ii?yaeie i?eiaiaiey EEI ?aaoee?oaony Caeiiii ?O «I i?eiaiaiee
eiio?ieueii-eanniauo iaoei i?e inouanoaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia n
ianaeaieai» io 18 ethiy 1993 a. ? 5215-1 [38].

I?eiaiaiea EEI ia o?aaoaony:

• anee i?aaei?eyoey, ieacuaathuea oneoae ianaeaieth, iieuecothony
aeaieaie no?iaie io/aoiinoe;

• i?e ?aaeecaoeee aacao e aeo?iaeia;

• i?e i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa;

• i?e i?iaeaaea eioa?aeiuo aeeaoia;

• i?e i?iaeaaea i?iacaeiuo aeeaoia e oaeiiia ia i?iacae;

• i?e oi?aiaea ia ?uieao, y?ia?eao, ca eneeth/aieai iaeaoie, eeineia e
ae?oaeo iaono?iaiiuo oi?aiauo iano;

• i?e inouanoaeaiee iaeei?icie/iie oi?aiaee n ?o/iuo oaeaaeae, ec
oeenoa?i (i?e i?iaeaaea ieaa, eaana, iieiea), n eioeia, ec ei?cei, a
oaeaea ia «?acaaeao» (i?e i?iaeaaea iaiuae e aao/aauo eoeueoo?, eiea e
o. ae.) aeieoiaiou, naycaiiua n i?eiaiaieai EEI.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey noiiu au?o/ee ca aeaiue eanne?-iia?aoeeiieno aaaeao
aeo?iae eanne?a-iia?aoeeiienoa.

Noiia au?o/ee ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo iieacaieyie n/ao/eeia
ia eiiaoe e ia/aei ?aai/aai aeiy. Iieacaiey nieiathony aeaaeo?iui
aaeieieno?aoi?ii n eanne?ii-iia?aoeeiienoii eee noa?oei eanne?ii.

Au?o/ea oiaiueoaaony ia noiio aeaiaa, auaeaiiuo iieoiaoaeyi ec eannu ii
aica?auaiiui /aeai, eiathuei ?ac?aoeoaeueioth aeco aee?aeoi?a
i?aaei?eyoey eee caaaaeothuaai ioaeaeii (naeoeeae).

I?e aica?aoa aeaiaa iieoiaoaeyi ninoaaeyaony aeo, e eioi?iio
i?eeaaathony iaeniieueciaaiiua /aee.

Ia noiio au?o/ee, iinooiathuae a eanno io iieoiaoaeae, eanne?ii
ioi?ieyaony i?eoiaeiue eanniaue i?aea? e eaeoaioeey e iaio. Eaeoaioeey
ia?aaeaaony iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiiio eeoeo aeey nienaiey noieiinoe
?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia ii oiaa?iiio io/aoo.

Noiia au?o/ee noa?oei eanne?ii (eanne?ii) io?aaeaaony a i?eoiaeiie /anoe
eanniaiai io/aoa, iia aeieaeia niaiaaeaoue n noiiie au?o/ee a oiaa?iii
io/aoa.

A i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo iaaaceiao, ?aaeecothueo oiaa?u a noaeeyiiie
iinoaea, iauai ?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa iieacuaaaony n o/aoii noieiinoe
noaeeyiiie iinoaeu, i?iaeaiiie ianaeaieth n oiaa?ii, ca au/aoii
noieiinoe aica?auaiiie ianaeaieai ii?iaeiae noaeeyiiie iinoaeu, a oaeaea
n o/aoii noieiinoe noaeeiiinoaeu, i?eiyoie io ianaeaiey a iaiai ia
oiaa?.

?icie/iue oiaa?iiai?io oi?aiauo i?aaiecaoeee, io?aaeaiiue ia n/aoa 90
«I?iaeaaee», aeieaeai oiaiueoaoueny ia noieiinoue ii?iaeiae noaeeyiiie
iinoaeu, aica?auaiiie ianaeaieai a io/aoiii ia?eiaea. Aeaiiay iia?aoeey
caienuaaaony i?iaiaeeie:

Ae 90/2 E 90/1 (iaoiaeii «e?aniia noi?ii»).

Noieiinoue iinoaeu, i?eiyoie a iaiai ia oiaa?, o/eouaaaony neaaeothuei
ia?acii: Ae 90/2 E 90/1.

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia aaaeaony ia aeoeaii-ianneaiii,
niiinoaaeythuai iia?aoeeiiii-?acoeueoaoiii n/aoa 90 «I?iaeaaee». Yoio
n/ao i?aaeiacia/ai aeey eiio?iey ca iauaiii ?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa e
auyaeaiey ?acoeueoaoa io ?aaeecaoeee.

E n/aoo 90 aaaeoony noan/aoa:

1. Au?o/ea.

2. Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeaae.

3. Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue e ae?.

Ii?aaeaeaiea e o/ao IAeN

Oi?aiaua i?aaiecaoeee iiaeeaaeao iaycaoaeueiie iinoaiiaea ia o/ao a
iaeiaiaii i?aaia a ea/anoaa iaeiaiieaoaeueueea ii naiaio ianoo
iaoiaeaeaiey. A niioaaonoaee ni no. 23 e ae. 21 IE ?O i?aaei?eyoey
?icie/iie oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey aeieaeiu oiea/eaaoue IAeN a
oii aea ii?yaeea, /oi e i?aaiecaoeee iioiaie oi?aiaee.

Ia/eneaiea iaeiaa i?iecaiaeeony io i?iaeaaeiie noieiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiuo
oiaa?ia (e?aaeeoiaue iai?io n/aoa 90) ii noaaea 18 eee 10% e
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiiio iai?ioo.

IAeN, oiea/aiiue iinoaaueeai, a iieoiioth noieiinoue oiaa?ia ia
aeeth/aaony, a iiaeeaaeeo aiciauaieth (ca/aoo) ec athaeaeaoa.

Noiia IAeN, iiaeeaaeauay ia?a/eneaieth a athaeaeao, aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie iaeiaa, iieo/aiiiai io
iieoiaoaeae, e noiiie IAeN ii ii?eoiaeiaaiiui e iiea/aiiui oeaiiinoyi,
nienaiiie a aiciauaiea (ca/ao) ec athaeaeaoa.

O/ao IAeN ii ii?eoiaeiaaiiui oiaa?ai aaaeaony ia aeoeaiii n/aoa 19
«Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ii i?eia?aoaiiui oeaiiinoyi». Ii
aeaaaoo io?aaeathony noiiu IAeN ia iinooieaoea oiaa?u e oneoae, ii
e?aaeeoo io?aaeaaony nienaiea IAeN ia ?an/aou n athaeaeaoii eee ca n/ao
i?eauee iinea iieaou iinoaaueeai eee ae?oaei i?aaiecaoeeyi. I?e yoii
ninoaaeyaony i?iaiaeea: Ae 68, 91 E 19.

I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O iinoaiiaeaieai io 16 iay 2001 a. ? 383 ooaa?aeeei
ia?a/aiue i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iaeaaaaony IAeN n ?acieoeu iaaeaeo
iieoiiie e i?iaeaaeiie noieiinoueth. Yoi iaeioi?ua aeaeu i?iaeoeoia,
caeoiaaiuo o ianaeaiey: iieiei, iyni, yeoea, ea?oioaeue, naaeea,
naia/ee, iaae, eaea?noaaiiua ?anoaiey; a oaeaea i?i/ay i?iaeoeoeey
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa: oa?noue, oeo?ee e?ieeeia, ia?i, ioo e o, ae. I?e
?aaeecaoeee yoeo oiaa?ia iaeiaiaie aacie ii IAeN yaeyaony ia any au?o/ea
io ?aaeecaoeee, a oieueei ?acieoea iaaeaeo eo iieoiiie e i?iaeaaeiie
noieiinoueth. I?e yoii iaeia en/eneyaony ii ?an/aoiie noaaea 16,67 eeai
9,09%.

Niaeanii Iaeiaiaiio eiaeaeno ?O oaeei aea ia?acii IAeN ia/eneyaony e ii
oiaa?ai, i?eia?aoaiiui o eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

N 2001 a. niaeanii no. 145 IE ?O i?aaei?eyoey e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
i?aaei?eieiaoaee n iaaieueoeie iauaiaie au?o/ee iiaoo inaiaiaeaeaoueny
io iaycaiiinoe en/eneyoue e oiea/eaaoue IAeN. I?e yoii iauai au?o/ee ca
o?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eaeaiaea?iuo ianyoea ia aeieaeai i?aauoaoue 1 000
000 ?oa. A yoo noiio ia aoiaeyo IAeN e iaeia n i?iaeaae.

Niaeanii i. 2 no. 145 IE ?O oaeia inaiaiaeaeaiea ia iiaoo iieo/eoue
i?aaiecaoeee, ?aaeecothuea iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u e iiaeaeoeeciia
ieia?aeueiia nu?uea.

A niioaaonoaee ni no. 149 IE ?O ?aaeecaoeey iaeioi?uo oiaa?ia e oneoa ia
iiaeeaaeeo eee inaiaiaeaeaaony io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey:

• oneoae ii naea/a a a?aiaeo neoaeaaiuo eee aeeeuo iiiauaiee eiino?aiiui
a?aaeaeaiai;

• iaeioi?ua aeaeu iaaeeoeeineeo oiaa?ia ioa/anoaaiiiai e ca?oaaaeiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa;

• oneoae ii niaea?aeaieth aeaoae a aeioeieueiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo;

• i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?iecaaaeaiiua nooaeai/aneeie e
oeieueiuie noieiauie;

• oneoae ii ia?aaicea iannaaee?ia iaeioi?uie aeaeaie o?ainii?oa;

• aeiee a onoaaiii (neeaaei/iii) eaieoaea;

• ?aaiou ii no?ieoaeuenoao iauaeoia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai eee
auoiaiai iacia/aiey;

• oiaa?u, iiiauaiiua iiae oaiiaeaiiue ?aaeei iaaaceia aaniioeeiiie
oi?aiaee e o. ae

O/ao oa?u

Oa?a – yoi ecaeaeea, iaania/eaathuaa nio?aiiinoue oiaa?ia a i?ioeanna eo
o?aiaiey, o?ainii?oe?iaee, neeaaee?iaaiey e o. ae. Oa?a yaeyaony
naiinoiyoaeueiie o/aoiie aaeeieoeae, io?aaeaaiie ia n/aoao
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iauee ii?yaeie aa o/aoa ii?aaeaeai IAO 5/01 «O/ao
iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania»

Oa?a auaaao iaeii?aciaie e aica?aoiie (iiiaiiai?ioiie).

Iaeii?aciaay– yoi oa?a, eioi?ay iinoaaueeo ia aica?auaaony.

iae ioiineony: aoiaaeiay, iieeyoeeaiiaay e ea?oiiiay oa?a, oaeaea iaoee
aoiaaeiua e iaoee ec ae?oaeo iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia.

Aica?aoiie yaeyaony oa?a, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue aica?auaia ;iinoaaueeo.
E iae ioiineony aea?aayiiay (ai/ee, yueee, eaaeee), ea?oiiiay (yueee ec
aio?e?iaaiiiai e ieineiai neeaaiiiai ea?oiia), iaoaeee/aneay e
ieanoianniaay (ai/ee, oeyae, yueee, aeaeiiu, ei?ceiu) e noaeeyiiay oa?a
(aooueee, aaiee, aoouee).

O/ao oa?u aaaeaony a iaoo?aeueii-noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee. Iniiaiie
caaea/ae ?aaioieeia aooaaeoa?ee yaeyaony iaania/aiea eiio?iey ca
nio?aiiinoueth oa?u, aa ii?eoiaeiaaieai, o?aiaieai, naiaa?aiaiiui
aica?aoii iinoaaueeai, oa?iniae?athuei i?aaiecaoeeyi eee i?iaeaaeae
ianaeaieth.

?anoiaeu ii niaea?aeaieth oa?u oaaee/eaatho ecaea?aeee i?aaei?eyoey, a
iioa?e oa?u oiaiueoatho aeioiae i?aaei?eyoey.

I?eaiea, ii?eoiaeiaaiea, aioo?aiiaa ia?aiauaiea e aica?ao oa?u
inouanoaeythony iaeiia?aiaiii n oiaa?ii ia iniiaaiee iaeieo e oao aea
aeieoiaioia (oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiuo iaeeaaeiuo, n/aoia-oaeoo?, aeoia,
?anoiaeiuo iaeeaaeiuo).

A yoeo aeieoiaioao oa?a auaeaeyaony ioaeaeueii (iaeiaiiaaiea oa?u,
eiee/anoai, oeaia, noieiinoue).

I?eieiay oa?o, iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea i?iaa?ytho niioaaonoaea
eiee/anoaa oaeoe/anee iinooieaoae oa?u oeacaiiiio a aeieoiaioa, aa
ea/anoai, iaee/ea e i?aaeeueiinoue ia?ee?iaee, niioaaonoaea oeai
aeaenoaothuei i?aeneo?aioai.

Oa?a, ia oeacaiiay a aeieoiaioa iinoaaueea, aeieaeia auoue ii?eoiaeiaaia
iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiuie eeoeaie. I?e i?eaiea oaeie oa?u ninoaaeytho
aeo ia ii?eoiaeiaaiee oa?u, ia oeacaiiie a n/aoa iinoaaueea.

Ii oa?a iiaoo auoue ?anoiaeu, iioa?e e aeioiaeu.

E ?anoiaeai ii oa?a, aac eioi?uo iaaiciiaeii iaieoenue, ioiinyony:

• aii?oecaoeey oa?u;

• ?anoiaeu ia ?aiiio oa?u;

• noieiinoue oa?u, nienaiiie ec-ca anoanoaaiiiai eciina;

• ?anoiaeu ia ia?aaiceo, iia?oceo e aua?oceo ii?iaeiae oa?u;

• ?anoiaeu ia i/enoeo e ia?aaioeo oa?u;

• ae?oaea ?anoiaeu ia oa?o.

Iioa?e ii oa?a — yoi iaieaie?oaiua ?anoiaeu, aucaaiiua, eae i?aaeei,
aanoicyenoaaiiui ioiioaieai e oa?a. Iie o/eouaathony ii aeaeai: iioa?e
io nieaeaiey ea/anoaa aea?aayiiie e ea?oiiiie oa?u (?acieoea iaaeaeo
oeaiie, ii eioi?ie iiea/aia iinooieaoay oa?a, e oeaiie, ii eioi?ie
i?eiyoa iinoaaueeaie); iioa?e io iiieaeaiey ea/anoaa iaoeia aieaa /ai ia
iaeio eaoaai?eth i?e eo naea/a; noieiinoue ?acaeoie e i?eoaaeoae a
iaaiaeiinoue oa?u (ca au/aoii noieiinoe iaoa?eaeia — aaicaeae,
ae?aaaneiu e ae?.).

E aeioiaeai ii oa?a ioiinyo:

noieiinoue oa?u, iieo/aiiie io iinoaaueeia aanieaoii; i?aauoaiea
noieiinoe oa?u ii naeaoi/iui oeaiai iaae noieiinoueth oa?u ii o/aoiui
oeaiai e ae?.

?anoiaeu ii oa?a o/eouaathony ia n/aoa 44 «Ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey», a
iioa?e e aeioiaeu — niioaaonoaaiii ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo /aoa 91 «I?i/ea
aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu».

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao aaaeoo ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo ?anoiaeia, iioa?ue
aeioiaeia ii oa?a.

I?eoiaeotho oa?o ii oeaiai i?eia?aoaiey, ii ia auoa oeai, oeacaiiuo a
i?aeneo?aioao.

Ioione oa?u ioi?ieyaony oaie aea aeieoiaioaie, /oi e ioione aa?ia.

Oa?a, eniieuecoaiay iiiaie?aoii, iacuaaaony iiiaiiai?ioiie.

Ia ?acaeooth e i?eoaaeooth a iaaiaeiinoue oa?o ninoaaeytho aeo
i?enoonoaee oiaa?iaaaea a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao: ia?aue — ?oeiaiaeeoaeth
aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey, aoi?ie — iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiiio eeoeo aeey
nienaiey ia ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey.

Oa?a aeieaeia aica?auaoueny iinoaaueeo (oa?iniae?athuae i?aaiecaoeee) a
i/euaiiii e io?aiiioe?iaaiiii aeaea, iaoeioa?a — ni nieaeaieai ea/anoaa
ia aieaa /ai ia iaeio eaoaai?eth.

Oa?o, iinooieaooth aac nii?iaiaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia eee iiaeeaaeauoth
ia

iaycaoaeueiiio aica?aoo, ?ac?aoaaony i?iaeaaaoue n iieaoie /a?ac eanno
ianaeaieth eee noi?iiiei i?aaiecaoeeyi n Ioianaieai ?acieoeu a oeaiao ia
ecaea?aeee.

Iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea aaaeoo o/ao oa?u ii eiee/anoao e
iaeiaiiaaieyi oa?u a oiaa?iie eieaa eee ia ea?oi/eao. Caeiaiaoth oa?o,
iinooieaooth io iinoaaueeia n oiaa?ii, o/eouaatho ii iinoaaueeai. Caiene
i iinooieaiee e auauoee oa?u; ieooony ia iniiaaiee i?eoiaeiuo e
?anoiaeiuo aeieoiaioia. Ana ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou iaoa?eaeueii
ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea naeatho a aooaaeoa?eth i?e oiaa?iii io/aoa.

Ia iai?ioiie noi?iia oiaa?iiai io/aoa io?aaeaaony aeaeaeaiea
aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa oa?u ii iaeiaiiaaieyi. Noiiiaua eoiae inoaoeia
i?eoiaea e ?anoiaea oa?u aeaiiiai io/aoa aeieaeiu auoue oiaeaeanoaaiiu
niioaaonoaothuei iieacaoaeyi :i oa?a ia eeoeaaie noi?iia oiaa?iiai
io/aoa.

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao oa?u caaeneo io oiai, aoaeao ee iia eniieueciaaoueny
eee iiaeeaaeeo naea/a a ooeeue.

Iaeii?aciaay oa?a o/eouaaaony:

• ia n/aoa 41 «Oiaa?u», anee iia aoaeao eniieueciaaia;

• ia n/aoa 10 «Iaoa?eaeu», anee oa?a aoaeao naeaia a ooeeue. Oa?a,
ii?eoiaeiaaiiay ia n/aoa 41, iiaeao auoue:

• /anoueth oiaa?a, a yoii neo/aa a aeieoiaioa iinoaaueea iia ia
auaeaeyaony ioaeaeueiie no?ieie;

• naiinoiyoaeueiui oiaa?ii, oiaaea noieiinoue oa?u auaeaeyaony
ioaeaeueiie no?ieie.

N/ao 41/3 «Oa?a iiae oiaa?ii e ii?iaeiyy» — aeoeaiue, aeaeia
oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa, iniiaiie, iaoa?eaeueiue (eiaaioa?iue). Ii aai
aeaaaoo iieacuaaaony iinooieaiea oa?u, ii e?aaeeoo — auauoea, nienaiea.
Eiia/iia naeueaei icia/aao inoaoie oa?u ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea.

I?e i?iaeaaea oa?u i?eiaiyaony n/ao 91 «I?i/ea aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu».

I?e aica?aoa oa?u iinoaaueeo i?eiaiyaony n/ao 62 «?an/aou n iieoiaoaeyie
e caeac/eeaie», oae eae iinoaauee aunooiaao a ?iee iieoiaoaey e aeieaeai
ia?a/eneeoue ca iaa aeaiueae (yoi aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue).

Aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea oiaa?iuo iioa?ue io aiy, eiia, ii?/e oiaa?ia

Aie, eii, ii?/a aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa iai?aaeeueiiai o?aiaiey,
iaa?aaeiiai ia?auaiey n oiaa?ii, e?aaee e o. ae. Aeey nienaiey
nicaeaaony eiienney a ninoaaa aee?aeoi?a i?aaei?eyoey, iaoa?eaeueii
ioaaonoaaiiiai eeoea, i?aaenoaaeoaey iauanoaaiiinoe, a a iaiaoiaeeiuo
neo/ayo e i?aaenoaaeoaey naieoa?iiai iaaeci?a. Eiienney ninoaaeyao aeo i
ii?/a, aia, eiia oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae (oi?ia ? OI?A-15) a
o?ao yecaiiey?ao. A aeoa oeacuaaaony ninoaa eiiennee, iaeiaiiaaiea
iaaeinoathuaai oiaa?a, eiee/anoai, oeaia, noiia, i?e/eiu iioa?ue,
aeaoaeou oiaa?a, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue aai aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey
(?aaeeciaaoue ii oeaiai oaeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee, oie/oiaeeoue, auaacoe
ia naaeeo, ia?aaeaoue ia ei?i neioo e o. ae.).

Anee oiaa? oieueei /anoe/ii iioa?ye ea/anoai, eiienney ooeaieaaao aai. A
yoii neo/aa a aeoa oeacuaaaony aeaa oeaiu: aei e iinea ooeaiee, a oaeaea
noiia ooeaiee.

I?e ioi?ieaiee aicieeathueo ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai ii?/e eee iioa?e
ea/anoai oiaa?ia, ia iiaeeaaeaueo aeaeueiaeoae ?aaeecaoeee, i?eiaiyaony
aeo i nienaiee oiaa?ia (oi?ia ? OI?A-16), eioi?ue ninoaaeyaony a o?ao
yecaiiey?ao e iiaeienuaaaony /eaiaie eiiennee, oiieiiii/aiiie ia yoi
?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia?aioeaiea oiaa?ia

A aeayoaeueiinoe oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey ia?aaeei aicieeatho neooaoeee,
eiaaea oiaa? iaiaoiaeeii ia?aioeaieoue.

Ia?aioeaiea-yoi eciaiaiea ?icie/iie oeaiu oiaa?a a noi?iio oaaee/aiey
eee oiaiueoaiey. Eciaiaiea oeaiu oiaa?a a noi?iio oiaiueoaiey iacuaaaony
ooeaieie oiaa?a, a a noi?iio oaaee/aiey-aeiioeaieie oiaa?a. Eae i?aaeei,
i?aaei?eyoey ooeaieaatho oiaa?. I?e/eiu iiaoo auoue ?aciuie:

– oiaa? ia?anoae iieueciaaoueny ni?inii, nieceeinue iio?aaeoaeueneea
ea/anoaa oiaa?a, ii?yaeie io?aaeaiey iia?aoeee ii ooeaiea oiaa?a caaeneo
io eo o/aoa, o. a. ii iieoiiui eee ii i?iaeaaeiui oeaiai. E?iia oiai,
ii?yaeie io?aaeaiey a o/aoa caaeneo e io ?acia?a ooeaiee ia i?aauoaao
onoaiiaeaiioth ia oiaa? oi?aiaoth iaaeaaaeo, noiia ooeaiee i?aauoaao
oi?aiaoth iaaeaaaeo.

Eiaaioa?ecaoeey oiaa?ia e oa?u

Eiaaioa?ecaoeey — yoi i?iaa?ea oaeoe/aneiai iaee/ey
oaaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e naa?ea n
o/aoiuie aeaiiuie.

Aeey iaania/aiey aania?aaieiie oi?aiaee eiaaioa?ecaoeey a iaaaceiao n
iaaieueoei anni?oeiaioii oiaa?ia aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny a ia?aai/aa
a?aiy.

A iaaaceiao n oe?ieei anni?oeiaioii oiaa?ia aeiioneaaony eo cae?uoea, ii
ia aieaa /ai ia iaeei aeaiue a i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo iaaaceiao e ia aieaa
aeaoo aeiae — a iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo. Aac cae?uoey, ?aeiiaiaeoaony
i?iaiaeeoue eiaaioa?ecaoeee a iaaaceiao, eiathueo naeoeee (ioaeaeu), oae
eae eo iiaeii cae?uaaoue iii/a?aaeii.

Iineieueeo ?icie/iua i?aaei?eyoey a iniiaiii i?iaeatho oiaa?u ca
iaee/iue ?an/ao, eiaaioa?ecaoeeth ia/eiatho n i?iaa?ee eannu.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey noiiu au?o/ee eiienney nieiaao iieacaiey n/ao/eeia
EEI. Inoaoie aeaiaa ia iiiaio eiaaioa?ecaoeee ii o/aoiui aeaiiui
ii?aaeaeytho ii iineaaeiaio eanniaiio io/aoo, eioi?ue i?aaeuyaeyao
eiiennee eanne? ni anaie ia?ae/iuie eanniauie aeieoiaioaie. Caoai
iiaen/eouaatho oaeoe/aneoth noiio aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Ii eoiaai
i?iaa?ee eannu ninoaaeytho aeo, a eioi?ii auaiaeyo ?acoeueoao:
«iaaeinoa/a» eee «eceeoee».

Ia?aae ia/aeii eiaaioa?ecaoeee eiienney iaycaia iieiiae?iaaoue ana
iiaeniaiua iiiauaiey. Oeaeaniia?acii iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaiaeeoue
eiaaioa?ecaoeeth a aai oeeeaeao (a iaeaoeao, eeineao e o. ae.) oi?aiaiai
i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaaeinoa/a oiaa?ia naa?o ii?i anoanoaaiiie oauee ioiineony iaoa?eaeueii
ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe. I?e yoii iie iiaoo eeai i?eciaoue naay aeiiaiuie,
eeai ia i?eciaoue naay aeiiaiuie. Anee iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei
i?eciaei naay aeiiaiui. Noiia iaaeinoa/e aiineony aeiiaiui eeoeii a
eanno i?aaei?eyoey eee oaea?aeeaaaony ec ca?aaioiie ieaou: Ae 50,70 E
73/2. Anee ?aaioiee ia i?eciae naay aeiiaiui a aicieeoae iaaeinoa/e,
i?aaei?eyoeth iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoueny a noae. Iinea i?eciaiey aeiiaiui
ii ?aoaieth noaea aooaaeoa? ninoaaeo oaeea aea i?iaiaeee, eae e a
neo/aa, anee nio?oaeiee i?eciae naay aeiiaiui. Anee aea noae ia i?eciae
?aaioieea aeiiaiui, ninoaaeyaony i?iaiaeea: Ae 91/2 E 94 — yoa noiia
oiaiueoeo iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth aaco.

Io/aoiinoue iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe ii iaoa?eaeai e oa?a

Ii aeaeaeaieth oiaa?ia e oa?u iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiia eeoei
ninoaaeyao oiaa?iue io/ao iaeei ?ac a n?ie io 1 aei 10 aeiae. Yoe n?iee
ii?aaeaeythony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii oi?aiaiai
i?aaei?eyoey.

Oiaa?iua io/aou ninoaaeythony a oao oeaiao, a eioi?uo i?aaei?eyoea
io?aaeaao oiaa?u.

A i?eoiaeioth /anoue iineaaeiaaoaeue caienuaathony ana i?eoiaeiua
aeieoiaiou ia iinooieaiea oiaa?a e oa?u n oeacaieai aeaou, iiia?a
aeieoiaioa e noieiinoe ii?eoiaeiaaiiie oa?u. E i?eoiaeiui aeieoiaioai
aoaeoo ioiineoueny: n/aoa-oaeoo?u, oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiua iaeeaaeiua,
caeoii/iue aeou, aeou ia ia?aioeaieo (aeiioeaieo), nee/eoaeueiua
aaaeiiinoue ii eiaaioa?ecaoeee (eceeoee), iaeeaaeiua ia aioo?aiiaa
ia?aiauaiea.

A ?anoiaeiie /anoe oeacuaaaony noieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiuo nienaiiuo eee
aica?auaiiuo oiaa?ia e noieiinoue oa?u, aica?ao uaiiie iinoaaueeai,
i?iaeaiiie ianaeaieth eee naeaiiie oa? niae?athuae i?aaiecaoeee. E
?anoiaeiui aeieoiaioai ioiinyony eaeoaioeey i?eoiaeiiai eanniaiai
i?aea?a (au?o/ea) ia noiio noieiinoe oiaa?ia i?iaeaiiuo ca iaee/iue
?an/ao, aica?ao oiaa?! iinoaaueeo, nienaiea oiaa?ia ii aeoai ia aie,
eii, ii?/o; iaeeaaeiay ia aioo?aiiaa ia?aiauaiea; aeo ia ia?aioeaieo
oiaa?a (ooeaiea); nee/eoaeueiay aaaeiiinoue (iaaeinoa/a).

Caiene a i?eoiaeiie /anoe io/aoa naa?ythony n aeieoiaioaie iinoaaueeia,
a anee auei aioo?aiiaa ia?aiauaiea oiaa?ia, oi n io/aoaie ae?oaeo
iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe.

Noieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia oiaa?iiai io/aoa naa?yai n noiiie
au?o/ee a eanniaii io/aoa eanne?a.

I?iaeaaoeu eioeia, oaeaaeae e ae?oaie iaeeie ?icieoeu oiaa?iua io/aou ia
ninoaaeytho. Ioione oiaa?ia ei i?iecaiaeeony ii ?anoiaeii-i?eoiaeiie
iaeeaaeiie, ninoaaeyaiie a aeaoo yecaiiey?a (ia?aue — i?iaeaaoeo, aoi?ie
— iaaaceio).

Au?o/eo iie naeatho eanno, a inoaoie ia?aaeeciaaiiiai oiaa?a ia neeaae
(ioaeae) iaaaceia.

O*AO AeAIAAEIUO N?AAeNOA E ?AN*AOIUO E?AAeEOIUO IIA?AOeEE

Caaea/e o/aoa aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ?an/aoiuo e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee

Ana naie naiaiaeiua eae nianoaaiiua, oae e caaiiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa
i?aaiecaoeee o?aiyo a aaiea. A i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey iinoiyiii aaaeoo ?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie ca iieo/aiiua io
ieo oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe, auiieiaiiua oneoae e ?aaiou, n
aaieii — ii iieo/aieth e iiaaoaieth nnoae, n athaeaeaoii — ii iiaai e
iaeiaiaui ieaoaaeai, n o/?aaeeoaeyie. Ana yoe ?an/aou inouanoaeythony a
aeaiaaeiie oi?ia iooai aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia n ?an/aoiiai n/aoa, eioi?ue
ioe?uaaaony i?aaei?eyoeai, ninoiyuei ia oicyenoaaiiii ?an/aoa e eiathuei
ninoiyoaeueiue aaeain, ii ianoo aai iaoiaeaeaiey. Au?o/ea i?aaei?eyoey
io ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa, ?aaio e oneoa iinooiaao a aai
eanno, a caoai naeaaony a aaie ia ?an/aoiue n/ao. I?aaeeueiay
i?aaiecaoeey ?an/aoia e e?aaeeoiaaiey, a oaeaea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey
eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoee. Iia niinianoaoao
iiauoaieth aeaenoaaiiinoe oic?an/aoa, oeiainia e e?aaeeoa, onei?aieth
iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e a eiia/iii eoiaa oeo/oaieth
oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey. Aaaeiay ?ieue a yoii i?eiaaeeaaeeo
aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ?an/aoia
yaeythony:

-eiio?ieue ca nio?aiiinoueth aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e oeaiiuo aoiaa a
eanna;

-eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai eanniaie e ?an/aoiie aeenoeeieeiu;

-i?iaa?ea i?aaeeueiinoe aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey e caeiiiinoe
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee n aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie, ?an/aoiuo e
e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee, naiaa?aiaiiia io?aaeaiea eo a o/aoa;

-eiio?ieue ca i?aaeeueiuie e naiaa?aiaiiuie ?an/aoaie n athaeaeaoii,
aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie, aaieaie e ia?niiaeii;

-iaania/aiea naiaa?aiaiiiai acuneaiey aeaaeoi?neie e iiaaoaiey
e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, a oaeaea nnoae aaiea;

– i?iaa?ea niaethaeaiey eeieoa aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a eannao, ii?i
?anoiaea iaee/iuo aeaiaa ec au?o/ee, naiaa?aiaiiinoe e iieiiou naea/e
au?o/ee a aaie;

– eiaaioa?ecaoeey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e io?aaeaiea aa ?acoeueoaoia ia
n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

O/ao aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a eanna

Ii?yaeie o?aiaiey, aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey e o/aoa aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa a eanna ii?aaeaeaiu Ii?yaeeii aaaeaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Niaeanii iacaaiiiio Ii?yaeeo aaaeaiea eanniauo
iia?aoeee aiceaaaaony ia eanne?a, eioi?ue ianao iieioth iaoa?eaeueioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nio?aiiinoue aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e oeaiiuo aoiaa.
I?e iinooieaiee ia ?aaioo eanne? aeieaeai caiieieoue iaycaoaeuenoai i
iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eee aeiaiai? e iciaeiieoueny iiae ?anieneo
n i?aaeeaie aaaeaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee.

A eanna oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey iiaeii o?aieoue aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a
i?aaeaeao eeieoa, onoaiiaeaiiiai aaieii ii niaeaoaieth n ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
i?aaei?eyoey, aeey iieaou iaeeeo oicyenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, iaania/aiey
ia/aea ii?iaeueiie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey ia neaaeothuee aeaiue.

I?aauoaiea eeieoa a eanna aeiioneaaony eeoue a oa/aiea o?ao aeiae a
ia?eiae auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou, iiniaee ii a?aiaiiie
iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe e i?aiee. A ?aeiiao E?aeiaai Naaa?a i?aauoaiea
eeieoa a ia?eiae auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou aeiioneaaony a oa/aiea iyoe
aeiae. Anth aeaiaaeioth iaee/iinoue naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia o?e yoe
y iaycaiu naeaaaoue a aaie. Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii iinooieaiey aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa a eanno i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie
i?iaeoeoa, ?aaio e oneoa.

E?iia au?o/ee a eanno iinooiatho aeaiueae n ?an/aoiiai n/aoa,
«iieueciaaiiua iiaeio/aoiua noiiu io iiaeio/aoiuo eeoe, a io
iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe a aiciauaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai oua?aa.

Iiiauaiea eannu i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeii auoue eciee?iaaii, ii ieii/aiee
?aaiou cae?uaaaony eanne?ii ia eeth/ e iia/aouaaaony no?ao/iie
ia/aoueth. Eeth/e io naeoia e ia/aoue o?aiyony o eanne?a, a aeoaeeeaou
eeth/ae a iia/aoaiiuo eanne?ii eiiaa?oao ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey.

A naeoa ia ?ac?aoaaony o?aieoue aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e ae?oaea
oeaiiinoe, ia i?eiaaeeaaeauea i?aaei?eyoeth.I?e ?an/aoao n ianaeaieai
iaee/iua aeaiueae i?eieiathony n iaycaoaeueiui i?eiaiaieai
eiio?ieueii-eanniauo iaoei. I?e yoii eanne?u iaycaiu auaeaaaoue
iieoiaoaeyi (caeac/eeai) /ae, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee i?eiyoea io iaai
iaee/iuo n?aaenoa.

Iinooieaiea e auaea/a aeaiaa ec eannu ioi?ieythony i?eoiaeiuie eanniauie
i?aea?aie (oi?ia ? EI-1) e ?anoiaeiuie eanniauie i?aea?aie (oi?ia ?
EI-2), auienuaaaiuie aooaaeoa?eae.

A i?eoiaeiuo i?aea?ao oeacuaaaony, io eiai, ca /oi eee ia /oi iieo/aiu
aeaiueae, a a ?anoiaeiuo i?aea?ao — eiio, ca /oi eee ia /oi auaeathony.
A i?aea?ao ioia/aaony, ia iniiaaiee eaeeo ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia
iie ninoaaeaiu, a oaeaea oeeo?aie caienuaaaony IAeN. Anee oiaa? ia
iaeaaaaony iaeiaii, ieoaony «aac iaeiaa (IAeN)».

Iieo/ea ec aooaaeoa?ee eanniaua i?aea?a, eanne? i?iaa?yao i?aaeeueiinoue
eo ioi?ieaiey, iaee/ea e iiaeeeiiinoue iiaeienae, a oaeaea i?eeiaeaiey,
ia?a/eneaiiua a i?aea?ao. Iinea yoiai eanne? i?eieiaao eee auaeaao
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa. Eeoeo, aianoaio aeaiueae a eanno, auaeaaony
eaeoaioeey.

Ana i?eoiaeiua e ?anoiaeiua i?aea?a aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny a aeo?iaea
?aaeno?aoeee i?eoiaeiuo e ?anoiaeiuo aeieoiaioia (oi?ia ?EI-3).

I?eoiaeiua eanniaua i?aea?a iiaeienuaathony aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii, a iinea
i?eaia aeaiaa — e eanne?ii. ?anoiaeiua eanniaua i?aea?a iiaeienuaathony
?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaei?eyoey e aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii, a iinea auaea/e
aeaiaa — e eanne?ii.

Aeaiueae iiaoo auoue auaeaiu ec eannu e ii ae?oaei aeieoiaioai:
ieaoaaeiui aaaeiiinoyi, n/aoai. Ia yoeo aeieoiaioao noaaeony
niaoeeaeueiue ooaii, caiaiythuee ?anoiaeiue eanniaue i?aea?.

Eanniaua iia?aoeee ?aaeno?e?othony eanne?ii a eanniaie eieaa (oi?ia ?
EI-4), ca?aiaa i?iioia?iaaiiie, i?ioio?iaaiiie, ne?aieaiiie no?ao/iie
ia/aoueth e iiaeienyie ?oeiaiaeeoaey e aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a. Eanniaay
eieaa caiieiyaony a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao iiae eiie?eo, /a?ieeaie.

Eanne? iiaen/eouaaao a eanniaie eieaa iai?iou ca aeaiue e auaiaeeo
inoaoie ia neaaeothuaa /enei. Io?uaiua eenou eieae aianoa ni anaie
eanniauie i?aea?aie e i?eeaaaaiuie e iei aeieoiaioaie eanne? naeaao
aaeaaeiaaii a eiioea ?aai/aai aeiy a aooaaeoa?eth iiae ?anieneo a
eanniaie eieaa. Aooaaeoa? i?iaa?yao i?aaeeueiinoue aaaeaiey eanniaie
eieae, i?in/eouaaao eoiae iai?ioia e inoaoee, noaaeo iiaeienue.

Aeiiouaiiua a eanniaie eieaa ioeaee eni?aaeythony ei??aeoo?iui niiniaii
e caaa?ythony iiaeienyie eanne?a e aooaaeoa?a. Caoai i?iaa?yaony
niaea?aeaiea e i?aaeeueiinoue ioi?ieaiey anao neiaeaiiuo eanniauo
aeieoiaioia, iaee/ea ooaiiia: a i?eoiaeiuo i?aea?ao — «iieo/aii», a
?anoiaeiuo — «iiea/aii» n iaycaoaeueiui oeacaieai aeaou iiaaoaiey.
Iieiioo e i?aaeeueiinoue ii?eoiaeiaaiey au?o/ee i?iaa?ytho ii iieacaieyi
n/ao/eeia EEI e n?aaieaatho n caienyie i ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee a io/aoao iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe. Iinea i?iaa?ee
eanniaiai io/aoa oeacuaathony ei??aniiiaee?othuea n/aoa ia eanniaii
io/aoa; a?oiie?othony iaeeiaeiaua n/aoa e i?iecaiaeyony caiene a
aeo?iae-i?aea? ii n/aoo 50. Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O io 23 iay 1994 a. ?
1006 onoaiiaeaii, i?e ianiaethaeaiee oneiaee ?aaiou n aeaiaaeiie
iaee/iinoueth, a oaeaea ii?yaeea aaaeaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoeyie, o/?aaeaeaieyie, i?aaiecaoeeyie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie,
inouanoaeythueie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue aac ia?aciaaiey
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea ia?u oeiainiaie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe: ca inouanoaeaiea ?an/aoia iaee/iuie aeaiaaeiuie
n?aaenoaaie n ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, o/?aaeaeaieyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie
naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaeaeueiuo noii — oo?ao a aeaooe?aoiii ?acia?a
noiiu i?iecaaaeaiiiai ieaoaaea; ca iaii?eoiaeiaaiea (iaiieiia
ii?eoiaeiaaiea) a eanno aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe — oo?ao a o?aoe?aoiii
?acia?a iaii?eoiaeiaaiiie noiiu;

ca ianiaethaeaiea aeaenoaothuaai ii?yaeea o?aiaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, a oaeaea ca iaeiieaiea a eannao iaee/iuo aeaiaa naa?o
onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia — oo?ao a o?aoe?aoiii ?acia?a auyaeaiiie
naa?oeeieoiie eanniaie iaee/iinoe. Ia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee,
o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee oeacaiiua ia?ooaiey iaeaaathony oo?aou a,
aeinoeaathuea 50 ieieiaeueiuo ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea. ?anniio?aiea aeae
i iaeiaeaiee oo?aoia i?iecaiaeeony iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie. Noiiu oo?aoia
ca/eneythony a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi niaeanii oeacaieyi Aaiea ?innee io 21
iiya?y 2001 a. ? 1050-O i?aaeaeueiue ?acia? ?an/aoia iaee/iuie iaaeaeo
th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie onoaiiaeai a ?acia?a 60 000 ?oa. ca iaeio naeaeeo
. I?e yoii iiae oa?ieiii «iaeia naeaeea» iiieiathony ?an/aou iaaeaeo
th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie ca i?eia?aoaaiua oiaa?u a iaeei aeaiue ii iaeiiio
eee ianeieueeei aeaiaaeiui aeieoiaioai a noiia, ia i?aauoathuae 60 000
?oa.

O/ao a iia?aoeeiiiuo eannao aaaeaony n iiiiuueth EEI.

Iinoaiiaeaieai Aineiinoaoa ?innee io 25 aeaeaa?y 1998a. ? 132
ooaa?aeaeaiu neaaeothuea oieoeoee?iaaiiua oi?iu ii o/aoo iia?aoeee n
i?eiaiaieai EEI: Aeo i ia?aaiaea iieacaiee noiie?othueo aeaiaaeiuo
n/ao/eeia ia ioee e ?aaeno?aoeee eiio?ieueiuo n/ao/eeia
eiio?ieueii-eanniaie iaoeiu (oi?ia ? EI-1); Aeo i niyoee iieacaiee
n/ao/eeia (oi?ia ? EI-2); Aeo i aica?aoa aeaiaaeiuo noii iieoiaoaeyi ii
iaeniieueciaaiiui eanniaui /aeai (oi?ia ? EI-3); AEo?iae
eanne?a-iia?aoeeiienoa (oi?ia ? EI-4);AEo?iae iieacaiee noiie?othueo
n/ao/eeia (oi?ia ? EI-5);Ni?aaea-io/ao eanne?a-iia?aoeeiienoa (oi?ia ?
EI-6) e ae?.

Ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou, ninoaaeyaiua ii iia?aoeeyi n i?eiaiaieai EEI,
iiaeienuaathony noi?iiieie eeoeaie, iai?eia?, i?aaenoaaeoaeai iaeiaiauo
i?aaiia eee oeaio?ia oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey EEI.

Oi?iu ? EI-4 e ? EI-5 ne?aieythony iiaeienueth iaeiaiaiai einiaeoi?a
oieueei a oio iiiaio, eiaaea oi?aiaay i?aaiecaoeey ia/eiaao aanoe yoe
aeieoiaiou.

AEo?iae eanne?a-iia?aoeeiienoa i?eiaiyaony aeey o/aoa iia?aoeee ii
i?eoiaeo e ?anoiaeo iaee/iuo aeaiaa (au?o/ee) ii eaaeaeie EEI, a oaeaea
yaeyaony eiio?ieueii-?aaeno?aoeeiiiui aeieoiaioii iieacaiee n/ao/eea.
AEo?iae aeieaeai auoue i?iioia?iaai, i?ioio?iaai, caaa?ai iiaeienyie
iaeiaiaiai einiaeoi?a, ?oeiaiaeeoaey e aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a oi?aiaie
i?aaiecaoeee e ne?aieai ia/aoueth. Ana caiene a aeo?iaea aaaeoony
eanne?ii-iia?aoeeiienoii aaeaaeiaaii a o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea,
/a?ieeaie eee oa?eeiaie ?o/eie aac iiia?ie. Aianaiea a aeo?iae
eni?aaeaiee aeieaeii iaiaa?eaaoueny e caaa?youeny iiaeienyie
eanne?a-iia?aoeeiienoa, ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey e aeaaiiai
aooaaeoa?a.

Ni?aaea-io/ao eanne?a-iia?aoeeiienoa i?eiaiyaony aeey ninoaaeaiey io/aoa
i iieacaieyo n/ao/eeia EEI e au?o/ea ca ?aai/ee aeaiue (niaio). Io/ao
ninoaaeyaony aaeaaeiaaii a iaeiii yecaiiey?a. Eanne?-iia?aoeeiieno
iiaeienuaaao aai e aianoa n au?o/eie naeaao noa?oaio eanne?o eee
?oeiaiaeeoaeth i?aaiecaoeee, iaaieueoie i?aaiecaoeee i?e iaee/ee
iaeiie—aeaoo eann eane?-iia?aoeeiieno naeaao aeaiueae iaiin?aaenoaaiii
eieannaoi?o. Naea/a aeaiaa a aaie io?aaeaaony a io/aoa. Au?o/ea ca
?aai/ee aeaiue ii?aaeaeyaony ii iieacaieyi n/ao/eea ia/aei e eiiaoe
?aai/aai aeiy ca au/aoii noii, aica?auaiiie iieoiaoaeyi ii
iaeniieueciaaiiui eanniaui /aeai. ; Neioaoe/aneee o/ao aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa a eanna aaaeaony ia n/aoa 50yoi aeoeaiue n/ao, n/ao
oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa, iniiaiie. Ia aeaaaoa aeaiiiai n/aoa io?aaeaaony
iinooieaiea aeaiaa e aeaiaaeiuo aeieoiaioia, a ia e?aaeeoa — auieaoa
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa auaea/a aeaiaaeiuo aeieoiaioia. Aeaaaoiaia naeueaei
iieacuaaao inoaoie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e aeaiaaeiuo aeieoiaioia.

n/aoo 50 «Eanna» iiaoo auoue ioe?uou noan/aoa: 50/1 — «Eanna
i?aaiecaoeee»; 50/2 — «Iia?aoeeiiiay eanna»; 050/3 — «Aeaiaaeiua
aeieoiaiou» e ae?.

O/ao aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a iooe

Ana i?aaei?eyoey aaeaaeiaaii naeatho au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa?ia, ?aaio e oneoa a eannu aaiea iaee/iuie eee /a?ac
eieannaoi?a. A iniiaiii au?o/eo naeatho a aaie ii ieii/aiee ?aai/aai
aeiy, a ca/eneaiea aa ia n/ao i?aaei?eyoey i?iecaiaeeony ia neaaeothuee
aeaiue, iiyoiio aeaiaaeiay au?o/ea n iiiaioa naea/e aa eieannaoi?o aei
iiiaioa ca/eneaiey ia n/ao n/eoaaony iaoiaeyuaeny a iooe.

A aaie eanne? naeaao au?o/eo ii iauyaeaieth ia aciin iaee/iuie, eioi?ia
ninoieo ec o?ao /anoae: nianoaaiii iauyaeaiea, eaeoaioeey e i?aea?.
Iauyaeaiea inoaaony aaieo, eaeoaioeey auaeaaony ia ?oee eanne?o
i?aaei?eyoey, a i?aea? i?eeaaaaony e auienea aaiea.

I?e naea/a au?o/ee a aaie /a?ac eieannaoi?a (niaeanii aeiaiai?) e noiea
n aeaiaaeiie au?o/eie caiieiyaony i?ai?iaiaeeoaeueiay aaaeiiinoue a o?ao
yecaiiey?ao iiae eiie?eo: ia?aue yecaiiey? aeeaaeuaaaony a aeaiaaeioth
noieo eieannaoi?a (i?ai?iaiaeeoaeueiay aaaeiiinoue), aoi?ie — aeaaony
eieannaoi?o (iaeeaaeiay), o?aoee yecaiiey? inoaaony o eanne?a (eiiey
i?ai?iaiaeeoaeueiie aaaeiiinoe). O/ao aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a iooe
aaaeaony ia aeoeaiii n/aoa 57 «Ia?aaiaeu a iooe». Ii aeaaaoo n/aoa
io?aaeatho au?o/eo, naeaiioth a aaie, ii e?aaeeoo – ca/eneaiea ia n/ao
i?aaei?eyoey. Naeueaei ei aeaaaoo iieacuaaao noiio au?o/ee, aua ia
ca/eneaiioth aaieii ia n/ao i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia iniiaaiee i?ai?iaiaeeoaeueiie aaaeiiinoe, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuae naea/o
au?o/ee, i?iecaiaeeony caienue: Ae 57 E 50. I?e ca/eneaiee au?o/ee ia
n/ao i?aaei?eyoey aeaeaaony caienue: Ae51.52 E 57.

Ai a?aiy ia?an/aoa aeaiaa a aeaiaaeiie noiea n au?o/eie iiaeao
ieacaoueny iaaeinoa/a eee eceeoae aeaiaa. E a yoii, e a ae?oaii neo/aa
iaycaoaeueii ninoaaeyaony aeo. Ia iniiaaiee aeoa aaieii a eanna
i?aaei?eyoey i?iaiaeeony eiaaioa?ecaoeey. Anee ieaaeaony, /oi a eanna
eceeoae, a a eieannaoi?neie noiea auea iaaeinoa/a, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao ?ac?aoeoue naeaeaoue ca/ao. Anee ?ac?aoaiey ia
aoaeao, iaaeinoa/o acuneeaatho n eanne?a. Eceeoee aeaiaa a noiea ioiinyo
a aeioiae i?aaei?eyoey: Ae 51 E 91/1.

I?aaei?eyoea iiaeao i?aaeuyaeoue i?aoaiceth aaieo, anee aaie ia ca/eneeo
au?o/eo ia ?an/aoiue n/ao, i?e yoii ninoaaeyaony aooaaeoa?neay
i?iaiaeea: Ae 76/2 E 57.

O/ao aeaiaaeiuo aeieoiaioia

A eanna i?aaei?eyoey, e?iia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, aeieaeiu o?aieoueny
aeaiaaeiua aeieoiaiou: ii/oiaua ia?ee, ia?ee ainoaea?noaaiiie iioeeiu,
aaenaeueiua ia?ee, iiea/aiiua aaeaaeeaou, iooaaee e o. ae.Aeaiaaeiua
aeieoiaiou o/eouaathony a noiia oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao ia i?eia?aoaiea.

E aeaieai no?iaie io/aoiinoe ioiinyony: o?oaeiaua eieaeee, aeeaaeiua
eenou e iei, eaeoaioeee iooaauo eenoia aaoio?ainii?oa, aeoeee, aaenaey e
ae?oaea, o/ao eioi?uo aaaeaony ia caaaeainiaii n/aoa 006 «Aeaiee no?iaie
io/aoiinoe».

O/ao aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia ?an/aoiii n/aoa

O?aiaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e aaaeaiey aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia
i?aaiecaoeeyie ioe?uaaaony a aaiea ?an/aoiue n/ao, ii?yaeie ioe?uoey
eioi?iai ii?aaeaeai eino?oeoeeae aaiea, o/aoiue n/ao ioe?uaaaony anaie
i?aaei?eyoeyie, yaeythony th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, iacaaeneii io oi?i
nianoaaiai. Ioe?uoey ?an/aoiiai n/aoa i?aaei?eyoea i?aaenoaaeyao a
neaaeothuea aeieoiaiou: Cayaeaiea ia ioe?uoea ?an/aoiiai n/aoa,
ea?oi/ee n ia?acoeaie iiaeienae e iooeneii ia/aoe, caaa?ueoa a
iioa?eaeueiie eiioi?a, eiiee onoaaa e o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a,
i?ioio?iaai-i?iioia?iaaiiua e caaa?aiiua a iioa?eaeueiie eiioi?a
ca?aaeno?e?iaaaoai i?aaei?eyoea i?aaia ianoiie aeanoe, (Ni?aaeo i
iinoaiiaea ia o/ao a iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee, Oiiaea nioeeaeueiiai
iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey)

?an/aoiue n/ao — yoi n/ao, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey o?aiaiey aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, oeaiiuo aoiaa e inouanoaeaiey ?an/aoia. Ia ?an/aoiii n/aoa
nin?aaeioa/eaathony e?aoein?i/iua e aeieain?i/iua nnoaeu, iieo/aiiua io
aaiea. ?an/aoiiio n/aoo aaie i?enaaeaaao ii?aaeaeaiiue iiia?.
?anii?yaeeoaeyie e?aaeeoia n/aoa yaeythony ?oeiaiaeeoaeue e
aeaa-aooaaeoa?. Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii iinooieaiey aeaiaaeiuo ia ?an/aoiue
n/ao a i?aaiecaoeeyo yaeyaony au?o/ea, oiaa?u e oneoae. N ?an/aoiiai
n/aoa i?iecaiaeyony ii/oe ana ieaoaaee: iieaoa ca oiaa?u e iaoa?eaeu,
oiaa?u iinoaaueeo, ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, ae?oaei i?aaei?eyoeyi ca
?acee/iua oneoae, a oaeaea iieoo/aiua aeaiueae a eanno aeey auaea/e
ca?aaioiie ieaou, iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue, i?aiee e ae?oaeo auieao
?aaioieeai i?aaiecaoeee. niaa?oaaiua iia?aoeee eiio?iee?othony aaieii.

O/ao iia?aoeee ii aaethoiiio n/aoo

Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?O i?eeacii io 10 yiaa?y 2000 a. ? 2-i ooaa?aeeei
Iieiaeaiea ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo «O/ao aeoeaia e iaycaoaeuenoa,
noieiinoue eioi?uo au?aaeaia a eiino?aiiie aaethoa» — IAO 3/2000. Yoi
Iieiaeaiea onoaiaaeeaaao aeey i?aaiecaoeee, yaeythueony th?eaee/aneeie
eeoeaie, iniaaiiinoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io?aaeaiey a aooaaeoa?neie
io/aoiinoe aeoeaia e iaycaoaeuenoa, noieiinoue eioi?uo au?aaeaia a
eiino?aiiie aaethoa, naycaiiua n ia?a?an/aoii eo noieiinoe a aaethoo
?innee — ?oaee.

Aaethoa — aeaiaaeiue yeaeaaeaio oiaa?a ethaie no?aiu. Nouanoaotho
iiiyoea «iaoeeiiaeueiay aaethoa», «?aca?aiay aaethoa»,
«naiaiaeii-eiiaa?oe?oaiay aaethoa».

Iiae iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoie iiieiatho aaethoo eiie?aoiie no?aiu.

?aca?aiay aaethoa — yoi aaethoa ae?oaeo no?ai ec /enea iaeaieaa
onoie/eauo a yeiiiieea. E iei ioiinyony: aia?eeaineee aeieea?, iaiaoeeay
ia?ea, oaaeoea?neee o?aie, aiaeeeneee ooio noa?eeiaia e o. ae.

Naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiay aaethoa — aaethoa, eioi?ay naiaiaeii e
iaia?aie/aiii iaiaieaaaony ia ae?oaea aeaeu eiino?aiiuo aaetho.

Ii?yaeie ioe?uoey aaethoiiai n/aoa aiaeiae/ai ii?yaeeo ioe?uoey
?an/aoiiai n/aoa.

Ana iia?aoeee n eiino?aiiie aaethoie e oeaiiuie aoiaaaie a eiino?aiiie
aaethoa iiae?acaeaeythony ia: oaeouea aaethoiua iia?aoeee, aaethoiua
iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n aeaeaeaieai eaieoaea.

E oaeouei aaethoiui iia?aoeeyi ioiinyony:

• ia?aaiaeu a ?inneeneoth Oaaea?aoeeth e ec iaa eiino?aiiie aaethou aeey
?an/aoia ii yenii?oo e eiii?oo oiaa?ia, ?aaio, oneoa, a oaeaea ii
e?aaeeoiaaieth yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee ia n?ie ia aieaa 180 aeiae;

• iieo/aiea e i?aaeinoaaeaiea oeiainiauo e?aaeeoia ia n?ie ia aieaa 180
aeiae;

• ia?aaiaeu a ?inneth e ec iaa i?ioeaioia, aeeaeaeaiaeia, ae?oaeo
aeioiaeia ii aeeaaeai, eiaanoeoeeyi, e?aaeeoai, naycaiiui n aeaeaeaieai
eaieoaea.

E aaethoiui iia?aoeeyi, naycaiiui n aeaeaeaieai eaieoaea, ioiinyony:
i?aaeinoaaeaiea e iieo/aiea oeiainiauo e?aaeeoia ia n?ie aieaa 180
aeiae; eiaanoeoeee, o. a. aeiaeaiey a onoaaiue eaieoae i?aaei?eyoee n
oeaeueth ecaea/aiey aeioiaea e iieo/aiey, i?aa ia o/anoey a oi?aaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoeai; naiaeu a iieaoo i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia caeaiey,
nii?oaeaiey ae?oaia eiouanoai, aeeth/ay caieth e aa iaae?a, e eiuo ia
iaaeaeaeeiinoue.

Iinooieaiey aaethoiuo n?aaenoa aaie ca/eneyao nia/aea ia o?aiceoiue
aaethoiue n/ao, i /ai niiauaao aeaaeaeueoeo n/aoa. Aeaaeaeaoe n/aoa
i?iecaiaeeo ?ani?aaeaeaiea aaethou a onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee e ii?o/aao
aaieo i?iecaanoe iaycaoaeueioth i?iaeaaeo aaethou a ?acia?a 50%
aaethoiie au?o/ee ii ?uii/iiio eo?no ?oaey, a inoaaoothny noiio
ia?a/eneeoue ia oaeouee n/ao.

Ii?yaeie i?iaeaaee aaethou onoaiaaeeaaaony Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii ?O.
Aaethoa aeieaeia auoue i?iaeaia ia iicaeiaa /ai /a?ac 14 aeiae iinea
iinooieaiey au?o/ee. Ca iia?aoeeth i?iaeaaee oiieiiii/aiiue aaie aceiaao
eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.

N iiiaioa niaa?oaiey iia?aoeee aicieeatho eo?niaua ?acieoeu a nayce n
eciaiaieai eo?na ?oaey ii ioiioaieth e eiino?aiiui aaethoai.

Eo?niaay ?acieoea — yoi ?aciinoue iaaeaeo ?oaeaaie ioeaieie eiouanoaa
eee iaycaoaeuenoa, noieiinoue eioi?uo au?aaeaia a eiino?aiiie aaethoa,
en/eneaiiie ii eo?no, eioe?oaiiio Aaieii ?innee ia aeaoo ?an/aoa eee
aeaoo ninoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe ca io/aoiue ia?eiae, e
?oaeaaie ioeaieie yoeo eiouanoa e iaycaoaeuenoa, en/eneaiiie ii eo?no,
eioe?oaiiio Aaieii ?innee ia aeaoo i?eiyoey eo e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo a
io/aoiii ia?eiaea eee ia aeaoo ninoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe ca
i?aaeuaeouee ia?eiae.

A aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe io?aaeaaony eo?niaay ?acieoea: ii
iia?aoeeyi ii iieiiio eee /anoe/iiio iiaaoaieth aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe eee e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, au?aaeaiiie a
eiino?aiiie aaethoa, anee eo?n Aaiea ?innee ia aeaoo eniieiaiey
iaycaoaeuenoa ii iieaoa ioee/aeny io aai eo?na ia aeaoo I?eiyoey yoeo
caaeieaeaiiinoae e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo e io/aoiinoe io eo?na ia
io/aoioth aeaoo ninoaaeaiey io/aoiinoe, ii ia?an/aoo noieiinoe
aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia a eanna i?aaiecaoeee, n?aaenoa ia n/aoao e?aaeeoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee, aeaiaaeiuo e ieaoaaeiuo aeieoiaioia, e?aoein?i/iuo oeaiiuo
aoiaa e o. ae. Eo?niaay ?acieoea io?aaeaaony a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e
io/aoiinoe a oii io/aoiii ia?eiaea, e eioi?iio ioiineony aeaoa
eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa ii iieaoa eee ca eioi?ue ninoaaeaia
aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue.

Eo?niaay ?acieoea iiaeeaaeeo ca/eneaieth ia oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou
i?aaiecaoeee eae aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu eee aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua
?anoiaeu.

O/ao ?an/aoia n iieoiaoaeyie e caeac/eeaie

I?e ioa?ocea i?iaeoeoeee iieoiaoaeyi aicieeaao aeaaeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue, eioi?ay niaeanii Ieaio n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e
Eino?oeoeee ii aai i?eiaiaieth io?aaeaaony ia n/aoa 62 «?an/aou n
iieoiaoaeyie e caeac/eeaie». Yoi n/ao aeoeaiue. Ii aeaaaoo aeaiiiai
n/aoa iieacuaaaony oaaee/aiea aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, a ii
e?aaeeoo — aa oiaiueoaiea.

N/ao 62 i?eiaiyaony:

• i?e ?an/aoao n iieoiaoaeyie ca nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, oiaa?u;

• i?e ?an/aoao n iieoiaoaeyie ii i?eia?aoaiiui iniiaiui n?aaenoaai;

• i?e i?eia?aoaiee oiaa?ia a e?aaeeo;

• i?e iieo/aiee aaainia e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaoa ca
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe;

• i?e iieoiea aaenaeae;

• i?e ?an/aoao ieaiiauie ieaoaaeaie.

O/ao ?an/aoia n iieoiaoaeyie aaaeaony ia iniiaaiee ?an/aoiuo
aeieoiaioia.

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ii n/aoo 62 «?an/aou n iieoiaoaeyie e caeac/eeaie»
aaaeaony ii i?aaeuyaeaiiiio iieoiaoaeyi (caeac/eeai) n/aoo, a i?e
?an/aoao ieaiiauie ieaoaaeaie — ii eaaeaeiio iieoiaoaeth e caeac/eeo.
Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao iaaei iino?ieoue oae, /oiau iaania/eoue iieo/aiea
aeaiiuo ii:

• iieoiaoaeyi e caeac/eeai ii ?an/aoiui aeieoiaioai, n?ie iieaou eioi?uo
ia ianooiee;

• aaainai iieo/aiiui;

• aaenaeyi, n?ie iinooieaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ii eioi?ui ia ianooiee;

• iieoiaoaeyi e caeac/eeai ii iaiiea/aiiui a n?ie ?an/aoiui aeieoiaioai

O/ao ?an/aoia n o/?aaeeoaeyie

?an/aoia n o/?aaeeoaeyie (aeoeeiia?aie aeoeeiia?iiai o/anoieeaie iieiiai
oiaa?euanoaa, /eaiaie eiiia?aoeaa) ii aeeaaeai a onoaaiue (neeaaei/iue)
eaieoae, auieaoa aeioiaeia (aeeaeaeaiaeia) e ae?oaeo aaaeaony ia
ianneaiii n/aoa 75 «?an/aou n o/?aaeeoaeyie».

Yoio n/ao i?eiaiytho ainoaea?noaaiiua e ioieoeeiaeueiua oieoa?iua
i?aaei?eyoey aeey o/aoa anao aeaeia ?an/aoia n oiieiiii/aiiuie ia eo
nicaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie e i?aaiaie ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

E n/aoo 75 iiaoo auoue ioe?uou noan/aoa: 75/1 «?an/aou ii aeeaaeai a
onoaaiue (neeaaei/iue) eaieoae», 75/2 «?an/aou ii auieaoa aeioiaeia» e
ae?. I?e nicaeaiee aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 75
caienuaaaony noiia caaeieaeaiiinoe ii iieaoa aeoeee: Ae 75/1 E 80.

I?e oaeoe/aneii iinooieaiee aeeaaeia o/?aaeeoaeae aooaaeoa?neea caiene
aoaeoo neaaeothuea: ia noiio aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa: Ae 50,51,52 E 75/1 ia
noiio iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae: Ae 08,10,15 E 75/1. Anee a onoaaiue
(neeaaei/iue) eaieoae aiinyony aeeaaeu ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee, ninoaaeytho
i?iaiaeeo Ae 75/1 E 80 — ia anth aaee/eio onoaaiiai eaieoaea,
iauyaeaiioth a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao. I?e ?aaeecaoeee aeoeee ii
oeaia, i?aauoathuae iiieiaeueioth noieiinoue, noiia ?acieoeu ioiineony a
e?aaeeo n/aoa 83 «Aeiaaai/iue eaieoae».

N/ao 75/1 i?eiaiyaony e oieoa?iuie i?aaei?eyoeyie aeey o/aoa ?an/aoia n
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii eee i?aaiii ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey ii
eiouanoao, ia?aaeaaaaiiio ia aaeain ia i?aaa oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey eee
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey (i?e nicaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, iiiieiaiee aai
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, ecuyoee eiouanoaa). Aooaaeoa?neea caiene oaeea aea,
eae i?e o/aoa ?an/aoia ii aeeaaeai a onoaaiue eaieoae.

Ia noan/aoa 75/2 «?an/aou ii auieaoa aeioiaeia» o/eouaathony ?an/aou n
o/?aaeeoaeyie (o/anoieeaie) i?aaiecaoeee ii auieaoa ei aeioiaeia.

Ia/eneaiea aeioiaeia io o/anoey a i?aaiecaoeee io?aaeaaony caienueth: Ae
84 E 75.Ia/eneaiea e auieaoa aeioiaeia ?aaioieeai i?aaiecaoeee,
aoiaeyuei a /enei aai o/?aaeeoaeae (o/anoieeia), o/eouaaaony ia n/aoa 70
«?an/aou n ia?niiaeii ii iieaoa o?oaea»: Ae 84 E 70.Auieaoa ia/eneaiiuo
aeioiaeia io?aaeaaony i?iaiaeeie: Ae 75 E 50, 51 Ia noiio oaea?aeaiee
iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu io o/anoey: Ae 75 E 68.

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ii n/aoo 75 aaaeaony ii eaaeaeiio o/?aaeeoaeth
(o/anoieeo), e?iia o/aoa ?an/aoia n aeoeeiia?aie — nianoaaiieeaie aeoeee
ia i?aaeuyaeoaey.

Eiaaioa?ecaoeey ?an/aoia

Ia?aae ninoaaeaieai aiaeiaiai io/aoa i?iecaiaeeony eiaaioa?ecaoeey
?an/aoia n aaieaie, athaeaeaoii, iieoiaoaeyie, iinoaaueeaie,
iiaeio/aoiuie eeoeaie, ?aaioieeaie i?aaiecaoeee aeaiiiaioaie e ae?oaeie
aeaaeoi?aie e e?aaeeoi?aie, eioi?ua( caeeth/aaony a i?iaa?ea
iainiiaaiiinoe noii, /eneyueony) n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiiay eiienney oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaao i?aaeeueiinoue e
iainiiaaiiinoue /eneyueony a o/aoa noii caaeieaeaiiinoae ii
iaaeinoa/ai, oeuaieyi, noii aeaaeoi?neie e e?aaeeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe, n?iee eo eneiaie aeaaiinoe, a oaeaea i?aaeeueii
?an/aoia ii iaeiaai.

Aeey ioi?ieaiey ?acoeueoaoia eiaaioa?ecaoeee ?an/aoia iaiyaony Aeo
eiaaioa?ecaoeee ?an/aoia n iieoiaoaeyie, iinoaaueeaie e i?i/eie
aeaaeoi?aie e e?aaeeoi?aie (oi? EIA-17). Aeo ninoaaeyaony a aeaoo
yecaiiey?ao e iiaeienue» ioaaonoaaiiuie eeoeaie eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiiie
eiiennee ia iniiaaiee auyaeaiiuo ii aeieoiaioai inoaoeia noii,
/eneyueony ia niioaaonoaothueo n/aoao. Iaeei yecaiiey? aeoa, ia?aaeaa
aooaaeoa?eth, aoi?ie inoaaony a eiiennee.

Ii ?aciui aeaeai caaeieaeaiiinoe i?e eiaaioa?ecaoeee oiaa?ia aeieaeia
auoue i?eeiaeaia ni?aaea, eioi?ay yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey ninoaaeaiey
aeoa.

O*AO O?OAeA E AAI IIEAOU

Caaea/e o/aoa ?an/aoia ii iieaoa o?oaea. Oi?iu iieaou o?oaea

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa — yoi aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca o?oae a caaeneiinoe io
eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieea, neiaeiinoe, eiee/anoaa, ea/anoaa e oneiaee
auiieiyaiie ?aaiou, a oaeaea auieaou eiiiainaoeeiiiiai e noeioee?othuaai
oa?aeoa?a.

O?oaeiaua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?aaioiaeaoaeai e ?aaioieeii ?aaoee?othony
o?oaeiaui aeiaiai?ii. Iniiaiui aeieoiaioii, ?aaoee?othuei o?oaeiaua
ioiioaiey, yaeyaony O?oaeiaie eiaeaen ?O.

E?iia oiai, o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey ?aaoee?othony aioo?aiieie ii?iaoeaiuie
aeieoiaioaie, ia i?ioeai?a/aueie OE ?O: ?ac?aaioaiiuie e ooaa?aeaeaiiuie
naiei i?aaei?eyoeai iieiaeaieai ia iieaoa o?oaea, iieiaeaieai i
i?aie?iaaiee, eieeaeoeaiui aeiaiai?ii e o. ae.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa aeaeeony ia iniiaioth e aeiiieieoaeueioth.

E iniiaiie ioiineony iieaoa ca i?i?aaioaiiia a?aiy ii oa?eoiui noaaeai e
ieeaaeai, naeaeueiui ?anoeaieai, aeiieaou ca ?aaioo a ii/iia a?aiy, a
auoiaeiua e i?acaeie/iua aeie, naa?oo?i/iua o. ae.

Aeiiieieoaeueiay ca?ieaoa ia/eneyaony ca a?aiy, eiaaea ?aaioiee
oaeoe/anee ia ?aaioae, ii ca iei nio?aiyeanue ca?aaioiay ieaoa niaeanii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao: ca a?aiy o?oaeiaiai ioionea, auiieiaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo iaycaiiinoae, o/aaiiai ioionea e o. ae.

Enoi/ieeii iieaou o?oaea yaeyaony oiiae iieaou o?oaea. Aai ninoaa
ii?aaeaeai Eino?oeoeeae i ninoaaa oiiaea ca?aaioiie ieaou e auieao
nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo i?eiaiythony aeaa oi?iu iieaou o?oaea: naeaeueiay, i?e
eioi?ie ca?aaioie caaeneo io iauaia auiieiaiiie ?aaiou, e iia?aiaiiay,
i?e eioi?ie ca?aaioie caaeneo io eiee/anoaa io?aaioaiiiai a?aiaie.

Naeaeueiay iieaou o?oaea iiae?acaeaeyaony ia: i?yioth naeaeueioth—
iieaoa i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia au?aaioea; naeaeueii-i?aieaeueioth —
eiaaea e iieaoa ca iauai auiieiaiiuo ?aaio aeiaaaeyaony i?aiey ca
eiie?aoiua iieacaoaee ?aaiou; naeaeueii – i?ia?anneaioth — iieaoa a
i?aaeaeao ii?i i?iecaiaeeony ii i?yiui ?anoeaieai, a naa?o ii?i — ii
iiauoaiiui ?anoeaieai.

Iia?aiaiiay iieaou o?oaea eiaao aeaa oi?iu: i?inoay iia?aiaiiay —
ca?ieaoa iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa io?aaioaiiiai
a?aiaie; iia?aiaiii-i?aieaeueiay — e ca?aaioiie ieaoa ca io?aaioaiiia
a?aiy aeiaaaeythony i?aiee.

O/ao ?aai/aai a?aiaie e ii?i au?aaioee

Aeey ?an/aoa ca?aaioiie ieaou iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue io?aaioaiiia ?aai/aa
a?aiy e auiieiaiea ii?i au?aaioee (i?e naeaeueiie oi?iu iieaou o?oaea).
O/ao yaie ia ?aaioo e eniieueciaaiea ?aai/aai a?aiaie aaaeaony a oaaaea
oi?i O-12 e O-13.

Oi?ia O-12 i?eiaiyaony aeey o/aoa ?aai/aai a?aiaie anao eaoaai?ee
?aaioathueo. Aeey io?aaeaiey eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie ca eaaeaeue
aeaiue a oaaaea ioaaaeaii aeaa no?iee: iaeia aeey oneiaiuo iaicia/aiee
aeaeia cao?ao ?aai/aai a?aiaie, ae?oaay — aeey caiene eiee/anoaa /ania
ii iei.

I?e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ia?aaioea aeaiiuo i?eiaiyaony oi?ia O-13.

Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey io?aaioaiiiai e iaio?aaioaiiiai a?aiaie
i?aaenoaaeaiu ia oeooeueiii eenoa oi?iu O-12, iie i?eiaony e i?e
caiieiaiee oi?iu O-13.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaei?eyoey i?eeacii iacia/aao eeoei, ioaaonoaaiiia ca
aaaeaiea oaaaey.

I?e naeaeueiie oi?ia iieaou o?oaea aeey ?an/aoa ca?aaioiie ieaou
iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue iauai auiieiaiiuo ?aaio (au?aaioee). Aeey yoiai
i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea oi?iu ia?ae/iuo o/aoiuo aeieoiaioia,
ooaa?aeaeaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii: ia?yae, ia?o?ooiue eeno, aaaeiiinoue
o/aoa au?aaioee, aeo i i?eaiea auiieiaiiuo ?aaio e ae?.

Ii?yaeie iieaou o?oaea

Ii?yaeie ?an/aoa ca?aaioiie ieaou caaeneo io oi?iu iieaou o?oaea. I?e
iia?aiaiiie iieaoa o?oaea ?aaioieeo onoaiiaeai aeieaeiinoiie ieeaae,
eioi?ue auiea/eaaaony aio iieiinoueth, anee ii io?aaioae ana ?aai/ea
aeie a aeaiiii ianyoea. Anee ii io?aaioae ia ana ?aai/ea aeie,
ca?aaioiay ieaoa aoaeao aio ia/eneaia ca oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy.

I?aaei?eyoey iiaoo i?eiaiyoue ii/aniaoth iieaoo o?oaea eae
?aciiaeaeiinoue iia?aiaiiie iieaou o?oaea. A yoii neo/aa ca?aaioie
?aaioieea ii?aaeaeytho iooai oiiiaeaiey /aniaie noaaee iieaou o?oaea ia
/enei oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiuo /ania. Eae i?aaeei, oae iiea/eaaaony o?oae
ia?niiaea aniiiiaaoaeueiuo e ianeoaeeaathueo iiae?acaeaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoey; eeoe, ?aaioathueo ia oneiaeyo niaianoeoaeuenoaa;
?aaioieeia eooie ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey.

I?e iia?aiaiii-i?aieaeueiie oi?ia iieaou o?oaea ?aaioieeai
aeiiieieoaeueii auiea/eaaaony i?aiey, eioi?ay, eae i?aaeei,
onoaiaaeeaaaony a i?ioeaioao e ca?aaioiie ieaoa, ia/eneaiiie ca
oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy.

I?e i?yiie naeaeueiie oi?ia iieaou o?oaea ca?aaioie en/eneyaony ca
auiieiaiioth ?aaioo.

I?e naeaeueii-i?aieaeueiie oi?ia iieaou o?oaea ?aaioieeai
aeiiieieoaeueii ia/eneyaony i?aiey ca auiieiaiea oneiaee e iieacaoaeae
i?aie?iaaiey. ?acia? i?aiee, eae i?aaeei, onoaiaaeeaaaony a i?ioeaioao e
naeaeueiiio ca?aaioeo.

I?e a?eaaaeiie naeaeueiie oi?ia iieaou o?oaea ca?aaioie anae a?eaaaeu
ii?aaeaeyaony iooai oiiiaeaiey ?anoeaiee ca aaeeieoeo ?aaiou ia
oaeoe/anee auiieiaiiue iauai ?aaio. Caoai ca?aaioie a?eaaaeu
?ani?aaeaeytho iaaeaeo /eaiaie a?eaaaeu. Naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui yaeyaony
niinia ?ani?aaeaeaiey ca?aaioea iaaeaeo /eaiaie a?eaaaeu
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii io?aaioaiiiio a?aiaie.

Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey aiciiaeii ii?aaeaeaiea
naeaeueiiai ca?aaioea a i?ioeaioao io iauaia au?o/ee.

A ?aeiiao E?aeiaai Naaa?a e i?e?aaiaiiuo e iei ianoiinoyo auiea/eaathony
iiyniua eiyooeoeeaiou e i?ioeaioiua iaaeaaaee. Niaeanii ?anii?yaeaieth
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 29 yiaa?y 1992 a. a a. A?oaiaaeuenea ?acia?
?aeiiiiai eiyooeoeeaioa onoaiiaeai 20%, a i?aai ia iaaeaaaeo 50% eiatho
?aai/ea e neoaeauea eai ?aaiou ia Naaa?a iyoue e aieaa eao. Iauay noiia
aeiieao ca ?aaioo ia Naaa?a ninoaaeyao, oaeei ia?acii, 70% ca?aaioea.
Auieaoa ?aeiiiiai eiyooeoeeaioa io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe noaaea ?aaiou ia
caaeneo, a ?acia? i?ioeaioiuo iaaeaaaie iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe
io noaaea ?aaiou ia Naaa?a — a ?acia?a 10% ca?aaioea ca eaaeaeue aiae
?aaiou aei aeinoeaeaiey 50% ca?aaioea.

A niioaaonoaee ni no. 11 Caeiia ?O «I ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioeyo e
eiiiainaoeeyo aeey eeoe, ?aaioathueo e i?iaeeaathueo a ?aeiiao E?aeiaai
Naaa?a e i?e?aaiaiiuo e iei ianoiinoyo» io 19 oaa?aey 1993 a. eeoeai a
aic?anoa aei 30 eao i?ioeaioiua iaaeaaaee e ca?aaioiie ieaoa
auiea/eaathony a iieiii ?acia?a n ia?aiai aeiy ?aaiou, anee iie aei
iinooieaiey ia ?aaioo i?iaeeee ia Naaa?a ia iaiaa 5 eao, i?e ae?oaeo
oneiaeyo iieiaeaaee aei 30 eao naaa?iua iaaeaaaee ia/eneythony a ?acia?a
10% ca eaaeaeua oanoue ianyoeaa ?aaiou.

I?aaei?eyoey eiatho i?aai ooaa?aeaeaoue iieiaeaiey i i?aie?iaaiee e
auieaoa aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ii eoiaai ?aaiou ca aie. I?aiee ia/eneythony ca
oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy a i?ioeaioa io ca?aaioea ii ieeaaeai eee
naeaeueiui ?anoeaieai.

Aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ii eoiaai ?aaiou ca aiae auiea/eaaaony anai ?aaioieeai
i?aaei?eyoey, ninoiyuei a ooaoa e eiathuei iaiaoiaeeiue noaae ?aaiou.
Noiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea caaeneo io aai
n?aaeiaiany/iie ca?aaioiie ieaou a oa/aiea aiaea e noaaea iai?a?uaiie
?aaiou ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee.

Noaae iai?a?uaiie ?aaiou ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee ?acia? aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
e n?aaeiaiany/iie ca?aaioiie ieaoa Aei 1 aiaea Aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ia
auiea/eaaaony Io 1 aei 3 eao 60% Io 3 aei 5 eao 70% Io 5 aei 10 eao 90%
Aieueoa 10 eao 100%

I?e noaaea 15 eao aiciaa?aaeaeaiea auiea/eaaaony a ?acia?a 110% e
oaaee/eaaaony ca eaaeaeua iineaaeothuea iyoue eao ?aaiou ia 5%.

Aiciiaeii oaaee/aiea eee oiaiueoaiea aei 50% ?acia?a aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca
aeinoeaeaiey eee oiouaiey a ?aaioa.

Iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii eeoathony aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eeoea, niaa?oeaoea
oeuaiea eiouanoaa, ia?ooeaoea o?oaeiaoth aeenoeeieeio, aeiionoeaoea a?ae
e o.i.

Iieaoa ca ?aaioo a auoiaeiua, i?acaeie/iua aeie e naa?oo?i/iua /anu

Iieaoa ca ?aaioo a auoiaeiua, i?acaeie/iua aeie e naa?oo?i/iua /anu
?aaoee?oaony OE ?O.

Naa?oo?i/iie n/eoaaony ?aaioa, auiieiaiiay naa?o onoaiiaeaiiie caeiiii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aai/aai aeiy.

I?e iia?aiaiiie oi?ia iieaou o?oaea ia?aua aeaa /ana naa?oo?i/iie ?aaiou
iiea/eaathony ia iaiaa /ai a iieooi?iii, a iineaaeothuea /anu — ia iaiaa
/ai a aeaieiii ?acia?a /aniaie oa?eoiie noaaee ca eaaeaeue /an
naa?oo?i/iie ?aaiou. Eiiiainaoeey naa?oo?i/iuo /ania ioaoeii ia
aeiioneaaony

I?e naeaeueiie oi?ia iieaou o?oaea e naeaeueiiio ca?aaioeo aeiiea/eaatho
ca eaaeaeue ec ia?auo aeaoo /ania 50%, a ca iineaaeothuea naa?oo?i/iua
/anu — 100% iia?aiaiiie noaaee.

I?e noiie?iaaiiii o/aoa ?aai/aai a?aiaie aeiieaoa ca a?aiy, ia
i?aauoathuaa aeaoo /ania, oiiiaeaiiia ia /enei ?aai/eo aeiae a aeaiiii
ianyoea ii eaeaiaea?th, i?iecaiaeeony a iieooi?iii ?acia?a, a inoaeueiua
naa?oo?i/iua /anu — a aeaieiii ?acia?a.

Aeiieaou ca naa?oo?i/iia a?aiy ia/eneythony ia iniiaaiee ioi?ieaiiuo a
onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea nieneia eeoe, ?aaioaaoeo naa?oo?i/ii.

N niaeaney ?aaioieea aeaiaaeiay eiiiainaoeey iiaeao auoue caiaiaia
ioaoeii.

?aaioa a naa?oo?i/iia a?aiy ioi?ieyaony ia?yaeaie, oaaaeyie o/aoa
?aai/aai a?aiaie, ni?aaeaie-?an/aoaie aooaaeoa?ee.

?aaioa a auoiaeiua aeie iiea/eaaaony ia iaiaa /ai a aeaieiii ?acia?a eee
ca iaa i?aaeinoaaeyaony ae?oaie aeaiue ioaeuoa.

Ii?yaeie iieaou ca aeie i/a?aaeiiai ioionea. Auieaoa eiiiainaoeee e
auoiaeiiai iiniaey

Aaeaaiaeiue iniiaiie iiea/eaaaiue ioione i?aaeinoaaeyaony ?aaioieeai
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth ia iaiaa 28 eaeaiaea?iuo aeiae.

Ioione ca ia?aue aiae ?aaiou i?aaeinoaaeyaony ii enoa/aiee oanoe
ianyoeaa iai?a?uaiie ?aaiou ecaeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee.

Ioione ca aoi?ie e iineaaeothuea aiaeu ?aaiou iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeyoueny a
ethaia a?aiy aiaea a niioaaonoaee n i/a?aaeiinoueth ioioneia. E?iia
oiai, ioaeaeueiui eaoaai?eyi ?aaioieeia, a oaeaea ?aaioieeai,
i?iaeeaathuei a ?aeiiao E?aeiaai Naaa?a e i?e?aaiaiiuo e iei ianoiinoyo,
i?aaeinoaaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiue ioione, eiee/anoai aeiae eioi?iai
ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Ca?aaioioth ieaoo ca i/a?aaeiie ioione ?ann/eouaatho ia iniiaa n?aaeiaai
ca?aaioea. Ii?yaeie ?an/aoa n?aaeiaai ca?aaioea onoaiiaeai
iinoaiiaeaieai Ieienoa?noaa o?oaea e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey ?O.

Aeey en/eneaiey n?aaeiaai ca?aaioea ?an/aoiui ia?eiaeii yaeythony o?e
eaeaiaea?iuo ianyoea (n 1-ai aei 1-ai /enea) aei ia/aea ioionea.

Aeey iieaou ioionea, onoaiiaeaiiiai a ?aai/eo aeiyo, ca?aaioiay ieaoa,
ia/eneaiiay a ?an/aoiii ia?eiaea, aeaeeony ia eiee/anoai aeiae yoiai
ia?eiaea ii eaeaiaea?th oanoeaeiaaiie iaaeaee e oiiiaeaaony ia /enei
?aai/eo aeiae ioionea (no. 139 OE ?O).

Aeey iieaou ioionea a eaeaiaea?iuo aeiyo ca?aaioiay ieaoa, ia/eneaiiay a
?an/aoiii ia?eiaea, aeaeeony ia o?e e ia 29,6 (n?aaeiaiany/iia /enei
eaeaiaea?iuo aeiae) e oiiiaeaaony ia eiee/anoai eaeaiaea?iuo aeiae
ioionea.

I?e iiauoaiee a i?aaiecaoeee ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea auieaou, o/eouaaaiua
a ?an/aoiii ia?eiaea i?e en/eneaiee n?aaeiaai ca?aaioea, oaaee/eaathony
ia eiyooeoeeaio iiauoaiey oa?eoiuo noaaie, aeieaeiinoiuo ieeaaeia,
aeaiaaeiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

Anee ?aaioiee a ?an/aoiii ia?eiaea e aei ?an/aoiiai ia?eiaea ia eiae
io?aaioaiiuo aeiae eee ca?aaioea a aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, n?aaeiee
ca?aaioie ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec noiiu ia/eneaiiie ca?aaioiie ieaou,
aeieaeiinoiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca oaeoe/anee i?i?aaioaiiua aeie aei
ianooieaiey niauoey.

A neo/aa eiaaea ?aaioiee a ?an/aoiii ia?eiaea e aei ianooieaiey ioionea
ia eiae io?aaioaiiuo aeiae e ca?aaioea a aeaiiie iaoeee, n?aaeiee
ca?aaioie ii?aaeaeyaony ec oa?eoiie noaaee onoaiiaeaiiiai aio ?ac?yaea,
aeieaeiinoiiai ieeaaea, aeaiaaeiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

Niaeanii noaouee 126 OE ?O /anoue ioionea, i?aauoathuay 28 eaeaiaea?iuo
aeiae, ii ienueiaiiiio cayaeaieth ?aaioieea iiaeao auoue caiaiaia
aeaiaaeiie eiiiainaoeeae. N eiiiainaoeee ca iaeniieueciaaiiue ioione
oaea?aeeaaaony iaeia ia aeioiaeu oece/aneeo eeoe, ii ia iaa ia
ia/eneyaony aaeeiue nioeeaeueiue iaeia

?aaioieeo i?aaiecaoeee, oaieaiiiio a nayce n nie?auaieai /eneaiiinoe eee
ooaoa, auiea/eaaaony auoiaeiia iiniaea a ?acia?a n?aaeiaai iany/iiai
ca?aaioea. E?iia oiai, ca iei nio?aiyaony n?aaeiyy ca?aaioiay ieaoa ia
ia?eiae o?oaeiono?ienoaa, ii ia nauoa aeaoo ianyoeaa ni aeiy
oaieueiaiey, a a ii?yaeea eneeth/aiey — a oa/aiea o?ao ianyoeaa ii
?aoaieth i?aaiia o?oaeiono?ienoaa, anee ?aaioiee a oa/aiea aeaoo
iaaeaeue iinea oaieueiaiey ia?aoeeny a yoio i?aai e ia aue ei
o?oaeiono?iai. Auoiaeiia iiniaea e nio?aiyaiue n?aaeiee ca?aaioie
auiea/eaathony ii i?aaeiaio ianoo ?aaiou a aeie auaea/e ia aeaiiii
i?aaei?eyoee ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?e/ai aeey iieo/aiey n?aaeiaai ca?aaioea
ca o?aoee ianyoe oaieaiiue ?aaioiee aeieaeai i?aaeinoaaeoue a
aooaaeoa?eth ni?aaeo ec neoaeau caiyoinoe i naiai o?oaeiono?ienoaa.

Nie?auaiiiio ?aaioieeo iiieii auoiaeiiai iiniaey auiea/eaaaony
eiiiainaoeey ca iaeniieueciaaiiue ioione.

O/ao aaeeiiai nioeeaeueiiai iaeiaa. ?an/ao iiniaey ii a?aiaiiie
iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe

N 1 yiaa?y 2001 a. aaaaeai aaeeiue nioeeaeueiue iaeia (ANI). Ii?yaeie
aai ia/eneaiey e oieaou ii?aaeaeaiu a ae. 24 IE. ?O.

Ieaoaeueueeaie aaeeiiai nioeeaeueiiai iaeiaa yaeythony ana
?aaioiaeaoaee, i?iecaiaeyuea auieaou iaaiiui ?aaioieeai. I?aaiecaoeee e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee, ia?aaaaeaiiua ia oieaoo iaeiaa ia
aiaiaiiue aeioiae aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeayoaeueiinoe, ia yaeythony
ieaoaeueueeaie aaeeiiai nioeeaeueiiai iaeiaa.

Aaeeiue nioeeaeueiue iaeia ?ann/eouaaaony aaeaiany/ii ia?anoathuei
eoiaii n ia/aea aiaea ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeiio ?aaioieeo. Iaeiaiaui
ia?eiaeii ii ANI yaeyaony eaeaiaea?iue aiae.

Ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeaiey iaeiaiaie aacu ii aaeeiiio nioeeaeueiiio iaeiao
i?eaaaeai a no. 237 IE ?O. A iaeiaiaoth aaco aeeth/athony aeioiaeu eae a
aeaiaaeiie, oae e a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, ?aaioiaeaoaeue ia/eneyao
?aaioieeai. Oaeaea a iaeiaiaoth aaco aeeth/aaony noieiinoue
i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo ?aaioieeai iaoa?eaeueiuo, nioeeaeueiuo e eiuo aeaa.
E?iia oiai, a iaeiaiaoth aaco aeeth/athony aeiiieieoaeueiua
iaoa?eaeueiua auaiaeu, eioi?ua ?aaioiee eee /eaiu aai naiuee iieo/atho
ca n/ao ?aaioiaeaoaeae. E oaeei aeiiieieoaeueiui iaoa?eaeueiui auaiaeai,
a /anoiinoe, ioiinyony:

– auaiaea io iieaou (iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii) ?aaioiaeaoaeai oiaa?ia
(?aaio, oneoa), iai?eia?, eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa, ieoaiey, ioaeuoa,
iao/aiey, a eioa?anao ?aaioieea;

– auaiaea io i?eia?aoaiey ?aaioieeii o ?aaioiaeaoaey oiaa?ia (?aaio,
oneoa) ii oeaiai aieaa ieceei ii n?aaiaieth n oeaiaie, eioi?ua iau/ii
onoaiaaeeaatho i?iaeaaoeu yoeo oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa);

– auaiaea a aeaea yeiiiiee ia i?ioeaioao, anee i?ioeaio ca iieueciaaiea
caaiiuie n?aaenoaaie, eioi?ua ?aaioiee iieo/aao io ?aaioiaeaoaey,
iaiueoa 3/4 noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey (ii caeiii, iieo/aiiui a ?oaeyo) eee
iaiueoa 9% aiaeiauo (ii caeiai, iieo/aiiui a eiino?aiiie aaethoa);

– auaiaea, iieo/aaiay ?aaioieeii a aeaea noiiu no?aoiauo aciinia ii
aeiaiai?ai aeia?iaieueiiai no?aoiaaiey a neo/ayo, eiaaea yoe aciinu
(iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii) aiineo ?aaioiaeaoaeue (ca eneeth/aieai noiiu
no?aoiauo ieaoaaeae, eioi?ua auiea/eaaao i?aaiecaoeey ii aeiaiai?ai
aeia?iaieueiiai no?aoiaaiey naieo ?aaioieeia ca n/ao n?aaenoa,
inoaaoeony a aa ?anii?yaeaiee iinea oieaou iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu
i?aaiecaoeee).

Ii?yaeie en/eneaiey e oieaou ANI iaeiaiieaoaeuoeeeaie – ?aaioiaeaoaeyie
i?eaaaeai a no. 243 IE ?O. Niaeanii yoie noaouea ?aaioiaeaoaee
aaeaiany/ii iaycaiu aiineoue aaainiaua ieaoaaee ii iaeiao ia?aae oai,
eae iieo/aoue a aaiea n?aaenoaa aeey auieaou aiie ieaou ?aaioieeai.
*oiau iieo/eoue a aaiea iaee/iua aeaiueae aeey auaea/e ca?aaioiie ieaou,
i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu i?aaeuyaeoue ieaoaaeiua ii?o/aiey ia ia?a/eneaiea
iaeiaa. Ii eaaeaeiio ?aaioieeo i?aaiecaoeee ?ann/eouaatho noiio iaeiaa,
ca/eneyaioth a Iaineiiiue oiiae ?O, Oiiae nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey ?O,
Oaaea?aeueiue e oa??eoi?eaeueiua oiiaeu iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai
no?aoiaaiey.

E?iia aaeeiiai nioeeaeueiiai iaeiaa i?aaiecaoeee oiea/eaatho no?aoiaua
aciinu io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa ia i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaaeueiuo caaieaaaiee,
eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii io 24 ethey 1998 a. ? 125 — OC
a ?acia?a 0,2% ca?aaioiie.

Iauee ia?a/aiue auieao, eioi?ua ia iaeaaathony aaeeiui nioeeaeueiui
iaeiaii, oeacai a no. 238 IE ?O.

?acia? iiniaey i?e iauai caaieaaaiee caaeneo io iai?a?uaiinoe noaaea
?aaiou: aei 5 eao — 60 % ca?aaioea; io 5 aei 8 eao – 80 e nauoa 8 eao —
100% ca?aaioea.

A ?aeiiao E?aeiaai Naaa?a e i?e?aaiaiiuo e iei ianoiinoyo iiniaea
auiea/eaaaony a ?acia?a 100% iacaaeneii io iai?a?uaiinoe noaaea. E?iia
oiai, iiniaea a ?acia?a 100% auiea/eaaaony:

• aneaaenoaea o?oaeiaiai oaa/uey eee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai caaieaaaiey;

– ?aaioathuei eiaaeeaeai AIA e ae?oaei eiaaeeaeai, i?e?aaiaiiui a
ioiioaiee eueaio e eiaaeeaeai AIA;

– eeoeai, eiathuei ia naiai eaeaeeaaiee o?ao e aieaa aeaoae, ia
aeinoeaoeo 16 eao (a o/aueony — 18 eao);

– ii aa?aiaiiinoe e ?iaeai.

I?e naeaeueiie oi?ia iieaou o?oaea iiniaea ?ann/eouaatho ia iniiaa
ca?aaioiie ieaou e /enea io?aaioaiiuo aeiae ca iineaaeiea aeaa
eaeaiaea?iuo ianyoea, i?aaeoanoaothueo ianyoeo, a eioi?ii ianooieea
iao?oaeiniiniaiinoue. E ca?aaioeo eaaeaeiai ec yoeo aeaoo ianyoeaa
i?eaaaeytho n?aaeiaiany/ioth noiio aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ca i?ioeue aiae.
Anee ?aaioiee a eaaeaeii ec yoeo ianyoeaa eee a ieo i?i?aaioae ia ana
aeie, n?aaeiaiany/iay noiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ?ann/eouaaaony
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii io?aaioaiiiio a?aiaie. Caoai ii?aaeaeyaony n?aaeiyy
ca?ieaoa a aeaiue (ca?ieaoa ca 2 ianyoea + 2/12 aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ca
i?ioeue aiae, aeaeaiiia ia /enei ?aai/eo aeiae ca yoe aeaa ianyoea).

Iinea yoiai ii?aaeaeyaony iiniaea a aeaiue (n?aaeiyy ca?ieaoa a aeaiue o
i?ioeaio iiniaey a aeaiue : 100).

Iiniaea ca aeie aieacie ii?aaeaeyaony iooai oiiiaeaiey iiniaey ia /enei
?aai/eo aeiae iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe.

Oaea?aeaiey ec ca?aaioiie ieaou. Ii?yaeie ?an/aoa e oaea?aeaiey iaeiaa
ia aeioiaeu oece/aneeo eeoe.Iaeiaiaay ea?oi/ea

Ec ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioieeia i?iecaiaeyony oaea?aeaiey. Ii oa?aeoa?o
iie iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa a?oiiu: iaycaoaeueiua oaea?aeaiey e
oaea?aeaiey ii eieoeeaoeaa i?aaiecaoeee.

E./eneo iaycaoaeueiuo oaea?aeaiee ioiinyony iaeia ia aeioiaeu oece/aneeo
eeoe, oaea?aeaiey ii eniieieoaeueiui eenoai e iaaeienyi iioa?eaeueiuo
eiioi? a iieueco th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe. E oaea?aeaieyi ii
eieoeeaoeaa i?aaiecaoeee ioiinyo: oaea?aeaiey ca i?e/eiaiiue
iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a, naiaa?aiaiii ia aica?auaiiua iiaeio/aoiua noiiu,
naiaa?aiaiii ia iiaaoaiiua aani?ioeaioiua nnoaeu e ae?.

Ii?yaeie oaea?aeaiey iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu oece/aneeo eeoe ii?aaeaeai a ae.
23 IE ?O.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee iaeiaiaie aacu o/eouaathony ana aeioiaeu
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea, iieo/aiiua ei a aeaiaaeiie e a iaoo?aeueiie oi?iao,
a oaeaea aeioiaeu a aeaea iaoa?eaeueiie auaiaeu.

E aeioiaeai io enoi/ieeia a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (no. 208 IE)
ioiinyony:

– aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca auiieiaiea o?oaeiauo eee eiuo iaycaiiinoae,
auiieiaiioth ?aaioo, ieacaiioth oneoao;

– aeeaeaeaiaeu e i?ioeaiou, iieo/aiiua io ?inneeneie i?aaiecaoeee e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e io eiino?aiiuo i?aaiecaoeee a
nayce n aeayoaeueiinoueth aa iinoiyiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee;

– aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua io naea/e a a?aiaeo eee eiiai eniieueciaaiey
eiouanoaa, iaoiaeyuaainy a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee;

– aeioiaeu io ?aaeecaoeee iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, iaoiaeyuaainy
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, e ae?.;

– eiiai eiouanoaa, iaoiaeyuaainy a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e
i?eiaaeeaaeauaai oece/aneiio eeoeo, e ae?.

E aeioiaeai, iieo/aiiui iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia a
/anoiinoe, ioiinyony:

– iieaoa (iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii) ca iaai i?aaiecaoeeyie eee
(eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa)
eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa, a oii /enea eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa, ieoaiey, ioaeuoa,
iao/aiey a eioa?anao iaeiaiieaoaeueueea;

– iieaoa o?oaea a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia e ae?.

Aeioiaeii iaeiaiieaoaeueueea, iieo/aiiui a aeaea iaoa?eaeueiie auaiaeu,
yaeythony:

– iaoa?eaeueiay auaiaea, iieo/aiiay io yeiiiiee ia i?ioeaioao (ca
iieueciaaiea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii caaiiuie (e?aaeeoiuie) n?aaenoaaie,
iieo/aiiuie io i?aaiecaoeee eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae;

– iaoa?eaeueiay auaiaea, iieo/aiiay io i?eia?aoaiey oeaiiuo iae e ae?.

Ia iiaeeaaeao iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth neaaeothuea aeaeu aeioiaeia oece/aneeo
eeoe:

– ainoaea?noaaiiua iiniaey (ca eneeth/aieai iiniaee ii a?aiaiiie
iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe), iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea, aa?aiaiiinoe e ?iaeai;

– ainoaea?noaaiiua iainee, iacia/aaiua a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii
aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii;

– ana aeaeu onoaiiaeaiiuo aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
eiiiainaoeeiiiuo auieao, naycaiiuo n:

aiciauaieai a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai oaa/ueai eee eiui iia?aaeaeaieai
caei?iauey,

oaieueiaieai ?aaioieeia, ca eneeth/aieai eiiiainaoeee ca
iaeniieueciaaiiue ioione, e ae?.;

• aeeiaiou, iieo/aaiua iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie;

• noiiu aaeeiia?aiaiiie iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue, ieacuaaaiie:
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea a nayce ni noeoeeiui aaaenoaeai eee ae?oaei
/?acau/aeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaii;

?aaioiaeaoaeyie /eaiai naiuee oia?oaai ?aaioieea eee ?aaioieeo a nayce
ni nia?oueth /eaia (/eaiia) aai naiuee;

• noeiaiaeee o/aueony, nooaeaioia, anie?aioia;

• aeioiaeu, ia i?aauoathuea 2000 ?oa., iieo/aiiua ii eaaeaeiio ec
neaaeothueo iniiaaiee ca iaeiaiaue ia?eiae: noieiinoue iiaea?eia,
iieo/aiiuo iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie io i?aaiecaoeee eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae; noiiu iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue, ieacuaaaiie
?aaioiaeaoaeyie naiei ?aaioieeai, a oaeaea auaoei naiei ?aaioieeai,
oaieeaoeiny a nayce n auoiaeii ia iaineth ii eiaaeeaeiinoe eee ii
aic?anoo e ae?.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee iaeiaiaie aacu iaeiaiieaoaeueuee eiaao i?aai ia
iieo/aiea iaeiaiauo au/aoia e eueaio. Au/aou (noiiu, eioi?ua au/eoathony
ec aeioiaea, o. a. ia iaeaaathony iaeiaii) iiae?acaeaeythony ia /aou?a
aeaea: noaiaea?oiua, nioeeaeueiua, eiouanoaaiiua e i?ioanneiiaeueiua. Ec
ieo oieueei noaiaea?oiua i?aaeinoaaeythony aooaaeoa?eae ii ianoo ?aaiou,
inoaeueiua — iaeiaiaie einiaeoeeae ii aeaeea?aoeee ii enoa/aiee
iaeiaiaiai ia?eiaea.

Noaiaea?oiua — yoi au/aou, eioi?ua aoaeoo i?iecaiaeeoueny ec ca?aaioiie
ieaou. Eo ?acia? ninoaaeyao:

1. 3000 ?oa. ca eaaeaeue ianyoe iaeiaiaiai ia?eiaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
neaaeothuea eaoaai?ee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia:

eeoe, iieo/eaoeo eee ia?aianoeo eo/aaoth aieaciue e ae?oaea caaieaaaiey,
naycaiiua n ?aaeeaoeeiiiui aicaeaenoaeai aneaaenoaea eaoano?iou ia
*a?iiaueueneie AYN;

eiaaeeaeia Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu;

eiaaeeaeia ec /enea aiaiiineoaeaueo, noaaoeo eiaaeeaeaie I, II, III
a?oii aneaaenoaea ?aiaiey, eiioocee eee oaa/uey, iieo/aiiuo i?e caueoa
NNN?, ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee i?e eniieiaiee eiuo iaycaiiinoae
aiaiiie neoaeau e ae?. (no. 218 IE. ?O);

2. 500 ?oa. ca eaaeaeue ianyoe iaeiaiaiai ia?eiaea; ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
neaaeothuea eaoaai?ee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia:

Aa?iaa Niaaoneiai Nithca e Aa?iaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a oaeaea eeoe,
iaa?aaeaeaiiuo i?aeaiii Neaau o?ao noaiaiae; eiaaeeaeia n aeaonoaa, a
oaeaea eiaaeeaeia I e II a?oii e ae?.

3. 400 ?oa. ca eaaeaeue ianyoe — ia eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea aei aeinoeaeaiey
ei aeioiaea 20000 ?oa. Ia/eiay n ianyoea, a eioi?ii oeacaiiue aeioiae
i?aaunee 20000 ?oa., aeaiiue iaeiaiaue au/ao ia i?eiaiyaony.

4. 600 ?oa. ca eaaeaeue ianyoe iaeiaiaiai ia?eiaea; ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
eaaeaeiai ?aaaiea o iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, ia iaania/aiee eioi?uo
iaoiaeeony ?aaaiie, e aeaenoaoao aei ianyoea, a eioi?ii eo aeioiae,
en/eneaiiue ia?anoathuei eoiaii n ia/aea iaeiaiaiai ia?eiaea, i?aaunee
40000 ?oa. Ia/eiay n ianyoea, a eioi?ii oeacaiiue aeioiae i?aaunee 40000
?oa., iaeiaiaue au/ao ia i?eiaiyaony.

Iaeiaiaue au/ao ?anoiaeia ia niaea?aeaiea ?aaaiea (aeaoae) i?iecaiaeeony
ia eaaeaeiai ?aaaiea a aic?anoa aei 18 eao, a oaeaea ia eaaeaeiai
o/auaainy aeiaaiie oi?iu iao/aiey, anie?aioa, i?aeeiaoi?a, nooaeaioa,
eo?naioa a aic?anoa aei 24 eao o ?iaeeoaeae e noi?oaia, iiaeoiia,
iiia/eoaeae.

Aaeiaai (aaeiaoeai), iaeeiieei ?iaeeoaeyi, iiaeoiai eee iiia/eoaeyi
iaeiaiaue au/ao i?iecaiaeeony a aeaieiii ?acia?a.

Nioeeaeueiua iaeiaiaua au/aou i?aaeinoaaeythony oieueei ii aeaeea?aoeee,
iiaeaiiie a iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth. I?aaeoniio?aiu neaaeothuea aeaeu
nioeeaeueiuo au/aoia:

1. A noiia aeioiaeia, ia?a/eneyaiuo iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii ia
aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee a aeaea iiiiue i?aaiecaoeeyi iaoee, eoeueoo?u,
ia?aciaaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey e nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey, /anoe/ii eee
iieiinoueth oeiaine?oaiuo ec n?aaenoa niioaaonoaothueo athaeaeaoia, a
oaeaea oeceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaiui i?aaiecaoeeyi, ia?aciaaoaeueiui e
aeioeieueiui o/?aaeaeaieyi — oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia, ii ia
aieaa 25% noiiu aeioiaea, iieo/aiiiai a iaeiaiaii ia?eiaea.

2.A noiia, oiea/aiiie iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii a iaeiaiaii ca naia iao/aiea a
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo, — a ?acia?a oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiuo
?anoiaeia ia iao/aiea, ii ia aieaa 5000 ?oa., a oaeaea a noiia,
oiea/aiiie iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii – ?iaeeoaeai ca iao/aiea naieo aeaoae a
aic?anoa aei 24 eao ia aeiaaiie oi?ia iao/aiey a ia?aciaaoaeueiuo
o/?aaeaeaieyo, — a oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia yoi iao/aiea,
ii ia aieaa 25000 ?oa. ia eaaeaeiai ?aaaiea a iauae noiia ia iaieo
?iaeeoaeae.

3. A noiia, oiea/aiiie iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii a iaeiaiaii ia?eiaea oneoae
ii ea/aieth, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua aio iaaeeoeeineei o/?aaeaeaieai ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, a oaeaea oiea/aiiie ei ca oneoae ii ea/aieth noi?oaa
(noi?oae), naieo ?iaeeoaeae e naieo aeaoae a aic?anoa aei 18 eao a
iaaeeoeeineeo o/?aaeaeaieyo ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Iauay noiia yoiai
nioeeaeueiiai au/aoa ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue 25000 ?oa.

Eiouanoaaiiua iaeiaiaua au/aou i?aaeinoaaeythony oieueei ii
aeaeea?aoeee, iiaeaiiie a iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth. I?aaeoniio?aiu
neaaeothuea aeaeu eiouanoaaiiuo au/aoia:

1. Ii aeioiaeai io i?iaeaaee aeeeuo aeiiia, eaa?oe?, aea/, naaeiauo
aeiieeia eee caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, iaoiaeeaoeony a nianoaaiiinoe
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea iaiaa iyoe eao, ii ia i?aauoathueo a oeaeii 1 000000
?oa., a oaeaea a noiia, iieo/aiiie a iaeiaiaii ia?eiaea io i?iaeaaee
eiiai eiouanoaa, iaoiaeeaoaainy a nianoaaiiinoe iaeiaiieaoaeueueea iaiaa
o?ao eao, ii ia i?aauoathuae 125 000 ?oa. I?e i?iaeaaea aeeeuo aeiiia,
eaa?oe?, aea/, naaeiauo aeiieeia e caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, iaoiaeeaoeony a
nianoaaiiinoe iaeiaiieaoaeueueea iyoue e aieaa eao, a oaeaea eiiai
eiouanoaa iaoiaeeaoaainy a nianoaaiiinoe iaeiaiieaoaeueueea o?e aiaea e
aieaa, eiouanoaaiiue iaeiaiaue au/ao i?aaeinoaaeyaony a noiia,
iieo/aiiie iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii i?e i?iaeaaea oeacaiiiai eiouanoaa.

2. A noiia, ec?anoiaeiaaiiie iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii ia iiaia
no?ieoaeuenoai, i?eia?aoaiea aeeeiai aeiia eee eaa?oe?u a ?acia?a
oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia, a oaeaea a noiia, iai?aaeaiiie ia
iiaaoaiea i?ioeaioia ii eiioa/iui aaieianeei e?aaeeoai. Iauee ?acia?
au/aoa — aei 600000 ?oa. aac o/aoa noii, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiaaoaiea
i?ioeaioia ii, e?aaeeoai. Yoio au/ao i?aaeinoaaeyaony iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo
a aeaou ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia aeeeie iauaeo.

I?ioanneiiaeueiua au/aou i?aaeinoaaeythony a noiia ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo
n ecaea/aieai aeioiaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, a oaeaea a?aaeaeaiaie ii
aeiaiai?ai a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a, a oii /enea ca
i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa.

Iaeiaiaay noaaea ia aeioiaeu oece/aneeo eeoe onoaiiaeaia a ?acia?a 13%.

Iaeiaiaay noaaea a ?acia?a 35% onoaiiaeaia a ioiioaiey neaaeothueo
aeioiaeia:

• auea?uoae, auiea/eaaaiuo i?aaiecaoi?aie eioa?ae, oioaeecaoi?ia e
ae?oaeo, iniiaaiiuo ia ?enea ea? (a oii /enea n eniieueciaaieai ea?iauo
aaoiiaoia);

• noieiinoe ethauo auea?uoae e i?ecia, iieo/aaiuo a i?iaiaeeiuo
eiieo?nao, ea?ao e ae?oaeo ia?ii?eyoeyo a oeaeyo ?aeeaiu oiaa?ia, ?aaio,
oneoa, a /anoe i?aauoaiey noii 2000 ?oa.a aiae;

– no?aoiauo auieao ii aeiaiai?ai aeia?iaieueiiai no?aoiaaiey aeecie a
/anoe i?aauoaiey ?acia?ia noii no?aoiauo aciinia, oaaee/aiiuo ia noaaeo
?aoeiaine?iaaiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey
aeiaiai?ia;

– i?ioeaioiuo aeioiaeia a aaieao a /anoe i?aauoaiey noiiu, ?ann/eoaiiie
enoiaey ec 3/4 noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O ii
?oaeaaui aeeaaeai e 9% aiaeiauo ii aeeaaeai a eiino?aiiie aaethoa;

– noiiu yeiiiiee ia i?ioeaioao i?e iieo/aiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie
caaiiuo n?aaenoa (a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aani?ioeaioiay eee nnoaea iiae
i?ioeaio ieaea, /ai 3/4 noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea
?O).

Iaeiaiaay noaaea a ?acia?a 30% onoaiiaeaia a ioiioaiee iieo/aaiuo
oece/aneeie eeoeaie, ia yaeythueieny iaeiaiauie ?aceaeaioaie ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee.

Noiia iaeiaa ii?aaeaeyaony a iieiuo ?oa.. Noiia iaeiaa iaiaa 50 eii.
ioa?anuaaaony, a 50 eii. e aieaa ie?oaeythony aei iieiiai ?oaey.

Eae ioia/aeinue, ec ca?ieaou iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoueny oaea?aeaiey:
aeeiaiou, a aiciauaiea i?e/eiaiiiai oua?aa e o. ae.

Oaea?aeaiea aeeiaioia ia niaea?aeaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo iiaiaeeony ni
anao aeaeia ca?aaioiie ieaou e aeiiieieoaeueiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eae ii
iniiaiiio ianoo ?aaiou, oae ii niaianoeoaeuenoao, eioi?oth iieo/atho
?iaeeoaee a e iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia; ni anao aeaeia iainee; ni noeiaiaeee,
auiea/eaaaiuo iao/athueieny a ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo; n iiniaee
ii aac?aaioeoea; iiniaee ii a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe, a oii /enea
ii aa?aiaiiinoe e ?iaeai; n aeioiaeia ii aeoeeyi; n noii iaoa?eaeueiie
iiiiue (e?iia iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue, ieacuaaaiie a?aaeaeaiai a nayce ni
noeoeeiui aaaenoaeai, iiaea?ii, oeuaieai eiouanoaa e o. i.).

Acuneaiea aeeiaioia n noii ca?aaioiie ieaou e eiiai aeioiaea,
i?e/eoathueony eeoeo, oiea/eaathuaio aeeiaiou, i?iecaiaeeony iinea
oaea?aeaiey ec yoie ca?aaioiie ieaou e eiiai aeioiaea iaeiaia a
niioaaonoaee n iaeiaiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Iinooieaoea ia i?aaei?eyoea eniieieoaeueiua aeieoiaiou aeey acuneaiey
aeeiaioia ?aaeno?e?othony e ia iicaeiaa neaaeothuaai aeiy iinea eo
iinooieaiey ia?aaeathony a aooaaeoa?eth iiae ?anieneo ioaaonoaaiiiio
eeoeo. A aooaaeoa?ee yoe aeieoiaiou ?aaeno?e?otho a niaoeeaeueiii
aeo?iaea e o?aiyo eae aeaiee no?iaie io/aoiinoe ia?aaia n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie.

Aaeieieno?aoeey i?aaiecaoeee ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue io ?aaioieea aiciauaiey
i?e/eiaiiiai oua?aa a ?acia?a i?yiiai aeaenoaeoaeueiiai oua?aa, ii ia
aieaa aai n?aaeiaai iany/iiai ca?aaioea. ?anii?yaeaiea aaeieieno?aoeee
aeieaeii auoue naeaeaii ia iicaeiaa aeaoo iaaeaeue ni aeiy iaia?oaeaiey
i?e/eiaiiiai oua?aa. Anee ?aaioiee ia niaeanai n au/aoii eee aai
?acia?ii, o?oaeiaie nii? ii cayaeaieth ?aaioieea ?anniao?eaaaony a
ii?yaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

A inoaeueiuo neo/ayo aiciauaiea oua?aa i?iecaiaeeony iooai i?aaeuyaeaiey
aaeieieno?aoeeae enea a noaeaaiua i?aaiu.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa, eceeoia auiea/aiiay ?aaioieeo aaeieieno?aoeeae, ia
iiaeao auoue n iaai acuneaia, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa n/aoiie ioeaee.

Ia aeiioneathony oaea?aeaiey ec auoiaeiiai iiniaey, eiiiainaoeeiiiuo e
eiuo auieao, ia eioi?ua niaeanii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ia ia?auaaony
acuneaiea.

I?e eaaeaeie auieaoa ca?aaioiie ieaou iauee ?acia? anao oaea?aeaiee ia
iiaeao i?aauoaoue 20%, a a neo/ayo, iniai i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, — 50% ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?e/eoathuaeny e auieaoa
?aaioieeo.

Yoi ia?aie/aiey ia ?ani?ino?aiythony ia oaea?aeaiea ec ca?aaioiie ieaou
i?e ioauaaiee eni?aaeoaeueiuo ?aaio e i?e acuneaiee aeeiaioia ia
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae.

N 1 yiaa?y 2001 a. ana i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu aanoe o/ao aeioiaeia e
iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu oece/aneeo eeoe a iaeiaiaie ea?oi/ea ii oi?ia ?
1-IAeOE, ooaa?aeaeaiiie i?eeacii Ieienoa?noaa, ii iaeiaii e nai?ai ?O io
I iiya?y 2000 a..

Iaycaiiinoue i?aaiecaoeee aanoe o/ao aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo io ieo
oece/aneeie eeoeaie a io/aoiii ia?eiaea ii oi?ia ? 1-IAeOE, onoaiiaeaia
no. 230 IE ?O. Iaeiaiaay ea?oi/ea yaeyaony ia?ae/iui aeieoiaioii
iaeiaiaiai o/aoa e ninoieo ec ainueie ?acaeaeia.

Iaeiaiaay ea?oi/ea aaaeaony ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeiio iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo e
niaea?aeeo eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay iaiaoiaeeia aeey i?aaeeueiiai
en/eneaiey iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu oece/aneeo eeoe. A iae oeacuaathony, ca
eaeie iaeiaiaue ia?eiae iia caiieiyaony, aeaiiua i aeioiaeao,
auiea/aiiuo eo iieo/aoaeth, noiiao i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo aio iaeiaiauo
au/aoia e eueaio, a oaeaea i noiiao ia/eneaiiiai e oaea?aeaiiiai iaeiaa.

A iaeiaiaie ea?oi/ea ia oeacuaathony aeioiaeu, auiea/aiiua
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi ca i?eia?aoaiiua o ieo oiaa?ia
(oneoae, ?aaiou), anee iie i?aaeuyaeee iaeiaiaiio aaaioo aeieoiaiou,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea eo ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aaeno?aoeeth a ea/anoaa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aac ia?aciaaiey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea.

Aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou. Aeaiiie?iaaiiay
ca?aaioiay ieaoa

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao
auiea/eaaaony ia ?aaea /ai eaaeaeua iieianyoea. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa ca
ioione auiea/eaaaony ia iicaeiaa /ai ca iaeei aeaiue aei ia/aea ioionea.

Aeey ?an/aoa e auaea/e ca?aaioiie ieaou i?eiaiyaony ?an/aoii-ieaoaaeiay
aaaeiiinoue. A iae oeacai ?an/ao ca?aaioiie ieaou e noiia e auaea/a.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa auaeaaony ii ieaoaaeiui aaaeiiinoyi (oi?ia O-53), a
eioi?uo oeacuaatho oaieeeth, eiy, io/anoai ?aaioieea e noiio e auaea/a.
Ia eeoeaaie noi?iia ieaoaaeiie aaaeiiinoe aeaeaaony ?ac?aoeoaeueiay
iaaeienue ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaiecaoeee ia auaea/o ca?aaioiie ieaou. Ana
ieaoaaeiua aaaeiiinoe iiaeeaaeao ?aaeno?aoeee ia?anoathuei eoiaii n
ia/aea aiaea. Eo iiaeienuaatho ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaiecaoeee e aeaaiue
aooaaeoa?, iinea /aai ia?aaeatho eanne?o aeey eniieiaiey.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa auaeaaony a onoaiiaeaiiua ii niaeaniaaieth n aaieii
aeie. N?ie auaea/e ca?aaioiie ieaou — o?e aeiy, a ?aeiiao E?aeiaai
Naaa?a e i?e?aaiaiiuo e iei ianoiinoyo — iyoue aeiae.

Neioaoe/aneee e aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ?an/aoia ii iieaoa o?oaea

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao ?an/aoia ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa aaaeaony ia n/aoa 70
«?an/aou n ia?niiaeii ii iieaoa o?oaea». Ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 70
io?aaeaaony ia/eneaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou, ii aeaaaoo — oaea?aeaiey ec
ca?aaioiie ieaou e aa auieaoa.

Naeueaei ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 70 iieacuaaao noiio ia/eneaiiie, ii ia
auaeaiiie ca?aaioiie ieaou e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aoiaeyuoth
caaeieaeaiiinoue ii iieaoa o?oaea ca aoi?oth iieiaeio ianyoea eee a
oeaeii ca ianyoe, iiaaoaaioth a ia?auo /eneao neaaeothuaai ianyoea.

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ?an/aoia ii iieaoa o?oaea aaaeaony a aooaaeoa?ee ia
eeoeaauo n/aoao ii oi?iai O-54 e O-54-a, ooaa?aeaeaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai
Aineiinoaoa ?innee io 29 aeaeaa?y 2000 a. ?136.

Eeoeaaie n/ao ioe?uaaaony ia eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea, a iai aaaeaony ?an/ao
ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioieeo a oa/aiea aiaea e noiiu e auaea/a. Ia
iaaieueoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ?an/aoia ii iieaoa o?oaea
aaaeaony a niaoeeaeueiie eieaa, eiathuae aeae na?ioth?iaaiiuo ?an/ao
ii-ieaoaaeiuo aaaeiiinoae, aaea io?aaeaaony ?an/ao ca?aaioiie ieaou anai
?aaioieeai a oa/aiea aiaea. Eeoeaaua n/aoa (eieae) caiieiythony
aaeaiany/ii.

O*AO INIIAIUO N?AAeNOA, IAIAOA?EAEUeIUO AEOEAIA, AEEOEAIA, IAEIOeAIIUO,
AUNO?IECIAOEAATHUEONss I?AAeIAOIA E IAOA?EAEIA

Caaea/e o/aoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. Eo eeanneoeeaoeey e ioeaiea

E iniiaiui n?aaenoaai ioiinyony caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey, ?aai/ea e neeiaua
iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea, ecia?eoaeueiua e ?aaoee?othuea i?eai?u e
ono?ienoaa, au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa,
eino?oiaiou, ?aai/ee, i?iaeoeoeaiuie ieaiaiiie neio, iiiaieaoiea
ianaaeaeaiey, aioo?eoicyenoaaiiua aei?iae e ae?.

E?iia yoiai a ninoaa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa aoiaeyo eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey a
a?aiaeiaaiiia eiouanoai, caiaeueiua o/anoee e iauaeou
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey, a oaeaea n?aaenoaa, iai?aaeaiiua ia ei?aiiia
oeo/oaiea caiaeue.

Caaea/e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ninoiyo a neaaeothuai:

• eiio?ieue ca nio?aiiinoueth e yooaeoeaiui eniieueciaaieai;

• i?aaeeueiia aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea iinooieaiey, nienaiey,
auauoey;

• i?aaeeueiia ia/eneaiea e io?aaeaiea a o/aoa aii?oecaoeee eciina;

• i?aaeeueiia io?aaeaiea cao?ao ii ?aiiioo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa eeanneoeoee?othony ii neaaeothuei iieacaoaeyi: ii
io?aneyi oicyenoaa (i?iiuoeaiiinoue, no?ieoaeuenoai, o?ainii?o, oi?aiaey
e o. ae.), ii iacia/aieth (i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua), ii
eniieueciaaieth (aeaenoaothuea, iaaeaenoaothuea), ii aeaeai (caeaiey,
nii?oaeaiey, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, oicyenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue e o. ae.).
i?aaeeueiiai o/aoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao ioeaiea,
eioi?ay iiaeao auoue ia?aiia/aeueiie, inoaoi/iie, ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie .

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa i?eieiathony e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo ii
ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe.

Ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoueth iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, i?eia?aoaiiuo ca ieaoo,
i?eciaaony noiia oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao i?aaiecaoeee ia i?eia?aoaiea,
nii?oaeaiea e ecaioiaeaiea, ca eneeth/aieai iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue e eiuo aiciauaaiuo iaeiaia.

Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey a iiiaieaoiea ianaaeaeaiey, ia ei?aiiia oeo/oaiea
caiaeue aeeth/athony a ninoaa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa aaeaaiaeii a noiia
cao?ao, ioiinyueony e i?eiyoui a io/aoiii aiaeo a yenieoaoaoeeth
ieiuaaeyi, iacaaeneii io aeaou ieii/aiey anaai eiiieaena ?aaio.

Noieiinoue iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, a eioi?ie iie i?eiyou e aooaaeoa?neiio
o/aoo, ia iiaeeaaeeo eciaiaieth, e?iia neo/aaa, onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Aa eciaiaiea aeiioneaaony
eeoue a neo/ayo aeino?ieee, aeiiai?oaeiaaiey, ?aeiino?oeoeee, /anoe/iie
eeeaeaeaoeee e ia?aioeaiee iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao ia /aua iaeiiai ?aca a aiae
ia?aioeaieaaoue a?oiiu iaeii?iaeiuo iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ii
oaeouae (ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie) noieiinoe iooai eiaeaenaoeee eee i?yiiai
ia?a?an/aoa ii ?uii/iui oeaiai n aeieoiaioaeueiui iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai.

I?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey i ia?aioeaiea neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi a
iineaaeothuai oaeea iniiaiua n?aaenoaa ia?aioeaieaathony ?aaoey?ii,
/oiau eo noieiinoue, ii eioi?ie iie io?aaeathony a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e
io/aoiinoe, nouanoaaiii ia ioee/aeanue io oaeouae (ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie)
noieiinoe.

Ioeaiea iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, noieiinoue eioi?iai i?e i?eia?aoaiee
au?aaeaia a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, i?iecaiaeeony a ?oaeyo iooai
ia?a?an/aoa noiiu a eiino?aiiie aaethoa ii eo?no OeA ?O, aeaenoaothuaio
ia aeaoo i?eiyoey iauaeoa e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo.

Ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay noieiinoue — yoi noieiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa ?aiaa
nicaeaiiuo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Iia ii?aaeaeyaony
i?e ia?aioeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, i?iaiaeeiie iooai eiaeaenaoeee aeey
i?eaaaeaiey eo noieiinoe a niioaaonoaea n aeaenoaothueie oeaiaie e
oneiaeyie aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Inoaoi/iay noieiinoue— yoi noieiinoue iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ii
ia?aiia/aeueiie (ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie) ioeaiea ca au/aoii aii?oecaoeee.

Aaeeieoeae o/aoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa yaeyaony ioaeaeueiue eiaaioa?iue
iauaeo. Eiaaioa?iue iauaeo— ono?ienoai, i?aaeiao eee eiiieaen
i?aaeiaoia, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey auiieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
naiinoiyoaeueiuo ooieoeee. Eaaeaeiio eiaaioa?iiio iauaeoo i?enaaeaaaony
eiaaioa?iue iiia?, eioi?ue i?ee?aieyaony a aeaea iaoaeee/aneiai aeaoiia
eee iaiineony e?aneie. Eiaaioa?iue iiia? nio?aiyaony, eae i?aaeei, ca
iauaeoii ia aanue ia?eiae aai iaoiaeaeaiey ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee (a
i?aaiecaoeee).

Ia eaaeaeue iauaeo eee a?oiio iaeiioeiiuo i?aaeiaoia, i?eia?aoaiiuo
iaeiia?aiaiii, ioe?uaathony oeiiaua eiaaioa?iua ea?oi/ee (oi?ia ? IN-6).
A ea?oi/eao oeacuaaaony oaoie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea: iaeiaiiaaiea, aiae
ecaioiaeaiey e i?eia?aoaiey, caaiae-ecaioiaeoaeue, eiaaioa?iue iiia?,
ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue, eciin, naaaeaiey i i?iaaaeaiiuo eaieoaeueiuo
?aiiioao, ia?aiauaieyo e auauoee. Eiaaioa?iua ea?oi/ee ?aaeno?e?othony a
iienyo oeiiaie oi?iu, eioi?ua aaaeoony a aooaaeoa?ee.

Ia iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, i?eiyoua a a?aiaeo, a aooaaeoa?ee
i?aaei?eyoey-a?aiaeaoi?a eiaaioa?iua ea?oi/ee ia ioe?uaathony, ii e aeoo
(iaeeaaeiie) i?eaiee-ia?aaea/e a?aiaeiaeaoaeue i?eeaaaao eiieth
eiaaioa?iie ea?oi/ee.

Aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea e o/ao iinooieaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. O/ao
IAeN ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai

Iniiaiui aeieoiaioii, ii?aaeaeythuei i?aaiecaoeeth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa,
yaeyaony IAO 6/01 «O/ao iniiaiuo n?aaenoa». Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa
iinooiatho a ?acoeueoaoa aciina o/?aaeeoaeae, a?aiaeu, iieoiee,
iino?ieee, aacaiciacaeiiai iieo/aiey io ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee, i?e
ii?eoiaeiaaiee auyaeaiiuo i?e eiaaioa?ecaoeee iao/oaiiuo iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa.

I?e iinooieaiee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa (a caaeneiinoe io enoi/ieea
iinooieaiey) iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu neaaeothuea oieoeoee?iaaiiua
o/aoiua oi?iu:

1. Aeo (iaeeaaeiay) i?eaiee-ia?aaea/e iniiaiuo n?aaenoa (oi?ia ? IN-1) —
i?eiaiyaony aeey ca/eneaiey a ninoaa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ioaeaeueiuo
iauaeoia iinooieaoeo iooai:

-aianaiey o/?aaeeoaeyie a n/ao eo aeeaaeia a onoaaiue eaieoae;

-i?eia?aoaiey ca ieaoo o ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee;

-iieo/aiey io ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee e eeoe a aacaiciacaeiia iieueciaaiea;

-iinooieaiey ii aeoo aea?aiey;

-ia?aaea/e a iaiai ia ae?oaia eiouanoai.

Yoa oi?ia oaeaea ninoaaeyaony i?e aioo?aiiai ia?aiauaiee iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e eo auauoee.

I?e i?eaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa aeo (iaeeaaeiay) ninoaaeyaony a iaeiii
yecaiiey?a ia eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue iauaeo, i?e aioo?aiiai ia?aiauaiee —
a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao. Ia?aue yecaiiey? n ?anieneie iieo/aoaey e naeao/eea
ia?aaeaaony a aooaaeoa?eth» aoi?ie — no?oeoo?iiio iiae?acaeaeaieth —
naeao/eeo.

Iinooiathuea iniiaiua n?aaenoaa i?eieiaao eiienney, iacia/aaiay
?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia eaaeaeue iauaeo a?oii iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ioe?uaaaony eiaaioa?iay
ea?oi/ea (oi?ia ? IN-6), a eioi?ie caienuaathony iniiaiua ea/anoaaiiua e
eiee/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee iauaeoa, a oaeaea ioiinyueany e iaio
aaaeiaeoea i?eniiniaeaiey e i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. A i?aaiecaoeeyo, eiathueo
ia?aie/aiiia eiee/anoai iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, aeiioneaaony
aaaeaiea iiiauaeoiiai o/aoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia a ea?oi/ea oi?iu ?
IN-6, a a eiaaioa?iie eieaa o/aoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. ?aoaiea i aaaeaiee
o/aoa ia eiaaioa?iuo ea?oi/eao eee a eiaaioa?iuo eieaao iaoiaeeony a
eiiiaoaioeee ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaiecaoeee e aeieaeii auoue io?aaeaii a
o/aoiie iieeoeea i?aaiecaoeee. ?aeaeceou eieae oaeea aea, /oi e a
eiaaioa?iuo ea?oi/eao.

2. Aeo i i?eaiea iai?oaeiaaiey (oi?ia ? IN-14) – ninoaaeyaony i?e
iinooieaiee ia neeaae iai?oaeiaaiey a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao e
iiaeienuaaaony i?eaiiie eiienneae.

I?eiyoea e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea eciaiaiea
ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe eo i?e aeino?ieea, aeiiai?oaeiaaiee e
?aeiino?oeoeee io?aaeaaony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 01 «Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa».
Aeaiiue n/ao aeoeaiue, i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iaiauaiey eioi?iaoeee i
iaee/ee e aeaeaeaiee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa i?aaiecaoeee, iaoiaeyueony a
yenieoaoaoeee, caiana, ia eiina?aaoeee, a a?aiaea, aeiaa?eoaeueiii
oi?aaeaiee.

3. Aeo oi?iu ? IN-3 — ninoaaeyaony i?e i?eaiea-naea/a io?aiiioe?iaaiiuo,
?aeiino?oe?iaaiiuo e iiaea?iece?iaaiiuo iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ii n/aoo 01 aaaeaony ii ioaeaeueiui eiaaioa?iui
iauaeoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua aacaiciacaeii o/eouaathony ii ?uii/iie
noieiinoe. Nia/aea yoo noieiinoue aeeth/atho a ninoaa aeioiaeia aoaeoueo
ia?eiaeia i?aaiecaoeee e ioiinyo ia n/ao 98 «Aeioiaeu aoaeoueo
ia?eiaeia», a caoai, ii ia?a ia/eneaiey aii?oecaoeee, niioaaonoaothuea
noiiu nienuaatho ni n/aoa 98 a e?aaeeo n/aoa 91 «I?i/ea aeioiaeu e
?anoiaeu».

I?e iinooieaiee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a iaiai ia ae?oaia eiouanoai
ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue ?aaia oeaia eiouanoaa, eioi?ia auei ia?aaeaii
acaiai. ?acieoea iaaeaeo noieiinoueth iieo/aiiuo ia?aaeaiiuo oeaiiinoae
io?aaeaaony eae aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu.

Aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea e o/ao auauoey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa auauaatho a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaaee, aacaiciacaeiie
ia?aaea/e, a?aiaeu, nienaiey, ia?aaea/e, a ea/anoaa aeeaaea onoaaiue
eaieoae ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee, eeeaeaeaoeee aneaaenoaea noeoeeiuo
aaaenoaee, a oaeaea aneaaenoaea ii?aeueiiai e oece/aneiai eciina.
Iniiaiuie aeieoiaioaie i?e auauoee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa yaeythony:

1. Aeo (iaeeaaeiay) i?eaiee-ia?aaea/e iniiaiuo n?aaenoa (oi?ia ? IN-1) —
ninoaaeyaony i?e auauoee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaaee eee
ia?aaea/e ae?oaei i?aaiecaoeeyi a iaeiii yecaiiey?a.

2. Aeo ia nienaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa (oi?ia ? IN-4) – i?eiaiyaony i?e
auauoee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ii i?e/eia eciina, ii?/e, eeeaeaeaoeee
aneaaenoaea aaa?ee, noeoeeiiai aaaenoaey.

3. Aeo ia nienaiea aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa (oi?ia ? IN-4a).

Aeou aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoa: aiae
ecaioiaeaiey eee iino?ieee, aeaoo i?eiyoey e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, a?aiy
aaiaea a yenieoaoaoeeth, n?ie iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey, ia?aiia/aeueioth
(ainnoaiiaeoaeueioth) noieiinoue, noiio ia/eneaiiie aii?oecaoeee,
eiee/anoai i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aiiioia, i?e/eiu auauoey e ae?.

Aeey nienaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaiecaoeee nicaeaaony
eiienney, a ninoaa eioi?ie aeeth/athony oa aeieaeiinoiua eeoea,
iaycaiiinoe eioi?uo naycaiu n yenieoaoaoeeae iniiaiuo n?aaenoa eee n
yeiiiie/aneei iainiiaaieai i?eieiaaiuo a oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee, —
eiaeaia?u, yeiiiienou, eeoea, ioaaonoaaiiua ca nio?aiiinoue iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa.

Aeey o/aoa auauoey iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa (i?iaeaaee, nienaiey,
/anoe/iie eeeaeaeaoeee, ia?aaea/e aacaiciacaeii e ae?.) n/aoo 01 iiaeao
ioe?uaaoueny noan/ao «Auauoea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. A aeaaao yoiai noan/aoa
ia?aiineony noieiinoue auauaathuaai iauaeoa, a a e?aaeeo — noiia
iaeiieaiiie aii?oecaoeee.

Anee nienaiea iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaeeony a ?acoeueoaoa aai
i?iaeaaee, au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee i?eieiaaoa aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo a noiia,
niaeaniaaiiie noi?iiaie a aeiaiai?a.

Aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu io nienaiey n aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iauaeoia iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa io?aaeathony a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa a io/aoiii ia?eiaea, e
eioi?iio iie ioiinyony. Aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu io nienaiey iauaeoia
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa n aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iiaeeaaeao ca/eneaieth ia n/ao
i?eaueae e oauoeia a ea/anoaa iia?aoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia.

Io?eoeaoaeueiue ?acoeueoao i?e aacaiciacaeiie ia?aaea/a iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa ia oiaiueoaao iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth i?eaueue.

O/ao aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

Noieiinoue iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iiaaoaaony iooai ia/eneaiey
aii?oecaoeee.

Aii?oecaoeey — yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci iinoaiaiiiai ia?aiina noieiinoe
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia aioiaue i?iaeoeo e iaeiieaiey aeaiaaeiiai oiiaea
aeey caiaiu eciioaiiuo iauaeoia.

Ii iauaeoai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea (aeeeua aeiia, iauaaeeoey, eaa?oe?u e
ae?.), iauaeoai aiaoiaai aeaaiono?ienoaa e ae?oaei aiaeiae/iui iauaeoai
(eaniiai oicyenoaa, aei?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui
nii?oaeaieyi noaeioiaeiie ianoaiiaee), a oaeaea i?iaeoeoeaiiio neioo,
aoeaieai, aieai e ieaiyi, iiiaieaoiei ianaaeaeaieyi, ia aeinoeaoei
yenieoaoaoeeiiiiai aic?anoa, noieiinoue ia iiaaoaaony, o. a.
aii?oecaoeey ia ia/eneyaony. Ii oeacaiiui iauaeoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e
iauaeoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee eciin ia/eneyaony
a eiioea io/aoiiai aiaea ii onoaiiaeaiiui ii?iai aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee. Eciaiaiea noii eciina ii oeacaiiui iauaeoai o/eouaaaony ia
ioaeaeueiii caaaeainiaii n/aoa.

Oaeaea ia iiaeeaaeao aii?oecaoeee iauaeou iniiaiuo n?aaenoa,
iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa eioi?uo n oa/aieai a?aiaie ia eciaiythony
(caiaeueiua o/anoee e iauaeou i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey).

Iauaeou iniiaiuo n?aaenoa noieiinoueth ia aieaa 2000 ?oa. ca aaeeieoeo,
a oaeaea i?eia?aoaiiua eieae, a?ioth?u e ae?oaea ecaeaiey ?ac?aoaaony
nienuaaoue ia cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai (?anoiaeu ia i?iaeaaeo) ii ia?a
ioionea eo a i?iecaiaenoai eee yenieoaoaoeeth. A oeaeyo iaania/aiey
nio?aiiinoe yoeo iauaeoia a i?iecaiaenoaa eee i?e yenieoaoaoeee a
i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeai auoue i?aaieciaai iaaeeaaeauee eiio?ieue ca eo
aeaeaeaieai.

Aii?oecaoeey iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia/eneyaony iaeiei ec
neaaeothueo niiniaia:

• eeiaeiui;

• oiaiueoaaiiai inoaoea;

• nienaiey noieiinoe ii noiia /enae eao iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey;

• nienaiey noieiinoe i?iii?oeeiiaeueii iauaio i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio).

Ii a?oiia iaeii?iaeiuo iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa aii?oecaoeey
ia/eneyaony a oa/aiea anaai n?iea iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey iauaeoia,
aoiaeyueo a yoo a?oiio, iaeiei ec aua?aiiuo niiniaia.

I?e eeiaeiii niiniaa aiaeiaay noiia aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee
ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe iauaeoa iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e ii?iu aii?oecaoeee, en/eneaiiie enoiaey ec n?iea iieaciiai
eniieueciaaiey iauaeoa.

Ia/eneaiea aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ii iauaeoo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
ia/eiaaony n ia?aiai /enea ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca ianyoeai i?eiyoey
yoiai iauaeoa e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo, e i?ae?auaaony n ia?aiai /enea
ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca ianyoeai iieiiai iiaaoaiey noieiinoe yoiai
iauaeoa eeai aai nienaiey n aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

A oa/aiea n?iea iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
ia/eneaiea aii?oecaoeee ia i?einoaiaaeeaaaony, e?iia neo/aaa ia?aaiaea
aai ii ?aoaieth ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaiecaoeee ia eiina?aaoeeth ia n?ie
aieaa o?ao ianyoeaa, a oaeaea a ia?eiae ainnoaiiaeaiey iauaeoa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth ia aieaa 12 ianyoeaa.

Ii iauaeoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa aii?oecaoeey ia/eneyaony iacaaeneii io
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee a io/aoiii ia?eiaea e
io?aaeaaony a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa ia?eiaea, e eioi?iio iia ioiineony.

Ia/eneaiiay aii?oecaoeey ii iauaeoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa io?aaeaaony a
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa iooai iaeiieaiey niioaaonoaothueo noii ia n/aoa 02
«Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa». I?e aooaaeoa?ee aeaeaaony neaaeothuay
caienue: Ae 44, 20, 25, 26, 23 E 02.

I?e niiniaa oiaiueoaaiiai inoaoea aii?oecaoeey ia/eneyaony ec inoaoi/iie
noieiinoe iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia ia/aei io/aoiiai aiaea e ii?iu
aii?oecaoeee, en/eneaiiie ia iniiaa n?iea iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey yoiai
iauaeoa e eiyooeoeeaioa onei?aiey, onoaiiaeaiiiai a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

I?e niiniaa nienaiey noieiinoe ii noiia /enae eao iieaciiai
eniieueciaaiey ia/eneaiea aii?oecaoeee i?iecaiaeeony enoiaey ec
ia?aiia/aeueiie eee oaeouae (ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie) noieiinoe (a neo/aa
i?iaaaeaiey ia?aioeaiee) iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e niioiioaiey, a
/eneeoaea eioi?iai /enei eao, inoathueony aei eiioea n?iea iieaciiai
eniieueciaaiey iauaeoa, a a ciaiaiaoaea — noiia /enae eao iieaciiai
eniieueciaaiey iauaeoa. I?e niiniaa nienaiey noieiinoe i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
iauaio i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio) aii?oecaoeey ia/eneyaony enoiaey ec
iaoo?aeueiiai iieacaoaey iauaia i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio) a io/aoiii ia?eiaea
e niioiioaiey ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e
i?aaeiieaaaaiiai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio) ca aanue n?ie iieaciiai
eniieueciaaiey aeaiiiai iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai, eniieuecoaiui a i?aaiecaoeee n naciiiui
oa?aeoa?ii i?iecaiaenoaa, aiaeiaay noiia aii?oecaoeee ia/eneyaony
?aaiiia?ii a oa/aiea ia?eiaea ?aaiou i?aaiecaoeee a io/aoiii aiaeo.

O/ao ?aiiioa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee eo
ia?eiaee/anee ?aiiioe?otho. A caaeneiinoe io neiaeiinoe ?aaii ?acee/atho
oaeouee e eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Oaeouee ?aiiio naycai n caiaiie iainiiaiuo aeaoaeae, /anoae oceia
iauaeoa, n iiaeaea?aeaieai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a ii?iaeueii naieoa?iii
ninoiyiee (iiaaeea, iie?anea e o. ae.).

Eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio naycai n caiaiie iniiaiuo aeaoaeae e /anoae iauaeoa
(ia?aeeaaeea ooiaeaiaioa, ?aiiio e?iaee, niaia naeoeee ioiieoaeueiuo
i?eai?ia e ae?.).

?aiiio iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny oicyenoaaiiui niiniaii
(neeaie naiiai i?aaei?eyoey) eee iiae?yaeiui niiniaii (neeaie noi?iiieo
i?aaiecaoeee). A iaieo neo/ayo ia eaaeaeue ?aiiioe?oaiue iauaeo
ninoaaeytho aaaeiiinoue aeaoaeoia, a eioi?ie oeacuaatho ?aaiou,
iiaeeaaeauea auiieiaieth, n?iee ia/aea e ieii/aiey ?aiiioa, iaia/aaiua e
caiaia aeaoaee, niaoioth noieiinoue ?aiiioa.

Cao?aou ii ?aiiioo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ioiinyo ia ?anoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee a
ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii iie i?iecaaaeaiu.

O/ao ?aiiioa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa caaeneo io i?eiyoie i?aaei?eyoeai o/aoiie
iieeoeee.

1-e aa?eaio. A i?aaiecaoeee nicaeaaony ?aca?a aeey nienaiey cao?ao ii
?aiiioo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. ?acia? ?aca?aa ii?aaeaeyaony eae iaeia
aeaaiaaeoeaoay aiaeiaie i?aaeiieaaaaiie noiiu ia ?aiiio. O/ao ?aca?aa
aaaeaony ia n/aoa 96 «?aca?au i?aaenoiyueo ?anoiaeia». N/ao ianneaiue,
ia?aciaaiea ?aca?aa io?aaeaaony ii e?aaeeoo, a eniieueciaaiea — ii
aeaaaoo.

2-e aa?eaio. ?aaiiia?iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea cao?ao ia ?aiiio iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa n eniieueciaaieai n/aoa 97 «?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia».

Ia?aioeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e o/ao yoeo iia?aoeee. Eiaaioa?ecaoeey
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e io?aaeaiea a o/aoa aa ?acoeueoaoia

Eciaiaiea ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iiaeao auoue i?e
eo ia?aioeaiea.

Noiia aeiioeaiee iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aioeaiee
ca/eneyaony a aeiaaai/iue eaieoae i?aaiecaoeee. Noiia aeiioeaiee iauaeoa
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, ?aaiay noiia aai ooeaiee, i?iaaaeaiiie a i?aaeuaeouea
io/aoiua ia?eiaeu e ioianaiiie ia n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia a ea/anoaa
iia?aoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia, ioiineony ia n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea a ea/anoaa aeioiaea.

Noiia ooeaiee iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aioeaiee
ioiineony ia n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia a ea/anoaa ?anoiaeia. Noiia ooeaiee
iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ioiineony a oiaiueoaiea aeiaaai/iiai eaieoaea
i?aaiecaoeee, ia?aciaaiiiai ca n/ao noii aeiioeaiee yoiai iauaeoa,
i?iaaaeaiiie a i?aaeuaeouea io/aoiua ia?eiaeu. I?aauoaiea noiiu ooeaiee
iauaeoa iaae noiiie aai aeiioeaiee, ca/eneaiiie a aeiaaai/iue eaieoae
i?aaiecaoeee a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aioeaiee, i?iaaaeaiiie a i?aaeuaeouea
io/aoiua ia?eiaeu, ioiineony ia n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia a ea/anoaa
iia?aoeeiiiiai ?anoiaea.

I?e auauoee iauaeoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa noiia aai aeiioeaiee ia?aiineony n
aeiaaai/iiai eaieoaea i?aaiecaoeee a ia?ani?aaeaeaiioth i?eaueue
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey eiaaioa?ecaoeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e aeaoa aa
i?iaaaeaiey ii?aaeaeythony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaiecaoeee ca eneeth/aieai
neo/aaa, eiaaea i?iaaaeaiea eiaaioa?ecaoeee iaycaoaeueii.

I?iaaaeaiea eiaaioa?ecaoeee iaycaoaeueii:

– i?e ia?aaea/a eiouanoaa a a?aiaeo, aueoia, i?iaeaaea;

– ia?aae ninoaaeaieai aiaeiaie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.

– i?e niaia iaoa?eaeueii ioaaonoaaiiiai eeoea;

– auyaeaiee oaeoia oeuaiey, ceioiio?aaeaiey eee ii?/e eiouanoaa;

– a neo/aa noeoeeiiai aaaenoaey, iiaea?a eee ae?oaeo /?acau/aeiuo
neooaoeee, aucaaiiuo yeno?aiaeueiuie oneiaeyie;

– i?e ?ai?aaiecaoeee eee eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaiecaoeee;

– a ae?oaeo neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee.

Eiaaioa?ecaoeeth i?iaiaeeo ?aai/ay eiienney, nicaeaaaaiay i?eeacii ii
i?aaiecaoeee. Aei ia/aea eiaaioa?ecaoeee i?iaa?ytho aeaiiua
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i iaee/ee e oaoie/aneii ninoiyiee anao iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa (eiaaioa?iua ea?oi/ee, eiaaioa?iua eieae, iaee/ea e ninoiyiea
oaoie/aneeo ianii?oia ), a oaeaea aeieoiaiou ia iniiaiua n?aaenoaa,
naeaiiua eee i?eiyoua a a?aiaeo. Ii ?acoeueoaoai i?iaa?ee aiinyo
iaiaoiaeeiua eciaiaiey a o/aoiua caiene e iinea yoiai ia/eiatho
eiaaioa?ecaoeeth. I?e yoii /eaiu eiiennee iniao?eaatho iauaeou a iaoo?a
e caienuaatho a eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiioth iienue (oi?ia ? EIA-1), ia
iniiaaiee eioi?ie ninoaaeyaony nee/eoaeueiay aaaeiiinoue.

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, ia /eneyueany a o/aoa e auyaeaiiua a i?ioeanna
eiaaioa?ecaoeee, aeieaeiu auoue ii?eoiaeiaaiu ii ?uii/iie noieiinoe ia
aeaoo aa i?iaaaeaiey. Iaaeinoa/a iniiaiuo nienuaaaony ca n/ao aeiiaiuo
eeoe. Anee aeiiaiua eeoea ia onoaiiaeaiu eee noae ioeacae ai acuneaiee n
ieo oauoeia, oauoee nienuaathony ia oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou o
eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee eee ia oaaee/aiea ?anoiaeia — o iaeiiia?/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee.

O/ao a?aiaeiuo iia?aoeee

A?aiaea — i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiouanoaa iaeiie noi?iiie (a?aiaeiaeaoaeai) ai
a?aiaiiia aeaaeaiea eee iieueciaaiea ca ii?aaeaeaiioth (a?aiaeioth)
ieaoo ae?oaie noi?iia (a?aiaeaoi?o) ia iniiaaiee aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu. A
aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu i?aaeoniao?eaathony aeae e noieiinoue ia?aaeaaaaiuo
n?aaenoa, n?iee a?aiaeu, ?acia? a?aiaeiie ieaou, iaycaiiinoe noi?ii ii
?aiiioo e ainnoaiiaeaieth a?aiaeiaaiiuo n?aaenoa e ae?.

?acee/atho oaeouoth (i?inooth) a?aiaeo e a?aiaeo, n aueoiii (oeiainiaoth
a?aiaeo), eee eeceia.

Iauaeoaie a?aiaeiuo naeaeie, eae i?aaeei, neoaeao aei?iainoiyuea aeaeu
iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, YAI, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiiieaenu, caeaiey,
neeaaeneea iiiauaiey e o. i.

I?e oaeouae a?aiaea n?aaenoaa ia?aaeathony a?aiaeaoi?o ai a?aiaiiia
iieueciaaiea eee aeaaeaiea, ii i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia ieo inoaaony ca
a?aiaeiaeaoaeai. Ia?aaea/a iauaeoia a a?aiaeo ioi?ieyaony
i?eaia-naeaoi/iuie aeoaie, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo a?aiaeiaeaoaeue aeaeaao
ioiaoeo a eiaaioa?iie ea?oi/ea o/aoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. A?aiaeiaeaoaeue
eae nianoaaiiee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia/eneyao aii?oecaoeeth ii naeaiiui a
a?aiaeo iniiaiui n?aaenoaai. Eciin aiciauaaony a?aiaeiaeaoaeth ec
a?aiaeiie ieaou, iiyoiio a cao?aou ia aeeth/aaony. A?aiaeiay ieaoa
ii?aaeaeyaony ?an/aoiui iooai e aeieaeia iie?uaaoue aii?oecaoeeth
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, cao?aou ia eo ?aiiio, oieaoo IAeN, a oaeaea
iaania/eaaoue iieo/aiea aeioiaea io naea/e eiouanoaa a a?aiaeo.

Ii ieii/aiee n?iea a?aiaeu, iinea aica?aoa a?aiaeaoi?ii iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa, a?aiaeiaeaoaeue aeaeaao ioiaoee a eiaaioa?iie ea?oi/ea. O/ao
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, naeaiiuo a a?aiaeo, a?aiaeiaeaoaeue aaaeao ia
caaaeainiaii n/aoa 011 «Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, naeaiiua a a?aiaeo». Yoio
n/ao i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iaiauaiey eioi?iaoeee i iaee/ee e aeaeaeaiee
iauaeoia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, naeaiiuo a a?aiaeo, anee ii oneiaeyi
aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu eiouanoai aeieaeii o/eouaaoueny ia aaeaina a?aiaeaoi?a
(iaieiaoaey).

I?e oaeouae a?aiaea ia?aoiae a?aiaeiaaiiuo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a
nianoaaiiinoue a?aiaeaoi?a ia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony. A?aiaeaoi? aaaeao o/ao
a?aiaeiaaiiuo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia caaaeainiaii 001 «A?aiaeiaaiiua
iniiaiua n?aaenoaa». A?aiaeiay ieaoa o/eouaaaony o a?aiaeaoi?a a ninoaaa
cao?ao. Anee ii oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a a?aiaeiay ieaoa ia/eneyaony aia?aae,
iia io?aaeaaony ia 97 «?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia», a n yoiai n/aoa
aaeaiany/ii nienuaaaony ia cao?aou. Anee niaeanii aeiaiai?o a?aiaeaoi?
i?iaiaeeo ?aiiio a?aiaeiaaiiuo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, ?anoiaeu ia ?aiiio
io?aaeathony ia n/aoao ii o/aoo cao?ao (20,25,26,44). Anee ?aiiio aaaeao
a?aiaeaoi? ca n/ao a?aiaeiaeaoaey, oi ia noiio cao?ao oiaiueoaaony
a?aiaeiay ieaoa.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee a?aiaeiua ioiioaiey ioi?ieythony a aeaea
eeceiaa, eee eeceiaiaie naeaeee (iia?aoeee).

Eeceia — oi?ia aeieain?i/iie a?aiaeu, naycaiiay n ia?aaea/ae a
iieueciaaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, iai?oaeiaaiey, o?ainii?oiuo e ae?oaiai
eiouanoaa.

Noauaeoaie eeceiaiaie iia?aoeee yaeythony ecaioiaeoaeue eiouanoaa,
a?aiaeaoi? (eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue) e eeceiaiaue iin?aaeiee
(eeceiaiaeaoaeue). Ei iiaeao auoue aaie eee eiay i?aaiecaoeey.
Eeceiaiaeaoaeue aueoiaao eiouanoai o ecaioiaeoaey ii oeacaieth
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey, noaiiaynue aai nianoaaiieeii, e ia?aae eiouanoai
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth a a?aiaeo.

O/ao iia?aoeee ii aeiaiai?o eeceiaa aaaeaony a niioaaonoaee ni
neaaeothueie ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie:

Oaaea?aeueiue caeii «I eeceiaa» io 29 ieoya?y 1998 a ? 164-OC [25].

I?eeac Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia ?O «06 io?aaeaiee a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa
iia?aoeee ii aeiaiai?o eeceiaa» io 17 oaa?aey 1997 a. ?15 [52].

O/ao iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia

O/ao iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia ?aaoee?oaony IAO 14/2000 a «O/ao
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia». .

E iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai iiaoo auoue ioianaiu:

– eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey ia ecia?aoaiea, i?iiuoeaiiue
ia?acaoe, iieacioth iiaeaeue;

– eneeth/eoaeueiia aaoi?neia i?aai ia i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI, aacu aeaiiuo;

– eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai aeaaeaeueoea ia oiaa?iue ciae e ciae
ianeoaeeaaiey, iaeiaiiaaiea ianoa i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia; Nouanoaaiiia
i?aai aaoi?a eee eiiai i?aaiiaeaaeaoaey ia oiiieiaee eioaa?aeueiuo
iee?inoai;

– eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey ia naeaeoeeiiiua
aeinoeaeaiey.

Caaea/e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia aiaeiae/iu caaea/ai
o/aoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

A ninoaaa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia o/eouaathony oaeaea aeaeiaay
?aiooaoeey i?aaiecaoeee e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu (?anoiaeu naycaiiua
n ia?aciaaieai th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, i?eciaiiua a niioaaonoaee n
o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie /anoueth aeeaaea o/anoieeia (o/?aaeeoaeae)
a onoaaiue (neeaaei/iue) eaieoae i?aaiecaoeee). A aio aeaeiaua e
eioaeeaeooaeueiua ea/anoaa nio?oaeieeia i?aaiecaoeee, eo eaaeeoeeaoeey e
niiniaiinoue e o?oaeo a ninoaa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia ia aeeth/athony,
iineieueeo iie iaioaeaeeiu io naieo iineoaeae e ia iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu aac ieo.

Aaeeieoeae aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa yaeyaony eiaaioa?iue iauaeo —
niaieoiiinoue i?aa, aicieeathueo ec iaeiiai iaoaioa, naeaeaoaeuenoaa,
eeoeaicee e o.i.

Iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau i?eieiathony e o/aoo ii ia?aiia/aeueiie
noieiinoe.

Noieiinoue iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia iiaaoaaony iin?aaenoaii aii?oecaoeee,
eioi?ay ia/eneyaony iaeiei ec neaaeothueo niiniaia: eeiaeiui, niiniaii
oiaiueoaaiiai inoaoea eee niiniaii nienaiey noieiinoe i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
iauaio i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio). Iacaaeneii io i?eiaiyaiiai niiniaa
ia/eneaiey aaeaiany/iay noiia aii?oecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony a ?acia?a 1/12
aiaeiaie noiiu.

N?ie iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaiecaoeeae i?e i?eiyoee
iauaeoa e aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo. Anee aeaiiue n?ie onoaiiaeoue
iaaiciiaeii, ii?iu aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee onoaiaaeeaathony a
?an/aoa ia 20 eao, ii ia aieaa n?iea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee.

Aii?oecaoeey ii iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai ia/eneyaony n ia?aiai /enea
ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca ianyoeai i?eiyoey iauaeoa aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo,
e i?ae?auaaony n ia?aiai /enea ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca ianyoeai iieiiai
iiaaoaiey noieiinoe yoiai iauaeoa eee aai nienaiey n aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa.

Aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey io?aaeathony a o/aoa iaeiei ec aeaoo
niiniaia: iooai iaeiieaiey niioaaonoaothueo noii ia ioaeaeueiii n/aoa
eee iooai oiaiueoaiey ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe iauaeoa.

Auauoea iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia iiaeao auoue i?e eo i?iaeaaea,
aacaiciacaeiie ia?aaea/a eee nienaiee.

Aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu io nienaiey iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia io?aaeathony a
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa a io/aoiii ia?eiaea, e eioi?iio iie ioiinyony, e
o/eouaathony a oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao i?aaiecaoeee.

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia aaaeaony ia aeoeaiii n/aoa 04
«Iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau», a aii?oecaoeee — ia ianneaiii n/aoa 05
«Aii?oecaoeey iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia».

Aeieoiaioaeueiia ioi?ieaiea e o/ao iinooieaiey, naea/e a yenieoaoaoeeth
e nienaiey eiaaioa?y e oicyenoaaiiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae

E eiaaioa?th e oicyenoaaiiui i?eiaaeeaaeiinoyi ioiinyony:

-niaoeeaeueiue eino?oiaio e niaoeeaeueiua i?eniiniaeaiey;

– oaoiieiae/aneay oa?a

– i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue (oeaou, ooiai/ee, noaeeaaee, e ae?.);

-oicyenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue, eiioi?neay e ae?oaay iaaaeue

-niaoeeaeueiay iaeaaeaea e niaoeeaeueiay iaoaue.

Iniiaiuie aeieoiaioaie i?e eo iinooieaiee yaeythony iaeeaaeiay,
caeoii/iue aeo, iaeeaaeiay, a i?e nienaiee – aeo.

I?e ia?aaea/a eiaaioa?y e oicyenoaaiiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae ni neeaaea a
yenieoaoaoeeth ninoaaeyaony iaeeaaeiay.

Niaoeiaeaaeaeo e niaoeiaoaue auaeatho /eaiai o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa ii
aeaenoaothuei ii?iai e ioi?ieytho aaaeiiinoueth. Yoe n?aaea yaeythony
nianoaaiiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey e iiaeeaaeao aica?aoo ieii/aiee n?iea
iinee eee i?e ?anoi?aeaiee n ?aaioieeii o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a.

Iinooieaiea, naea/a a yenieoaoaoeeth, a oaeaea nienaiea eiaaioa?y e
oicyenoaaiiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae ?aaoee?oaony IAO 5/2001 «O/ao
iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania».

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao eiaaioa?y e oicyenoaaiiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae aaaeaony
ia aeoeaiii n/aoa 10 «Iaoa?eaeu», noan/ao 9 «Eiaaioa?ue e oicyenoaaiiua
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe». Ii aeaaaoo n/aoa io?aaeaaony eo iinooieaiea, a ii
e?aaeeoo — nienaiea e auauoea Ia yoii aea n/aoa aaaeaony o/ao iaoa?eaeia
aeey oicyenoaaiiuo ioaeae, a oaeaea eiio?ieueiuo eaio, iuea,
eaioeaey?neeo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae, oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia e o. ae.

O*AO AeIOIAeIA, ?ANOIAeIA, OEIAINIAUO ?ACOEUeOAOIA

Caaea/e o/aoa aeioiaeia, ?anoiaeia e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiiyoea e ninoaa ?anoiaeia ia i?iaeaaeo,
eo eeanneoeeaoeey

Iniiaiuie ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie, ?aaoee?othueie o/ao aeioiaeia e
?anoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee, yaeythony:

1. IAO 9/99 «Aeioiaeu i?aaiecaoeee»

2. IAO 10/99 «?anoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee»

?anoiaeu ia i?iaeaaeo (ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey) i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
noieiinoioth ioeaieo iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo e ae?oaeo cao?ao,
naycaiiuo n aeinoaaeie, o?aiaieai e ?aaeecaoeeae oiaa?ia.. Yoi ?anoiaeu
ia o?ainii?oe?iaaiea, oaniaeo oiaa?ia, ca?aaioioth ieaoo oi?aiauo
?aaioieeia, io/eneaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiua oiiaeu nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey e iaania/aiey, aii?oecaoeeth iniiaiue n?aaenoa e
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia e ae?. A ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey ia aeeth/athony
cao?aou, i?iecaiaeeiua ca n/ao i?eauee.

Ii aeaeai cao?ao ?anoiaeu ia i?iaeaaeo iiae?acaeaeythony ia yeaiaiou e
noaouee.

Cao?aou iauaaeeiaiu a iyoue iniiaiuo a?oii a niioaaonoaee n eo
yeiiiie/aneei niaea?aeaieai ii neaaeothuei yeaiaioai:

• iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou;

• cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea;

• io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu;

• aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa;

• i?i/ea cao?aou.

Ia?a/aiue noaoae ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey

O?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu.

?anoiaeu ia iieaoo o?oaea.

Io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu.

?anoiaeu ia a?aiaeo e niaea?aeaiea caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee, iiiauaiee,
iai?oaeiaaiey e eiaaioa?y.

Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

?anoiaeu ia ?aiiio iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Eciin naieoa?iie e niaoeeaeueiie iaeaaeaeu, noieiaiai aaeuey, iiniaeu,
i?eai?ia, ae?oaeo iaeioeaiiuo e auno?ieciaoeaathueony i?aaeiaoia.

?anoiaeu ia oiieeai, aac, yeaeo?iyia?aeth aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioaeae.

?anoiaeu ia o?aiaiea, iiae?aaioeo, iiaeni?oe?iaeo e oiaeiaeo oiaa?ia.

?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio.

Cao?aou ii iieaoa i?ioeaioia ca iieueciaaiea caeiii.

Iioa?e oiaa?ia e oaoiieiae/aneea iooiaeu.

?anoiaeu ia oa?o.

I?i/ea ?anoiaeu.

I?aaei?eyoey iiaoo nie?auaoue e ?anoe?youe ia?a/aiue noaoae a cao?ao.

Iioa?e e iaaeinoa/e oiaa?ia e i?iaeoeoia io?aaeathony ia yoie noaouea ii
iieoiiui oeaiai.

Caaea/aie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ?anoiaeia ia i?iaeaaeo, aeioiaeia e
oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony:

– iaania/aiea i?iaa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey e
io?aaeaiey a o/aoa ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia i?aaei?eyoey;

– naiaa?aiaiiia e oi/iia ii?aaeaeaiea eiia/iiai oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa
i?aaei?eyoey, ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee, eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai
i?eauee.

Neioaoe/aneee e aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ?anoiaeia ia i?iaeaaeo

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao ?anoiaeia ia i?iaeaaeo aaaeoo ia aeoeaiii n/aoa 44
«?anoiaeu ia i?iaeaaeo». Ana ?anoiaeu io?aaeathony ii aeaaaoo aeaiiiai
n/aoa.

Ana ?anoiaeu aeieaeiu io?aaeaoueny ia n/aoa 44 «?anoiaeu ia i?iaeaaeo» a
oii ianyoea, e eioi?iio iie ioiinyony. A oao aea neo/ayo, eiaaea
?anoiaeu ia/eneythony eee iiea/eaathony i?aaeaa?eoaeueii a io/aoiii
ianyoea, a ioiinyony e aoaeouei ia?eiaeai, eo caienuaatho a aeaaao n/aoa
97 «?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia», a caoai aaeaiany/ii ?aaiuie /anoyie,
enoiaey ec n?ieia eo iiaaoaiey, nienuaatho a aeaaao n/aoa 44 «?anoiaeu
ia i?iaeaaeo» n e?aaeeoa n/aoa 97 «?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia». E oaeei
?anoiaeai ioiinyo a?aiaeioth ieaoo, iiaeieneo ia aacaou e aeo?iaeu e
ae?.

Ii iaeioi?ui aeaeai ?anoiaeia, iai?eia? ia ?aiiio iniiaiuo n?aaenoa,
aaeaiany/ii nicaeaaony ?aca?a, /oi ioi?ieyaony i?iaiaeeie: Ae 44 E 96.

Nienaiea ?anoiaeia ia ?aiiio i?iecaiaeeony ca n/ao ?aiaa ia/eneaiiiai
?aca?aa i?iaiaeeie: Ae 96 E 10, 70, 69, 60 e ae?.

Ia neioaoe/aneii n/aoa 44 «?anoiaeu ia i?iaeaaeo» auyaeyaony iauay noiia
?anoiaeia ca ianyoe. A eiioea ianyoea n/ao 44 cae?uaaaony i?iaiaeeie: Ae
90/2 E 44.

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ?anoiaeia ia i?iaeaaeo aaaeaony a ea?oi/eao
iiiaia?aoiie oi?iu ii aeaeai ?anoiaeia. A ea?oi/ea ia eaaeaeue aeae
?anoiaeia ioaiaeeony ioaeaeueiay eieiiea. A eiioea ianyoea
iiaen/eouaaaony iauay noiia ?anoiaeia ca ianyoe e noiia ?anoiaeia ii
eaaeaeie noaouea ia 1-a /enei ianyoea ia?anoathuei eoiaii.

EA?OI*EA AIAEEOE*ANEIAI O*AOA II N*AOO 44 «?ANOIAeU IA I?IAeAAEO»

AeieoiaioNiaea?aeaiea caieneAeaaao n/aoa 44Eoiai ?anoiaeiaaeaoa?

no.1no.2e o. ae.

o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu?anoiaeu ia iieaoo o?oaea

Naeueaei ia 01. 0384005.0360ca aeinoaaeo4200420031.036ia/eneaia ca?ieaoa
e o. ae.1800018000Eoiai

?an/ao ?anoiaeia ia inoaoie oiaa?a e ia ?aaeeciaaiiua oiaa?u

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aeioiaea io ?aaeecaoeee aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue noiio
?anoiaeia, eioi?ay ioiineony e ?aaeeciaaiiui oiaa?ai. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
noiiu oaeeo ?anoiaeia (ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey), neaaeoao ec iauae noiiu
?anoiaeia (ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey) au/anoue ?anoiaeu ia inoaoie oiaa?a.

?anoiaeu ia inoaoie oiaa?a iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ii iiiaei aeaeai
?anoiaeia, ii, eae i?aaeei, ?an/ao i?iecaiaeeony ii noaouea o?ainii?oiua
?anoiaeu.

Noiio ?anoiaeia ia inoaoie oiaa?a iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
oiaa?iuo caiania ii naaanoieiinoe, /oi eniieuecoaony i?e aiaeeca.

?anoiaeu (ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey) ia ?aaeeciaaiiua oiaa?u ii?aaeaeythony
ii aeaiiui n/aoa 44 «?anoiaeu ia i?iaeaaeo»:

Naeueaei n/aoa 44 ia ia/aei ianyoea + ?anoiaeu ca ianyoe (Iai?io ii
aeaaaoo n/aoa 44) — naeueaei n/aoa 44 ia eiiaoe ianyoea.

Naeueaei n/aoa 44 ia ia/aei ianyoea iieacuaaao noiio ?anoiaeia,
ioiinyueony e inoaoeo oiaa?a ia ia/aei ianyoea, a ia eiiaoe ianyoea
-noiio ?anoiaeia, ioiinyueony e inoaoeo oiaa?a ia eiiaoe ianyoea.

Ii?aaeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoa i?aaiecaoeee io iau/iuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe

Niaeanii IAO 9/99 «Aeioiaeu i?aaiecaoeee» aeioiaeu i?aaiecaoeee a
caaeneiinoe io eo oa?aeoa?a, oneiaey iieo/aiey e iai?aaeaiee
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee aeaeyony ia aeioiaeu io iau/iuo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe; iia?aoeeiiiua aeioiaeu; aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu.

Aeioiaeaie io iau/iuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony au?o/ea io
i?iaeaaee i?iaeoeoeee e oiaa?ia, iinooieaiey, naycaiiua n auiieiaieai
?aaio, ieacaieai oneoa (aeaeaa – au?o/ea).

IAO 10/99 «?anoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee» ii?aaeaeaii, /oi ?anoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee
a caaeneiinoe io eo oa?aeoa?a, oneiaee inouanoaeaiey e iai?aaeaiee
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee iiae?acaeaeytho ia ?anoiaeu ii iau/iui
aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe; iia?aoeeiiiua ?noiaeu; aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua
?anoiaeu.

?anoiaeaie ii iau/iui aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony ?anoiaeu,
naycaiiua n ecaioiaeaieai i?iaeoeoeee, i?eia?aoaieai e i?iaeaaeae
oiaa?ia. Oaeeie ?anoiaeaie oaeaea n/eoathony ?anoiaeu, inouanoaeaiea
eioi?uo naycaii n auiieiaieai ?aaio, ieacaieai oneoa.

Aeey iaiauaiey eioi?iaoeee i aeioiaeao e ?anoiaeao, naycaiiuo n iau/iuie
aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa ii iei i?aaeiacia/ai n/ao 90 «I?iaeaaee». Noiia
au?o/ee io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiey ?aaio, ieacaiey
oneoa e ae?oaiai io?aaeaaony ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 90, a eo naaanoieiinoue —
ii aeaaaoo yoiai n/aoa.

A i?aaiecaoeeyo, caiyouo i?iecaiaenoaii naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 90 io?aaeaaony au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee
i?iaeoeoeee, a ii aeaaaoo— aa ieaiiaay naaanoieiinoue (a oa/aiea aiaea,
eiaaea oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue ia auyaeaia) e ?acieoea iaaeaeo
ieaiiaie e oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoueth i?iaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

A i?aaiecaoeeyo, inouanoaeythueo ?icie/ioth oi?aiaeth e aaaeoueo o/ao
oiaa?ia ii i?iaeaaeiui oeaiai, ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 90 io?aaeaaony
i?iaeaaeiay noieiinoue i?iaeaiiuo oiaa?ia, a ii aeaaaoo— eo o/aoiay
noieiinoue n iaeiia?aiaiiui noi?ie?iaaieai noii iaaeaaaie, ioiinyueony e
i?iaeaiiui oiaa?ai.

E n/aoo 90 «I?iaeaaee» iiaoo auoue ioe?uou noan/aoa:

90/1 «Au?o/ea»;

90/2 «Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeaae»;

90/3 «Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue»;

90/4 «Aeoeecu»;

90/9 «I?eaueue (oauoie) io i?iaeaae».

Ia noan/aoa 90/1 o/eouaathony iinooieaiey aeoeaia, i?eciaaaaiua
au?o/eie. Ia noan/aoa 90/2 o/eouaaaony naaanoieiinoue i?iaeaae, ii
eioi?ui ia noan/aoa 90/1 i?eciaia au?o/ea. Ia noan/aoa 90/3 o/eouaathony
noiiu IAeN, i?e/eoathueany e iieo/aieth io iieoiaoaey (caeac/eea), a ia
noan/aoa 90/4 — noiiu aeoeecia, aeeth/aiiuo a oeaio i?iaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee (oiaa?ia). Noan/ao 90/9 i?aaeiacia/ai aeey auyaeaiey
oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa (i?eaueue eee oauoie) io i?iaeaae ca io/aoiue
ianyoe.

Caiene ii noan/aoai 90/1, 90/2, 90/4 i?iecaiaeyony iaeiieoaeueii a
oa/aiea io/aoiiai aiaea. Aaeaiany/ii niiinoaaeaieai niaieoiiiai
aeaaaoiaiai iai?ioa ii noan/aoai 90/2 «Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeaae», 90/3
«Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue» 90/4 «Aeoeecu» e e?aaeeoiaiai
iai?ioa ii noan/aoo 90/1 «Au?o/ea» ii?aaeaeyaony oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao
(i?eaueue eee oauoie) io i?iaeaae ca io/?oiue ianyoe. Yoio oeiainiaue
?acoeueoao aaeaiany/ii nienuaatho n noan/aoa 90/9 «I?eaueue (oauoie) io
i?iaeaae» ia n/ao 99 «I?eauee e oauoee». Oaeei ia?acii, neioaoe/aneee
n/ao 90 «I?iaeaaee» naeueaei ia io/aoioth aeaoo ia eiaao.

O/ao iia?aoeeiiiuo, aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo, /?acau/aeiuo aeioiaeia e
?anoiaeia

Ia?a/aiue aeioiaeia i?aaiecaoeee, ioiinyueony e iia?aoeeiiiui,
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiui, /?acau/aeiui, onoaiiaeai IAO 9/99 «Aeioiaeu
i?aaiecaoeee», a ia?a/aiue ?anoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee, ioiinyueony e
iia?aoeeiiiui, aia?aaeecaoeeiiiui, /?acau/aeiui, onoaiiaeai IAO 10/99
«?anoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee».

O/ao iia?aoeeiiiuo e aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia aaaeaony ii e?aaeeoo
noan/aoa 91/1 «I?i/ea aeioiaeu», a o/ao iia?aoeeiiiuo e
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia — ii aeaaaoo noan/aoa 91/2 «I?i/ea
?anoiaeu».

Iia?aoeeiiiuie aeioiaeaie yaeythony:

• iinooieaiey, naycaiiua n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ca ieaoo ai a?aiaiiia
iieueciaaiea aeoeaia i?aaiecaoeee;

• iinooieaiey, naycaiiua n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ca ieaoo i?aa, aicieeathueo
ec iaoaioia ia ecia?aoaiea, i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu e ae?oaeo aeaeia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe;

• iinooieaiey, naycaiiua n o/anoeai a onoaaiuo eaieoaeao ae?oaeo
i?aaiecaoeee;

• i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay i?aaiecaoeeae a ?acoeueoaoa niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

• iinooieaiey io i?iaeaaee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e ae?oaeo aeoeaia;

• i?ioeaiou, iieo/aiiua ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea a iieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa i?aaiecaoeee.

A niioaaonoaee ni no. 606 AE ?O i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo i?aaeinoaaeyoue naia
eiouanoai ca ieaoo ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea ii aeiaiai?o a?aiaeu.
Iinooieaiey io naea/e eiouanoaa a a?aiaeo ioiinyony e iia?aoeeiiiui
aeioiaeai oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee i?aaeinoaaeaiea ca ieaoo ai
a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea ia yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee. Anee i?aaeinoaaeaiea ca ieaoo ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea
naieo aeoeaia yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee,
iinooieaoay noiia a?aiaeiie ieaou ioiineony e aeioiaeai io iau/iuo
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe e o/eouaathony ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa 90/1 «Au?o/ea».

I?e iinooieaiee aeioiaeia io o/anoey a niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia
iniiaaiee i?ioieiea ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eauee e ae?oaeo aeieoiaioia,
iieo/aiiuo io i?aaiecaoeee, o/eouaathuae ?acoeueoaou niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ninoaaeyaony i?iaiaeea: Ae 76 E 91/1.

E iinooieaieyi io i?iaeaaee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e ae?oaeo aeoeaia
ioiineony noiia, iieo/aiiay io ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e ae?oaiai
eiouanoaa i?aaiecaoeee (iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, iaoa?eaeia, oeaiiuo
aoiaa e o. ae.).

E i?ioeaioai, iieo/aiiui ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea a iieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea e i?ioeaioai ca eniieueciaaiea aaieii
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, iaoiaeyueony ia n/aoa i?aaiecaoeee a yoii aaiea,
ioiinyony i?ioeaiou ii iaeeaaoeeyi, aeaiiceoai, ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ae?oaiai eiouanoaa ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea (ii
aeiaiai?o caeia) io e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee ca iieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiuie
n?aaenoaaie, iaoiaeyueieny ia n/aoao i?aaiecaoeee. Iieo/aiiua noiiu
i?ioeaioia a yoii neo/aa ioi?ieythony i?iaiaeeie: Ae 51 E 91/1.

Iia?aoeeiiiuie ?anoiaeaie yaeythony:

• ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ca ieaoo ai a?aiaiiia
iieueciaaiea aeoeaia i?aaiecaoeee (anee yoi ia yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii
aeayoaeueiinoe);

• ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ca ieaoo i?aa, aicieeathueo ec
iaoaioia ia ecia?aoaiea, i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu e ae?oaeo aeaeia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe;

• ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n i?iaeaaeae, auauoeai e i?i/ei nienaieai iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e eiuo aeoeaia, ioee/iuo io aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa (e?iia
eiino?aiiie aaethou), oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee;

• i?ioeaiou, oiea/eaaaiua i?aaiecaoeeae ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea ae a
iieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiuo e?aaeeoia (e?aaeeoia, caeiia);

• i?i/ea iia?aoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu.

I?ioeaiou, oiea/eaaaiua i?aaiecaoeeae ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea ae a
iieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa (e?aaeeoia, caeiia) — yoi cao?aou,
eioi?ua ia naycaiu n i?eia?aoaieai iauaeoa eiouanoaa.

I?iaiaeea: Ae 91/2 E 66,67.

E ?anoiaeai, naycaiiui n iieaoie oneoa, ieacuaaaiuo e?aaeeoiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, ioiinyony noiiu, eioi?ua i?aaei?eyoea iiea/eaaao
e?aaeeoiui i?aaiecaoeeyi ca ?an/aoii-eanniaia ianeoaeeaaiea, iieoieo eee
i?iaeaaeo eiino?aiiie aaethou, ae?oaea oneoae. Noieiinoue e ii?yaeie eo
iieaou onoaiaaeeaathony aeiaiai?ii, eioi?ue i?aaei?eyoea caeeth/aao n
e?aaeeoiie i?aaiecaoeeae. I?iaiaeea: Ae 91/2 E 51,66, 67.

I?i/eie iia?aoeeiiiuie ?anoiaeaie yaeythony iaeiae e nai?u, ioiineiua ia
oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee (iaeiae ia eiouanoai,
?aeeaio, ia?aciaaiea, niaea?aeaiea ioieoeeiaeueiie ieeeoeee e ae?.).
I?iaiaeea: Ae 91/2 E 68.

Aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuie aeioiaeaie yaeythony:

• oo?aou, iaie, iaonoieee, iieo/aiiua ca ia?ooaiea oneiaee aeiaiai?ia;

• iinooieaiey a aiciauaiea i?e/eiaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee oauoeia;

• i?eaueue i?ioeuo eao, auyaeaiiay a io/aoiii aiaeo;

• noiiu e?aaeeoi?neie e aeaiiiaioneie caaeieaeaiiinoe, ii eioi?ui enoae
n?ie eneiaie aeaaiinoe;

• eo?niaua ?acieoeu;

• noiia aeiioeaiee aeoeaia (ca eneeth/aieai aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia);

• i?i/ea aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu.

Niaeanii no. 330 AE ?O ca iaauiieiaiea eee ianaiaa?aiaiiia auiieiaiea
iaycaoaeuenoa aeiaiai?ii iiaeao auoue i?aaeoniio?aia auieaoa aeieaeieeii
iaonoieee, eioi?ay iiaeao i?iecaiaeeony a aeaea oo?aoia e iaiae.
I?iaiaeea: Ae 91/2 E 51, 76.

I?iaiaeea ninoaaeyaony i?e oneiaee, /oi iaonoieea i?enoaeaeaia noaeii
eee i?eciaia aeieaeieeii. Aei yoiai iiiaioa iaonoieeo ia n/aoao
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia io?aaeatho.

Noiiu oo?aoiuo naieoeee iaeaaathony IAeN e iaeiaii ia i?eaueue a iiiaio
eo iieo/aiey.

Niaeanii no. 15 AE ?O i?e ia?ooaiee aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa
i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo iio?aaiaaoue aiciauaiey iiianaiiuo a nayce n yoei
oauoeia.

A ninoaa aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia aeeth/aaony oaeaea i?eaueue
i?ioeuo eao, auyaeaiiay a io/aoiii aiaeo. E iae, a /anoiinoe, ioiinyony
?anoiaeu, ioeai/ii aeeth/aiiua a naaanoieiinoue. Ioeaee eni?aaeytho a
oii io/aoiii ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii iie auee auyaeaiu.

Aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuie ?anoiaeaie yaeythony:

• oo?aou, iaie, iaonoieee, oiea/aiiua ca ia?ooaiea oneiaee aeiaiai?ia;

• aiciauaiea i?e/eiaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeae oauoeia;

• oauoee i?ioeuo eao, i?eciaiiua a io/aoiii aiaeo;

– noiiu aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, ii eioi?ie enoae n?ie eneiaie
aeaaiinoe; ae?oaeo aeieaia, ia ?aaeueiuo e acuneaieth; eo?niaua
?acieoeu;

– noiia ooeaiee aeoeaia (ca eneeth/aieai aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia);

– i?i/ea aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu.

Oo?aoiua naieoeee ca ia?ooaiea aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa acuneeaathony n
aeieaeieea a niioaaonoaee ni no. 330 AE ?O e io?aaeathony ia n/aoa 91/2
a iiiaio eo i?enoaeaeaiey noaeii eee i?eciaiey aeieaeieeii, /oi
ioi?ieyaony i?iaiaeeie Ae 91/2 E 60, 76, 51. Iniiaaieai aeey io?aaeaiey
a o/aoa ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n aiciauaieai i?e/eiaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeae
oauoeia, yaeyaony ?aoaiea noaea eee i?aoaiceiiiia ienueii eiio?aaaioa,
anee yoi i?aaeoniio?aii a aeiaiai?a.

Niaeanii i. 77 Iieiaeaiey ii aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e
aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee [80] aeaaeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue, ii eioi?ie enoae n?ie eneiaie aeaaiinoe, a oaeaea
ia?aaeueiay e iieo/aieth aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue aeieaeia auoue
nienaia neaaeothuae i?iaiaeeie: Ae 91/2 E 60, 62, 76.

Aeey nienaiey i?in?i/aiiie aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe neaaeoao
i?iaanoe eiaaioa?ecaoeeth caaeieaeaiiinoe e ioi?ieoue ienueiaiiia
iainiiaaiea nienaiey. Iinea yoiai ecaeaaony i?eeac ?oeiaiaeeoaey
i?aaiecaoeee ia nienaiea caaeieaeaiiinoe. Ii a oa/aiea iyoe eao iinea
nienaiey yoe noiiu o/eouaathony ia caaaeainiaii n/aoa 007 «Nienaiiay a
oauoie caaeieaeaiiinoue iaieaoaaeaniiniaiuo aeaaeoi?ia».

Eo?niaua ?acieoeu aicieeatho ii aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe,
au?aaeaiiie.a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, ii aaethoiui n?aaenoaai, iaoiaeyueiny
ia aaethoiuo n/aoao e a eanna, i?e nieaeaiee eo?na eiino?aiiie aaethou
ii ioiioaieth e ?oaeth.

I?iaiaeea: Ae 91/2 E 52, 60.

E aia?aaeecaoeeiiiui ?anoiaeai ioiinyony noiiu ooeaiee aeoeaia (nu?uey,
oa?u, oiaa?ia e ae?.) i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ay i?iecaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee
n Iieiaeaieai ii aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aooaaeoa?neie
io/aoiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. I?iaiaeea: Ae 91/2 E 43, 40, 41, 10
e ae?.

A niioaaonoaee n IAO 9/99 e IAO 10/99 /?acau/aeiuie aeioiaeaie e
?anoiaeaie n/eoathony iinooieaiey e ?anoiaeu, aicieeathuea eae
iineaaenoaey /?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey. A niioaaonoaee n AE. ?O e /?acau/aeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai
ioiinyony noeoeeiua aaaenoaey, aaa?ee, yieaeaiee e eiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
iinyuea /?acau/aeiue oa?aeoa?.

O/ao /?acau/aeiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia aaaeaony ia n/aoa 99 «I?eauee e
oauoee».

E /?acau/aeiui aeioiaeai ioiinyony:

– no?aoiaia aiciauaiea;

– noieiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, inoathueony io nienaiey iauaeoia
eiouanoaa, ia i?eaiaeiuo e ainnoaiiaeaieth e aeaeueiaeoaio
eniieueciaaieth.

Iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe, inoathueany io nienaiey iauaeoia eiouanoaa, ia
i?eaiaeiuo e ainnoaiiaeaieth, io?aaeathony a o/aoa ii oeaia aiciiaeiiai
eniieueciaaiey. Ii?eoiaeiaaiea iaoa?eaeia, inoaaoeony iinea nienaiey
oie/oiaeaiiiai eiouanoaa, ioi?ieyaony i?iaiaeeie Ae 10 E 99.

Anee oie/oiaeaiiia eiouanoai auei cano?aoiaaii, oi noiia no?aoiaiai
aiciauaiey io?aaeaaony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 76/1 «?an/aou ii eiouanoaaiiiio
e ee/iiio no?aoiaaieth».

E /?acau/aeiui ?anoiaeai ioiinyony:

– ia eiiiaine?oaiua iioa?e io noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee; oie/oiaeaiea e ii?/a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, aioiauo ecaeaeee e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae;

– iioa?e io inoaiiaee i?iecaiaenoaa;

– cao?aou, naycaiiua n i?aaeioa?auaieai eee eeeaeaeaoeeae noeoeeiuo
aaaenoaee;

– ia eiiiaine?oaiua oauoee a ?acoeueoaoa iiaea?ia, aaa?ee e ae?oaeo
/?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee, aucaaiiuo yeno?aiaeueiuie oneiaeyie.

Oauoee io nienaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia oiaiueoatho iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth
i?eaueue, ii eo nienaiea aneaaenoaea /?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa
o/eouaaaony i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee.

Ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeaiey oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa io/aoiiai ia?eiaea. O/ao
eniieueciaaiey i?eauee e ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee

Eiia/iue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao (/enoay i?eaueue eee /enoue oauoie)
neaaaaony ec oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa io iau/iuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, a
oaeaea i?i/eo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, aeeth/ay /?acau/aeiua.

Aeey iaiauaiey eioi?iaoeee i oi?ie?iaaiee eiia/iiai oeiainiaiai
?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeiacia/ai n/ao 99 «I?eauee e
oauoee». Ii aeaaaoo yoiai n/aoa io?aaeathony oauoee (iioa?e, ?anoiaeu),
a ii e?aaeeoo— aeioiaeu i?aaiecaoeee. Niiinoaaeaiea aeaaaoiaiai e
e?aaeeoiaiai iai?ioia ca io/aoiue ia?eiae iieacuaaao eiia/iue oeiainiaue
?acoeueoao io/aoiiai ia?eiaea.

Iino?iaiea aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa ii n/aoo 99 «I?eauee e oauoee» aeieaeii
iaania/eaaoue oi?ie?iaaiea aeaiiuo, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ninoaaeaiey io/aoa
i i?eaueyo e oauoeao (oi?ia ? 2).

A neaaeothuai ca io/aoiui aiaeo ia iniiaaiee ?aoaiey eiiiaoaioiiai
i?aaia (iai?eia?, iauaai nia?aiey aeoeeiia?ia a aeoeeiia?iii iauanoaa
eee nia?aiey o/anoieeia a iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth)
i?iecaiaeeony ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee. Iii iiae?acoiaaaao ia/eneaiea
aeeaeaeaiaeia (aeioiaeia) e io/eneaiea n?aaenoa a ?aca?aiue eaieoae
i?aaiecaoeee.

Iinea io?aaeaiey yoeo iia?aoeee naeueaei n/aoa 84 iieacuaaao noiio
ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee, eioi?ay inoaaony iaeciaiiie aei
niioaaonoaothuaai ?aoaiey aeoeeiia?ia AI eee o/anoieeia III.

O*AO OIIAeIA E ?ACA?AIA

Caaea/aie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a aeaiiie iaeanoe yaeythony:

• i?aaeeueiia io?aaeaiea ?acia?a onoaaiiai eaieoaea e anao aai
eciaiaiee;

• i?aaeeueiia ia?aciaaiea e eniieueciaaiea ?aca?aiiai, aeiaaai/iiai
eaieoaea, oeaeaauo iinooieaiee;

• i?aaeeueiia ia?aciaaiea e eniieueciaaiea ?aca?aa i?aaenoiyueo
?anoiaeia e ieaoaaeae.

O/ao onoaaiiai eaieoaea

Onoaaiue eaieoae— ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiay a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao
aaee/eia nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, aianaiiay o/?aaeeoaeyie a aeaea
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa eee eiiai eiouanoaa (iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, oeaiiuo
aoiaa e o. i.) i?e nicaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee. Eiuie neiaaie, onoaaiue
eaieoae — yoi noa?oiaue eaieoae, iaiaoiaeeiue i?aaiecaoeee aeey aa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe n oeaeueth iieo/aiey a aeaeueiaeoai
i?eauee.

Oaaee/aiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea iiaeao auoue:

– ca n/ao aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeeaaeia;

– ca n/ao /enoie i?eauee; iooai auionea iiauo aeoeee:

– ii ?acoeueoaoai ia?aioeaiee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e o. i.

Oiaiueoaiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea iiaeao auoue a neo/ayo:

– ecuyoey aeeaaeia o/?aaeeoaeyie;

– iai?aaeaiey onoaaiiai eaieoaea ia oaaee/aiea ?aca?aiiai eaieoaea, ia
iie?uoea oauoeia;

– i?e aeiaaaeaiee ?acia?a onoaaiiai eaieoaea aei aaee/eiu noiiu /enouo
aeoeaia.

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao onoaaiiai eaieoaea aaaeaony ia iannea. n/aoa 80
«Onoaaiue eaieoae». Naeueaei aeaiiiai n/aoa aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue
?acia?o onoaaiiai eaieoaea, caoeene?iaaiiiio a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo
aeieoiaioao i?aaiecaoeee. Caiene ii n/aoo i?iecaiaeyony i?e oi?ie?iaaiee
onoaaiiai eaieoaea, a oaeaea a neo/ayo aai oaaee/aiey e oiaiueoaiey
eeoue iinea aianaiey niioaaonoaothueo eciaiaiee a o/?aaeeoaeueiua
aeieoiaiou i?aaiecaoeee. Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ii n/aoo aaaeaony ii aeeaaeo
eaaeaeiai o/anoieea (o/?aaeeoaey).

O/ao ?aca?aiiai e aeiaaai/iiai eaieoaea

A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo
ia?aciauaaoue ?aca?aiue eaieoae (iaycaoaeueii — aeoeeiia?iuie iauanoaaie
e i?aaei?eyoeyie n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie). ?acia?u io/eneaiee a
?aca?aiue eaieoae onoaiaaeeaathony nia?aieai aeoeeiia?ia. Oi?ie?oaony
?aca?aiue eaieoae iooai aaeaaiaeiuo io/eneaiee ec ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie
i?eauee aei aeinoeaeaiey ?acia?a, onoaiiaeaiiiai onoaaii iauanoaa, e
eniieuecoaony ia iie?uoea oauoea ca io/aoiue aiae, a oaeaea ia iiaaoaiea
iaeeaaoeee aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa e aueoia nianoaaiiuo aeoeee.

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao aaaeaony ia n/aoa 82 «?aca?aiue eaieoae», iaiauathuai
anth eioi?iaoeeth i ninoiyiee e aeaeaeaiee ?aca?aiiai eaieoaea.

Aeiaaai/iue eaieoae ioiineony e nianoaaiiiio eaieoaeo i?aaiecaoeee. Ii
ia?acoaony ca n/ao i?e?inoa noieiinoe aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia, a oaeaea
?acieoeu iaaeaeo i?iaeaaeiie e iiieiaeueiie noieiinoueth aeoeee,
iieo/aiiie a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey onoaaiiai eaieoaea aeoeeiia?iiai
iauanoaa.

Aeiaaai/iue eaieoae eniieuecoaony ia iiaaoaiea noii nieaeaiey noieiinoe
aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia, auyaeaoeony ii ?acoeueoaoai aai ia?aioeaiee.

Neioaoe/aneee o/ao aaaeaony ia ianneaiii n/aoa 83 Aeiaaai/iue eaieoae»,
ii e?aaeeoo eioi?iai io?aaeaaony nicaeaiea aeiaaai/iiai eaieoaea.
Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao ii n/aoo 83 i?aaiecoaony oaeei ia?acii, /oiau
iaania/eoue oi?ie?iaaiea «oi?iaoeee ii enoi/ieeai ia?aciaaiey e
iai?aaeaieyi eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa.

O/ao oeaeaaiai oeiaine?iaaiey

E oeaeaaui iinooieaieyi e oeiaine?iaaieth ioiinyo n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua
i?aaiecaoeee iieo/atho ia no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee: oeiaine?iaaiea
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio, niaea?aeaiea aeaoneeo o/?aaeaeaiee e
o. ae.

Enoi/ieeaie ia?aciaaiey yoeo n?aaenoa yaeythony iinooieaiea ec
athaeaeaoa e io ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee, aciinu ?iaeeoaeae e .ae. A
/anoiinoe, e oeaeaaui n?aaenoaai ioiinyony iinooieaiey a iauanoaaiiua
iaeiiia?/aneea oiiaeu.

O/ao oeaeaauo iinooieaiee aaaeaony ia ianneaiii n/aoa 86 «Oeaeaaia
oeiaine?iaaiea». Ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa io?aaeaaony iinooieaiea n?aaenoa aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey oeaeaauo ia?ii?eyoee, ii aeaaaoo — eo ?anoiaeiaaiea.
E?aaeeoiaia naeueaei n/aoa iieacuaaao inoaoie iaec?anoiaeiaaiiuo
n?aaenoa oeaeaaiai oeiaine?iaaiey e

iinooieaiee.

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao e n/aoo 86 aaaeaony ii enoi/ieeai iinooieaiey e
iacia/aieth n?aaenoa.

AOOAAEOA?NEAss IO*AOIINOUe

Io/aoiinoue, aa cia/aiea e aeaeu

Io/aoiinoue — niaieoiiinoue iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ca ii?aaeaeaiiue
io/aoiue ia?eiae. Aa cia/aiea ninoieo a neaaeothuai:

•aeeoioee?iaaiea naaaeaiee i ninoiyiee oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e
enoi/ieeao eo ia?aciaaiey; ia iauaia ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
(oiaa?ia), ?aaioao e oneoaao, cao?aoao ia eo i?iecaiaenoai e
?aaeecaoeeth; oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao;

•aiciiaeiinoue aa eniieueciaaiey aeey aiaeeca ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey e
ecuneaiey ?aca?aia aeaeueiaeoae aeayoaeueiinoe;

•eniieueciaaiea aeaiiuo io/aoiinoe a i?ioeanna eiio?iey ca ?aaioie
i?aaei?eyoey o/?aaeeoaeyie, aaieaie, iaeiaiaie neoaeaie, i?aaiaie
oaaea?aeueiiai eacia/aenoaa.

Io/aoiinoue iiae?acaeaeyaony ii neaaeothuei i?eciaeai: ii enoi/ieeai
iieo/aiey aeaiiuo, iauaio naaaeaiee, oeaeyi, aeey eioi?uo ninoaaeythony
io/aou, ia?eiaeai, ioaaouaaaiui io/aoiinoueth, noaiaie iaiauaiey
io/aoiuo aeaiiuo.

Ii enoi/ieeai iieo/aiey aeaiiuo auaeaeytho iia?aoeaioth, noaoenoe/aneoth
e aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue. Ia?aay e aoi?ay ninoaaeythony ia iniiaa
aeaiiuo iia?aoeaiiai e noaoenoe/aneiai, a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe e
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa; o?aouey — ii aeaiiui neioaoe/aneiai e
aiaeeoe/aneiai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaiui ia?ae/iuie
aeieoiaioaie e eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiiuie iienyie.

Ii iauaio naaaeaiee ?acee/atho io/aoiinoue iauoth e /anoe/ioth. Iauay
oa?aeoa?ecoao oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii,
/anoe/iay niaea?aeeo eioi?iaoeeth i eaeii-eeai o/anoea aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey.

Ii oeaeyi, aeey eioi?uo ninoaaeyaony io/aoiinoue, aa iiae?acaeaeytho ia
aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth. Aioo?aiiyy ninoaaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n
iio?aaiinoyie i?aaei?eyoey, aiaoiyy — aeey caeioa?aniaaiiuo
th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe — o/?aaeeoaeae, einiaeoeee ii iaeiaai e
nai?ai, i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie noaoenoeee, ae?oaeo eiio?iee?othueo
i?aaiia.

A caaeneiinoe io ia?eiaea, ioaaouaaaiiai io/aoiinoueth, auaeaeytho
i?iiaaeooi/ioth e aiaeiaoth io/aoiinoue. I?iiaaeooi/iay io/aoiinoue
ninoaaeyaony ia eaeoth-eeai aioo?eaiaeiaoth io/aoioth aeaoo, iai?eia?
1-a ai?aey, 1 ethey, 1 ieoya?y e ae?. Ia?eiaee/aneea io/aou
ninoaaeythony /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie e aeaeyony ia
aaeaaeiaaiua, aeaeaaeiua, iany/iua, eaa?oaeueiua, iieoaiaeiaua, a
aiaeiaua — ia 1 yiaa?y eaaeaeiai io/aoiiai aiaea.

Ii noaiaie iaiauaiey io/aoiuo aeaiiuo ?acee/atho io/aou ia?ae/iua,
ninoaaeyaiua i?aaei?eyoeyie, e naiaeiua, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho auoanoiyuea
eee iaoa?eineea i?aaiecaoeee ia iniiaaiee ia?ae/iuo io/aoia a?oiiu
acaeiinaycaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

O?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe

Iniiaiua i?aaeea ninoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe onoaiiaeaiu
Iieiaeaieai ii aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe
a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e IAO 4/99 «Aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee».

E?iia oiai, Ieioei ?innee naiei i?eeacii io 28 ethiy 2000a. ? 60-i
ooaa?aeee iiae?iaiua Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i ii?yaeea
oi?ie?iaaiey iieacaoaeae aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe i?aaiecaoeee.

Niaeanii iacaaiiui ii?iaoeaiui aeieoiaioai io/aoiinoue aeieaeia
oaeiaeaoai?youe neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi: aeinoiaa?iinoue
naiaa?aiaiiinoue, iieiioa, n?aaieiinoue io/aoiuo iieacaoaeae
nouanoaaiiinoue, niiinoaaeiinoue, iaeo?aeueiinoue.

Io/aoiinoue i?eciaaony aeinoiaa?iie oiaaea, eiaaea iia ninoaaeaia n
o/aoii anao o?aaiaaiee, onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie ii
aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo. Aeinoiaa?iinoue iieacaoaeae neioaoe/aneiai e
aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iaoa?eaeaie eiaaioa?ecaoeee
eiouanoaa, aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa auieneaie aaieia, aeoaie naa?ee
aeaaeoi?neie e e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Naiaa?aiaiiinoue io/aoiinoe icia/aao, /oi iia aeieaeia ninoaaeyoueny e
i?aaeinoaaeyoueny iieueciaaoaeyi a onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie n?iee.

Aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue aeieaeia auoue ninoaaeaia a iieiii iauaia
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo io/aoiuo oi?i ca eiie?aoiue io/aoiue ia?eiae.
Eioi?iaoeey a io/aoiinoe aeieaeia aeaaaoue aeinoiaa?iia e iieiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eiouanoaaiiii e oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, i
aai eciaiaieyo, a oaeaea i oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao aai aeayoaeueiinoe.

N?aaieiinoue io/aoiuo iieacaoaeae icia/aao aiciiaeiinoue eo n?aaiaiey n
ieaiiauie, ii?iaoeaiuie, a i?e i?iaaaeaiee aiaeeca — n io/aoiuie
aeaiiuie ca niioaaonoaothuee ia?eiae i?ioeiai aiaea (i?ioeuo eao).

Nouanoaaiiie niaeanii i. 4 Iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?eciaaony
noiia, ioiioaiea eioi?ie e iauaio eoiao niioaaonoaothueo aeaiiuo ca
io/aoiue aiae ninoaaeyao 5%. Ianouanoaaiiua noiiu iiaeii iauaaeeiyoue e
ia auaeaeyoue ioaeaeueii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouanoaaiiay eioi?iaoeey —
yoi oa eioi?iaoeey, aac ciaiey eioi?ie iieueciaaoaee ia niiaoo ioeaieoue
oeiainiaia ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey.

Niaeanii i. 9 Iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii
iaania/eoue niiinoaaeiinoue io/aoiuo iieacaoaeae n iieacaoaeyie ca
i?aaeoanoaothuee io/aoiue ia?eiae. Anee yoe iieacaoaee ianiiinoaaeiu,
aeaiiua ca ia?eiae, i?aaeoanoaothuee io/aoiiio, aeieaeiu auoue
nei??aeoe?iaaiu a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeaie, onoaiiaeaiiuie ii?iaoeaiuie
aeoaie ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo.

Iaeo?aeueiinoue icia/aao iaaeiionoeiinoue iaeiinoi?iiiaai
oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioa?ania iaeieo a?oii iieueciaaoaeae aooaaeoa?neie
io/aoiinoe a oua?a ae?oaei.

I?aaiecaoeey ?aaio ii ninoaaeaieth io/aoiinoe

Aeey oiai /oiau aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue niioaaonoaiaaea i?aaeuyaeyaiui
e iae o?aaiaaieyi, i?e aa ninoaaeaiee aeieaeii auoue iaania/aii
niaethaeaiea neaaeothueo oneiaee:

– iieiia io?aaeaiea ca io/aoiue ia?eiae anao oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee e
?acoeueoaoia eiaaioa?ecaoeee anao iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa;

– iieiia niioaaonoaea aeaiiuo neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa, a
oaeaea iieacaoaeae io/aoia e aaeainia aeaiiui neioaoe/aneiai e
aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa;

– inouanoaeaiea caiene oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee oieueei ia iniiaaiee
iaaeeaaeaua ioi?ieaiiuo ii?aaaeaoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia eee i?e?aaiaiiuo e
iei oaoie/aneeo iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee;

– i?aaeeueiay ioeaiea noaoae aaeaina.

Aeey yoiai ia?aae ninoaaeaieai io/aoiinoe iaiaoiaeeii caaa?oeoue ana
caiene ia n/aoao, i?iaa?eoue e iaiaueoue aeaiiua oaeouaai aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa, /oi iaania/eo ?aaeueiinoue e aeinoiaa?iinoue io/aoiinoe.

Ia?aae ninoaaeaieai io/aoiinoe ouaoaeueii i?iaa?yaony, ana aeieoiaiou,
ioiinyueany e io/aoiiio ia?eiaeo, io?aaeaiu a o/aoiuo ?aaeno?ao e iao ee
?anoiaeaeaiee aeaiiuo aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa n iai?ioaie e inoaoeaie ii
n/aoai neioaoe/aneiai o/aoa. N iiiiuui eiaaioa?ecaoeee ooi/iythony e
aeiiieiythony o/aoiua iieacaoaee. Iineaaeiea oaeaea i?eaiaeyony a
niioaaonoaea n oaeoe/aneei iaee/eai oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae,
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ?an/aoia.

Aeey iaania/aiey ?aaeueiinoe oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii:

• ia/eneeoue ana ?anoiaeu, ioiinyueany e io/aoiiio ia?eiaeo;

• nienaoue ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia ni n/aoa 97 ia n/ao 44 «?anoiaeu
ia i?iaeaaeo»;

• ia/eneeoue ?aca?au ii eo aeaeai (n/ao 96);

• cae?uoue n/aoa 90 «I?iaeaaee» e 91 «I?i/ea aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu»;

• ?ann/eoaoue noiiu oi?aiauo iaaeaaaie ia ?aaeeciaaiiua oiaa?u e
?anoiaeia ia i?iaeaaeo, ioiinyueony e inoaoeo oiaa?ia e ia ?aaeeciaaiiua
oiaa?u;

• i?e ninoaaeaiee aiaeiaie io/aoiinoe — ?ani?aaeaeeoue i?eaueue e
cae?uoue n/ao 99 «I?eauee e oauoee» n/aoii 84 «Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay
i?eaueue (iaiie?uoue oauoie)».

I?e ninoaaeaiee oi?i aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe eniieuecothony aeaiiua
Aeaaiie eieae a ?ac?aca neioaoe/aneeo n/aoia. Ii?yaeie ninoaaeaiey
io/aoiuo oi?i iiae?iaii eceiaeai a Iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo i
ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey iieacaoaeae aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.

Ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, i?eiaiythueo oi?iuaiioth oi?io o/aoa, aaeain
ninoaaeytho ii aeaiiui Eieae o/aoa oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee.

Ninoaa, ii?yaeie e n?iee i?aaenoaaeaiey io/aoiinoe

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaei?eyoey i?aaenoaaeytho a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea
aiaeiaoth e ia?eiaee/aneoth (i?iiaaeooi/ioth) aooaaeoa?neoth
io/aoiinoue. Niaeanii Caeiio i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa io/aoiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee (ca eneeth/aieai athaeaeaoiuo e iauanoaaiiuo) ninoieo ec:

• aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina;

• io/aoa i i?eaueyo e oauoeao;

• i?eeiaeaiee e iei, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie;

• aoaeeoi?neiai caeeth/aiey, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaai aeinoiaa?iinoue
aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, anee iia a niioaaonoaee n
oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie iiaeeaaeeo iaycaoaeueiiio aoaeeoo;

• iiynieoaeueiie caienee.

Aiaeiaay aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue niaeanii IAO 4/99 aeeth/aao:

– aooaaeoa?neee aaeain (oi?ia ? 1);

– io/ao i i?eaueyo e oauoeao (oi?ia ? 2);

– iiyniaiey e aooaaeoa?neiio aaeaino e io/aoo i i?eaueyo e oauoeao;

– io/ao ia eciaiaieyo eaieoaea (oi?ia ? 3);

– io/ao i aeaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa (oi?ia ? 4);

– i?eeiaeaiea e aooaaeoa?neiio aaeaino (oi?ia ? 5);

-io/ao i oeaeaaii eniieueciaaiee iieo/aiiuo n?aaenoa (aeey
iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee) (oi?ia ? 6);

– iiynieoaeueioth caieneo;

– eoiaiaoth /anoue aoaeeoi?neiai caeeth/aiey.

A ninoaa i?iiaaeooi/iie io/aoiinoe aoiaeyo:

– aooaaeoa?neee aaeain (oi?ia ? 1);

– io/ao i i?eaueyo e oauoeao (oi?ia ? 2);

– niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oi?iu, onoaiaaeeaaaiua ieienoa?noaaie e
aaaeiinoaaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey ai?aaa i?aaenoaaeyoue aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue ii
oi?iuaiiie i?ioeaaeo?a e oi?iai io/aoiinoe. A ninoaa aiaeiaiai io/aoa
iaeiai i?aaei?eyoey ?ac?aoaaony aeeth/aoue oieueei oi?iu ? 1
«Aooaaeoa?neee aaeain» e ? 2 «Io/ao i i?eaueyo e oauoeao».
Iiynieoaeueiay caienea ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie io/aoiuie oi?iaie ia
i?aaenoaaeyaony.

Io/aoiui aiaeii aeey anao i?aaiecaoeee n/eoaaony ia?eiae n aeaou
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee ii 31 aeaeaa?y aeeth/eoaeueii. Aiiaue
nicaeaiiui i?aaiecaoeeyi iinea 1 ieoya?y ?ac?aoaaony n/eoaoue ia?aui
io/aoiui aiaeii ia?eiae n aeaou eo ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee ii 31
aeaeaa?y neaaeothuaai aiaea aeeth/eoaeueii.

Aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue iiaeienuaaaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e aeaaiui
aooaaeoa?ii i?aaiecaoeee.

I?aaiecaoeee iaycaiu i?aaenoaaeyoue eaa?oaeueioth aooaaeoa?neoth
io/aoiinoue a oa/aiea 30 aeiae ii ieii/aiee eaa?oaea a aiaeiaoth — a
oa/aiea 90 aeiae ii ieii/aiee aiaea, anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (o. a. ia iicaeiaa 1 ai?aey
aiaea, neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui).

I?aaenoaaeyaiay io/aoiinoue aeieaeia auoue ooaa?aeaeaia a ii?yaeea,
i?aaeoniio?aiiii o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie i?aaiecaoeee.

Aeaoie i?aaenoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe aeey i?aaiecaoeee
n/eoaaony aeaiue oaeoe/aneie ia?aaea/e aa i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eee aeaoa
ioi?aaeaiey, iaicia/aiiay ia ooaiiaea ii/oiaie i?aaiecaoeee. Anee aeaoa
i?aaenoaaeaiey io/aoiinoe i?eoiaeeony ia ia?aai/ee (auoiaeiie) aeaiue,
n?ieii i?aaenoaaeaiey n/eoaaony ia?aue neaaeothuee ca iei ?aai/ee
aeaiue.

Niaea?aeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina, ii?yaeie ninoaaeaiey e i?aaeea
ioeaiee noaoae. Aeaeu aaeainia

Iniiaiie oi?iie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe yaeyaony aooaaeoa?neee aaeain,
eioi?ue io?aaeaao a aeaiaaeiie ioeaiea ninoiyiea n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey e
enoi/ieeia eo ia?aciaaiey ia ii?aaeaeaiioth io/aoioth aeaoo. Aaeain
iieacuaaao, ai /oi aeiaeaiu n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey e eae iie
eniieueciaaiu. Ii aaeaino iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, noiaao ee i?aaei?eyoea a
aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy auiieieoue naie iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae o?aoueeie eeoeaie
— eiaanoi?aie, aeoeeiia?aie, e?aaeeoi?aie, iieoiaoaeyie, iinoaaueeaie —
eee aio oa?iaeatho oeiainiaua cao?oaeiaiey.

Ia iniiaa aeaiiuo aaeaina no?ieony iia?aoeaiia oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea.
Iieacaoaee aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina oe?iei eniieuecothony iaeiaiauie
neoaeaaie oaaea?aeueiiai cia/aiey, noaoenoeee e i?aaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.

I?e aeo?iaeueii-i?aea?iie oi?ia o/aoa aaeain ninoaaeytho ia iniiaa
aeaiiuo ia inoaoeao ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo neioaoe/aneeo n/aoia e
noan/aoia ia ia/aei e eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, acyouo ec Aeaaiie
eieae. A Aeaaioth eieao caienuaatho iai?iou ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo
eaaeaeiai n/aoa ec aeo?iaeia-i?aea?ia. Iai?iou ii aeaaaoo iaeioi?uo
n/aoia niae?atho a Aeaaiie eieaa ec ianeieueeeo aeo?iaeia-i?aea?ia a
?ac?aca ei??aniiiaee?othueo n/aoia.

I?e ia?aiina a aaeain aeaiiuo ia inoaoeao ii neioaoe/aneei n/aoai eo
caienuaatho no?iai ii niioaaonoaothuei aaeainiaui noaoueyi (no?ieai).

Iaeii?iaeiua ii naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth noaouee
iauaaeeiythony a ?acaeaeu aaeaina. Ii eaaeaeiio ?acaeaeo iiaen/eouaaaony
eoiaiaay noiia. Oi?ia aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina niaea?aeeo iyoue ?acaeaeia:

Aeoea aaeaina:

I ?acaeae — Aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau

II ?acaeae — Iai?ioiua aeoeau

Iannea aaeaina:

III ?acaeae — Eaieoae e ?aca?au

IV ?acaeae — Aeieain?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

V ?acaeae — E?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

e Ni?aaeo i iaee/ee oeaiiinoae, o/eouaaaiuo ia caaaeainiauo n/aoao.

?acaeaeu aeoeaa aaeaina niaea?aeao eioi?iaoeeth ia eiouanoaa
i?aaei?eyoey, a ?acaeaeu III — V ianneaa— ia iaycaoaeuenoaao e ?acia?ao
eaieoaea.

I?e neiaeaiee eoiaia ii eaaeaeiio ?acaeaeo aeoeaa e ioaeaeueii ianneaa
aaeaina aeieaeii auoue iaania/aii ?aaainoai aeoeaa e ianneaa aaeaina.

Iniaaiiinoe caiieiaiey e ii?yaeie ioeaiee aaeainiauo noaoae ii?aaeaeaiu
Iaoiaee/aneeie ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie i ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey iieacaoaeae
aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.

?acee/atho neaaeothuea aeaeu aaeainia: anooieoaeueiua; niaaeeieoaeueiua;
?acaeaeeoaeueiua; aiaeiaua; i?iiaaeooi/iua; naie?oaiua;
eeeaeaeaoeeiiiua.

Anooieoaeueiua, i?iiaaeooi/iua e aiaeiaua aaeainu ninoaaeythony a
niioaaonoaee n Iieiaeaieai i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Aeaiiua anooieoaeueiiai aaeaina aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue aeaiiui
ooaa?aeaeaiiiai aiaeiaiai aaeaina ca ia?eiae, i?aaeoanoaothuee
io/aoiiio.

Naie?oaiua aaeainu ninoaaeythony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea
i?eaeeaeaaony e aaie?ionoao, n i?eaea/aieai aoaeeoi? aua aei ieii/aiey
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea n oeaeueth iieacaoue ?aaeueiia ninoiyiea aeae ia
i?aaei?eyoee.

Eeeaeaeaoeeiiiua aaeainu oaeaea ioee/athony io ae?oaeo aeaeia. Iaeioi?ua
iau/iua noaouee a oaeeo aaeainao ionoonoaotho, iai?eia?,
athaeaeaoii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua noaouee «Aeioiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia»,
«?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia». Ii iiaoo iiyaeoueny oaeaea

e, eioi?ua ?aiueoa ionoonoaiaaee, iai?eia?, noieiinoue iaoaioa oe?iu,
oiaa?iuo ciaeia.

Io/ao i i?eaueyo e oauoeao (oi?ia ? 2). Ii?yaeie oi?ie?iaaiey
iieacaoaeai io/aoa

Io/ao i i?eaueyo e oauoeao ninoaaeyaony a ninoaaa eae aiaeiaie, oae e
ia?eiaee/aneie (eaa?oaeueiie) io/aoiinoe. A iai niaea?aeeony eioi?iaoeey
i oeiainiaii ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey ca io/aoiue ia?eiae e
i?eaiaeeony ?anoeo?iaea iieacaoaeae a /anoe aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia a
noiiiaii au?aaeaiee, iiae aeeyieai eioi?uo noi?ie?iaai yoio ?acoeueoao.

Ninoaa iaycaoaeueiuo iieacaoaeae io/aoa ii?aaeaeai i. 23 IAO 4/99,
niaeanii eioi?iio:

aeioiaeu i?aaiecaoeee ninoiyo ec:

– aeioiaeia io iau/iuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe e

– i?i/eo iinooieaiee (iia?aoeeiiiua aeioiaeu, aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua e
/?acau/aeiua);

?anoiaeu io?aaeathony a io/aoa n iiae?acaeaeaieai ia:

– naaanoieiinoue i?iaeaiiuo oiaa?ia (i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa),

– eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu,

– oi?aaeai/aneea ?anoiaeu,

– iia?aoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu,

– aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu,

– /?acau/aeiua ?anoiaeu.

Ana aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu iauaaeeiythony a ?acaeaeu:

I. Aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ii iau/iui aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe.

II. Iia?aoeeiiiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu.

III. Aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu.

IV. *?acau/aeiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu.

Iiynieoaeueiay caienea e aiaeiaiio io/aoo e aa iniiaiua iieacaoaee

A iiynieoaeueiie caienea, i?aaenoaaeyaiie i?aaei?eyoeyie a ninoaaa
aiaeiaie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, aeieaeiu auoue ?ane?uou naaaeaiey,
ioiinyueany e o/aoiie iieeoeea ca io/aoiue aiae, e iauyaeaiu aa
eciaiaiey ia neaaeothuee io/aoiue aiae. Iiynieoaeueiay caienea aeieaeia
iaania/eaaoue iieueciaaoaeae io/aoiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiuie aeaiiuie,
eioi?ua iaoeaeaniia?acii aeeth/aoue a aooaaeoa?neee aaeain e ae?oaea
io/aoiua oi?iu, ii eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iieiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, niiinoaaeiinoe
iieacaoaeae ca io/aoiue e i?aaeoanoaothuee aio aiaeu, iaoiaeao ioeaiee,
oa?aeoa?enoeea nouanoaaiiuo noaoae aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe.

A nayce n yoei a iiynieoaeueiie caienea aeieaeiu auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu
neaaeothuea aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaiiua:

• i oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee;

• ia iauaiao ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ii aeaeai
aeayoaeueiinoe (iio, ?icieoea, iauaieo, no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou e ae?.) e
oa??eoi?eaeueiie ?aniieiaeaiiinoe;

• i ninoaaa i?i/eo aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia;

•i oeiainiauo aeiaeaieyo a aei/a?iea e caaeneiua iauanoaa n oeacaieai eo
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey, iaeiaiiaaiey e aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe;

• i i?e/eiao eciaiaiee anooieoaeueiiai aaeaina ia ia/aei aiaea;

• i aeioiaeao, ?anoiaeao e iaycaoaeuenoaao, eioi?ua nouanoaaiii aeeytho
ia ioeaieo eiouanoaaiiiai e oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey;

• i ninoaaa /eaiia niaaoa aee?aeoi?ia, /eaiia eniieieoaeueiiai e
iaaethaeaoaeueiiai niaaoia e ia iauae noiia auiea/aiiiai ei
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey;

• i niiniaao aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, ioee/iuo io i?ioeiai aiaea;

• i neo/ayo, eiaaea i?aaeea aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia iicaieytho
aeinoiaa?ii io?aceoue eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea e oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia i?eiaiythony.

A iiynieoaeueiie caienea aeaaony e?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey ii aeaeai (oaeouae, eiaanoeoeeiiiie e oeiainiaie), iniiaiuo
iieacaoaeae a ?ac?aca eaaeaeiai aeaea e oaeoi?ia, iiaeeyaoeo a io/aoiii
aiaeo ia oicyenoaaiiua e oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, a
oaeaea i?eaiaeyony ?aoaiey ii eoiaai ?anniio?aiey aiaeiaie io/aoiinoe e
?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eauee, inoathuaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey.

Eoiaiaay /anoue aoaeeoi?neiai caeeth/aiey, aai niaea?aeaiea e o?aaiaaiey
e ninoaaeaieth

A ninoaa aiaeiaie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeii auoue
aeeth/aii aoaeeoi?neia caeeth/aiea.

Caeeth/aiea aoaeeoi?neie oe?iu (aoaeeoi?a) ii ?acoeueoaoai i?iaa?ee
aiaeiaie io/aoiinoe yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui yeaiaioii aiaeiaiai io/aoa
aeey i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua iiaeeaaeao a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O aoaeeoo. Yoi caeeth/aiea niaea?aeeo a naiai
ninoaaa o?e /anoe (aaiaeioth, aiaeeoe/aneoth e eoiaiaoth), a ninoaaa
aiaeiaie io/aoiinoe i?aaenoaaeyaony oieueei eoiaiaay aai /anoue.
Eoiaiaay /anoue aoaeeoi?neiai caeeth/aiey aeieaeia auoue icaaeaaeaia
«Caaeaaea aoaeeoi?neie oe?iu» eaee «Caaeaaea aoaeeoi?a». Aeaiiay /anoue
iaycaoaeueii aeieaeia niaea?aeaoue nnueeo ia ii?iaoeaiue aeo,
?aaoee?othuee aoaeeoi?neoth aeayoaeueiinoue a ?O. Iia ia iiaeao auoue
aeaoe?iaaia ?aiaa aeaou iiaeienaiey aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe
yeiiiie/aneiai noauaeoa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaycaoaeueiiio aoaeeoo iiaeeaaeao e?aaeeoiua
i?aaiecaoeee, no?aoiaua i?aaiecaoeee, iaainoaea?noaaiiua iaineiiiua
oiiaeu, ioe?uoua aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa e oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu.
E?iia oiai, iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O «Ia aoaeeoi?neeo i?iaa?eao
oaaea?aeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo oieoa?iuo i?aaei?eyoee» io 29 yiaa?y 2000
a. ? 81 onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaeaaiaeiua aoaeeoi?neea i?iaa?ee aooaaeoa?neie
io/aoiinoe yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie a ioiioaiee oaaea?aeueiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oieoa?iuo i?aaei?eyoee, iniiaaiiuo ia i?aaa
oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey, i?e iaee/ee iaeiiai ec neaaeothueo oeiainiauo
iieacaoaeae eo aeayoaeueiinoe:

• iauaia au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ca aiae,
i?aauoathuaai a 500 oun. ?ac onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiii ieieiaeueiue ?acia?
iieaou o?oaea;

• noiiu aeoeaia aaeaina, i?aauoathuae ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai aiaea a 200
oun. ?ac onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiii ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeacaiiuo oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiii
ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea i?eieiaaony a n?aaeiaaiaeiaii
en/eneaiee ca io/aoiue aiae. Aoaeeoi?neay i?iaa?ea inouanoaeyaony ia
iicaeiaa ia?aiai eaa?oaea, neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui aiaeii.

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