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1. NINOIssIEA AII?INA E CAAeA*E ENNAeAAeIAAIEE.

1.1. Iauea naaaeaiey.

O?eoeeaea – ia?aay ca?iiaay eoeueoo?a, nicaeaiiay /aeiaaeii,
eioi?ay iieo/aia i?e ne?aueaaiee ioaieoeu (Triticum) n
?iaeueth(Secale).Nicaeaiea o?eoeeaea (ioaie/ii-?aeaiuo aea?eaeia) –
iiaiai aeaea ca?iiauo eoeueoo?, iaeaaeathueo ?yaeii auaeathueony ea/anoa
e i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie iiaue aioaie/aneee ?iae. Iooai iauaaeeiaiey
o?iiiniiiuo eiiieaenia aeaoo ?aciuo aioaie/aneeo ?iaeia – ioaieoeu e
?aee, /aeiaaeo oaeaeinue aia?aua ca enoi?eth caieaaeaeey neioace?iaaoue
iiaoth naeueneioicyenoaaiioth eoeueoo?o, eioi?ay ii iiaieth
niaoeeaeenoia, a iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai noaiao iaeiie ec aaaeoueo ca?iiauo
eoeueoo?, a oaeaea aoaeao aicaeaeuaaoueny ia caeaiue ei?i. O?eoeeaea –
ioaie/ii-?aeaiie aea?eae, ioiineony e aioeieieaeai oeia
aeeiiieeieieaeia. I?eiaiytho oaeaea e ae?oaie oa?iei – aioeaeeieieae a
oii neo/aa, eiaaea iaecaanoia aaiiiiay no?oeoo?a ?iaeeoaeueneeo aeaeia
eee aeaeu yaeythony aeeieieaeaie. I?e iieo/aiee ioaie/ii-?aeaiuo
aea?eaeia aaiiiiue ninoaa ioaieoeu e ?aee oi?ioi ecaanoai, iiyoiio aeey
iaicia/aiey oaeeo aea?eaeia aieaa i?aaeeueiue oa?iei”aioeieieae”./1/

Aioeieiaeey – iauaa iaicia/aiea anao oeiia iieeieieaeee,
iaaethaeathueony i?e ne?aueaaiee aeaoo eee aieueoaai /enea aeeieieaeiuo
aeaeia, ia?aiia/aeueii eciee?iaaiiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa noa?eeueiinoueth
aea?eaeia.

Aeeiiieeieieaeey – iieeieieaeey ia iniiaa iauaaeeiaiey e oiiiaeaiey
aeaoo eee ianeieueeeo oeaeuo aaiiiia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?aciui aeaeai eee
?iaeai. Aaiii – aaieieaeiue iaai? o?iiinii n eieaeeciaaiiuie a iai
aaiaie; a aieaa oe?ieii niunea iiae aaiiiii iiieiatho oaeaea
niaieoiiinoue ianeaaenoaaiiuo yeaiaioia, eieaeeciaaiiuo a yae?a.

Aioeieieaeu – iieeieieaeu, aicieeoea a ?acoeueoaoa niaaeeiaiey e
iineaaeothuaai oaeaiaiey o?iiiniiiuo iaai?ia aeaoo ?aciuo aeaeia eee
?iaeia.

Ioaieoea iyaeay Triticum aestivum niaea?aeeo 2n=42 o?iiiniiu,
ioaieoea Triticum durum-2n=28 o?iiinii e ?iaeue Secale
cereale-2n=14 o?iiinii. E ?iaeo Triticale o/aiua ioiinyo ana
?aciiia?acea iieo/aiiia naeaeoeeiia?aie ioaie/ii – ?aeaiuo
aeeiiieeieieaeia. Yoi iacaaiea aeaii a 1931a.; iii iieo/aii io neiaeaiey
ia?aie e aoi?ie iieiaei iacaaiee enoiaeiuo ?iaeia -Triticum e
Secale. ?ac ee/atho o?eoeeaea: ieoiieieaeiua

2n=56=[(42:2)+(14:2)]x2,o.a.aea?eae iyaeie ioaieoeu e ?aee,
aaenaieieaeiua 2n=42=[(28:2)+(14:2)]x2,o.a.aea?eae oaa?aeie ioaieoeu e
?aee. Ii aieueoeinoao iieacaoaeae aaenaieieaeiua o?eoeeaea n/eoathony
eo/oeie. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a aaaeaony nenoaiaoe/aneia eco/aiea
iiaie eoeueoo?u o?eoeeaea./2/

1.2.?acaeoea ca?iiaee o?eoeeaea.

Iiaeiaii ae?oaei oeaaiui ceaeai, o o?eoeeaea ca?ii ?acaeaaaony
ec naiyii/ee, niaea?aeauae aaeeinoaaiioth iaoa?eineoth eeaoeo
iaaanii?u. I?e oeaaoaiee iia niaea?aeeo ca?iaeuoaaue iaoie, aioo?e
eioi?iai iaoiaeyony yeoeaeeaoea, aeaa aeaaaia?e?othuea neiaae?aeu, aeaa
neeaoeony iiey?iuo yae?a e ianeieueei aioeiiae.

Oaeei ia?acii ia yoie noaaeee ca?iaeuoaaue iaoie ie?oaeai aeaoiy
eioaaoiaioaie (aioo?aiiei e ia?oaeiui),oiieei iynenoui ia?eea?ieai e
aeaoiy ie?ieaie – aa?iae e ieaeiae oeaaoeiauie /aooyie. Iieiaeioai?aiea
ia/eiaaony i?e oeaaoaiee, ii ia caaa?oaaony aei oao ii?, iiea ia
i?ieae?o i?eaeeceoaeueii aeaa aeiy iinea ?ac?uaa iueueoeaaiai ca?ia e
iiyaeaiey iueueoeaaie o?oaee. I?e iieiaeioai?aiee ca?iaeuoaaue iaoie
niaea?aeeo i?iyia?eii(iau/ii /aou??oeeaoi/iue),iiiai/eneaiiua naiaiaeiua
yae?a yiaeinia?ia e ianeieueei e?oiiuo aioeiiae. Ii?iaeueii aeaeaiea
yaea? i?ienoiaeeo aeiaieueii neio?iiii, aia/aea n oaeaiaieai /enea
yaea? a oa/aiea 4-5/ e a oa/aiea ia?auo 72/ ?acaeoey n?aaeiyy
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oeeeea aeaeaiey yaea? ninoaaeyea ieiei 8/. E
eiioeo yoiai ia?eiaea nei?inoue aeaeaiey yaea? aiacaiii iaaeaao, e
ia/eiatho oi?ie?iaaoueny eeaoi/iua iaiei/ee. Aioeiiaeu, /enei eioi?uo
aa?uee?oao, iaueiiaaiii ?aniieaaathony a na?aaeeia ca?iaeuoaaiai iaoea
e ie?oaeaiu yae?aie yiaeinia?ia. *a?ac 2-3 aeiy iinea oeaaoaiey iie
iau/ii ia/eiatho ?ac?ooaoueny. Aioeiiaeu iiaeii ociaoue i aieueoei
?acia?ai e e?oiiui iai?aaeeueiui yae?uoeai. I?e ?aniaaea iie, aa?iyoii,
nicaeatho enoi/iee ieoaiey aeey ?acaeaathuaainy yiaeinia?ia. Iaeiaei
a yiaeinia?iao iaeioi?uo o?eoeeaea /a?ac 48/ iinea iieiaeioai?aiey
auyaeyaony yaiay aneio?iiiinoue, e ia 72-i /ano /anoi aeaeiu
aaa??aioiua iieeieieaeiua yae?a.

Ia o?aoee eee /aoa??oue aeaiue iinea oeaaoaiey ia/eiaao
?ac?ooaoueny aiaaoay e?aoiaeii oeaiue ia?eea?iey. Yoi nii?iaiaeaeaaony
?aceei oneeaieai aeoeaiinoe aieeacu e ?ac?ooaieai iaeeeo noa?e/aneeo
e?aoiaeueiuo c??ai, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey eeaoie ia?eea?iey.

Ia?oaeiue eioaaoiaio ninoieo ec o??o nei?a eeaoie, ec eioi?uo e
iiiaioo nic?aaaiey nio?aiyaony eeoue iaeei. Nionoy i?eia?ii o?e aeiy
iinea oeaaoaiey a yoii neia ia?acothony ooieoeeiie?othuea oei?iieanou, e
a aai eeaoeao iiaeii aeaeaoue e?aoiaeueiua c??ia. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii iiae
ia?oaeiui eioaaoiaioii ?aniieiaeaiu aeaa neiy eeaoie aioo?aiiaai
eioaaoiaioa. Iaaeaeo oanoui e ainueiui aei?i iinea oeaaoaiey iie
iau/ii ?ac?uaathony oaaee/eaathueiny yiaeinia?iii, e niethuaiiua
inoaoee eeaoie ia?acotho, eae oaea iienaii, naiaiioth iaiei/eo.
Aeaeaiea eeaoie ?acaeaathuaainy yiaeinia?ia i?ae?auaaony i?eia?ii
/a?ac 12-14 aeiae iinea oeaaoaiey. Iineaaeothuaa aai ?acaeoea
i?ienoiaeeo ioo?i oaaee/aiey ?acia?ia eeaoie e iaeiieaiey a ieo c??ai
e?aoiaea e caianiiai aaeea.

Ai iiiaeo eeieyo o?eoeeaea nii?ueaaiea ca?ia yaeyaony noieeei
e na?ue?ciui iaaeinoaoeii ea/anoaa, i?eaiaeyuei e ieceie iaoo?a ca?ia,
ieioiio aiaoiaio aeaeo e iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui ioeiiieueiui
ea/anoaai./2/

Ouaoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea n?acia c??ai o?eoeeaea eeiee 6A190
auyaeyao o/anoee neeueiie aeaoi?iaoeee aeae?iiiauo eeaoie.
Ioia/athony e ae?oaea iia?aaeaeaiey, i?e eioi?uo en/acatho oeaeua
o/anoee aeae?iiiaiai neiy e i?eeaaathuaai yiaeinia?ia. A iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo i?e iiiiue naaoiaiai iee?ineiia iiaeii aeaeaoue aucaaiiua
nii?ueaaieai ia?ooaiey, oyioueany /a?ac aanue yiaeinia?i io
ia?eea?iey aei ai?icaeee. Aiaoiea i?iyaeaiey nii?ueaaiey noaiiayony
caiaoiuie i?eia?ii /a?ac 34 aeiy iinea oeaaoaiey, eiaaea ca?ii ia/eiaao
oa?youe aeaao. Iaeiaei ii?iaeaeathuea yoio aeaoaeo ia?ooaiey aia?aua
iiaeii ?aniiciaoue ia cia/eoaeueii aieaa ?aiiae noaaeee. Ia/eiay n
iai?aaeeueiiai ?acaeoey yiaeinia?ia, iaoneiaeaiiiai aneio?iiiinoueth
eeaoi/iiai aeaeaiey, enneaaeiaaiea ii?oieiaee ?acaeoey iaeioi?uo eeiee
o?eoeeaea iieacaei, /oi nii?ueaaiea ca?ia ai iiiaeo neo/ayo aicieeaao
n ia?ooaiey ooieoeee ia?eoa?e/aneiai neiy yiaeinia?ia. A iaeioi?uo
nii?uaiiuo c??iao o aa?oeiu ai?icaeee eiaaony aieueoie o/anoie, a
i?aaeaeao eioi?iai ia ?acaeaathony eeaoee ie aeae?iiiaiai neiy, ie
yiaeinia?ia. A yoii o/anoea eeaoee yiaeinia?ia /anoi iaeu, neeueii
aeaoi?ie?iaaiu e eeoaiu niaea?aeeiiai./1. /

1.3.Ii?oieiaey ca?ia o?eoeeaea.

Ii?oieiaey ca?ia o?eoeeaea neeueii iaiiieiaao oaeiaoth o
?iaeeoaeueneeo aeaeia. Oae ii aiaoiaio aeaeo ca?iiaea o?eoeeaea
niaiauaao a naaa i?eciaee ?iaeeoaeae. Iia iau/ii aieaa aeeeiiay, /ai
ca?iiaea ioaieoeu(10-12ii),e aieaa oe?ieay, /ai ca?iiaea ?aee(aei 3
ii).Oioy ca/anooth ano?a/aaony, /oi aeeeia ca?iiaee o?eoeeaea ?aaia
i?eaeeceoaeueii 11ii.Iiaeiaii ca?iiaeai ioaieoeu e ?aee, iia eiaao
ai?icaeeo iaaeaeo aeaoiy aunooiathueie u?oeaie, a oaeaea oioieie e
ca?iaeuo ia eiioeao. Iaeei ec iniiaiuo iaaeinoaoeia,
i?aiyonoaothuee ?ani?ino?aiaieth o?eoeeaea, – ieioea naienoaa ca?ia.
Iiaeao auoue nii?ueaaiea o iaeioi?uo c??ai o?eoeeaea iaaeaeo oioieeii e
ca?iaeuoai. Ia?aaeei iinea oeaaoaiey a ca?ia iiauoaaony aeoeaiinoue
aieeacu, i?e yoii e?aoiaeueiua ca?ia ?ac?ooathony, iniaaiii a iaeanoe
aeae?iiiaiai neiy e ai?icaeee. A ?acoeueoaoa nic?aaoea ca?ia iieo/athony
ieioi auiieiaiiuie, nii?uaiiuie./3/

No?iaiea ca?ia o?eoeeaea a iaueo /a?oao noiaeii n oaeiaui o
enoiaeiuo ?iaeeoaeueneeo aeaeia. E?aoiaeueiua c??ia a iniiaiii
noa?e/aneea, ii ano?a/athony e iiiaioaieueiua oi?iu. Oaeaea iaeia ec
ioee/eoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae ca?iiaee o?eoeeaea – aieaa iai?aaeeueiay
oi?ia eeaoie aeae?iiiaiai neiy. A iaeanoe ai?icaeee ano?a/athony
aeae?iiiaua eeaoee, ?aniieiaeaiiua a aeaa eee o?e neiy. Yiaeinia?i eiaao
no?oeoo?o, oeie/ioth aeey ceaeiauo eoeueoo?. A yiaeinia?ia eiiaaea
aeaeiu “ionoua” iaeanoe, a eioi?uo ia i?ienoiaeeo oi?ie?iaaiey
e?aoiaeueiuo c??ai. Oei ?acaeoey yiaeinia?ia e oi?ie?iaaiea
e?aoiaeueiuo c??ai o?eoeeaea noiaeai n oaeiauie o oa??aeie ioaieoeu,
?aee e oa??aeic??iie e?aniie y?iaie ioaieoeu.

C?aeua e?aoiaeueiua c??ia o?eoeeaea niaea?aeao eae ai?icae/aoua
e?oiiua, eeiciia?aciua a?aioeu, oae e noa?e/aneea c??ia. Iaeia ec
ianouiuo i?iaeai, aicieeoeo i?e auaaaeaiee ni?oia o?eoeeaea, –
nii?ueaaiea naiyi i?e i?eaeeaeaiee c?aeinoe. Aunieay aeoeaiinoue
aieeacu i?eaiaeeo e ?ac?ooaieth e?aoiaea yiaeinia?ia e caaea?aeea
?acaeoey eeaoie. Aa?iyoii yoi eiaao ioiioaiea e nii?ueaaieth ca?iiaee,
niioonoaothuaio ?acaeoeth o?eoeeaea.

C??ia ?acaeaathony a oeaaoeao, iau/ii ii o?e a eieinea, oioy a
oeaio?aeueiuo eieineao /anoi iiaeii oaeaeaoue iaeei – aeaa
aeiiieieoaeueii iaaei?acaeouo oeaaoea. Eiein eiaao io 30 aei 40
eieineia, oae /oi iioaioeeaeueii a iaeiii eieina iiaei au ?acaeoueny
aieaa nioie c??ai, ii ia i?aeoeea oaeoe/aneee o?iaeae iaiiiai ieaea
iioaioeeaeueii aiciiaeiiai.

Nic?aaathuea eieinuey o?eoeeaea a aeeeio /anoi i?aauoaao 15ni
e iau/ii inoenoua. I?e nic?aaaiee c??ia nooea
(w=10-12%),iaeeii/iua e ia inuiathony. Ca?ii o?eoeeaea caiaoii
aeeeiiaa c??ai ioaieoeu, aeinoeaatho 10-12ii a aeeeio e aei 3ii a
oe?eio. I?iaeieueiay ai?icaeea, i?ioiaeyuay ii anae aeeeia a?thoiie
noi?iiu ca?iiaee, a ?aciuo ni?oao eiaao ?acee/ioth aeoaeio. *anoi o
ni?oia ni uoieie ca?iiaeie a ia/aea ai?icaeee eiathony aieueoea
i?ino?ainoaa, aaea eeaoee yiaeinia?ia ia ?acaeaathony.

C??ia o?eoeeaea iau/ii aeaeoiaaoi-ei?e/iaaua, ii yoa /anoi
ianee?oaony neeaaeeaie e /aooeeaie ia?oaeiie i?iaeieueiie iaiei/ee,
eioi?ua cia/eoaeueii ioaeaeatho aieiaiea io aiaoiaai aeaea naiiai
ca?ia.

Ieiaeiaay iaiei/ea ca?iiaee o?eoeeaea eiaao ?acaeooth
iiaa?oiinoue ni iiiaeanoaii ii?uei ?aaeeonii 2-10 iei, oaeoaeaiee 2-4
iei eiioniia?aciie e noa?e/aneie oi?iu aeeaiao?ii 4-10 iei, eioi?ua
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaatho iiaa?oiinoue o?eoeeaea ii n?aaiaieth n
ioaieoeae e ?iaeueth. I?e ?anniio?aiee i?iaeieueiuo e iiia?a/iuo
n?acia ieiaeiaie e naiaiiie iaiei/ae e aeae?iiiaiai neiy auyaeaii
iaee/ea iiiaeanoaa iieinoae ?acia?ii 2-10 iei .Ieiaeiaay iaiei/ea
iaieioii i?eeaaaao e naiaiiie .Iaaeaeo ieie eiathony ii?u oe?eiie 0,2-4
iei. Eeaoee aeae?iiiaiai neiy ia iiia?a/iii n?aca eiatho iai?aaeeueioth
,a a i?iaeieueiii n?aca -i?aaeeueioth aaiiao?e/aneoth oi?io .Aioo?e
eeaoie niaea?aeaony a aieueoii eiee/anoaa aeae?iiiaua ca?ia ,iaaeaeo
eioi?uie eiathony ii?u oe?eiie 0,5-1,5iei.I?e ?anniio?aiee
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe yiaeinia?ia ca?ia o?eoeeaea onoaiiaeaii, /oi
e?aoiaeueiua ca?ia ,eae aaeaaeaiiua, eaaeao a aaeeiaie iao?eoea.
Iaeiaei, iaaeaeo aaeeiaie iao?eoeae e e?aoiaeueiuie ca?iaie eiathony
ii?u oe?eiie 0,5-2iei. Ca?iaeuo o?eoeeaea aanueia iaiiieiaao ca?iaeuo
ioaieoeu e ninoieo ec ca?iaeuoaaie ine e ueoea, eioi?ue ooieoeeiie?oao
eae caianathuee, ieuaaa?eoaeueiue e iiaeiuathuee i?aai./4/

1.4.Enoi?ey aicaeaeuaaiey.

A 1941a. o/?iui-naeaeoeeiia?ii A.A Iena?aaui aue iieo/ai ia?aue
o?eoeeaea io ne?aueaaiey iceiie ioaieoeu n iceiie ?iaeueth iceiie
?iaeueth, eioi?ue yaeeny enoi/ieeii aeaeueiaeoeo ne?aueaaiee.

A.A.Iena?aa i?eaeaeae e ne?aueaaieth ceiinoieeea ni?oa ioaieoeu e ?aee ,
iaeiaei iie ia ioee/aeenue aunieie i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth.

Ia aaca y?iaiai ioaie/ii –?aeaiiai aioeaeeieieaea AAe-20 A.A.Iena?aaa
ia/eiaeanue e naeaeoeey o?eoeeaea a Eaiaaea, aaea aeinoeaioou a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoea oniaoe e aaea aia?aua a ie?a aue ?aeiie?iaai
ni?o ?icia?./5/

O?eoeeaea i/aiue auno?i ?ani?ino?aiyaony ii no?aiai e
eiioeiaioai. Eioa?an e iiaie eoeueoo?a eneeth/eoaeueii aaeee. Ianooaau
aa eco/aiey ia?iiiu. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, iai?eia?, oio oaeo, /oi
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ni?oieniuoaiea o?eoeeaea a 1975 aiaeo i?iaiaeeeinue a
75 no?aiao a 338 ioieoao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia anao iyoe eiioeiaioao:41-a
Naaa?iie Aia?eea,71-a Eaoeineie Aia?eea, 64-a Aa?iia,60-a Ao?eea,23-ia
N?aaeiai Ainoiea,79-a THai -Ainoi/iie Acee e Ieaaiee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?iaeo ii aiaae?aieth o?eoeeaea noae
aeaenoaeoaeueiui a ?acee/iuo no?aiao(Aeaee?a, Ainoi/iie Ao?eea,
Eaoeineie Aia?eea e Acee), oae a Yoeiiee o?iaeae o?eoeeaea oaea
i?aauneee o?iaeae naiie aunieio?iaeaeiie iyaeie ioaieoeu, i?e/ai
eo/oea oi?iu o?eoeeaea aeatho aieaa 50oe/aa. I?iecaiaenoai ia?auo
ni?oia o?eoeeaea a NOA iieacaei, /oi o?iaeae ca?ia ia 14% iaiueoa, /ai
o ioaieoeu. O?iaeae o?eoeeaea ninoaaeyao 41% io o?iaeay ioaieoeu,
eioi?ay ia yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ca?iiaie eoeueoo?ie e o?iaeae eae
o?eoeeaea, oae e ioaieoeu auee neeoeii ieceea, /oiau iiiu?youe
aeaeueiaeoaa au?aueaaiea yoeo eoeueoo?.

A oao ooaoao, aaea ioaieoea yaeyaony aeaaiie ca?iiaie eoeueoo?ie,
o?eoeeaea i?aacioea ii o?iaeaeiinoe ioaieoeo ia 13 %. A ooaoa Eaican,
e?oiiaeoai i?iecaiaeeoaea oa??aeic??iie e?aniie iceiie ioaieoeu, e a
ooaoa Naaa?iay Aeaeioa, e?oiiaeoai i?iecaiaeeoaea oa??aeic??iie
e?aniie y?iaie ioaieoeu, o?iaeae o?eoeeaea ninoaaeytho niioaaonoaaiii
90 e 93% io o?iaeay ioaieoeu. A iaeioi?uo ooaoao ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u a
ei?iiauo oeaeyo, oae auee i?iaaaeaiu n?aaiaiey o?eoeeaea ii
o?iaeath ei?ia n ioaieoeae, ?iaeueth, ianii e y/iai?i. Iieo/aiiua
aeaiiua iieacuaatho, /oi o?eoeeaea ii o?iaeath ei?ia auei i?eia?ii
?aaii ioaieoea, iano e ?aee, e ianeieueei auoa y/iaiy. I?e n?aaiaiee
o?iaeaeiinoe o?eoeeaea n ioaieoeae e y/iai?i a ?acee/iua aiaeu, iu
iiaeai oaeaeaoue oaiaeaioeeth e oaaee/aieth i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ca?ia o
o?eoeeaea. Yoe eciaiaiey iiaee i?iecieoe ii ?yaeo i?e/ei:

a) Iieo/aiiua a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ni?oa o?eoeeaea aieaa
eiieo?aioiniiniaiu ii n?aaiaieth n ni?oaie, eioi?ua eniuouaaeenue
?aiaa;

a) O/aiua iiaeia?aee aeey o?eoeeaea eo/oea oneiaey au?aueaaiey. A
Aaia?ee a iniiaiii au?aueaatho o?eoeeaea ia cae?iue ei?i neioo e ia
ca?ii aeey iiiai/eneaiiuo i?iaiuo auia/ae,eioi?ua iieacaee oi?ioea
?acoeueoaou, ii aei neo ii? au? ia ?ac?aaioaiu noaiaea?ou aeey oeaaa ec
o?eoeeaea. A ssiiiee o?eoeeaea iieo/atho ioo?i ne?aueaaiey iyaeie
ioaieoeu e ?aee, a oaeaea auee i?iaaaeaiu oaeea ne?aueaaiey, eae
(ioaie/iay iieaa x ?iaeue) x iyaeay ioaieoea,(ioaieoea x Haynaldia) x
?iaeue e ( ioaieoea x ?iaeue) x (ioaieoea x Haynaldia). ?aaioa ii
oeo/oaieth ni?oia o?eoeeaea e oaaee/aieth i?eniiniaeyaiinoe yoie
eoeueoo?u e ?aciiia?aciui oneiaeyi n?aaeu i?iaeieaeaaony. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy eiaaony oe?ieee auai? ?iaeeoaeueneiai iaoa?eaea./1/

O?eoeeaea i?eaeaeaao e naaa iniaia aieiaiea a nayce n oai,
/oi ii ?yaeo oaeeo aaaeiaeoeo iieacaoaeae, eae o?iaeaeiinoue,
ieoaoaeueiay oeaiiinoue i?iaeoeoa e ae?oaea, yoa eoeueoo?a niiniaia
ai iiiaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aeiiao ie?a i?aainoiaeeoue iaieo
?iaeeoaeae, a ii onoie/eainoe e iaaeaaii?eyoiui ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneei
oneiaeyi e e iaeaieaa iianiui aieaciyi, i?aainoiaey ioaieoeo, iia ia
onooiaao ?aee./1/

A iineaaeiea aiaeu o ian a no?aia ia/aou ?aaiou ii nicaeaieth
o?ao?iaeiauo aea?eaeia. Iniaaiii oeaiiu o?ao?iaeiaua aea?eaeu,
niaiauathuea i?eciaee ioaieoeu, ?aee e iu?ay e niaea?aeauea
iiauoaiiia eiee/anoai aaeea(ia 3-4% aieueoa, /ai o ioaieoeu, e ia 5%
aieueoa, /ai o ?aee).Iie i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an aeey nicaeaiey
i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo aeaeia iceiie ioaieoeu eioaineaiiai oeia.

Iieo/aao i?eciaiea o?eoeeaea e a iaoae ?anioaeeea, a oaeaea e a
no?aiao NIA. ?aiueoa, aua i?e Niaaoneii Nithca, iao/iui oeaio?ii
eco/aiey e nicaeaiey iiauo ni?oia i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai e ei?iiaiai
o?eoeeaea yaeyeny Oe?aeineee IEE ?anoaieaaiaenoaa, naeaeoeee e
aaiaoeee ei. A.ss. TH?ueaaa a Oa?ueeiaa (iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
i?ioanni? Ooeuiaeei).Iaeeo/oea ?acoeueoaou aeinoeaioou i?e iieo/aiee
o?aoaeaeiaiai iceiiai o?eoeeaea – i?e ne?aueaaiee ioaieoeu iyaeie,
oaa?aeie e ?aee. A einoeoooa auaaaeaiu ni?oa i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai
o?eoeeaea-Aioeaeeieieae-206,Aioeaeeieieae-209 n iioaioeeaeueiie
o?iaeaeiinoueth ca?ia 75-82 oe/aa e ei?iiaiai
o?eoeeaea-Aioeaeeieieae-1, Aioeaeeieieae2, Aioeaeeieieae-127 n
o?iaeaeiinoueth caeaiie iannu aei 500-550 oe/aa. Auaaaeaiiua ni?oa
i?ioee ainoaea?noaaiiua eniuoaiey. Aua a 1976a. aia?aua aue
?aeiie?iaai aaenaieieaeiue ei?iiaie ni?o yoie iiaie eoeueoo?u
Aioeaeeieieae 1.

Aioeaeeieieaeu 196,201,206 e 209 i?ioiaeeee ainoaea?noaaiiia
eniuoaiea e oe?ieoth i?iecaiaenoaaiioth i?iaa?eo a 90 iaeanoyo e e?a yo
NIA. Ii o?iaeath ca?ia, niaea?aeaieth aaeea e aai nai?ai n aaeoa?a yoe
ni?oa ai iiiaeo ianoao cia/eoaeueii i?aacioee ioaieoeo e ?iaeue. A
1975a. ?aei?aeiue o?iaeae o?eoeeaea aue iieo/ai niaoicii “Ethaaiue”
Ieineiai iaeanoe – 82,2oe/aa. Eo/oei yaeyaony Aioeaeeieieae 206.Ii
ia?aui ec o?eoeeaea i?eciai ia 1977a.e aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie
ia?niaeoeaiui. Ianiio?y ia nieaeaiea a i?ioeanna naeaeoeee i?ioeaioa
aaeea a ca?ia o?eoeeaea, yoio iieacaoaeue ana aea in- oaaony o yoie
eoeueoo?u aieaa aunieei, /ai o ioaieoeu ia 1-1,5%,e ia 3-4 % auoa ,/ai
o ?aee./2/

N iiyaeaieai naeaeoeeiiiuo ni?oia o?eoeeaea a? iinaau noaee
?ani?ino?aiyoueny a ?acee/iuo ?aaeiiao ie?a e oaea a 1987 a. aeinoe aee
1,3 iei.aa, a a NNN? – 250 oun.aa. A ianoiyuea a?aiy ie?iaay eieeaeoeey
ian/eouaaao aieaa 90 ia?acoeia y?iauo e iceiuo oi?i o?eoeeaea
?acee/iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e o?iaiy ieieaeiinoe..

O?eoeeaea oi?ioi ni/aoaao oeaiiua i?eciaee e naienoaa, i?enouea
?aee(aunieay yeieiae/aneay ieanoe/iinoue) e ioaieoea(o?iaeaeiinoue,
ea/anoai ca?ia). Oeaa ec o?eoeeaea ii ea/anoao i?aainoiaeeo ?aeaiie, a
i?e auia/ea oeaaa ec niane ioaie/iie ioee e ioee o?eoeeaea ii ii
ea/anoao i?e?aaieaaaony eee aeecie e ioaie/iiio. Aieueoie eioa?an
aucuaaao aunieay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue e iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe yoie
eoeueoo?u. Iaeneiaeueiay o?iaeaeiinoue o?eoeeaea aeinoeaea a Aieaa?ee-
116, Eoaeee-110,E?eaiaeee-107,Aa?iaiee-92,Oaaoeee-86,Iieueoa-85,a
Aaea?one-99 oe/aa.

Ii niaea?aeaieth aaeea ca?ii o?eoeeaea /anoi i?aainoiaeeo ia
oieueei ?iaeue, ii e ioaieoeo, aieueoa a a? ca?ia e eeceia (ia 16-20%).

E ae?oaei aeinoieinoaai o?eoeeaea neaaeoao ioianoe aunieoth a?
i?eniiniaeyaiinoue e ?acee/iui oeiai ii/a. ?anoao iia ia anao ii/aao, a
oii /enea ia eeneuo e ia?aoaeaaeiaiiuo.

?anoaiey o?eoeeaea onoie/eau ei iiiaei aieaciyi, naienoaaiiui
oeaaai. I?aeoe/anee iia ia ii?aaeaaony io/ienoie ?inie, oa??aeie e
iueueiie aieiai?e, ao?ie ?aeaa/eiie.

E iaaeinoaoeai, naienoaaiiui o?eoeeaea, ioiinyony: aieueoia
aa?uee?iaaiea ii aiaeai o?iaeaeiinoe, neeiiiinoue e iieaaaieth e
i?i?anoaieth ca?ia ia ei?ith, a oaeaea neaaay auiieiaiiinoue ca?ia o
iaeioi?uo oi?i o?eoeeaea, a? iicaeianiaeinoue, neeueiia ii?aaeaiea
niaaeiie ieanaiueth e ei?iaauie aieeyie.

Ono?aieoue ia?a/eneaiiua iaaeinoaoee aiciiaeii n iiiiuueth
naeaeoeee-nicaeaiey iiauo ni?oia o?eoeeaea n aunieei iioaioeeaeii
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe, onoie/eauo iieaaaieth e i?i?anoaieth ca?ia, n oi?ioae
ceiinoieeinoueth e aieaa ei?ioeei aaaaoaoeeiiiui ia?eiaeii.

Iceiay o?eoeeaea a 1994 a. aunaaaeanue ia ieiuaaee 22,4 , 1995 a.
– 32,9, 1996a.-63,3 oun. Aaeoa?ia./6 /

A Aaei?onnee naeaeoeeae o?eoeeaea ia/aee caieiaoueny 1976 a, a
a? aicaeaeuaaieai – iaiiiaei aieaa 10 eao. Iiyaeaiea ni?oa Aea?
Aaei?onnee (?aeiie?iaai a 1989 a.) niinianoaiaaei ?anoe?aieth iinaaiuo
ieiuaaeae o?eoeeaea a ?anioaeeea.

I?iecaiaenoai ca?iiauo eoeueoo? Aaei?onnee caieiaao iaeii ec
ia?auo iano. Eie caiyoi aieueoa iieiaeiu iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae. Ii/aaiiua e
eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey ?anioaeeee aiieia aeaaii?eyoiu aeey iieo/aiey
aunieeo onoie/eauo o?iaeaaa ca?ia.

A ?anioaeeea aaaeoony iaoe?iua ?aaiou ii naeaeoeee e aiaae?aieth
iiauo aunieiea/anoaaiiuo ni?oia ca?iiauo, ii iiauoaieth eo o?iaeaeiinoe,
onoie/eainoe e iieaaaieth, e aieaciyi. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia oa??eoi?ee
Aaei?onnee i?ioiaeyo oe?ieea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eniuoaiey oeaaiue ceae
o?eoeeaea – aea?eae ioaieoeu e ?aee, ?ac?aaaouaathony iiaua
aa?ioaoie/aneea i?e?iu./7/

A no?oeoo?a ca?iiauo eoeueoo? a ?A iniiaiui enoi/ieeii
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai ca?ia yaeythony iceiua oeaaa (oaaeeoea?1).

Oaaeeoea ?1

O?iaeaeiinoue iceiuo ca?iiauo eoeueoo? ia Ainnii?oio/anoeao /6/.

AiaeEoeueoo?a, ni?oO?iaeaeiinoue,

oe/aaAinni?oinoaioeey eee

Ni?oio/anoie1994O?eoeeaea

Aea? Aaei?onnee83,1Eaaoeaae/aneee

ANO1993O?eoeeaea

Iaeueii80,0Aeoaaneay

ANN1993O?eoeeaea

Aea? Aaei?onnee74,4Aa?oiaaeaeineee

ANO1993O?eoeeaea

Aea? Aaei?onnee91,2Uo/eineee

ANO1993O?eoeeaea

Iaeueii72,6Iiaee?aneay

ANN

Oneiaey i?iec?anoaiey a ?A: ii/aa e eeeiao nouanoaaiii ioee/athony
io ae?oaeo ?aeiiia NIA. Yoi a naith i/a?aaeue ieacuaaao aeeyiea e ia
au?aueaaaiua, ia a? oa??eoi?ee ca?iiaua/7/.

I?aiaeaaeathueie oeiaie ii/a ai anao iaeanoyo ?A yaeythony
aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua (nauoa 50% io anao ii/a)e aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua
caaiei/aiiua(36,5%) .Aeiey aea?iiai-ea?aiiaoiuo ii/a, iaeaaeathueo
iaeaieaa aunieei anoanoaaiiui ieiaei?iaeeai, ninoaaeyao anaai 0,1%
ieiuaaee iaoie.

O?eoeeaea ii o?aaiaaieth e ii/aai caieiaao i?iiaaeooi/iia
iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo ioaieoeae e ?iaeueth, eo/oeie aeey ia? yaeythony
aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua eaaei- e n?aaeianoaeeienoua ii/au, iiaenoeeaaiua
ii?aiie eee ianeii n aeoaeiu ieiei 1 i. Oaeei ia?acii, ii/a, i?eaiaeiuo
aeey aicaeaeuaaiey o?eoeeaea ia oa??eoi?ee ?A aiieia aeinoaoi/ii.

Eeeiao ?A oa?aeoa?ecoaony n?aaieoaeueii iyaeeie ceiaie,
onoie/eaui oaeaaeiaieai e aeinoaoi/iui eiee/anoaii oaiea, /oi iicaieyao
oniaoii aicaeaeuaaoue eae y?iaua, oae e iceiua oeaaa./6/

A iaoae ?anioaeeea o?eoeeaea oieueei ia/eiaao aiaae?youeny a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo. Iauyniyaony yoi oai, /oi o yoiai ceaea
ia?yaeo n ni/aoaieai oeaiiuo ea/anoa ?iaeeoaeueneeo oi?i ioia/aaony
?yae io?eoeaoaeueiuo i?eciaeia: iiieaeaiiay ieiaeiaeoinoue, neeiiiinoue
?anoaiey e iieaaaieth, e ia?ae??noiiio iiueaieth n ?iaeueth e
ioaieoeae, eiieee eiein, aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ca?ii e o.ae. Naeaeoeeiia?u e
aaiaoeee iiiaeo einoeoooia a ?A iai?aaeaii e aeoeaii euoo i?e/eiu e
iooe eeeaeaeaoeee anao yoeo io?eoeaoaeueiuo noi?ii o?eoeeaea./7/

Ia?aia ?aeiie?iaaiea o?eoeeaea a ?A a 1975a. oeacuaaao ia
ainoaea?noaaiiia i?eciaiea iiaiai oeaaiiai ceaea.

Ia iieyo ?A n 1976a. oe?ieia i?iecaiaenoaaiiia eniuoaiea i?ioiaeeo
o?eoeeaea Aioeaeeieieae-206.O/?iua-aa?ioaoieee e aeieiae ?anioaeeee
?ac?aaaouaatho e aiaae?ytho iiaoth oaoiieiaeth aicaeaeuaaiey o?eoeeaea n
o/aoii ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ?A n oai, /oiau iaeaieaa
iieii ?aaeeciaaoue aiciiaeiinoe yoiai ceaea a ianoiuo oneiaeyo./5/

Ia aeaiiue iiiaio a ?A ?aeiie?iaaii /aou?a ni?oa iceiie o?eoeeaea
(Ieoanue, Ia?a, Aea? Aaei?onnee , Iaeueii) e aeaa ni?oa y?iaie
(Eianna, Eaia).

Ieoanue. Auaaaeai AaeIEECE niaianoii n Einoeoooii naeaeoeee e
aeeeeiaoecaoeee ?anoaiee Iieueoe iaoiaeii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ioai? ec
aea?eaeiie iiioeyoeee II 16127 (IAI 6353-32 o IAI 10667-1). Aioaie/aneia
ii?aaeaeaiea – aaenaieieae. Eiein oeeeeiae?e/aneee, n?aaeiae aeeeiu,
ieioiue (26 eieineia ia 10 ni ). Inoe n?aaeiea, ?anoiaeyueany, a?oaua,
cacoa?aiiua, eiieea, aaeua. Eieineiaua /aooe oaeeeiaiii – iaaeueiua,
ia?aaoeey neaaay, coaaoe caino??iiue, aeeeiiue, iea/i neioaiiia, oceia,
eeeue neeueii au?aaeai. Ca?ii oaeeei?iiia, e?aniia, iniiaaiea aieia,
ianna 1000 c??ai 42-57,4 a. ?anoaiea ei?ioeinoaaaeueiia – 90 – 110 ni,
/oi ia 20 ni ieaea noaiaea?oa (Aea? Aaei?onnee). Noaaaeue n?aaeiae
oieueiu, iiae eieinii iiouai. Onoie/ea e iieaaaieth (4,8 aaeea). Oi?ia
eonoa iieoi?eaeaoay. Eeno cae?iue, aac iiooaiey e aineiaiai iae?oa.
I?iaeoeoeaiay eonoenoinoue 1,7. Aaaaoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae 296 -325 aeiae
(ia o?iaia noaiaea?oa), ceiinoieeinoue 4,1 aaeea – ieaea noaiaea?oa ia
0,3 aaeea. Aunieio?iaeaeiue, a 1994-1996aa. Iieo/aia o?iaeaeiinoue 52,8
oe/aa, iaeneiaeueiay 93,2 oe/aa a 1994 a. ia Eaaoeaae/neii ANO. Oi?ioi
auiiea/eaaaony. Niaea?aeaiea aaeea a ca?ia a n?aaeiai 11%, e?aoiaea, a
caaeneiinoe io oneiaee au?aueaaiey, 62,9 – 67,8%. Ii?aaeaiea naioi?eicii
ieaea, ei?iaauie aieeyie – ia o?iaia noaiaea?oa. Niaaeiie ieanaiueth i?e
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo ia?aceiiaee ii?aaeaaony neeueiaa noaiaea?oa.
I?e aicaeaeuaaiee ia o?aaoaony ia?aaioee ?aoa?aeaioaie.

Ia?a. Auaaaeai a AaeIEECE iaoiaeii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ioai?a ec
aea?eaeiie eiiaeiaoeee A-1290 (Aea? Aaei?onnee o ?oo). Aioaie/aneia
ii?aaeaeaiea – aaenaieieae. Eiein oeeeeiae?e/aneee, e?oiiue, aaeue,
ieioiue (28 eieineia ia 10 ni). Inoe aeeeiiua, ?anoiaeyueany, a?oaua,
cacoa?aiiua, eiieea, aaeua. Eieineiaua /aooe oaeeeiaiii – iaaeueiua,
ia?aaoeey neeueii au?aaeaia. Coaaoe eieineiaie /aooe caino??iiue, iea/i
neioaiiia, oceia, eeeue neeueii au?aaeai. Ca?ii n?aaeiaa, ianna 1000
c??ai 41 – 57 a, oaeeeiaiiia, naaoei-ei?e/iaaia (a?oiia e?aniic??iuo).
Oi?ia eonoa a ia?eiae eouaiey iieoi?eaeaoay, noaaaeue n?aaeiae oieueiu,
i?i/iue, iieue, auniei?ineue (ia o?iaia noaiaea?oa). Aaaaoaoeeiiiue
ia?eiae 300-325 aeiae. Aunieio?iaeaeiue, ca 1994-1996 aa. o?iaeaeiinoue
ii ?anioaeeea ninoaaeea 52,5 oe/aa, iaeneiaeueiay – 81,4oe/aa iieo/aia a
1994a. ia Uo/eineii ANO.

Niaea?aeaiea aaeea io 10,9 aei 15,8%, e?aoiaea 66,6 – 70,9%, /oi
yaeyaony oeaiiui ea/anoaii i?e eniieueciaaiee a nie?oiaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ni?o oiea?aioai e naioi?eico, ei?iaauie aieeyie
ii?aaeaaony ia o?iaia noaiaea?oa. N?aaeiaonoie/ea e niaaeiie ieanaie,
ioiineoaeueii onoie/ea e i?aaeoai?i/iiio i?i?anoaieth.

Aea? Aaei?onnee. Ni?o naeaeoeee AaeIEECE, auaaaeai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-naiaenoaaiiui ioai?ii ec aea?eaeiie eiiaeiaoeee io
ne?aueaaiey iaeneeaineie y?iaie eeiee A?iaaeeeei (E-346939) o iceiue
ni?o Aioeaeeieieae 206 Aaenaieieae. Ni?o ca?iioo?aaeiiai iai?aaeaiey.
Aunioa ?anoaiee 135 ni, aeeeia noaaey io 1-ai ocea aei iineaaeiaai 65-70
ni, i?iaeoeoeaiay eonoenoinoue 2,2 – 2,4. Oi?ia eonoa iieonoiy/ay,
noaaaeue n?aaeiae oieueiu, i?i/iue, aac iiooaiey a ia?eiae eouaiey.
Eiein oeeeeiae?e/aneee, e?oiiue, ieioiue, niaea?aeeo 26 eieineia.
Eieiniaeaeiay /aooy eaioeaoiay, n neeueii au?aaeaiiie ia?aaoeeae. Coaaoe
ino?ue, n?aaeia aeeeiu, iea/i oceia, neioaiiia. Eeeue au?aaeai neeueii,
inoe aeeeiiua, ?anoiaeyueany, a?oaua, cacoa?aiiua, eiieea, aaeua. Ca?ii
oaeeeiaiiia, aaeia, iniiaaiea aieoaia, ianna 1000 c??ai 43,7 – 61 a.
Oeaaiiaea?iua ea/anoaa ia o?iaia neaaie ioaieoeu, niaea?aeaiea aaeea 12
– 12,5 %. Ca 1987-1989 aa. n?aaeiyy o?iaeaeiinoue ninoaaeea 48,4 oe/aa,
a 1989a. – 55,3 oe/aa, iaeneiaeueiay – 74,3 oe/aa. A ioaeaeueiuo
oicyenoaao ii eioaineaiie oaoiieiaee iieo/aia o?iaeaeiinoue io 67 aei 90
oe/aa (eieoicu “Iooue e eiiioiecio” Eoieiaoeeiai, ei. O?oica Oeeianeiai,
yenia?eiaioaeueiua aacu “Onouea” I?oaineiai, “AEiaeeie” Niieaae/neiai
?aeiia). Neaaiaini?eei/ea e ao?ie ?aeaa/eia, io/ienoie ?ina e ei?iaaui
aieeyi.

Iaeueii. Auaaaeai iiuoiie noaioeeae naeaeoeee e aeeeeiaoecaoeee ?anoaiee
Iaeuoei (Iieueoa) ne?aueaaieai II 4107/78/19 OA-8-1.

Iecei?ineue, aunioa ?anoaiee 120-130 ni – ieaea noaiaea?oa ia
10 ni. Eiein oeeeeiae?e/aneee, inoenoue, ca?ii e?oiiia, ianna 1000 ca?ai
37 -43 a. N?aaeianiaeue, aeeeia aaaaoaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea 290 – 311
aeiae, onoie/ea e iieaaaieth, ii?icionoie/eainoue ieaea noaiaea?oa.
Neaai ii?aaeaaony ao?ie ?aeaa/eiie e io/ienoie ?inie. N?aaeiaonoie/ea e
ii?aaeaieth naioi?eicii e ei?iaauie aieeyie, aini?eei/ea e ii?aaeaieth
niaaeiie ieanaiueth. N?aaeiyy o?iaeaeiinoue ca o?e aiaea eniuoaiee ia
ni?oio/anoeao ninoaaeea 55,4 oe/aa – ia 4,5 oe/aa auoa noaiaea?oa,
iaeneiaeueiay – a 1990 a. ia Ieineie ainni?oinoaioeee – 78,1 oe/aa.
Noaaeeueiua o?iaeae aeatho a thai-caiaaeiie /anoe ?anioaeeee.
Niaea?aeaiea aaeea 12,6 – 13,3% (ia o?iaia noaiaea?oa), e?aoiaea
59%-auoa noaiaea?oa. Ni?o iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aeey eniieueciaaiey a
nie?oiaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Eianna. Auaaaeai a AaeIEECE eiaeeaeaeoaeueii – naiaenoaaiiui ioai?ii
yeeoiiai ?anoaiey ec naeaeoeeiiiiai ia?aca Y-1924, aaenaieieaeiue. Eono
ai a?aiy eouaiey i?yiinoiy/ee. Noaaaeue – iieay i?i/iay nieiieia
n?aaeiae oieueiu. Eeno cae?iue, iiooaiea e aineiaie iae?o ionoonoaotho.
Eiein aaeue, i?eciaoe/aneee. Eieineiaay /aooy eaioeaoiie oi?iu n
neeueiie ia?aaoeeae, coaaoe eieineiaie /aooe n?aaeiae aeeeiu, ino?ue.
Iea/i oceia, neioaiiia. Eeeue neeueii au?aaeai. Inoe aaeua, a?oaua,
eiieea, aa?oeeaeueiua, n?aaeiae aeeeiu. Ca?ii aieia, iieo oaeeeiaiiia,
n?aaeiae e?oiiinoe n iieoioe?uoie iaaeoaieie ai?icaeeie. Ianna 1000
c??ai 38,8 – 40 a, niaea?aeaiea nu?iai i?ioaeia 14,2 – 15,5%. Onoie/ea e
iieaaaieth. I?eaiaeai aeey eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa iiaeaea?aeeaathuae
eoeueoo?u aeey eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa iiaeaea?aeeaathuae eoeueoo?u
aeey aicaeaeuaaiey a niane n iieaaathueie ca?iiaiaiauie eoeueoo?aie.
Ni?o ca?iioo?aaeiiai eniieueciaaiey.

Eaia. Auaaaeai a AaeIEECE e ENA? iaoiaeii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ioai?a ec
ooaiia IAI-14700-1 (14311oIAI 7746). Oi?ia eonoa iieonoiy/ay. Noaaaeue
n?aaeiae oieueiu, nieiieia iieay, ni neaaui iiooaieai iiae eieinii.
Aineiaie iae?o ia eenoa a ia?eiae eouaiey ionoonoaoao. Eiein
oeeeeiae?e/aneee, n?aaeiae aeeeiu e ieioiinoe, aaeue. Eieineiaay /aooy
eaioeaoiaeaeiay, coaaoe n?aaeiae aeeeiu, ino?ue, iea/i oceia, neeueii
neioaiiia. Inoe aeeeiiua, ?anoiaeyueany, a?oaua, cacoa?aiiua,
aaeua.Ca?ii n?aaeiae e?oiiinoe, iiooaiea, iieo oaeeeiaiiia. Ianna 1000
ca?ai 34,7-46,7 a. I?iaeoeoeaiay eonoenoinoue 1,1-2,2. Aaaaoaoeeiiiue
ia?eiae 90 – 109 aeiae. N?aaeiyy o?iaeaeiinoue ca aiaeu eniuoaiee
ninoaaeea 47,2 oe/aa, iaeneiaeueiay – 69,1 oe/aa, i?eaaaea e noaiaea?oo
– 3,3 – 21,6 oe/aa. Niaea?aeaiea aaeea a ca?ia 13,6 – 16,5%, e?aoiaea
59,1 – 61,8%. I?eaiaeai aeey nie?oiaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Onoie/ea e
iieaaaieth, ia o?aaoao ia?aaioee ?aoa?aeaioaie. Aeaiiua ?aeiie?iaaiey
ca?ia ii iaeanoyi i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea?2.

Oaaeeoea?2

?aeiie?iaaiea ni?oia o?eoeeaea ii iaeanoyi Aaei?onnee

Eoeue-oo?aAiae

?aeiie-

?iaaieyNi?o A?anoneay iae.Aeoaaneay

iae.Aiiaeueneay iae.A?iaeiaineay iae.Ieineay iae.Iiaee?aneay

iae.

Ice-iay o?eoe-eaea

1989Aea? Aaei?onnee

?

?

?

?

?

?Ice-iay o?eoe-eaea

1994

Iaeueii

?

?

?

?

?

?Ice-iay o?eoe-eaea

1998

Ieoanue

?

?

?

?

?Ice-iay o?eoe-eaea

1998

Ia?a

?

—ss?iaay

O?eoe-eaea

1997

Eianna

?

—ss?iaay

O?eoe-eaea

1997

Eaia

?

?

?

?

?

?

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ni?oieniuoaoaeueiuo noaioeeyo ?A i?iaiaeeony
?aaioa ii naeaeoeee iiauo ni?oia ca?ia o?eoeeaea, oaeeo eae Aeoa?aaa,
Eaeay, Iiaeoeue, Aai, Ea?ue, Iaye, ?oiue, Oeaaea?, ssioa?ue, Oaeei
(iceiua) e ae?./7/

1.5. Oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa ca?ia o?eoeeaea.

Aieueoay /anoue ianaeaiey caiiiai oa?a a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
no?aaeaao io iai?aaeeueiiai ieoaiey e iaaeiaaeaiey. Aaeeiai-eaei?eeiay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue o aeaoae yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao. Aeey ?ac?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu iniaia cia/aiea
aeieaeii auoue oaeaeaii auaaaeaieth ni?oia ca?iiauo eoeueoo? n aunieei
niaea?aeaieai aaeea, oeo/oaiiiai ieoaoaeueiiai ea/anoaa, oae eae yoe
eoeueoo?u aeaoaau e eaaei aeinooiiu a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea aaeea.
O?eoeeaea – iiaue aeae oeaaiuo ceaeia, niiniaiue a i?eioeeia
oaeiaeaoai?eoue yoe iio?aaiinoe.

Ecaanoii, *oi /ai auoa ianna 1000 c??ai, oai oeaiiaa ca?ii. Eae
i?aaeei, n oaaee/aieai iannu 1000 c??ai aic?anoaao e?oiiinoue ca?ia,
noaeeiaeaeiinoue, niaea?aeaiea yiaeinia?iu, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e auoiae
ioee. Yoa caeiiiia?iinoue i?ineaaeeaaaony e i?e aiaeeca iieo/aiiuo
aeaiiuo.

Ii n?aaiaieth n ioaieoeae e ?iaeueth o?eoeeaea eiaao iaiueooth
iau?iioth ianno. I?aainoiaenoai ii yoiio iieacaoaeth ?aee iaae o?eoeeaea
ia niaeanoaony n eeoa?aoo?iuie aeaiiuie (I. I. Eicueieia, 1976),
iineieueeo ?iaeue ni?oa Aaeoa a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo ni?oia eiaao aieueoea
?acia?u ca?iiaee, eo/ooth auiieiaiiinoue e aieueooth iau?iioth ianno.

Iieacaoaeue ieioiinoe ca?ia io?aaeaao eiiieaen oa?aeoa?enoee
oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa ca?ia, oaeeo eae ianna 1000 c??ai, no?oeoo?a,
oeie/aneee ninoaa e o.ae. A nayce n yoei ieioiinoue ca?ia iaoiaeeoueny a
aeinoaoi/ii aunieie ei??aeyoeeiiiie acaeiinayce n iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie
oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa ca?ia.

Ecaanoii, /oi ieioiinoue ca?ia n iiauoaieai niaea?aeaiey e?aoiaea
oaaee/eaaaony, a n niaea?aeaieai aaeea iaiai?io – oiaiueoaaony. Yoa
iniaaiii noaiiaeoueny caiaoiui i?e niiinoaaeaiee aaee/ei ieioiinoe
o?eoeeaea n ioaieoeae e ?iaeueth. Ioiineoaeueiia niaea?aeaiey e?aoiaea
a o?eoeeaea iaiueoa, a aaeea aieueoa.

O?eoeeaea i?aainoiaeeo ioaieoeo e ii au?aaiaiiinoe, /oi auaiaeii
auaeaeyao aai a oaoiieiae/aneii niunea. *ai ?aaiiia?iaa ii e?oiiinoe
ca?ii aeaiiie ia?oee, oai aieueoa aiciiaeiinoe eiaao oaoiieia
iaania/eaaoue iaeeiaeiaia aicaeaenoaea ia eaaeaeia ca?ii a i?ioeanna
ia?aaioee.

E?iia oiai, e?oiiia ca?ii ioee/aaony aieueoei ioiineoaeueiui
niaea?aeaieai a i?i yiaeinia?ia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeao auoue iaania/ai
ec oaeiai ca?ia aieueoee auoiae ioee. A oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao
iniaaiii oeaiiui n/eoaaony ca?ii, e?oiiia ii oe?eia e oieueia, a yoii
neo/aa aai noa?e/iinoue auoa, /oi ii?aaeaeyao aieaa aunieia niaea?aeaiea
yiaeinia?ia.

Oi?ia e eeiaeiua ?acia?u ca?ia nouanoaaiii aeeytho ia auai?
?aaeeiia o?aiaiey e ia?aaioee, o?ainii?oe?iaaiey e ia?a?aaioee.

O?eoeeaea ioee/aaony ii n?aaiaieth n ioaieoeae aieueoei, i?eia?ii a
1,4 ?aca, iau?iii ca?iiaee, a ioaieoea i?aainoiaeeo aai naiae
noa?e/iinoueth. Oaeeei?iiay oi?ia ca?iiaee o?eoeeaea, i/aaeaeii, auea
oianeaaeiaaia io ?aee.

Ecaanoii, /oi /ai aieueoa ioeeaiyaony oi?ia ca?iiaee io
oa?iia?aciie, oai iaiueoa nuio/anoue ca?iiaie iannu. Oae, aeey o?eoeeaea
i?e noa?e/iinoe aai 0,77 oaie anoanoaaiiiai ioeina, eioi?ui iau/ii
oa?aeoa?ecotho nuio/anoue ca?iiaie iannu, ninoaaeyao 49 a?aae., a aeey
ioaieoeu, aeaaea i?e ianeieueei aieueoae aeaaeiinoe, ii n?aaiaieth n
o?eoeeaea, oaie anoanoaaiiiai ioeina 38 a?aae., o.a. nuio/anoue
ioaieoeu eo/oa ./5/

Aeaiiua oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa ca?ia o?eoeeaea i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea
?3

Oaaeeoea?3

Oeceei-oeie/aneea iieacaoaee ea/anoaa o?eoeeaea.

Eoeueoo?a,ni?o?/i i?iec-?anoa-ieyAeaae-iinoue,

%I?e-ianue ni?iay,

%I?e-

ianue

ca?ii-aay,

%Ianna

1000

c??ai,

aIaue?iiay ianna,

a/e

Noaeeiaeae-iinoue,

%Ieio-iinoue,

a/ni3Neaa-aeen-oinoue,

%

Oaie

anoano-aai-iiai ioeina,

a?aaeAnoi-aeanoue,

%Niaea?aeaiea nu?ie eeaeeiaeiu,

%I AAe-206, Aaeuia/neee

12,3

1,98

3,08

53,2

679

97

1,25

47,3

49

99

30,0II AAe-206,E?oaeyin-eee.

13,6

1,96

3,48

48,1

688

99

1,19

37,5

41

72

28,8III AAe-206 Iiaee?aneee.

12,9

1,92

3,34

46,5

683

97

1,11

39,7

40

72

29,4

Oeie/aneee ninoaa oeaaiuo eoeueoo? oe?iei eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe
io cii i?iecaiaenoaa, aa?iyeieiae/aneeo oneiaee, ni?oia.

O?eoeeaea niaea?aeeo: aiaeu-14,0%, aaeeia-12,8%,
oaeaaiaeia-68,6%,aee?ia-1,5%, eeao/aoee-3,1% e cieu-2,0%./6/

Oaeaea ecaanoii, /oi ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u Aaei?onnee ioee/athony
aieaa ieceie aaeeiainoueth. Iauyniyaony yoi ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeie
oneiaeyie ?anioaeeee, eioi?ua ioiinyony e ?aeiiai Ia/a?iicaiuey.
Aeaaeiue eeeiao, ieceea oaiia?aoo?u ii?aaeaeytho oneiaey i?iec?anoaiey
ca?iiauo. Yoi iauyniyao e iiieaeaiiia niaea?aeaiea aaeea o o?eoeeaea,
au?auaiiiai a Aaei?onnee, ii n?aaiaieth n eeoa?aoo?iuie aeaiiuie.
?acee/ea niaea?aeaiey aaeea o o?eoeeaea aeaaea a i?aaeaeao Iiaee?aneie
iaeanoe (10,49…14,25%) iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aieueooth caaeneiinoue io
oneiaee au?aueaaiey, a /anoiinoe, ?acee/ey ii/aaiiuo oneiaee./8/

Yiaeinia?i o?eoeeaea niaea?aeeo: aiaei?anoai?eiuo aaeeia 26-28%,
niea?anoai?eiuo – 7-8%, nie?oi?anoai?eiuo- 25-26% e aaeeia ?anoai?eiuo a
oenoniie eeneioa 18- 20%.

O ?aee, o?eoeeaea e y/iaiy i?ineaaeeaaaony iauay oaiaeaioeey –
iineaaeiaaoaeueiia oaaee/aiea iieacaoaey niaea?aeaiey aaeea a ca?ia io
ieaeiae /anoe eieina e aa?oiae e oaaee/aiea iannu iaeiiai ca?ia io
ieaeiae /anoe eieina e n?aaeiae e aa?oiae. O ioaieoeu niaea?aeaiea
aaeeiauo aauanoa oaaee/eaaaony i?e aeaeaeaiee nieco eieina e
na?aaeeia e iinoaiaiii oiaiueoaaony e aai aa?oeia. Oae eciaiyaony
aaeeiainoue e ianna iaeiiai ca?ia o iaeioi?uo ceaeiauo eoeueoo? a
caaeneiinoe io ianoiiieiaeaiey c??ai a eieina./8/

Ieoaoaeueiay oeaiiinoue aaeea caaeneo io niaea?aeaiey a iai
iacaiaieiuo aieiieeneio. A ca?ia o?eoeeaea, oae aea eae e ae?oaeo
ca?iiauo eoeueoo?, niaea?aeeony aaaeiaeoay, iacaiaieiay
aieiieeneioa-eecei, eioi?ay a aaeea /aua anaai ia oaaoaao. Iiyoiio
niaea?aeaiea eeceia a ca?ia o?eoeeaea iiaeao neoaeeoue iieacaoaeai
iauaai ea/anoaa aaeea. Ii niaea?aeaieth eeceia o?eoeeaea cia/eoaeueii
i?aainoiaeeo ioaieoeo, a ca?ia eioi?iai eiaaony ieiei 3% io iauaai
eiee/anoaa aaeea. Ii aeaiiui aiaeecia ianeieueei oeo/oaiiuo eeiee
o?eoeeaea niaea?aeaee eecei a eiee/anoaa, aeeceii e aunieieeceiiaie
eoeo?oca. Auei iieacaii, /oi o?eoeeaea ii naiei ieuaaui ea/anoaai
i?aainoiaeeo ioaieoeo, a ii oeaaiiaea?iui ea/anoaai i?aainoiaeeo
?iaeue./9/

A eeoa?aoo?a iiaeii iaeoe naaaeaiey i niaea?aeaiee aaeea a ca?ia
o?eoeeaea, eioi?ua aaiaeeee a caaeoaeaeaiea. Iaeioi?ua niiauaiey i
/?acau/aeii aunieii niaea?aeaiee aaeea iiaeii iauynieoue neaaeothueie
i?e/eiaie. Ia?aua eeiee o?eoeeaea oa?aeoa?ecothony /anoui
ia?aciaaieai nii?uaiiuo c??ai, a eioi?uo ioiioaiea yiaeinia?ia e
ca?iaeuoo + iaiei/ea auei ieaea ii n?aaiaieth n iau/iuie ioaieoeaie.
Oae eae ca?iaeuo, ueoie e aeae?ii ca?ia ioiineoaeueii aiaa/a acioii,
/ai yiaeinia?i, nii?uaiiua ca?ia aeaaae aieaa aunieee ?acoeueoao i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee acioa ii Eueaeueaeaeth, /ai auiieiaiiua ca?ia./4/

Aieiieeneioiue ninoaa i?eaaae?i a oaaeeoea?4

Oaaeeoea ? 4

N?aaeiaa niaea?aeaiea aieiieeneio a aaeeao ioaieoeu e o?eoeeaea,

a aieiieeneiou ia 100a iauaai acioa(ii aeaiiui OAI)/6/.

AieiieeneiouOeaeueiiniieioay ioea ioaieoeu O?oeeaeaEecei 17,9
19,6Aaeei 27,6 24,2Eaeoeei 45,0 41,7Ecieaeoeei
20,4 18,7Iaoeiiei 9,4 6,0O?aiiei 18,3
19,6O?eioioai 6,8 6,3Oaieeaeaiei 28,2
28,6Oeenoei 15,9 7,9Oa?icei 18,7 19,5A?aeiei
28,8 38,2Aenoeaeei 14,3 13,3Aeaiei 22,6
25,8Ania?aaeiiaay

Eeneioa 30,8 41,6Aethoaieiiaay

Eeneioa 186,6 152,8Aeeoeei 25,4 26,5I?ieei
62,1 52,1Na?ei 28,7 25,0

Enneaaeiaaiey aieiieeneioiiai ninoaaa ca?ia iceiie ioaieoeu
ni?oa Aa?aceia e iceiie o?eoeeaea Aea? Aaei?onnee oaeaea
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iaiueoai niaea?aeaiee iacaiaieiuo aieiieeneio(
eeceia, aaeeia, ecieaeoeeia) a ca?ia iceiie ioaieoeu ii n?aaiaieth n
o?eoeeaea.

Ca?ii o?eoeeaea oaeaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiauoaiiie cieueiinoueth,
aieaa ieceei niaea?aeaieai oaeaaiaeiuo eiiiiiaioia e iaee/eai a i?i
niaoeeoe/aneiai oaeaaiaea ?aee – o?eo?oeoicaia. Aaeee ca?ia o?eoeeaea a
n?aaeiai niaea?aeao 5-10% aeueaoieiia,6-7% aeiaoeeiia,30-37%
i?ieaieiia e 15-20% aethoaieiia. Ana aeaeu o?eoeeaea eiatho aieueoa
aiaei?anoai?eiiai acioa, /ai ?iaeeoaeueneea oi?iu. A ca?ia o?eoeeaea ii
n?aaiaieth n ioaieoeae, niaea?aeeony aieueoa naiaiaeiuo iacaiaieiuo
aieiieeneio, oaeeo eae eecei, aaeei, eaeoeei e ae?oaea, a neeo /aai
aeieiae/aneay oeaiiinoue o?eoeeaea auoa, /ai o ioaieoeu. Aeaaiui
eiiiiiaioii ca?ia o?eoeeaea, eae e ae?oaeo ceaeiauo, yaeyaony
e?aoiae. Ia aai aeieth i?eoiaeeony 3/4 aana ca?ia.

Ii niaea?aeaieth eeaeeiaeiiia?acothueo aaeeia o?eoeeaea iaiiiai
i?aauoaao ?iaeue e i?eaeeaeaaony e ioaieoea, /oi aiai?eo i
niiniaiinoe ca?ia aioeaeeieieaeia ia?aciauaaoue naycaiioth eeaeeiaeio ii
ioaie/iiio oeio.

Eiee/anoai eeaeeiaeiu a ca?ia o?eoeeaea i?eaeeaeaaony e
niaea?aeaieth a? a ioaieoea. Ii ea/anoao eeaeeiaeiu o?eoeeaea a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa eiaao aieaa ieceea aeaiiua ec-ca niaea?aeaiey a iae
aaeeia ?aeaiiai oeia.

E?aoiae o?eoeeaea ioee/aaony io e?aoiaea ioaieoeu e ?aee ieceei
niaea?aeaieai aieeacu(23,7%). Ii aaee/eia ieioiinoe ?aee (i?e 30
a?aae. Oeaeueney) e?aoiae o?eoeeaea i?aainoiaeeo e?aoiae ?aee (1,4465
e 1,4209),onooiay e?aoiaeo iyaeie ioaieoeu (1,4832).

Ie eiee/anoaaiii, ie ea/anoaaiii eeieaeu o?eoeeaea ia iaeaaeatho
naienoaaie, i?iiaaeooi/iuie iaaeaeo naienoaaie eeieaeia ?iaeeoaeueneeo
aeaeia ioaieoeu e ?aee. O?eoeeaea niaea?aeeo aieueoa oinoieeieaeia a
naycaiiie oi?ia, /ai ioaieoea e yoi naienoai, aa?iyoii, ianeaaeiaaii
io ?aee. Iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea yeno?aae?oaiuo eeieaeia a ioea ec
yiaeinia?ia o?eoeeaea, ii-aeaeeiiio ianeaaeiaaii io oa??aeie
ioaieoeu./6/

Oeie/aneee ninoaa ca?ia o?eoeeaea i?eaaae?i a oaaeeoea?5

Oeo/oaiiua a aa?iiiie/aneii ioiioaiee eeiee o?eoeeaea eiatho aieaa
ieceia niaea?aeaiea aaeea ii n?aaiaieth n ?aiaa iieo/aiiuie eeieyie
o?eoeeaea. Iaeiaei o?iaeaeiinoue e iaoo?a ca?ia iiauneeanue, ii
iaoo?a ca?ii o?eoeeaea onooiaao ioaieoea(ioaieoea Ie?iiianeay 808-785
a/e, o?eoeeaea AAe201 e AAe206-730-754 a/e),ii iau/ii
i?aainoiaeeo ?iaeue(?iaeue Oa?ueeianeay 55-712 a/e).Ianna 1000 ca?ai
o?eoeeaea eieaaeaony a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao a caaeneiinoe io ni?oa e
oneiaee nic?aaaiey:32-41 a i?e 37-39 a o ioaieoeu a oao aea
oneiaeyo. O?aoaeaeiaua o?eoeeaea (AAe206,AAe201) ioee/athony aieaa
e?oiiui ca?iii n iannie 1000 ca?ai aei 50-53 a./3/

Oaaeeoea?5

Oeie/aneee ninoaa ca?ia o?eoeeaea(% ia nooia
aauanoai)

Eoeueoo?a,ni?o

?aeii i?iec?anoaiey, oicyenoai.Eeao /aoea,E?ao-iaeAcio iaueeAcio
iaaae-eiaueAcio aaeei-aueNu?ie i?ioaeiNaoa?a anaaiNaoa?a ?aaeooee?oth-
ueaNaoa?icaAEe?

Cieue- iinoueAAe-206Iiaee?aneee, e/c
“Eiieioa?i”2,0962,582,310,381,9313,172,310,521,792,201,85AAe-201Iiaee?an
eee, e/c
“Eiieioa?i”2,0661,841,850,431,4210,551,600,650,952,041,83AAe-206Iiaee?an
eee, no.
Aeaoeiaea1,9964,692,500,402,1014,251,740,471,271,951,99AAe-206Aaeuie/nee
e, e/c
ei.Eaieia2,3360,021,840,481,3610,492,010,351,662,091,97AAe-201Aaeuie/nee
e, e/c
ei.Eaieia2,8959,241,900,301,6010,832,590,592,012,051,95AAe-206Aaeuie/nee
e, e/c
ei.Eaieia0,6166,431,750,261,409,972,630,562,071,410,71AAe-206Iiaee?aneee
, e/c
“Eiieioa?i”0,5570,321,690,191,509,632,290,611,681,350,73Aae-206Iiaee?ane
ee, no. Aeaoeiaea0,5469,751,730,211,529,681,570,521,051,300,75

Oaeaea oaaee/eeinue niaea?aeaiea eeceia, /oi io?aaeaao oeo/oaiea
ieuaauo ea/anoa. Cia/eoaeueiay eciai/eainoue a niaea?aeaiee aaeea e
eeceia a i?i o o?eoeeaea ii n?aaiaieth n ioaieoeae oeacuaaao ia
aiciiaeiinoue aeaeueiaeoaai oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa aaeea o yoie eoeueoo?u
ia?aeeaeueii n i?iaeieaeaieai naeaeoeee ii oaeei i?eciaeai, eae
o?iaeaeiinoue e auiieiaiiinoue ca?ia./10/

I?iaaaeaiu ?yae enneaaeiaaiee e aeaia oeie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea
iiauo e ?aeiie?iaaiiuo iieueneeo ni?oia o?eoeeaea. N?aaieaaee ea/anoai
e oeie/aneee ninoaa 21 iiaiai ni?oa o?eoeeaea, ni?oia o?eoeeaea Zacko e
Grado ioaieoeu ni?oa Rota e iceiie ?aee ni?oa Dankowskie Zlote.

Iaoo?a ca?ia ninoaaeea niioaaonoaaiii:

64,4-74,7;71,6;66,6;78,2 e 73,9ea/ae;

ianna 1000 ca?ai :

34,7-59,5;39,1;42,6;45,2 e 37,3a;

noaeeiaeaeiinoue:

29-55,35;33,15 e 0% ;

niaea?aeaiea aaeea:

11,3-17,3;12,6;13,1;12,2 e 11,1% ;

aee?a:

2,0-2,6;2,2;2,8;1,8 e 1,8% ;

e?aoiaea:

52,8-69,8;54,9;60,3;64,2 e 53,3% ;

?aaeooee?othueo naoa?ia:

2,3-5,4;3,5;4,3;3,1 e 4,6% ;

cieu:

1,57-2,32;2,08;2,07;1,69 e 1,84% .

Eeaeeiaeia o?eoeeaea auea ieceiai ea/anoaa, aa niaea?aeaiea ia
i?aauoaao 10%.A ioea o?eoeeaea niaea?aeeony aieueoa aeueaoieiia e
aeiaoeeiia, /ai a ioea ioaieoeu. ?aieiae/aneea naienoaa oanoa ec ioee
o?eoeeaea auee ooaea, aeon oeaaa ianeieueei neaua./11/

I?iaaaeaiu ?yae enneaaeiaaiee ia aeeyiea acioiiai ieoaiey e
?aaoee?iaaiea ?inoa oei?iaeaaoa ia e?oiiinoue ,niaea?aeaiea acioa e
aieiieeneioiue ninoaa ca?ia o?eoeeaea. Iieacaii aeeyiea aa?ioeie/aneeo
ia?ii?eyoee ia oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee ca?ia ni?oia o?eoeeaea
Lasko, Salvo, Lokal, Newton au?auaiiuo a Oioeaiaeee. I?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua
i ianna 1000 ca?ai, niaea?aeauea acio, ania?iaeiiaua eeneiou,
oeenoaeia, aeooaieiiaua eeneiou, aenoeaeeia, na?eia, aeaieia, eaeoeeia,
iaoeiieia, oaieeaeaieia, oe?iceia e aaeeia.

Oaeaea enneaaeiaaee ca?ia y?iaiai o?eoeeea ni?oia Zlafar e Soko e
iceiiai o?eoeeaea Kg 20.Iieacaii,/oi iniaaiii aieueoia niaea?aeaiea
nu?iai aaeea auei a ca?ia y?iaiai ni?oa. O ni?oia e?oiiia ca?ii n
oi?ioae auiieiaiiinoueth e aunieei niaea?aeaieai aaeea./12/

?acee/ey o?iaiae a-aieeacu e eiaeaeoi?ia yiaeiaaiiie a-aieeacu a ca?ia
?ena e o?eoeeaea.

Ioiineoaeueiua o?iaie a-aieeacu e eiaeaeoi?ia a-aieeacu auee eco/aiu
a 36 ia?acoeao ioee eoeueoeae?iaaiiie e aeeeie oi?iu ?ena, 27 ia?acoeia
ioee o?eoeeaea e a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ii?yaeea – 1 ?ena. Aiaeecu auee
i?iaaaeaiu aaeue – eo/aaie aeeooocee e eieei?eiao?e/anee ni
niaeo?ioioiiao?e/aneie aeeeiiie aieiu 280 ii. O?iaie cia/aiee a-aieeacu
e eiaeaeoi?ia a-aieeacu auee auoa a o?eoeeaea, /ai a ?ena (16,5-15,4 e
16,8-15,9 ii ii?aaeae?iiua eae aeeaiao? ie?oaeiinoe aeeooocee a aaea). N
?enii e o?eoeeaea i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii iiiai aieueoeo ?acee/ee a o?iaia
a-aieeacu, /ai a eiaeaeoi?ao a -aieeacu. ?aca?in aiieeooaeu yoeo
ia?aiao?ia aue oe?a a ?ena, /ai a ia?acoeao o?eoeeaea. Niioiioaiea
eiyooeoeeaioia iaaeaeo o?iaiai oa?iaioa e eiaeaeoi?a auei – 0,03 a
ia?acoeao ioee ?eniaie, – 0,08 a ia?acoeao ?ena – ca?ia e 0,61 a
ia?acoeao ioee o?eoeeaea. /13/

Ii?aaeaeaiu ?aaeueiua naienoaa caiania ca?ia o?eoeeaea (CCO) a
n?aaiaiee n caianaie ec ca?ai ioaieoeu (CCI) e ?aee (CC?).
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yooaeoeaiay ayceinoue, i?aaeaeueiia iai?yaeaiea
naeaeaa e a?aiy ?ac?ooaiey no?oeoo?u o CCO cia/eoaeueii ieaea, /ai o
CCI e CC?. Ieieiaeueiay yooaeoeaiay ayceinoue o CCO,
niioaaonoaothuay ayceinoe iieiinoueth ?ac?ooaiiie no?oeoo?u, a
4-4,6 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai o CCI e a 6-9 ?ac iaiueoa, /ai o CC?. I?e/eiie
yoiai yaeyaony niiniaiinoue ca?ia o?eoeeaea e naii?acaeeaeaieth,
aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth a iai aeoeaiie aeueoa-aieeacu e niaoeeoe/aneiio
no?iaieth e?aoiaeueiuo a?aioe o?eoeeaea./14/

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee ia?niaeoeaiuo eeiee o?eoeeaea AeE-1 e
AeE-2 e noaiaea?oiie eeiee AAe-7291 auei iieacaii, /oi ca?ii iiauo eeiee
eiaei aieueooth ianno 1000 ca?ai e aieueoee aan ca?ia a eieina.
Enneaaeiaaa oa?aiiia ca?ii yoeo eeiee auei iieacaii, /oi a n?aaeiai a
ca?ia iiauo eeiee niaea?aeeony iaiueoa cieu e nu?iai aaeea, aieueoa
oeenoaeia, aacacioenouo aieiieeneio- eeceia, a?aeieia e aeooaieiiaie
eeneiou a ca?ia iaaeo eeiee (AeE-1 e AeE-2) aieaa aunieia, /ai a
noaiaea?oa AAe-7291.A ca?ia AeE-1 aieueoa niaea?aeeony ania?iaeiiaie
eeneiou, i?ieeia e iaoeiieia./15/

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e oaiia?aoo?a 60 a?aae. Nooea a oa/aiea 4200
nae. ia oooaeoaao oeaaiiaea?iuo naienoa ca?ia. Ea/anoai ca?ia ia
oooaeoaeinue i?e oaiia?aoo?a 66 a?aae. N e a?aiaie i?aauaaiey a nooeeea
aieaa 900 nae. I?e aieaa aunieie oaiia?aoo?a oooaeoaiea oeaaiiaea?iuo
naienoa ca?ia iaeuecy auei ecaaaeaoue aeaaea i?e i/aiue ia aieueoie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe nooee./14/

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy auaaaeaiu eeiee AAe-10 n ieceei niaea?aeaieai
aioeieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a ca?ia o?eoeeaea oeia oaiieueiuo niaaeeiaiee
(5 aeeee?aci?oeeiiaua). Yoi ii?aaeaeyaony i?e i?aaeiinaaiie ia?aaioea
naiyi o?eoeeaea AAe-10 ?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoa nieae ieneaeeeeie?ieeaeiiia
e aieiia oeiie?iiiaiai ?yaea./16/

Auee enneaaeiaaiu e ?aciieiou 2 oaiioeia o?eoeeaea, Mnogozernyi 3
(M3) e Amfidiploid 60 (AD-60).

Aaeeiaia niaea?aeaiea : 19-24% a M3 e 18-23% a ioea AD-60.Niaea?-
aeaiea ia?aie/eaathuae aieiieeneiou eeceie auei auoa /ai a ioea
ioaieoeu; eiyooeoeeaio o?eioioaia, eeceia, iaoeiieia aue 1:3:3.

Ioea o?eoeeaea oaeaea niaea?aeaea aunieia niaea?aeaiea aaoa-ea?ioeia,
aeoaieiu B1, B2, PP e P, Mg e Fe /ai ioea ioaieoeu.

Oaiioei M3 , eioi?ue eiaao iaeaieaa oaniia noiaenoai n ioaieoeae, eiae
aieaa ieceoth aeayoaeueiinoue aieeacu, aaciia?acothuoth niiniaiinoue,
ayceinoue e niaea?aeaiea aethoaieia , /ai AD-60, oaiioei, eioi?ua eiaao
iaeaieueoa noiaenoai n ?iaeue. /17/.

I?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey iee?iaeieiae/aneiai ninoaaa ca?ia
o?eoeeaea e ioee. Ec iaai n oeaeueth nicaeaiey oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaa oeo/oai iiai ea/anoaa n iai?aaeaiiui
eoeueoeae?iaaieai iee?ii?aaieciia. Auyaeaia eaeaioe/iinoue
iee?iaeieiae/aneiai ninoaaa a ia?acoeao ca?ia (ioee) ?aeiie?iaaiiuo a
?aaeiiao n ?acee/iuie eeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie e aa?ioaoieeie
aicaeaeuaaiey. Onoaiiaeaii ionoonoaea nii?iia?acothueo aaeoa?ee,
yaeythueany aicaoaeeoaeyie iee?iaeieiae/aneie ii?/e oeaaa
(“ea?oioaeueiay aieaciue”), /oi naycaii n aeieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie
ca?ia o?eoeeaea, a eioi?ii i?enoonoaoao aaiii ?aee, ioee/athueony
onoie/eainoueth e iaoiaaiiui aeaeai iee?ioei?u. Eaeaioeoeoee?iaaiu
ooaiiu iee?ii?aaieciia n aunieeie aeioeie/aneeie, ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuie e
oaoiieiae/aneeie naienoaaie aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai eniieueciaaiey:
Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus brevis. ?ac?aaioaiiua e
i?iaaaeaiiua a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaa
ec ioee o?eoeeaea ia caeaaneao iieacaee, eo yooaeoeaiia i?eiaiaiea aeey
oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa./18/

Oaeei ia?acii, ii oeie/aneiio ninoaao o?eoeeaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oeie/iue ieiae ceaea, oa?aeoa?ecothuee aunieei niaea?aeaieai oaeaaiaea e
aaeea, eiee/anoai eioi?uo eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io ?aeiia
i?iec?anoaiey, e caieiathuee a iniiaiii i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea
iaaeaeo ?iaeueth e ioaieoeae. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeey o?eoeeaea,
eae aeey ca?ia ?aee e ioaieoeu, au?auaiiie a oneiaeyo Aaei?onnee,
e?eoe/aneay aeaaeiinoue ieaea ecaanoiuo eeoa?aoo?iuo aeaiiuo
(14,5…15,5) i?eia?ii ia 1,0…1,3%. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue i?e auai?a ?aaeeiia o?aiaiey e ia?aaioee ca?ia ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo Aaei?onnee.

Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony iiauoaieth onoie/eainoe o?eoeeaea
e nii?uiuea(Claviceps purpurea).Iaeaieaa onoie/eaua oi?iu o?eoeeaea,
auaaaeaiiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaenaieieaeu,
iieo/aiiua io ne?aueaaiey aeeieieaeiie ?aee(Secale cereale) e
oao?aieieaeiie oaa?aeie ioaieoeu(Triticum durum).Ia?aua eeiee o?eoeeaea
oa?aeoa?ecothony aunieei i?ioeaioii noa?eeueiinoe, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie ono?aiaii a nia?aiaiiuo eeieyo. Ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u n
ii?aaeaeaiiui o?iaiai noa?eeueiinoe, a oaeaea
ia?ae?anoiiiiueythueany ca?iiaua, iai?eia? ?iaeue, aieaa aini?eei/eau e
ca?aaeaieth nii?uiueae, oae eae eo oeaaoee inoathony ioe?uouie
aeieueoa, /ai o naiiiiueythueony ?anoaiee. Iiyoiio ?iaeue e o?eoeeaea
/aua iiaeaa?aathony ca?aaeaieth nii?uiueae, /ai ioaieoea. N?aaee
ioaieoe T. durum /aua ca?auaaony nii?uiueae, /ai aaenaieieaeiay ioaieoea
T.aestivum./19/

Oanoue oa?iaeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo aeeaeieaea nii?uiuee (ergonovine
[ergometrine], ergosine, ergotamine, ergocornine, aeueoa-ergokryptine, e
ergocristine) ii?aaeaeyeenue eeeaeaeiie o?iiaoia?aoeae n iaia?oaeaieai
fluorescence a aieueoa /ai 400 ia?acoeu ieue ca?ia.

Ianeaaeiaaiea i?iaiaeeeinue 6 nooie, eniieueciaaee ?aeaioth ioeo, ioeo
ioaieoeu e io?oae, e 5nyrie,eniieueciaaee ?aeaiie oeaa; ioeo o?eoeeaea
aiaeece?iaaee nauoa 3 nyrie. I?aiaeaaeathuea aeeaeieaeu auee
ergocristine e ergotamine. ?aeaiay ioea aieueoeinoai auea ca?aaeaia;
eioeeaeaioiinoue aeeaeieae – iieiaeeoaeueiuo ia?acoeia auea 118/128,
aiaeiaia n?aaenoai concn. iaueo aeeaeieaeia a iieiaeeoaeueiuo ia?acoeao
eieaaaaoeony io 70 aei 414 ng/g (1 ia?acaoe niaea?aeauee 3972 ng iauea
aeeaeieaeu/g). A ioea ioaieoeu, iauee aeeaeieae concn. auee cia/eoaeueii
ieaea, /ai ?aeaiay ioea in, n aiaeiauie n?aaenoaaie a iieiaeeoaeueiuo
ia?acoeao (68/93) 15-68 ng/g.

Io?oae eiaee aeeaeieae concn. iiaeiaiue a ioea ioaieoeu, n aiaeiauie
n?aaenoaaie 12-69 ng iaueo aeeaeieaeia/g iieiaeeoaeueiua ia?acoeu
(eioeeaeaioiinoue 29/35).Ioea o?eoeeaea niaea?aeaea oaeaea aaaeiue
enoi/iee aeeaeieaeia nii?uiuee; eioeeaeaioiinoue auea 24/26 e aiaeiaie
n?aaeiee iauee aeeaeieae concn. A iieiaeeoaeueiuo ia?acoeao auee 46-283
ng/g. Aeeaeieaeu nii?uiuee iaia?oaeeaaeenue a ?aeaiii oeaaa (46/100) e
ae?oaeo ?aeaiuo i?iaeoeoao ioee (6/14).

Aiaeiaua n?aaeiea iauea aeeaeieaeu a iieiaeeoaeueiii ?aeaiii oeaaa
ia?acoeu eieaaaeenue io 4.3 aei 100 ng/g (aeeth/ay ia?acaoe n 1248 ng
iaueie aeeaeieaeaie/g). /20/

O?eoeeaea auniei aini?eei/eai e ca?aaeaieth nii?uiue?e, ooca?eicii,
i?e/ai iaaethaeathony ni?oiaua ?acee/ey a noaiaie i?iyaeaiey aieacie.

A Aaia?ee io/ienoay ?ina, eenoiaay e noaaeaaay ?aeaa/eia,
iueueiay e oa??aeay aieiaiy ia eiatho aieueoiai cia/aiey. Nae/an
i?iaeaiie yaeyaony iieaaaiea auniei?ineuo ni?oia o?eoeeaea, /oi noaei
oie/eii aeey iieo/aiey ea?eeeiauo e iieoea?eeeiauo ni?oia o?eoeeaea.
Ii e iiyoue i?iaeaiu, oae eae a oneiaeyo Aaia?ee caaieaaaieyi eenoueaa a
aieueoae noaiaie iiaeaa?aeaiu ea?eeeiaua ni?oa.

Ea/anoai ca?ia o?eoeeaea, iiaeaa?aeaiiiai aeaenoaeth
aa?aeoeeaeia.

Iiea yenia?eiaioa auei auiieiaii a 1986-1988 a.a. aeey enneaaeiaaiey
aeeyiey (urea) aa?aeoeeaeia e (phtnoxyacetic) aa?aeoeeaeia ia noiia?iia
niaea?aeaiea aaeea aieiieeneio iceiiai ca?ia o?eoeeaea. Eciaiaiea
niaea?aeaiey aaeea ia i?aauoaao 10% ii n?aaiaieth n iiaeaa?aeaiiui
eiio?ieth ca?iii, e caaeneo io iaoai?ieiae/aneeo oneiaee, e
aaaaoaoeaiiai ia?eiaea e ?acee/iuo ae?oaeo oa?aeoa?enoee. Ie iaeei
aea?eae ia i?iaa?yeny ia cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ii?yaeeiaue iiia?
i?aaeaeueiuo aieiieeneio.(/21/2-7)

Ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa (cieueiua) a ca?ia e i?iaeoeoao aai
ia?a?aaioee eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea i?e ioeaiea eo ieoaoaeueiinoe.
Iaeaieeaathony ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa a iniiaiii a aeae?iiiaii neia e
iaiei/eao ca?ia, iiiai eo e a ca?iaeuoa.

Aeaaiuie ieia?aeueiuie aauanoaaie ca?ia yaeythony oinoi? e eaeee.
Aeaeaa neaaeoao iaaiee, eaeueoeee, ia?aaiaoe, aeaeaci, iaaeue e ae?. A
ca?ia o?eoeeaea niaea?aeeony 0,75-0,80 oinoi?a , 0,50-0,55 -eaeey, 0,18
-0,22 – ia?aaioea, 0,04-0,06 – eaeueoeey, ii 0,03 -0,04 e?aiiey e
iao?ey, ii 0,01%- na?u e oei?a. E?iia oiai , niaea?aeaony iee?iyeaiaiou:
oeeie, iaaeue, ai?, eiaaeueo, ooi? e ae?(oaae.?6).

Eco/aiea ninoaaa ieia?aeueiuo yeaiaioia o?eoeeaea.

10 aaeniieieaeiuo ceiieo ni?oia o?eoeeaea auee au?auaiu ia 3-o
o/anoeao a caiaaeiie Oaaeoea?ee a oa/aiee 2-o eao. An? ca?ii auei
i?iaiaeece?iaaii ia aaeie,P,K, Mg ,Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn e Cu. Ca
eneeth/aieai Mn e Zn eciaiaiea a ieia?aeueiii yeaiaioa n?aaee ?aeiiia
i?iec?anoaiey auei aieaa au?aaeaii, /ai eciaiaiea, aucaaiiia oaeoi?aie
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. E?iia Mg niaea?aeaiea ieia?aeueiuo yeaiaioia auei
cia/eoaeueii ieaea a oio aiae, a eioi?ii o?iaeae ca?ia aue auoa. E?iia
Na aunieea o?iaeae ca?ia auee naycaiu n ieceei niaea?aeaieai
ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa, icia/athuei, /oi iaeiinoi?iiiee ioai?
aunieio?iaeaeiiai ca?ia neeiiai e nieaeaieth ieuaaie oeaiiinoe ca?ia
o?eoeeaea.

Oaaeeoea ?6

Niaea?aeaiea iae?i- e iee?iyeaiaioia a ca?ia iceiii o?eoeeaea

(1991-1993aa., E.A. Aieoa) /6/

Iieacaoaee Niaea?aeaieaIauee acio,% 1,65-2,22 ?2I5, %
0,96-1,15 E2I, % 0,71-0,75 Na, % 0,03-0,05
Ii, % 0,28-0,32 Fa, ia/ea 43,3-47,1 Zn,
ia/ea 21,5-25,7 Mn, ia/ea 9,30-12,7 Cu, ia/ea
3,00-3,20 Ni, ia/ea 0,10-0,17

Niaea?aeaiea aaeea e ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa auee niioianaiu,
i?aaeiieaaay, /oi iieo/aiea aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy aaeea, aa?iyoii,
oaaee/eo niaea?aeaiea ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa. /22/

Oeie/aneay eiiiiceoeey ioee e io?oaae auea enneaaeiaaia ec 8
?aciiaeaeiinoae. o?eoeeaea(Lasko, Grado, Dagro, Bolero, Caei, Ea?ai,
I?anoi, Ia?aiue 285).Auee iieo/aiu neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou aeey
o?eoeeaea n auoiaeii ioee: 72% : cieu- 0.93% ; aaeea-11.6% ;
e?aoiaea- 76% ; naoa?ia- 2.9% ; P, K, Mn, e Na 251, 273, 75, 20 e 4
ia/100 a . ?acoeueoaou aeey o?eoeeaea e io?oaae auee: cieu-4.56% ;
aaeea- 15.1% ; nu?ie eeao/aoee- 8.4% ; naoa?ia- 2.9% ; P ,K, Mg e Na
1120, 1633, 359 e 16 ia/100 a; Fe, Mn, Zn E Cu 176, 134, 164 e 22%.,
/23/

1.6 Ioeiiieueiua naienoaa ca?ia o?eoeeaea.

Yooaeoeaiinoue ioeiiieueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ea/anoai aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee ai iiiaii caaenyo io oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa ca?ia,
iioeiecaoeey eioi?uo iaania/eaaaony ioo?i aeae?ioa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee, e
i?aaeaea anaai i?aaeeueiui auai?ii a? ?aaeeiia.

A IOEIIa i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey ?aaeeiia
aeae?ioa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee ia oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa ca?ia o?eoeeaea,
au?auaiiiai a Iaeanneie iaeanoe.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueii i/euaiiia ca?ii iiaeaa?aaee aeae?ioa?ie/aneie
ia?aaioea a i?iia?eaaoaea i?e aeaaeaiee ia?a 1,0×10 Ia. Ia iniiaaiee
?aiaa i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiu yooaeoeaiua ?aaeeiu
aiaeii-oaieiaie ia?aaioee: a?aiy i?iia?eaaiey-25,35 e 45n n
iineaaeothuei ioaieaaeeaaieai a oa/aiea 3/.

Ia?aae iiiieii ca?ii aeiiieieoaeueii oaeaaeiyee ia 0,5% n
ioaieaaeeaaieai a oa/aiea 20 ieioo.

I?e ia?a?aaioea o?eoeeaea ia iaeueie/iie onoaiiaea “Iaaaia” ii
noaia aeaooni?oiiai 80% iiiiea ?aee (5 ae?aiuo e 3 ?aciieueiuo nenoaiu)
n auoiaeii ioee oeia nayiie e iaaee?iie onoaiiaeaii ?aceia oaaee/aiea
cieueiinoe ioee ia iineaaeieo ae?aiuo e ?aciieueiuo nenoaiao, /oi
ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ea/anoai oi?ie?oaiuo ni?oia ioee. Ec ca?ia
o?eoeeaea iiaeii iieo/eoue 39,7-44,4% nayiie ioee cieueiinoueth 0,75%.

Enneaaeiaaiea aeioeie/aneeo e oeaaiiaea?iuo naienoa noi?ie?iaaiiie
ii ni?oai ioee ec ca?ia o?eoeeaea iieacaei aunieia niaea?aeaiea a iae
aaeea, i?e/?i a aieueoae noaiaie a iaaee?iie ioea(15,30-16,87%).Nayiay
ioea, iieo/aaiay ec oeaio?aeueiuo /anoae yiaeinia?ia, niaea?aeeo
ianeieueei aieueoaa, /ai iaaee?iay, eiee/anoai e?aoiaea(67,6-69,7% e
62,4-63,9% niioaaonoaaiii ,i?e niaea?aeaiee e?aoiaea a io?oayo
-27,42-29,52%).N oaaee/aieai auoiaea ioee aaeecia oooaeoaaony ec-ca
iiiaaeaiey a ia? ieaiaioe?iaaiiuo /anoeoe eciaeue/?iiuo iaiei/ae.

Nayiay ioea oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieei niaea?aeaieai eeaeeiaeiu
(38,4-42,0),ii ii ea/anoao iia niioaaonoaoao iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie,
neaaie. A iaaee?iie ioea eeaeeiaeiu ianeieueei iaiueoa,29,6-32,0%,a
ea/anoai a? niioaaonoaoao aoi?ie a?oiia. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi i?e oaaee/aiee
yeniiceoeee i?iia?eaaiey ca?ia n 25 aei 45 niaea?aeaiea eeaeeiaeiu a
ioea ianeieueei nieaeaaony (n 42 aei 38,4%aeey nayiie e n 32,0 aei 29,6%
aeey iaaee?iie),i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii a? oe?aieaiee (aei 110 aae. aeey
nayiie e 100 aae. aeey iaaee?iie ioee).

Ec nayiie ioee iieo/ai oeaa n iau?iiui auoiaeii
435-495ni. Iyeeo oeaaa ioee/aaony oiieinoaiiie iyaeie
ii?enoinoueth (68,5-71,3%). Ec iaaee?iie ioee – oeaa iaiueoaai iau?ia
(325-360 ni) n aieaa ieioiui iyeeoai e oa??aeie ei?eie.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaae?iiuo enneaaeiaaiee
onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeae?ioa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea ca?ia o?eoeeaea ieacuaaao
iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia auoiae e ea/anoai ioee./24/

Ia iniiaaiee eco/aiey (a iiuoao I.I. Iinieiaie) aeaaiiiaeauaiey,
nei?inoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeaae a ca?ia, yenia?eiaioaeueiuo iiiieia e
ea/anoaa ioee ?aeiiaiaeiaaiu neaaeothuea ?aaeeiu eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey
o?eoeeaea i?e iiaeaioiaea e iiiieo: a?aiy ioaieaaeeaaiey-4 /ana,
aeaaeiinoue ca?ia ia?aae I ae?aiie nenoaiie-16.5% .

A.E. Ecioiaa, I.A. Iao?iaa, A.I. Ii?oiaaa ia iniiaaiee
enneaaeiaaiey aeaaii?iieoeaaiinoe ca?ia o?eoeeaea i?aaeeaaatho
neaaeothuee ?aaeei oieiaeiiai eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey: a?aiy ioaieaaeeaaiey
iinea oaeaaeiaiey – 18 /ania, aeaaeiinoue ia?aae I ae?aiie nenoaiie
-15.5% /25 /.

Ai O?aioeee i?e ioeaiea oeaaiiaea?iuo ea/anoa ca?ia o?eoeeaea ia
19 ia?acoeao, noi?ie?iaaiiuo ec 6 ni?oia(o?iaeay 1983aiaea),onoaiiaeaia
iioeiaeueiay aeaaeiinoue ca?ia ia?aae iiiieii-16.5% .

TH.Ae. *oia/aiei iooai iioeiecaoeee ?aaeeiia aeae?ioa?ie/aneie
ia?aaioee ca?ia o?eoeeaea ii auoiaeo nayiie ioee e n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie
cieueiinoe auyaee, /oi iaeeo/oea iieacaoaee(niioaaonoaaiii 27.6-34.5 e
0.69-0.74%) auee aeinoeaioou i?e neaaeothueo ?aaeeiao iiaeaioiaee ca?ia
e iiiieo: a?aiy ioaieaaeeaaiey-3-5 /ania, aeaaeiinoue ia?aae I
ae?aiie nenoaiie-14-15% /24/.

I?e eco/aiee ianeieueeeo eeiee o?eoeeaea, i?iec?anoathueo a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iinaaao ia ?aaieiao Oaoana, ca?ii oaeaaeiyee aei 16%
a oa/aiea 18 /ania e ?aciaeuaaee ia iaeueieoea Eaaae?oiao THiei? n
i?eiaiaieai ia?aciuo aaeeia e aeaoo ia? ?aciaeuaathueo aaeeia n
aeaaeeeie iiaa?oiinoyie e i?inaeaaieai iinea eaaeaeie ia?u. Auoiae
ioee eieaaaeny a i?aaeaeao 50-62%,ii cieueiinoue i?iaeoeoa auea iiauoaia
i?ioea ii?iu aeey ioaie/iie ioee. Ii aeaiiui ae?oaeo ?aaio, ca?ii
iceiuo e y?iauo ni?oia o?eoeeaea oaeaaeiyee aei 14% a oa/aiea 18 /ania
e ?aciaeuaaee oaeaea ia iaeueieoea Eaaae?oiao THiei? n i?eiaiaieai
niioaaonoaothuaai neoa. Cieueiinoue iieo/aiiie ioee eieaaaeanue a
i?aaeaeao 0.46-0.54% i?e aanueia ieceii auoiaea ioee 33-43%.Iaeiaei
ia?acoeu oao, aea ni?oia, ii iieo/aiiua ia neaaeothuee aiae o?iaeay,
iaeaaeaee cia/eoaeueii eo/oa ?acaeoui yiaein ia?iii e auoiae ioee i?e
oie aea cieueiinoe ninoaaee 56.4-61.9%.

Oaeaea auee i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey ?yaea ia?acoeia o?eoeeaea,
au?auaiiuo a Eaicana, Oaoana e Iaeneea. Aeey auyniaiey iioeiaeueiie
aeey ?aciiea aeaaeiinoe ca?ii oaeaaeiyee aei 14,15 e 16% e iiaeaa?aaee
20-/aniaie ioeaaeea. Iaeiaei auoiae ninoaaeye /ooue auoa 40%. Ii aeaiiui
ae?oaeo ?aaio, aeeyiea noaiaie oaeaaeiaiey ca?ia o?eoeeaea eco/aee
oaeaea iooai oaeaaeiaiey ia?acoea aei 14 e 15%n 20-/aniaie ioeaaeeie.
?aciie i?iecaiaeeee i?e iaaieueoie iiaea/a i?iaeoeoa ia I ae?. n.(550
a. ca?ia a ieiooo) e auoiae oaea aue 65%./11/

Aeey i/enoee e oaeaaeiaiey o?eoeeaea iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oiaea
eaai?aoi?iia eee iaeueie/iia iai?oaeiaaiea, /oi e i?e iiaeaioiaea e
iiiieo ioaieoeu. Iieo/aiea aanueia aaeie ioee n cieueiinoueth 0,55%
e auoiae 60% io enoiaeiiai ca?ia, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?aeoe/anee
inouanoaeyaony i?e eniieueciaaiee ?eoe?iuo e aeaaeeeo aaeeia e
oi?ioi iiaeia?aiiuo i?inaeaathueo ono?ienoa. A i?ioeanna ae?aiuey
i/enoea aucuaaao iaeioi?ua cao?oaeiaiey, oae eae io?oae iyaeea
(iiaeiaii io?oayi iyaeie ioaieoeu).I?inaeaaiea, aa?iyoii, auciaao
iaiueoa o?oaeiinoae, /ai i?e iiiiea ?aee eee iyaeie ioaieoeu.
Niaea?aeaiea aaeea a ca?ia e iaeiini?oiie ioea ninoaaeyao 1,5-2% i?ioea
0,8-1,2% aeey oeaaiiaea?iie ioee ec oa??aeic??iie ioaieoeu.

Ia eaai?aoi?iie iaeueieoea “Iaaaia” i?iaaaeaiu n?aaieoaeueiua
iaieiue, iaaee?iue e ni?oiaie iiiieu ca?ia ioaieoeu, ?aee e o?eoeeaea ii
o?aaeeoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee iiiiea ?aee (15% nayiie e 65% iaaee?iie
ioee), a oaeaea ii oaoiieiaee iiiaini?oiuo oeaaiiaea?iuo iiiieia
ioaieoeu.

Enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua ai AIEEC, iieacaee, /oi ca?ii o?eoeeaea
oeaeaniia?acii ia?a?aaaouaaoue a ioeo iaieioth 95%-ioth e iaaee?ioth
87%-ioth ii o?aaeeoeeiiiui noaiai ?aciiea ?aee. Oeaa ec oaeie ioee,
auia/aiiue ii noaia ?aeaiiai oeaaa, ia onooiaao ii ea/anoao aiaeiae/iui
ecaeaeeyi eci ?aee.

Oaoiieiae/aneay eeiey i?e iaieiii iiiiea o?eoeeaea aeeth/aea
iyoue, a i?e iiiiea ?aee /aou?a ae?aiuo nenoaiu. Ianiio?y ia aieaa
aunieoth cieueiinoue ca?ia, o?eoeeaea iaieiay ioea iieo/aia ianeieueei
iaiueoae cieueiinoe. Ii niaea?aeaieth e?aoiaea a io?oayo ioia/aia
eo/oay auiaeuaaaiinoue ca?ia o?eoeeaea. Oaeaeueiue ?anoiae yia?aee i?e
?aciiea o?eoeeaea a n?aaeiai ia 9% ieaea, /ai i?e ?aciiea ?aee. Yoa
caeiiiia?iinoue i?ineaaeeaaaony i?e anao iiiieao o?eoeeaea ii oaoiieiaee
?aeaiuo iiiieia.

I?e 87% iaaee?iii iiiiea ca?ia ?aee e o?eoeeaea aeeeia
oaoiieiae/aneie eeiee auea i?eiyoa iaeeiaeiaie. I?e yoii cieueiinoue
iaaee?iie ioee ec o?eoeeaea auea ianeieueei ieaea.

Ni?oiaie 80% iiiie o?eoeeaea e ?aee aeeth/ae iyoue ae?aiuo e o?e
?aciieueiua nenoaiu. Nayioth ioeo a eiee/anoaa 15% ioae?aee n 1
?aciieueiie nenoaiu. Cieueiinoue nayiie ioee ec o?eoeeaea e ?aee auea
i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiaa. Iaaee?iay ioea a eiee/anoaa 65% auea
noi?ie?iaaia ec anao iioieia ioee, cieueiinoue nayiie ioee ec
o?eoeeaea e ?aee i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiaa. Niaea?aeaiea e?aoiaea a
io?oayo o?eoeeaea i?e iaeeiaeiaii auoiaea ia 5,9% ieaea /ai a
?aeaiuo io?oayo.

I?iaaaeaiu iiiieu o?eoeeaea ii ?aaeeiai, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiui aeey
o??oni?oiuo 78%-o ioaie/iuo iiiieia. I?e iiiiea ca?ia o?eoeeaea ia
oaeaeinue iieo/eoue ioeo aunoaai ni?oa ii iieacaoaeyi cieueiinoe.

Ia Oa?ueeianeii eiiaeiaoa oeaaii?iaeoeoia i?iaaae?i
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iiiie ca?ia o?eoeeaea e iieo/aii iaaee?iie ioee
86,4% cieueiinoueth 1,48%. Iio?aaiinoue a oaeaeueiie yia?aee,
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?aciiea o?eoeeaea ,caieiaao i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea
iaaeaeo niioaaonoaothueie iieacaoaeyie o ioaieoeu e ?aee. A?oaue e
oiieee iiiie noiaeai n iiiieii ioaieoeu. Auoiae i?iaeoeoeee a /an
aiaeiae/ai auoiaeo i?iaeoeoeee ?aee. Ioea o?eoeeaea niaea?aeeo
iaiueoa eeaeeiaeiu, /ai ?aeaiay ioea. I?e iiiiea naiaiiua iaiei/ee ieioi
ioaeaeyaony, ioea niaea?aeeo aieueoa io?oaae, niioaaonoaaiii
cieueiinoue auoa. Io?oae o?eoeeaea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i/aiue oeaiiue
ei?i, oae eae iie aiaaou e?aoiaeii e aaeeii. I?iaiua auia/ee a
eaai?aoi?ee aeaee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou./26/

Aaciia?acothuae niiniaiinoueth iacuaaaony niiniaiinoue
ia?aciauaaoue oaeaeeneue aac i?e a?iaeaiee oanoa a ?acoeueoaoa
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iaea?neeo ae?iaeaeae e aeaenoaey oa?iaioia,
niaea?aeaueony a ca?ia. Oaeei ia?acii, a ?acoeueoaoa eaai?aoi?iuo e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee onoaiiaeaii, /oi au?aaioea iaieiie e
iaaee?iie ioee ec o?eoeeaea ii o?aaeeoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee iiiiea ?aee ia
aucuaaao cao?oaeiaiee.

Iieacaoaee ea/anoaa ioee ec ca?ia o?eoeeaea, ?aee e ioaieoeu i?eaaaeaiu
a oaaeeoea ?7.

Oaaeeoea 7

Iieacaoaee ea/anoaa ioee ec o?eoeeaea, ?aee e ioaieoeu

Oei iiiiea Eoeueoo?aAuoiae,

% Cieue-iinoue,%Aaeecia one.aae.

OII-1,

%Niaea?aeaiea aaeea,%Niaea?aeaiea eeaeeiaeiu,%Ea/anoai
eeaeei-aeiu,aae

i?.EAeE 96% O?eoeeaea 96,00 1,65 86,0 16,1329,7486 II 96% ?iaeue
96,00 1,68 81,0 11,11———— 87%O?eoeeaea 87,00 1,38 61,5
16,3931,6091 II 87%?iaeue 87,00 1,41 67,5 11,06————- 80%

nayiieO?eoeeaea 15,00 0,72 26,5 12,7433,00102 II 80%

nayiie?iaeue 15,00 0,72 27,5 8,38————-iaaee?iieO?eoeeaea 65,00
1,13 45,0 14,6532,22102 IIiaaee?iie?iaeue 65,00 1,14 50,0
9,86———– 78%

A/NIoaieoea 37,68 0,55 25,0 19,9031,3075 I 78%

A/NO?eoeeaea —- —- —- —————— 1NIoaieoea 24,42
0,74 39,0 12,831,8662 I 1NO?eoeeaea 62,03 0,72 29,0 16,0638,10102 I
2NIoaieoea 15,90 1,24 60,5 12,8431,6440 I 2NO?eoeeaea 15,97 1,63
59,0 20,3540,1081 II

A O?A enneaaeiaaiu oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa ca?ia o?eoeeaea 3-o
ni?oia: Bokolo, Clerical e Lasko o?iaeay 1983-1984a.

Ca?ii o?eoeeaea ni?oia Bokolo e Lasko o?iaeay 1983a. oaeaaeiyee a
oa/aiea 6 e 18 /, a caoai ?aciaeuaaee ia eaai?aoi?iie iaeueie/iie
onoaiiaea 202(oe?iu Athea?) ii noaia iaeiini?oiiai iiiiea ioaieoeu aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey cieueiinoe iieo/aiiie ioee. Ioeaiea iieacaoaeae ea/anoaa
ioee ?acee/iuo auoiaeia ec ca?ia o?eoeeaea ni?oia Lasko e Clerical
o?iaeay 1984a. iieacuaaao, /oi n oaaee/aieai auoiaeia ioee n 60 aei 100%
ea/anoai a? a iniiaiii eciaiyaony oae aea, eae e ea/anoai ioee ec ca?ia
o?eoeeaea o?iaeay 1983a.,ca eneeth/aieai iieacaoaeae iaeneiaeueiie
ayceinoe aiaeii-io/iie noniaicee. Yoe iieacaoaee cia/eoaeueii ieaea e
?aaiu o ni?oa Lasko 45-70 A.A., o ni?oa Clerical 45-55 A.A. Yoi
iauyniyaony oai ,/oi a 1984 a. auiaei aieueoia eiee/anoai aoiinoa?iuo
inaaeeia, e ca?ii o?eoeeaea, iniaaiii ni?oa Clerical, auei iiaeaa?aeaii
i?i?anoaieth, /oi e i?eaaei e oooaeoaieth ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
ca?ia/27/.

A I?A auee enneaaeiaaiu oeaaiiaea?iua naienoaa ca?ia iyoe
aioeaeeieieaeia o?eoeeaea: AAe – 206, “Iieanneia – 7 ”, “Iaeneoie” e ON
– 1. Ioeo iieo/atho ia eaai?aoi?iie iaeueieoea ?ennieueo n auoiaeii 68,2
%.

Ii?aaeaeyee eiee/anoai ioiuoie eeaeeiaeiu e a? ea/anoai,
aaciia?acothuoth niiniaiinoue ioee e ?aieiae/aneea naienoaa oanoa ia
aaei?ea?aoa, a oaeaea oeaaiiaea?iua naienoaa ioee ioo?i i?iaaaeaiey
i?iaiie auia/ee.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi auoiae eeaeeiaeiu ioee ec o?eoeeaea
“Iieueneia – 7 ” e “Iaeneoie”. O yoeo aioeaeeieieaeia eeaeeiaeia
ioiuaaaony n o?oaeii. Aaciia?acothuay niiniaiinoue ioee ec o?eoeeaea AAe
– 206 naiay aunieay e ninoaaeyao 61,5 ni3. O inoaeueiuo aioeieieaeia iia
eieaaeaony io 39,5 aei 47,2 ni3.

Ioea ec o?eoeeaea neaaea oaiiiaaoay, n na?iaaoui iooaieii.
aiaeiiiaeioeoaeueiay niiniaiinoue a? eieaaeaony io 53,5 aei 60,8%.

Oioy o?eoeeaea, eae e ?iaeeoaeueneea aeaeu (ioaieoea e
?iaeue),aa?iyoii, aoaeao eniieueciaaoueny ia ei?i e oo?aae, iniiaiie
oeaeueth i?ia?aiiu enneaaeiaaiee ii o?eoeeaea yaeyaony iaania/aiea ieuae
anao aieiaeathueo.

I?e o?aiaiee ioee ec o?eoeeaea 7291 e AAe-206 niaea?aeaiea eeaeeiaeiu a
iae aic?inoaao,a a ioea ec ca?ia o?eoeeaea Iaeneoie nieaeaaony.Yoe
eciaiaiey aieaa /aoei ay?aaeaiu ia 10-20-a nooee o?aiaiey.

Onoaiiaeaii,/oi i?e o?aiaiee o?eoeeaea 7291 e AAe-206 niaea?aeaiea
eeaeeiaeiu aic?anoaao ec-ca cia/eoaeueiiai oiaiueoaiey ia?aiia/aeueiie
aunieie i?ioaieaoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe ioee(eee.Iaeneoie).I?e o?aiaiee
ioaie/iie ioee a oa/aiee 20 noo i?ioaieaoe/aneay aeoeaiinoue nieaeaaony
ia 8%,a ec o?eoeeaea 7291-ia 17%,ec o?eoeeaea Iaeneoie-ia 12% e ec
o?eoeeaea AAe-206-ia 27%.

Aaciia?acothuay niiniaiinoue ioee ec o?eoeeaea nieaeaaony, iniaaiii
iinea 20-30 noo o?aiaiey.

Nic?aaaiea ioee ec ca?ia o?eoeeaea caeai/eaaaony /a?ac 15-30 noo
iinea ?aciiea ca?ia./28/

I?iaaaeaia eiiieaeniay oaoiieiae/aneay ioeaiea 16 ia?acoeia ca?ia
o?eoeeaea o?iaeay 1992 aiaea, au?auaiiiai a oneiaeyo Iiaeeaaneie
iaeanoe. Iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey ca?ia aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo e oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee./15/

Eco/aiea iiiiea o?eoeeaea, i?iaaaeaiiua a oe?ieii ianooaaa,
iieacaei, /oi o?eoeeaea eaa/a iiaeaea?ony ?aciieo, /ai ?iaeue.
Iio?aaiinoue a oaeaeueiie yia?aee, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?aciiea o?eoeeaea,
caieiaao i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo niioaaonoaothueie
iieacaoaeyie o ioaieoeu e ?aee. A?oaue e oiieee iiiie noiaeai n iiiieii
ioaieoeu. Auoiae i?iaeoeoeee a /an aiaeiae/ai auoiaeo i?iaeoeoeee ?aee.
Ioea o?eoeeaea niaea?aeeo iaiueoa eeaeeiaeiu, /ai ?aeaiay ioea. I?e
iiiiea naiaiiua iaiei/ee ieioi ioaeaeyaony, ioea niaea?aeeo aieueoa
io?oaae, niioaaonoaaiii cieueiinoue auoa. Io?oae o?eoeeaea
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i/aiue oeaiiue ei?i, oae eae iie aiaaou e?aoiaeii e
aaeeii. I?iaiua auia/ee a eaai?aoi?ee aeaee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua
?acoeueoaou./26/

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee iaia?oaeeee aieaa
aunieia niaea?aeaiea aaeea a o?eoeeaea ii n?aaiaieth n ioaieoeae,
n/eoaaony, /oi ea/anoai aaeea o?eoeeaea ieaea ea/anoaa aaeea ioaieoeu,
eeaeeiaeia o?eoeeaea e?ioeony. A no?aiao, aaea iio?aaeoaee
i?aaeii/eoatho ioaieoeo, o?eoeeaea ia iiaeao eiieo?e?iaaoue n iae.
Iaeiaei o?eoeeaea iiaeao auoue aaaeiie eae ca?iiaie, oae e ei?iiaie
eoeueoo?ie aeaaiaea?y ioiineoaeueii aunieiio niaea?aeaieth aaeea,
aeoniaui ea/anoaai e aunieiio niaea?aeaieth eeceia.

Ca ?oaaaeii aeey ioeaiee ea/anoaa ioaie/iie e o?eoeeaeaaie ioee
(aa neeu)i?eiaiytho naaeeiaioaoeeiiiue iaoiae Caeaie. Ii yoiio iaoiaeo
iaeei ?aciieioia ca?ii iiiauatho a neaaue ?anoai? iiei/iie eeneiou. A
caaeneiinoe io niaea?aeaiey aaeeia, ninoaaeythueo eeaeeiaeio, e eo
niiniaiinoe e iaaooaieth /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy inaaeaeaaony
?aciia eiee/anoai /anoeoe. Ii iauaio inaaoeo /anoeoe ii?aaeaeytho
iieacaoaeue naaeeiaioaoeee e ii iaio noaeyo i neea ca?ia (ioee).

Iaoiae Caeaie iiaeeoeoee?iaai a iaoae no?aia i?ioanni?ii
Aoy?iaiii, caiaieaoei, a /anoiinoe, iiei/ioth eeneioo ia
oenonioth./26/

1.7. Oeaaiiaea?iua naienoaa o?eoeeaea.

?acoeueoaou i?iaiuo auia/ae iieacaee, /oi oeaa ec o?eoeeaea eiaao
aieaa ieceee iau?iiue auoiae, /ai ec ioaie/iie ioee, ianiio?y ia
oi?iooth aaciia?acothuoth niiniaiinoue ioee. Iyeeo ieioiue e eaaei
neeiathueeny. Aeey auia/ee oeaaa iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ana
enneaaeiaaiiua aioeieieaeu o?eoeeaea ca eneeth/aieai ON-1. I?iaaaeaiu
enneaaeiaaiey ii ?ac?aaioea niiniaia i?iecaiaenoaa ioee e oeaaa
ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai e aeeaoe/aneiai cia/aiey ec oeaaiiaea?iie
ioee oeaeueii niieioiai ca?ia o?eoeeaea iiiaica?iue 3 e AAe-60. Oeaa,
i?eaioiaeaiiue ii ?ac?aaioaiiie oaoiieiaee, eiaao neaaeothuea
iieacaoaee:

oaeaeueiue iaueai 2,43 e 2,36 ni3/a,

ii?enoinoue 58 e 56 %,

eeneioiinoue 3,0 e 3,6 a?aae.,

iauay naeeiaaiinoue iyeeoa 55 e 53,5 aae. iaiao?iiao?a,

niaea?aeaiea eeceia e o?eioioaia ia 2 % auoa, /ai a oeaaa ec ioee
oeaeueiiniieioiai ca?ia ioaieoeu./29/

Aaciia?acothuay niiniaiinoue oanoa ec ioee o?eoeeaea i?eia?ii
iaeeiaeiaa n ioaie/iie ioeie, ii aacioaea?aeeaathuay niiniaiinoue ieaea
(ii?yaeea 72-79%)

Iau?i e naienoaa iyeeoa na?iai e /??iiai oeaaa, ecaioiaeaiiiai ec
ioee o?eoeeaea, auee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuie. Oeaaiua ecaeaeey iannie a 1
e 2ea iaeaaeaee oi?ioei aeonii, oi?iie e aieaa ?uoeui iyeeoai.
Ea/anoai oeaaa ec o?eoeeaea auei i?iiaaeooi/iui iaaeaeo ea/anoaii
ioaie/iiai e ?aeaiiai oeaaa. Ii n?aaiaieth n oeaaii ec ioaie/iie ioee
iyeeo aue ieioiaa, noaiee ii? oieua, ii ia iuoiue nooie e aieaa ?uoeue.
Ei?ea a?oaaa, /ai o ?aeaiiai. Oeaa ec ioee o?eoeeaea iaeaaeaao
oa?aeoa?iui neaaea neaaeeei aeonii. I?e ecaioiaeaiee ioaie/iiai oeaaa e
io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee ioeo o?eoeeaea iiaeii aeiaaaeyoue e
ioaie/iie iaeneioi aei 30%.I?e ecaioiaeaiee ?aeaiiai oeaaa, ?aeaioth
ioeo iiaeii iieiinoueth caiaiyoue ioeie o?eoeeaea. Ioea o?eoeeaea
auaiaeii iiauoaao aeieiae/aneoth oeaiiinoue i?iaeoeoa. Oneeaiiia
a?iaeaiea e aeoeaiinoue aieeacu ai a?aiy oeaaiia/aiey caiaaeeytho
?aceiaeaiea o?eioioaia, eeceia e aeoaieia A1,eioi?ua ?ac?ooathony
i?e iaa?aaaiee./30/

a) Oeaa

Eae iieacuaatho ?aieiae/aneea naienoaa oanoa, iieo/aiiiai ec
caiaoaiiie ia aiaea ioee o?eoeeaea, oeaaiiaea?iia ea/anoai yoie ioee
cia/eoaeueii ieaea, /ai ioaie/iie.

Ec-ca ieceiai niaea?aeaiey eeaeeiaeiu e aunieie i?ioaieeoe/aneie
aeoeaiinoe o?eoeeaeaaia oanoi eaaei iiaeaa?aeaii aeeeoaeueiiio e
yia?aaoe/aneiio a?iaeaieth, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aai ?ac?ooaieth. Aeey oiai
/oiau iiauneeinue oeaaiiaea?iia ea/anoai o?eoeeaeaaay ioee, neaaeoao
nie?aoeoue a?aiy a?iaeaiey. Auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi ioea ec iceiuo
ni?oia o?eoeeaea aea?o oeaa aieaa ieceiai ea/anoaa, /ai ioaie/iay ioea,
e /oi oioy ec ioee o?eoeeaea y?iauo ni?oia iieo/aaony oeaa oi?ioaai
ea/anoaa, ii iau?i oeaaa cia/eoaeueii ieaea i?eiyouo noaiaea?oia.
Aeon oeaaa ec o?eoeeaea iaiiieiaao aeon i/aiue iyaeiai ?aeaiiai oeaaa e
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiae aeona ioaie/iiai oeaaa. ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeiaaaeyoue
nieiae a ioaie/ioth ioeo aeey oaaee/aiey iau?ia oeaaa e oeo/oaiey
ca?ienoinoe iyeeoa e oeaaoa ei?ee. Oeo/oathuaa aeaenoaea nieiaea aieaa
caiaoii i?e ninoaaa oeaaa, niaea?aeauai iaiueoa naoa?a, /ai iau/ii
o?aaoaony aeey a?iaeaiey oanoa.

a)?aeaiie oeaa

Oae eae o?eoeeaea yaeyaony aea?eaeii ioaieoeu e ?aee, oi
oaeiaiaa eniieueciaaoue aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ?aeaiiai oeaaa o?eoeeaeaaoth
ioeo, /ai nianue aeaoo ni?oia ioee(?aeaiie e ioaie/iie).Ia iniiaaiee
i?iaiuo auia/ae caia/aii, /oi aaeue ?aeaiie oeaa, auia/aiiue ec
o?eeoeeaea, iaeaaeaao ca?ienoinoueth, no?oeoo?ie e nuaaeiaiinoueth,
iaeeaeaaiuie io aaeiai ?aeaiiai oeaaa. Iaeiaei i?iecaiaenoai o?iiiai
?aeaiiai oeaaa iio?aaiaaei au aaaaeaiey a ninoaa ioee aeey aai auia/ee
o?iiie ?aeaiie ioee eee e?aneoaey.

A iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa iioaeeeiaaiiuo ?aaio i o?eoeeaea
ioia/aaony, /oi oeaaiiaea?iia aeinoieinoai aai ooaea, /ai o
ioaieoeu: oeaa eiaao iaiueoee iauai, oieioiaiiue, caieiathuee iyeeo,
ei?ea eiiaaea iie?uoa o?aueiaie./30/

A Iiaee?aneie iaeanoe auee i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey ia?acoeia ca?ia
o?eoeeaea. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoeao 8 e 9 .

Oaaeeoea ? 8

Oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa ca?ia ?acee/iuo ni?oia o?eoeeaea,

au?auaiiuo a oicyenoaao Iiaee?aneie iaeanoe (1992-1994a.

Iieacaoaee

Ea/anoaaO?eoeeaea Aea?

Aaei?onnee O?eoeeaea

IaeueiiO?eoeeaea

EiannaIanna 1000 c??ai,a 45-59 42-43 41Iaoo?a, a/e 641-725
740-743 664Noaeeiaeaeiinoue, % 23-73 69-70 57E?oiiinoue, %
94-96 76-87 77Au?aaiaiiinoue, % 96-98 94-96 95Ieioiinoue,
a/ni3 1,08-1,44 1,25-1,30 1,24Oa??aeic??iinoue

INE, % 13,1 ——– —-Cieueiinoue, % 1,76-2,00 1,86-1,93
1,91Eeneioiinoue, a?aae. 2,8-3,1 ——– —–Iauee auoiae ioee,

% 59-69 60-63 64Aaeecia ioee, aae.

Oeaeu 42-57 ——– —–Iieacaoaeue”K” 2476-3578 ——-
—–

Oaaeeoea?9

Oeaaiiaea?iua naienoaa ?acee/iuo ni?oia o?eoeeaea,

au?auaiiuo a oicyenoaao Iiaee?aneie iaeanoe (1992-1994 a.a.)

Iieacaoaee

ea/anoaa O?eoeeaea

Aea? Aaei?onnee O?eoeeaea

Iaeueii O?eoeeaea

EiannaNiaea?aeaiea

aaeea, % 12,8-14,9 15,5 20,6Niaea?aeaiea eeaeeiaeiu, %
11,5-22,7 7,6-13,0 18,2EAeE,

Aae. i?eai?a 75-105 68-75 78A?oiia

eeaeeiaeiu II I IAaciia?acothuay niiniaiinoue, ie
NI2 1240-1720 1847 961AIN

oanoa, % 62-70 66 61A?aiy i?aia?aciaaiey oanoa, iei.
0,5-1,0 2,0 1,5Yeanoe/iinoue,

aae. i?ea 60-100 80 80Noaaeeueiinoue oanoa, iei.
0,5-1,5 1,5 2,0Aaei?eiao?e/aneay ioeaiea, aae. i?eai?a.
26-40 40 42Iau?iiue auoiae oeaaa, ni3 300-490 672
616Ii?enoinoue

oeaaa, % 69-74 74 71Oi?iionoie/eainoue,

i/L 0,37-0,40 — —

Iiiie e oeaaiiaea?iua naienoaa niane ca?ia ioaieoeu – o?eoeeaea.

Iiiie e auia/ea niane ioaieoeu/o?eoeeaea n ninoaaii o?eoeeaea 25 eee
50 % a niane, auee i?iaaaeaiu e n?aaiaiu n ia?acoeaie niane ec 2 /anoae
ioaieoeu e 2 o?eoeeaea, niaea?aeauaeny a W/ TCL-GB. Iiiie niane W/TCL-GB
iioiae ia ia?acaoe ioaieoeu aieueoa, /ai ia o?eoeeaea; neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ioaieoea/o?eoeeaeaaue iiiie ia i?aeoeea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?ioee
oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann oniaa?oainoaiaaiey iiiieueiie niane o?eoeeaea.
Iau?i aooaiee oeaaa ec W/TCL-GB- ioea aue cia/eoaeueii auoa ( ia o?iaia
5% ), /ai ec o?eoeeaeaaie ioee. Eiaaea ioaieoea n oi?ioeie
oeaaiiaea?iuie naienoaaie auea eniieueciaaia a W/TCL-GB, oi aei 50%
o?eoeeaea iiaeao auoue caiaiaii ia ioaieoeo a GB, /oiau iieo/eoue ioeo n
ioaeiui oeaaiiaea?iui ea/anoaii./31/

1.8. O?eoeeaea eae enoi/iee ieue.

Eiathony oeacaiey ia eniieueciaaiee ca?ia e ioee o?eoeeaea a
eiiaeeoa?neie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ia/aiuea, oioy e ia yaeyaony iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui i?iaeoeoii
ieoaiey, iaeaaeaao ianeieueeeie i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie /a?oaie, e eioi?ui
ioiinyony aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy o?aiaiey(/oi aeaeaao aiciiaeiui
iianaianoiia i?iecaiaenoai e ?ani?ino?aiaiea) e oi?ioaa ieuaaia
ea/anoai(/oi aeaeaao ia/aiuea iiioey?iui).

Ioea ec o?eoeeaea iniaaiii iiaeoiaeeo aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ia/aiuey,
oae eae a iae niaea?aeeony iaei eeaeeiaeiu ieceiai ea/anoaa, a naienoaa
neaaiai oanoa aeecee e naienoaai oanoa ioee iyaeie ioaieoeu.
Iiiai/eneaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi ec o?eoeeaeaaie ioee iiaeii
ecaioaaeeaaoue naoa?iia ia/aiuea. Iaeiaei eiyooeoeeaio ?anoe?aiey e
ca?ienoinoue aa?oiae iiaa?oiinoe yoeo ecaeaeee, i?eaioiaeaiiuo ec ioee
iyaeie e?aniie iceiie ioaieoeu, auoa, /ai, o ecaeaeee ec o?eoeeaeaaie
ioee. E?iia naoa?iiai ia/aiuey, ae?oaea ni?oa, iai?eia? ianyiia,
eieiniaia e oieieaaeiia ia/aiuea, iiaoo oniaoii i?eaioiaeyoueny ec
o?eoeeaeaaie ioee.

Enneaaeiaaeenue e ae?oaea oeaaiaoei/iua ecaeaeey: oi?ou, iii/eee,
ieaaeuee e aeeiu. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi oi?ou ec oei?e?iaaiiie
o?eoeeaeaaie ioee eo/oa, /ai ec iaia?aaioaiiie ioee. Iiauoaiea aeicu
oei?a io 0,2 aei 0,6 ia/a o?eoeeaeaaie ioee i?eaaei e cia/eoaeueiiio
eeiaeiiio oeo/oaieth iyeeoa, eeieinoe e ayceinoe. Iaeiaei oi?o,
i?eaioiaeaiiue ec oei?e?iaaiiie o?eoeeaeaaie ioee, aeaaea i?e
iioeiaeueiii o?iaia oei?a aue iaa oae oi?io, eae oi?ou ec
noaiaea?oiie ioee. Ec o?eoeeaeaaie ioee iiaeii oaeaea ia/ue i?eaieaiua
iii/eee. Iaeiaei eo oaeaeueiue iau?i aue iaiueoa, /ai o oao,
eioi?ua auiaeaeenue ec noaiaea?oiie iyaeie ioee. Oaeaea n?aaieaaee
o?eoeeaeaaoth e ioaie/ioth ioeo n oi/ee c?aiey i?eaioiaeaiey ieaaeueaa e
aeeiia. Ieaaeuee ec o?eoeeaeaaie ioee auee iuoiaa e iaaeiaa, /ai
ieaaeuee ec ioaie/iie. Aeeiu aea ec o?eoeeaea auee oaiiaa ioaie/iuo. E
aeeiu, e ieaaeuee ec o?eoeeaea auee ioeaiaiu eae i?eaieaiua.

A eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo aioiaeee iaea?iiiua ecaeaeey e oeaa ec
io/iuo nianae ?acee/iiai ninoaaa. A ninoaa oanoa aeey oeaaa, iiieii
ioee ec ca?ia o?eoeeaea e ioee ec iaieiea aaiaeeee oaeaea iaeioi?ia
eiee/anoai ioaie/iie ioee. Iiaeiaie oeaa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai ea/anoaa
iieo/ai i?e niaea?aeaiee a niane iaiueoa eeai ?aaii 50% ioee ec
iaieiea. Oi?ioea niaaaooe iaeuecy auei au?aaioaoue ec niaoaiiie ioee, a
oanoi aeey ei?ioei?acaiuo iaea?iiiuo ecaeaeee iiaei niaea?aeaoue,
e?iia ioee ec ca?ia o?eoeeaea iaiueoa eeai ?aaii 35% ioee ec iaieiea.
Anee 5% ioee ec iaieiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iiaeaa?aaee eeaenoa?ecaoeee,
ea/anoai iaea?ii cia/eoaeueii oeo/oaeinue./32/

Aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey o?eoeeaeaaie ioee aeey i?eaioiaeaiey
eaioe ioeaieaaeanue ioo?i n?aaiaiey a? n ioeie, niieioie ec oa??aeie
ioaieoeu, eioi?ay eniieuecoaony i?e i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa
iaea?iiiuo ecaeaeee, e n ioeie aeey aeiiaoiaai i?eaioiaeaiey ecaeaeee
ec oanoa, ec eioi?ie iau/ii i?eaioaaeeaatho eaioo a aeiiaoieo oneiaeyo.
Eaioa ec ioee aeey aeiiaoiaai i?eaioiaeaiey ecaeaeee e ec o?eoeeaeaaie
ioee eiaea aeaeoiaaoi – na?iaaoi-aaeue oeaao a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
ae?eoiio oeaaoo eaioe ec naiieeiu e oa??aeie ioaieoeu.

Aanueia i?eaieaiua eooaiuey aeey caao?aea iiaeii i?eaioiaeyoue
ioo?i yeno?ocee oaeaaei?iiiai oeaeueiiai ca?ia o?eoeeaea, a oaeaea
ia?ooaiiiai ca?ia i?iiuoeaiiiai ni?oa o?eoeeaea. Ec ia?ooaiiiai ca?ia
iau/ii iieo- /athony /anoeoeu aieueoaai ?acia?a, /ai ec oeaeueiiai.
I?iaeoeo, iieo/aiiue ec ia?ooaiiiai ca?ia, eiae ooneeue ei?e/iaaue
oeaao e aue iaiaa i?eaeaeaoaeai, /ai i?iaeoeo, iieo/aiiue ec oeaeueiuo
c??ai. I?e iiauoaiee oaiia?aoo?u oeaao i?iaeoeoa noaiiaeony oaiiaa.
Iaeaieaa i?eyoiua i?iaeoeou n oi/ee c?aiey oaenoo?u, aeona e oeaaoa
iieo/aeenue ec oeaeueiuo c??ai o?eoeeaea, oaiia?e?iaaiiiai aei
aeaaeiinoe 20% e auaeaaeeaaaiiai i?e 176,7a?aae. Oeaeueney /a?ac
iaeaiueeea ioaa?noey e i?e oaiia?aoo?a 204,4a?aae. Oeaeueney – /a?ac
aieueoea.

A ninoaa nianae aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ieaaeee e aaoaeue, eioi?ua
iau/ii i?iaeathony a e?oiiuo iaaaceiao, aoiaeeo ianeieueei ni?oia
ioee. Yoi aeaeaaony ia oieueei ec niia?aaeaiee yeiiiiee, ii e aeey
eciaiaiey aeona i?iaeoeoa. Iaeiei ec oaeeo ni?oia ioee yaeyaony
?aeaiay, eioi?ay aeiaaaeyaony a nianue a eiee/anoaa 5-10%.Ii ?ac
o?eoeeaea yaeyaony aea?eaeii ioaieoeu e ?aee, ii/aio au aeey
ninoaaeaiey oaeeo nianae ia eniieueciaaoue iaeei ni?o ioee
(o?eoeeaeaaoth)aianoi aeaoo? Oae o?eoeeaeaaay ioea iiaeao caiaieoue
/anoue eee anth ioeo, aoiaeyuay a ninoaa nianae aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
ieaaeee e aaoaeue.

Ieaaeuee e aaoee ec o?eoeeaea ii naiaio aeaeo iaioee/eiu io
ioaie/iuo, ii aaconeiaii ioee/athony ii aeono e caiaoo, e ei auei
ioaeaii i?aaeii/oaiea anaie, eoi i?eieiae o/anoea a ioeaiea
i?iaeoeoa./30/

Iaoaieci i?iecaiaenoaa e ioeaiea oeiiueaa o?eoeeaea. Oeie/aneee
ninoaa e oece/aneea naienoaa oeiiueaa i?eaioiaeaiiuo ec ca?ia o?eoeeaea
(i?iia?eaaieai i?e 78-90 N 2-14 iei.)auee i?iaa?aiu e n?aaiaiu n
y/iaiiuie oeiiueyie. Iniiaiay o?aeoeey (56,3-64 %) oeiiueaa o?eoeeaea,
ninoiyuay ec oeiiueaa D 2,5-6 ii, n o?aeoeeae ioee (iaiueoa /ai 150 )
oiaiueoaaony n oaaee/aieai a?aiaie i?iia?eaaiey e oaiia?aoo?u ,
iau?iiay ieioiinoue oeiiueaa 36,2-38,4 ea/aaeoa?a eeo? aeey o?eoeeaea e
y/iaiiuo oeiiueaa; yeanoe/iinoue oeiiueaa eciaiyaony i?e ?acee/iie
ia?aaioea ia?ii. Oeie/aneee ninoaa oeiiueaa o?eoeeaea ioee/aaony io
oeiiueaa ii niaea?aeaieth aaeea, e?aoiaea e ainnoaiaaeeaathueo naoa?ia,
ii ia ii ciea. Ia?aaioea ia?ii c??ai o?eoeeaea cia/eoaeueii oeo/oaaony
i?e ianuuaiee oeiiueaa aiaeie ii n?aaiaieth n y/iaiiuie oeiiueyie.
Oaeaea auee i?iaa?aiu naienoaa /oanoaeoaeueiinoe o?eoeeaea. Ionthaea
auaiae, /oi ioaeiua oeiiuey iiaoo auoue i?iecaaaeaiu aeae?ioa?ie/aneie
ia?aaioeie ca?ia o?eoeeaea.

/33/

O?eoeeaea iiaeao auoue aieaa oe?ieei enoi/ieeii i?iaeoeoia
ieoaiey aeey ianaeaiey caiiiai oa?a, /ai ioaieoea.

Nieiae ec oeaaiuo ceaeia yaeyaony oi?ioae aeiaaaeie i?e auia/ea
oeaaa, iniaaiii i?e eniieueciaaiee oanoa n ieceei niaea?aeaieai naoa?a.
Aeiaaaeaiea nieiaea oaaee/eaaao iau?i oeaaa e oeo/oaao ca?ienoinoue
iyeeoa e oeaao ei?ee. O?eoeeaeaaue nieiae i?aainoiaeeo ae?oaea ni?oa
nieiaea ii aeeyieth ia iau?i oeaaa, oae eae a n?aaeiai cia/eoaeueii
i?aauoaao ae?oaea ni?oa nieiaea ec oeaaiuo ceaeia ii aeeanoaoe/aneie
neea e niaea?aeaieth aieeacu. E?iia oiai, n?aaeiaa niaea?aeaiea
?anoai?eiiai aaeea a nieiaeaiii o?eoeeaea ninoaaeyei 53% (io iauaai
aaeea) i?ioea 27-38% a ae?oaeo oeaaiuo ceaeao. Oaeei ia?acii, o?eoeeaea
aea?o aieueoa na?aaeeaaaiuo naoa?ia e ieceiiieaeoey?iuo acioenouo
niaaeeiaiee, /ai nieiae ec ae?oaeo ca?iiauo eoeueoo?/30/

Iee?inieiaeiaaiea o?eoeeaea: iioeiaeueiua oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaaunieiai o?iaiy eniuoaiey auee i?iaaaeaiu, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue
iioeiaeueiua oneiaey iee?inieiaeiaaiey ca?ia o?eoeeaea, eniieuecoy 3
ia?acoea, au?auaiiuo a Aaeeeia?aoaiee. Ii n?aaiaieth n y/iaiai ca?ii
o?eoeeaea o?aaiaaei ei?ioeea ia?eiaeu iia?oaeaiey a aiaeo n ei?ioeeie
ia?a?uaaie ia aicaeooa. Ca?ii nei?i nieiaeiaaeinue e i?iecaiaeeeny
nieiae n i/aiue ai?y/ei aiaeiuie yeno?aeoaie iinea 4 eee 5 aeiae
i?i?anoaiey. Oiio?aaeaiea eeneiou ai a?aiy nieiaeiaaiey cia/eoaeueii
eciaiyei ea/anoai nieiaea. Eeneioa oaaee/eaaea ai?y/ea aiaeiua
yeno?aeou, ?anoai?yy a N ?ac , e nieiaeiaaiea ian?o iioa?e. Eiaaea a
niaaeeiaiee auee eniieueciaaiu aeiaaaee, i/aiue ai?y/ea yeno?aeou auee
iieo/aiu e nieiaeiaaiea ianei iioa?e, auei ioiineoaeueiia ineaaeaiea
eiio?iey, ii iaiaeeaeaiii o?iaaiue noiia?iie aeeaeeinoe N aue iiauoai e
iacia/eoaeueii eciaieeny iooiai, /oi aue iieo/ai i?e eniieueciaaiee
eeneiou. N iieaciuie aeiaaaeaie oiaiueoeeanue ayceinoue, eioi?ay auea
iaiiia?ii auniea o y/iaiiiai nieiaea ii noaiaea?oai ieaiaa?aiey.
Ioaeaeaiea ayaeoueo aauanoa io nieiaea auei iaaeeaiiui.

/34/

Eiathony oeacaiey ia eniieueciaaiee ca?ia e ioee o?eoeeaea a
ieaiaa?aiee./3/

Aunieay oa?iaioaoeaiay aeoeaiinoue o?eoeeaeeaaiai nieiaea
iaaiaeeo ia iuneue, /oi aai iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a ieaiaa?aiee.
N?aaeiee auoiae ieaa ec o?eoeeaeeaaiai nieiaea aue ieaea, /ai ec
y/iaiiiai. Aeey o?eoeeaeeaaiai nonea oa?aeoa?ii ianeieueei aieueoaa
a?aiy noaeaiey, aieaa o?iiue oeaao e iaiueoaa a?aiy inaoa?eaaiey
e?aoiaea, /ai nonea ec y/iaiy. O?eoeeaeeaaia nonei aieaa aiaaoi
acioenouie niaaeeiaieyie, eiee/anoai iauaai e oi?iaeueiiai acioa a
o?eoeeaeeaaii nonea ii/oe a aeaia auoa, /ai a y/iaiiii. Ieai ec
o?eoeeaeeaaiai nonea auei oaiiaa e eiaei aieaa aunieea cia/aiey pH, a
oaeaea niaea?aeaei iaiueoa aeeiaiey, /ai y/iaiiay. Oaeei ia?acii, ca?ii
o?eoeeaea iiaeii aeeth/eoue(eae nieiae eee aeiaaaeo) a ea/anoaa
ninoaaiie /anoe ca?ia aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ieaa./1/

Ca ?oaaaeii ca?ii o?eoeeaea oe?iei eniieuecotho aeey ei?iiauo
oeaeae(ca?ii, naiaae, eaoiee neein).Iiae/a?eeaaaony oeaiiinoue ca?ia
ei?iiaiai iacia/aiey: iii niaea?aeeo oaeia aea eee aieueoaa eiee/anoai
aaeea, /ai ca?ii ioaieoeu.

Eioa?an e o?eoeeaea eae e ei?iiaie eoeueoo?a aue aucaai oai, /oi
ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie oeaaiuie ceaeaie, iii niaea?aeeo aieueoa
aaeea e eiaao eo/oee aieiieeneioiue ninoaa. Eae enoi/iee yia?aee
o?eoeeaea oniaoii caiaiyao ioaieoeo, eoeo?oco, y/iaiue e ca?iiaia
ni?ai. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo nieaeaiea iio?aaeaiey aeeaioiuie o?eoeeaea
iiaeii iauynieoue i?enoonoaeai a iai nii?uiuee, a eiiaaea e iaoiaea
aai ia?aaioee.

Oioy o?eoeeaea niaea?aeeo cia/eoaeueii aieueoa eeceia, /ai
iiiaea ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u, i?iaaae?iiua ia naeiueyo, e?unao e oeuieyoao
enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi eecei yaeyaony iaeaieaa eeieoe?othuae
aieiieeneioie. O?eoeeaea, iaiaauaiiia iaeiei oieueei eeceiii, yaeyaony
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui enoi/ieeii aieiieeneio aeey naeiae a
caeeth/eoaeueiie noaaeee ioei?ia.

Iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea aaeea e oeo/oaiiia ea/anoai aai aiai?yo i
oii, /oi o?eoeeaea iiaeao noaoue aaaeiui ei?iiaui ceaeii. Aeey
oiai, /oiau iieiaa ioeaieoue o?eoeeaea a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea aaeea e
aieiieeneio e ii?aaeaeeoue aai ?ieue a oaeiaeaoai?aiee ie?iauo
iio?aaiinoae a aaeea, o?aaothony aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey./35/.

Eco/aiea aioeieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a ?ena. Yooaeo eiaeaeoi?ia
o?eineia a ?ena, ioaieoea e o?eoeeaea ia onaaeaaaiinoue aaeeia ?ena,
ioaieoeu e o?eoeeaea iinea ia?aaioee. Ca?ii ?ena e o?eoeeaea e io?oae
?ena e ioaieoeu auee iiaeaa?aeaiu nooea e i?iia?eaaieth aei e iinea
auaea?aeee n aoeaoiiii e eiaeoeaaoi?aie eiaeaeoi?a o?eineia. Eiaeaeoi?a
o?eineia, auaeaeaiiue ec ?ena e o?eoeeaea aue aeiaaaeai e ieoaoaeueiiio
eacaeio. ?acoeueoao aeaeieciai?iiiai eacaeia ia ?anoeoaeueiue e
eniieueciaaiea aeey oeuieyo aue i?iaa?ai. Eiyooeoeeaio onaaeaaaiinoe
aue onoaiiaeai i?e ieoaiee e?un aeaeieciai?iiui ieoaoaeueiui eacaeiii.
Ieeaeay ai?y/ay ia?aaioea ia oeo/oaao onaaeaaaiinoue ca?iiaiai aaeea,
oioy eiaeaeoi? o?eoineia aeoeaii ?aaeooee?oao. Onaaeaaaiinoue aaeea
eacaeia iacia/eoaeueii aeeyao ia ei- aeaeoi? o?eineia aeiaaaeaiiue e
ieoaoaeueiiio eacaeio. I?enoonoaea eiaeaeoi?a o?eineia a ieoaiee oeuieyo
ia aeeyao ia ?ino eee eniieueciaaiea a ieua./36/

1.9. Auaiaeu e i?aaeeieaeaiey.

Iaiauaiea ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee iieacaei, /oi
o?eoeeaea ii o?iaeaeiinoe ca?ia e cae?iie iannu oniaoii eiieo?e?oao n
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ca?iiauie eoeueoo?aie, eiaao oeaiiua
oicyenoaaiii-aeieiae/aneea naienoaa (aunieay o?iaeaeiinoue,
onoie/eainoue e canooa e caaieaaaieyi, iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea aaeea a
ca?ia). Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey o?eoeeaea ia
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oeaee aiciiaeii ia oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa naeaeoeee,
nicaeaiey aieaa i?iaeoeoeaiuo aaiioeiia e oeo/oaiey aicaeaeuaaiey, ii
iooai ?ac?aaioee i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa naiyi e iaania/aiea aunieeo oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa
ca?ia a i?ioeanna iineaoai?i/iie ia?aaioee, niaa?oainoaiaaiey
oaoiieiaee ia?a?aaioee ca?ia a ioeo.

A ?acoeueoaoa eco/aiey iniaaiiinoae ii?oieiae/aneeo, naiaiiuo,
oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa e oeie/aneiai ninoaaa ?acee/iuo ni?oia o?eoeeaea
onoaiiaeaii, /oi aai ca?ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?ueienoie oa?ioiaaoie
iiaa?oiinoueth. Ii n?aaiaieth n ?iaeeoaeueneeie oi?iaie iii iaeaaeaao
ianeieueei iiieaeaiiuie oaoiieiae/aneeie naienoaaie, iaiaa auiieiaii,
niaea?aeeo ioiineoaeueii aieueoie i?ioeaio aeae?iiiaiai neiy e
ca?iaeuoa, iaeaaeaao aunieie aeieiae/aneie oeaiiinoueth (aunieia
niaea?aeaiea iauaai aaeea, oinoieeieaeia, iieeiaianuuaiiuo aee?iuo
eeneio) e iiauoaiiie aeoeaiinoueth aeae?ieeoe/aneeo oa?iaioia.

Cia/aiea i?iaeoeoia ia?a?aaioee ca?ia a ieoaiee ii?aaeaeyaony eae
noiia?iie eaei?eeiinoueth, oae e niaea?aeaieai aaeeiauo aauanoa,
aeieiae/aneie oeaiiinoueth iineaaeieo, ieia?aeueiui e aeoaieiiui
ninoaaii. O?eoeeaea ii niaea?aeaieth aaeea e eeceia a aaeea, eae
i?aaeei, i?aainoiaeeo ioaieoeo. Aaeie o?eoeeaea ii niaea?aeaieth
iacaiaieiuo aieiieeneio, aieaa iieiioeaiai e eo/oa onaiyai, /ai aaeie
ioaieoeu. Yoei ii?aaeaeyaony aieaa aunieay ieuaaay oeaiiinoue iiaie
eoeueoo?u.

Iaiauaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo iieacuaaao, /oi aieueoeinoai
enneaaeiaaiee, eae a iaoae no?aia, oae e ca ?oaaaeii i?iaaaeaii n
ia?aie/aiiui /eneii ni?oia (AAe-206, AAe-201 e ?yae ca?oaaaeiuo)
o?eoeeaea. Ia enneaaeiaaiu iiaua ni?oa, ia auyaeaiu eo ioeiiieueiua e
oeaaiiaea?iua iniaaiiinoe, iiyoiio ca?ii o?eoeeaea e i?iaeoeou aai
ia?a?aaioee i?aeoe/anee ia eniieuecotho ia i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oeaee.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
o?eoeeaea a i?iecaiaenoaa e ?anoe?aiee anni?oeiaioa oeaaiuo ecaeaeee a
?anioaeeea oeaeaniia?acii i?iaeieaeeoue ?aaioo a neaaeothueo
iai?aaeaieyo:

1) i?iaanoe aeoaieea enneaaeiaaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa ca?ia e
oeaaiiaea?iuo aeinoieinoa ioee o?eoeeaea n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiiuo
e ia?niaeoeaiuo ni?oia.

2) ?ac?aaioaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oaoiieiae/aneiio e oaoie/aneiio
iaania/aieth aunieiyooaeoeaiie iineaoai?i/iie ia?aaioee naaaeaoa?aiiiai
ca?ia.

3) oeo/oeoue iiaeaioiaeo e iiiieo ca?ia o?eoeeaea iiauo ni?oia e
niaa?oainoaiaaoue oaoiieiaee ia?a?aaioee aai a oeaaiiaea?ioth ioeo.

4) ?ac?aaioaoue oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ianniauo ni?oia oeaaa, a
oaeaea aeeaoe/aneeo, ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeaaiuo
ecaeaeee ec o?eoeeaeaaie ioee./37 /

 Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1.O?eoeeaea – ia?aay ca?iiaay eoeueoo?a, nicaeaiiay /aeiaaeii.
Ia?aaiae n aiaeeeneiai I.A. Aaaaiueaaa. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae e n
i?aaeeneiaeai TH.E. Aoaeiaa, aeieoi?a aeieiae/aneeo iaoe, i?ioanni?a.

2.Eaaiia A.I., I?ieiiaiei N.I. Oeceei-oeie/aneea e oeaaiiaea?iua
naienoaa ca?ia ioaie/ii-?aeaiuo aioeaeeieieaeia.

3.Eacaeia A.Ae. Ca?iiaaaeaiea n iniiaaie
?anoaieaaiaenoaa.-3-a ecae., aeii. e ia?a?aa.- I.: Eiein, 1983.n-352
n.,ee.- (O/aaieee e o/aa. iiniaey aeey auno. o/aa. caaaaeaiee).

4.Ooeuiaeei A.O. O?eoeeaea-aa?ioaoieea e o?iaeae. “Caeueneay
aeeciue”,1977a.

5. Ecioiaa A.E., Nu/aaa Ae.I., Eanueyiiaa E.A. Iniaaiiinoe
oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa o?eoeeaea a oneiaeyo Aaei?onneie NN?-ACEII OeI
IEEI Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia eaoaae?u (auione I) Iineaa 1990 n.-68-79.

6.Iooaiaoia Y.I., Eacaieia I.A., Ooeeeiaa E.E., Iaeanaaaa I.I.
Oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e ea/anoai i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai ca?ia. Ieine
” Aeecaei -I?I”, 1996.- n.6 – 60.

7.?aeiie?iaaiiua ni?oa- iniiaa aunieeo o?iaeaaa: Eao. ?18 ?aeiie?.
Ni?oia ii Aaea?one/Ioa. ?aae. A.I. Noa?iaieoia.- Ii.: O?aaeaeae , 1997.
N.16-30.

8.Ieaiiiia I. // Aeiee. AI ?ani.Oaaeaeeeenoai (Auao.aeiee.AI.
Oaaeae.NNN?).-1992.-35,N1.-n.64-67.-?on.

9.Eo?eeaa O.E.,Nai?iiaa E.A.,Iaiioeia I.E. Oaoiieiae/aneea
naienoaa ioaie/ii-?aeaiuo aioeaeeieieaeia.Nai?iee “O?eoeeaea,eco/aiea e
naeaeoeey”.E.,AE?,1975a.

10 Chemical characteristics of the Polish cultivars and varities
of triticale /Bartnik Maria,Kunikowska Jolanta// Ann.Warsaw
Agr.Univ.-SGGW-AR.Forest. and Wood Technol.-1991,
N19.-C.11-17.-Aiae.;?ac.iie.

11.Effekts of nitrogen and the plant growth regulator
chlormeguat on grain size,nitrogen content and amino acid
composition of triticale /Naylor R.E.L.,Stephen N.H.//
J.Agr.Sci.-1993.-120,N2.-C.159-169.-aiae.

12.Ioeaiea ?aieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae ca?ia o?eoeeaea/A?iieianeay
E.E.,Eiiueia A.A.;Ai?iiaae,1993a.-9N.: ee.-Aeaeeia?:6 iaca.-?on.-Aeai.
a Aa?iIEEOYEI.-ieuai?ii 5.8.93,N2535-iu.93

13.Variations of the levels of alpha – amylase and endogenous alpha –
amylase inhibitor in rye and triticale grain / Masojc-P;
Larsson-Raznikiewcz-M / Dep. Of Plent Breeding & Biometry, Acad. of
Agric., -71-434 Szczecin, Poland. / 1991

14.?acoeueoaou niiinoaaeoaeueiiai eiieo?niiai iiuoa n
ia?niaeoeaiuie eeieyie o?eoeeaea ia ca?ii,eo oeie/aneee ninoaa e
oece/aneea
naienoaa/Oa?ceaaAE.,IaoeeaaiiaI.//Iao/.o?./Auno.naeeinoii.eino.(Ieiaaeea
).-1990.-35,N4.-n,131-143.Aiea.;?ac.?on.,aiae.

15. Nooea ca?ia o?eoeeaea.Aeeyiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe nooee e
oaiia?aoo?u ca?ia ia oeaaiiaea?iua naienoaa.Secado de triticale
Influencia del fiempo de residencia y temperatura final del grano la
calidad panadera/Tosi E., Re E.,Cantador E.
//Alimentaria.-1993.-30,N247.-n.59-62.-Eni.;?ac.aiae.

16.Iee?iaeieiae/aneea niiniau iiauoaiey ea/anoaa oeaaa ec ioee
o?eoeeaea/A?eeiaaaaa ?.E.//Eiio.”Eio?iaeoeoeey iee?ii?aaieciia a
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo”,[Iineaa],17-19 iay ,1994:Oac.aeiee.-
I.,1994.-n.120.-?on.

17. Studies of chemical composition of Polish triticale varieties. II.
Chemical composition Current ,1990-12/96

18. I?iecaiaenoai e ioeaiea ea/anoaa oeaaa e iaea?iiiuo ecaeaeee,
ecai- oiaeaiiuo ec nianae ioee ec ca?ia o?eoeeaea e iaieiea. Production
and quality evaluation of bread and pasta made from triticale-cassava
composite flour/Cubadda R.,Qiattrucci E.,Carcea M.//`93 ICC
Int.Symp.”Cereal Sci and Technol.:Impact Chang.Africa”, Pretoria,9-13
May,1993.-[Pretoria],1993.-n.36.- aiae.

19.Nai?iee “O?eoeeaea”, “Eco/aiea e naeaeoeey”, Iaoa?eaeu
iaaeaeoia?iae- iiai neiiiceoia, E,AE?,1975a.

20.Ergot alkaloids in grain foods sold in Canada FSTA Current
1990-12/96

21. Variations of the levels of alpha-amylase and endogenous
alpha-amylase inhibitor in rye and triticale grain, FSTA Current
1990-12/96.

22.Crop quality & utilization. Mineral compostion of triticale grains
as related to grain yield and grain protein / Feil – B; Fossati – D /
Inst. Of plant Sci ., ETH , Universitaetstr. 2, CH – 8092 Zurich,
Switzerland. / 1995

23.Colour of flour and dough from triticale., FSTA Current 1990-12/96

24. Ia?ei E.A., *oia/aiei TH.E. Yooaeoeaiua ?aaeeiu AOI o?eoeeaea.
Ioeiiieueii-yeaaaoi?iay e eiiaeei?iiaay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue.1982.-N7.-n.47.

25. Ecioiaa A.E., Iao?iaa I.A., I?ioeaaa A.I. I aeaaii?iieoeaaiinoe
ca?ia o?eoeeaea: O?. V iao/.-oaoi.eiio. Iiaeeaa.1978.N.43-47

26. Aaneeue/aiei N.A. Enneaaeiaaiea o?eoeeaea aeey ia?a?aaioee a
oeaai- iaea?ioth ioeo. Ioeiiieueii-yeaaaoi?iay e eiiaeei?iiaay
i?iiuoeai- iinoue.N5,1980a.

27. Enneaaeiaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa ca?ia o?eoeeaea-
Enneaaeiaaiea ea/anoaa ca?ia e i?iaeoeoia aai ia?a?aaioee ca ?oaaaeii
Yeni?ann-eioi?iaoeey ?8, Iineaa 1987a. n.19-23.

28.Oeaaiiaea?iua naienoaa ca?ia o?eoeeaea. Ioeiiieueii-e?oiyiay i?i-
iuoeaiiinoue ca ?oaaaeii Yeni?ann-eioi?iaoeey ?14, Iineaa 1984a.
n.16-18.

29.Oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa ca?ia o?eoeeaea o?iaeay 1992a,
au?auaiiiai a oneiaeyo Iiaeeaaneie iaeanoe/Iaeanaaaa I.I. Eiiae?aoaiei
?.A.//13 Iao/.-oaoi. eiio. Iiaeeaa. Oaoiie. Einoeoooa(IOE) Iiaeeaa,15-16
ai?.,1993.-n.64-65.-?on.

30.Iiaay ca?iiaay eoeueoo?a o?eoeeaea eioi?iaoeeiiiue atheeaoaiue
ii aii?inai ea/anoaa ca?ia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oeaaiie
oi?aiaea,1975a.,N44.

31. Manufacture of bakers’ confectionery from triticale flour., FSTA
Current 1990-12/96 .

32.Oa/aoo?yi Y.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeioeie/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo
naienoa ioee o?eoeeaea eae iiaiai aeaea oeaaiiaea?iiai nu?uey.
Aaoi?aoa?ao aeen. e.o.i. I.:1978a.

33. Pilot prodaction and estimation of triticale flaces / Fornal –
J; Sadowska – J; Kaczynska – B; Jaroch – R; Wodecki – E / Div of Food
Sci., Cent . for Agrotech. & Vet. Sci., Polish Acad of Sci., 10-718
Olsztyn 5, Poland / 1992

34. Use of triticale in the baking industry. ,FSTA Current 1990-12/96.

35.Eicueieia I.I., Ai?iiiaa A.A., Oa/aoo?yi Y.A. Iiaay ca?iiaay
eoeueoo?a – o?eoeeaea e a? oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa. I.: OeIEEOYI,
1976a.

36 .Studies of antinutritive substances in rye. IV. Effect of trypsin
inhibitors in rye, wheat and triticale grain on protein digestibility.
/ Rakowska – M; Kupiec – R; Boros – D; Zalinska – M; Tluscik – F;
Polanowski – A / Inst. of Plant Breeding & Acclimatization, Radzikow,
Poland. / 1991

37.Aieneei A.E., A?eeiaaaaa ?.E., Iaeaaa A.I. Oaoiieiae/aneea
iniaaiiinoe ca?ia o?eoeeaea e iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aai
eniieueciaaiey- AIEEOYE Aa?ii?ii Iineaa 1992 a. n.43-46

38. I?aaeea i?aaiecaoeee e aaaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna ia
ioeiiieueiii caaiaea – Iineaa 1991a. /.1,2.

39. Ia?ei E.O. I?iaeoe?iaaiea ca?iiia?a?aaiouaathueo i?aaei?eyoee n
iniiaaie NAI?- Iineaa AI Aa?ii?iiecaeao 1991a.

40. Neaeaea Ae. A.- Io?aia o?oaea ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe- Iineaa e?aeay e ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 1991a.

41. Aeiiaineee A. A. Ni?aai/iee ii iai?oaeiaaieth
ca?iiia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoee- I: Eiein 1970 a.

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