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Трансплантация эмбрионов крупного рогатого скота

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Aaaaeaiea.

Aeioaoiieiaey a aini?iecaiaenoaa e naeaeoeee e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa
eiaao iniaia cia/aiea. E?oiiue ?iaaoue neio ioiineony e iaeiiieiaeiui
aeaeai ieaeiieoathueo. Iiyoiio io iaeiie ei?iau iiaeii iieo/eoue a
eo/oai neo/aa iaeiiai oaeaiea a aiae, a oi a?aiy, eae a a? ye/ieea
niaea?aeaony nioie ouny/ iac?aeuo iieiauo eeaoie (iioeeoia),
i?aaenoaaeythueo ia?iiiue aaiaoe/aneee ?aca?a. Ea?aeeiaeueiia ?aoaiea
i?iaeaiu onei?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa neioa ninoieo a oii, /oiau ia?aeoe
e iao?aaeeoeeiiiui niiniaai oaaee/aiey ieiaeiaeoinoe. Aeey yoiai
i?eiaiyaony oeaeue ?yae aeioaoie/aneeo iaoiaeia, ?ac?aaioaiiuo ia iniiaa
oaeoaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee ?ai?iaeoeoeaiie ooieoeee, a? ?aaoeyoeee, a
oaeaea ia niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?eaiia iaieioeyoeee n yia?eiiaie, iieiauie
e niiaoe/aneeie eeaoeaie. A ia?niaeoeaa aeioaoiieiaey ?anniao?eaaaony
eae iniiaa onei?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo aeeaioiuo e
oeaeuo iiioeyoeee.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?eia?aea i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea o?ainieaioaoeey
yia?eiiia, eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaaony eae yooaeoeaiue iaoiae aeioaoiieiaee
onei?aiiiai ?aciiiaeaiey aunieioeaiiuo ieaiaiiuo aeeaioiuo. Iaeioi?ua
aii?inu o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa ?anniio?aiu a
aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa.

Ioai? aeiii?ia.

A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa a ea/anoaa ei?ia-aeiii?ia ioae?atho iaoa?ae
iioaioeeaeueiuo ieaiaiiuo aueia. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio iaania/eaaaony aunieee
naeaeoeeiiiue aeeooa?aioeeae. Ioeaiea e ioai? ei?ia-aeiii?ia,
auaeaeaiiuo a a?oiio iaoa?ae aueia, i?iaiaeyo a aeaa yoaia. Ia ia?aii
yoaia ieaiaiiay oeaiiinoue aeiii?a ioeaieaaaony ii aeaaiui i?eciaeai
iiei/iiai neioa – ii o?iaith iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeee e aee?iiiiei/iinoe. Ia
aoi?ii yoaia, eiaaea ioia?aiu aeiii?u n aunieie ieaiaiiie oeaiiinoueth
ii aeaaiui i?eciaeai, /enei i?eciaeia a caaeneiinoe io oeaee naeaeoeee
?anoe?yaony. E iei ioiinyo oi?io auiaie e nineia, naienoaa
iieieiioaea/e, ?acenoaioiinoue, e?aiinoue einoyea e eiiuo, oei e
aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ea/anoaa.

Ioaeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ioeaiea ei?iau-aeiii?a ii ?iaeineiaiie e
nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe yaeyaony ia ieii/aoaeueiie, oae eae a yoii
neo/aa ia o/eouaaaony yooaeo ?anuaieaiey e ?aeiiaeiaoeee aaiia. Iiyoiio
ieii/aoaeueii ioeaieaaoue ei?iao-aeiii?a iiaeii oieueei i?e iieo/aiee e
ioeaiea aa iioiinoaa.

Aunieea cao?aou ia iieo/aiea oaeyo iooai o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia
iaoneiaeeaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioae?aoue oaeeo aeiii?ia, io eioi?uo
?aaoey?ii iiaeii iieo/aoue aieueoia eiee/anoai yia?eiiia. I?aaeii/oaiea
neaaeoao ioaeaaaoue ei?iaai,nio?aieaoei a oa/aiea o?ao ioaeia
noaaeeueioth aini?iecaiaeeoaeueioth niiniaiinoue. Enneaaeiaaieyie
onoaiiaeaii, /oi iioaioeeaeueiua ei?iau-aeiii?u n oi?ioeie e onoie/eauie
aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiuie niiniaiinoyie ioee/athony
i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoueth e aini?iecaiaenoao yia?eiiia, eioi?ua iiaeii
?aaoey?ii iieo/aoue /a?ac eaaeaeua aeaa ianyoea.

Iaaeioaeueiue ia?eiae yaeyaony eioaa?aeueiui iieacaoaeai
aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ei?ia. Aai ninoaaiua /anoe:
na?aen-ia?eiae e ia?eiae noaeueiinoe.

Na?aen-ia?eiae aieaa oi/ii e iaiiiai ?aiueoa, /ai eioa?aae iaaeaeo
ioaeaie, auyaeyao iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiie
ooieoeee o ei?ia. Ii oanii naycai n iaaeioaeueiui ia?eiaeii
(eiyooeoeeaio ei??aeyoeee ninoaaeyao 0.9). Iioeiaeueiue na?aen-ia?eiae
ia aeieaeai i?aauoaoue 80 aeiae. Iaeiaei aiaeec na?aen-ia?eiaea,
i?iaaaeaiiue a aaaeoueo ieaiaiiuo noaaeao /a?ii-iano?ie ii?iaeu,
iieacae, /oi aeaiiue iieacaoaeue aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiie ooieoeee ei?ia
eiaao aunieee eiyooeoeeaio eciai/eainoe, eioi?ue ninoaaee 61%.

Na?aen-ia?eiae a iniiaiii caaeneo io eioa?aaea iaaeaeo ioaeii e ia?aui
inaiaiaieai, e eioa?aaea iaaeaeo ia?aui e iineaaeiei, o.a. yooaeoeaiui
inaiaiaieai. Aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo ei?ia neaaeoao inaiaiyoue ia aoi?ii
ianyoea iinea ii?iaeueiiai ioaea. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi ia?aue
iieiaie oeeee i?iyaeyaony neaai, iieiaay ioioa eeeie/anee ieioi
ii?aaeaeyaony eee aiana ia iaia?oaeeaaaony.

Ia?aia inaiaiaiea ei?ia ia aoi?ii ianyoea iinea ioaea ia oaeeeiyao
na?aen- e iaaeioaeueiue ia?eiae. I?e iioeiaeueiii na?aen-ia?eiaea aei 80
aeiae iinea ia?aaiai e aoi?iai inaiaiaiee n?aaeiyy iieiaeioai?yaiinoue
ei?ia ninoaaeyao 95-98%, a i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iaaeioaeueiiai ia?eiaea
ia i?aauoaao iaeiiai aiaea.

Aeey ioeaiee aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae ei?ia, ioia?aiiuo a
ea/anoaa iioaioeeaeueiuo aeiii?ia, iaiaoiaeeii aiaeece?iaaoue oaeea
ia?aiao?u eae iieiaeioai?yaiinoue io ia?aiai inaiaiaiey e eiaeaen
inaiaiaiey. I?e i?aaeeueiie oaoieea inaiaiaiey e naiaa?aiaiiii
ii?aaeaeaiee iieiaie ioiou iieiaeioai?yaiinoue ei?ia io ia?aiai
inaiaiaiey aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue a n?aaeiai 60%.

Aaaeiui iieacaoaeai aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ei?ia yaeyaony
eiaeaen inaiaiaiey, o.a. eiee/anoai inaiaiaiee ia iaeii iieiaeioai?aiea.
Eiaeaen inaiaiaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie noaiaiueth eciai/eainoe –
eiyooeoeeaio aa?eaaaeueiinoe iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 70%. Nouanoaaiiia
aeeyiea ia eciai/eainoue eiaeaena inaiaiaiey ieacuaatho oaeea oaeoi?u,
eae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaea io ioaea aei ia?aiai inaiaiaiey,
naiaa?aiaiiia auyaeaiea ei?ia a iieiaie ioioa, iieiaeioai?ythuay
niiniaiinoue nia?iu auea e ae?. Eiaeaen inaiaiaiey ei?ia, auaeaeaiiuo a
a?oiio iioaioeeaeueiuo aeiii?ia, ia aeieaeai i?aauoaoue 1.5. A
eaeaaeueiii neo/aa iioaioeeaeueiay ei?iaa-aeiii? aeieaeia eiaoue eiaeaen
inaiaiaiey ?aaiue 1. O ei?ia-aeiii?ia i?e anao ioaeao aeieaeiu
ionoonoaiaaoue ineiaeiaiey (ia?oai?iaeaeaaiinoue, caaea?aeaiea iineaaea,
iinea?iaeiaua caaieaaaiey iieiauo i?aaiia).

*a?ac 15-20 nooie iinea ioaea aaoa?eia?iue niaoeeaeeno iaoiaeii
?aeoaeueiie iaeueiaoeee eiio?iee?oao o iioaioeeaeueiie ei?iau-aeiii?a
ninoiyiea iieiauo i?aaiia, /oiau eneeth/eoue oaeea ia?ooaiey
aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiie ooieoeee eae eenoa ye/ieea, aeiiooieoeey,
ainiaeaiea ye/ieeiaie naycee, yiaeiiao?eou.

Noia?iaoeyoeey.

Aaaeiui caaiii a nia?aiaiiie aeioaoiieiaee o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia
e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa yaeyaony ai?iiiaeueiiaaucuaaiea noia?iaoeyoeee o
ei?ia-aeiii?ia. A a?oiio aeiii?ia ia?aaiaeyo oieueei oao ei?ia, eioi?ua
iieiaeeoaeueii ?aaae?otho ia aaaaeaiea ai?iiiia. Aeey noeioeyoeee
iiiaeanoaaiiie iaoeyoeee eniieuecotho aiiaaeio?iiei NAEE a ni/aoaiee n
i?inoaaeaiaeeiaie e ae?oaeie aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuie aauanoaaie. Yoio
niinia, eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, iicaieyao aucaaoue noia?iaoeyoeeth
i?eia?ii o 70% ei?ia.

Iaeiei ec nouanoaaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia yoiai niiniaa noia?iaoeyoeee
yaeyaony e?aeia aunieay noaiaiue aa?eaaaeueiinoe /enea iaoeyoeee, aeaaea
i?e eniieueciaaiee iaeiie e oie aea eiioeaio?aoeee aiiaaeio?iieia NAEE.
Iia ninoaaeyao io 0 aei 50 iaoeyoeee ia iaeio ei?iao-aeiii?a.
Iioeiaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii noia?iaoeyoeee yaeyaony auoiae ec ye/ieea a
ai?iieo yeoeai?iaiaea 10-20 yeoeaeeaoie.

P. Rommel (1976), iiaeuoiaeeaay ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee, i?eoae e
auaiaeo, /oi ia eiuaeoeee aiiaaeio?iieiia 25-35% ei?ia-aeiii?ia ia
?aaae?otho, a o iieiaeeoaeueii ?aaae?othueo ei?ia (3 e aieaa iaoeyoeee)
aa?eaaaeueiinoue ?aaeoeee ye/ieea ianoieueei aaeeea, /oi noaiiaeony
iaaiciiaeiui iaaeaaeiia ieaie?iaaiea i?ia?aiiu ia?anaaeee yia?eiiia. H.
Krausslich (1985) n/eoaao, /oi n o/aoii eiathuaeny eciai/eainoe eeoue
iieiaeia ei?ia, ?aaae?othueo ia aaaaeaiea aiiaaeio?iieiia, iiaeao aeaoue
4-5 yia?eiiia, i?eaiaeiuo aeey o?ainieaioaoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a
iniiaiii yia?eiiu iiaeii iieo/eoue iaiaa /ai io iieiaeiu ia?aiia/aeueii
ouaoaeueii ioia?aiiuo iioaioeeaeueiuo ei?ia-aeiii?ia.

Ii nia?aiaiiiio i?aaenoaaeaieth ?aaeoeey ei?ia ia noia?iaoeyoeeth a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii e ea/anoaii oieeeeoeia
ye/ieeia ai a?aiy eo noeioeyoeee aiiaaeio?iieiaie. Yenia?eiaioaeueii
auei aeieacaii, /oi ai a?aiy noia?iaoeyoeee aeey iieo/aiey oi?ioae
?aaeoeee iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa iaeuo aio?aeueiuo
oieeeeoeia, /oanoaeoaeueiuo e aiiaaeio?iiiie noeioeyoeee. Iaaeinoaoie
oaeeo oieeeeoeia, eee iai?ioea, iaee/ea aieueoeo ii ?acia?o oieeeeoeia
nieaeatho o?iaaiue ?aaeoeee eee iia aiiaua ionoonoaoao. Yoi iiaeao
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue ia eio?aiaa?eaeueiii ?aaoee?iaaiee i?ioeanna
noia?iaoeyoeee. Iineieueeo oieeeeoeu ?anooo aneio?iiii, oi a eaaeaeue
ia?eiae eiuaeoeey aiiaaeio?iieiia aoaeao iioeiaeueiie eeoue aeey
ia?aie/aiiiai /enea oieeeeoeia.

E?iia ?acia?a oieeeeoea, ia ?aaeoeeth aaaaeaiey aiiaaeio?iieiia
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ieacuaaao eioaineaiinoue ieoioe/aneiai eiaeaena,
eioi?ay o ii?iaeueiiai oieeeeoea iiauoaaony i?e oi?ie?iaaiee iieinoe.
Onoaiiaeaii /oi aunieee ieoioe/aneee eiaeaen iaao?aoe/aneeo oieeeeoeia
iieiaeeoaeueii ei??aee?oao n eioaineaiinoueth noia?iaoeyoeee.

Eiathony aeaiiua, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i oii, /oi ia ?aaeoeeth
aiiaaeio?iieiia ioaa/atho oieueei oa iaeua aio?aeueiua oieeeeoeu,
?acia?u eioi?uo ia i?aauoatho 2 ii. Onoaiiaeaii /oi oaeea oieeeeoeu
ai?iiiaeueii aeoeaiu e auno?i iaoee?otho.

Ao?aoe/aneea oieeeeoeu n aunieei ieoioe/aneei eiaeaenii, iai?ioea, ia
iaoee?otho, a iinea i?ioiaeaeaiey oacu ethoaeiecaoeee iiaeaa?aathony a?
aicaeaenoaeth e eieoe?otho iaee/ea ae?eoiai oaea (Holy L., 1984).

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey yooaeoeaiie noia?iaoeyoeee ?aoathuei yaeyaony
oeceieiae/aneia ninoiyiea oieeeeoeia a ethoaeaeueiie oaca ye/ieea.

Aiaeec ?aaiou noaioeee ii ia?anaaeea yia?eiiia iieacae, /oi oi?ioeie
aeiii?aie iiaeii n/eoaoue ei?ia, eioi?ua iinea iiiaie?aoiuo
noia?iaoeyoeee eiatho oi?iooth ?aaeoeeth ye/ieea e i?iecaiaeyo aieueoia
/enei i?eaiaeiuo aeey ia?anaaeee yia?eiiia ca iaeii auiuaaiea. Iaeiaei
eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue aeiii?ia iaia?oaeeaaao iiaoi?ioth ?aaeoeeth
ye/ieeia iinea aucuaaiey noia?iaoeyoeee. A iniiaiii aea ei?iau-aeiii?u
ia?aaoey?ii ioaa/atho ia iiaoi?ioth ai?iiiaeueioth ia?aaioeo, iiyoiio
eiee/anoai iaoeyoeee e auoiae yia?eiiia ia yaeythony noaaeeueiuie.

Aeey ioeaiee i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe, eee iioaioeeaeueiie eciai/eainoe
ei?ia ia i?eaiaeiinoue a ea/anoaa aeiii?ia, auee ?ann/eoaiu aa?eainu
i?eciaeia, ia iniiaa eioi?uo aue ii?aaeaeai eiyooeoeeaio iiaoi?yaiinoe.
?ann/eoaiiua eiyooeoeeaiou iiaoi?yaiinoe i?eciaeia i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe
ei?ia a ea/anoaa aeiii?ia eieaaaeenue a i?aaeaeao 17.3-23.3%. Yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ii eoiaai ioeaiee ca ia?aia auiuaaiea
yia?eiiia iaaeaaeiinoue iiaoi?iiai ?acoeueoaoa ninoaaeo eeoue 20%.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii ioeaiea i?eciaea i?eaiaeiinoe ca ia?aia auiuaaiea
yia?eiia iaaiciiaeii aeinoiaa?ii noaeeoue i i?eaiaeiinoe ei?iau a
ea/anoaa aeiii?a.

Eciai/eainoue i?eaiaeiinoe ei?ia a ea/anoaa aeiii?ia aeeth/aao
ianeaaenoaaiiua e iaianeaaenoaaiiua oaeoi?u. I?e/ai aeeaae
iaianeaaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia cia/eoaeueii auoa aeeaaea oaeoi?ia
aaiaoe/aneeo.

Ioia/aii, /oi i?ae?auaiea ei?ieaiey aeiii?a iinea ia?aaioee
aiiaaeio?iieiaie aeinoiaa?ii oiaiueoaao ?aaeoeeth ye/ieea ia aaaaeaiea
ai?iiiia. Aeey noia?iaoeyoeee e iieo/aiey aeieiae/anee iieiioeaiiuo
yia?eiiia iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue iieiioeaiiia ei?ieaiea aeiii?a,
naaeaine?iaaiiia ia oieueei ii iniiaiui ieoaoaeueiui aauanoaai, ii
iniaaiii ii aieiieeneioai e iee?iyeaiaioai. Ei?ieaiea aeiii?ia aeieaeii
auoue oaeei, /oiau iie iaoiaeeeenue a oi?ioai oeceieiae/aneii ninoiyiee.

Aeey iieo/aiey noia?iaoeyoeee iaeaieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ai
iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a iieo/ee ANAEE n i?inoaaeaiaeeiaie.

Oi?ioeo ?acoeueoaoia noia?iaoeyoeee iiaeii iaeeaeaoue, eiaaea e iiiaioo
eiuae/ee aiiaaeio?iieia a ye/ieeao ei?iau ooieoeeiie?oao aeaeoia oaei
aeeaiaoi?i 1.5 ni. I?e iaee/ee a iaeiii ec ye/ieeia ?acaeoiai oieeeeoea
aeeaiao?ii 10 ii iieeiaoeyoeey nieaeaaony. Eioaineaiinoue iiiaeanoaaiiie
iaoeyoeee oaeaea nieaeaaony eiaaea e?iia oi?ioi ?acaeoiai aeaeoiai oaea
a ye/ieea iaoiaeeony ?acaeoue oieeeeoe, oieeeeoey?iay eee ethoaeiiaay
eenoa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yooaeoeaiinoue noia?iaoeyoeee a aieueoie noaiaie
ii?aaeaeyaony oeceieiae/aneei ninoiyieai ye/ieeia.

Ia /enei iaoeyoeee nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ieacuaaao eioa?aae iaaeaeo
a?aiaiai aaaaeaiey ANAEE e ia/aeii iieiaie ioiou. Ii?aaeaeai
iioeiaeueiue eioa?aae, ai a?aiy eioi?iai iiaeii iieo/eoue iaeaieueoaa
eiee/anoai iaoeyoeee, ii ninoaaeyao 4-7 nooie. I?e oiaiueoaiee yoiai
n?iea aei 1-3 nooie /enei iaoeyoeee nouanoaaiii nieaeaaony, a i?e
oaaee/aiee nauoa 7 nooie, oioy /enei iaoeyoeee aic?anoaao, ii
oi?ie?othony aeieiae/anee iaiieiioeaiiua yeoeaeeaoee.

Iaeaunoee yooaeo noia?iaoeyoeee aeinoeaaaony i?e aaaaeaiee ANAEE
iaaeaeo 10-12 noo yno?aeueiiai oeeeea (na?aaeeia ethoaaeueiie oacu) e
/a?ac 48 /ania i?inoaaeaiaeeia F2a (eee aai aiaeiaa), aucuaathuaai
?aa?anneth aeaeoiai oaea, iieiaoth ioioo e iaoeyoeeth. A oa/aiea 48
/ania iinea eiuaeoeee i?inoaaeaiaeeia o 95% ei?ia-aeiii?ia i?ienoiaeeo
iieeiaoeyoeey ni anaie i?eciaeaie yno?ona. I?e yoii aeiii?u iiaoo auoue
inaiaiaiu oieueei a naeaoua n?iee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iinea oaeie
oaoiieiaee ai?iiiaeueiie ia?aaioee ei?ia i?ienoiaeeo a n?aaeiai 10
iaoeyoeee, a iieiaeioai?yaiinoue yeoeaeeaoie aeinoeaaao 80%.

Ae?oaei ai?iiiaeueiui i?aia?aoii n noia?iaoeyoeeiiiui aeaenoaeai
yaeyaony oieeeeoeinoeioee?othuee ai?iii ONA. Noia?iaoeyoeeth iiaeii
aucaaoue aaaaeaieai i/euaiiiai ONA eee aai eiiaeiaoeee n
ethoaeiece?othuei ai?iiiii EA a niioiioaiee 5:1. A ioee/ea io
aiiaaeio?iieia NAEE ONA aaiaeyo ia iaeiie?aoii, a iiiaie?aoii.

Iaiauaiea iiiai/eneaiiuo ?aaio ii eniieueciaaieth aiiaaeio?iieia NAEE e
ONA iieacaei, /oi iaaethaeaaony eeai iaeeiaeiaay ?aaeoeey ye/ieeia ei?ia
ia iaa aiiaaeio?iieia, eeai ioia/aaony eo/oay ?aaeoeey i?e aaaaeaiee
aiiaaeio?iieia ONA.

Eae ioia/aeinue, neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iiiaie?aoiay
noia?iaoeyoeey iiaeaa?aeaia aieueoae aa?eaaaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio ia ana
ei?iau-aeiii?u eiatho iaeeiaeiaoth i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue e iiiaie?aoiie
noia?iaoeyoeee. Aeey yooaeoeaiie iiiaie?aoiie noia?iaoeyoeee iaiaoiaeei
ouaoaeueiue ioai? aeiii?ia ii ?yaeo iieacaoaeae yoiai i?eciaea.

A caeeth/aiea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ai?iiiaeueiay noeioeyoeey
ye/ieeia ei?ia, aucuaathuay iieeiaoeyoeeth, naycaia n aeoeaecaoeeae
iaoaaiee/aneeo i?ioeannia o aeiii?ia. Iiyoiio aeey i?ioaeaiey
ii?iaeueiuo i?ioeannia iiaaiaca, iieiaeioai?aiey e aeieiae/anee
iieiioeaiiiai oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey ceaiou ei?ia-aeiii?ia iaiaoiaeeii
iaania/eoue aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuie aauanoaaie (aeoaieiu, iacaiaieiua
aieiieeneiou). E?iia oiai, aeey yoie oeaee eniieuecotho i?aia?ao
naeaaeo.

Inaiaiaiea ei?ia-aeiii?ia.

?acoeueoaou noia?iaoeyoeee ii?aaeaeythony yooaeoeaiui inaiaiaieai
ei?ia-aeiii?ia. I?iaeaia iieiaeioai?aiey yeoeaeeaoie e iieo/aiey
aeieiae/anee iieiioeaiiuo yia?eiiia ana au? inoaaony ioe?uoie. Eae
iieacuaatho ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee, oieueei 60-65% yia?eiiia
i?eaiaeiu aeey o?ainieaioaoeee, inoaeueiua yeoeaeeaoee, ia?aciaaaoeany a
?acoeueoaoa ai?iiiaeueiie ia?aaioee aiiaaeio?iieiaie, ieacuaathony eeai
iaiieiaeioai?aiiuie, eeai iinea iieiaeioai?aiey ionoatho a ?acaeoee eee
aeaaaia?e?otho. I?e/eia yoeo ia?ooaiee inoaaony iaecaanoiie.

Aeey eneonnoaaiiiai inaiaiaiey ei?ia-aeiii?ia iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue nia?io oieueei auaeathueony aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae,
aeinoiaa?ii ioeaiaiiuo ii ea/anoao iioiinoaa. Eae ioia/aeinue,
iaaeaaeiui e?eoa?eai ianeaaenoaaiiuo ea/anoa auea neoaeeo eiyooeoeeaio
iiaoi?yaiinoe, o.a. eiyooeoeeaio ?aa?annee aoaeoueo aei/a?ae auea ia
/enei oaeoe/anee eiathueony aei/a?ae. Anee aaiaoe/aneia i?aainoiaenoai
aei/a?ae auea, au?aaeaiiia aaee/eiie ioeeiiaiey io naa?noieoe,
oiiiaeeoue ia eiyooeoeeaio iiaoi?yaiinoe, oi iieo/aiiay aaee/eia aoaeao
oa?aeoa?eciaaoue aaiaoe/aneia i?aainoiaenoai aoaeoueo aei/a?ae auea, eee
i?aaeneacaiioth ?aciinoue. I?aaeneacaiiay ?aciinoue yaeyaony iaeiei ec
iaeaieaa iauaeoeaiuo ea/anoa auea, ?ac?aaioaiiuo a nia?aiaiiie naeaeoeee
iiei/iiai neioa.

Aeey eneonnoaaiiiai inaiaiaiey ei?ia-aeiii?ia neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue,
eae i?aaeei, nia?io i?iecaiaeeoaeae 1-e ieaiaiiie eaoaai?ee, o.a. oaeeo,
ieaiaiiay oeaiiinoue eioi?uo i?aauoaao n?aaeithth iiioeyoeeiiioth
aaee/eio ia aeaa noaiaea?oiuo ioeeiiaiey. A yoii neo/aa nouanoaaiii
iiauoathony oaiiu naeaeoeee e oeo/oaaony ieaiaiiay oeaiiinoue iiaie
aaia?aoeee.

Ieaiaiiie iiaeai? aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae e ei?ia-aeiii?ia inouanoaeyaony
ii caeaciiio eee oeaeaaiio nia?eaaieth ?iaeeoaeae. A aai iniiaa aeieaeai
eaaeaoue i?eioeei eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiaeai?a a niioaaonoaee n
naeaeoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiie niaa?oainoaiaaiey nouanoaothueo eee nicaeaiey
iiauo ii?iae, oeiia e eeiee.

O?aaiaaiey e ioeaiea iieiaeioai?ythuae niiniaiinoe nia?iu aueia,
i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey inaiaiaiey ei?ia-aeiii?ia, aeieaeia auoue
cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai i?e iieiaeioai?aiee inoaeueiuo ei?ia. Aeey
iiauoaiey iieiaeioai?yaiinoe aeiii?ia e auoiaea yia?eiiia, ia?yaeo n
eniieueciaaieai aunieiea/anoaaiiie nia?iu, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue
n?iee iieiaie ioiou aeey naiaa?aiaiiiai i?iaaaeaiey eneonnoaaiiiai
inaiaiaiey. Eae i?aaeei, ei?ia n ai?iiiaeueii aucaaiiie iieiaie ioioie
inaiaiytho aeaaaeaeu: ia?aue ?ac i?e ia/aea iiyaeaiey iieiaie ioiou e
aoi?ie – /a?ac 12-24 /ana.

A iaoae no?aia ei?ia-aeiii?ia eneonnoaaiii inaiaiytho aeaaaeaeu a
aeaiue n eioa?aaeii 10-12 /ania eaaeaeue ?ac aeaoiy-o?aiy aeicaie
caii?iaeaiiie nia?iu. Oae eae i?e noia?iaoeyoeee iiauoaaony /enei
iaoee?iaaaoeo yeoeaeeaoie, a eaaeaeie aeica nia?iu aeieaeii auoue ia
iaiaa 50 iei iiaeaeaeiuo nia?ieaa.

Aeaiue, a eioi?ue i?iaiaeeony eneonnoaaiiia inaiaiaiea ei?iau-aeiii?a,
n/eoaaony aeaoie iieiaeioai?aiey. N yoiai aeiy ia/eiaaony ion/ao
?acaeoey yia?eiiia in vivo aei eo ecaea/aiey.

Ecaea/aiea e ioeaiea yia?eiiia.

Yooaeoeaiinoue iaoiaea o?ainieaioaoeee ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony niiniaii
ecaea/aiey yia?eiiia. Iieiaeioai?aiiua yeoeaeeaoee io noia?iaoee?iaaiiuo
ei?ia-aeiii?ia iiaoo auoue ecaea/aiu o?aiy niiniaaie: iinea oaiy
ei?iau-aeiii?a; oe?o?ae/aneei; iaoe?o?ae/aneei.

Ecaea/aiea yia?eiia iinea oaiy ei?iau-aeiii?a. Naiui i?inoui e
iaaeaaeiui niiniaii ecaea/aiey yia?eiiia yaeyaony oaie ei?iau-aeiii?a.
Yoio niinia i?aeoeeiaaeny oieueei ia ia?auo yoaiao inaiaiey iaoiaea
o?ainieaioaoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ec-ca iioa?e aaiaoe/anee oeaiiie
ei?iau-aeiii?a ii ia eniieuecoaony.

Ecaea/aiea yia?eiia oe?o?ae/aneei niiniaii. Aaaeiui iiiaioii,
iaania/eaathuei yooaeoeaiinoue ecaea/aiey yia?eiiia, yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeaiea noaaeee eo ?acaeoey e ianoa iieiaeaiey a iiiauo iooyo
ei?iau-aeiii?a. Aeey o?ainieaioaoeee ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue
aeanoioeenou, iiyoiio yia?eiiu ecaeaeatho iaaeaeo 7-8-ie nooeaie iinea
ia?aiai eneonnoaaiiiai inaiaiaiey (Aei). Eiaaony ianeieueei niiniaia
oe?o?ae/aneiai ecaea/aiey yia?eiiia: ?ac?ac aa?oiaai naiaea aeaaaeeua,
eaia?ioiiey ii aaeie eeiee aeeaioa e eaia?ioiiey a iaeanoe aieiaeiie
yiee.

Oe?o?ae/aneee niinia ecaea/aiey yia?eiiia yaeyaony o?oaeiaieei,
aei?iainoiyuei e, /oi iniaaiii aaaeii, ei iaeuecy iieueciaaoueny
iiiaie?aoii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?o?ae/aneee niinia ecaea/aiey
i?eiaiyaony a ?aaeeeo neo/ayo, aeaaiui ia?acii a iao/iuo oeaeyo.

Ecaea/aiea yia?eiiia iaoe?o?ae/aneei niiniaii. Iniiaiia i?aeiouanoai
iaoe?o?ae/aneiai niiniaa ecaea/aiey yia?eiiia caeeth/aaony a i?inoioa
iaieioeyoeee. Aeey yoiai ia o?aaoaony niaoeeaeueiiai iia?aoeeiiiiai
iiiauaiey. Yia?eiiu iiaeii ecaeaeaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo. N naeaeoeeiiiie oi/ee c?aiey, i?e
i?aaeeueiii i?eiaiaiee iaoe?o?ae/aneiai niiniaa aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiay
niiniaiinoue aeiii?ia ia ia?ooaaony, /oi iicaieyao iiiaie?aoii
eniieueciaaoue aaiaoe/anee oeaiiuo ei?ia-aeiii?ia aeey iieo/aiey io ieo
aieueoiai /enea iioiieia.

A iauai aeaea ecaea/aiea yia?eiiia iaoe?o?ae/aneei iaoiaeii i?ienoiaeeo
ii neaaeothuae noaia. Ei?ia-aeiii?ia ianeaaeotho ia iaee/ea aeaeouo oae,
/enoyo e iitho, ia?aie/eaatho ?aoeeii e e?aoiinoue ei?ieaiey, a ca nooee
i?ae?auatho ei?ieaiea e iiaiea. Ia?aae naiui ecaea/aieai yia?eiiia
aeaceioeoee?otho ia?oaeiua iieiaua i?aaiu ei?ia-aeiii?ia. Ecaeaeatho
yia?eiiu iiae ianoiie aianoaceae. A ?ia iaoee aaiaeyo
i?iaeaceioeoee?iaaiiue aeaooeaiaeueiue ?aceiiaue eee ieanoianniaue
eaoaoa? n iaaeoaiui aaeeii/eeii, a eioi?ue iaaiaoatho 10-155 eoa ni
aicaeooa. Auoiae ec ?iaa iaoee cae?uaatho, iaaeoaay aicaeooii
oiieinoaiiue ?aceiiaue aaeeii/ee. Caoai a ?ia aaiaeyo i?iiuaioth
aeeaeeinoue e inoi?iaeii ianne?otho, /oiau ioaeaeeoue yia?eiiu io noaiie
iaoee. A ea/anoaa i?iiuaiie n?aaeu i?eiaiytho PBS aei 500 ie. Yoio
ninoaa eniieuecoaony e aeey e?aoeia?aiaiiiai eoeueoeae?iaaiey yia?eiiia.

Auiuaaiea iiaoi?ytho 5-8 ?ac. Iniiaioth /anoue yia?eiiia ecaeaeatho a
ia?auo o?ao-/aou?ao niuaao. I?iiuaaiea a iaieo ?iaao iaoee, aeeth/ay
aaaaeaiea eaoaoa?ia, i?iaeieaeaaony 20-50 ieioo. Ca yoi a?aiy iiaeii
ecaea/ue aieaa 50% yia?eiiia, iaoiaeyueony ia noaaeee ii?oeu eee
aeanoioeenou.

Iinea auiuaaiey yia?eiiia a iaoeo aaiaeyo ?anoai? aioeaeioeea n
oeaeueth aioenaioeee.

Ai iiiaeo no?aiao ?ac?aaioaiu ?acee/iua ono?ienoaa aeey
iaoe?o?ae/aneiai ecaea/aiey yia?eiiia. A iaoae no?aia a ?yaea einoeoooia
AANOIEE oniaoii inaiaiu iaoe?o?ae/aneea iaoiaeu ecaea/aiey, iicaieythuea
iieo/aoue 60% io /enea iaoee?iaaaoeo yeoeaeeaoie. Ioaeii eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi a n?aaeiai ec auiuouo yeoeaeeaoie aei 25% ieacuaathony
iaiieiaeioai?aiiuie eee aeaceioaa?e?iaaiiuie. I?e/eiu auoiaea
aeieiae/anee iaiieiioeaiiuo ceaio aei neo ii? ieii/aoaeueii ia auyniaiu.

E?aoeia?aiaiiia eoeueoeae?iaaiea e o?aiaiea yia?eiiia. Iaieioeyoeee n
?aiieie yia?eiiaie, iaoiaeyueieny ia i?aaeeiieaioaoeeiiiuo noaaeeyo
?acaeoey, o.a. io iiiaioa eo iieo/aiey aei aaaaeaiey a ?iaa iaoee
?aoeeieaioa, caieiatho io 1 aei 5 /ania. A yoio ia?eiae ioaeii nicaeaoue
iioeiaeueiua oneiaey, iaania/eaathuea nio?aiaiea eo aeieiae/aneeo
ea/anoa. E?aoeia?aiaiiia o?aiaiea yia?eiiia aeaao oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue
o?ainii?oe?iaaoue eo a ae?oaea oicyenoaa.

Yia?eiiu e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa iiaeii nio?aieoue iooai ia?anaaeee eo
a yeoeai?iaiae naiie ae?oaeo aeaeia ieaeiieoathueo. Eo/oa anaai
iaania/eaaaony ii?iaeueiia i?aaeeiieaioaoeeiiiia ?acaeoea yia?eiiia
ei?ia a yeoeai?iaiaea e?ieue/eo. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yia?eiiu ei?iau a
yeoeai?iaiaea e?ieue/eoe iiaoo oniaoii ?acaeaaoueny aei noaaeee,
i?eaiaeiuo aeey o?ainieaioaoeee ?aoeeieaioai, o.a. aei ii?oeu e
aeanoioeenou. Iaaeinoaoeii yoiai iaoiaea yaeyaony aai o?oaeiaieinoue e
aiciiaeiua iioa?e ceaio i?e eo ia?aiina. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee iaoiae e?aoein?i/iiai o?aiaiey yia?eiiia in
vitro.

Iinea ecaea/aiey e ioeaiee ia aeecianiiniaiinoue yia?eiiu ia?aiinyo a
ieoaoaeueiua n?aaeu n oaiia?aoo?ie 37 a?aaeonia. Aieueoeinoai n?aae, a
eioi?uo eoeueoeae?otho e o?aiyo yia?eiiu, aeeth/atho ?anoai?u nieae,
aieiieeneiou n aeea?aiiaoiui eiiii eae aooa?iui aaaioii, iaania/eaathuei
pH a i?aaeaeao 7.2-7.6. I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eoeueoeae?iaaiey aac iioa?e aeieiae/aneeo ea/anoa
yia?eiiia aiciiaeia aei 95 /ania.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu i?iaiaeyony enneaaeiaaiey ii e?aoein?i/iiio
o?aiaieth yia?eiiia in vitro i?e eo ioeaaeaeaiee ieaea 37 a?aaeonia.
?ac?aaioea yoiai iaoiaea eiaao aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea, o.e.
iicaieyao nouanoaaiii oi?inoeoue iaieioeyoeee n yia?eiiaie e iaaeaaeiaa
iaania/eaaao eo o?ainii?oe?iaeo.

Ioeaiea yia?eiiia. Ioeaiea yia?eiiia e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa
i?iecaiaeeony ianeieueeeie iaoiaeaie. Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/ee ii?oieiae/aneee iaoiae. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?acoeueoaou
eiieaioaoeee yia?eiiia caaenyo io oiai, ianeieueei iieii ioeaiaia
niiniaiinoue iieiaeioai?aiiuo yeoeaeeaoie e ?acaeoeth.

Ii ii?oieiae/aneei i?eciaeai e yia?eiiaeueiie noaaeee ?acaeoey,
yia?eiiu iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ia i?eaiaeiua e iai?eaiaeiua e
o?ainieaioaoeee. I?e ii?oieiae/aneie ioeaiea yia?eiiia iniiaiia aieiaiea
ia?auatho ia o?ioeo ceaiou, ninoiyiea a? ciiu iaeethoeeaea, /enei
aeanoiia?ia, ?aaiiia?iinoue ae?iaeaiey, au?aaeaiiinoue yia?eiaeanoa e
o?ioiaeanoa.

E?iia ii?oieiae/aneie, aeaaony ioeaiea yia?eiiia ii aaeni?aoeeiiiui
naienoaai iaiei/ae e oeeoiieaciu aeanoiia?ia e ?acee/iui e?aneoaeyi.
Aeey oeo/oaiey ii?oieiae/aneie ioeaiee eniieuecotho oethi?anoeaioioth
ie?aneo, iicaieythuoth ioee/eoue aeeaua yia?eiiu io iiaeaoeo. A
/anoiinoe, yoio iaoiae iaeaieaa i?eaiaeai aeey ioeaiee aeecianiiniaiinoe
yia?eiiia e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa iinea eo eoeueoeae?iaaiey e
caii?aaeeaaiey. N iiiiuueth oethi?anoeaioiuo e?anyueo aauanoa FDA e DAP1
/a?ac 3-10-ieiooiue ia?eiae aiciiaeii auno?ia e aeinoaoi/ii iaaeaaeiia
ii?aaeaeaiea niiniaiinoe yia?eiiia e ?acaeoeth a ?aiieo noaaeeyo. AEeaua
yia?eiiu e aeaaea aeeaua aeanoiia?u y?ei oethi?anoee?otho iinea
eieoaaoeee a FDA, ii ia oethi?anoee?otho iinea eieoaaoeee a DAP1. O
iiaeaoeo yia?eiiia eee aeanoiia?ia ?aaeoeee ia?aoiua. Yoe iaoiaeu
iicaieytho aieaa oi/ii ii?aaeaeyoue aeecianiiniaiinoue yia?eiiia iiae
iee?ineiiii.

?yae aaoi?ia i?aaeeaaaao eniieueciaaoue neiueeo Yaaina. A aeeauo
yia?eiiao i?e oaiia?aoo?a 37 a?aaeonia ath ie?aoeaaaony oieueei ciia
iaeethoeeaea, eioi?oth caoai iaanoeaa/eaatho a ?anoai?a ?eiaa?a. A
ia?oauo aea yia?eiiao e?anea i?i/ii oeene?oaony ia aeanoiia?ao. I.
Ea?aeeiiae/ (1976) i?aaeeiaeee ioeaieaaoue aeecianiiniaiinoue yia?eiiia
ie?aoeaaieai i?naeiii eee iaeo?aeueiui e?aniui.

Eae n/eoaao I. E. I?ieioueaa (1983), iiaoo auoue aenoioeie/aneea iaoiaeu
ioeaiee aeecianiiniaiinoe yia?eiiia, iniiaaiiua ia niaoeeoe/aneeo
?aaeoeeyo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia e aauanoa eeaoie e aeoaeueiui e
oethi?anoeaioiui e?aneoaeyi. Oaeea ?aaeoeee i?ioaeatho i/aiue eioaineaii
e auno?i, /oi iicaieyao onei?eoue i?ioeann ioeaiee yia?eiiia.

Iaeiaei neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi oethi?anoeaioiay ie?anea eeoue
aeiiieiyao e oeo/oaao iniiaiie iaoiae ioeaiee yia?eiiia –
ii?oieiae/aneee. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ii?oieiae/aneeie i?eciaeaie i?e
ioeaiea aeecianiiniaiinoe yia?eiiia neoaeao iauai, ie?anea,
?aniieiaeaiea eeaoie, aaee/eia ia?eaeoaeeeiiaiai i?ino?ainoaa e aeae
iaiia?aaeaeaiiie ciiu iaeethoeeaea. Eaeaaeueiue yia?eii aeieaeai auoue
eiiiaeoiui, noa?e/aneie oi?iu, n iaeii?iaeiie ie?aneie, n eeaoeaie
iaeeiaeiaie aaee/eiu, n aeaaeeie, ieineie e ?aaiiia?ii noi?ie?iaaiiie
ciiie iaeethoeeaea, aac aeeth/aiee a ia?eaeoaeeeiiaii i?ino?ainoaa.

Aaaeiaeoei e?eoa?eai aeey ioeaiee ea/anoaa yia?eiiia yaeyaony
eioaineaiinoue ?acaeoey noaaeee. Yia?eiiu n caiaaeeaiiui ?acaeoeai ia
eniieuecothony aeey ia?anaaeee, caii?aaeeaaiey e ae?oaeo iaieioeyoeee.

I?e ioeaiea ea/anoaa yia?eiia a iaoae no?aia i?eiyoa 5-aaeeueiay oeaea n
o/aoii neaaeothueo iieacaoaeae: niioaaonoaey noaaeee ?acaeoey yia?eiia
aai aic?anoo; i?aaeeueiinoe oi?iu i?ic?a/iie iaiei/ee e aa oeaeinoiinoe;
?aaiiia?iinoe ae?iaeaiey aeanoiia?ia, ninoiyiey oeeoiieaciu;
i?ic?a/iinoe ia?eaeoaeeeiiaiai i?ino?ainoaa.

Iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiuie aeye o?ainieaioaoeee yaeythony yia?eiiu,
ecaea/aiiua ec iaoee ei?iau-aeiii?a ia 7-8 nooee iinea ia?aiai
inaiaiaiey. Eae iieacuaatho ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee e i?aeoeea, a yoi
a?aiy ii?iaeueii ?acaeoua yia?eiiu, i?eaiaeiua aeey o?ainieaioaoeee
?aoeeieaioai, iaoiaeyony a noaaeee iicaeiae ii?oeu eee aeanoioeenou. Yoe
yia?eiiu eniieuecotho aeey ia?anaaeee ai?iiiaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiui
ei?iaai-?aoeeieaioai.

Aua?aeiaea iiaeeaaeao aeaaaia?e?iaaiiue iaiieiaeioai?aiiua yeoeaeeaoee
(iioeeou), eioi?ua iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue i?e ecaea/aiee yia?eiiia.
Ii?oieiae/anee iaeioaeoiua, iai?eaiaeiua aeey o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiu
eiatho aeaoaeoioth ii?oeo, eee aeanoioeenoo, i?eciaeaie eioi?uo
yaeythony aeaoaeou i?ic?a/iie iaiei/ee, ?aniaae aeanoiia?ia, ?aciay
aaee/eia aeanoiia?ia, ia?ooaiea iaaeeeaoi/iie nayce.

A noaaeee iicaeiae aeanoioeenou iai?eaiaeiua aeey o?ainieaioaoeee
yia?eiiu oa?aeoa?ecothony aeaoi?iaoeeae e ineaaeaieai aeanoiia?ia,
?ac?uaii iaaeeeaoi/iuo naycae e oeaeinoiinoe ciiu iaeethoeeaea.

Ia?anaaeea yia?eiiia ?aoeeieaioai.

A ea/anoaa ?aoeeieaioa ioae?atho aeiaeieiae/anee caei?iauo ei?ia iinea
aeaoo-o?ao ii?iaeueiuo iieiauo oeeeeia. Aeey ioai?a ?aoeeieaioia
iniiaiui iieacaoaeai yaeyaony ionoonoaea aeiaeieiae/aneeo ioeeiiaiee, a
i?iaeoeoeaiua, ieaiaiiua e ii?iaeiua ea/anoaa aieueoie ?iee ia ea?atho.
Aianoa n oai, o ?aoeeieaioia n ieioie oieoaiiinoueth, ieceie
iieiaeioai?yaiinoueth iinea ia?aiai inaiaiaiey, iiaoo ieioi
i?eaeeaaoueny yia?eiiu. A n?aaeiai ia eaaeaeiai aeiii?a ioae?atho 5-6
?aoeeieaioia. Aieueoeinoai niaoeeaeenoia n/eoaao, /oi a ea/anoaa
?aoeeieaioia iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiu iieiiaic?anoiua oaeee n oi?ioeie
ieaiaiiuie eiiaeeoeeyie.

Iniiaiui oneiaeai oi?ioaai i?eaeeaeaiey yia?eiiia neoaeeo
neio?iiiinoue i?iyaeaiey iieiaie ioiou o aeiii?ia e ?aoeeieaioia.
?acieoea ai a?aiaie a i?iyaeaiee iieiaie ioiou ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 24
/, iioeiaeueiua aea ?acoeueoaou iieo/athony i?e ?acieoea ia aieaa 12
/ania.

I?e nia?aiaiiii o?iaia oaoieee o?ainieaioaoeee ?aeiiaiaeoaony
ia?anaaeeaaoue yia?eiiu n?aco iinea eo ecaea/aiey ec ?iaia iaoee aeiii?a
e ioeaiee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?anaaeea yia?eiiia ?aoeeieaioai i?iecaiaeeony
oe?o?ae/aneei e iaoe?o?ae/aneei niiniaaie. I?e ia?anaaeea ioaeii oi/ii
ciaoue ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea yia?eiia a iieiauo iooyo ei?iau. Yoi naycaii n
ia?aoiaeii i?aaeeiieaioaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony yia?eii
aei ia?anaaeee, a iiaue ia?eiae yia?eiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey –
eiieaioaoeeiiiue. I?e anoanoaaiiii oa/aiee yia?eiiaeueiiai ia?eiaea
ca?iaeue ia noaaeee ii?oeu eee aeanoioeenou iaoiaeeony a aa?oiai ioaeaea
?iaa iaoee, iiyoiio e iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiui ianoii aeey aai aiieeeaoeee
yaeyaony aa?oiyy /anoue ?iaa iaoee ?aoeeieaioa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
ia?anaaeea yia?eiiia aeoaiei a ?ia iaoee ?aoeeieaioa eo/oa anaai
iaania/eaaaony oe?o?ae/aneei niiniaii. I?e iaoe?o?ae/aneie aea
ia?anaaeea, eioi?ay i?ienoiaeeo a ia?eiae aeeyno?ona ianoi aiieeeaoeee
yia?eiia a ?iaa iaoee eiio?iee?oaony iaiaa oi/ii.

Yooaeoeaiinoue oe?o?ae/aneiai niiniaa ia?anaaeee yia?eiia ninoaaeyao
60-70%, a /enei oaeyo – 3-4 ia aeiii?a. Oe?o?ae/aneee niinia
eniieueciaaee a iniiaiii aei na?aaeeia 70-o aiaeia. Iaeiaei ii o?aaoao
aieueoeo cao?ao n?aaenoa. E?iia oiai, oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea oe?o?ae/aneiai
iaoiaea naea?aeeaaaony neiaeiinoueth i?iaaaeaiey iia?aoeee a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo, iieo/aieai o?aai aneaaenoaea ?acaeoeee
iuooe, e iaaiciiaeiinoueth iiiaie?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey ?aoeeieaioa.
Iiyoiio iineaaeiea 10-15 eao ia?anaaeeo yia?eiiia a iniiaiii
inouanoaeytho iaoe?o?ae/aneei niiniaii.

I?e iaoe?o?ae/aneie ia?anaaeea iniiaiui aeinoieinoaii, e?iia i?inoiou e
yeiiiie/iinoe, yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue iiiaie?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey
?aoeeieaioa. ?ac?aaioaii ianeieueei niiniaia iaoe?o?ae/aneie ia?anaaeee
yia?eiiia. Iaeiaei ana iie iniiaaiu ia iaeiii i?eioeeia – aaaaeaiee
yia?eiia a ?ia iaoee /a?ac oaeeo, aneaaenoaea /aai yoio niinia iacaai
oaeaea oea?aeeaeueiui.

Iinea ia?anaaeee yia?eiiia i?iaiaeyo ouaoaeueiue eiio?ieue ca
?aoeeieaioaie, ia?auay iniaia aieiaiea ia aiciiaeiia i?iyaeaiea o ieo
iiaoi?iie iieiaie ioiou.

Aeey onoaiiaeaiey noaeueiinoe o ei?ia-?aoeeieaioia eniieuecotho
ianeieueei iaoiaeia: aecoaeueiue; ii o?iaith i?iaanoa?iia a e?iae eee
iieiea; eeeie/aneee, aeaaiui ia?acii iooai ?aeoaeueiie iaeueiaoeee.

Aaaeiui caaiii naeaeoeeiiii-ieaiaiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony aeinoiaa?iinoue
onoaiiaeaiey enoeiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey oaeyo, iieo/aiiuo i?e
o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia io aaiaoe/anee oeaiiuo ?iaeeoaeae. Enoeiiia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea iiaeii onoaiiaeoue ii a?oiiai e?iae e oeiai aaeeia
e?iae. I?iao e?iae aa?oo o oaeaiea a aic?anoa io 4 iaaeaeue aei 4
ianyoeaa.

Nouanoaaiiie i?e/eiie, nieaeathuae yooaeoeaiinoue iaoe?o?ae/aneie
ia?anaaeee yia?eiiia, yaeyaony aiciiaeiia iia?aaeaeaiea yiaeiiao?ey i?e
aaaaeaiee eaoaoa?a. A oi aea a?aiy iaiauaiea ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiee
ii iaoe?o?ae/aneie ia?anaaeea yia?eiiia iieacuaaao, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue
ia?anaaeee a aieueoae noaiaie caaeneo ia io oiai, eae aeoaiei aoaeao
aaaaeai eaoaoa? a ?ia iaoee, a io oiai, ianeieueei i?aaeeueii auiieiaii
aaaaeaiea.

Iaeiaei ia yoio n/ao eiaaony e ae?oaay oi/ea c?aiey: /oi eiino?oeoeey
i?eai?ia nouanoaaiii ia aeeyao ia ?acoeueoaou ecaea/aiey e ia?anaaeee
yia?eiiia. Yoe ?acoeueoaou aieaa naycaiu n oeiii aiiaaeio?iieia,
eaaeeoeeaoeeae iia?aoi?a, ea/anoaii e noaaeeae ?acaeoey yia?eiiia.

A oeaeii aea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iaoe?o?ae/aneee iaoiae ia?anaaeee
yia?eiiia iaania/eaaao aiieeeaoeeth ca?iaeuoae a n?aaeiai 50-60%, a
i?eiaiaiea iaoi/iuo ?aeaenaioia ia?aae ia?anaaeeie – aei 75%. Yoi
nouanoaaiii auoa, /ai i?e oe?o?ae/aneii iaoiaea. Oaoiieiaey
iaoe?o?ae/aneiai iaoiaea o?ainieaioaoeee noiaeia n eneonnoaaiiui
inaiaiaieai ei?ia e i?iaeieaeaaony 3-5 ieioo, eee 15-20 ia?anaaeie a
/an.

Iniaiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaaao oaeie i?e?i, eae iaoe?o?ae/aneay
ia?anaaeea aeaoo yia?eiiia, ii iaeiiio a eaaeaeue ?ia iaoee, /oi aua
aieueoa iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue o?ainieaioaoeee. Yoio i?e?i iiaeao auoue
i?eiaiai aeey iiauoaiey /anoiou ?iaeaeaiey ?aciiyeoeaauo (aeeceaioiuo)
aeaiai. Ii iicaieyao iieo/eoue aeaieiua ioaeu o ei?ia, iniaaiii iyniuo
ii?iae, iaiiiai auno?aa, /ai aaiaoe/aneei iooai (o.a. naeaeoeeae).

?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee iieacuaatho, /oi iaoe?o?ae/aneay
ia?anaaeea aeiiieieoaeueiiai yia?eiia ai aoi?ie ?ia iaoee aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/eoue auoiae iiai?iaeaeaiiuo oaeyo ia 30%. I?e
ia?anaaeea aeaoo yia?eiiia a eaaeaeue ?ia iaoee /anoioa aeaiai
ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 55-60%, aianoi 2% i?e anoanoaaiiii iiiaiieiaeee
ei?ia.

Iiaeii ia?anaaeeaaoue (iiaenaaeeaaoue) yia?eii e iieiaeioai?aiiie
ei?iaa, ii a eiio?eaoa?aeueiue ii ioiioaieth e aeaeoiio oaeo a ye/ieea
?ia iaoee. N?aaeiyy i?eaeeaeyaiinoue yia?eiia inaiaiaiiie ei?iaa i?e
iaoe?o?ae/aneie iiaenaaeea ninoaaeyao 50%.

Iaiauay ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioia ii iaoe?o?ae/aneiio iaoiaeo
ia?anaaeee yia?eiiia, iiaeii i?eaeoe e caeeth/aieth, /oi ia?anaaeea
aeaoo yia?eiiia a aeaa ?iaa iaoee ?aoeeieaioa eee iiaenaaeea iaeiiai
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii inaiaiaiiiio ?aoeeieaioo a eiio?eaoa?aeueiue ?ia iaoee
yaeythony yooaeoeaiuie e ia?niaeoeaiuie iaoiaeaie a aeioaoiieiaee
o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia.

E?eieiina?aaoeey yia?eiiia.

Yooaeoeaiinoue o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa ai
iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony oneiaeyie o?aiaiey ceaio. Naiui yooaeoeaiui e
ia?niaeoeaiui iaoiaeii eiina?aaoeee yia?eiiia yaeyaony eo aeoaieia
caii?aoeaaiea (e?eieiina?aaoeey) a aeeaeeii acioa i?e oaiia?aoo?a -196
a?aaeonia. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaea aeieaia?aiaiiiai o?aiaiey
e?eieiina?ae?iaaiiuo yia?eiiia cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe
o?ainieaioaoeee. Oieueei a yoii neo/aa iia iiaeao auoue iaaeaaeiie
aeioaoiieiae/aneie iniiaie naeaeoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu.

Aeieaia?aiaiiia o?aiaiea aeoaieicaii?iaeaiiuo yia?eiiia eiaao ?yae
i?aeiouanoa. Ioiaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a niaea?aeaiee aieueoeo noaae eee
a?oii ?aoeeieaioia, oae eae ia?anaaeee iiaoo auoue i?iaaaeaiu a ethaia
a?aiy iacaaeneii io n?ieia acyoey yia?eiiia io aeiii?ia, /oi nouanoaaiii
iiauoaao ?aioaaaeueiinoue o?ainieaioaoeee. E?iia oiai, e?eieiina?aaoeey
yia?eiiia iicaicyao nicaeaaaoue yia?eiaaiee io aaiaoe/anee oeaiiuo
aeeaioiuo, a oaeaea nio?aiyoue aaiioiiae ?aaeeeo e en/acathueo ii?iae e
o?ainii?oe?iaaoue yia?eiiu a ethaua no?aiu ie?a. Ii ioeaiea
niaoeeaeenoia e?eieiina?aaoeey yia?eiiia yeiiiie/anee ii?aaaeaia, iia
eneeth/aao aaiaoe/aneee ae?aeo, o.a. eciaiaiea /anoiou aaiia a
iiioeyoeee, aucaaiiua neo/aeiuie i?e/eiaie.

I?e niaethaeaiee i?aaeeueiie aeioaoiieiaee auaeeaaaiinoue yia?eiiia
ninoaaeyao 90%, a noaeueiinoue ei?ia-?aoeeieaioia iinea iaoe?o?ae/aneie
ia?anaaeee iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao 50-55%. Iaeiaei ia?aaeei a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo i?e ianiaethaeaiee oaoiieiaee
caii?aaeeaaiey-?acii?aaeeaaiey auaeeaaaiinoue yia?eiiia oiaiueoaaony,
/oi nouanoaaiii nieaeaao ?aioaaaeueiinoue e?eieiina?aaoeee. Iainiiaaii,
/oi eniieueciaaiea iaoiaea e?eieiina?aaoeee yia?eiiia a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo yaeyaony ?aioaaaeueiui oieueei a oii neo/aa,
anee auaeeaaaiinoue yia?eiiia iinea ?acii?aaeeaaiey aoaeao ia iaiaa 80%,
a i?ioeaio noaeueiinoe ei?ia-?aoeeieaioia ninoaaeo 55-60%.

Ii i?eiyoie a ?innee oaoiieiaee, yia?eiiu caii?aaeeaatho n i?eiaiaieai
aaoiiaoe/aneeo ono?ienoa, iaania/eaathueo ?aaoee?iaaiea nei?inoe
ioeaaeaeaiey a caaeaiiuo ?aaeeiao. Yia?eiiu caii?aaeeaatho a i?iae?eao
50×6 ii eee a aiioeao aianoeiinoueth 1 ie. A i?iae?eo eee aiioeo aiinyo
1-4 yia?eiia io iaeiiai aeiii?a e 0.4 ie ?anoai?a e?eii?ioaeoi?a (1.5 I
AeINI eee 10%-iue ?anoai? aeeoea?eia). Aiioeu ia?aae caii?aaeeaaieai
caiaeaatho ia ieaiaie aaciaie ai?aeee. Aiioeu eee i?iae?ee ia?ee?otho,
caoai ioeaaeaeatho n 20 aei -6 a?aaeonia ni nei?inoueth 1 a?aaeon a
ieiooo, i?iaiaeyo e?enoaeeecaoeeth, ioeaaeaeaiea ni nei?inoueth 0.3
a?aaeona a ieiooo e iia?oaeatho a aeeaeeee acio. I?eiaiyaony oaeaea e
ae?oaie ?aaeei: ioeaaeaeaiea io -7 aei -35 a?aaeonia ni nei?inoueth 0.3
a?aaeona a ieiooo; io -35 aei -38 a?aaeonia ni nei?inoueth 0.1 a?aaeon a
ieiooo e iia?oaeaiea a aeeaeeee acio. Iooaeaaiea yia?eiiia i?iecaiaeeony
ia aiaeyiie aaia n oaiia?aoo?ie 25 eee 37 a?aaeonia a oa/aiea 10-12
naeoiae. Aeey o?aiaiey e o?ainii?oe?iaee caii?iaeaiiuo yia?eiiia
eniieuecotho ninoaeu Aeuetha?a ?acee/iuo oeiia.

I?aeoeea e?eieiina?aaoeee yia?eiiia e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ia auaeeaaaiinoue yia?eiiia nouanoaaiiia
aeeyiea ieacuaaao ia oieueei oaoiieiaey aeoaieiai caii?aaeeaaiey e
iooaeaaiey, ii e eo ea/anoai e noaaeey ?acaeoey. Aeey oniaoiie
e?eieiina?aaoeee neaaeoao ioae?aoue yia?eiiu aac ii?oieiae/aneeo
ia?ooaiee, iaoiaeyueany ia noaaeeyo iicaeiae ii?oeu eee ?aiiae
aeanoioeenou.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioai?a yia?eiiia aeeeooaony aua e oai ianoiyoaeuenoaii,
/oi o 10% ec ieo iaia?oaeeaaaony iai?aaeeueiia ?acaeoea, a i?e
e?eieiina?aaoeee iia?aaeaeathony a n?aaeiai aua 25% eeaoie aeanoioeenou.
Oaeea yia?eiiu eniuouaatho aieueooth ?aaeoeoeeth eioaeoiuo aeanoiia?ia,
aneaaenoaea /aai ia?aaeeaaaiinoue e aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iinea
caii?aaeeaaiey e iooaeaaiey nouanoaaiii ia?ooathony.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaethaeaiea i?aaeeueiie aeioaoiieiaee e?eieiina?aaoeee e
ia?anaaeee yia?eiiia iicaieeo iaania/eoue noaeueiinoue ?aoeeieaioia ia
oii aea o?iaia, /oi e i?e ia?anaaeea naaaeaiieo/aiiuo yia?eiiia. Aianoa
n oai iaoiae e?eieiina?aaoeee a aoaeouai iiaeao auoue nouanoaaiii
oi?iuai, eee aiiaua iiaeii aoaeao ioeacaoueny io oaeaeaiey
e?eii?ioaeoi?a e ia?anaaeeaaoue yia?eiiu ?aoeeieaioai iaiin?aaenoaaiii
iinea iooaeaaiey aac aeaeueiaeoeo iaieioeyoeee. Ii i?iaiico
niaoeeaeenoia, e?eieiina?ae?iaaiiua yia?eiiu iiaoo o?aieoueny aeanyoee e
nioie eao.

Aeeyiea o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia ia aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann iiioeyoeee.

Nicaeaiea aaieia aeoaieicaii?iaeaiiie nia?iu e ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia
eneonnoaaiiiai inaiaiaiey iicaieeee nouanoaaiii oaaee/eoue
eioaineaiinoue ioai?a aueia e iiauneoue oi/iinoue ioeaiee eo ieaiaiiie
oeaiiinoe. Ia aaca eioaineaiiai eniieueciaaiey aaiaoe/anee oeaiiuo
aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae n i?eiaiaieai eneonnoaaiiiai inaiaiaiey ei?ia
aeoaieicaii?iaeaiiie nia?iie oaiiu naeaeoeee a iiioeyoeee ii n?aaiaieth
n iau/iuie oaaee/eaathony a 2-3 ?aca.

A oi aea a?aiy aaiaoe/aneee aeeaae a i?ia?ann naeaeoeee iaoa?ae aueia
ii/oe a aeaa ?aca ieaea aeeaaea iooeia aueia. Yoi iauyniyaony ieceie
eioaineaiinoueth naeaeoeee iaoa?ae aueia e iaiaaeaaeiie ioeaieie eo
ieaiaiiie oeaiiinoe ec-ca iieo/aiey iaaieueoiai /enea iioiieia. Yoe
ia?aie/aiey e i?ecaaia /anoe/ii niyoue o?ainieaioaoeey yia?eiiia. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?e eniieueciaaiee o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia io iaeiie
aaiaoe/anee oeaiiie ei?iau iiaeii iieo/aoue aeaaaeoeaoue oaeyo,
eniieuecoy iaeioeaiiuo ?aoeeieaioia.

Iaeiaei ia?aaeei aicieeaao aii?in i aeeyiee ?aoeeieaioa ia
yia?eiiaeueiia e iinoyia?eiiaeueiia ?acaeoea o?ainieaioaoa. I?yiia
aaiaoe/aneia aeeyiea ia yia?eii ?aoeeieaio ia ieacuaaao, oae eae
ia?anaaeaiiay ceaioa i?aaenoaaeyao noi?ie?iaaiiue aaiioei, ninoiyuee ec
aaieieaeiuo iaai?ia o?iiinii enoeiiuo ?iaeeoaeae. Ionoonoaea i?yiiai
aaiaoe/aneiai aeeyiey ?aoeeieaioa ia yia?eii iiaeoaa?aeaeatho
iaaeii?iaeiua e iaaeaeaeiaua ia?anaaeee ceaio, a oaeaea
eiioiiaaiaoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey. A oi aea a?aiy, iiaoo auoue aucaaiu
iiaeeoeeaoeee o?ainieaioaoa, o.a. iaianeaaenoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?eciaeia,
iaoneiaeaiiua aeeyieai i?aaiecia ?aoeeieaioa ai a?aiy noaeueiinoe. A
ioee/ea io iooaoeee, iiaeeoeeaoeee ii ianeaaenoao ia ia?aaeathony. I?e
yoii ioaeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi oa?aeoa? e noaiaiue oaiioeie/aneeo
eciaiaiee ii?aaeaeythony aaiioeiii yia?eiia.

A noaouea Schaeffer, L.R [5] i?eaaaeaiu eioa?aniua ?acoeueoaou,
iieo/aiiua i?e iiaeaee?iaaiee naeaeoeee iiei/iiai neioa. A iniiaa
eniieueciaaiiie iiaeaee, a eioi?oth auee caeiaeaiu aeaiiua i 2000 ei?ia
ieaiaiiiai oeaio?a, iieo/aiu neaaeothuea ia?aiao?u:

aeiey aua?aeiaaiiuo ei?ia ii aieaciyi
20%;

aeiey aua?aeiaaiiuo ei?ia ii i?iaeoeoeaiinoe 10%

aeiey ?ai?iaeoeoeee
30%

aeiey ei?ia, iai?eaiaeiuo aeey o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia 20%

oeaeue naeaeoeee – auoiae iiei/iiai aee?a
150 ea

ianeaaeoaiinoue
0.3

oaiioeie/aneia ioeeiiaiea
35 ea

aaiaoe/aneia i?aainoiaenoai ia?aioaeie
2 ea

aaiaoe/aneia i?aainoiaenoai aueia
20 ea

Aeiiieieoaeueiue aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann ca aaia?aoeeth ia iniiaa
i?eiaiaiey o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia iieacai a ieaeai?eaaaeaiiie
oaaeeoea:

Noaeueiinoue, % *enei yia?eiiia

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

50 a 13.1 13.6 14.0 14.3 14.6 14.8 14.9 15.1 15.2
15.3

b 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8
10.8

c 21.3 25.9 28.8 31.9 34.2 36.0 37.5 38.8 39.9
40.9

60 a 13.5 14.0 14.4 14.8 15.1 15.4 15.6 15.7 15.9
16.0

b 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8
10.8

c 25.0 29.6 32.8 36.6 39.4 41.6 43.5 45.1 46.5
47.7

70 a 13.7 14.3 14.8 15.3 15.7 16.0 16.2 16.4 16.6
16.7

b 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8
10.8

c 26.8 32.4 36.6 41.1 44.5 47.2 49.4 51.3 52.9
54.4

Iaicia/aiea:

a – aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann i?e o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia;

b – aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann aac o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia;

c – i?aainoiaenoai a iaae b, au?aaeaiiia a i?ioeaioao.

Ec aiaeeca aeaiiie oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi n oaaee/aieai i?eaiaeiuo aeey
o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia e iiauoaieai i?ioeaioa noaeueiinoe ei?ia,
aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann aic?anoaao. Iaeiaei, yoio i?ioeann i?ienoiaeeo
iaeeiaeii.

A yoie aea noaouea i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua ii aaiaoe/aneiio naeaeao iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoeee i?e ?aciuo iaoiaeao aini?iecaiaenoaa e naeaeoeee iiei/iiai
neioa. I?e yoii n?aaieaaeenue ?acoeueoaou iauai?eiyoie i?ia?aiiu
naeaeoeee, ?acoeueoaou o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia, e ?acoeueoaou
o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia i?e eioaineaiii ioai?a aueia. ?acoeueoaou
iieacaiu a ieaeai?eaaaeaiiie oaaeeoea:

I?ia?aiia

naeaeoeee Ieaiaiiua eaoaai?ee aeeaioiuo Iauee aaiaoe/. i?ia?ann,
ea/aiae

ia ie ia ie

O?aaeeoeeiiiay, n i?eiaiaieai eneonnoa. inaiaiaiey:

aeiey ionaeaeo. % 4 20 6 90

eioaineaiinoue ioai?a 2.53 1.400 1.985 0.195
94.3

O?ainieaioaoeey yia?eiiia, eneonnoaaiiia inaiaiaiea:

aeiey ionaeaeo. % 4 20 1 10

eioaineaiinoue ioai?a 2.53 1.400 2.660 1.755
124.8

O?ainieaioaoeey yia?eiiia, eneonnoaaiiia inaiaiaiea, eioaineaiue ioai?
aueia:

aeiey ionaeaeo. % 2 2 1 10

eioaineaiinoue ioai?a 2.420 2.420 2.660 1.755
148.2

I?eia/aiea: i?aaeoniao?eaaaony iieo/aiea 10 oaeyo io iaeiiai aeiii?a a
aiae; iauee eioa?aae iaaeaeo iieieaieyie 22 aiaea (Iia=5, Iie=5, Iia=6,
Iie=6); oi/iinoue ioeaiee ieaiaiiie oeaiiinoe: ria=0.8, rie=0.8,
ria=0.6, rie=0.6.

Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo aeaeii, /oi aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann ii iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe nouanoaaiii iiauoaaony i?e eniieueciaaiee
o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia, oaaee/eaathuae eioaineaiinoue naeaeoeee ii
iaoa?eineie eeiee, iniaaiii n?aaee iaoa?ae aueia. Eniieueciaaiea
o?ainieaioaoeee iicaieyao iiauneoue oaiiu aaiaoe/aneiai i?ia?anna n 94.3
aei 124.8 ea iieiea a aiae, o.a. ia 32%. I?e iiauoaiee eioaineaiinoe
naeaeoeee aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae e eniieueciaaiee o?ainieaioaoeee
yia?eiiiaa, aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann iiauoaaony aei 148.2 ea iieiea a aiae,
o.a ia 57%.

Caeeth/aiea.

O?ainieaioaoeey yia?eiiia caieiaao i?i/iia ianoi a nia?aiaiiuo
i?ia?aiiao naeaeoeee. Iaoiae o?ainieaioaoeee aianoa n eneonnoaaiiui
inaiaiaieai ?anniao?eaaaony eae iniiaa nia?aiaiiie aeioaoiieiaee
aini?iecaiaenoaa aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo ieaiaiiuo aeeaioiuo, ianiio?y ia
ioiineoaeueii aunieee o?iaaiue cao?ao i?e eniieueciaaiee yoiai iaoiaea.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee i?iecaiaeeony aaeaaiaeii aieaa aeanyoe ouny/
yia?eiia?anaaeie, a aoaeouai aea ieaie?oaony iieo/aoue iaoiaeii
o?ainieaioaoeee ia iaiaa 25-30 ouny/ oaeyo aaeaaiaeii. Iiaua iaoiaeu
aeioaoiieiaee, ii iiaieth o/aiuo, a aoaeouai i?eaaaeoo e ei?aiiiio
eciaiaieth a aini?iecaiaenoaa e naeaeoeee e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

*a?iaaa E. ?. Eaeoeee ii aeioaoiieiaee e ia?anaaeea yia?eiiia.
Iineianeay aaoa?eia?iay aeaaeaiey ei. Ne?yaeia, 1997.

I?ieioueaa I. E. ?aaoeyoeey ?aciiiaeaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
aeeaioiuo.

E., «Iaoea», 1983.

Caaa?oyaa A. I. Aeioaoiieiaey a aini?iecaiaenoaa e naeaeoeee e?oiiiai
?iaaoiai neioa. E. «Aa?ii?iiecaeao», 1989.

Kenneth, L.W.. Embryo Cultivation//Biotechnology Magazine vol.1 #2,
1994.

Schaeffer, L.R. Effects of embryo transfer in beef cattle on genetic
evaluation methodology//Journal of animal science. Oct 1989.
v. 67 (10)

Sertich, P.L. Transcervical embryo transfer in performance
mares//Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Oct 1,
1989. v. 195 (7)

Shelton, J.N. Embryo manipulation in research and animal
production.//Australian journal of biological sciences. 1988. v. 41 (1)

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